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Sample records for activation ros production

  1. Optogenetic control of ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are known to cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. In addition, recent evidence suggests that ROS can also initiate signaling cascades that respond to stress and modify specific redox-sensitive moieties as a regulatory mechanism. This suggests that ROS are physiologically-relevant signaling molecules. However, these sensor/effector molecules are not uniformly distributed throughout the cell. Moreover, localized ROS damage may elicit site-specific compensatory measures. Thus, the impact of ROS can be likened to that of calcium, a ubiquitous second messenger, leading to the prediction that their effects are exquisitely dependent upon their location, quantity and even the timing of generation. Despite this prediction, ROS signaling is most commonly intuited through the global administration of chemicals that produce ROS or by ROS quenching through global application of antioxidants. Optogenetics, which uses light to control the activity of genetically-encoded effector proteins, provides a means of circumventing this limitation. Photo-inducible genetically-encoded ROS-generating proteins (RGPs) were originally employed for their phototoxic effects and cell ablation. However, reducing irradiance and/or fluence can achieve sub-lethal levels of ROS that may mediate subtle signaling effects. Hence, transgenic expression of RGPs as fusions to native proteins gives researchers a new tool to exert spatial and temporal control over ROS production. This review will focus on the new frontier defined by the experimental use of RGPs to study ROS signaling. PMID:24563855

  2. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  3. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox) phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox) mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  4. Loss of UCP2 attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction without altering ROS production and uncoupling activity.

    PubMed

    Kukat, Alexandra; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Edgar, Daniel; Mourier, Arnaud; Jacoby, Christoph; Maiti, Priyanka; Mauer, Jan; Becker, Christina; Senft, Katharina; Wibom, Rolf; Kudin, Alexei P; Hultenby, Kjell; Flögel, Ulrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ricquier, Daniel; Kunz, Wolfram S; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. PMID:24945157

  5. Loss of UCP2 Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction without Altering ROS Production and Uncoupling Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kukat, Alexandra; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Edgar, Daniel; Mourier, Arnaud; Jacoby, Christoph; Maiti, Priyanka; Mauer, Jan; Becker, Christina; Senft, Katharina; Wibom, Rolf; Kudin, Alexei P.; Hultenby, Kjell; Flögel, Ulrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ricquier, Daniel; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. PMID:24945157

  6. The adhesion GPCR BAI1 mediates macrophage ROS production and microbicidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Emily A.; Lee, Chang Sup; Owen, Katherine A.; D’Souza, Ryan S.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Casanova, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of microbes and initiation of an innate immune response occur through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines and activation of the cellular microbicidal machinery. In particular, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase complex is a critical component of the macrophage bactericidal machinery. We previously characterized brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), a member of the adhesion family of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a PRR that mediates the selective phagocytic uptake of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages. We showed that BAI1 promoted phagosomal ROS production through activation of the Rho family guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rac1, thereby stimulating NADPH oxidase activity. Primary BAI1-deficient macrophages exhibited attenuated Rac GTPase activity and reduced ROS production in response to several Gram-negative bacteria, resulting in impaired microbicidal activity. Furthermore, in a peritoneal infection model, BAI1-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to death by bacterial challenge because of impaired bacterial clearance. Together, these findings suggest that BAI1 mediates the clearance of Gram-negative bacteria by stimulating both phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase activation, thereby coupling bacterial detection to the cellular microbicidal machinery. PMID:26838550

  7. PPAR activation induces M1 macrophage polarization via cPLA₂-COX-2 inhibition, activating ROS production against Leishmania mexicana.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gandarilla, J A; Osorio-Trujillo, C; Hernández-Ramírez, V I; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2013-01-01

    Defence against Leishmania depends upon Th1 inflammatory response and, a major problem in susceptible models, is the turnoff of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages with IL-10, IL-4, and COX-2 upregulation, as well as immunosuppressive PGE2, all together inhibiting the respiratory burst. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) activation is responsible for macrophages polarization on Leishmania susceptible models where microbicide functions are deactivated. In this paper, we demonstrated that, at least for L. mexicana, PPAR activation, mainly PPAR γ , induced macrophage activation through their polarization towards M1 profile with the increase of microbicide activity against intracellular pathogen L. mexicana. PPAR activation induced IL-10 downregulation, whereas the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α , IL-1 β , and IL-6 remained high. Moreover, PPAR agonists treatment induced the deactivation of cPLA2-COX-2-prostaglandins pathway together with an increase in TLR4 expression, all of whose criteria meet the M1 macrophage profile. Finally, parasite burden, in treated macrophages, was lower than that in infected nontreated macrophages, most probably associated with the increase of respiratory burst in these treated cells. Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:23555077

  8. Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation in airway epithelial cells induces MUC5AC via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takahito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Gaku; Gondo, Hisaki; Moroi, Yoichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-02-01

    The dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in cigarette smoke regulate various immunological responses via the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR). These environmental toxicants are known to cause bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that AhR activation upregulates the expression of mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) in the airway epithelial cell line. However, the mechanism for the production of mucin has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the role and pathway of AhR in airway epithelial cells by using selective agonists and antagonists. After stimulation with or without benzopyrene (B[a]P), an AhR agonist, MUC5AC expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR. The mechanism of AhR-induced MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells was studied in terms of the production of cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with B[a]P increased ROS generation in NCI-H₂₉₂ cells. Furthermore, B[a]P-induced MUC5AC upregulation and mucin production were inhibited by AhR siRNA or the use of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that the AhR-induced increase of mucin production is partially mediated by ROS generation. An antioxidant therapy approach may help to cure AhR-induced mucus hypersecretory diseases. PMID:20709182

  9. Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C induced ROS production and cytotoxicity require PKC, MEK1 and NFκB activation.

    PubMed

    Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Pineda-Padilla, Maria Jose; Castro-Castro, Ana Cristina; Alape-Giron, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called α-toxin, is the most toxic extracellular enzyme produced by this bacteria and is essential for virulence in gas gangrene. At lytic concentrations, CpPLC causes membrane disruption, whereas at sublytic concentrations this toxin causes oxidative stress and activates the MEK/ERK pathway, which contributes to its cytotoxic and myotoxic effects. In the present work, the role of PKC, ERK 1/2 and NFκB signalling pathways in ROS generation induced by CpPLC and their contribution to CpPLC-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that CpPLC induces ROS production through PKC, MEK/ERK and NFκB pathways, the latter being activated by the MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Inhibition of either of these signalling pathways prevents CpPLC's cytotoxic effect. In addition, it was demonstrated that NFκB inhibition leads to a significant reduction in the myotoxicity induced by intramuscular injection of CpPLC in mice. Understanding the role of these signalling pathways could lead towards developing rational therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce cell death during a clostridialmyonecrosis. PMID:24466113

  10. Clostridium perfringens Phospholipase C Induced ROS Production and Cytotoxicity Require PKC, MEK1 and NFκB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Pineda-Padilla, Maria Jose; Castro-Castro, Ana Cristina; Alape-Giron, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called α-toxin, is the most toxic extracellular enzyme produced by this bacteria and is essential for virulence in gas gangrene. At lytic concentrations, CpPLC causes membrane disruption, whereas at sublytic concentrations this toxin causes oxidative stress and activates the MEK/ERK pathway, which contributes to its cytotoxic and myotoxic effects. In the present work, the role of PKC, ERK 1/2 and NFκB signalling pathways in ROS generation induced by CpPLC and their contribution to CpPLC-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that CpPLC induces ROS production through PKC, MEK/ERK and NFκB pathways, the latter being activated by the MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Inhibition of either of these signalling pathways prevents CpPLC's cytotoxic effect. In addition, it was demonstrated that NFκB inhibition leads to a significant reduction in the myotoxicity induced by intramuscular injection of CpPLC in mice. Understanding the role of these signalling pathways could lead towards developing rational therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce cell death during a clostridialmyonecrosis. PMID:24466113

  11. RIP kinase-mediated ROS production triggers XAF1 expression through activation of TAp73 in casticin-treated bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yoon Hee; Kim, Daejin

    2016-08-01

    The p53 family protein p73 plays an important role in apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. Transcriptionally active (TA) p73 (TAp73) substitutes for p53 in the response to stress. XIAP associated factor 1 (XAF1) is a novel predictive and prognostic factor in patients with bladder cancer, but the association between TAp73 and XAF1 expression in bladder cancer cells is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the status of TAp73 and XAF1 in T24 bladder cancer cells to identify molecular mechanisms in casticin‑exposed T24 cells. Casticin induced activation of JNK/p38 MAPK that preceded activation of the caspase cascade and disruption of the mitochondria membrane potential (∆ψm). Expression of XAF1 and TAp73 was also upregulated in casticin-treated T24 cells. Casticin treatment of T24 cells induced receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase expression and increased intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Casticin-mediated ROS induced an increase in phosphorylated JNK/p38 MAPK, resulting in progressive upregulation of TAp73, which in turn led to XAF1 expression. Our data suggest that the apoptotic activity of casticin in T24 cells is mediated by activation of the TAp73-XAF1 signaling pathway through RIP kinase-mediated ROS production. PMID:27349281

  12. Liver-X-receptor activator prevents homocysteine-induced production of IgG antibodies from murine B lymphocytes via the ROS-NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lina; Zhang, Zhenmin; Li Wenjing; Dai Jing; Guan Youfei; Wang Xian . E-mail: xwang@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-06-08

    Our previous study showed that homosysteine (Hcy) promotes proliferation of mouse splenic B lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated whether Hcy could stimulate the production of IgG antibodies. Hcy significantly increased the production of IgG antibodies from resting B lymphocytes. B lymphocytes from ApoE-knockout mice with hyperhomocysteinemia showed elevated IgG secretion at either the basal Hcy level or in response to lipopolysaccharide. Hcy promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and free radical scavengers, MnTMPyP decreased Hcy-induced IgG secretion. The inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B (MG132) also significantly reduced Hcy-induced IgG secretion. Furthermore, Hcy-induced formation of ROS, activation of NF-{kappa}B, and secretion of IgG could be inhibited by the liver-X-receptor (LXR) agonist TO 901317. Thus, our data provide strong evidence that HHcy induces IgG production from murine splenic B lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism might be through the ROS-NF-{kappa}B pathway and can be attenuated by the activation of LXR.

  13. PPAR Activation Induces M1 Macrophage Polarization via cPLA2-COX-2 Inhibition, Activating ROS Production against Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gandarilla, J. A.; Osorio-Trujillo, C.; Hernández-Ramírez, V. I.; Talamás-Rohana, P.

    2013-01-01

    Defence against Leishmania depends upon Th1 inflammatory response and, a major problem in susceptible models, is the turnoff of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages with IL-10, IL-4, and COX-2 upregulation, as well as immunosuppressive PGE2, all together inhibiting the respiratory burst. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) activation is responsible for macrophages polarization on Leishmania susceptible models where microbicide functions are deactivated. In this paper, we demonstrated that, at least for L. mexicana, PPAR activation, mainly PPARγ, induced macrophage activation through their polarization towards M1 profile with the increase of microbicide activity against intracellular pathogen L. mexicana. PPAR activation induced IL-10 downregulation, whereas the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 remained high. Moreover, PPAR agonists treatment induced the deactivation of cPLA2-COX-2-prostaglandins pathway together with an increase in TLR4 expression, all of whose criteria meet the M1 macrophage profile. Finally, parasite burden, in treated macrophages, was lower than that in infected nontreated macrophages, most probably associated with the increase of respiratory burst in these treated cells. Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:23555077

  14. Mitochondrial ROS fire up T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael P; Siegel, Richard M

    2013-02-21

    Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as an important feature of immune cell activation. Two new studies, including Sena et al. (2013) in this issue of Immunity, identify mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) arising from metabolic reprogramming as signaling molecules in T cell activation. PMID:23438817

  15. Activation of MAPK Is Required for ROS Generation and Exocytosis in HMC-1 Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Derived Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    Narantsogt, Giimaa; Min, Arim; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47phox in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling. PMID:26537039

  16. Helicobacter pylori induces IL-1β and IL-18 production in human monocytic cell line through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome via ROS signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Sheng; Luo, Jingjing; Liu, Anyuan; Tang, Shuangyang; Liu, Shuo; Yu, Minjun; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether Helicobacter pylori could activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in inflammasome activation. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 was infected with H. pylori. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in supernatant were measured by ELISA. Intracellular ROS level was analyzed by flow cytometry. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis were employed to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in THP-1 cells, respectively. Our results showed that H. pylori infection could induce IL-1β and IL-18 production in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in THP-1 cells following H. pylori infection was remarkably reduced by NLRP3-specific small interfering RNA treatment. In addition, the intracellular ROS level was elevated by H. pylori infection, which could be eliminated by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Furthermore, NAC treatment could inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome formation and caspase-1 activation and suppress the release of IL-1β and IL-18 from H. pylori-infected THP-1 cells. These findings provide novel insights into the innate immune response against H. pylori infection, which could potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:25834143

  17. Altered ROS production, NF-κB activation and interleukin-6 gene expression induced by electrical stimulation in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; López, José R; Allen, Paul D; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which cause functional loss of this protein. This pathology is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species. The aim of this work was to study the alterations in NF-κB activation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression induced by membrane depolarization in dystrophic mdx myotubes. Membrane depolarization elicited by electrical stimulation increased p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB transcriptional activity and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression in wt myotubes, whereas in mdx myotubes it had the opposite effect. We have previously shown that depolarization-induced intracellular Ca2+ increases and ROS production are necessary for NF-κB activation and stimulation of gene expression in wt myotubes. Dystrophic myotubes showed a reduced amplitude and area under the curve of the Ca2+ transient elicited by electrical stimulation. On the other hand, electrical stimuli induced higher ROS production in mdx than wt myotubes, which were blocked by NOX2 inhibitors. Moreover, mRNA expression and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits: p47phox and gp91phox were increased in mdx myotubes. Looking at ROS-dependence of NF-κB activation we found that in wt myotubes external administration of 50 μM H2O2 increased NF-κB activity; after administration of 100 and 200 μM H2O2 there was no effect. In mdx myotubes there was a dose-dependent reduction in NF-κB activity in response to external administration of H2O2, with a significant effect of 100 μM and 200 μM, suggesting that ROS levels are critical for NF-κB activity. Prior blockage with NOX2 inhibitors blunted the effects of electrical stimuli in both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression. Finally, to ascertain whether stimulation of NF-κB and IL-6 gene expression by the inflammatory pathway is also impaired in mdx myotubes, we studied the effect of lipopolysaccharide on both NF

  18. Altered ROS production, NF-κB activation and Interleukin-6 gene expression induced by electrical stimulation of in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; López, José R.; Allen, Paul D.; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which cause functional loss of this protein. DMD pathology is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). The aim of this work was to study the alterations in NF-κB activation and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression induced by membrane depolarization in dystrophic mdx myotubes. Membrane depolarization elicited by electrical stimulation (ES) increased p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB transcriptional activity and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression in wt myotubes, whereas in mdx myotubes it had the opposite effect. We have previously shown that depolarization-induced intracellular Ca2+ increases and ROS production are necessary for NF-κB activation and stimulation of gene expression in wt myotubes. Dystrophic myotubes showed a reduced amplitude and area under the curve of the Ca2+ transient elicited by ES. On the other hand, ES induced higher ROS production in mdx than wt myotubes, which were blocked by NOX2 inhibitors. Moreover, mRNA expression and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits; p47phox and gp91phox were increased in mdx myotubes. Looking at ROS-dependence of NF-κB activation we found that in wt myotubes external administration of 50µM H2O2 increased NF-κB activity; after administration of 100 and 200 µM H2O2 there was no effect. In mdx myotubes there was a dose-dependent reduction in NF-κB activity in response to external administration of H2O2, with a significant effect of 100 µM and 200 µM, suggesting that ROS levels are critical for NF-κB activity. Prior blockage with NOX2 inhibitors blunted the effects of ES in both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression. Finally, to ascertain whether stimulation of NF-κB and IL-6 gene expression by the inflammatory pathway is also impaired in mdx myotubes, we studied the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression

  19. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria—An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N.; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about 15 years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP). Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous) and tissues/organs (etiolated and green) have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel) are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs) and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane toward the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ), the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp) in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate hyperosmotic stress

  20. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria-An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about 15 years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP). Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous) and tissues/organs (etiolated and green) have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel) are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs) and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane toward the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ), the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp) in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K(+)/H(+) antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate hyperosmotic stress

  1. Actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation and Rac1 activity has implications on ROS production, cell migration and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sehar Saleem; Parray, Arif Ali; Mushtaq, Umar; Fazili, Khalid Majid; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1) and Rac1 are part of a signaling pathway via the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC). Both SNTA1 and Rac1 proteins are over-expressed in various carcinomas. It is through the DGC signaling pathway that SNTA1 has been shown to act as a link between the extra cellular matrix, the internal cell signaling apparatus and the actin cytoskeleton. SNTA1 is involved in the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton and actin reorganization. Rac1 also controls actin cytoskeletal organization in the cell. In this study, we present the interplay between f-actin, SNTA1 and Rac1. We analyzed the effect of actin depolymerization on SNTA1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity using actin depolymerizing drugs, cytochalasin D and latrunculin A. Our results indicate a marked decrease in the tyrosine phosphorylation of SNTA1 upon actin depolymerization. Results suggest that actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation leads to loss of interaction between SNTA1 and Rac1, with a concomitant loss of Rac1 activation. The loss of SNTA1tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity by actin depolymerization results in increased apoptosis, decreased cell migration and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in breast carcinoma cells. Collectively, our results present a possible role of f-actin in the SNTA1-Rac1 signaling pathway and implications of actin depolymerization on cell migration, ROS production and apoptosis. PMID:27048259

  2. Oxidation of NADH and ROS production by respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Andrei D; Grivennikova, Vera G

    2016-07-01

    Kinetic characteristics of the proton-pumping NADH:quinone reductases (respiratory complexes I) are reviewed. Unsolved problems of the redox-linked proton translocation activities are outlined. The parameters of complex I-mediated superoxide/hydrogen peroxide generation are summarized, and the physiological significance of mitochondrial ROS production is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26571336

  3. MK2 Regulates Ras Oncogenesis through Stimulating ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Qi, Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    Ras signals through both mitogenic and stress pathways and studies of Ras regulatory effects of stress pathways hold great promise to control Ras-dependent malignancies. Our previous work showed Ras activation of a stress kinase (MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 [MK2]), and here, we examine regulatory effects of MK2 on Ras oncogenesis. MK2 knockout was shown to increase Ras transformation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in vitro and to enhance the resultant tumor growth in mice, indicating a tumor suppressor activity. In Ras-dependent and -independent human colon cancer, however, MK2-forced expression increases and MK2 depletion decreases the malignant growth, suggesting its oncogenic activity. The oncogenic activity of MK2 couples with its activation by both stress and mitogenic signals through extracellular signal–regulated kinase and p38α pathways, whereas its tumor-suppressing effect links to its stimulation only by stress downstream of p38α. Of interest, MK2 was shown to decrease intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MEFs but increase its production in human colon cancer cells, and experiments with antioxidants revealed that ROS is required for Ras oncogenesis in both systems. These results indicate that MK2 can increase or decrease Ras oncogenesis dependent of its ROS regulatory activities. PMID:23264852

  4. ROS production in brown adipose tissue mitochondria: the question of UCP1-dependence.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecinová, Alena; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Drahota, Zdeněk; Houštěk, Josef; Mráček, Tomáš; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Whether active UCP1 can reduce ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria is presently not settled. The issue is of principal significance, as it can be seen as a proof- or disproof-of-principle concerning the ability of any protein to diminish ROS production through membrane depolarization. We therefore undertook a comprehensive investigation of the significance of UCP1 for ROS production, by comparing the ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria isolated from wildtype mice (that display membrane depolarization) or from UCP1(-/-) mice (with a high membrane potential). We tested the significance of UCP1 for glycerol-3-phosphate-supported ROS production by three methods (fluorescent dihydroethidium and the ESR probe PHH for superoxide, and fluorescent Amplex Red for hydrogen peroxide), and followed ROS production also with succinate, acyl-CoA or pyruvate as substrate. We studied the effects of the reverse electron flow inhibitor rotenone, the UCP1 activity inhibitor GDP, and the uncoupler FCCP. We also examined the effect of a physiologically induced increase in UCP1 amount. We noted GDP effects that were not UCP1-related. We conclude that only ROS production supported by exogenously added succinate was affected by the presence of active UCP1; ROS production supported by any other tested substrate (including endogenously generated succinate) was unaffected. This conclusion indicates that UCP1 is not involved in control of ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria. Extrapolation of these data to other tissues would imply that membrane depolarization may not necessarily decrease physiologically relevant ROS production. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetics Conference (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Volume 1837, Issue 7, July 2014). PMID:24769119

  5. Crosstalk between ROS Homeostasis and Secondary Metabolism in S. natalensis ATCC 27448: Modulation of Pimaricin Production by Intracellular ROS

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Catarina L.; Osório, Hugo; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Mendes, Marta V.

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces secondary metabolism is strongly affected by oxygen availability. The increased culture aeration enhances pimaricin production in S. natalensis, however the excess of O2 consumption can lead to an intracellular ROS imbalance that is harmful to the cell. The adaptive physiological response of S. natalensis upon the addition of exogenous H2O2 suggested that the modulation of the intracellular ROS levels, through the activation of the H2O2 inducible catalase during the late exponential growth phase, can alter the production of pimaricin. With the construction of defective mutants on the H2O2 related enzymes SodF, AhpCD and KatA1, an effective and enduring modulation of intracellular ROS was achieved. Characterization of the knock-out strains revealed different behaviours regarding pimaricin production: whilst the superoxide dismutase defective mutant presented low levels of pimaricin production compared to the wild-type, the mutants defective on the H2O2-detoxifying enzymes displayed a pimaricin overproducer phenotype. Using physiological and molecular approaches we report a crosstalk between oxidative stress and secondary metabolism regulatory networks. Our results reveal that the redox-based regulation network triggered by an imbalance of the intracellular ROS homeostasis is also able to modulate the biosynthesis of pimaricin in S. natalensis. PMID:22114674

  6. Life-history Constraints on the Mechanisms that Control the Rate of ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Aledo, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The quest to understand why and how we age has led to numerous lines of investigation that have gradually converged to consider mitochondrial metabolism as a major player. During mitochondrial respiration a small and variable amount of the consumed oxygen is converted to reactive species of oxygen (ROS). For many years, these ROS have been perceived as harmful by-products of respiration. However, evidence from recent years indicates that ROS fulfill important roles as cellular messengers. Results obtained using model organisms suggest that ROS-dependent signalling may even activate beneficial cellular stress responses, which eventually may lead to increased lifespan. Nevertheless, when an overload of ROS cannot be properly disposed of, its accumulation generates oxidative stress, which plays a major part in the ageing process. Comparative studies about the rates of ROS production and oxidative damage accumulation, have led to the idea that the lower rate of mitochondrial oxygen radical generation of long-lived animals with respect to that of their short-lived counterpart, could be a primary cause of their slow ageing rate. A hitherto largely under-appreciated alternative view is that such lower rate of ROS production, rather than a cause may be a consequence of the metabolic constraints imposed for the large body sizes that accompany high lifespans. To help understanding the logical underpinning of this rather heterodox view, herein I review the current literature regarding the mechanisms of ROS formation, with particular emphasis on evolutionary aspects. PMID:24955029

  7. Effects of individual and a mixture of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products on cytotoxicity, EROD activity and ROS production in a rainbow trout gonadal cell line (RTG-2).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Babín, Mar

    2013-11-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) in aquatic environments is of concern. Although measured concentrations of individual substances are low, little consideration has been given to the likely chronic nature of the exposures or to the potential for mixture effects. The purpose of the present study was to use the RTG-2 rainbow trout cell line to analyse sub-lethal and cytotoxic effects of PPCPs present in a wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluents and their mixtures. Interactions with cytochrome P450 1A enzyme, oxidative stress, cellular senescence and cell viability were assessed using 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), ß-galactosidase (ß-gal) and neutral red (NR) uptake assays, respectively. Not all of the compounds that were tested exhibited significant effects. The lowest-observed-effect concentrations and half maximal effective concentrations (EC50 ) were within the range 0.15 to 784.47 µg l(-1) . Clear dose-response curves were found for cells exposed to different mixtures of PPCPs. The lowest-observed-effect concentrations and concentrations causing EC50 were within the range 0.05 to 54.61 µg l(-1) . Four out the seven tested mixtures induced EROD activity. ROS production was detected in two mixtures. The ß-gal inhibition response was observed in six out the seven tested mixtures and occurred at a higher concentration than was observed for EROD induction activity or ROS generation. The present study clearly shows that the stress response through which cells mount a homeostatic response to toxicants can be potentially used for an initial, rapid and cost-effective assessment of the complex mixtures of PPCP that present in WWTP effluents are difficult and expensive to analyse chemically. PMID:22718253

  8. Bioreductively Activated Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generators as MRSA Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Khodade, Vinayak S; Sharath Chandra, Mallojjala; Banerjee, Ankita; Lahiri, Surobhi; Pulipeta, Mallikarjuna; Rangarajan, Radha; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2014-07-10

    The number of cases of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections is on the rise globally and new strategies to identify drug candidates with novel mechanisms of action are in urgent need. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of benzo[b]phenanthridine-5,7,12(6H)-triones, which were designed based on redox-active natural products. We find that the in vitro inhibitory activity of 6-(prop-2-ynyl)benzo[b]phenanthridine-5,7,12(6H)-trione (1f) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including a panel of patient-derived strains, is comparable or better than vancomycin. We show that the lead compound generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, contributing to its antibacterial activity. PMID:25050164

  9. Mechanical Stretch-Induced Activation of ROS/RNS Signaling in Striated Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher W.; Prosser, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Mechanical activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) occurs in striated muscle and affects Ca2+ signaling and contractile function. ROS/RNS signaling is tightly controlled, spatially compartmentalized, and source specific. Recent Advances: Here, we review the evidence that within the contracting myocyte, the trans-membrane protein NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) is the primary source of ROS generated during contraction. We also review a newly characterized signaling cascade in cardiac and skeletal muscle in which the microtubule network acts as a mechanotransduction element that activates Nox2-dependent ROS generation during mechanical stretch, a pathway termed X-ROS signaling. Critical Issues: In the heart, X-ROS acts locally and affects the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) and tunes Ca2+ signaling during physiological behavior, but excessive X-ROS can promote Ca2+-dependent arrhythmias in pathology. In skeletal muscle, X-ROS sensitizes Ca2+-permeable sarcolemmal “transient receptor potential” channels, a pathway that is critical for sustaining SR load during repetitive contractions, but when in excess, it is maladaptive in diseases such as Duchenne Musclar dystrophy. Future Directions: New advances in ROS/RNS detection as well as molecular manipulation of signaling pathways will provide critical new mechanistic insights into the details of X-ROS signaling. These efforts will undoubtedly reveal new avenues for therapeutic intervention in the numerous diseases of striated muscle in which altered mechanoactivation of ROS/RNS production has been identified. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 929–936. PMID:23971496

  10. Enhanced aphid detoxification when confronted by a host with elevated ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jiaxin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in plant defense responses against bacteria, fungi and insect pests. Most recently, we have demonstrated that loss of Arabidopsis thaliana BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) function releases its suppression of aphid-induced H2O2 production and cell death, rendering the bik1 mutant more resistant to green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) than wild-type plants. However, little is known regarding how ROS-related gene expression is correlated with bik1-mediated resistance to aphids, or whether these aphids biochemically respond to the oxidative stress. Here, we show that the bik1 mutant exhibited elevated basal expression of ROS-generating and -responsive genes, but not ROS-metabolizing genes. Conversely, we detected enhanced detoxification enzymatic activities in aphids reared on bik1 plants compared to those on wild-type plants, suggesting that aphids counter the oxidative stress associated with bik1 through elevated metabolic resistance. PMID:25932782

  11. TNF-a stimulation enhances ROS-dependent cell migration via NF-?B activation in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Lena; Sauer, Sven; Beissbarth, Tim; Becker, Michael; Krammer, Peter; Gülow, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is accompanied by a continuous increase in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). TNF-a was used in murine hepatocytes as stimulus to identify the primary source of ROS generation. Using specific inhibitors targeting the different complexes of the respiratory chain we detected the mitochondria as main producer of ROS. TNF-a altered mitochondrial integrity by mimicking a mild uncoupling effect in liver cells. siRNA mediated downregulation of essential assembly factors for complex I and complex III led to an inhibition of ROS production. Therefore, ROS is generated by the mitochondrial respiratory chain upon TNF-a stimulation. ROS activated NF-?B and subsequently enhanced migration of liver cells. Thus, we identified complex I and complex III of the respiratory chain as point of ROS release after TNF-a treatment in hepatocytes which enhances cell migration by activating NF-?B signaling. PMID:26461342

  12. TRAP-positive osteoclast precursors mediate ROS/NO-dependent bactericidal activity via TLR4.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuaki; Shindo, Satoru; Movila, Alexandru; Kayal, Rayyan; Abdullah, Albassam; Savitri, Irma Josefina; Ikeda, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Tsuguno; Howait, Mohammed; Al-Dharrab, Ayman; Mira, Abdulghani; Han, Xiaozhe; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2016-08-01

    Osteoclastogenesis was induced by RANKL stimulation in mouse monocytes to examine the possible bactericidal function of osteoclast precursors (OCp) and mature osteoclasts (OCm) relative to their production of NO and ROS. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive OCp, but few or no OCm, phagocytized and killed Escherichia coli in association with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Phagocytosis of E. coli and production of ROS and NO were significantly lower in TRAP+ OCp derived from Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 KO mice than that derived from wild-type (WT) or TLR2-KO mice. Interestingly, after phagocytosis, TRAP+ OCp derived from wild-type and TLR2-KO mice did not differentiate into OCm, even with continuous exposure to RANKL. In contrast, E. coli-phagocytized TRAP+ OCp from TLR4-KO mice could differentiate into OCm. Importantly, neither NO nor ROS produced by TRAP+ OCp appeared to be engaged in phagocytosis-induced suppression of osteoclastogenesis. These results suggested that TLR4 signaling not only induces ROS and NO production to kill phagocytized bacteria, but also interrupts OCm differentiation. Thus, it can be concluded that TRAP+ OCp, but not OCm, can mediate bactericidal activity via phagocytosis accompanied by the production of ROS and NO via TLR4-associated reprograming toward phagocytic cell type. PMID:27343691

  13. Antioxidants successfully reduce ROS production in propionic acidemia fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Villar, Lorena; Pérez, Belén; Ugarte, Magdalena; Desviat, Lourdes R; Richard, Eva

    2014-09-26

    Propionic acidemia (PA), caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial biotin dependent enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) is one of the most frequent organic acidurias in humans. Most PA patients present in the neonatal period with metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia, developing different neurological symptoms, movement disorders and cardiac complications. There is strong evidence indicating that oxidative damage could be a pathogenic factor in neurodegenerative, mitochondrial and metabolic diseases. Recently, we identified an increase in ROS levels in PA patients-derived fibroblasts. Here, we analyze the capability of seven antioxidants to scavenge ROS production in PA patients' cells. Tiron, trolox, resveratrol and MitoQ significantly reduced ROS content in patients and controls' fibroblasts. In addition, changes in the expression of two antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, were observed in PA patients-derived fibroblasts after tiron and resveratrol treatment. Our results in PA cellular models establish the proof of concept of the potential of antioxidants as an adjuvant therapy for PA and pave the way for future assessment of antioxidant strategies in the murine model of PA. PMID:25159844

  14. ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of metals in roadway particulate matter deposited in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Shafer, Martin M; Heo, Jongbae; Pardo, Michal; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Assaf; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the possible causal role for soluble metal species extracted from roadway traffic emissions in promoting particulate matter (PM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant response element (ARE) promoter activation. To this end, these responses have been evaluated in alveolar macrophage and epithelial lung cells that have been exposed to 'Unfiltered', 'Filtered' and 'Filtered+Chelexed' water extracts of PM samples collected from the roadway urban environments of Thessaloniki, Milan and London. Except for Thessaloniki, our results demonstrate that filtration resulted in a minor decrease in ROS activity of the fine PM fraction, suggesting that ROS activity is attributed mainly to water-soluble PM species. In contrast to ROS, ARE activity was mediated predominantly by the water-soluble component of PM present in both the fine and coarse extracts. Further removal of metals by Chelex treatment from filtered water extracts showed that soluble metal species are the major factors mediating ROS and ARE activities of the soluble fraction, especially in the London PM extracts. Finally, utilizing step-wise multiple-regression analysis, we show that 87% and 78% of the total variance observed in ROS and ARE assays, respectively, is accounted for by changes in soluble metal concentration. Using a statistical analysis we find that As, Zn and Fe best predict the ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of the near roadway particulate matter in the pulmonary cells studied. Collectively, our findings imply that soluble metals present in roadside PM are potential drivers of both pro- and anti-oxidative effects of PM in respiratory tract. PMID:26775006

  15. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production triggered by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) regulates lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression/activity in TM4 Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Soledad P; Windschüttl, Stefanie; Matzkin, María E; Rey-Ares, Verónica; Terradas, Claudio; Ponzio, Roberto; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Levalle, Oscar; Calandra, Ricardo S; Mayerhofer, Artur; Frungieri, Mónica B

    2016-10-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate testicular function in health and disease. We previously described a prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) system in Sertoli cells. Now, we found that PGD2 increases ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation in murine TM4 Sertoli cells, and also induces antioxidant enzymes expression suggesting that defense systems are triggered as an adaptive stress mechanism that guarantees cell survival. ROS and specially H2O2 may act as second messengers regulating signal transduction pathways and gene expression. We describe a stimulatory effect of PGD2 on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression via DP1/DP2 receptors, which is prevented by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY 294002. PGD2 also enhances Akt and CREB/ATF-1 phosphorylation. Our results provide evidence for a role of PGD2 in the regulation of the oxidant/antioxidant status in Sertoli cells and, more importantly, in the modulation of LDH expression which takes place through ROS generation and the Akt-CREB/ATF-1 pathway. PMID:27329155

  16. The kinases Mst1 and Mst2 positively regulate phagocyte ROS induction and bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jing; Sun, Xiufeng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Shihao; Wang, Xiaozhen; Wu, Hongtan; Hong, Lixin; Xie, Changchuan; Li, Xun; Zhao, Hao; Liu, Qingxu; Jiang, Mingting; Chen, Qinghua; Zhang, Jinjia; Li, Yang; Song, Siyang; Wang, Hong-Rui; Zhou, Rongbin; Johnson, Randy L.; Chien, Kun-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Han, Jiahuai; Avruch, Joseph; Chen, Lanfen; Zhou, Dawang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria need to be juxtaposted to phagosomes to synergistically produce ample reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytes for pathogens killing. However, how phagosomes transmit signal to recruit mitochondria remains unclear. Here, we report that the kinases Mst1 and Mst2 function to control ROS production by regulating mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrion-phagosome juxtaposition. Mst1 and Mst2 activate Rac GTPase to promote Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered assembly of the TRAF6-ECSIT complex that is required for mitochondrial recruitment to phagosomes. Inactive forms of Rac, including the human Rac2D57N mutant, disrupt the TRAF6-ECSIT complex by sequestering TRAF6, and severely dampen ROS production and greatly increase susceptibility to bacterial infection. These findings demonstrate the TLR-Mst1-Mst2-Rac signalling axis to be critical for effective phagosome-mitochondrion function and bactericidal activity. PMID:26414765

  17. Extracellular polysaccharide from Bacillus sp. strain LBP32 prevents LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs activation and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Diao, Ying; Xin, Yinqiang; Zhou, Yi; Li, Na; Pan, Xiaolong; Qi, Shimei; Qi, Zhilin; Xu, Yimiao; Luo, Lan; Wan, Honggui; Lan, Lei; Yin, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) are high-molecular weight sugar-based polymers that are synthesized and secreted by many microorganisms. Recently, EPSs have attracted particular attention due to their multiple biological functions including anti-inflammation. However, studies rarely reported the molecular mechanisms underlying their functions. We previously purified an EPS from an oligotrophic bacteria (Bacillus sp. LBP32) found in Lop Nur Desert, which possesses a potent antioxidant activity, while the anti-inflammatory effects of EPS and signaling mechanisms underlying its action have not been clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that EPS significantly inhibited the LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), IL-6 and TNF-α, without any significant cytotoxicity. EPS also downregulated the expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by LPS. Furthermore, activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was abrogated by EPS through inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK). Activations of Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), were also found to be inhibited by EPS. In addition, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also significantly decreased with the treatment of EPS. In vivo experiments were conducted and showed that EPS could greatly improve the outcome of mice with LPS-induced endotoxic shock. Taken together, our data indicate that EPS prevents LPS-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs activation and ROS production. PMID:24201081

  18. Neuronal NAD(P)H Oxidases Contribute to ROS Production and Mediate RGC Death after Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Grant, Jeff; Santos, Andrea Rachelle C.; Hernandez, Eleut; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study the role of neuronal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] oxidase–dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after ischemia. Methods. Ischemic injury was induced by unilateral elevation of intraocular pressure via direct corneal cannulation. For in vitro experiments, RGCs isolated by immunopanning from retinas were exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). The expression levels of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits were evaluated by quantitative PCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. The level of ROS generated was assayed by dihydroethidium. The NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors were then tested to determine if inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase altered the production of ROS within the RGCs and promoted cell survival. Results. It was reported that RGCs express catalytic Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, Duox1, as well as regulatory Ncf1/p47phox, Ncf2/p67phox, Cyba/p22phox, Noxo1, and Noxa1 subunits of NAD(P)H oxidases under normal conditions and after ischemia. However, whereas RGCs express only low levels of catalytic Nox2, Nox4, and Duox1, and regulatory Ncf1/p47, Ncf2/p67 subunits, they exhibit significantly higher levels of catalytic subunit Nox1 and the subunits required for optimal activity of Nox1. It was observed that the nonselective NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors VAS-2870, AEBSF, and the Nox1 NAD(P)H oxidase–specific inhibitor ML-090 decreased the ROS burst stimulated by OGD, which was associated with a decreased level of RGC death. Conclusions. The findings suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase activity in RGCs renders them vulnerable to ischemic death. Importantly, high levels of Nox1 NAD(P)H oxidase subunits in RGCs suggest that this enzyme could be a major source of ROS in RGCs produced by NAD(P)H oxidases. PMID:22467573

  19. Maternal inflammation activated ROS-p38 MAPK predisposes offspring to heart damages caused by isoproterenol via augmenting ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Deng, Yafei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Sun, Xiongshan; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Luo, Hongqin; Huang, Pei; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Dan, Guorong; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Zhang, Jianxiang; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal inflammation contributes to the increased incidence of adult cardiovascular disease. The current study investigated the susceptibility of cardiac damage responding to isoproterenol (ISO) in adult offspring that underwent maternal inflammation (modeled by pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge). We found that 2 weeks of ISO treatment in adult offspring of LPS-treated mothers led to augmented heart damage, characterized by left-ventricular systolic dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Mechanistically, prenatal exposure to LPS led to up-regulated expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, antioxidant enzymes, and p38 MAPK activity in left ventricular of adult offspring at resting state. ISO treatment exaggerated ROS generation, p38 MAPK activation but down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination capacity in the left ventricular of offspring from LPS-treated mothers, while antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reversed these changes together with improved cardiac functions. The p38 inhibitor SB202190 alleviated the heart damage only via inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidases. Collectively, our data demonstrated that prenatal inflammation programs pre-existed ROS activation in the heart tissue, which switches on the early process of oxidative damages on heart rapidly through a ROS-p38 MAPK-NADPH oxidase-ROS positive feedback loop in response to a myocardial hypertrophic challenge in adulthood. PMID:27443826

  20. Maternal inflammation activated ROS-p38 MAPK predisposes offspring to heart damages caused by isoproterenol via augmenting ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Deng, Yafei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Sun, Xiongshan; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Luo, Hongqin; Huang, Pei; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Dan, Guorong; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Zhang, Jianxiang; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal inflammation contributes to the increased incidence of adult cardiovascular disease. The current study investigated the susceptibility of cardiac damage responding to isoproterenol (ISO) in adult offspring that underwent maternal inflammation (modeled by pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge). We found that 2 weeks of ISO treatment in adult offspring of LPS-treated mothers led to augmented heart damage, characterized by left-ventricular systolic dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Mechanistically, prenatal exposure to LPS led to up-regulated expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, antioxidant enzymes, and p38 MAPK activity in left ventricular of adult offspring at resting state. ISO treatment exaggerated ROS generation, p38 MAPK activation but down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination capacity in the left ventricular of offspring from LPS-treated mothers, while antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reversed these changes together with improved cardiac functions. The p38 inhibitor SB202190 alleviated the heart damage only via inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidases. Collectively, our data demonstrated that prenatal inflammation programs pre-existed ROS activation in the heart tissue, which switches on the early process of oxidative damages on heart rapidly through a ROS-p38 MAPK-NADPH oxidase-ROS positive feedback loop in response to a myocardial hypertrophic challenge in adulthood. PMID:27443826

  1. Influenza virus replication in lung epithelial cells depends on redox-sensitive pathways activated by NOX4-derived ROS.

    PubMed

    Amatore, Donatella; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Aquilano, Katia; Baldelli, Sara; Limongi, Dolores; Civitelli, Livia; Nencioni, Lucia; Garaci, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    An overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) has been related to airway inflammation typical of influenza infection. Virus-induced oxidative stress may also control viral replication, but the mechanisms underlying ROS production, as well as their role in activating intracellular pathways and specific steps of viral life cycle under redox control have to be fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that influenza A virus infection of lung epithelial cells causes a significant ROS increase that depends mainly on NOX4, which is upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels, while the expression of NOX2, the primary source of ROS in inflammatory cells, is downregulated. Inhibition of NOX4 activity through chemical inhibitors or RNA silencing blocks the ROS increase, prevents MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibits viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) nuclear export and viral release. Overall these data, obtained in cell lines and primary culture, describe a so far unrecognized role for NOX4-derived ROS in activating redox-regulated intracellular pathways during influenza virus infection and highlight their relevance in controlling specific steps of viral replication in epithelial cells. Pharmacological modulation of NOX4-mediated ROS production may open the way for new therapeutic approaches to fighting influenza by targeting cell and not the virus. PMID:25154738

  2. Pre-exposure of neuroblastoma cell line to pulsed electromagnetic field prevents H2 O2 -induced ROS production by increasing MnSOD activity.

    PubMed

    Osera, Cecilia; Amadio, Marialaura; Falone, Stefano; Fassina, Lorenzo; Magenes, Giovanni; Amicarelli, Fernanda; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Govoni, Stefano; Pascale, Alessia

    2015-04-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been linked to increased risk of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases; however, EMFs can also elicit positive effects on biological systems, and redox status seems crucially involved in EMF biological effects. This study aimed to assess whether a short and repeated pulsed EMF (PEMF) could trigger adaptive responses against an oxidative insult in a neuronal cellular model. We found that a 40 min overall (four times a week, 10 min each) pre-exposure to PEMF did not affect major physiological parameters and led to a significant increase of Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase activity in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. In addition, we found PEMF-pre-exposed cells exhibited decreased reactive oxygen species production following a 30 min H2 O2 challenge, with respect to non pre-exposed cells. Our findings might provide new insights on the role played by short and repeated PEMF stimulations in the enhancement of cellular defenses against oxidative insults. Although studies in normal neuronal cells would be useful to further confirm our hypothesis, we suggest that specific PEMF treatments may have potential biological repercussions in diseases where oxidative stress is implicated. PMID:25708841

  3. Plant signaling networks involving Ca2+ and Rboh/Nox-mediated ROS production under salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Tada, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress, which induces both ionic and osmotic damage, impairs plant growth and causes severe reductions in crop yield. Plants are equipped with defense responses against salinity stress such as regulation of ion transport including Na+ and K+, accumulation of compatible solutes and stress-related gene expression. The initial Ca2+ influx mediated by plasma membrane ion channels has been suggested to be crucial for the adaptive signaling. NADPH oxidase (Nox)-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has also been suggested to play crucial roles in regulating adaptation to salinity stress in several plant species including halophytes. Respiratory burst oxidase homolog (Rboh) proteins show the ROS-producing Nox activity, which are synergistically activated by the binding of Ca2+ to EF-hand motifs as well as Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation. We herein review molecular identity, structural features and roles of the Ca2+-permeable channels involved in early salinity and osmotic signaling, and comparatively discuss the interrelationships among spatiotemporal dynamic changes in cytosolic concentrations of free Ca2+, Rboh-mediated ROS production, and downstream signaling events during salinity adaptation in planta. PMID:26113854

  4. Tanshinone IIA blocks dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts through inhibiting Nox4-derived ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; He, Chongru; Tong, Wenwen; Zou, Yuming; Li, Dahe; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of osteoblasts caused by glucocorticoids has been identified as an important contributor to the development of osteoporosis. Tanshinone IIA (Tan), an active ingredient extracted from the rhizome of the Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), has been reported to cast positive effects on osteoporosis. However, the precise mechanisms accounting this action remain elusive. In this study, by using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as a model, we confirmed the protective effects of Tan against dexamethasone (Dex)-induced cell apoptosis and further clarified its molecular mechanism of action. Our results showed that treatment with Dex caused cell injury, increased cytosol cytochrome c level and Nox expression, induced apoptosis in caspase-9-dependent manner, and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Tan attenuated these deleterious consequence triggered by Dex. Moreover, Dex-induced ROS production and cell injury were inhibited by antioxidant, NADPH oxidases inhibitors, Nox4 inhibitor, and Nox4 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Overexpression of Nox4 almost abolished the inhibitory effect of Tan on Dex-induced cell injury and apoptosis. The results also demonstrated significant involvement of Nox4 in the Dex-induced apoptosis. Nox4-derived ROS led to apoptosis through activation of intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, we evidenced that Tan reversed Dex-induced apoptosis via inactivation of Nox4. The present findings suggest that inhibition of Nox4 may be a novel therapeutic approach of Tan to prevent against glucocorticoids-induced osteoblasts apoptosis and osteoporosis. PMID:26722597

  5. Loss of SDHB Elevates Catecholamine Synthesis and Secretion Depending on ROS Production and HIF Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuria; Ishii, Kiyo-Aki; Aita, Yuichi; Ikeda, Tatsuhiko; Kawakami, Yasushi; Shimano, Hitoshi; Hara, Hisato; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Germline mutations in genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunits are associated with the development of familial pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas [hereditary paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma syndrome (HPPS)]. In particular, a mutation in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) is highly associated with abdominal paraganglioma and subsequent distant metastasis (malignant paraganglioma), indicating the importance of SDHB genetic testing. The discovery of HPPS suggests an association among genetic mitochondrial defects, tumor development, and catecholamine oversecretion. To investigate this association, we transfected pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) with SDHB-specific siRNA. SDHB silencing virtually abolished complex II activity, demonstrating the utility of this in vitro model for investigating the pseudo-hypoxic drive hypothesis. Lack of complex II activity resulting from RNA interference of SDHB increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis) activity and catecholamine secretion. Reduced apoptosis was observed accompanied by Bcl-2 accumulation in PC12 cells, consistent with the phenotypes of paragangliomas with SDHB mutations. In addition, SDHB silencing increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nuclear HIF1α stabilization under normoxic conditions. Furthermore, phenotypes induced by complex II activity knockdown were abolished by pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (an ROS scavenger) and by prior HIF1α knockdown, indicating an ROS- and HIF1α-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that increased ROS may act as signal transduction messengers that induce HIF1α stabilization and may be necessary for the pseudo-hypoxic states observed in our experimental model. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that pseudo-hypoxic states resulting from SDHB knockdown are associated with increased TH activity and catecholamine oversecretion. PMID:26620190

  6. Training effects on ROS production determined by electron paramagnetic resonance in master swimmers.

    PubMed

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Pavei, Gaspare; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Michela; Tacchini, Philippe; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise induces an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production dependent on exercise intensity with highest ROS amount generated by strenuous exercise. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT), characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers. Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. An incremental arm-ergometer exercise (IE) until exhaustion was carried out at both before (PRE) and after (POST) training (Trg) period. A significant (P < 0.01) increase of ROS production from REST to the END of IE in PRE Trg (2.82 ± 0.66 versus 3.28 ± 0.66 µmol·min(-1)) was observed. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption (36.1 ± 4.3 versus 40.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) PRE and POST Trg, resp.) and the antioxidant capacity (+13%) while it significantly decreased the ROS production both at REST (-20%) and after IE (-25%). The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. PMID:25874024

  7. Training Effects on ROS Production Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Master Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Pavei, Gaspare; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Michela; Tacchini, Philippe; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise induces an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production dependent on exercise intensity with highest ROS amount generated by strenuous exercise. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT), characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers. Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. An incremental arm-ergometer exercise (IE) until exhaustion was carried out at both before (PRE) and after (POST) training (Trg) period. A significant (P < 0.01) increase of ROS production from REST to the END of IE in PRE Trg (2.82 ± 0.66 versus 3.28 ± 0.66 µmol·min−1) was observed. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption (36.1 ± 4.3 versus 40.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 PRE and POST Trg, resp.) and the antioxidant capacity (+13%) while it significantly decreased the ROS production both at REST (−20%) and after IE (−25%). The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. PMID:25874024

  8. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shichao; Cai, Weixia; Yang, Xuekang; Jia, Yanhui; Zheng, Zhao; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun; Li, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Fan, Lei; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by BAY11-7082 attenuated burn-induced ALI, as demonstrated by the concomitant remission of histopathologic changes and the reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissue, and protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In the in vitro experiments, we used AMs (alveolar macrophages) challenged with burn serum to mimic the postburn microenvironment and noted that the serum significantly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The use of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cells exposed to burn serum. These results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an essential role in burn-induced ALI and that burn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a partly ROS-dependent process. Targeting this axis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced ALI. PMID:26576075

  9. ROS play a critical role in the differentiation of alternatively activated macrophages and the occurrence of tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Choksi, Swati; Chen, Kun; Pobezinskaya, Yelena; Linnoila, Ilona; Liu, Zheng-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation to different types of macrophages determines their distinct functions. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis owing to their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions similar to those of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. We report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is critical for macrophage differentiation and that inhibition of superoxide (O2−) production specifically blocks the differentiation of M2 macrophages. We found that when monocytes are triggered to differentiate, O2− is generated and is needed for the biphasic ERK activation, which is critical for macrophage differentiation. We demonstrated that ROS elimination by butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and other ROS inhibitors blocks macrophage differentiation. However, the inhibitory effect of ROS elimination on macrophage differentiation is overcome when cells are polarized to classically activated (M1), but not M2, macrophages. More importantly, the continuous administration of the ROS inhibitor BHA efficiently blocked the occurrence of TAMs and markedly suppressed tumorigenesis in mouse cancer models. Targeting TAMs by blocking ROS can be a potentially effective method for cancer treatment. PMID:23752925

  10. Redox Activities and ROS, NO and Phenylpropanoids Production by Axenically Cultured Intact Olive Seedling Roots after Interaction with a Mycorrhizal or a Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Francisco; Garrido, Inmaculada; Ortega, Alfonso; Casimiro, Ilda; Álvarez-Tinaut, Mª Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Roots of intact olive seedlings, axenically cultured, were alternatively placed in contact with Rhizophagus irregularis (mycorrhizal) or Verticillim dahliae (pathogenic) fungi. MeJA treatments were also included. In vivo redox activities in the apoplast of the intact roots (anion superoxide generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities) were measured. All our results showed that apoplastic redox activities of intact seedling roots in contact with the compatible mycorrhizal fungus were clearly attenuated in comparison with the pathogenic fungus or treated with MeJA, even at the early stages of treatment used. Total phenolics, flavonoids and phenylpropanoid glycosides were also quantified. Roots in contact with the mycorrhizal fungus did not enhance the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds with respect to controls, while those in contact with the pathogenic one significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of all phenolic fractions measured. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxid accumulation in roots were examined by fluorescence microscopy. All of them presented much higher accumulation in roots in contact with the pathogenic than with the mycorrhizal fungus. Altogether these results indicate that intact olive seedling roots clearly differentiated between mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi, attenuating defense reactions against the first to facilitate its establishment, while inducing a strong and sustained defense reaction against the second. Both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species seemed to be involved in these responses from the first moments of contact. However, further investigations are required to clarify the proposed crosstalk between them and their respective roles in these responses since fluorescence images of roots revealed that reactive oxygen species were mainly accumulated in the apoplast (congruently with the measured redox activities in this compartment) while nitric oxid was mainly stored in the cytosol. PMID:24967716

  11. Activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway reduces oxygen-glucose deprivation induced tissue swelling, ROS production, and cell death in mouse brain with angiotensin II overproduction

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiaolin; Li, Guangze; Chen, Shuzhen; Chen, Ji; Buck, Joshua; Zhu, Yulan; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric; Chen, Yanfang; Olson, James E.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mice which overexpress human renin and angiotensinogen (R+A+) show enhanced cerebral damage in both in vivo and in vitro experimental ischemia models. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) counteracts the effects of angiotensin (Ang-II) by transforming it into Ang-(1-7), thus reducing the ligand for the AT1 receptor and increasing stimulation of the Mas receptor. Triple transgenic mice, SARA, which specifically overexpress ACE2 in neurons of R+A+ mice were used to study the role of ACE2 in ischemic stroke using oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) of brain slices as an in vitro model. We examined tissue swelling, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell death in cerebral cortex (CX) and the hippocampal CA1 region during OGD. Expression levels of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox2 and Nox4 were measured using western blots. Results show that SARA mice and R+A+ mice treated with the Mas receptor agonist Ang-(1-7) had less swelling, cell death, and ROS production in CX and CA1 areas compared to those in R+A+ animals. Treatment of slices from SARA mice with the Mas antagonist A779 eliminated this protection. Finally, western blots revealed less Nox2 and Nox4 expression in SARA mice compared with R+A+ mice both before and after OGD. We suggest that reduced brain swelling and cell death observed in SARA animals exposed to OGD results from diminished ROS production coupled with lower expression of NADPH oxidases. Thus, the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway plays a protective role in brain ischemic damage by counteracting the detrimental effects of Ang-II-induced ROS production. PMID:24814023

  12. Activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway reduces oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced tissue swelling, ROS production, and cell death in mouse brain with angiotensin II overproduction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Li, G; Chen, S; Bihl, J; Buck, J; Zhu, Y; Xia, H; Lazartigues, E; Chen, Y; Olson, J E

    2014-07-25

    We previously demonstrated that mice which overexpress human renin and angiotensinogen (R+A+) show enhanced cerebral damage in both in vivo and in vitro experimental ischemia models. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) counteracts the effects of angiotensin (Ang-II) by transforming it into Ang-(1-7), thus reducing the ligand for the AT1 receptor and increasing stimulation of the Mas receptor. Triple transgenic mice, SARA, which specifically overexpress ACE2 in neurons of R+A+ mice were used to study the role of ACE2 in ischemic stroke using oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) of brain slices as an in vitro model. We examined tissue swelling, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell death in the cerebral cortex (CX) and the hippocampal CA1 region during OGD. Expression levels of NADPH oxidase (Nox) isoforms, Nox2 and Nox4 were measured using western blots. Results show that SARA mice and R+A+ mice treated with the Mas receptor agonist Ang-(1-7) had less swelling, cell death, and ROS production in CX and CA1 areas compared to those in R+A+ animals. Treatment of slices from SARA mice with the Mas antagonist A779 eliminated this protection. Finally, western blots revealed less Nox2 and Nox4 expression in SARA mice compared with R+A+ mice both before and after OGD. We suggest that reduced brain swelling and cell death observed in SARA animals exposed to OGD result from diminished ROS production coupled with lower expression of Nox isoforms. Thus, the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway plays a protective role in brain ischemic damage by counteracting the detrimental effects of Ang-II-induced ROS production. PMID:24814023

  13. ROS production as a common mechanism of ENaC regulation by EGF, insulin, and IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Pavlov, Tengis S.; Levchenko, Vladislav

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is a key transporter participating in the fine tuning of Na+ reabsorption in the nephron. ENaC activity is acutely upregulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). It was also proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a stimulatory effect on ENaC. Here we studied whether effects of EGF, insulin, and IGF-1 correlate with ROS production in the mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCDc14) cells. Western blotting confirmed the expression of the NADPH oxidase complex subunits in these cells. Treatment of mpkCCDc14 cells with EGF, insulin, or IGF-1 evoked an increase in ROS production as measured by CM-H2DCF-DA fluorescence. ROS production caused by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction also resulted in a significant elevation in short-circuit current through the mpkCCDc14 monolayer. Transepithelial current measurements showed an acute increase of amiloride-sensitive current through the mpkCCDc14 monolayer in response to EGF, insulin, or IGF-1. Pretreatment with the nonselective NADPH oxidase activity inhibitor apocynin blunted both ROS production and increase in ENaC-mediated current in response to these drugs. To further test whether NADPH oxidase subunits are involved in the effect of EGF, we used a stable M-1 cell line with a knockdown of Rac1, which is one of the key subunits of the NADPH oxidase complex, and measured amiloride-sensitive currents in response to EGF. In contrast to control cells, EGF had no effect in Rac1 knockdown cells. We hypothesize that EGF, insulin, and IGF-1 have a common stimulatory effect on ENaC mediated by ROS production. PMID:23135700

  14. Miltirone exhibits antileukemic activity by ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ling; Jiang, Lifeng; Xu, Maolei; Liu, Qun; Gao, Ning; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of miltirone in human leukemia cell lines, primary leukemia cells, and nude mice U937 xenograft. Treatment of cells with miltirone resulted in apoptosis, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) collapses, increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and cytochrome c release. Miltirone triggered the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress identified through several key molecules of the unfolded protein response, including phosphorylated PERK, eIF2a, GRP78, GRP94, and caspase-12. Miltrone treatment also resulted in the release of Ca2+ from the ER stores and mitochondrial Ca2+ loading in the cells. Further research revealed that miltirone resulted in dose-dependent decrease in complex III activity and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in these cells. Miltirone-induced apoptosis, dissipation of MMP and ER stress were dramatically blocked by pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In contrast, treatment with ER stress inhibitor TUDCA significantly attenuated miltirone-induced ROS and apoptosis in leukemia cells. Moreover, our in vivo findings showed that administration of miltirone markedly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in U937 xenograft model with low systemic toxicity. Taken together, these findings indicate that miltirone may exert its antileukemic activity by inducing apoptosis through a ROS-dependent destructive cycle involving ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26848099

  15. Ligustilide treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weidong; Yu, Aixi; Liu, Danli; Shen, Jun; Xu, Zhigao

    2015-01-01

    Ligustilide from traditional Chinese medicine extract, angelica sinensis is one of the main active components, and has many pharmacological activities related to the effectiveness. This study sought to determine whether neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) via preventing ROS production. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced using operation for model SCI. Furthermore, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale and footprint analysis of gait was used to assess the neuro-protection of ligustilide on SCI. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production levels were measured by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay kit. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein expressions were detected using Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and western blot analyses, respectively. Interestingly, treatment with ligustilide significantly increased BBB scale and reduced recovery of coordination in SCI rats. After SCI, the iROS, PGE(2), IL-1β, TNF-α production levels and iNOS gene expression were significantly suppressed in SCI rats. These results suggest that the neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production. PMID:26722386

  16. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. PMID:23978445

  17. The GTPase ARF6 Controls ROS Production to Mediate Angiotensin II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bourmoum, Mohamed; Charles, Ricardo; Claing, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    High reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and enhanced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation are observed in numerous cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which hormones such as angiotensin II (Ang II) acts to promote these cellular responses remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that the ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), a molecular switch that coordinates intracellular signaling events can be activated by the Ang II receptor (AT1R). Whether this small GTP-binding protein controls the signaling events leading to ROS production and therefore Ang II-dependent VSMC proliferation, remains however unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in rat aortic VSMC, Ang II stimulation led to the subsequent activation of ARF6 and Rac1, a key regulator of NADPH oxidase activity. Using RNA interference, we showed that ARF6 is essential for ROS generation since in conditions where this GTPase was knocked down, Ang II could no longer promote superoxide anion production. In addition to regulating Rac1 activity, ARF6 also controlled expression of the NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox 1) as well as the ability of the EGFR to become transactivated. Finally, ARF6 also controlled MAPK (Erk1/2, p38 and Jnk) activation, a key pathway of VSMC proliferation. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that Ang II promotes activation of ARF6 to controls ROS production by regulating Rac1 activation and Nox1 expression. In turn, increased ROS acts to activate the MAPK pathway. These signaling events represent a new molecular mechanism by which Ang II can promote proliferation of VSMC. PMID:26824355

  18. ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoeb, M.; Singh, Braj R.; Khan, Javed A.; Khan, Wasi; Singh, Brahma N.; Singh, Harikesh B.; Naqvi, Alim H.

    2013-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide application in biomedical science. However, little is known about the anticandidal activity of ZnO NPs against Candida albicans (C. albicans). This study was designed to develop the green approach to synthesize ZnO NPs using egg white (denoted as EtZnO NPs) and investigated its possible mechanism of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans 077. It was also notable that anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs is correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner. Protection of histidine against ROS clearly suggests the implication of ROS in anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs. This green approach based on egg white-mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs paves the way for developing cost effective, eco-friendly and promising antimicrobial nanomaterial for applications in medicine.

  19. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol

  20. ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Halasi, Marianna; Wang, Ming; Chavan, Tanmay S; Gaponenko, Vadim; Hay, Nissim; Gartel, Andrei L

    2013-09-01

    NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) is commonly used to identify and test ROS (reactive oxygen species) inducers, and to inhibit ROS. In the present study, we identified inhibition of proteasome inhibitors as a novel activity of NAC. Both NAC and catalase, another known scavenger of ROS, similarly inhibited ROS levels and apoptosis associated with H₂O₂. However, only NAC, and not catalase or another ROS scavenger Trolox, was able to prevent effects linked to proteasome inhibition, such as protein stabilization, apoptosis and accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. These observations suggest that NAC has a dual activity as an inhibitor of ROS and proteasome inhibitors. Recently, NAC was used as a ROS inhibitor to functionally characterize a novel anticancer compound, piperlongumine, leading to its description as a ROS inducer. In contrast, our own experiments showed that this compound depicts features of proteasome inhibitors including suppression of FOXM1 (Forkhead box protein M1), stabilization of cellular proteins, induction of ROS-independent apoptosis and enhanced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. In addition, NAC, but not catalase or Trolox, interfered with the activity of piperlongumine, further supporting that piperlongumine is a proteasome inhibitor. Most importantly, we showed that NAC, but not other ROS scavengers, directly binds to proteasome inhibitors. To our knowledge, NAC is the first known compound that directly interacts with and antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that, as a result of the dual nature of NAC, data interpretation might not be straightforward when NAC is utilized as an antioxidant to demonstrate ROS involvement in drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:23772801

  1. Liver Fibrosis Can Be Induced by High Salt Intake through Excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Yeung, Cheung-kwan; Wong, Wing-Yan; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-fan; Zhang, Jing-li; Yan, Yu; Wong, Ching-yee; Tang, Jun-jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-02-24

    High salt intake has been known to cause hypertension and other side effects. However, it is still unclear whether it also affects fibrosis in the mature or developing liver. This study demonstrates that high salt exposure in mice (4% NaCl in drinking water) and chick embryo (calculated final osmolality of the egg was 300 mosm/L) could lead to derangement of the hepatic cords and liver fibrosis using H&E, PAS, Masson, and Sirius red staining. Meanwhile, Desmin immunofluorescent staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that hepatic stellate cells were activated after the high salt exposure. pHIS3 and BrdU immunohistological staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that cell proliferation decreased; as well, TUNEL analyses indicated that cell apoptosis increased in the presence of high salt exposure. Next, dihydroethidium staining on the cultured chick hepatocytes indicated the excess ROS was generated following high salt exposure. Furthermore, AAPH (a known inducer of ROS production) treatment also induced the liver fibrosis in chick embryo. Positive Nrf2 and Keap1 immunohistological staining on mouse liver suggested that Nrf2/Keap1 signaling was involved in high salt induced ROS production. Finally, the CCK8 assay was used to determine whether or not the growth inhibitory effect induced by high salt exposure can be rescued by antioxidant vitamin C. Meanwhile, the RT-PCR result indicated that the Nrf2/Keap1 downsteam genes including HO-1, NQO-1, and SOD2 were involved in this process. In sum, these experiments suggest that high salt intake would lead to high risk of liver damage and fibrosis in both adults and developing embryos. The pathological mechanism may be the result from an imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system. PMID:26843032

  2. Antimicrobial peptide protonectin disturbs the membrane integrity and induces ROS production in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Dang, Wen; Xie, Junqiu; Zhu, Ranran; Sun, Mengyang; Jia, Fengjing; Zhao, Yanyan; An, Xiaoping; Qiu, Shuai; Li, Xiaoyuan; Ma, Zelin; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Candidiasis is often observed in immunocompromised patients and is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream infections. However, antifungals are limited, so novel antifungal agents are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as potential alternatives of conventional antibiotics. In the present study, antimicrobial peptide protonectin was chemically synthesized and its antifungal activity and mode of action were studied. Our results showed that protonectin has potent antifungal activity and fungicidal activity against the tested fungi cells. Its action mode involved the disruption of the membrane integrity and the inducing of the production of cellular ROS. Furthermore, protonectin could inhibit the formation of biofilm and kill the adherent fungi cells. In conclusion, with the increase of fungal infection, protonectin may offer a new strategy and be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against fungal disease. PMID:26209560

  3. Hirsutanol A, a novel sesquiterpene compound from fungus Chondrostereum sp., induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth through mitochondrial-independent ROS production: Hirsutanol A inhibits tumor growth through ROS production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hirsutanol A is a novel sesquiterpene compound purified from fungus Chondrostereum sp. in Sarcophyton tortuosum. Our previous studies had demonstrated that hirsutanol A exhibited potent cytotoxic effect on many kinds of cancer cell lines. In the current study, the antitumor activity of hirsutanol A and its molecular mechanisms were investigated. Methods Hirsutanol A induced growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death of human colon cancer SW620 cells and human breast cancer MDA-MB-231cells were determined using MTT assay and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The effect of hirsutanol A on intrinsic ROS level and change in mitochondrial membrane potential (△ψm) of different cell lines were also measured by flow cytometry assay. The function of JNK was compromised by JNK siRNA or JNK inhibitor SP600125. The expression of cytochrome c, p-JNK, p-c-Jun after treatment with hirsutanol A were detected by Western blot analysis. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of hirsutanol A was examined in human cancer cell SW620 xenograft model. Results The results showed that hirsutanol A significantly induced apoptosis, mitochondrial-independent increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level, change of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c in human cancer cells. Preventing increase of ROS level using the potent antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly decreased hirsutanol A-induced apoptosis. In addition, JNK signaling pathway was activated by hirsutanol A through elevating ROS level. Blockade of JNK signaling pathway by JNK specific inhibitor SP600125 enhanced apoptosis and hirsutanol A-induced ROS accumulation. Also, hirsutanol A exhibited antitumor activity in human cancer cell SW620 xenograft model. Conclusion These data suggested that hirsutanol A inhibited tumor growth through triggering ROS production and apoptosis. PMID:23394457

  4. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Testis Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Minutoli, Letteria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Irrera, Natasha; Marini, Herbert; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Bitto, Alessandra; Crea, Giovanni; Pisani, Antonina; Squadrito, Francesco; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Bruschetta, Daniele; Micali, Antonio; Altavilla, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) causes a reduction in arterial blood supply to tissues, followed by the restoration of perfusion and consequent reoxygenation. The reestablishment of blood flow triggers further damage to the ischemic tissue through reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, interference with cellular ion homeostasis, and inflammatory responses to cell death. In normal conditions, ROS mediate important beneficial responses. When their production is prolonged or elevated, harmful events are observed with peculiar cellular changes. In particular, during I/R, ROS stimulate tissue inflammation and induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The mechanisms underlying the activation of NLRP3 are several and not completely elucidated. It was recently shown that NLRP3 might sense directly the presence of ROS produced by normal or malfunctioning mitochondria or indirectly by other activators of NLRP3. Aim of the present review is to describe the current knowledge on the role of NLRP3 in some organs (brain, heart, kidney, and testis) after I/R injury, with particular regard to the role played by ROS in its activation. Furthermore, as no specific therapy for the prevention or treatment of the high mortality and morbidity associated with I/R is available, the state of the art of the development of novel therapeutic approaches is illustrated. PMID:27127546

  5. A novel proteasome inhibitor acting in mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Maria, Durvanei Augusto; de Souza, Jean Gabriel; Morais, Katia L P; Berra, Carolina Maria; Zampolli, Hamilton de Campos; Demasi, Marilene; Simons, Simone Michaela; de Freitas Saito, Renata; Chammas, Roger; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa

    2013-06-01

    In cancer-treatment, potentially therapeutic drugs trigger their effects through apoptotic mechanisms. Generally, cell response is manifested by Bcl-2 family protein regulation, the impairment of mitochondrial functions, and ROS production. Notwithstanding, several drugs operate through proteasome inhibition, which, by inducing the accumulation and aggregation of misfolded or unfolded proteins, can lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Accordingly, it was shown that Amblyomin-X, a Kunitz-type inhibitor identified in the transcriptome of the Amblyomma cajennense tick by ESTs sequence analysis of a cDNA library, obtained in recombinant protein form, induces apoptosis in murine renal adenocarcinoma (RENCA) cells by: inducing imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, dysfunction/mitochondrial damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase cascade activation, and proteasome inhibition, all ER-stress inductive. Moreover, there was no manifest action on normal mouse-fibroblast cells (NHI3T3), suggesting an Amblyomin-X tumor-cell selectivity. Taken together, these evidences indicate that Amblyomin-X could be a promising candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:22975862

  6. ROS Production via P2Y1-PKC-NOX2 Is Triggered by Extracellular ATP after Electrical Stimulation of Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Campos, Cristian A.; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Casas, Mariana; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Espinosa, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    During exercise, skeletal muscle produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase (NOX2) while inducing cellular adaptations associated with contractile activity. The signals involved in this mechanism are still a matter of study. ATP is released from skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation and can autocrinely signal through purinergic receptors; we searched for an influence of this signal in ROS production. The aim of this work was to characterize ROS production induced by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. ROS production was measured using two alternative probes; chloromethyl-2,7- dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate or electroporation to express the hydrogen peroxide-sensitive protein Hyper. Electrical stimulation (ES) triggered a transient ROS increase in muscle fibers which was mimicked by extracellular ATP and was prevented by both carbenoxolone and suramin; antagonists of pannexin channel and purinergic receptors respectively. In addition, transient ROS increase was prevented by apyrase, an ecto-nucleotidase. MRS2365, a P2Y1 receptor agonist, induced a large signal while UTPyS (P2Y2 agonist) elicited a much smaller signal, similar to the one seen when using ATP plus MRS2179, an antagonist of P2Y1. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors also blocked ES-induced ROS production. Our results indicate that physiological levels of electrical stimulation induce ROS production in skeletal muscle cells through release of extracellular ATP and activation of P2Y1 receptors. Use of selective NOX2 and PKC inhibitors suggests that ROS production induced by ES or extracellular ATP is mediated by NOX2 activated by PKC. PMID:26053483

  7. ROS Production via P2Y1-PKC-NOX2 Is Triggered by Extracellular ATP after Electrical Stimulation of Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Campos, Cristian A; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Casas, Mariana; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Espinosa, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    During exercise, skeletal muscle produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase (NOX2) while inducing cellular adaptations associated with contractile activity. The signals involved in this mechanism are still a matter of study. ATP is released from skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation and can autocrinely signal through purinergic receptors; we searched for an influence of this signal in ROS production. The aim of this work was to characterize ROS production induced by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. ROS production was measured using two alternative probes; chloromethyl-2,7- dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate or electroporation to express the hydrogen peroxide-sensitive protein Hyper. Electrical stimulation (ES) triggered a transient ROS increase in muscle fibers which was mimicked by extracellular ATP and was prevented by both carbenoxolone and suramin; antagonists of pannexin channel and purinergic receptors respectively. In addition, transient ROS increase was prevented by apyrase, an ecto-nucleotidase. MRS2365, a P2Y1 receptor agonist, induced a large signal while UTPyS (P2Y2 agonist) elicited a much smaller signal, similar to the one seen when using ATP plus MRS2179, an antagonist of P2Y1. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors also blocked ES-induced ROS production. Our results indicate that physiological levels of electrical stimulation induce ROS production in skeletal muscle cells through release of extracellular ATP and activation of P2Y1 receptors. Use of selective NOX2 and PKC inhibitors suggests that ROS production induced by ES or extracellular ATP is mediated by NOX2 activated by PKC. PMID:26053483

  8. DJ-1 links muscle ROS production with metabolic reprogramming and systemic energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sally Yu; Lu, Shun-Yan; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Revelo, Xavier S; Cai, Erica P; Luk, Cynthia T; Schroer, Stephanie A; Patel, Prital; Kim, Raymond H; Bombardier, Eric; Quadrilatero, Joe; Tupling, A Russell; Mak, Tak W; Winer, Daniel A; Woo, Minna

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies, including obesity and diabetes, but ROS also act as endogenous signalling molecules, regulating numerous biological processes. DJ-1 is one of the most evolutionarily conserved proteins across species, and mutations in DJ-1 have been linked to some cases of Parkinson's disease. Here we show that DJ-1 maintains cellular metabolic homeostasis via modulating ROS levels in murine skeletal muscles, revealing a role of DJ-1 in maintaining efficient fuel utilization. We demonstrate that, in the absence of DJ-1, ROS uncouple mitochondrial respiration and activate AMP-activated protein kinase, which triggers Warburg-like metabolic reprogramming in muscle cells. Accordingly, DJ-1 knockout mice exhibit higher energy expenditure and are protected from obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes in the setting of fuel surplus. Our data suggest that promoting mitochondrial uncoupling may be a potential strategy for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. PMID:26077864

  9. DJ-1 links muscle ROS production with metabolic reprogramming and systemic energy homeostasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Sally Yu; Lu, Shun-Yan; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Revelo, Xavier S.; Cai, Erica P.; Luk, Cynthia T.; Schroer, Stephanie A.; Patel, Prital; Kim, Raymond H.; Bombardier, Eric; Quadrilatero, Joe; Tupling, A. Russell; Mak, Tak W.; Winer, Daniel A.; Woo, Minna

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies, including obesity and diabetes, but ROS also act as endogenous signalling molecules, regulating numerous biological processes. DJ-1 is one of the most evolutionarily conserved proteins across species, and mutations in DJ-1 have been linked to some cases of Parkinson's disease. Here we show that DJ-1 maintains cellular metabolic homeostasis via modulating ROS levels in murine skeletal muscles, revealing a role of DJ-1 in maintaining efficient fuel utilization. We demonstrate that, in the absence of DJ-1, ROS uncouple mitochondrial respiration and activate AMP-activated protein kinase, which triggers Warburg-like metabolic reprogramming in muscle cells. Accordingly, DJ-1 knockout mice exhibit higher energy expenditure and are protected from obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes in the setting of fuel surplus. Our data suggest that promoting mitochondrial uncoupling may be a potential strategy for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. PMID:26077864

  10. ROS Production Is Essential for the Apoptotic Function of E2F1 in Pheochromocytoma and Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Espada, Lilia; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Sancho, Patricia; Real, Sebastian; Fabregat, Isabel; Ambrosio, Santiago; Tauler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3β blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator

  11. Extracellular ATP activates MAPK and ROS signaling during injury response in the fungus Trichoderma atroviride

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Castellanos, Elizabeth; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo U.; Heil, Martin; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The response to mechanical damage is crucial for the survival of multicellular organisms, enabling their adaptation to hostile environments. Trichoderma atroviride, a filamentous fungus of great importance in the biological control of plant diseases, responds to mechanical damage by activating regenerative processes and asexual reproduction (conidiation). During this response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by the NADPH oxidase complex. To understand the underlying early signaling events, we evaluated molecules such as extracellular ATP (eATP) and Ca2+ that are known to trigger wound-induced responses in plants and animals. Concretely, we investigated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by eATP, Ca2+, and ROS. Indeed, application of exogenous ATP and Ca2+ triggered conidiation. Furthermore, eATP promoted the Nox1-dependent production of ROS and activated a MAPK pathway. Mutants in the MAPK-encoding genes tmk1 and tmk3 were affected in wound-induced conidiation, and phosphorylation of both Tmk1 and Tmk3 was triggered by eATP. We conclude that in this fungus, eATP acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). Our data indicate the existence of an eATP receptor and suggest that in fungi, eATP triggers pathways that converge to regulate asexual reproduction genes that are required for injury-induced conidiation. By contrast, Ca2+ is more likely to act as a downstream second messenger. The early steps of mechanical damage response in T. atroviride share conserved elements with those known from plants and animals. PMID:25484887

  12. Neoalbaconol induces cell death through necroptosis by regulating RIPK-dependent autocrine TNFα and ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Xiao, Lanbo; Luo, Xiangjian; Liu, Xiaolan; Yang, Lifang; Peng, Songling; Ding, Zhihui; Feng, Tao; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Jikai; Cao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis/regulated necrosis is a caspase-independent, but receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-dependent form of cell death. In previous studies, neoalbaconol (NA), a constituent extracted from Albatrellus confluens, was demonstrated to induce necroptosis in some cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism of NA-induced necroptosis is described in this research study. We determined that NA-induced cell death is partly dependent on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) feed-forward signaling. More importantly, NA abolished the ubiquitination of RIPK1 by down-regulating E3 ubiquitin ligases, cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protein 1/2 (cIAP1/2) and TNFα receptor-associated factors (TRAFs). The suppression of RIPK1 ubiquitination induced the activation of the non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and stimulated the transcription of TNFα. Moreover, we also found that NA caused RIPK3-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and contribution to cell death. Taken together, these results suggested that two distinct mechanisms are involved in NA-induced necroptosis and include RIPK1/NF-κB-dependent expression of TNFα and RIPK3-dependent generation of ROS. PMID:25575821

  13. Neoalbaconol induces cell death through necroptosis by regulating RIPK-dependent autocrine TNFα and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinfang; Deng, Qipan; Li, Wei; Xiao, Lanbo; Luo, Xiangjian; Liu, Xiaolan; Yang, Lifang; Peng, Songling; Ding, Zhihui; Feng, Tao; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Jikai; Cao, Ya

    2015-02-10

    Necroptosis/regulated necrosis is a caspase-independent, but receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-dependent form of cell death. In previous studies, neoalbaconol (NA), a constituent extracted from Albatrellus confluens, was demonstrated to induce necroptosis in some cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism of NA-induced necroptosis is described in this research study. We determined that NA-induced cell death is partly dependent on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) feed-forward signaling. More importantly, NA abolished the ubiquitination of RIPK1 by down-regulating E3 ubiquitin ligases, cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protein 1/2 (cIAP1/2) and TNFα receptor-associated factors (TRAFs). The suppression of RIPK1 ubiquitination induced the activation of the non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and stimulated the transcription of TNFα. Moreover, we also found that NA caused RIPK3-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and contribution to cell death. Taken together, these results suggested that two distinct mechanisms are involved in NA-induced necroptosis and include RIPK1/NF-κB-dependent expression of TNFα and RIPK3-dependent generation of ROS. PMID:25575821

  14. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Li; Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  15. Increased ROS Production: A Component of the Longevity Equation in the Male Mygalomorph, Brachypelma albopilosa

    PubMed Central

    Criscuolo, Francois; Font-Sala, Candide; Bouillaud, Frederic; Poulin, Nicolas; Trabalon, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background The diversity of longevities encountered in wildlife is one of the most intriguing problems in biology. Evolutionary biologists have proposed different theories to explain how longevity variability may be driven by bad genes expression in late life or by gene pleiotropic effects. This reflexion has stimulated, in the last ten years, an active research on the proximal mechanisms that can shape lifespan. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., the by-products of oxidative metabolism, have emerged as the main proximate cause of ageing. Because ROS are mainly produced by the mitochondria, their production is linked to metabolic rate, and this may explain the differences in longevity between large and small species. However, their implication in the sex difference in longevity within a species has never been tested, despite the fact that these differences are widespread in the animal kingdom. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial superoxide production of hemolymph immune cells and antioxidant and oxidative damages plasma levels were measured in adult male and female B. albopilosa at different ages. We found that female spiders are producing less mitochondrial superoxide, are better protected against oxidative attack and are then suffering less oxidative damages than males at adulthood. Conclusions/Significance In tarantulas, once reaching sexual maturity, males have a life expectancy reduced to 1 to 2 years, while females can still live for 20 years, in spite of the fact that females continue to grow and moult. This study evidences an increased exposure of males to oxidative stress due to an increase in mitochondrial superoxide production and a decrease in hemolymph antioxidant defences. Such a phenomenon is likely to be part of the explanation for the sharp reduction of longevity accompanying male tarantula maturity. This opens several fundamental research roads in the future to better understand how reproduction and longevity are linked in an original

  16. Assessment of a Standardized ROS Production Profile in Humans by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in health and disease, reliable quantitative noninvasive methods for the assessment of oxidative stress in humans are still lacking. EPR technique, coupled to a specific spin probe (CMH: 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine) is here presented as the method of choice to gain a direct measurement of ROS in biological fluids and tissues. The study aimed at demonstrating that, differently from currently available “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids) spin-trapping EPR provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of radical species in the sample and, as signal areas are proportional to the number of excited electron spins, lead to absolute concentration levels. Using a recently developed bench top continuous wave system (e-scan EPR scanner, Bruker) dealing with very low ROS concentration levels in small (50 μL) samples, we successfully monitored rapid ROS production changes in peripheral blood of athletes after controlled exercise and sedentary subjects after antioxidant supplementation. The correlation between EPR results and data obtained by various enzymatic assays (e.g., protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) was determined too. Synthetically, our method allows reliable, quick, noninvasive quantitative determination of ROS in human peripheral blood. PMID:22900129

  17. Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Oleanane Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in Pancreatic Cancer Cells is ROS-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Liu, Yongbo; Varma, Nadimpalli R. S.; Arbab, Ali S.; Gautam, Subhash C.

    2013-01-01

    Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a synthetic derivative of oleanolic acid, a triterpene, with apoptosis-inducing activity in a wide range of cancer cells. Induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of telomerase activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of ROS in inhibition of telomerase by CDDO-me. Treatment of MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines with CDDO-Me induced the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions and inhibited the telomerase activity. Pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcycsteine, a general purpose antioxidant or overexpression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) or superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) blocked the telomerase inhibitory activity of CDDO-Me. Furthermore, blocking ROS generation also prevented the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT protein production and expression of a number of hTERT–regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me (e.g., c-Myc, Sp1, NF-κB and p-Akt). Data also showed that Akt plays an important role in the activation of telomerase activity. Together, these data suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity by CDDO-Me is mediated through a ROS-dependent mechanism; however, more work is needed to fully understand the role of ROS in down-regulation of hTERT gene and hTERT-regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me. PMID:23486104

  18. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by mitochondrial ROS in bronchial epithelial cells is required for allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S R; Kim, D I; Kim, S H; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Cho, S H; Lee, Y C

    2014-01-01

    Abnormality in mitochondria has been suggested to be associated with development of allergic airway disorders. In this study, to evaluate the relationship between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in allergic asthma, we used a newly developed mitochondrial ROS inhibitor, NecroX-5. NecroX-5 reduced the increase of mitochondrial ROS generation in airway inflammatory cells, as well as bronchial epithelial cells, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB, increased expression of various inflammatory mediators and pathophysiological features of allergic asthma in mice. Finally, blockade of IL-1β substantially reduced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in the asthmatic mice. These findings suggest that mitochondrial ROS have a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation through the modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, providing a novel role of airway epithelial cells expressing NLRP3 inflammasome as an immune responder. PMID:25356867

  19. LKB1 reduces ROS-mediated cell damage via activation of p38

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua-Guo; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Chen, Jianfeng; Lu, Yibing; Wang, Jian-Wei; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Xiao, Xuxian; He, Qiongqiong; Werle, Kaitlin D.; Kim, Hyung-Gyoon; Lopez, Richard; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, also known as serine/threonine kinase 11, STK11) is a tumor suppressor mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in a variety of sporadic cancers. Herein, we demonstrate that LKB1 controls the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protects the genome from oxidative damage. Cells lacking LKB1 exhibit markedly increased intracellular ROS levels, excessive oxidation of DNA, increased mutation rates, and accumulation of DNA damage, which are effectively prevented by ectopic expression of LKB1 and by incubation with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The role of LKB1 in suppressing ROS is independent of AMPK, a canonical substrate of LKB1. Instead, under the elevated ROS, LKB1 binds to and maintains the activity of cdc42-PAK1 (p21 activated kinase 1) complex, which triggers the activation of p38 and its downstream signaling targets, such as ATF-2, thereby enhancing the activity of SOD-2 and catalase, two antioxidant enzymes that protect the cells from ROS accumulation, DNA damage, and loss of viability. Our results provide a new paradigm for a non-canonical tumor suppressor function of LKB1 and highlight the importance of targeting ROS signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer cells lacking LKB1. PMID:25263448

  20. Baicalein induces apoptosis via ROS-dependent activation of caspases in human bladder cancer 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Park, Cheol; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Baicalein is a flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has been used in Oriental medicines for treating various diseases. Although this compound has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines, the therapeutic effects of baicalein on human bladder cancer and its mechanisms of action have not been extensively studied. This study investigated the proapoptotic effects of baicalein in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. For this study, cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, trypan blue dye exclusion assay 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and flow cytometry. Measurements of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activity assays and western blots were conducted to determine whether 5637 cell death occurred by apoptosis. Treatment with baicalein resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition coupled with apoptosis induction, as indicated by the results of nuclei morphology examination and flow cytometry analyses. The induction of the apoptotic cell death of 5637 cells by baicalein exhibited a correlation with the downregulation of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, including cIAP-1 and cIAP-2, and the activation of caspase-9 and -3 accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. The study also showed that baicalein decreases the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax, increases antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, and noticeably aggravates the loss of MMP. Concomitantly, the data showed that baicalein increases the levels of death receptors and their associated ligands and enhances the activation of caspase-8 and truncation of Bid. However, the pan-caspase inhibitor can reverse baicalein-induced apoptosis, demonstrating that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. Moreover, it was found that baicalein can induce the production of reactive oxygen

  1. Selective killing of gastric cancer cells by a small molecule targeting ROS-mediated ER stress activation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Xia, Yiqun; Chen, Tongke; Zhang, Junru; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Wenbo; Chen, Minxiao; Kanchana, Karvannan; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-06-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world. Curcumin is a natural product with multiple pharmacological activities, while its clinical application has been limited by the poor chemical stability. We have previously designed a series of curcumin derivatives with high stability and anticancer potentials. The present study aims to identify the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of WZ26, an analog of curcumin, in gastric cancer cells. In vitro, WZ26 showed higher chemical stability and much stronger anti-proliferative effects than curcumin, accompanied by dose-dependent induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Mechanistically, the novel compound WZ26 induced ROS production, resulting in the activation of JNK-mitochondrial and ER stress apoptotic pathways. Blockage of ROS production totally reversed WZ26-induced JNK activation, Bcl-2/Bax decrease, ER stress activation, and final cell apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. WZ26 also exhibited potent anti-tumor effects in human gastric cancer cell xenograft models. WZ26 could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. In addition, this study also demonstrated that ROS production could be act as a vital candidate pathway for inducing tumor cell apoptosis by targeting mitochondrial and ER stress-related death pathway. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26086416

  2. Induction of Apoptosis and Antiproliferative Activity of Naringenin in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell through ROS Generation and Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Asif; Ahmad, Sheeba; Afzal, Mohammad; Arshad, Md

    2014-01-01

    A natural predominant flavanone naringenin, especially abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The search for antiproliferative agents that reduce skin carcinoma is a task of great importance. The objective of this study was to analyze the anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanism of naringenin using MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle kinetics and caspase-3 as biomarkers and to investigate the ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating apoptotic cascade in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Results showed that naringenin exposure significantly reduced the cell viability of A431 cells (p<0.01) with a concomitant increase in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular ROS generation assay showed statistically significant (p<0.001) dose-related increment in ROS production for naringenin. It also caused naringenin-mediated epidermoid carcinoma apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Cell cycle study showed that naringenin induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and caspase-3 analysis revealed a dose dependent increment in caspase-3 activity which led to cell apoptosis. This study confirms the efficacy of naringenin that lead to cell death in epidermoid carcinoma cells via inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3 activation. PMID:25330158

  3. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and ROS-Induced ROS Release

    PubMed Central

    Zorov, Dmitry B.; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Byproducts of normal mitochondrial metabolism and homeostasis include the buildup of potentially damaging levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca2+, etc., which must be normalized. Evidence suggests that brief mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) openings play an important physiological role maintaining healthy mitochondria homeostasis. Adaptive and maladaptive responses to redox stress may involve mitochondrial channels such as mPTP and inner membrane anion channel (IMAC). Their activation causes intra- and intermitochondrial redox-environment changes leading to ROS release. This regenerative cycle of mitochondrial ROS formation and release was named ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR). Brief, reversible mPTP opening-associated ROS release apparently constitutes an adaptive housekeeping function by the timely release from mitochondria of accumulated potentially toxic levels of ROS (and Ca2+). At higher ROS levels, longer mPTP openings may release a ROS burst leading to destruction of mitochondria, and if propagated from mitochondrion to mitochondrion, of the cell itself. The destructive function of RIRR may serve a physiological role by removal of unwanted cells or damaged mitochondria, or cause the pathological elimination of vital and essential mitochondria and cells. The adaptive release of sufficient ROS into the vicinity of mitochondria may also activate local pools of redox-sensitive enzymes involved in protective signaling pathways that limit ischemic damage to mitochondria and cells in that area. Maladaptive mPTP- or IMAC-related RIRR may also be playing a role in aging. Because the mechanism of mitochondrial RIRR highlights the central role of mitochondria-formed ROS, we discuss all of the known ROS-producing sites (shown in vitro) and their relevance to the mitochondrial ROS production in vivo. PMID:24987008

  4. Dehydrosilybin attenuates the production of ROS in rat cardiomyocyte mitochondria with an uncoupler-like mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gabrielová, Eva; Jabůrek, Martin; Gažák, Radek; Vostálová, Jitka; Ježek, Jan; Křen, Vladimír; Modrianský, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from mitochondria are perceived as a factor contributing to cell aging and means have been sought to attenuate ROS formation with the aim of extending the cell lifespan. Silybin and dehydrosilybin, two polyphenolic compounds, display a plethora of biological effects generally ascribed to their known antioxidant capacity. When investigating the cytoprotective effects of these two compounds in the primary cell cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, we noted the ability of dehydrosilybin to de-energize the cells by monitoring JC-1 fluorescence. Experiments evaluating oxygen consumption and membrane potential revealed that dehydrosilybin uncouples the respiration of isolated rat heart mitochondria albeit with a much lower potency than synthetic uncouplers. Furthermore, dehydrosilybin revealed a very high potency in suppressing ROS formation in isolated rat heart mitochondria with IC(50) = 0.15 μM. It is far more effective than its effect in a purely chemical system generating superoxide or in cells capable of oxidative burst, where the IC(50) for dehydrosilybin exceeds 50 μM. Dehydrosilybin also attenuated ROS formation caused by rotenone in the primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We infer that the apparent uncoupler-like activity of dehydrosilybin is the basis of its ROS modulation effect in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and leads us to propose a hypothesis on natural ischemia preconditioning by dietary polyphenols. PMID:21153691

  5. Salvicine, a novel topoisomerase II inhibitor, exerts its potent anticancer activity by ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-hua; Ding, Jian

    2007-09-01

    Salvicine is a novel diterpenoid quinone compound obtained by structural modification of a natural product lead isolated from a Chinese herb with potent growth inhibitory activity against a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Salvicine has also been found to have a profound cytotoxic effect on multidrug-resisitant (MDR) cells. Moreover, Salvicine significantly reduced the lung metastatic foci of MDA-MB-435 orthotopic xenograft. Recent studies demonstrated that salvicine is a novel non-intercalative topoisomerase II (Topo II) poison by binding to the ATPase domain, promoting DNA-Topo II binding and inhibiting Topo II-mediated DNA relegation and ATP hydrolysis. Further studies have indicated that salcivine-elicited ROS plays a central role in salvicine-induced cellular response including Topo II inhibition, DNA damage, circumventing MDR and tumor cell adhesion inhibition. PMID:17723179

  6. Methylglyoxal induces cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi-Ming; Huang, Duen-Yi; Huang, Yi-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Hao; Kang, Lan-Ya; Shen, Chung-Min; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are two important leading causes of acquired blindness in developed countries. As accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells plays an important role in both DR and AMD, and the methylglyoxal (MGO) within the AGEs exerts irreversible effects on protein structure and function, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanism of MGO-induced RPE cell death. Using ARPE-19 as the cell model, this study revealed that MGO induces RPE cell death through a caspase-independent manner, which relying on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, intracellular calcium elevation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Suppression of ROS generation can reverse the MGO-induced ROS production, MMP loss, intracellular calcium increase and cell death. Moreover, store-operated calcium channel inhibitors MRS1845 and YM-58483, but not the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor xestospongin C, can block MGO-induced ROS production, MMP loss and sustained intracellular calcium increase in ARPE-19 cells. Lastly, inhibition of ER stress by salubrinal and 4-PBA can reduce the MGO-induced intracellular events and cell death. Therefore, our data indicate that MGO can decrease RPE cell viability, resulting from the ER stress-dependent intracellular ROS production, MMP loss and increased intracellular calcium increase. As MGO is one of the components of drusen in AMD and is the AGEs adduct in DR, this study could provide a valuable insight into the molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of AMD and DR. PMID:27307396

  7. TRPV1 mediates cell death in rat synovial fibroblasts through calcium entry-dependent ROS production and mitochondrial depolarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Fen; Sun Wenwu; Zhao Xiao Ting; Cui Zongjie Yang Wenxiu

    2008-05-16

    Synoviocyte hyperplasia is critical for rheumatoid arthritis, therefore, potentially an important target for therapeutics. It was found in this work that a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, and acidic solution (pH 5.5) induced increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in synoviocytes isolated from a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. The increases in both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} and ROS production were completely abolished in calcium-free buffer or by a TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Further experiments revealed that capsaicin and pH 5.5 solution caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reduction in cell viability; such effects were inhibited by capsazepine, or the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. Both capsaicin and pH 5.5 buffer induced apoptosis as shown by nuclear condensation and fragmentation. Furthermore, RT-PCR readily detected TRPV1 mRNA expression in the isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, these data indicated that TRPV1 activation triggered synoviocyte death by [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} elevation, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization.

  8. Enhanced ROS production and oxidative damage in subcutaneous white adipose tissue mitochondria in obese and type 2 diabetes subjects.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Chatterjee, Gargi; Ganguly, Anirban; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the insulin target tissues has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. The study has examined the oxidative stress parameters in the mitochondria of subcutaneous white adipose tissue from obese and non-obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes. An accumulation of protein carbonyls, fluorescent lipid peroxidation products, and malondialdehyde occurs in the adipose tissue mitochondria of obese type 2 diabetic, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese diabetic subjects with the maximum increase noticed in the obese type 2 diabetes patients and the minimum in non-obese type 2 diabetics. The mitochondria from obese type 2 diabetics, non-diabetic obese, and non-obese type 2 diabetics also produce significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro compared to those of controls, and apparently the mitochondrial ROS production rate in each group is proportional to the respective load of oxidative damage markers. Likewise, the mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase show decreased activities most markedly in obese type 2 diabetes subjects and to a lesser degree in non-obese type 2 diabetes or non-diabetic obese subjects in comparison to control. The results imply that mitochondrial dysfunction with enhanced ROS production may contribute to the metabolic abnormality of adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25312902

  9. ROS/RNS Production in Water Using Various Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Kohki; Itoh, Hidenori; Kawaguchi, Hideki; Timoshkin, Igor; Given, Martin; MacGregor, Scott

    2015-09-01

    A pulsed discharge, a DC corona discharge and an atmospheric pressure plasma jet are generated above water, the off-gas of a packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (PB-DBD) is sparged into water, and then reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the water are investigated. H2O2, NO3- and a trace of NO2- are produced in the water after the plasma exposure. H2O2 concentration decreases when NO3- concentration increases, so that this is likely that OH radical to produce H2O2 by OH + OH -->H2O2 is consumed in the NO3- production by NO2 + OH --> HNO3 --> NO3-+ H+ (in water). Since no species is detected in water by the sparging of the PB-DBD off-gas containing more than 1000 ppm of O3, O3 does not contribute to produce H2O2 in water. Further, only NO3- is produced by the sparging of the off-gas containing N2O5 and HNO3. This leads that H2O2 and NO2- can be produced by short-lifetime species in plasma. In this work, the highest generation efficiency of H2O2 and NO2- are respectively 3,820 μg/Wh and 830 μg/Wh by the pulsed-plasma exposure, and that of NO3- is 2,530 μg/Wh by the off-gas sparging of the PB-DBD.

  10. NO, ROS, and cell death associated with caspase-like activity increase in stress-induced microspore embryogenesis of barley

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Bárány, Ivett; Prem, Deepak; Coronado, María-José; Risueño, María C.; Testillano, Pilar S.

    2012-01-01

    Under specific stress treatments (cold, starvation), in vitro microspores can be induced to deviate from their gametophytic development and switch to embryogenesis, forming haploid embryos and homozygous breeding lines in a short period of time. The inductive stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), signalling molecules mediating cellular responses, and cell death, modifying the embryogenic microspore response and therefore, the efficiency of the process. This work analysed cell death, caspase 3-like activity, and ROS and NO production (using fluorescence probes and confocal analysis) after inductive stress in barley microspore cultures and embryogenic suspension cultures, as an in vitro system which permitted easy handling for comparison. There was an increase in caspase 3-like activity and cell death after stress treatment in microspore and suspension cultures, while ROS increased in non-induced microspores and suspension cultures. Treatments of the cultures with a caspase 3 inhibitor, DEVD-CHO, significantly reduced the cell death percentages. Stress-treated embryogenic suspension cultures exhibited high NO signals and cell death, while treatment with S-nitrosoglutathione (NO donor) in control suspension cultures resulted in even higher cell death. In contrast, in microspore cultures, NO production was detected after stress, and, in the case of 4-day microspore cultures, in embryogenic microspores accompanying the initiation of cell divisions. Subsequent treatments of stress-treated microspore cultures with ROS and NO scavengers resulted in a decreasing cell death during the early stages, but later they produced a delay in embryo development as well as a decrease in the percentage of embryogenesis in microspores. Results showed that the ROS increase was involved in the stress-induced programmed cell death occurring at early stages in both non-induced microspores and embryogenic suspension cultures; whereas NO played a dual role after

  11. Osthole attenuates doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells through inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Shokoohinia, Yalda; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Moieni-Arya, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent, broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic drug used for treatment of several types of cancers. Despite its effectiveness, it has a wide range of toxic side effects, many of which most likely result from its inherent prooxidant activity. It has been reported that DOX has toxic effects on normal tissues, including brain tissue. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of osthole isolated from Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. on oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 as a neuronal model cell line. PC12 cells were pretreated with osthole 2 h after treatment with different concentrations of DOX. 24 h later, the cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the activity of caspase-3, the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and the generation of intracellular ROS were detected. We found that pretreatment with osthole on PC12 cells significantly reduced the loss of cell viability, the activity of caspase-3, the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the generation of intracellular ROS induced by DOX. Moreover, pretreatment with osthole led to an increase in MMP in PC12 cells. In conclusion, our results indicated that pretreatment with nontoxic concentrations of osthole protected PC12 cells from DOX-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of ROS production. PMID:25013759

  12. Bicarbonate and Ca2+ Sensing Modulators Activate Photoreceptor ROS-GC1 Synergistically

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Makino, Clint L.; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptor ROS-GC1, a prototype subfamily member of the membrane guanylate cyclase family, is a central component of phototransduction. It is a single transmembrane-spanning protein, composed of modular blocks. In rods, guanylate cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) 1 and 2 bind to its juxtamembrane domain (JMD) and the C-terminal extension, respectively, to accelerate cyclic GMP synthesis when Ca2+ levels are low. In cones, the additional expression of the Ca2+-dependent guanylate cyclase activating protein (CD-GCAP) S100B which binds to its C-terminal extension, supports acceleration of cyclic GMP synthesis at high Ca2+ levels. Independent of Ca2+, ROS-GC1 activity is also stimulated directly by bicarbonate binding to the core catalytic domain (CCD). Several enticing molecular features of this transduction system are revealed in the present study. In combination, bicarbonate and Ca2+-dependent modulators raised maximal ROS-GC activity to levels that exceeded the sum of their individual effects. The F514S mutation in ROS-GC1 that causes blindness in type 1 Leber’s congenital amaurosis (LCA) severely reduced basal ROS-GC1 activity. GCAP2 and S100B Ca2+ signaling modes remained functional, while the GCAP1-modulated mode was diminished. Bicarbonate nearly restored basal activity as well as GCAP2- and S100B-stimulated activities of the F514S mutant to normal levels but could not resurrect GCAP1 stimulation. We conclude that GCAP1 and GCAP2 forge distinct pathways through domain-specific modules of ROS-GC1 whereas the S100B and GCAP2 pathways may overlap. The synergistic interlinking of bicarbonate to GCAPs- and S100B-modulated pathways intensifies and tunes the dependence of cyclic GMP synthesis on intracellular Ca2+. Our study challenges the recently proposed GCAP1 and GCAP2 “overlapping” phototransduction model (Peshenko et al., 2015b). PMID:26858600

  13. Bicarbonate and Ca(2+) Sensing Modulators Activate Photoreceptor ROS-GC1 Synergistically.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Makino, Clint L; Sharma, Rameshwar K

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptor ROS-GC1, a prototype subfamily member of the membrane guanylate cyclase family, is a central component of phototransduction. It is a single transmembrane-spanning protein, composed of modular blocks. In rods, guanylate cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) 1 and 2 bind to its juxtamembrane domain (JMD) and the C-terminal extension, respectively, to accelerate cyclic GMP synthesis when Ca(2+) levels are low. In cones, the additional expression of the Ca(2+)-dependent guanylate cyclase activating protein (CD-GCAP) S100B which binds to its C-terminal extension, supports acceleration of cyclic GMP synthesis at high Ca(2+) levels. Independent of Ca(2+), ROS-GC1 activity is also stimulated directly by bicarbonate binding to the core catalytic domain (CCD). Several enticing molecular features of this transduction system are revealed in the present study. In combination, bicarbonate and Ca(2+)-dependent modulators raised maximal ROS-GC activity to levels that exceeded the sum of their individual effects. The F(514)S mutation in ROS-GC1 that causes blindness in type 1 Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) severely reduced basal ROS-GC1 activity. GCAP2 and S100B Ca(2+) signaling modes remained functional, while the GCAP1-modulated mode was diminished. Bicarbonate nearly restored basal activity as well as GCAP2- and S100B-stimulated activities of the F(514)S mutant to normal levels but could not resurrect GCAP1 stimulation. We conclude that GCAP1 and GCAP2 forge distinct pathways through domain-specific modules of ROS-GC1 whereas the S100B and GCAP2 pathways may overlap. The synergistic interlinking of bicarbonate to GCAPs- and S100B-modulated pathways intensifies and tunes the dependence of cyclic GMP synthesis on intracellular Ca(2+). Our study challenges the recently proposed GCAP1 and GCAP2 "overlapping" phototransduction model (Peshenko et al., 2015b). PMID:26858600

  14. Prostaglandin E₂ is critical for the development of niacin-deficiency-induced photosensitivity via ROS production.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Kazunari; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Nakayama, Yasuko; Yoshioka, Haruna; Nomura, Takashi; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Kuroda, Etsushi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Nakamura, Jun; Akira, Shizuo; Nakamura, Motonobu; Narumiya, Shuh; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Tokura, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Pellagra is a photosensitivity syndrome characterized by three "D's": diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia as a result of niacin deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms of photosensitivity dermatitis, the hallmark abnormality of this syndrome, remain unclear. We prepared niacin deficient mice in order to develop a murine model of pellagra. Niacin deficiency induced photosensitivity and severe diarrhea with weight loss. In addition, niacin deficient mice exhibited elevated expressions of COX-2 and PGE syntheses (Ptges) mRNA. Consistently, photosensitivity was alleviated by a COX inhibitor, deficiency of Ptges, or blockade of EP4 receptor signaling. Moreover, enhanced PGE2 production in niacin deficiency was mediated via ROS production in keratinocytes. In line with the above murine findings, human skin lesions of pellagra patients confirmed the enhanced expression of Ptges. Niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity was mediated through EP4 signaling in response to increased PGE2 production via induction of ROS formation. PMID:24131900

  15. Cristacarpin promotes ER stress-mediated ROS generation leading to premature senescence by activation of p21(waf-1).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Souneek; Rasool, Reyaz Ur; Kumar, Sunil; Nayak, Debasis; Rah, Bilal; Katoch, Archana; Amin, Hina; Ali, Asif; Goswami, Anindya

    2016-06-01

    Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) is quite similar to replicative senescence that is committed by cells exposed to various stress conditions viz. ultraviolet radiation (DNA damage), hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress), chemotherapeutic agents (cytotoxic threat), etc. Here, we report that cristacarpin, a natural product obtained from the stem bark of Erythrina suberosa, promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to sub-lethal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and which eventually terminates by triggering senescence in pancreatic and breast cancer cells through blocking the cell cycle in the G1 phase. The majority of cristacarpin-treated cells responded to conventional SA-β-gal stains; showed characteristic p21(waf1) upregulation along with enlarged and flattened morphology; and increased volume, granularity, and formation of heterochromatin foci-all of these features are the hallmarks of senescence. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced the expression of p21(waf1), confirming that the modulation in p21(waf1) by anti-proliferative cristacarpin was ROS dependent. Further, the elevation in p21(waf1) expression in PANC-1 and MCF-7 cells was consistent with the decrease in the expression of Cdk-2 and cyclinD1. Here, we provide evidence that cristacarpin promotes senescence in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, cristacarpin treatment induced p38MAPK, indicating the ROS-dependent activation of the MAP kinase pathway, and thus abrogates the tumor growth in mouse allograft tumor model. PMID:27246693

  16. ABA-Mediated ROS in Mitochondria Regulate Root Meristem Activity by Controlling PLETHORA Expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Jing; He, Junna; Qin, Yingying; Hua, Deping; Duan, Ying; Chen, Zhizhong; Gong, Zhizhong

    2014-01-01

    Although research has determined that reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules in plant development, the molecular mechanism by which ROS regulate plant growth is not well known. An aba overly sensitive mutant, abo8-1, which is defective in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein responsible for the splicing of NAD4 intron 3 in mitochondrial complex I, accumulates more ROS in root tips than the wild type, and the ROS accumulation is further enhanced by ABA treatment. The ABO8 mutation reduces root meristem activity, which can be enhanced by ABA treatment and reversibly recovered by addition of certain concentrations of the reducing agent GSH. As indicated by low ProDR5:GUS expression, auxin accumulation/signaling was reduced in abo8-1. We also found that ABA inhibits the expression of PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, and that root growth is more sensitive to ABA in the plt1 and plt2 mutants than in the wild type. The expression of PLT1 and PLT2 is significantly reduced in the abo8-1 mutant. Overexpression of PLT2 in an inducible system can largely rescue root apical meristem (RAM)-defective phenotype of abo8-1 with and without ABA treatment. These results suggest that ABA-promoted ROS in the mitochondria of root tips are important retrograde signals that regulate root meristem activity by controlling auxin accumulation/signaling and PLT expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:25522358

  17. PKC/ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Attenuated by Leishmania Zinc-Metalloprotease during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jee Yong; Chang, Kwang-Poo; Olivier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Parasites of the Leishmania genus infect and survive within macrophages by inhibiting several microbicidal molecules, such as nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this context, various species of Leishmania have been reported to inhibit or reduce the production of IL-1β both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism whereby Leishmania parasites are able to affect IL-1β production and secretion by macrophages is still not fully understood. Dependent on the stimulus at hand, the maturation of IL-1β is facilitated by different inflammasome complexes. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to be of pivotal importance in the detection of danger molecules such as inorganic crystals like asbestos, silica and malarial hemozoin, (HZ) as well as infectious agents. In the present work, we investigated whether Leishmania parasites modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Using PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells, we demonstrate that Leishmania infection effectively inhibits macrophage IL-1β production upon stimulation. In this context, the expression and activity of the metalloprotease GP63 - a critical virulence factor expressed by all infectious Leishmania species - is a prerequisite for a Leishmania-mediated reduction of IL-1β secretion. Accordingly, L. mexicana, purified GP63 and GP63-containing exosomes, caused the inhibition of macrophage IL-1β production. Leishmania-dependent suppression of IL-1β secretion is accompanied by an inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that has previously been shown to be associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The observed loss of ROS production was due to an impaired PKC-mediated protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, ROS-independent inflammasome activation was inhibited, possibly due to an observed GP63-dependent cleavage of inflammasome and inflammasome-related proteins. Collectively for the first time, we herein provide evidence that the protozoan parasite Leishmania, through its surface

  18. The Oncogenic Lung Cancer Fusion Kinase CD74-ROS Activates a Novel Invasiveness Pathway Through E-Syt1 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun Jung; Johnson, Hannah; Bronson, Roderick T.; de Feraudy, Sebastien; White, Forest; Charest, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer often present with metastatic disease and therefore have a very poor prognosis. The recent discovery of several novel ROS receptor tyrosine kinase molecular alterations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents a therapeutic opportunity for the development of new targeted treatment strategies. Here, we report that the NSCLC-derived fusion CD74-ROS, which accounts for 30% of all ROS fusion kinases in NSCLC, is an active and oncogenic tyrosine kinase. We found that CD74-ROS expressing cells were highly invasive in vitro and metastatic in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of CD74-ROS kinase activity reversed its transforming capacity by attenuating downstrream signaling networks. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics, we uncovered a mechanism by which CD74-ROS activates a novel pathway driving cell invasion. Expression of CD74-ROS resulted in the phosphorylation of the extended synaptotagmin-like protein E-Syt1. Elimination of E-Syt1 expression drastically reduced invasiveness both in vitro and in vivo without modifying the oncogenic activity of CD74-ROS. Furthermore, expression of CD74-ROS in non-invasive NSCLC cell lines readily confered invasive properties that paralleled the acquisition of E-Syt1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings indicate that E-Syt1 is a mediator of cancer cell invasion and molecularly define ROS fusion kinases as therapeutic targets in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:22659450

  19. SAH-induced MMP activation and K V current suppression is mediated via both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K V) channels regulate cerebral artery tone and have been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced pathologies. Here, we examined whether matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activation contributes to SAH-induced K V current suppression and cerebral artery constriction via activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Using patch clamp electrophysiology, we observed that K V currents were selectively decreased in cerebral artery myocytes isolated from SAH model rabbits. Consistent with involvement of enhanced MMP and EGFR activity in SAH-induced K V current suppression, we found that: (1) oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and/or the exogenous EGFR ligand, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), failed to induce further K V current suppression after SAH and (2) gelatin zymography detected significantly higher MMP-2 activity after SAH. The removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by combined treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase partially inhibited OxyHb-induced K V current suppression. However, these agents had little effect on OxyHb-induced MMP-2 activation. Interestingly, in the presence of a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM6001), OxyHb failed to cause K V current suppression. These data suggest that OxyHb suppresses K V currents through both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways involving MMP activation. The ROS-independent pathway involves activation of MMP-2, whereas the ROS-dependent pathway involves activation of a second unidentified MMP or ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain). PMID:25366605

  20. Inclusion complexes of chloramphenicol with β-cyclodextrin and aminoacids as a way to increase drug solubility and modulate ROS production.

    PubMed

    Aiassa, Virginia; Zoppi, Ariana; Albesa, Inés; Longhi, Marcela R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the solubility of chloramphenicol and reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leucocytes induced by this drug, using complexation. Multicomponent complexes were prepared by the addition of β-cyclodextrin with glycine or cysteine. Nuclear magnetic resonance and phase solubility studies provided information at the molecular level on the structure of the complexes and their association binding constants, respectively. In the solid state, all systems were extensively characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. Antimicrobial activity of inclusion complexes was investigated by agar diffusion methods. Finally ROS determination by chemiluminescence was used to investigate the effect of complex formation on the potential toxicity in human leucocytes. These studies revealed that multicomponent complexes can increase the aqueous solubility of chloramphenicol as well as reducing the stress by ROS production in leucocytes and maintaining its microbiological activity. PMID:25659705

  1. HSP27 Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Apoptosis by Modulation of ROS Production and Mitochondrial Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xin; Zhao, Lei; Song, Xianjing; Yan, Youyou; Liu, Ning; Li, Tianyi; Yan, Bingdi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) could lead to endothelial dysfunction and is viewed as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a small heat shock protein, is reported to exert protective effect against atherosclerosis. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of HSP27 against Hcy-induced endothelial cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of normal or HSP27-overexpressing HUVECs in the presence of Hcy were analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. Results. We found that Hcy could induce cell apoptosis with corresponding decrease of nitric oxide (NO) level, increase of endothelin-1 (ET-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels, elevation of ROS, and dissipation of MMP. In addition, HSP27 could protect the cell against Hcy-induced apoptosis and inhibit the effect of Hcy on HUVECs. Furthermore, HSP27 could increase the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibit caspase-3 activity. Conclusions. Therefore, we concluded that HSP27 played a protective role against Hcy-induced endothelial apoptosis through modulation of ROS production and the mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:27190988

  2. Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Nocella, Francesca; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-02-28

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties. In this study, we demonstrate that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRAS mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50-100 mM carnosine decreases ATP and ROS concentration and induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In HCT116 cells these effects are related to decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased p21waf1 protein. Our findings support the concept that carnosine could inhibit HCT116 cell growth via its antioxidant activity and its ability to affect glycolysis. PMID:22137144

  3. The Role of Mitochondrial Functional Proteins in ROS Production in Ischemic Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Haifeng; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Heng; Li, Xiuchuan; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Yang, Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart diseases (IHD) have become the leading cause of death around the world, killing more than 7 million people annually. In IHD, the blockage of coronary vessels will cause irreversible cell injury and even death. As the “powerhouse” and “apoptosis center” in cardiomyocytes, mitochondria play critical roles in IHD. Ischemia insult can reduce myocardial ATP content, resulting in energy stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, mitochondrial abnormality has been identified as a hallmark of multiple cardiovascular disorders. To date, many studies have suggested that these mitochondrial proteins, such as electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, uncoupling proteins (UCPs), mitochondrial dynamic proteins, translocases of outer membrane (Tom) complex, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), can directly or indirectly influence mitochondria-originated ROS production, consequently determining the degree of mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial impairment. Here, the focus of this review is to summarize the present understanding of the relationship between some mitochondrial functional proteins and ROS production in IHD. PMID:27119006

  4. Artemisinin induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in ASTC-a-1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Feng-Lian; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Qu, Jun-Le; Liu, Cheng-Yi

    2010-02-01

    Artemisinin (ART), an antimalarial phytochemical from the sweet wormwood plant or a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by apoptotic pathways. In our report, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells with ART effectively increase cell death by inducing apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect apoptosis as well. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in cells exposed to ART at concentrations of 400 μM for 48 h. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an oxygen radical scavenger, suppressed the rate of ROS generation and inhibited the ART-induced apoptosis. Moreover, AFC assay (Fluorometric assay for Caspase3 activity) showed that ROS was involved in ART-induced caspase3 acitvation. Taken together, our data indicate that ART induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in a time-and dose-dependent way in ASCT-a-1 cells.

  5. Induction of hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis through activation of the JNK-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-ROS self-driven death signal circuit.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Song, Fang-Jiao; Wang, Ying-Hong; Li, Ning; Yu, Qian; Liao, Li-Xi; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-10-28

    As an efficient method for inducing tumor cell apoptosis, ROS can be constantly formed and accumulated in NADPH oxidase overactivated-cells, resulting in further mitochondrial membrane damage and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK MAPK) signal also acts as a vital candidate pathway for inducing tumor cell apoptosis by targeting mitochondrial death pathway. However, the relationship between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK signal still remains unclear. Here, we discovered a novel self-driven signal circuit between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK, which was induced by a cytotoxic steroidal saponin (ASC) in hepatoma carcinoma cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production was markedly activated by ASC and directly led to JNK MAPK activation. Moreover, antioxidant, NADPH oxidase inhibitor and specific knock-out for p47 subunit of NADPH oxidase could effectively block NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent JNK activation, suggesting that NADPH oxidase is an upstream regulator of JNK MAPK. Conversely, a specific JNK inhibitor could inhibit ASC-induced NADPH oxidase activation and down-regulate ROS levels as well, indicating that JNK might also regulate NADPH oxidase activity to some extent. These observations indicate that NADPH oxidase and JNK MAPK activate each other as a signal circuit. Furthermore, drug pretreatment experiments with ASC showed this signal circuit operated continuously via a self-driven mode and finally induced apoptosis in hepatoma carcinoma cells. Taken together, we provide a proof for inducing hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis by activating the JNK-NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent self-driven signal circuit pathway. PMID:25064608

  6. Modulation of mitochondrial respiratory function and ROS production by novel benzopyran analogues.

    PubMed

    Petruş, Alexandra; Duicu, Oana M; Sturza, Adrian; Noveanu, Lavinia; Kiss, Loránd; Dănilă, Maria; Baczkó, István; Muntean, Danina M; Jost, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that pharmacological activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mKATP) in the heart is protective in conditions associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Several mechanisms have been postulated to be responsible for cardioprotection, including the modulation of mitochondrial respiratory function. The aim of the present study was to characterize the dose-dependent effects of novel synthetic benzopyran analogues, derived from a BMS-191095, a selective mKATP opener, on mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in isolated rat heart mitochondria. Mitochondrial respiratory function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry, and H2O2 production was measured by the Amplex Red fluorescence assay. Four compounds, namely KL-1487, KL-1492, KL-1495, and KL-1507, applied in increasing concentrations (50, 75, 100, and 150 μmol/L, respectively) were investigated. When added in the last two concentrations, all compounds significantly increased State 2 and 4 respiratory rates, an effect that was not abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, 100 μmol/L), the classic mKATP inhibitor. The highest concentration also elicited an important decrease of the oxidative phosphorylation in a K(+) independent manner. Both concentrations of 100 and 150 μmol/L for KL-1487, KL-1492, and KL-1495, and the concentration of 150 μmol/L for KL-1507, respectively, mitigated the mitochondrial H2O2 release. In isolated rat heart mitochondria, the novel benzopyran analogues act as protonophoric uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and decrease the generation of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26325241

  7. COX5B Regulates MAVS-mediated Antiviral Signaling through Interaction with ATG5 and Repressing ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xuanli; Sun, Liwei; Tang, Tie-shan; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2012-01-01

    Innate antiviral immunity is the first line of the host defense system that rapidly detects invading viruses. Mitochondria function as platforms for innate antiviral signal transduction in mammals through the adaptor protein, MAVS. Excessive activation of MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling leads to dysfunction of mitochondria and cell apoptosis that likely causes the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. However, the mechanism of how MAVS is regulated at mitochondria remains unknown. Here we show that the Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) complex subunit COX5B physically interacts with MAVS and negatively regulates the MAVS-mediated antiviral pathway. Mechanistically, we find that while activation of MAVS leads to increased ROS production and COX5B expression, COX5B down-regulated MAVS signaling by repressing ROS production. Importantly, our study reveals that COX5B coordinates with the autophagy pathway to control MAVS aggregation, thereby balancing the antiviral signaling activity. Thus, our study provides novel insights into the link between mitochondrial electron transport system and the autophagy pathway in regulating innate antiviral immunity. PMID:23308066

  8. PERK pathway is involved in oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation-induced NF-kB activation via ROS generation in spinal cord astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinbo; Du, Lijian

    2015-11-13

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a direct target of hypoxic/ischemic stress in astrocytes, which results in the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous reports showed that ROS can activate NF-kB in spinal cord astrocytes, which occurs as a secondary injury during the pathological process of spinal cord injury (SCI). Protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) plays an important role in mitochondrial dysfunction. To elucidate the specific role of PERK in hypoxic/ischemic-induced NF-kB activation in spinal astrocytes, we utilized an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model, which showed an enhanced formation of ROS and NF-kB activation. Knockdown of PERK resulted in reduced activation of PERK and ROS generation in astrocytes under OGD conditions. Notably, the knockdown of PERK also induced NF-kB activation in astrocytes. These data suggest that PERK is required for the hypoxic/ischemic-induced-dependent regulation of ROS and that it is involved in NF-kB activation in the astrocytes. PMID:26454173

  9. Spin Biochemistry Modulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production by Radio Frequency Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Robert J.; Hill, Iain; Singel, David J.; Martino, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of weak magnetic fields on the biological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from intracellular superoxide (O2•−) and extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were investigated in vitro with rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (rPASMC). A decrease in O2•− and an increase in H2O2 concentrations were observed in the presence of a 7 MHz radio frequency (RF) at 10 μTRMS and static 45 μT magnetic fields. We propose that O2•− and H2O2 production in some metabolic processes occur through singlet-triplet modulation of semiquinone flavin (FADH•) enzymes and O2•− spin-correlated radical pairs. Spin-radical pair products are modulated by the 7 MHz RF magnetic fields that presumably decouple flavin hyperfine interactions during spin coherence. RF flavin hyperfine decoupling results in an increase of H2O2 singlet state products, which creates cellular oxidative stress and acts as a secondary messenger that affects cellular proliferation. This study demonstrates the interplay between O2•− and H2O2 production when influenced by RF magnetic fields and underscores the subtle effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on oxidative metabolism, ROS signaling, and cellular growth. PMID:24681944

  10. Kaempferol inhibits the production of ROS to modulate OPN-αvβ3 integrin pathway in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong-Bo; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Zi-Kui; Luo, Zhi-Feng

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that aldosterone regulates osteopontin (OPN)-related signaling pathways to promote nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that kaempferol, a flavonoid compound, blocks those changes. Aldosterone induced productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), OPN, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase 4 (Nox4), NF-κB, OPN, alphavbeta3 (αvβ3) integrin, and inhibitor of NF-κB alpha phosphorylation (P-IκBα) in HUVEC. HUVECs were pretreated with kaempferol (0, 1, 3, or 10 μM) for 1 h and exposed to aldosterone (10(-6) M) for 24 h. Kaempferol reduced ROS, OPN, NF-κB, IL-6, and TNF-α levels; Nox4, αvβ3 integrin; and P-IκBα expressions. The effect of aldosterone was also abrogated by spironolactone (10(-6) M). In addition, vitamin C (20 mmol/L) reduced ROS production. Vitamin C and LM609 (10 μg/mL) treatment decreased expressions of OPN, αvβ3 integrin, and NF-κB (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The present results suggest that kaempferol may modulate OPN-αvβ3 integrin pathway to inhibit NF-κB activation in HUVECs. PMID:27000882

  11. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed. PMID:26697045

  12. The chlorinated AHR ligand 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during embryonic development in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arzuaga, Xabier; Wassenberg, Deena; Giulio, Richard D.; Elskus, Adria

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to dioxin-like chemicals that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) can result in increased cellular and tissue production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Little is known of these effects during early fish development. We used the fish model, Fundulus heteroclitus, to determine if the AHR ligand and pro-oxidant 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) can increase ROS production during killifish development, and to test a novel method for measuring ROS non-invasively in a living organism. The superoxide-sensitive fluorescent dye, dihydroethidium (DHE), was used to detect in ovo ROS production microscopically in developing killifish exposed to PCB126 or vehicle. Both in ovo CYP1A activity (ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase, EROD) and in ovo ROS were induced by PCB126. In ovo CYP1A activity was inducible by PCB126 concentrations as low as 0.003 nM, with maximal induction occurring at 0.3 nM PCB126. These PCB126 concentrations also significantly increased in ovo ROS production in embryonic liver, ROS being detectable as early as 5 days post-fertilization. These data demonstrate that the pro-oxidant and CYP1A inducer, PCB126, increases both CYP1A activity and ROS production in developing killifish embryos. The superoxide detection assay (SoDA) described in this paper provides a semi-quantitative, easily measured, early indicator of altered ROS production that can be used in conjunction with simultaneous in ovo measurements of CYP1A activity and embryo development to explore functional relationships among biochemical, physiological and developmental responses to AHR ligands.

  13. Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production associated with antioxidant enzyme responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-03-01

    Pycnogenol® is a group of flavonoids with antioxidant effects. Adipogenesis is the process of adipocyte differentiation. It causes the increase of lipids as well as ROS (reactive oxygen species). Lipid accumulation and ROS production were determined in 3 T3-L1 adipocyte, and the effect of Pycnogenol® was evaluated. Lipid accumulation was elevated in adipocyte treated with hydrogen peroxide, one of the ROS. Pycnogenol® showed an inhibitory effect on the lipid accumulation and ROS production during the adipogenesis. We also investigated the molecular events associated with ROS production and lipid accumulation. Our results showed that Pycnogenol® inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as NOX4 (NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) oxidase 4), and the NADPH-producing G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme. In addition, Pycnogenol® suppressed the mRNA abundance of adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and C/EBP-α (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α), and their target gene, aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) responsible for fatty acid transportation. On the other hand, Pycnogenol® increased the abundance of antioxidant proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and GR (glutathione reductase). Our results suggest that Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production by regulating adipogenic gene expression and pro-/antioxidant enzyme responses in adipocytes. PMID:21796705

  14. ROS-Responsive Activatable Photosensitizing Agent for Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy of Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Youngmi; Kim, In-Hoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Choi, Yongdoo

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of macrophage-targeted theranostic nanoparticles (MacTNP) prepared from a Chlorin e6 (Ce6)-hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate can be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophage cells. MacTNP are nonfluorescent and nonphototoxic in their native state. However, when treated with ROS, especially peroxynitrite, they become highly fluorescent and phototoxic. In vitro cell studies show that MacTNP emit near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence inside activated macrophages. The NIR fluorescence is quenched in the extracellular environment. MacTNP are nontoxic in macrophages up to a Ce6 concentration of 10 μM in the absence of light. However, MacTNP become phototoxic upon illumination in a light dose-dependent manner. In particular, significantly higher phototoxic effect is observed in the activated macrophage cells compared to human dermal fibroblasts and non-activated macrophages. The ROS-responsive MacTNP, with their high target-to-background ratio, may have a significant potential in selective NIR fluorescence imaging and in subsequent photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis with minimum side effects. PMID:24396511

  15. Tetrandrine induces autophagy and differentiation by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Men, Qiuxu; Wu, Guixian; Yu, Chunrong; Huang, Zan; Liu, Xin; Li, Wenhua

    2015-04-10

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a differentiating agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ATRA has limitations. Tetrandrine is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb extract with antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetrandrine on human PML-RARα-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Tetrandrine inhibited tumors in vivo. It induced autophagy and differentiation by triggering ROS generation and activating Notch1 signaling. Tetrandrine induced autophagy and differentiation in M5 type patient primary leukemia cells. The in vivo results indicated that low concentrations of tetrandrine inhibited leukemia cells proliferation and induced autophagy and then facilitated their differentiation, by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling. We suggest that tetrandrine is a potential agent for the treatment of APL by inducing differentiation of leukemia cells. PMID:25797266

  16. Atorvastatin reduces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) via inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Liu, Bing; Yuan, Jiayi; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Jingjie; An, Yu; Tie, Lu; Pan, Yan; Li, Xuejun

    2012-02-01

    The high metastatic potential of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) is closely correlated with the elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and resultant tumor angiogenesis. However, no effective strategies against VEGF expression have been available in NSCLCs therapy. This study demonstrated that elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels derived from both mitochondria and NADPH oxidase were required for VEGF expression in NSCLC cells. Atorvastatin administration could significantly inhibit VEGF expression both in vitro and in vivo via inhibition of ROS production. Atorvastatin inhibited ROS generation partly through suppression of Rac1/NADPH oxidase activity. Specifically, atorvastatin could upregulate the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase, which are responsible for elimination of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the mitochondria and peroxisomes, respectively. Thus, inhibition of ROS production by concomitant suppression of Rac1/NADPH oxidase activity and upregulation of the activity of GPx and catalase contributes critically to atorvastatin-reduced VEGF expression in NSCLCs. Atorvastatin may be a potential alternative against VEGF expression and angiogenesis in NSCLCs therapy. PMID:22153388

  17. Autophagy induced by cathepsin S inhibition induces early ROS production, oxidative DNA damage, and cell death via xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chang; Chen, Kuo-Li; Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio; Chang, Jang-Yang

    2013-12-01

    Cathepsin S plays multiple roles in MHC class II antigen presentation, extracellular matrix degradation, angiogenesis, and tumorogenesis. Our previous study revealed that targeting cathepsin S could induce cellular cytotoxicity and reduce cell viability. For the current study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for targeting cathepsin S-induced cell death and its association with autophagy. Distinct from regulation of the classic autophagy pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS), we demonstrated that autophagy is the genuine regulator of early ROS production. The molecular silencing of autophagy-dependent ATG genes (ATG5, ATG7, and LC3) and the pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA and wortmannin reduced ROS production significantly. In addition, xanthine oxidase (XO), which is upregulated by autophagy, is required for early ROS production, oxidative DNA damage, and consequent cell death. Autophagy inhibition suppresses the upregulation of XO, which is induced by cathepsin S inhibition, resulting in reduced ROS generation, DNA damage, and cell death. Collectively, our study reveals a noncanonical molecular pathway in which, after the inhibition of cathepsin S, autophagy induces early ROS production for oxidative DNA damage and cell death through XO. PMID:23892358

  18. ROS-activated anticancer prodrugs: a new strategy for tumor-specific damage

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaohua; Gandhi, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Targeting tumor cells is an important strategy to improve the selectivity of cancer therapies. With the advanced studies in cancer biology, we know that cancer cells are usually under increased oxidative stress. The high level of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells has been exploited for developing novel therapeutic strategies to preferentially kill cancer cells. Our group, amongst others, have used boronic acids/esters as triggers for developing ROS-activated anticancer prodrugs that target cancer cells. The selectivity was achieved by combining a specific reaction between boronates and H2O2 with the efficient masking of drug toxicity in the prodrug via boronates. Prodrugs activated via ferrocene-mediated oxidation have also been developed to improve the selectivity of anticancer drugs. We describe how the strategies of ROS-activation can be used for further development of new ROS-targeting prodrugs, eventually leading to novel approaches and/or combined technology for more efficient and selective treatment of cancers. PMID:22900465

  19. The activity of propolis in the scavenging of vitamin B2-photogenerated ROS.

    PubMed

    González, Mariela; Tereschuk, María L; Criado, Susana; Reynoso, Eugenia; Challier, Cecilia; Agüero, María Belén; Luna, Lorena; Ferrrari, Gabriela; Montaña, María P; García, Norman A

    2015-11-01

    Objectives The study was focused on the activity of propolis from Amaicha del Valle, Argentina (ProAV) as a promoter and scavenger of Riboflavin (Rf) - photogenerated reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods Through a kinetic and mechanistic study, employing stationary and time-resolved photochemical and electrochemical techniques, the protecting activity of ProAV was investigated. Results In the absence of light and Rf, ProAV exerted a relatively efficient inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and acts as a protector of artificially promoted linoleic acid oxidation. Under aerobic visible-light-irradiation conditions, in the presence of Rf as the only light-absorber species, a complex picture of competitive processes takes place, starting with the quenching of singlet and triplet electronically excited states of Rf by ProAV. The species O2(1 g), O2(•-), H2O2, and OH(•) are generated and interact with ProAV. Discussion ProAV behaves as an efficient ROS scavenger. It is scarcely photo-oxidized by interaction with the mentioned ROS. Quantitative results indicate that ProAV is even more resistant to photo-oxidation than the recognized antioxidant trolox. Two dihydroxychalcones, mostly present in the ProAV composition, are responsible for the protecting activity of the propolis. PMID:26207873

  20. Echinacoside Protects against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inflammatory Responses in PC12 Cells via Reducing ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hua; Xuan, Zhao-Hong; Tian, Shuo; Du, Guan-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory responses are involved in the mechanism of cell damage in PD. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a dopamine analog, specifically damages dopaminergic neurons. Echinacoside (ECH) is a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the stems of Cistanche salsa, showing a variety of neuroprotective effects in previous studies. The present study was to investigate its effect against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and possible mechanisms in PC12 cells. The results showed that 6-OHDA reduced cell viability, decreased oxidation-reduction activity, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis compared with untreated PC12 cells. However, echinacoside treatment significantly attenuated these changes induced by 6-OHDA. In addition, echinacoside also could significantly alleviate the inflammatory responses induced by 6-OHDA. Further research showed that echinacoside could reduce 6-OHDA-induced ROS production in PC12 cells. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of echinacoside against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity may be involve in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory responses by reducing ROS production. PMID:25788961

  1. Seasonal trends in the composition and ROS activity of fine particulate matter in Baghdad, Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Samera Hussein; Shafer, Martin Merrill; Kadhim, Ahmed K. H.; Al-Omran, Sabah M.; Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Baghdad suffers from severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution and has limited infrastructure to monitor and control PM-pollution. To help better understand the nature of particulate matter in Baghdad, daily PM2.5 samples were collected every 6th day from September, 2012 to September, 2013. The samples were analyzed for chemical composition and cellular oxidative stress activity using a macrophage-based assay. The annual average PM2.5 concentration was 50 ± 19 μg m-3, and was comprised of approximately 28% crustal materials, 26% organic carbon (OC), 17% sulfate, 12% elemental carbon (EC), and 8.0% ammonium ion. No clear seasonal trend was observed for the total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 OC, but EC exhibited higher concentrations in the warmer months, likely due to the extensive use of electric generators operated by diesel and gasoline for cooling. April showed the lowest levels of both EC and OC compared with other months due to both sand and rainstorm events which led to increased deposition and dispersion of local emissions. Concentrations of nitrate ion were low in all seasons due to the high temperatures and low humidity, but slightly higher levels were observed in the cooler months of winter. The oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) activity (59 ± 35 μg Zymosan equivalents m-3) of the PM was relatively lower than in other studied areas. Association between the water soluble PM constituents and the oxidative activity was investigated using a multi-linear regression model which showed no strong relationships between ROS activity and the water soluble components of PM2.5, but a moderate correlation of water soluble organic carbon from biomass burning (WSOC-BB) was observed (R2 = 0.52). Biomass burning PM has been shown to be an important contributor to ROS activity in other published studies, but additional work is needed to better understand the sources leading to the ROS activity in Baghdad.

  2. Ziyuglycoside II induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through activation of ROS/JNK pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Ling; Zhou, Fanfan

    2014-05-16

    Ziyuglycoside II, a triterpenoid saponin compound extracted from Sanguisorba officinalis L., has been reported to have a wide range of clinical applications including anti-cancer effect. In this study, the anti-proliferative effect of ziyuglycoside II in two classic human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, was extensively investigated. Our study indicated that ziyuglycoside II could effectively induce G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in both cell lines. Cell cycle blocking was associated with the down-regulation of Cdc25C, Cdc2, cyclin A and cyclin B1 as well as the up-regulation of p21/WAF1, phospho-Cdc25C and phospho-Cdc2. Ziyuglycoside II treatment also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis by activating the extrinsic/Fas/FasL pathway as well as the intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway. More importantly, the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), a downstream target of ROS, was found to be a critical mediator of ziyuglycoside II-induced cell apoptosis. Further knockdown of JNK by siRNA could inhibit ziyuglycoside II-mediated apoptosis with attenuating the up-regulation of Bax and Fas/FasL as well as the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Taken together, the cell death of breast cancer cells in response to ziyuglycoside II was dependent upon cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis via a ROS-dependent JNK activation pathway. Our findings may significantly contribute to the understanding of the anti-proliferative effect of ziyuglycoside II, in particular to breast carcinoma and provide novel insights into the potential application of such compound in breast cancer therapy. PMID:24680927

  3. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang; Li, Junying

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  4. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human peripheral blood neutrophils exposed in vitro to static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr; Karczewski, Jacek; Jaroszyk, Feliks; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gradient static magnetic field (SMF) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils in peripheral blood in vitro. Blood samples collected from healthy individuals were incubated in an inhomogeneous SMF (in a south or north pole of the field) for 15, 30 or 45 minutes. The maximum value of induction (B max) amounted to ≈ 60 mT. To determine the strength of the ROS production, dihydrorhodamine (123DHR) as fluorophore and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as respiratory burst stimulator were used. 123DHR oxidation by ROS was measured by flow cytometry. The exposure of blood samples to SMF induced statistically significant changes in ROS production in unstimulated and PMA-stimulated neutrophils. The observed effects were highly correlated with the exposure time and depended on the orientation of the field. Although intracellular mechanisms underlying such interactions are not thoroughly understood, it could be presumed that SMF affects ROS metabolic oscillations and their formation and inactivation. This study emphasizes the importance of proper adjustment of exposure time to SMF for any potential therapeutic applications. PMID:23631724

  5. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xiu-Li; Ding, Fan; Li, Hui; Tan, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Ji-Min; Gao, Xue

    2015-05-29

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation.

  6. Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibo; Jiang, Yanchao; Shi, Dallas; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Wittchen, Erika S.; Li, Dean Y.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Activation of Rap1 GTPase can improve the integrity of the barrier of the retina pigment epithelium (RPE) and reduce choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation also reduces CNV. We hypothesize that Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-generated ROS and thereby reduces CNV formation. Using a murine model of laser-induced CNV, we determined that reduced Rap1 activity in RPE/choroid occurred with CNV formation and that activation of Rap1 by 2′-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT)-reduced laser-induced CNV via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. In RPE, inhibition of Rap1 by Rap1 GTPase-activating protein (Rap1GAP) increased ROS generation, whereas activation of Rap1 by 8CPT reduced ROS by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit p22phox with NOX4 or cytoplasmic subunit p47phox. Activation of NADPH oxidase with Rap1GAP reduced RPE barrier integrity via cadherin phosphorylation and facilitated choroidal EC migration across the RPE monolayer. Rap1GAP-induced ROS generation was inhibited by active Rap1a, but not Rap1b, and activation of Rap1a by 8CPT in Rap1b−/− mice reduced laser-induced CNV, in correlation with decreased ROS generation in RPE/choroid. These findings provide evidence that active Rap1 reduces CNV by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits and increasing the integrity of the RPE barrier.—Wang, H., Jiang, Y., Shi, D., Quilliam, L. A., Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, M., Wittchen, E. S., Li, D. Y., Hartnett, M. E. Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization. PMID:24043260

  7. ROS activates JNK-mediated autophagy to counteract apoptosis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan-yu; Jiang, Xiao-xue; Zhu, Xin; He, Wei-yang; Kuang, You-lin; Ren, Ke; Lin, Yong; Gou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED) is hampered by apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In diabetic ED, there is increased oxidative stress and decreased NO in the corpora cavernosa, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In this study we examined whether and how autophagy was involved in ROS-induced apoptosis of MSCs. Methods: Mouse C3H10 MSCs were treated with H2O2 to simulate the high oxidative condition in diabetic ED. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins were detected with Western blot assays. Intracellular autophagosome accumulation was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Treatment of MSCs with H2O2 (50–400 μmol/L) inhibited the cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, H2O2 (300 μmol/L) induced apoptosis, as well as activated autophagy in MSCs. Pretreatment with lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (10 μmol/L) or PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine (5 mmol/L) significantly enhanced H2O2-induced cell death. Pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L) abrogated H2O2-induced accumulation of LC3-II, and attenuated H2O2-induced reduction of Bcl-2 levels in MSCs. Conclusion: ROS induce autophagy to counteract apoptosis in MSCs by activation of JNK. Thus, augmentation of autophagy may reduce apoptosis, prolonging MSC survival and improving MSC-based therapeutic efficacy for diabetic ED. PMID:26592514

  8. Quinone compounds regulate the level of ROS production by the NADPH oxidase Nox4.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Lardy, Bernard; Rousset, Francis; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Zhang, Leilei; Trocmé, Candice; Serrander, Lena; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Morel, Françoise

    2013-06-01

    NADPH oxidase Nox4 is expressed in a wide range of tissues and plays a role in cellular signaling by providing reactive oxygen species (ROS) as intracellular messengers. Nox4 oxidase activity is thought to be constitutive and regulated at the transcriptional level; however, we challenge this point of view and suggest that specific quinone derivatives could modulate this activity. In fact, we demonstrated a significant stimulation of Nox4 activity by 4 quinone derivatives (AA-861, tBuBHQ, tBuBQ, and duroquinone) observed in 3 different cellular models, HEK293E, T-REx™, and chondrocyte cell lines. Our results indicate that the effect is specific toward Nox4 versus Nox2. Furthermore, we showed that NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) may participate in this stimulation. Interestingly, Nox4 activity is also stimulated by reducing agents that possibly act by reducing the disulfide bridge (Cys226, Cys270) located in the extracellular E-loop of Nox4. Such model of Nox4 activity regulation could provide new insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the electron transfer through the enzyme, i.e., its potential redox regulation, and could also define new therapeutic targets in diseases in which quinones and Nox4 are implicated. PMID:23583257

  9. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Prevents Murine Antibody-Mediated Acute Lung Injury at the Level of Neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production

    PubMed Central

    Semple, John W.; Kim, Michael; Hou, Jing; McVey, Mark; Lee, Young Jin; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Chai, Zhong-Wei; Lazarus, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality that can occur with any type of transfusion and is thought to be primarily due to donor antibodies activating pulmonary neutrophils in recipients. Recently, a large prospective case controlled clinical study of cardiac surgery patients demonstrated that despite implementation of male donors, a high incidence of TRALI still occurred and suggested a need for additional interventions in susceptible patient populations. To examine if intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may be effective, a murine model of antibody-mediated acute lung injury that approximates human TRALI was examined. When BALB/c mice were injected with the anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody 34-1-2s, mild shock (reduced rectal temperature) and respiratory distress (dyspnea) were observed and pre-treatment of the mice with 2 g/kg IVIg completely prevented these symptoms. To determine IVIg's usefulness to affect severe lung damage, SCID mice, previously shown to be hypersensitive to 34-1-2s were used. SCID mice treated with 34-1-2s underwent severe shock, lung damage (increased wet/dry ratios) and 40% mortality within 2 hours. Treatment with 2 g/kg IVIg 18 hours before 34-1-2s administration completely protected the mice from all adverse events. Treatment with IVIg after symptoms began also reduced lung damage and mortality. While the prophylactic IVIg administration did not affect 34-1-2s-induced pulmonary neutrophil accumulation, bone marrow-derived neutrophils from the IVIg-treated mice displayed no spontaneous ROS production nor could they be stimulated in vitro with fMLP or 34-1-2s. These results suggest that IVIg prevents murine antibody-mediated acute lung injury at the level of neutrophil ROS production and thus, alleviating tissue damage. PMID:22363629

  10. Apoplastic ROS production upon pollination by RbohH and RbohJ in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Hidetaka; Iwano, Megumi; Takeda, Seiji; Kanaoka, Masahiro M; Kimura, Sachie; Abe, Mitsutomo; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate at the tip of growing pollen tubes. In Arabidopsis, NADPH oxidases RbohH and RbohJ are localized at the plasma membrane of pollen tube tip and produce ROS in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. The ROS produced by Rbohs and Ca(2+) presumably play a critical role in the positive feedback regulation that maintains the tip growth. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis revealed ROS accumulation in the apoplast/cell wall of the pollen grains on the stigmatic papillae in the wild type, but not in the rbohH rbohJ double mutant, suggesting that apoplastic ROS derived from RbohH and RbohJ are involved in pollen tube elongation into the stigmatic papillae by affecting the cell wall metabolism. PMID:25751652

  11. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan; Chen, Hongzhuan

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IкB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation. PMID

  12. Role of ROS-mediated TGF beta activation in laser photobiomodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arany, Praveen R.; Chen, Aaron Chih-Hao; Hunt, Tristan; Mooney, David J.; Hamblin, Michael

    2009-02-01

    The ability of laser light to modulate specific biological processes has been well documented but the precise mechanism mediating these photobiological interactions remains an area of intense investigation. We recently published the results of our clinical trial with 30 patients in an oral tooth-extraction wound healing model using a 904nm GaAs laser (Oralaser 1010, Oralia, Konstnaz, Germany), assessing healing parameters using routine histopathology and immunostaining (Arany et al Wound Rep Regen 2007, 15, 866). We observed a better organized healing response in laser irradiated oral tissues that correlated with an increased expression of TGF-beta1 immediately post laser irradiation. Our data suggested the source of latent TGF-beta1 might be from the degranulating platelets in the serum, an abundant source of in vivo latent TGF-beta, in the freshly wounded tissues. Further, we also demonstrated the ability of the low power near-infrared laser irradiation to activate the latent TGF-beta complexes in vitro at varying fluences from 10sec (0.1 J/cm2) to 600secs (6 J/cm2). Using serum we observed two isoforms, namely TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3, were capable of being activated by laser irradiation using an isoform-specific ELISA and a reporter based (p3TP) assay system. We are presently pursuing the precise photomolecular mechanisms focusing on potential chromophores, wavelength and fluence parameters affecting the Latent TGF-beta activation process in serum. As ROS mediated TGF-beta activation has been previously demonstrated and we are also exploring the role of Laser generated-ROS in this activation process. In summary, we present evidence of a potential molecular mechanism for laser photobiomodulation in its ability to activate latent TGF-beta complexes.

  13. Modulation of ROS production in photodynamic therapy using a pH controlled photoinduced electron transfer (PET) based sensitiser.

    PubMed

    Atchison, Jordan; Kamila, Sukanta; McEwan, Conor; Nesbitt, Heather; Davis, James; Fowley, Colin; Callan, Bridgeen; McHale, Anthony P; Callan, John F

    2015-12-01

    A new sensitiser (4) for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed to enable control of ROS production as a function of pH. This pH dependent PDT behaviour was tested in HeLa cells and in SCID mice bearing human xenograft pancreatic cancer (BxPC-3) tumours. PMID:26435142

  14. Fluoride Increases Superoxide Production and Impairs the Respiratory Chain in ROS 17/2.8 Osteoblastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fina, Brenda Lorena; Lombarte, Mercedes; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    It is known that fluoride produces oxidative stress. Inflammation in bone tissue and an impairment of the respiratory chain of liver have been described in treatments with fluoride. Whether the impairment of the respiratory chain and oxidative stress are related is not known. The aim of this work was to study the effects of fluoride on the production of superoxide radical, the function of the respiratory chain and the increase in oxidative stress in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. We measured the effect of fluoride (100 µM) on superoxide production, oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities of cultured cells following the treatment with fluoride. Fluoride decreased oxygen consumption and increased superoxide production immediately after its addition. Furthermore, chronic treatment with fluoride increased oxidative stress status in osteoblastic cells. These results indicate that fluoride could damage bone tissue by inhibiting the respiratory chain, increasing the production of superoxide radicals and thus of the others reactive oxygen species. PMID:24964137

  15. Heme induces programmed necrosis on macrophages through autocrine TNF and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Guilherme B; Alves, Leticia S; de Oliveira, Rosane; Dutra, Fabianno F; Rodrigues, Danielle; Fernandez, Patricia L; Souto-Padron, Thais; De Rosa, María José; Kelliher, Michelle; Golenbock, Douglas; Chan, Francis K M; Bozza, Marcelo T

    2012-03-01

    Diseases that cause hemolysis or myonecrosis lead to the leakage of large amounts of heme proteins. Free heme has proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects. Heme induces TLR4-dependent production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), whereas heme cytotoxicity has been attributed to its ability to intercalate into cell membranes and cause oxidative stress. We show that heme caused early macrophage death characterized by the loss of plasma membrane integrity and morphologic features resembling necrosis. Heme-induced cell death required TNFR1 and TLR4/MyD88-dependent TNF production. Addition of TNF to Tlr4(-/-) or to Myd88(-/-) macrophages restored heme-induced cell death. The use of necrostatin-1, a selective inhibitor of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1, also known as RIPK1), or cells deficient in Rip1 or Rip3 revealed a critical role for RIP proteins in heme-induced cell death. Serum, antioxidants, iron chelation, or inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) ameliorated heme-induced oxidative burst and blocked macrophage cell death. Macrophages from heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice (Hmox1(-/-)) had increased oxidative stress and were more sensitive to heme. Taken together, these results revealed that heme induces macrophage necrosis through 2 synergistic mechanisms: TLR4/Myd88-dependent expression of TNF and TLR4-independent generation of ROS. PMID:22262768

  16. ROS and Sympathetically Mediated Mitochondria Activation in Brown Adipose Tissue Contribute to Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Conti, Bruno; Wood, Malcolm R.; Bortell, Nikki; Bustamante, Eduardo; Saez, Enrique; Fox, Howard S.; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse has been shown to induce alterations in mitochondrial function in the brain as well as to induce hyperthermia, which contributes to neurotoxicity and Meth-associated mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a thermogenic site known to be important in neonates, has recently regained importance since being identified in significant amounts and in correlation with metabolic balance in human adults. Given the high mitochondrial content of BAT and its role in thermogenesis, we aimed to investigate whether BAT plays any role in the development of Meth-induced hyperthermia. By ablating or denervating BAT, we identified a partial contribution of this organ to Meth-induced hyperthermia. BAT ablation decreased temperature by 0.5°C and reduced the length of hyperthermia by 1 h, compared to sham-operated controls. BAT denervation also affected the development of hyperthermia in correlation with decreased the expression of electron transport chain molecules, and increase on PCG1a levels, but without affecting Meth-induced uncoupling protein 1 upregulation. Furthermore, in isolated BAT cells in culture, Meth, but not Norepinephrine, induced H2O2 upregulation. In addition, we found that in vivo Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a role in Meth hyperthermia. Thus, sympathetically mediated mitochondrial activation in the BAT and Meth-induced ROS are key components to the development of hyperthermia in Meth abuse. PMID:23630518

  17. Alterations in ROS Activity and Lysosomal pH Account for Distinct Patterns of Macroautophagy in LINCL and JNCL Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Bonaventura; Aguado, Carmen; Knecht, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCL) are lysosomal storage disorders characterized by the accumulation of lipofuscin within lysosomes. Late infantile (LINCL) and juvenile (JNCL) are their most common forms and are caused by loss-of-function mutations in tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1), a lysosomal endopeptidase, and CLN3 protein (CLN3p), whose location and function is still controversial. LINCL patients suffer more severely from NCL consequences than JNCL patients, in spite of having in common an abnormal accumulation of material with a similar composition in the lysosomes. To identify distinctive characteristics that could explain the differences in the severity of LINCL and JNCL pathologies, we compared the protein degradation mechanisms in patientś fibroblasts. Pulse-chase experiments show a significant decrease in protein degradation by macroautophagy in fibroblasts bearing TPP1 (CLN2) and CLN3p (CLN3) mutations. In CLN2 fibroblasts, LC3-II levels and other procedures indicate an impaired formation of autophagosomes, which confirms the pulse-chase experiments. This defect is linked to an accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), an upregulation of the Akt-mTOR signalling pathway and increased activities of the p38α and ERK1/2 MAPKs. In CLN3 fibroblasts, LC3-II analysis indicates impairment in autophagosome maturation and there is also a defect in fluid phase endocytosis, two alterations that can be related to an observed increase of 0.5 units in lysosomal pH. CLN3 fibroblasts also accumulate ROS but to a lower extent than CLN2. TPP1 activity is completely abrogated in CLN2 and partially diminished in CLN3 fibroblasts. TPP1 cleaves small hydrophobic proteins like subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase and the lack or a lower activity of this enzyme can contribute to lipofuscin accumulation. These alterations in TPP1 activity lead to an increased ROS production, especially in CLN2 in which it is aggravated by a decrease in catalase activity. This could

  18. Lactate and Pyruvate Are Major Sources of Energy for Stallion Sperm with Dose Effects on Mitochondrial Function, Motility, and ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Darr, Christa R; Varner, Dickson D; Teague, Sheila; Cortopassi, Gino A; Datta, Sandipan; Meyers, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    Stallion sperm rely primarily on oxidative phosphorylation for production of ATP used in sperm motility and metabolism. The objective of the study was to identify which substrates included in Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham (BWW) media are key to optimal mitochondrial function through measurements of sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It was expected that mitochondrial substrates, pyruvate and lactate, would support sperm motility and mitochondrial function better than the glycolytic substrate, glucose, due to direct utilization within the mitochondria. Measurements were performed after incubation in modified BWW media with varying concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose. The effects of media and duration of incubation on sperm motility, ROS production, and oxygen consumption were determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Duplicate ejaculates from four stallions were used in three separate experiments to determine the effects of substrate availability and concentration on sperm motility and mitochondrial function and the relationship of oxygen consumption with cellular ROS production. The present results indicate that lactate and pyruvate are the most important sources of energy for stallion sperm motility and velocity, and elicit a dose-dependent response. Additionally, lactate and pyruvate are ideal for maximal mitochondrial function, as sperm in these media operate at a very high level of their bioenergetic capability due to the high rate of energy metabolism. Moreover, we found that addition of glucose to the media is not necessary for short-term storage of equine sperm, and may even result in reduction of mitochondrial function. Finally, we have confirmed that ROS production can be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as intense mitochondrial activity. PMID:27335066

  19. ROS production and gene expression in alveolar macrophages exposed to PM(2.5) from Baghdad, Iraq: Seasonal trends and impact of chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Samera H; Schauer, James J; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Shafer, Martin M; Kadhim, Ahmed Kh

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of changes in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) composition on oxidative stress markers in an in-vitro alveolar macrophage (AM) model. Fifty-three PM2.5 samples were collected during a year-long PM sampling campaign in Baghdad, Iraq, a semi-arid region of the country. Monthly composites were analyzed for chemical composition and for biological activity using in-vitro measurements of ROS production and gene expression in the AM model. Twelve genes that were differentially expressed upon PM exposure were identified and their co-associations with the composition of PM2.5 were examined. Ten of those genes were up-regulated in January and April composites; samples which also exhibited high ROS activity and relatively high PM mass concentration. ROS production was statistically correlated with total PM2.5 mass, levoglucosan (a wood burning tracer) and several trace elements of the PM (especially V and Ni, which are associated with oil combustion). The expression of several cytokine genes was found to be moderately associated with PM mass, crustal materials (indication of dusty days or dust storms) and certain metals (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the PM. Thus, the ROS activity association with PM2.5, may, in part, be driven by redox-active metals. The antioxidant response genes (Nqo1 and Hmox1) were moderately associated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and showed a good correlation (r-Pearson of >0.7) with metals linked to vehicle-related emissions (i.e. Cu, Zn and Sb). Examining these associations in a larger sample pool (e.g. daily samples) would improve the power of the analysis and may strengthen the implication of these chemicals in the oxidative stress of biological systems, which could aid in the development of new metrics of PM toxicity. PMID:26618301

  20. Aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest depends on ROS generation and MAP kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Whyard, Terry C; Waltzer, Wayne C; Grollman, Arthur P; Rosenquist, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AAs) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adducts formation, is well documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. To better elucidate some aspects of this process, we studied cell cycle distribution and cell survival of renal epithelial cells treated with AAI at low and high doses. A low dose of AA induces cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase via activation of DNA damage checkpoint pathway ATM-Chk2-p53-p21. DNA damage signaling pathway is activated more likely via increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by AA treatment then via DNA damage induced directly by AA. Higher AA concentration induced cell death partly via apoptosis. Since mitogen-activated protein kinases play an important role in cell survival, death and cell cycle progression, we assayed their function in AA-treated renal tubular epithelial cells. ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were activated in cells treated with AA. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 as well as suppression of ROS generation with N-acetyl-L-cysteine resulted in the partial relief of cells from G2/M checkpoint and a decline of apoptosis level. Cell cycle arrest may be a mechanism for DNA repair, cell survival and reprogramming of epithelial cells to the fibroblast type. An apoptosis of renal epithelial cells at higher AA dose might be necessary to provide space for newly reprogrammed fibrotic cells. PMID:24792323

  1. Exogenous C2 Ceramide Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Expression by Inhibiting ROS Production and MAPK Signaling Pathways in PMA-Stimulated Human Astroglioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Sun; Ahn, Young-Ho; Moon, Byung-In; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, which play a pivotal role in invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of glioma. Therefore, controlling MMPs is potentially an important therapeutic strategy for glioma. In the present study, we found that exogenous cell-permeable short-chain C2 ceramide inhibits phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-1, -3, and -9 gene expressions in U87MG and U373MG human astroglioma cells. In addition, C2 ceramide inhibited the protein secretion and enzymatic activities of MMP-1, -3, and -9. The Matrigel invasion assay and wound healing assay showed that C2 ceramide suppresses the in vitro invasion and migration of glioma cells, which appears to be involved in strong inhibition of MMPs by C2 ceramide. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that C2 ceramide inhibits PMA-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB/activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding activities. Furthermore, C2 ceramide significantly inhibited PMA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression, and inhibition of ROS by diphenylene iodonium (DPI, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) mimicked the effects of C2 ceramide on MMP expression and NF-κB/AP-1 via inhibition of p38 MAPK. The results suggest C2 ceramide inhibits MMP expression and glioma invasion, at least partly, by modulating ROS-p38 MAPK signaling axis and other MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27043542

  2. Exogenous C2 Ceramide Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Expression by Inhibiting ROS Production and MAPK Signaling Pathways in PMA-Stimulated Human Astroglioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Sun; Ahn, Young-Ho; Moon, Byung-In; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, which play a pivotal role in invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of glioma. Therefore, controlling MMPs is potentially an important therapeutic strategy for glioma. In the present study, we found that exogenous cell-permeable short-chain C2 ceramide inhibits phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-1, -3, and -9 gene expressions in U87MG and U373MG human astroglioma cells. In addition, C2 ceramide inhibited the protein secretion and enzymatic activities of MMP-1, -3, and -9. The Matrigel invasion assay and wound healing assay showed that C2 ceramide suppresses the in vitro invasion and migration of glioma cells, which appears to be involved in strong inhibition of MMPs by C2 ceramide. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that C2 ceramide inhibits PMA-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB/activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding activities. Furthermore, C2 ceramide significantly inhibited PMA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression, and inhibition of ROS by diphenylene iodonium (DPI, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) mimicked the effects of C2 ceramide on MMP expression and NF-κB/AP-1 via inhibition of p38 MAPK. The results suggest C2 ceramide inhibits MMP expression and glioma invasion, at least partly, by modulating ROS-p38 MAPK signaling axis and other MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27043542

  3. Metabolic characterization of imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL T315I chronic myeloid leukemia cells indicates down-regulation of glycolytic pathway and low ROS production.

    PubMed

    Ko, Byung Woong; Han, Jeongsu; Heo, Jun Young; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Kim, Jungim; Lee, Min Joung; Ryu, Min Jeong; Song, Ik Chan; Jo, Young Suk; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2016-09-01

    Long-term imatinib treatment induces drug-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells harboring T315I gate keeper mutation of breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-ABL oncogenic kinase. However, although cell proliferation is coupled with cellular energy status in CML carcinogenesis, the metabolic characteristics of T315I-mutant CML cells have never been investigated. Here, we analyzed cell proliferation activities and metabolic phenotypes, including cell proliferation, oxygen consumption, lactate production, and redox state in the KBM5 (imatinib-sensitive) and KBM5-T315I (imatinib-resistant) CML cell lines. Interestingly, KBM5-T315I cells showed decreased cell proliferation, lactate production, fatty acid synthesis, ROS production, and down regulation of mRNA expression related to ROS scavengers, such as SOD2, catalase, GCLm, and GPx1. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the lower growth ability of KBM5-T315I CML cells might be related to the decreased expression of glycolysis-related genes and ROS levels, and this will be used to identify therapeutic targets for imatinib resistance in CML. PMID:26854822

  4. Revisiting Kadenbach: Electron flux rate through cytochrome c-oxidase determines the ATP-inhibitory effect and subsequent production of ROS.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sebastian; Rhiel, Annika; Weber, Petra; Ramzan, Rabia

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial respiration is the predominant source of ATP. Excessive rates of electron transport cause a higher production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are two regulatory mechanisms known. The first, according to Mitchel, is dependent on the mitochondrial membrane potential that drives ATP synthase for ATP production, and the second, the Kadenbach mechanism, is focussed on the binding of ATP to Cytochrome c Oxidase (CytOx) at high ATP/ADP ratios, which results in an allosteric conformational change to CytOx, causing inhibition. In times of stress, ATP-dependent inhibition is switched off and the activity of CytOx is exclusively determined by the membrane potential, leading to an increase in ROS production. The second mechanism for respiratory control depends on the quantity of electron transfer to the Heme aa3 of CytOx. When ATP is bound to CytOx the enzyme is inhibited, and ROS formation is decreased, although the mitochondrial membrane potential is increased. PMID:27171124

  5. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytokine production and cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers in J774A.1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Naha, Pratap C.; Davoren, Maria; Lyng, Fiona M.; Byrne, Hugh J.

    2010-07-15

    The immunotoxicity of three generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G-4, G-5 and G-6) was evaluated in mouse macrophage cells in vitro. Using the Alamar blue and MTT assays, a generation dependent cytotoxicity of the PAMAM dendrimers was found whereby G-6 > G-5 > G-4. The toxic response of the PAMAM dendrimers correlated well with the number of surface primary amino groups, with increasing number resulting in an increase in toxic response. An assessment of intracellular ROS generation by the PAMAM dendrimers was performed by measuring the increased fluorescence as a result of intracellular oxidation of Carboxy H{sub 2}DCFDA to DCF both quantitatively using plate reader and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), tumour necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6, (IL-6) were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) following exposure of mouse macrophage cells to PAMAM dendrimers. A generation dependent ROS and cytokine production was found, which correlated well with the cytotoxicological response and therefore number of surface amino groups. A clear time sequence of increased ROS generation (maximum at {approx} 4 h), TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 secretion (maximum at {approx} 24 h), MIP-2 levels and cell death ({approx} 72 h) was observed. The intracellular ROS generation and cytokine production induced cytotoxicity point towards the mechanistic pathway of cell death upon exposure to PAMAM dendrimers.

  6. Genistein Inhibits Osteoclastic Differentiation of RAW 264.7 Cells via Regulation of ROS Production and Scavenging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Genistein, a phytoestrogen, has been demonstrated to have a bone-sparing and antiresorptive effect. Genistein can inhibit the osteoclast formation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced RAW 264.7 cells by preventing the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a redox-sensitive factor, to the nucleus. Therefore, the suppressive effect of genistein on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level during osteoclast differentiation and the mechanism associated with the control of ROS levels by genistein were investigated. The cellular antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of genistein were confirmed. The translation and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 1 (Nox1), as well as the disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain system were obviously suppressed by genistein in a dose-dependent manner. The induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), was enhanced by genistein. In addition, the translational induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was notably increased by genistein. These results provide that the inhibitory effects of genistein on RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation is likely to be attributed to the control of ROS generation through suppressing the translation and activation of Nox1 and the disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain system, as well as ROS scavenging through the Nrf2-mediated induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD1 and HO-1. PMID:24927148

  7. Quercetin suppresses cytochrome P450 mediated ROS generation and NFκB activation to inhibit the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been recognized to play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Quercetin, a naturally occurring dietary flavonoid is known for its ROS scavenging properties. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of quercetin based on cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated ROS generation, ROS-induced cellular damage and activation of the NFκB signalling circuit during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Administration of quercetin inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by impairing CYP-mediated ROS production via downregulation of the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and upregulation of antioxidant defences. Attenuation of ROS generation by quercetin in turn abrogated NFκB signalling by preventing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB, nuclear translocation of NFκB and transactivation of its target genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion. Thus dietary flavonoids such as quercetin that can block ROS generation and inhibit the redox regulated transcription factor NFκB, by virtue of their antioxidant potential are promising candidates for future antioxidant-based anticancer regimens. PMID:22044346

  8. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide inhibits PDGF-BB-induced inflammation and ROS production in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Wang; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-07-10

    CPS-F, a polysaccharide derived from Cordyceps sinensis, is a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. We demonstrated that CPS-F not only inhibits platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), but also acts synergistically in combination with MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. Additionally, up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors was reversed by use of a combination of CPS-F and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or silencing of NOX1. Furthermore, CPS-F prevents the PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB in transfected cells and ameliorates increased levels of TNF-α, TNFR1, and MCP-1 when PDGFRβ is silenced, thereby suggesting that CPS-F possesses a bidirectional regulatory function. Our findings suggest CPS-F may exert its therapeutic effect for the treatment of glomerulonephritis related to human mesangial cells (HMCs) through the ERK1/2/Akt pathways. PMID:25857968

  9. Niclosamide enhances ROS-mediated cell death through c-Jun activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae-lo-oom; Son, A-Rang; Ahn, Jiyeon; Song, Jie-Young

    2014-06-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality in the clinical treatment of cancers, and has been combined with chemotherapy in order to improve therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, we aimed to develop small molecules that enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiotherapy. In this study, we provide evidence that niclosamide is an effective radiosensitizer in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Using a cell-based high-throughput viability screen of 1040 compounds in combination with γ-ionizing radiation (IR), we found niclosamide, an FDA-approved antihelminthic agent, had a radiosensitizing effect on H1299 human lung cancer cells. Pretreatment with niclosamide enhanced IR- induced cell death of H1299 in a dose-dependent manner via apoptosis compared with IR or niclosamide alone. The combined treatment induced significantly more phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun in H1299 cells than IR or niclosamide alone. Since IR induces apoptosis through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed as another ROS generator and we found that niclosamide also sensitized cells to H2O2. Niclosamide pretreatment also induced c-Jun and its phosphorylation in the presence of H2O2, thereby enhancing apoptosis. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment abolished both cell death and c-Jun activation induced by the combination treatments. Knockdown of c-Jun also decreased PARP cleavage and clonogenic cell survival in niclosamide- and IR-treated H1299 cells. Our findings suggest that niclosamide could be a promising radiosensitizer in lung cancer patients through activation of the p38 MAPK-c-Jun axis. PMID:24750999

  10. Subanesthetic Isoflurane Reduces Zymosan-Induced Inflammation in Murine Kupffer Cells by Inhibiting ROS-Activated p38 MAPK/NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Li, Nan-lin; Li, Jun-tang; Yu, Feng; Zhao, Ya-li; Wang, Ling; Yi, Jun; Wang, Ling; Bian, Jie-fang; Chen, Jiang-hao; Yuan, Shi-fang; Wang, Ting; Lv, Yong-gang; Liu, Ning-ning; Zhu, Xiao-shan; Ling, Rui; Yun, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Volatile anesthetic isoflurane (ISO) has immunomodulatory effects. The fungal component zymosan (ZY) induces inflammation through toll-like receptor 2 or dectin-1 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of subanesthetic (0.7%) ISO against ZY-induced inflammatory activation in murine Kupffer cells (KCs), which are known as the resident macrophages within the liver. We observed that ISO reduced ZY-induced cyclooxygenase 2 upregulation and prostaglandin E2 release, as determined by western blot and radioimmunoassay, respectively. ISO also reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, IL-6, high-mobility group box-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. ISO blocked the ZY-induced nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor- (NF)-κB p65. Moreover, ISO attenuated ZY-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation partly by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS); the interregulation that ROS activated p38 MAPK followed by NF-κB activation was crucial for the ZY-induced inflammatory responses in KCs. An in vivo study by peritoneal injection of ZY into BALB/C mice confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of 0.7% ISO against ZY in KCs. These results suggest that ISO ameliorates ZY-induced inflammatory responses in murine KCs by inhibiting the interconnected ROS/p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25147596

  11. Prostaglandin E2 is critical for the development of niacin-deficiency-induced photosensitivity via ROS production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Nakayama, Yasuko; Yoshioka, Haruna; Nomura, Takashi; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Kuroda, Etsushi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Nakamura, Jun; Akira, Shizuo; Nakamura, Motonobu; Narumiya, Shuh; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Tokura, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    Pellagra is a photosensitivity syndrome characterized by three ``D's'': diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia as a result of niacin deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms of photosensitivity dermatitis, the hallmark abnormality of this syndrome, remain unclear. We prepared niacin deficient mice in order to develop a murine model of pellagra. Niacin deficiency induced photosensitivity and severe diarrhea with weight loss. In addition, niacin deficient mice exhibited elevated expressions of COX-2 and PGE syntheses (Ptges) mRNA. Consistently, photosensitivity was alleviated by a COX inhibitor, deficiency of Ptges, or blockade of EP4 receptor signaling. Moreover, enhanced PGE2 production in niacin deficiency was mediated via ROS production in keratinocytes. In line with the above murine findings, human skin lesions of pellagra patients confirmed the enhanced expression of Ptges. Niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity was mediated through EP4 signaling in response to increased PGE2 production via induction of ROS formation.

  12. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan Chen, Hongzhuan

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IkB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation

  13. Piperlongumine induces apoptotic and autophagic death of the primary myeloid leukemia cells from patients via activation of ROS-p38/JNK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xin-xin; Liu, Ju-mei; Qiu, Xin-yao; Pan, Feng; Yu, Shang-bin; Chen, Xiao-qian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of piperlongumine (PL), an anticancer alkaloid from long pepper plants, on the primary myeloid leukemia cells from patients and the mechanisms of action. Methods: Human BM samples were obtained from 9 patients with acute or chronic myeloid leukemias and 2 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) were isolated and cultured. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay, and apoptosis was examined with PI staining or flow cytometry. ROS levels in the cells were determined using DCFH-DA staining and flow cytometry. Expression of apoptotic and autophagic signaling proteins was analyzed using Western blotting. Results: PL inhibited the viability of BMMNCs from the patients with myeloid leukemias (with IC50 less than 20 μmol/L), but not that of BMMNCs from a patient with MDS. Furthermore, PL (10 and 20 μmol/L) induced apoptosis of BMMNCs from the patients with myeloid leukemias in a dose-dependent manner. PL markedly increased ROS levels in BMMNCs from the patients with myeloid leukemias, whereas pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine abolished PL-induced ROS accumulation and effectively reduced PL-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, PL markedly increased the expression of the apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3) and autophagic proteins (Beclin-1 and LC3B), and phosphorylation of p38 and JNK in BMMNCs from the patients with myeloid leukemias, whereas pretreatment with the specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 or the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 partially reversed PL-induced ROS production, apoptotic/autophagic signaling activation and cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Piperlongumine induces apoptotic and autophagic death of the primary myeloid leukemia cells from patients via activation of ROS-p38/JNK pathways. PMID:25619389

  14. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Priller, Johannes Peter Roman; Reid, Stephen; Konein, Patrick; Dietrich, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85–10 (Xcv) translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es) into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA) and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence. PMID:27398933

  15. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Priller, Johannes Peter Roman; Reid, Stephen; Konein, Patrick; Dietrich, Petra; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10 (Xcv) translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es) into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA) and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence. PMID:27398933

  16. Plant Natural Product Formononetin Protects Rat Cardiomyocyte H9c2 Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation via Inhibiting ROS Formation and Promoting GSK-3β Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhengyuan; Han, Yifan; Rong, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a major cause of cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury. Based on our pilot experiments, plant natural product formononetin enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells during oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation. For mechanistic studies, we focused on two major cellular factors, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), in the regulation of mPTP opening. We found that formononetin suppressed the formation of ROS and superoxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Formononetin also rescued OGD/reoxygenation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Further studies suggested that formononetin induced Akt activation and GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK-3β activity towards mPTP opening. PI3K and PKC inhibitors abolished the effects of formononetin on mPTP opening and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that formononetin increased the binding of phosphor-GSK-3β to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) while it disrupted the complex of ANT with cyclophilin D. Moreover, immunofluorescence revealed that phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) was mainly deposited in the space between mitochondria and cell nucleus. Collectively, these results indicated that formononetin protected cardiomyocytes from OGD/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting ROS formation and promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation. PMID:27034732

  17. Plant Natural Product Formononetin Protects Rat Cardiomyocyte H9c2 Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation via Inhibiting ROS Formation and Promoting GSK-3β Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhengyuan; Han, Yifan; Rong, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a major cause of cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury. Based on our pilot experiments, plant natural product formononetin enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells during oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation. For mechanistic studies, we focused on two major cellular factors, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), in the regulation of mPTP opening. We found that formononetin suppressed the formation of ROS and superoxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Formononetin also rescued OGD/reoxygenation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Further studies suggested that formononetin induced Akt activation and GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK-3β activity towards mPTP opening. PI3K and PKC inhibitors abolished the effects of formononetin on mPTP opening and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that formononetin increased the binding of phosphor-GSK-3β to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) while it disrupted the complex of ANT with cyclophilin D. Moreover, immunofluorescence revealed that phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) was mainly deposited in the space between mitochondria and cell nucleus. Collectively, these results indicated that formononetin protected cardiomyocytes from OGD/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting ROS formation and promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation. PMID:27034732

  18. Iminophosphorane-organogold(III) complexes induce cell death through mitochondrial ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Laura; Contel, María; Palomera, Luis; Azaceta, Gemma; Marzo, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Gold compounds are being investigated as potential antitumor drugs. Some gold(III) derivatives have shown to induce cell death in solid tumors but their mechanism of action differs from that of cisplatin, since most of these compounds do not bind to DNA. We have explored cellular events triggered by three different iminophosphorane-organo gold(III) compounds in leukemia cells (a neutral compound with two chloride ligands [Au{κ2-C,N-C6H4(PPh2=N(C6H5)-2}Cl2] 1, and two cationic compounds with either a dithiocarbamate ligand [Au{κ2-C,N-C6H4(PPh2=N(C6H5)-2}(S2CN-Me2)]PF6 2, or a water-soluble phosphine and a chloride ligand [Au{κ2-C,N-C6H4(PPh2=N(C6H5)-2}(P{Cp(m-C6H4-SO3Na)2}3) Cl]PF6 3). All three compounds showed higher toxicity against leukemia cells when compared to normal T-lymphocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 induced both necrosis and apoptosis, while 3 was mainly apoptotic. Necrotic cell death induced by 1 and 2 was Bax/Bak- and caspase-independent, while apoptosis induced by 3 was Bax/Bak-dependent. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at the mitochondrial level was a critical step in the antitumor effect of these compounds. PMID:21864808

  19. Iminophosphorane-organogold(III) complexes induce cell death through mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Vela, Laura; Contel, María; Palomera, Luis; Azaceta, Gemma; Marzo, Isabel

    2011-10-01

    Gold compounds are being investigated as potential antitumor drugs. Some gold(III) derivatives have been shown to induce cell death in solid tumors but their mechanism of action differs from that of cisplatin, since most of these compounds do not bind to DNA. We have explored cellular events triggered by three different iminophosphorane-organogold(III) compounds in leukemia cells (a neutral compound with two chloride ligands [Au{κ(2)-C,N-C(6)H(4)(PPh(2)=N(C(6)H(5))-2}Cl(2)] 1, and two cationic compounds with either a dithiocarbamate ligand [Au{κ(2)-C,N-C(6)H(4)(PPh(2)=N(C(6)H(5))-2}(S(2)CN-Me(2))]PF(6)2, or a water-soluble phosphine and a chloride ligand [Au{κ(2)-C,N-C(6)H(4)(PPh(2)=N(C(6)H(5))-2}(P{Cp(m-C(6)H(4)-SO(3)Na)(2)}(3)) Cl]PF(6)3). All three compounds showed higher toxicity against leukemia cells when compared to normal T-lymphocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 induced both necrosis and apoptosis, while 3 was mainly apoptotic. Necrotic cell death induced by 1 and 2 was Bax/Bak- and caspase-independent, while apoptosis induced by 3 was Bax/Bak-dependent. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at the mitochondrial level was a critical step in the antitumor effect of these compounds. PMID:21864808

  20. Enhancing cytokinin synthesis by overexpressing ipt alleviated drought inhibition of root growth through activating ROS-scavenging systems in Agrostis stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Zhang, Xunzhong; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress limits root growth and inhibits cytokinin (CK) production. Increases in CK production through overexpression of isopentenyltransferase (ipt) alleviate drought damages to promote root growth. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CK-regulated root growth was involved in the alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS scavenging capacity under drought stress. Wild-type (WT) creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. ‘Penncross’) and a transgenic line (S41) overexpressing ipt ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) were exposed to drought stress for 21 d in growth chambers. SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 developed a more extensive root system under drought stress compared to the WT. Root physiological analysis (electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation) showed that S41 roots exhibited less cellular damage compared to the WT under drought stress. Roots of SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 had significantly higher endogenous CK content than the WT roots under drought stress. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) content was significantly lower and content of total and free ascorbate was significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. Enzymatic assays and transcript abundance analysis showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. S41 roots also maintained significantly higher alternative respiration rates compared to the WT under drought stress. The improved root growth of transgenic creeping bentgrass may be facilitated by CK-enhanced ROS scavenging through antioxidant accumulation and activation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher alternative respiration rates when soil water is limited. PMID:26889010

  1. Enhancing cytokinin synthesis by overexpressing ipt alleviated drought inhibition of root growth through activating ROS-scavenging systems in Agrostis stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Zhang, Xunzhong; Huang, Bingru

    2016-03-01

    Drought stress limits root growth and inhibits cytokinin (CK) production. Increases in CK production through overexpression of isopentenyltransferase (ipt) alleviate drought damages to promote root growth. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CK-regulated root growth was involved in the alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS scavenging capacity under drought stress. Wild-type (WT) creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. 'Penncross') and a transgenic line (S41) overexpressing ipt ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) were exposed to drought stress for 21 d in growth chambers. SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 developed a more extensive root system under drought stress compared to the WT. Root physiological analysis (electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation) showed that S41 roots exhibited less cellular damage compared to the WT under drought stress. Roots of SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 had significantly higher endogenous CK content than the WT roots under drought stress. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) content was significantly lower and content of total and free ascorbate was significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. Enzymatic assays and transcript abundance analysis showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. S41 roots also maintained significantly higher alternative respiration rates compared to the WT under drought stress. The improved root growth of transgenic creeping bentgrass may be facilitated by CK-enhanced ROS scavenging through antioxidant accumulation and activation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher alternative respiration rates when soil water is limited. PMID:26889010

  2. ROS Hexapod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Kirsch; Bankieris, Derek

    2016-01-01

    As an intern project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), my job was to familiarize myself and operate a Robotics Operating System (ROS). The project outcome will convert existing software assets into ROS using nodes, enabling a robotic Hexapod to communicate and to be functional and controlled by an existing PlayStation 3 (PS3) controller. Existing control algorithms and current libraries have no ROS capabilities within the Hexapod C++ source code. Conversion of C++ codes to ROS will enable existing code to be compatible with ROS, and will be controlled using existing PS3 controller. Furthermore, my job description is to design ROS messages and script programs which will enable assets to participate in the ROS ecosystem. In addition, an open source software (IDE) Arduino board will be integrated in the ecosystem with designing circuitry on a breadboard to add additional behavior with push buttons, potentiometers and other simple elements in the electrical circuitry. Other projects with the Arduino will be a GPS module digital clock that will run off 22 satellites to show accurate real time using a GPS signal and internal patch antenna to communicate with satellites.

  3. Novel chromone and xanthone derivatives: Synthesis and ROS/RNS scavenging activities.

    PubMed

    Proença, Carina; Albuquerque, Hélio M T; Ribeiro, Daniela; Freitas, Marisa; Santos, Clementina M M; Silva, Artur M S; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-06-10

    Chromones and xanthones are oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds acknowledged by their antioxidant properties. In an effort to develop novel agents with improved activity, a series of compounds belonging to these chemical classes were prepared. Their syntheses involve the condensation of appropriate 2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-ones, obtained via Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement, with (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylaldehyde to provide the corresponding 2-[(1E,3E)-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl]-4H-chromen-4-ones. Subsequent electrocyclization and oxidation of these compounds led to the synthesis of 1-aryl-9H-xanthen-9-ones. After cleavage of the protecting groups, hydroxylated chromones and xanthones were assessed as scavenging agents against both reactive oxygen species (ROS) [superoxide radical (O2(•-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), singlet oxygen ((1)O2), and peroxyl radical (ROO(•))] and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) [nitric oxide ((•)NO) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-))]. Generally, all the tested new hydroxylated chromones and xanthones exhibited scavenger effects dependent on the concentration, with IC50 values found in the micromolar range. Some of them were shown to have improved scavenging activity when compared with previously reported analogues, allowing the inference of preliminary conclusions on the structure-activity relationship. PMID:27031214

  4. ROS-dependent Syk and Pyk2-mediated STAT1 activation is required for 15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced CD36 expression and foam cell formation

    PubMed Central

    Kotla, Sivareddy; Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Traylor, James G.; Orr, A. Wayne; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2014-01-01

    15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), the major 15-lipoxygenase 1/2 (15-LO1/2) metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA), induces CD36 expression through xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and Syk and Pyk2-dependent STAT1 activation. In line with these observations, 15(S)-HETE also induced foam cell formation involving ROS, Syk, Pyk2 and STAT1-mediated CD36 expression. In addition, peritoneal macrophages from Western diet-fed ApoE−/− mice exhibited elevated levels of xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase activities, ROS production, Syk, Pyk2, and STAT1 phosphorylation and CD36 expression compared to those from ApoE−/−:12/15-LO−/− mice and these events correlated with increased lipid deposits, macrophage content and lesion progression in the aortic roots. Human atherosclerotic arteries also showed increased 15-LO1 expression, STAT1 phosphorylation and CD36 levels as compared to normal arteries. Together, these findings suggest that 12/15-LO metabolites of AA, particularly 12/15(S)-HETE might play a crucial role in atherogenesis by enhancing foam cell formation. PMID:25152235

  5. Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

  6. Naringin inhibits ROS-activated MAPK pathway in high glucose-induced injuries in H9c2 cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingfu; Guo, Runmin; Yan, Hai; Tian, Lihong; You, Qiong; Li, Shanghai; Huang, Ruina; Wu, Keng

    2014-04-01

    Naringin, an active flavonoid isolated from citrus fruit extracts, exhibits biological and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant activity and antidiabetic effect. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway has been shown to participate in hyperglycaemia-induced injury. The present study tested the hypothesis that naringin protects against high glucose (HG)-induced injuries by inhibiting MAPK pathway in H9c2 cardiac cells. To examine this, the cells were treated with 35 mM glucose (HG) for 24 hr to establish a HG-induced cardiomyocyte injury model. The cells were pre-treated with 80 μM naringin for 2 hr before exposure to HG. The findings of this study showed that exposure of H9c2 cells to HG for 24 hr markedly induced injuries, as evidenced by a decrease in cell viability, increases in apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as dissipation of mitochondrial membrance potential (MMP). These injuries were significantly attenuated by the pre-treatment of cells with either naringin or SB203580 (a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK) or U0126 (a selective inhibitor of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, ERK1/2) or SP600125 (a selective inhibitor of c-jun N-termanal kinase, JNK) before exposure to HG, respectively. Furthermore, exposure of cells to HG increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK. The increased activation of MAPK pathway was ameliorated by pre-treatment with either naringin or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, which also reduced HG-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, leading to increase in cell viability and decrease in apoptotic cells. In conclusion, our findings provide new evidence for the first time that naringin protects against HG-induced injuries by inhibiting the activation of MAPK (p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK) and oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. PMID:24118820

  7. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human microvascular endothelial cells: role in endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yong; Ducatman, Alan; Ward, Rebecca; Leonard, Steve; Bukowski, Valerie; Guo, Nancy Lan; Shi, Xianglin; Vallyathan, Val; Castranova, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a member of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) containing an 8-carbon backbone. PFOS is a man-made chemical with carbon-fluorine bonds that are one of the strongest in organic chemistry and widely used in industry. Human occupational and environmental exposure to PFOS occurs globally. PFOS is non-biodegradable and persistent in the human body and environment. In this study, data demonstrated that exposure of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) to PFOS induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at both high and low concentrations. Morphologically, it was found that exposure to PFOS induced actin filament remodeling and endothelial permeability changes in HMVEC. Furthermore, data demonstrated the production of ROS plays a regulatory role in PFOS-induced actin filament remodeling and the increase in endothelial permeability. Our results indicate that the generation of ROS may play a role in PFOS-induced aberrations of the endothelial permeability barrier. The results generated from this study may provide a new insight into the potential adverse effects of PFOS exposure on humans at the cellular level. PMID:20391123

  8. Effective Inhibition of Cellular ROS Production by MXCXXC-Type Peptides: Potential Therapeutic Applications in Copper-Homeostasis Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shoshan, Michal S; Tshuva, Edit Y

    2016-06-27

    Cyclic and acyclic peptides with sequences derived from metallochaperone binding sites, but differing at position 2, were analyzed for their inhibitory reactivity towards cellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation and catalytic activity towards oxidation with H2 O2 , in comparison with three commercial drugs clinically employed in chelation therapy for Wilson's disease. Acyclic peptides were more effective inhibitors than the cyclic ones, with one leading peptide with threonine at position 2 systematically showing the highest efficiency in reducing cellular ROS levels and in inhibiting Cu oxidation. This peptide was more effective than all commercial drugs in all aspects analyzed, and showed no toxicity towards human colon HT-29 cancer cells at concentrations 10-100 times higher than the IC50 of the commercial drugs, corroborating its high medicinal potential. PMID:27124086

  9. Selective killing of gastric cancer cells by a small molecule via targeting TrxR1 and ROS-mediated ER stress activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongwei; Weng, Qiaoyou; Chen, Xi; Ying, Shilong; Ye, Qingqing; Wang, Zhe; Ji, Jiansong; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) 1 is often overexpressed in numerous cancer cells. Targeting TrxR1 leads to a reduction in tumor progression and metastasis, making the enzyme an attractive target for cancer treatment. Our previous research revealed that the curcumin derivative B19 could induce cancer cell apoptosis via activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the upstream mechanism and molecular target of B19 is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that B19 directly inhibits TrxR1 enzyme activity to elevate oxidative stress and then induce ROS-mediated ER Stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, subsequently resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. A computer-assistant docking showed that B19 may bind TrxR1 protein via formation of a covalent bond with the residue Cys-498. Blockage of ROS production totally reversed B19-induced anti-cancer actions. In addition, the results of xenograft experiments in mice were highly consistent with in vitro studies. Taken together, targeting TrxR1 with B19 provides deep insight into the understanding of how B19 exerts its anticancer effects. More importantly, this work indicates that targeting TrxR1 and manipulating ROS levels are effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26919094

  10. Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros-Induced) Ros Release

    PubMed Central

    Zorov, Dmitry B.; Filburn, Charles R.; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Zweier, Jay L.; Sollott, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    We sought to understand the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in cardiac myocytes based on the observation of increased ROS production at sites of spontaneously deenergized mitochondria. We devised a new model enabling incremental ROS accumulation in individual mitochondria in isolated cardiac myocytes via photoactivation of tetramethylrhodamine derivatives, which also served to report the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, ΔΨ. This ROS accumulation reproducibly triggered abrupt (and sometimes reversible) mitochondrial depolarization. This phenomenon was ascribed to MPT induction because (a) bongkrekic acid prevented it and (b) mitochondria became permeable for calcein (∼620 daltons) concurrently with depolarization. These photodynamically produced “triggering” ROS caused the MPT induction, as the ROS scavenger Trolox prevented it. The time required for triggering ROS to induce the MPT was dependent on intrinsic cellular ROS-scavenging redox mechanisms, particularly glutathione. MPT induction caused by triggering ROS coincided with a burst of mitochondrial ROS generation, as measured by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, which we have termed mitochondrial “ROS-induced ROS release” (RIRR). This MPT induction/RIRR phenomenon in cardiac myocytes often occurred synchronously and reversibly among long chains of adjacent mitochondria demonstrating apparent cooperativity. The observed link between MPT and RIRR could be a fundamental phenomenon in mitochondrial and cell biology. PMID:11015441

  11. Hyperglycemia Induces Cellular Hypoxia through Production of Mitochondrial ROS Followed by Suppression of Aquaporin-1

    PubMed Central

    Sada, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Kukidome, Daisuke; Yoshinaga, Tomoaki; Kajihara, Nobuhiro; Sonoda, Kazuhiro; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously proposed that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation is a key event in the development of diabetic complications. Interestingly, some common aspects exist between hyperglycemia and hypoxia-induced phenomena. Thus, hyperglycemia may induce cellular hypoxia, and this phenomenon may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In endothelial cells (ECs), cellular hypoxia increased after incubation with high glucose (HG). A similar phenomenon was observed in glomeruli of diabetic mice. HG-induced cellular hypoxia was suppressed by mitochondria blockades or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression, which is a specific SOD for mtROS. Overexpression of MnSOD also increased the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a water and oxygen channel. AQP1 overexpression in ECs suppressed hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia, endothelin-1 and fibronectin overproduction, and apoptosis. Therefore, hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia and mtROS generation may promote hyperglycemic damage in a coordinated manner. PMID:27383386

  12. High-Dose Nicotinamide Suppresses ROS Generation and Augments Population Expansion during CD8+ T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ho Jin; Jang, So-Young; Hwang, Eun Seong

    2015-01-01

    During T cell activation, mitochondrial content increases to meet the high energy demand of rapid cell proliferation. With this increase, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increases and causes the rapid apoptotic death of activated cells, thereby facilitating T cell homeostasis. Nicotinamide (NAM) has previously been shown to enhance mitochondria quality and extend the replicative life span of human fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the effect of NAM on CD8+ T cell activation. NAM treatment attenuated the increase of mitochondrial content and ROS in T cells activated by CD3/CD28 antibodies. This was accompanied by an accelerated and higher-level clonal expansion resulting from attenuated apoptotic death but not increased division of the activated cells. Attenuation of ROS-triggered pro-apoptotic events and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression appeared to be involved. Although cells activated in the presence of NAM exhibited compromised cytokine gene expression, our results suggest a means to augment the size of T cell expansion during activation without consuming their limited replicative potential. PMID:26442863

  13. High-Dose Nicotinamide Suppresses ROS Generation and Augments Population Expansion during CD8(+) T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ho Jin; Jang, So-Young; Hwang, Eun Seong

    2015-10-01

    During T cell activation, mitochondrial content increases to meet the high energy demand of rapid cell proliferation. With this increase, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increases and causes the rapid apoptotic death of activated cells, thereby facilitating T cell homeostasis. Nicotinamide (NAM) has previously been shown to enhance mitochondria quality and extend the replicative life span of human fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the effect of NAM on CD8(+) T cell activation. NAM treatment attenuated the increase of mitochondrial content and ROS in T cells activated by CD3/CD28 antibodies. This was accompanied by an accelerated and higher-level clonal expansion resulting from attenuated apoptotic death but not increased division of the activated cells. Attenuation of ROS-triggered pro-apoptotic events and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression appeared to be involved. Although cells activated in the presence of NAM exhibited compromised cytokine gene expression, our results suggest a means to augment the size of T cell expansion during activation without consuming their limited replicative potential. PMID:26442863

  14. Hesperetin Induces Apoptosis in Breast Carcinoma by Triggering Accumulation of ROS and Activation of ASK1/JNK Pathway.

    PubMed

    Palit, Shreyasi; Kar, Susanta; Sharma, Gunjan; Das, Pijush K

    2015-08-01

    Hesperetin, a flavanone glycoside predominantly found in citrus fruits, exhibits a wide array of biological properties. In the present study hesperetin exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner without affecting normal (HMEC) as well as immortalized normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effect of hesperetin was due to the induction of apoptosis as evident from the phosphatidyl-serine externalization, DNA fragmentation, caspase-7 activation, and PARP cleavage. Apoptosis was associated with caspase-9 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, release of cytochrome c, and increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. Pre-treatment with caspase-9 specific inhibitor (Z-LEHD-fmk) markedly attenuated apoptosis suggesting an involvement of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic cascade. Further, DCFDA flow-cytometric analysis revealed triggering of ROS in a time-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione markedly abrogated hesperetin-mediated apoptosis whereas carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) pretreatment along with DHR123-based flow-cytometry indicated the generation of cytosolic ROS. Profiling of MAPKs revealed activation of JNK upon hesperetin treatment which was abrogated upon NAC pre-treatment. Additionally, inhibition of JNK by SP600125 significantly reversed hesperetin-mediated apoptosis. The activation of JNK was associated with the activation of ASK1. Silencing of ASK1 resulted in significant attenuation of JNK activation as well as reversed the hesperetin-mediated apoptosis suggesting that hesperetin-mediated apoptosis of MCF-7 cells involves accumulation of ROS and activation of ASK1/JNK pathway. In addition, hesperetin also induced apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells via intrinsic pathway via activation of caspase -9 and -3 and increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. PMID:25204891

  15. Tea polyphenols alleviate high fat and high glucose-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by attenuating ROS production via NADPH oxidase pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial hyperpermeability is crucial to cardiovascular disorders and macro-vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial hyperpermeability and the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway. Methods Male Wistar rats fed on a high fat diet (HF) were treated with GTPs (0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L in drinking water) for 26 weeks. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with high glucose (HG, 33 mmol/L) and GTPs (0.0, 0.4, or 4 μg/mL) for 24 hours in vitro. The endothelial permeabilities in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by Evans blue injection method and efflux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2′, 7′-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe, respectively. Protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were determined by Western-blot. Results HF diet-fed increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in rat aorta while HG treatments increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in cultured BAECs. Co-treatment with GTPs alleviated those changes both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro studies, GTPs treatments protected against the HG-induced over-expressions of p22phox and p67phox. Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, alleviated the hyperpermeability induced by HG. Conclusions GTPs could alleviate endothelial hyperpermeabilities in HF diet-fed rat aorta and in HG treated BAECs. The decrease of ROS production resulting from down-regulation of NADPH oxidase contributed to the alleviation of endothelial hyperpermeability. PMID:24580748

  16. Rapamycin ameliorates cadmium-induced activation of MAPK pathway and neuronal apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial ROS inactivation of PP2A.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Yu; Dong, Xiaoqing; Liu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Lei; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic metal that affects the central nervous system. Recently we have demonstrated that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin rescues neuronal cells from Cd-poisoning. Here we show that rapamycin inhibited Cd-induced mitochondrial ROS-dependent neuronal apoptosis. Intriguingly, rapamycin remarkably blocked phosphorylation of JNK, Erk1/2 and p38 in neuronal cells induced by Cd, which was strengthened by co-treatment with Mito-TEMPO. Inhibition of JNK and Erk1/2 by SP600125 and U0126, respectively, potentiated rapamycin's prevention from Cd-induced apoptosis. Consistently, over-expression of dominant negative c-Jun or MKK1 also potently improved the inhibitory effect of rapamycin on Cd neurotoxicity. Furthermore, pretreatment with SP600125 or U0126, or expression of dominant negative c-Jun or MKK1 enhanced the inhibitory effects of rapamycin or Mito-TEMPO on Cd-induced ROS. Further investigation found that co-treatment with Mito-TEMPO/rapamycin more effectively rescued cells by preventing Cd inactivation of PP2A than treatment with rapamycin or Mito-TEMPO alone. Over-expression of wild-type PP2A reinforced rapamycin or Mito-TEMPO suppression of activated JNK and Erk1/2 pathways, as well as ROS production and apoptosis in neuronal cells in response to Cd. The findings indicate that rapamycin ameliorates Cd-evoked neuronal apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial ROS inactivation of PP2A, thereby suppressing activation of JNK and Erk1/2 pathways. Our results underline that rapamycin may have a potential in preventing Cd-induced oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26805420

  17. Effect of selenite on T-cell mitogenesis: contribution of ROS production and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hitoshi; Kajihara, Hitomi; Nakamura, Hajime; Okuno, Tomofumi; Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Ogino, Hirofumi; Nakamuro, Katsuhiko; Yodoi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Although supplementation with the selenocompound, sodium selenite has been shown to stimulate the concanavalin A-induced T-cell mitogenic response, the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships between the induction of apoptosis, formation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) 1 and the thioredoxin (Trx) system when mitogenesis was stimulated by selenite. TNF-alpha was dose-dependently released by mouse splenocytes treated with selenite, and apoptosis was induced when TNF-alpha was added at the indicated concentrations. However, supplementation with selenite at low concentrations inhibited the accumulation of ROS with the increased expression of Trx reductase 1 and induction of apoptosis in wild-type splenocytes, and also at high concentrations in Trx-1-transgenic mouse splenocytes. The suppression of apoptosis was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of phospho-ASK1. These results suggest that the stimulation of T-cell mitogenesis by selenite may be partly attributed to the inhibited accumulation of ROS due to a reduced Trx-1/TR1 system, the inactivation of ASK1, and the suppression of apoptosis. PMID:25087957

  18. AdipoR-increased intracellular ROS promotes cPLA2 and COX-2 expressions via activation of PKC and p300 in adiponectin-stimulated human alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Mei; Yang, Chuen-Mao; Chang, Jia-Feng; Wu, Chi-Sheng; Sia, Kee-Chin; Lin, Wei-Ning

    2016-08-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, accumulated in lung system via T-cadherin after allergens/ozone challenge. However, the roles of adiponectin on lung pathologies were controversial. Here we reported that adiponectin stimulated expression of inflammatory proteins, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human alveolar type II A549 cells. AdipoR1/2 involved in adiponectin-activated NADPH oxidase and mitochondria, which further promoted intracellular ROS accumulation. Protein kinase C (PKC) may involve an adiponectin-activated NADPH oxidase. Similarly, p300 phosphorylation and histone H4 acetylation occurred in adiponectin-challenged A549 cells. Moreover, adiponectin-upregulated cPLA2 and COX-2 expression was significantly abrogated by ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine) or the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (apocynin), mitochondrial complex I (rotenone), PKC (Ro31-8220, Gö-6976, and rottlerin), and p300 (garcinol). Briefly, we reported that adiponectin stimulated cPLA2 and COX-2 expression via AdipoR1/2-dependent activation of PKC/NADPH oxidase/mitochondria resulting in ROS accumulation, p300 phosphorylation, and histone H4 acetylation. These results suggested that adiponectin promoted lung inflammation, resulting in exacerbation of pulmonary diseases via upregulating cPLA2 and COX-2 expression together with intracellular ROS production. Understanding the adiponectin signaling pathways on regulating cPLA2 and COX-2 may help develop therapeutic strategies on pulmonary diseases. PMID:27288489

  19. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Zhang Zhuo; Cheng Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Ding Songze; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi Xianglin

    2011-09-15

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: > Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. > Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. > This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

  20. Effects of Mountain Ultra-Marathon Running on ROS Production and Oxidative Damage by Micro-Invasive Analytic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Moretti, Sarah; Pratali, Lorenza; Giardini, Guido; Tacchini, Philippe; Dellanoce, Cinzia; Tonacci, Alessandro; Mastorci, Francesca; Borghini, Andrea; Montorsi, Michela; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aiming to gain a detailed insight into the physiological mechanisms involved under extreme conditions, a group of experienced ultra-marathon runners, performing the mountain Tor des Géants® ultra-marathon: 330 km trail-run in Valle d’Aosta, 24000 m of positive and negative elevation changes, was monitored. ROS production rate, antioxidant capacity, oxidative damage and inflammation markers were assessed, adopting micro-invasive analytic techniques. Methods Forty-six male athletes (45.04±8.75 yr, 72.6±8.4 kg, 1.76±0.05 m) were tested. Capillary blood and urine were collected before (Pre-), in the middle (Middle-) and immediately after (Post-) Race. Samples were analyzed for: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance; Antioxidant Capacity by Electrochemistry; oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxy Guanosine: 8-OH-dG; 8-isoprostane: 8-isoPGF2α) and nitric oxide metabolites by enzymatic assays; inflammatory biomarkers (plasma and urine interleukin-6: IL-6-P and IL-6-U) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); Creatinine and Neopterin by HPLC, hematologic (lactate, glucose and hematocrit) and urine parameters by standard analyses. Results Twenty-five athletes finished the race, while twenty-one dropped out of it. A significant increase (Post-Race vs Pre) of the ROS production rate (2.20±0.27 vs 1.65±0.22 μmol.min-1), oxidative damage biomarkers (8-OH-dG: 6.32±2.38 vs 4.16±1.25 ng.mg-1 Creatinine and 8-isoPGF2α: 1404.0±518.30 vs 822.51±448.91 pg.mg-1Creatinine), inflammatory state (IL-6-P: 66.42±36.92 vs 1.29±0.54 pg.mL-1 and IL-6-U: 1.33±0.56 vs 0.71±0.17 pg.mL1) and lactate production (+190%), associated with a decrease of both antioxidant capacity (-7%) and renal function (i.e. Creatinine level +76%) was found. Conclusions The used micro-invasive analytic methods allowed us to perform most of them before, during and immediately after the race directly in the field, by passing the need of storing and

  1. Sphingomyelinase promotes oxidant production and skeletal muscle contractile dysfunction through activation of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, James A.; Abo-Zahrah, Reem; Pal, Rituraj; Rodney, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sphingomyelinase (SMase) have been detected in a variety of diseases. SMase has been shown to increase muscle derived oxidants and decrease skeletal muscle force; however, the sub-cellular site of oxidant production has not been elucidated. Using redox sensitive biosensors targeted to the mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (Nox2), we demonstrate that SMase increased Nox2-dependent ROS and had no effect on mitochondrial ROS in isolated FDB fibers. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of Nox2 activity prevented SMase induced ROS production and provided protection against decreased force production in the diaphragm. In contrast, genetic overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the mitochondria did not prevent increased ROS production and offered no protection against decreased diaphragm function in response to SMase. Our study shows that SMase induced ROS production occurs in specific sub-cellular regions of skeletal muscle; however, the increased ROS does not completely account for the decrease in muscle function. PMID:25653619

  2. Activation of the NRF2-ARE signalling pathway by the Lentinula edodes polysaccharose LNT alleviates ROS-mediated cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Peng, Huixia; Dong, Lei; Chen, Lijuan; Ma, Xiaobin; Peng, Yuping; Dai, Shejiao; Liu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The nephrotoxicity of cisplatin (cis-DDP) limits its general clinical applications. Lentinan (LNT), a dextran extracted from the mushroom Lentinula edodes, has been shown to have multiple pharmacological activities. The primary objective of the current study was to determine whether and how LNT alleviates cis-DDP- induced cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells and nephrotoxicity in mice. LNT did not interfere with cisplatin's anti-tumour efficacy in vitro and functioned cooperatively with cis-DDP to inhibit activity in HeLa and A549 tumour cells. LNT alleviated the cis-DDP-induced decrease in HK-2 cell viability, caspase-3 activation and cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme PARP, decreased HK-2 cell apoptosis and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in HK-2 cells. The inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC) could decreased the apoptosis of HK-2 cell. In addition, LNT significantly prevented cis-DDP-induced kidney injury in vivo. LNT itself could not eliminate ROS levels in vitro. Further studies demonstrated that LNT induced NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein and mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. LNT promoted Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus and binding to the antioxidant-response element (ARE) sequence and induced the transcription and translation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), aldo-keto reductases 1C1 and 1C2 (AKR1C), and NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Finally, we used hNrf2 siRNA and an Nrf2 agonist (tBHQ) to inhibit or enhance Nrf2 expression. The results demonstrated that the LNT-mediated alleviation of cis-DDP-induced nephrotoxicity was achieved by preventing the accumulation of ROS in a manner that depended on the activation of the Nrf2-ARE signalling pathway. PMID:27093515

  3. Allicin sensitizes hepatocellular cancer cells to anti-tumor activity of 5-fluorouracil through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xuejing; Liang, Jiyun; Sun, Jingyuan; Hu, Xiaoyun; Lei, Ling; Wu, Dehua; Liu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Drug resistance and hepatic dysfunction are the two major factors that limit the application of chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that allicin has the hepatic protective effect and antitumor activity. Hence allicin may be an ideal enhancer to chemotherapy regimen of HCC. In the present study, we demonstrated that allicin enhanced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) inducing cytotoxicity in HCC cells. In vivo experiment, combined treatment group with allicin (5 mg/kg/d; every two days for 3 weeks) and 5-FU (20 mg/kg/d; 5 consecutive days) showed a dramatic inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC xenograft tumors in nude mice. The co-treatment group showed highly apoptotic level compared with 5-FU treated alone. Cells combined treatment with allicin and 5-FU increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), activated caspase-3 and PARP, and down-regulated Bcl-2 compared with DMSO, allicin and 5-FU treated alone. Moreover, the increase of activated caspase-3 and PARP was blocked by the ROS inhibitor antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that allicin sensitized HCC cells to 5-FU induced apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. These results provided evidences for the combination used of allicin and 5-FU as a novel chemotherapy regimen in HCC. PMID:27177453

  4. Febuxostat Inhibition of Endothelial-Bound XO: Implications for Targeting Vascular ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Umair Z.; Hundley, Nicholas J.; Romero, Guillermo; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Tarpey, Margaret M.; Kelley, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a critical source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to vascular inflammation. Binding of XO to vascular endothelial cell glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) results in significant resistance to inhibition by traditional pyrazolopyrimidine-based inhibitors such as allopurinol. Therefore, we compared the extent of XO inhibition (free and GAG-bound) by allopurinol to febuxostat, a newly approved nonpurine XO-specific inhibitor. In solution, febuxostat was 1000 fold more potent than allopurinol inhibition of XO-dependent uric acid formation (IC50 = 1.8 nM vs. 2.9 μM). Association of XO with heparin-Sepharose 6B (HS6B-XO) had minimal effect on inhibition of uric acid formation by febuxostat (IC50 = 4.4 nM) while further limiting the effect of allopurinol (IC50 = 64 μM). Kinetic analysis of febuxostat inhibition revealed Ki values of 0.96 nM (free) and 0.92 nM (HS6B-XO), confirming equivalent inhibition for both free and GAG-immobilized enzyme. When XO was bound to endothelial cell GAGs, complete enzyme inhibition was observed with 25 nM febuxostat, while no more than 80% inhibition was seen with either allopurinol or oxypurinol, even at concentrations above those tolerated clinically. The superior potency for inhibition of endothelium-associated XO is predictive of a significant role for febuxostat in investigating pathological states where XO-derived ROS are contributive and traditional XO inhibitors are only slightly effective. PMID:21554948

  5. Unusual compounds from Galium mollugo and their inhibitory activities against ROS generation in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chaher, Nassima; Krisa, Stéphanie; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Bernillon, Stéphane; Pedrot, Eric; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Atmani, Djebbar; Richard, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Three unusual dioxatricyclodecenone compounds, mollugoside A, E-mollugoside B and Z-mollugoside B and, together with known flavonoids, were isolated from the aerial parts of Galium mollugo collected in north-eastern Algeria. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR. Flavonoids and mollugoside A significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human fibroblasts. PMID:26344381

  6. Nox-derived ROS are acutely activated in pressure overload pulmonary hypertension: indications for a seminal role for mitochondrial Nox4.

    PubMed

    Frazziano, Giovanna; Al Ghouleh, Imad; Baust, Jeff; Shiva, Sruti; Champion, Hunter C; Pagano, Patrick J

    2014-01-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe progressive disease with marked morbidity and high mortality in which right ventricular (RV) failure is the major cause of death. Thus knowledge of the mechanisms underlying RV failure is an area of active interest. Previous studies suggest a role of NADPH oxidase in cardiomyocyte dysfunction in the left heart. Here we postulate that acute pressure overload induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) leads to a Nox4-initiated increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse RV that may lead to feed-forward induction of Nox2. To test our hypothesis, ROS production was measured in RV and left ventricle homogenates. The data show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), but not superoxide anion (O2(·-)), was increased in the early phases (within 6 h) of PAB in RV and that this increase was diminished by catalase and diphenyleneiodonium chloride but not by SOD, N(ω)-nitro-l-arginin methyl ester, febuxostat, or indomethacin. H2O2 production in RV was not attenuated in Nox2 null mice subjected to 6 h PAB. Moreover, we observed an upregulation of Nox4 mRNA after 1 h of PAB and an increase in mitochondrial Nox4 protein 6 h post-PAB. In contrast, we observed an increase in Nox2 mRNA 1 day post-PAB. Expression of antioxidant enzymes SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase did not change, but catalase activity increased 6 h post-PAB. Taken together, these findings show a role of mitochondria-localized Nox4 in the early phase of PAB and suggest an involvement of this isozyme in early ROS generation possibly contributing to progression of RV dysfunction and failure. PMID:24213612

  7. ATP Mediates NADPH Oxidase/ROS Generation and COX-2/PGE2 Expression in A549 Cells: Role of P2 Receptor-Dependent STAT3 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shin-Ei; Lee, I-Ta; Lin, Chih-Chung; Wu, Wan-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2013-01-01

    Background Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are frequently implicated in lung inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP have been shown to act via activation of P2 purinoceptors, leading to COX-2 expression in various inflammatory diseases, such as lung inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying ATP-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release remain unclear. Principal Findings Here, we showed that ATPγS induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells revealed by western blot and real-time PCR. Pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor (PPADS and suramin), PKC (Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, and Rottlerin), ROS (Edaravone), NADPH oxidase [diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and apocynin], Jak2 (AG490), and STAT3 [cucurbitacin E (CBE)] and transfection with siRNAs of PKCα, PKCι, PKCμ, p47phox, Jak2, STAT3, and cPLA2 markedly reduced ATPγS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. In addition, pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor attenuated PKCs translocation from the cytosol to the membrane in response to ATPγS. Moreover, ATPγS-induced ROS generation and p47phox translocation was also reduced by pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor, PKC, and NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, ATPγS stimulated Jak2 and STAT3 activation which were inhibited by pretreatment with PPADS, suramin, Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, GF109203X, Rottlerin, Edaravone, DPI, and apocynin in A549 cells. Significance Taken together, these results showed that ATPγS induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production via a P2 receptor/PKC/NADPH oxidase/ROS/Jak2/STAT3/cPLA2 signaling pathway in A549 cells. Increased understanding of signal transduction mechanisms underlying COX-2 gene regulation will create opportunities for the development of anti-inflammation therapeutic strategies. PMID:23326583

  8. LZ-106, a novel analog of enoxacin, inducing apoptosis via activation of ROS-dependent DNA damage response in NSCLCs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Yuan, Yinan; Fu, Chengyu; Xu, Xuefen; Zhou, Jieying; Wang, Shuhao; Kong, Lingyi; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Wei, Libin

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer, especially non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), plays the leading role in cancer which is closely related to a myriad of fatal results. Unfortunately, current molecular mechanisms and clinical treatment of NSCLC still remain to be explored despite the fact that intensive investigations have been carried out in the last two decades. Recently, growing attention to finding exploitable sources of anticancer agents is refocused on quinolone compounds, an antibiotic with a long period of clinic application, for their remarkable cell-killing activity against not only bacteria, but eukaryotes as well. In this study, we found LZ-106, an analog of enoxacin, exhibiting potent inhibitory effects on NSCLC in both cultured cells and xenograft mouse model. We identified apoptosis-inducing action of LZ-106 in NSCLC cells through the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress apoptotic pathways via Annexin-V/PI double-staining assay, membrane potential detection, calcium level detection and the expression analysis of the key apoptotic proteins. Through comet assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, the expression analysis of DNA damage response (DDR) marker γ-H2AX and other DDR-related proteins, we also demonstrated that LZ-106 notably induced ROS overproduction and DDR. Interestingly, additional evidence in our findings revealed that DDR and apoptosis could be alleviated in the presence of ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), indicating ROS-dependent DDR involvement in LZ-106-induced apoptosis. Thus our data not only offered a new therapeutic candidate for NSCLC, but also put new insights into the pharmacological research of quinolones. PMID:27012423

  9. Saikosaponin-D reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by repressing ROS-mediated activation of MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaobin; Dang, Chengxue; Kang, Huafeng; Dai, Zhijun; Lin, Shuai; Guan, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xijing; Hui, Wentao

    2015-09-01

    The nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin (DDP) severely limits the clinical efficacy of this widely used anticancer agent. The observed nephrotoxicity may be the result of DDP-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Saikosaponin-D (SSD), a triterpenoid saponin, has numerous pharmacological properties. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether and how SSD protected against DDP-induced nephrotoxicity. Non-cytotoxic levels of SSD significantly increased the viability rate, improved the nuclear morphology, and attenuated the caspase-3 activation and programmed apoptosis of DDP-treated HK-2 cells. In addition, SSD treatment markedly inhibited the release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as the production of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by these cells. More importantly, SSD effectively blocked the DDP-induced activation of NF-κB, P38, JNK, and MAPKs. Furthermore, we found that U0126 (a specific inhibitor of MAPKs) strongly inhibited the IKK/IκB/NF-κB-dependent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS gene expression. Finally, we demonstrated that SSD decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and that the specific ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly inhibited the DDP-induced activation of MAPK and phosphorylation of the downstream signal NF-κB, which in turn reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and iNOS gene expression. Our results suggest that the SSD-mediated alleviation of DDP-induced nephrotoxicity was due to uncoupling of the ROS, P38, and JNK/NF-κB signalling pathways. PMID:26118633

  10. Use of Commercial Dry Yeast Products Rich in Mannoproteins for White and Rosé Sparkling Wine Elaboration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Bueno-Herrera, Marta; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2015-06-17

    In sparkling wines, mannoproteins released during yeast autolysis largely affect their final quality. This process is very slow and may take several months. The aim of this work was to study the effect of several commercial dry yeast autolysates on the chemical composition, foam, and sensory properties of white and rosé sparkling wines aged on lees for 9 months during two consecutive vintages. The addition of these products in the tirage phase did not affect either the content of phenolic compounds, amino acids, and biogenic amines or the foam properties. The commercial product with the highest mannoprotein content and the highest purity caused significant changes in the volatile composition of the wines and enhanced the fruity aromas in both Verdejo and Godello sparkling wines. PMID:26027899

  11. Glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS production, Ca(2+) and water channel in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, ShanShan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, GenXuan

    2016-03-01

    Sugars act as vital signaling molecules that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the effects of sugars on stomatal movement have been unclear. In our study, we explored the effects of monosaccharides such as glucose and mannose on stomatal aperture. Here, we demonstrate that glucose and mannose trigger stomatal closure in a dose- and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of broad bean (Vicia faba). Pharmacological studies revealed that glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was almost completely inhibited by two reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), was significantly abolished by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), whereas they were hardly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). Furthermore, glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was strongly inhibited by a Ca(2+) channel blocker, LaCl3 , a Ca(2+) chelator, ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and two water channel blockers, HgCl2 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); whereas the inhibitory effects of the water channel blockers were essentially abolished by the reversing agent β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). These results suggest that ROS production mainly via NADPH oxidases, Ca(2+) and water channels are involved in glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure. PMID:26046775

  12. Aqueous Extract of Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam Inhibits PMA-Induced Tumor Cell Invasion and Pulmonary Metastasis: Suppression of NF-κB Activation through ROS Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo shavings (Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam, BCT) are widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine to control hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and to alleviate fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. It has been demonstrated that BCT reduces ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, and decreases tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. However, the effects of BCT on the metastatic potential of malignant cancer cells and the detailed mechanism of its anti-metastatic activity have not been examined previously. In this study, we investigated whether an aqueous extract of BCT (AE-BCT) reduces the metastatic potential of HT1080 cells, and elucidated the underlying anti-metastatic mechanism. In addition, we examined whether AE-BCT administration inhibits pulmonary metastasis of intravenously injected B16F10 cells in C57BL/6J mice. AE-BCT (50–250 µg/ml) dose-dependently suppressed colony-forming activity under anchorage-dependent and -independent growth conditions. Pretreatment with AE-BCT efficiently inhibited cell migration, invasion, and adhesion. AE-BCT also dramatically suppressed PMA-induced MMP-9 activity and expression by blocking NF-κB activation and ERK phosphorylation. Production of intracellular ROS, a key regulator of NF-κB-induced MMP-9 activity, was almost completely blocked by pretreatment with AE-BCT. Furthermore, daily oral administration of AE-BCT at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg efficiently inhibited lung metastasis of B16F10 cells injected into the tail veins of C57BL/6J mice with no systemic toxicity. These results demonstrate that AE-BCT significantly reduced the metastatic activity of highly malignant cancer cells by suppressing MMP-9 activity via inhibition of ROS-mediated NF-κB activation. These results indicate that AE-BCT may be a safe natural product for treatment of metastatic cancer. PMID:24205091

  13. The cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly component MET18 is required for the full enzymatic activity of ROS1 in active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaokang; Li, Qi; Yuan, Wei; Cao, Zhendong; Qi, Bei; Kumar, Suresh; Li, Yan; Qian, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns in plants are dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and active DNA demethylation in response to both environmental changes and development of plant. Beginning with the removal of methylated cytosine by ROS1/DME family of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, active DNA demethylation in plants occurs through base excision repair. So far, many components involved in active DNA demethylation remain undiscovered. Through a forward genetic screening of Arabidopsis mutants showing DNA hypermethylation at the EPF2 promoter region, we identified the conserved iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein MET18. MET18 dysfunction caused DNA hypermethylation at more than 1000 loci as well as the silencing of reporter genes and some endogenous genes. MET18 can directly interact with ROS1 in vitro and in vivo. ROS1 activity was reduced in the met18 mutant plants and point mutation in the conserved Fe-S cluster binding motif of ROS1 disrupted its biological function. Interestingly, a large number of DNA hypomethylated loci, especially in the CHH context, were identified from the met18 mutants and most of the hypo-DMRs were from TE regions. Our results suggest that MET18 can regulate both active DNA demethylation and DNA methylation pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27193999

  14. The cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly component MET18 is required for the full enzymatic activity of ROS1 in active DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaokang; Li, Qi; Yuan, Wei; Cao, Zhendong; Qi, Bei; Kumar, Suresh; Li, Yan; Qian, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns in plants are dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and active DNA demethylation in response to both environmental changes and development of plant. Beginning with the removal of methylated cytosine by ROS1/DME family of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, active DNA demethylation in plants occurs through base excision repair. So far, many components involved in active DNA demethylation remain undiscovered. Through a forward genetic screening of Arabidopsis mutants showing DNA hypermethylation at the EPF2 promoter region, we identified the conserved iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein MET18. MET18 dysfunction caused DNA hypermethylation at more than 1000 loci as well as the silencing of reporter genes and some endogenous genes. MET18 can directly interact with ROS1 in vitro and in vivo. ROS1 activity was reduced in the met18 mutant plants and point mutation in the conserved Fe-S cluster binding motif of ROS1 disrupted its biological function. Interestingly, a large number of DNA hypomethylated loci, especially in the CHH context, were identified from the met18 mutants and most of the hypo-DMRs were from TE regions. Our results suggest that MET18 can regulate both active DNA demethylation and DNA methylation pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27193999

  15. Optimizing Pulse Waveforms in Plasma Jets for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth; Babaeva, Natalia Yu.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are desired in numerous applications from the destruction of harmful proteins and bacteria for sterilization in the medical field to taking advantage of the metastable characteristics of O2(^1δ) to transfer energy to other species. Advances in atmospheric pressure plasma jets in recent years show the possibility of using this application as a source of reactive oxygen species. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration. The computer model used in this study, nonPDPSIM, solves transport equations for charged and neutral species, Poisson's equation for the electric potential, the electron energy conservation equation for the electron temperature, and Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to track sheath accelerated secondary electrons emitted from surfaces and the energy of ions incident onto surfaces. Rate coefficients and transport coefficients for the bulk plasma are obtained from local solutions of Boltzmann's equation for the electron energy distribution. Radiation transport is addressed using a Green's function approach. Various waveforms for the voltage source were examined in analogy to spiker-sustainer systems used at lower gas pressures.

  16. Isoflurane attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting ROS-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ning; Peng, Zhendan; Li, Bin; Xia, Jiangyan; Wang, Zhen; Yuan, Jing; Fang, Lei; Lu, Xinjiang

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding domains and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) pyrin domains containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome are highly involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) wherein alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a crucial role. Isoflurane (ISO) has been shown to attenuate ALI. However, the inhibitory effects of ISO on NLRP3 activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI remain unknown. Here, we showed that 1.4% ISO post-treatment reduced LPS-induced body weight loss, pulmonary histopathological injury, edema, and vascular permeability in rats. ISO attenuated LPS-triggered inflammation, as evidenced by reductions in the number of total cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, and the release of IL-1β and IL-18 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. ISO treatment decreased the myeloperoxidase activity, F4/80-positive cells, and the mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-18 in the lung tissues of LPS-treated rats. Mechanistically, ISO reduced NLRP3 activation and caspase-1 activity in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. An in vitro study that ISO inhibited LPS-induced AM activation partly confirmed in vivo findings. Overall, these results indicate that ISO post-conditioning alleviated LPS-induced ALI possibly by inhibiting ROS-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:27347312

  17. Effects of Camphorquinone on Cytotoxicity, Cell Cycle Regulation and Prostaglandin E2 Production of Dental Pulp Cells: Role of ROS, ATM/Chk2, MEK/ERK and Hemeoxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Min-Tsz; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Lee, Ming-Shu; Sun, Tzu-Ying; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Lin, Hsueh-Jen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Camphorquinone (CQ) is a popularly-used photosensitizer in composite resin restoration. In this study, the effects of CQ on cytotoxicity and inflammation-related genes and proteins expression of pulp cells were investigated. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATM/Chk2/p53 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and MEK/ERK signaling was also evaluated. We found that ROS and free radicals may play important role in CQ toxicity. CQ (1 and 2 mM) decreased the viability of pulp cells to about 70% and 50% of control, respectively. CQ also induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of pulp cells. The expression of type I collagen, cdc2, cyclin B, and cdc25C was inhibited, while p21, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were stimulated by CQ. CQ also activated ATM, Chk2, and p53 phosphorylation and GADD45α expression. Besides, exposure to CQ increased cellular ROS level and 8-isoprostane production. CQ also stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production of pulp cells. The reduction of cell viability caused by CQ can be attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but can be promoted by Zinc protoporphyin (ZnPP). CQ stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and U0126 prevented the CQ-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. These results indicate that CQ may cause cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and PGE2 production of pulp cells. These events could be due to stimulation of ROS and 8-isoprostane production, ATM/Chk2/p53 signaling, HO-1, COX-2 and p21 expression, as well as the inhibition of cdc2, cdc25C and cyclin B1. These results are important for understanding the role of ROS in pathogenesis of pulp necrosis and pulpal inflammation after clinical composite resin filling. PMID:26658076

  18. Effects of Camphorquinone on Cytotoxicity, Cell Cycle Regulation and Prostaglandin E2 Production of Dental Pulp Cells: Role of ROS, ATM/Chk2, MEK/ERK and Hemeoxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Min-Tsz; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Lee, Ming-Shu; Sun, Tzu-Ying; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Lin, Hsueh-Jen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Camphorquinone (CQ) is a popularly-used photosensitizer in composite resin restoration. In this study, the effects of CQ on cytotoxicity and inflammation-related genes and proteins expression of pulp cells were investigated. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATM/Chk2/p53 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and MEK/ERK signaling was also evaluated. We found that ROS and free radicals may play important role in CQ toxicity. CQ (1 and 2 mM) decreased the viability of pulp cells to about 70% and 50% of control, respectively. CQ also induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of pulp cells. The expression of type I collagen, cdc2, cyclin B, and cdc25C was inhibited, while p21, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were stimulated by CQ. CQ also activated ATM, Chk2, and p53 phosphorylation and GADD45α expression. Besides, exposure to CQ increased cellular ROS level and 8-isoprostane production. CQ also stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production of pulp cells. The reduction of cell viability caused by CQ can be attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but can be promoted by Zinc protoporphyin (ZnPP). CQ stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and U0126 prevented the CQ-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. These results indicate that CQ may cause cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and PGE2 production of pulp cells. These events could be due to stimulation of ROS and 8-isoprostane production, ATM/Chk2/p53 signaling, HO-1, COX-2 and p21 expression, as well as the inhibition of cdc2, cdc25C and cyclin B1. These results are important for understanding the role of ROS in pathogenesis of pulp necrosis and pulpal inflammation after clinical composite resin filling. PMID:26658076

  19. ROS-Dependent Mitochondria Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Antitumor Activity of Pleurotus abalonus Acidic Polysaccharides in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaolong; Zhao, Yan; Jiao, Yadong; Shi, Tengrui; Yang, Xingbin

    2013-01-01

    Background A greater reduction in cancer risk associated with mushroom diet rich in fungus polysaccharides is generally accepted. Meanwhile, edible Pleurotus abalonus as a member of Abalone mushroom family is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly prevents cancer occurrence. However, these anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing tumor-inhibitory responses to the promising polysaccharides, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties have not yet been elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings We here fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation from the fruiting bodies of P. abalonus into three fractions, namely PAP-1, PAP-2 and PAP-3, and tested these fractions for antiproliferative activity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The largest PAP-3, an acidic polysaccharide fraction with a molecular mass of 3.68×105 Da, was the most active in inhibiting MCF-7 cancer cells with an IC50 of 193 µg/mL. The changes in cell normal morphology were observed by DAPI staining and the PAP-3-induced apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The apoptosis was involved in mitochondria-mediated pathway including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-9/3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation, as well as intracellular ROS production. PAP-3 also induced up-regulation of p53, and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. The incubation of MCF-7 cells with antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated the ROS generation and apoptosis caused by PAP-3, indicating that intracellular ROS plays a pivotal role in cell death. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the polysaccharides, especially acidic PAP-3, are very important nutritional ingredients responsible for, at least in part, the anticancer health benefits of P. abalonus via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. It is a

  20. Isoliensinine induces apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells through ROS generation and p38 MAPK/JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiyu; Wang, Xiyao; Wu, Tingting; Li, Boxuan; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Zhaojian; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2015-01-01

    Isoliensinine, liensinine and neferine are major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the seed embryo of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), and exhibit potential anti-cancer activity. Here, we explored the effects of these alkaloids on triple-negative breast cancer cells and found that among the three alkaloids isoliensinine possesses the most potent cytotoxic effect, primarily by inducing apoptosis. Interestingly, isoliensinine showed a much lower cytotoxicity against MCF-10A, a normal human breast epithelial cell line. Further studies showed that isoliensinine could significantly increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in triple-negative breast cancer cells, but not in MCF-10A cells. The isoliensinine-induced apoptosis could be attenuated by radical oxygen scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting that the cytotoxic effect of isoliensinine on cancer cells is at least partially achieved by inducing oxidative stress. We found that both p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways were activated by isoliensinine treatment and contributed to the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibitors or specific siRNAs of p38 MAPK and JNK could attenuate apoptosis induced by isoliensinine. However, only the p38 inhibitor or p38-specific siRNA blocked the elevation of ROS in isoliensinine-treated cells. Our findings thus revealed a novel antitumor effect of isoliensinine on breast cancer cells and may have therapeutic implications. PMID:26219228

  1. Isoliensinine induces apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells through ROS generation and p38 MAPK/JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiyu; Wang, Xiyao; Wu, Tingting; Li, Boxuan; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Zhaojian; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2015-01-01

    Isoliensinine, liensinine and neferine are major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the seed embryo of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), and exhibit potential anti-cancer activity. Here, we explored the effects of these alkaloids on triple-negative breast cancer cells and found that among the three alkaloids isoliensinine possesses the most potent cytotoxic effect, primarily by inducing apoptosis. Interestingly, isoliensinine showed a much lower cytotoxicity against MCF-10A, a normal human breast epithelial cell line. Further studies showed that isoliensinine could significantly increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in triple-negative breast cancer cells, but not in MCF-10A cells. The isoliensinine-induced apoptosis could be attenuated by radical oxygen scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting that the cytotoxic effect of isoliensinine on cancer cells is at least partially achieved by inducing oxidative stress. We found that both p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways were activated by isoliensinine treatment and contributed to the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibitors or specific siRNAs of p38 MAPK and JNK could attenuate apoptosis induced by isoliensinine. However, only the p38 inhibitor or p38-specific siRNA blocked the elevation of ROS in isoliensinine-treated cells. Our findings thus revealed a novel antitumor effect of isoliensinine on breast cancer cells and may have therapeutic implications. PMID:26219228

  2. Influence of the surface charge of PLGA nanoparticles on their in vitro genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, ROS production and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Platel, Anne; Carpentier, Rodolphe; Becart, Elodie; Mordacq, Gwendoline; Betbeder, Didier; Nesslany, Fabrice

    2016-03-01

    With the ongoing commercialization of nanotechnology products, human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) is set to increase dramatically and an evaluation of their potential adverse effects is essential. Surface charge, among other physico-chemicals parameters, is a key criterion that should be considered when using a definition for nanomaterials in a regulatory context. It has recently been recognized as an important factor in determining the toxicity of NPs; however, a complete understanding of the mechanisms involved is still lacking. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the surface charge modification of NPs on in vitro toxicity assays. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles bearing different surface charges, positive(+), neutral(n) or negative(-), were synthesized. In vitro genotoxicity assays (micronucleus and comet assays) coupled with an assessment of cytotoxicity, were performed in different cell lines (L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, TK6 human B-lymphoblastoid cells and 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and endocytosis studies were also performed. Our results showed that PLGA(+) NPs were cytotoxic. They are endocytosed by the clathrin pathway and induced ROS in the three cell lines. They led to chromosomal aberrations without primary DNA damage in 16HBE14o- cells, suggesting that aneuploidy may be considered as an important biomarker when assessing the genotoxic potential of NPs. Moreover, 16HBE14o- cells seem to be more suitable for the in vitro screening of inhaled NPs than the regulatory L5178Y and TK6 cells. PMID:26487569

  3. Effects of G6PD activity inhibition on the viability, ROS generation and mechanical properties of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zishui; Jiang, Chengrui; Feng, Yi; Chen, Rixin; Lin, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Han, Luhao; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Hongyi; Guo, Yibin; Jiang, Weiying

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been revealed to be involved in the efficacy to anti-cancer therapy but the mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the anti-cancer mechanism of G6PD deficiency. In our study, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and shRNA technology were used for inhibiting the activity of G6PD of cervical cancer cells. Peak Force QNM Atomic Force Microscopy was used to assess the changes of topography and biomechanical properties of cells and detect the effects on living cells in a natural aqueous environment. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe cell morphology. Moreover, a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to observe the alterations in cytoskeleton to explore the involved mechanism. When G6PD was inhibited by DHEA or RNA interference, the abnormal Young's modulus and increased roughness of cell membrane were observed in HeLa cells, as well as the idioblasts. Simultaneously, G6PD deficiency resulted in decreased HeLa cells migration and proliferation ability but increased ROS generation inducing apoptosis. What's more, the inhibition of G6PD activity caused the disorganization of microfilaments and microtubules of cytoskeletons and cell shrinkage. Our results indicated the anti-cervix cancer mechanism of G6PD deficiency may be involved with the decreased cancer cells migration and proliferation ability as a result of abnormal reorganization of cell cytoskeleton and abnormal biomechanical properties caused by the increased ROS. Suppression of G6PD may be a promising strategy in developing novel therapeutic methods for cervical cancer. PMID:27217331

  4. Roles of ROS and PKC-βII in ionizing radiation-induced eNOS activation in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Kimimasa; Kondo, Takashi; Mizuno, Natsumi; Shoji, Miki; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamori, Tohru; Inanami, Osamu; Yokoo, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Naoki; Hattori, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial cells can absorb higher radiation doses than any other tissue in the body, and post-radiation impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function may be developed as a potential contributor to the pathogenesis of vascular injury. In this study, we investigated early alterations of eNOS signaling in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to X-ray radiation. We found that ionizing radiation increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 and dephosphorylation at Thr-495 in HUVECs in a dose-dependent (≤ 20 Gy) and time-dependent (6-72 h) manner. The total expression levels of eNOS were unchanged by radiation. Although a transient but significant increase in extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and a biphasic decline in Akt phosphorylation were observed after irradiation, these inhibitors were without effect on the radiation-induced changes in eNOS phosphorylation. There was an increase in protein kinase C-βII (PKC-βII) expression and the ablation of PKC-βII by small interfering RNA (siRNA) negated the radiation effect on the two eNOS phosphorylation events. Furthermore, when the radiation-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was prevented by the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, eNOS Ser-1177 phosphorylation and Thr-495 dephosphorylation in irradiated HUVECs were significantly reduced. However, transfection of PKC-β siRNA did not alter ROS production after irradiation, and NAC failed to block the radiation-induced increase in PKC-βII expression. Taken together, our results suggest that ionizing radiation-induced eNOS activation in human vascular endothelial cells is attributed to both the up-regulation of PKC-βII and the increase in ROS generation which were independent of each other. PMID:25869503

  5. Entrectinib, a Pan-TRK, ROS1, and ALK Inhibitor with Activity in Multiple Molecularly Defined Cancer Indications.

    PubMed

    Ardini, Elena; Menichincheri, Maria; Banfi, Patrizia; Bosotti, Roberta; De Ponti, Cristina; Pulci, Romana; Ballinari, Dario; Ciomei, Marina; Texido, Gemma; Degrassi, Anna; Avanzi, Nilla; Amboldi, Nadia; Saccardo, Maria Beatrice; Casero, Daniele; Orsini, Paolo; Bandiera, Tiziano; Mologni, Luca; Anderson, David; Wei, Ge; Harris, Jason; Vernier, Jean-Michel; Li, Gang; Felder, Eduard; Donati, Daniele; Isacchi, Antonella; Pesenti, Enrico; Magnaghi, Paola; Galvani, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Activated ALK and ROS1 tyrosine kinases, resulting from chromosomal rearrangements, occur in a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) as well as other tumor types and their oncogenic relevance as actionable targets has been demonstrated by the efficacy of selective kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib, ceritinib, and alectinib. More recently, low-frequency rearrangements of TRK kinases have been described in NSCLC, colorectal carcinoma, glioblastoma, and Spitzoid melanoma. Entrectinib, whose discovery and preclinical characterization are reported herein, is a novel, potent inhibitor of ALK, ROS1, and, importantly, of TRK family kinases, which shows promise for therapy of tumors bearing oncogenic forms of these proteins. Proliferation profiling against over 200 human tumor cell lines revealed that entrectinib is exquisitely potent in vitro against lines that are dependent on the drug's pharmacologic targets. Oral administration of entrectinib to tumor-bearing mice induced regression in relevant human xenograft tumors, including the TRKA-dependent colorectal carcinoma KM12, ROS1-driven tumors, and several ALK-dependent models of different tissue origins, including a model of brain-localized lung cancer metastasis. Entrectinib is currently showing great promise in phase I/II clinical trials, including the first documented objective responses to a TRK inhibitor in colorectal carcinoma and in NSCLC. The drug is, thus, potentially suited to the therapy of several molecularly defined cancer settings, especially that of TRK-dependent tumors, for which no approved drugs are currently available. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 628-39. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26939704

  6. Piperlongumine inhibits migration of glioblastoma cells via activation of ROS-dependent p38 and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian Rong; Liu, Ju Mei; Chen, Yong; Xie, Xiao Qiang; Xiong, Xin Xin; Qiu, Xin Yao; Pan, Feng; Liu, Di; Yu, Shang Bin; Chen, Xiao Qian

    2014-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PL) is recently found to kill cancer cells selectively and effectively via targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses. To further explore the therapeutic effects of PL in cancers, we investigated the role and mechanisms of PL in cancer cell migration. PL effectively inhibited the migration of human glioma (LN229 or U87 MG) cells but not normal astrocytes in the scratch-wound culture model. PL did not alter EdU(+)-cells and cdc2, cdc25c, or cyclin D1 expression in our model. PL increased ROS (measured by DCFH-DA), reduced glutathione, activated p38 and JNK, increased IκBα, and suppressed NFκB in LN229 cells after scratching. All the biological effects of PL in scratched LN229 cells were completely abolished by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Pharmacological administration of specific p38 (SB203580) or JNK (SP600125) inhibitors significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of PL on LN229 cell migration and NF κ B activity in scratch-wound and/or transwell models. PL prevented the deformation of migrated LN229 cells while NAC, SB203580, or SP600125 reversed PL-induced morphological changes of migrated cells. These results suggest potential therapeutic effects of PL in the treatment and prevention of highly malignant tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in the brain by suppressing tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:24967005

  7. New polyhydroxylated flavon-3-ols and 3-hydroxy-2-styrylchromones: synthesis and ROS/RNS scavenging activities.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joana L C; Proença, Carina; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Silva, Artur M S

    2016-08-25

    New polyhydroxylated flavon-3-ols and 3-hydroxy-2-styrylchromones were prepared and assessed as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavengers. The synthetic strategy involved the preparation of 2'-hydroxychalcones and 2'-hydroxycinnamylidenoacetophenones from base-catalyzed aldol reaction of appropriate 2'-hydroxyacetophenones and benzaldehydes/cinnamaldehydes, followed by an Algar-Flynn-Oyamada (AFO) reaction to give the polyalkoxy(flavon-3-ols and 3-hydroxy-2-styrylchromones). The last step of this synthetic route consisted in the cleavage of the protecting groups affording the expected polyhydroxylated derivatives. The present work consisted in the study of the in vitro scavenging activities of the synthetized compounds against the most physiologically relevant ROS [superoxide radical (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and peroxyl radical (ROO)] and RNS [nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-))]. Generally, all the tested new polyhydroxylated flavon-3-ols and 3-hydroxy-2-styrylchromones exhibited scavenging effects dependent on the concentration, and with IC50 values found within the micromolar range. This work allowed the establishment of new structure-activity relationships and brought the knowledge about the selective choice of a structure depending on the targeted reactive species. PMID:27213247

  8. PD98059 Protects Brain against Cells Death Resulting from ROS/ERK Activation in a Cardiac Arrest Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Thi, Phuong Anh; Chen, Meng-Hua; Li, Nuo; Zhuo, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Lu

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and experimental postcardiac arrest treatment has not reached therapeutic success. The present study investigated the effect of PD98059 (PD) in rats subjected to cardiac arrest (CA)/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Experimental rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: sham, CA, and PD. The rats except for sham group were subjected to CA for 5 min followed by CPR operation. Once spontaneous circulation was restored, saline and PD were injected in CA and PD groups, respectively. The survival rates and neurologic deficit scores (NDS) were observed, and the following indices of brain tissue were evaluated: ROS, MDA, SOD, p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2, caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, TUNEL positive cells, and double fluorescent staining of p-ERK/TUNEL. Our results indicated that PD treatment significantly reduced apoptotic neurons and improved the survival rates and NDS. Moreover, PD markedly downregulated the ROS, MDA, p-ERK, and caspase-3, Bax and upregulated SOD and Bcl-2 levels. Double staining p-ERK/TUNEL in choroid plexus and cortex showed that cell death is dependent on ERK activation. The findings in present study demonstrated that PD provides neuroprotection via antioxidant activity and antiapoptosis in rats subjected to CA/CPR. PMID:27069530

  9. The effect of gallic acid on cytotoxicity, Ca(2+) homeostasis and ROS production in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells and CTX TNA2 rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shu-Shong; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-05-25

    Gallic acid, a polyhydroxylphenolic compound, is widely distributed in various plants, fruits and foods. It has been shown that gallic acid passes into blood brain barrier and reaches the brain tissue of middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. However, the effect of gallic acid on Ca(2+) signaling in glia cells is unknown. This study explored whether gallic acid affected Ca(2+) homeostasis and induced Ca(2+)-associated cytotoxicity in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells and CTX TNA2 rat astrocytes. Gallic acid (20-40 μM) concentration-dependently induced cytotoxicity and intracellular Ca(2+) level ([Ca(2+)]i) increases in DBTRG-05MG cells but not in CTX TNA2 cells. In DBTRG-05MG cells, the Ca(2+) response was decreased by half by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In Ca(2+)-containing medium, gallic acid-induced Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (2-APB, econazole and SKF96365). In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished gallic acid-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Conversely, incubation with gallic acid also abolished thapsigargin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished gallic acid-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Gallic acid significantly caused cytotoxicity in DBTRG-05MG cells, which was partially prevented by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with BAPTA-AM. Moreover, gallic acid activated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that involved ROS production. Together, in DBTRG-05MG cells but not in CTX TNA2 cells, gallic acid induced [Ca(2+)]i increases by causing Ca(2+) entry via 2-APB, econazole and SKF96365-sensitive store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and phospholipase C-dependent release from the endoplasmic reticulum. This Ca(2+) signal subsequently evoked mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis that involved ROS production. PMID:27060209

  10. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits high glucose-induced apoptosis and ROS production in human peritoneal mesothelial cells via the MAPK/P38 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Wu, Lan; Du, Shuyan; Hu, Ye; Fan, Yi; Ma, Jianfei

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and immunomodulation are affected by 1,25(OH)2D3. However, its function during apoptosis and oxidative stress in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the regulation of apoptosis and oxidative stress have therapeutic relevance in peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. The present study investigated the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HPMCs, and examined the underlying molecular mechanisms. Flow cytometry and western blotting were performed to detect cell apoptosis, 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to measure reactive oxygen species production and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was used to measure cell viability. The results of the present study demonstrated that exposure to HG increased apoptosis and ROS production in HPMCs, whereas pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly inhibited HG‑induced apoptosis and ROS production. Further analysis revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 facilitated cell survival via the MAPK/P38 pathway. The results of the present study indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits apoptosis and ROS production in HG‑induced HPMCs via inhibition of the MAPK/P38 pathway. PMID:27220355

  11. Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Liu, Youxun; Wu, Meihao; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA) and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402). However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20-30 fold) owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA-Cu) was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA-Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity. PMID:27556432

  12. Role of mitochondria ROS generation in ethanol-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death in astroglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Ureña-Peralta, Juan R.; Morillo-Bargues, Maria José; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immunity sensors that provide an early/effective response to pathogenic or injury conditions. We have reported that ethanol-induced TLR4 activation triggers signaling inflammatory responses in glial cells, causing neuroinflammation and brain damage. However, it is uncertain if ethanol is able to activate NLRs/inflammasome in astroglial cells, which is the mechanism of activation, and whether there is crosstalk between both immune sensors in glial cells. Here we show that chronic ethanol treatment increases the co-localization of caspase-1 with GFAP+ cells, and up-regulates IL-1β and IL-18 in the frontal medial cortex in WT, but not in TLR4 knockout mice. We further show that cultured cortical astrocytes expressed several inflammasomes (NLRP3, AIM2, NLRP1, and IPAF), although NLRP3 mRNA is the predominant form. Ethanol, as ATP and LPS treatments, up-regulates NLRP3 expression, and causes caspase-1 cleavage and the release of IL-1β and IL-18 in astrocytes supernatant. Ethanol-induced NLRP3/caspase-1 activation is mediated by mitochondrial (m) reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation because when using a specific mitochondria ROS scavenger, the mito-TEMPO (500 μM) or NLRP3 blocking peptide (4 μg/ml) or a specific caspase-1 inhibitor, Z-YVAD-FMK (10 μM), abrogates mROS release and reduces the up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-18 induced by ethanol or LPS or ATP. Confocal microscopy studies further confirm that ethanol, ATP or LPS promotes NLRP3/caspase-1 complex recruitment within the mitochondria to promote cell death by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, which accounts for ≈73% of total cell death (≈22%) and the remaining (≈25%) die by caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Suppression of the TLR4 function abrogates most ethanol effects on NLRP3 activation and reduces cell death. These findings suggest that NLRP3 participates, in ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and highlight the NLRP3/TLR4 crosstalk in

  13. Mechanism of Siglec-8-mediated Cell Death in IL-5-activated Eosinophils: Role for ROS-enhanced MEK/ERK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Gen; Almanan, Maha; Bochner, Bruce S.; Zimmermann, Nives

    2014-01-01

    Background Siglec-8 is expressed on human eosinophils, where its ligation induces cell death. Paradoxically, Siglec-8-mediated cell death is markedly enhanced by the presence of the activation and survival factor IL-5 and becomes independent of caspase activity. Objective In this report we investigate the mechanism of Siglec-8-mediated cell death in activated eosinophils. Methods Human peripheral blood eosinophils were treated with agonistic anti-Siglec-8 antibody and IL-5, and cell death was determined by flow cytometry and morphology. Phosphorylation of MAPK was determined by phospho-luminex, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. ROS accumulation was determined by dihydrorhodamine (DHR) fluorescence. Results Co-stimulation with anti-Siglec-8 and IL-5 significantly increased the rate and proportion of cells dying by necrosis accompanied by granule release as compared to stimulation with anti-Siglec-8 alone, in which apoptosis predominated. Together with the caspase-independent mode of cell death in co-stimulated cells, these findings suggest the activation of a specific and distinct biochemical pathway of cell death during anti-Siglec-8/IL-5 co-stimulation. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and MEK1 was significantly enhanced and sustained in co42 stimulated cells compared to cells stimulated with IL-5 alone; anti-Siglec-8 alone did not cause ERK1/2 phosphorylation. MEK1 inhibitors blocked anti-Siglec-8/IL-5-induced cell death. ROS accumulation was induced by Siglec-8 ligation in a MEK-independent manner. In contrast, ROS inhibitor prevented the anti-Siglec-8/IL-5-induced enhancement of ERK phosphorylation and cell death. Exogenous ROS mimicked stimulation by anti-Siglec-8 and was sufficient to induce enhanced cell death in IL-5-treated cells. Collectively, these data suggest that the enhancement of ERK phosphorylation is downstream of ROS generation. Conclusions In activated eosinophils, ligation of Siglec-8 leads to ROS-dependent enhancement of IL-5-induced ERK

  14. MiR-31 modulates coelomocytes ROS production via targeting p105 in Vibrio splendidus challenged sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng; Zhang, Pengjuan; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Weiwei; Jin, Chunhua; Han, Qingxi

    2015-08-01

    MiR-31 is a critical regulator of gene expression in many pathogenic processes in vertebrates. In this study, we identified p105 as a novel target of miR-31 in Apostichopus japonicus and investigated their regulatory roles in vitro and in vivo. The negative expression profiles between miR-31 and Ajp105 were detected in both LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes and Vibrio splendidus-challenged sea cucumber. Co-infection miR-31 mimics significantly depressed the expression of Ajp105 and increased ROS production in vitro. In contrast, miR-31 inhibitor significantly elevated the expression of Ajp105 and decreased ROS level. Consistently, miR-31 over-expression or Ajp105 silencing in vivo both greatly promoted ROS accumulation. Taken together, our findings confirmed that miR-31 could modulate respiratory burst via targeting Ajp105 during sea cucumber pathological development. PMID:25917973

  15. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    PubMed

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated. PMID:26250135

  16. Oxidative Stress Assessment in Response to Ultraendurance Exercise: Thiols Redox Status and ROS Production according to Duration of a Competitive Race

    PubMed Central

    Vezzoli, Alessandra; Dellanoce, Cinzia; Montorsi, Michela; Tonini, Annamaria; Accinni, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Response to an ultraendurance competitive race on thiols redox status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and oxidative stress (OxS) was investigated according to duration. Methods. Twenty-four elite runners were examined: six completed 50 km and eighteen 100 km. Blood and urine samples were collected before and immediately after the race. Erythrocytes and plasma aminothiols by high-performance liquid chromatography, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and OxS biomarkers (protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α), and 8-OH-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG)) by immunoenzymatic assays and ROS production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance were assessed. Results. Significant increases (P between <0.05 and <0.0001) were recorded in plasma total and oxidized aminothiols concentration and TAC (P < 0.0001) only after 100 km: plasmatic (ROS production (+12 versus +29%), PC (+54 versus +115%), and TBARS (+28 versus +55%)) and urinary (8-OH-dG.creatinine−1 (+71 versus +158%) and 8-iso-PGF2α.creatinine−1 (+43 versus +135%)) concentrations for 50 and 100 km (duration 4 h 3′ versus 8 h 42′), respectively. Conclusion. Very prolonged ultraendurance exercise causes an increase in ROS production and OxS depending on specific biomarker examined but always linearly and directly related to exercise duration. Redox status of erythrocytes was preserved. A relationship between running performance and both prerace ROS production and antioxidant-redox status was found in 100 km race. PMID:27504148

  17. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

  18. Hydrogen sulfide mediates hypoxic vasoconstriction through a production of mitochondrial ROS in trout gills.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Nini; Olson, Kenneth R

    2012-09-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is an adaptive response that diverts pulmonary blood flow from poorly ventilated and hypoxic areas of the lung to more well-ventilated parts. This response is important for the local matching of blood perfusion to ventilation and improves pulmonary gas exchange efficiency. HPV is an ancient and highly conserved response, expressed in the respiratory organs of all vertebrates, including lungs of mammals, birds, and reptiles; amphibian skin; and fish gills. The mechanism underlying HPV and how cells sense low Po(2) remains elusive. In perfused trout gills (Oncorhynchus mykiss), acute hypoxia, as well as H(2)S, caused an initial and transient constriction of the vasculature. Inhibition of the enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase, which blocks H(2)S production, abolished the hypoxic response. Individually blocking the four complexes in the electron transport chain abolished both the hypoxic and the H(2)S-mediated constriction. Glutathione, an antioxidant and scavenger of superoxide, attenuated the vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia and H(2)S. Furthermore, diethyldithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase, attenuated the hypoxic and H(2)S constriction. This strongly suggests that H(2)S mediates the hypoxic vasoconstriction in trout gills. H(2)S may stimulate the mitochondrial production of superoxide, which is then converted to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Thus, H(2)O(2) may act as the "downstream" signaling molecule in hypoxic vasoconstriction. PMID:22739350

  19. TERT alleviates irradiation-induced late rectal injury by reducing hypoxia-induced ROS levels through the activation of NF-κB and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yong; Lv, Yuefeng; Le, Ziyu; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment which is present following irradiation has been proven to promote radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is regulated by hypoxia, and that it plays a protective role in the process of wound repair. However, its effects on radiation-induced injury remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of human TERT on irradiation-induced late rectal injury in fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. We also performed in vivo experiments. The rectums of 5-week‑old female C57BL/6N mice were irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy. We then examined the fibrotic changes using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson's staining. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and TERT was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro experiments, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the autophagy level induced by exposure to hypoxia were assayed in fibroblasts. The association between TERT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the autophagy level was examined by western blot analysis. The antioxidant effects of TERT were examined on the basis of the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Rectal fibrosis was induced significantly at 12 weeks following irradiation. The HIF-1α and TERT expression levels increased in the fibrotic region. The TERT‑overexpressing fibroblasts (transfected with an hTERT-expressing lentiviral vector) exhibited reduced apoptosis, reduced ROS production, a higher autophagy level, a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and stable mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the fibroblasts in which TERT had been silenced by siRNA. NF-κB was activated by TERT, and the inhibition of TERT reduced the autophagy level in the fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that TERT decreases cellular ROS production, while maintaining mitochondrial function and

  20. TERT alleviates irradiation-induced late rectal injury by reducing hypoxia-induced ROS levels through the activation of NF-κB and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yong; Lv, Yuefeng; Le, Ziyu; Xin, Yuhu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxic microenvironment which is present following irradiation has been proven to promote radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Previous studies have demonstrated that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is regulated by hypoxia, and that it plays a protective role in the process of wound repair. However, its effects on radiation-induced injury remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of human TERT on irradiation-induced late rectal injury in fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. We also performed in vivo experiments. The rectums of 5-week-old female C57BL/6N mice were irradiated locally with a single dose of 25 Gy. We then examined the fibrotic changes using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson's staining. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and TERT was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro experiments, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the autophagy level induced by exposure to hypoxia were assayed in fibroblasts. The association between TERT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the autophagy level was examined by western blot analysis. The antioxidant effects of TERT were examined on the basis of the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and mitochondrial membrane potential. Rectal fibrosis was induced significantly at 12 weeks following irradiation. The HIF-1α and TERT expression levels increased in the fibrotic region. The TERT-overexpressing fibroblasts (transfected with an hTERT-expressing lentiviral vector) exhibited reduced apoptosis, reduced ROS production, a higher autophagy level, a higher GSH/GSSG ratio and stable mitochondrial membrane potential compared with the fibroblasts in which TERT had been silenced by siRNA. NF-κB was activated by TERT, and the inhibition of TERT reduced the autophagy level in the fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that TERT decreases cellular ROS production, while maintaining mitochondrial function and protecting the

  1. Inflammatory Role of ROS-Sensitive AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers Induced by Intermittent Hypoxia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by airway exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in airways, airway inflammation, and hyperreactive airway diseases. The cause-effect relationship for these events remains unclear. We investigated the inflammatory role of ROS-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in IH-induced airway hypersensitivity mediated by lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs) in rats. Conscious rats were exposed to room air (RA) or IH with or without treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant), Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), ibuprofen (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or their vehicles. Immediately after exposure (24 h), we found that intravenous capsaicin, phenylbiguanide, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked augmented LVCF-mediated apneic responses and LVCF afferent responses in rats subjected to IH exposure in comparison with those in RA rats. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF responses decreased at 6 h after and vanished at 12 h after the termination of IH exposure. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF-mediated apneic and LVCF afferent responses was significantly attenuated by treatment with NAC, compound C, or ibuprofen, but not by their vehicles. Further biochemical analysis revealed that rats exposed to IH displayed increased lung levels of lipid peroxidation (an index of oxidative stress), AMPK phosphorylation (an index of AMPK activation), and prostaglandin E2 (a cyclooxygenase metabolite), compared with those exposed to RA. IH-induced increase in lipid peroxidation was considerably suppressed by treatment with NAC but not by compound C or ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in AMPK phosphorylation was totally abolished by NAC or compound C but not by ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in prostaglandin E2 was considerably prevented by any of these three inhibitor treatments. The vehicles of these inhibitors exerted no significant effect on the three IH-induced responses. These

  2. β-Amyloid-aluminum complex alters cytoskeletal stability and increases ROS production in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Bolognin, Silvia; Zatta, Paolo; Lorenzetto, Erika; Valenti, Maria Teresa; Buffelli, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Several lines of evidence have supported the potential involvement of metal ions in the etiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this interaction are still partially unknown. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) aggregation was strongly influenced by the conjugation of the peptide with few metal ions (aluminum, copper, zinc, and iron) that are found in high concentrations in the senile plaque core. The binding of aluminum (Al) to Aβ specifically stabilized the peptide in an oligomeric conformation. Here, we show that the aggregation of Aβ-Al was boosted by sodium dodecyl sulfate, a detergent that mimics some characteristics of biological membrane, suggesting a potential role for membrane components in the Aβ aggregation process. Notably, we also found that Aβ-Al caused mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species production in primary cortical neurons. Aβ-Al strongly promoted also alterations in cytoskeleton network as shown by the increased F-actin expression and the occurrence of neuritic beading. Interestingly, the neurotoxic effect of this metal complex was associated with a decreased mRNA expression of ubiquitin thiolesterase, an ubiquitin-dependent protein involved in catabolic process, and by the increased expression of glutaminyl cyclase, responsible for pathological post-translational modification of Aβ. These results suggest that, in neuronal cells, Aβ-Al can induce relevant detrimental changes that resemble pathological hallmarks of AD. PMID:23416043

  3. No evident dose-response relationship between cellular ROS level and its cytotoxicity--a paradoxical issue in ROS-based cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunpeng; Hu, Wei; Wu, Hao; Hu, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Targeting cancer via ROS-based mechanism has been proposed as a radical therapeutic approach. Cancer cells exhibit higher endogenous oxidative stress than normal cells and pharmacological ROS insults via either enhancing ROS production or inhibiting ROS-scavenging activity can selectively kill cancer cells. In this study, we randomly chose 4 cancer cell lines and primary colon or rectal cancer cells from 4 patients to test the hypothesis and obtained following paradoxical results: while piperlongumin (PL) and β-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), 2 well-defined ROS-based anticancer agents, induced an increase of cellular ROS and killed effectively the tested cells, lactic acidosis (LA), a common tumor environmental factor that plays multifaceted roles in promoting cancer progression, induced a much higher ROS level in the tested cancer cells than PL and PEITC, but spared them; L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO, 20 μM) depleted cellular GSH more effectively and increased higher ROS level than PL or PEITC but permitted progressive growth of the tested cancer cells. No evident dose-response relationship between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. If ROS is the effecter, it should obey the fundamental therapeutic principle - the dose-response relationship. This is a major concern. PMID:24848642

  4. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 μg L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 μg L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 μg L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris. PMID:25672875

  5. Shift in aggregation, ROS generation, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activities in the cells of an Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-09-01

    Washing soda, chemically identified as anhydrous sodium carbonate, is a popular cleaning agent among the rural and urban populations of India which often contaminates the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of sponge Eunapius carteri. Present investigation deals with estimation of cellular aggregation, generation of ROS and activities of antioxidant enzymes, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Prolonged treatment of washing soda inhibited the degree of cellular aggregation. Experimental exposure of 8 and 16mg/l of sodium carbonate for 48h elevated the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the agranulocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, whereas, treatment of 192h inhibited the ROS generation in three cellular morphotypes. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded to be inhibited under prolonged exposure of washing soda. Washing soda mediated inhibition of ROS generation and depletion in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were indicative to an undesirable shift in cytotoxic status and antioxidative defense in E. carteri. Inhibition in the activity of lysozyme under the treatment of sodium carbonate was suggestive to a severe impairment of the innate immunological efficiency of E. carteri distributed in the washing soda contaminated habitat. Washing soda mediated inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase indicated its neurotoxicity in E. carteri. Washing soda, a reported environmental contaminant, affected adversely the immunophysiological status of E. carteri with reference to cellular aggregation, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activity. PMID:27178357

  6. Silica particles cause NADPH oxidase–independent ROS generation and transient phagolysosomal leakage

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gaurav N.; Goetjen, Alexandra M.; Knecht, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of silica particles causes lung fibrosis and silicosis. Silica taken up by alveolar macrophages causes phagolysosomal membrane damage and leakage of lysosomal material into the cytoplasm to initiate apoptosis. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this membrane damage by studying the spatiotemporal generation of ROS. In macrophages, ROS generated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) was detected in phagolysosomes containing either silica particles or nontoxic latex particles. ROS was only detected in the cytoplasm of cells treated with silica and appeared in parallel with an increase in phagosomal ROS, as well as several hours later associated with mitochondrial production of ROS late in apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX activity did not prevent silica-induced phagolysosomal leakage but delayed it. In Cos7 cells, which do not express NOX2, ROS was detected in silica-containing phagolysosomes that leaked. ROS was not detected in phagolysosomes containing latex particles. Leakage of silica-containing phagolysosomes in both cell types was transient, and after resealing of the membrane, endolysosomal fusion continued. These results demonstrate that silica particles can generate phagosomal ROS independent of NOX activity, and we propose that this silica-generated ROS can cause phagolysosomal leakage to initiate apoptosis. PMID:26202463

  7. ROS and ROS-Mediated Cellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jixiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Vikash, Vikash; Ye, Qing; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Yulan; Dong, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modify the cell-signaling proteins and have functional consequences, which successively mediate pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, unchecked growth, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and aging. While numerous articles have demonstrated the impacts of ROS on various signaling pathways and clarify the mechanism of action of cell-signaling proteins, their influence on the level of intracellular ROS, and their complex interactions among multiple ROS associated signaling pathways, the systemic summary is necessary. In this review paper, we particularly focus on the pattern of the generation and homeostasis of intracellular ROS, the mechanisms and targets of ROS impacting on cell-signaling proteins (NF-κB, MAPKs, Keap1-Nrf2-ARE, and PI3K-Akt), ion channels and transporters (Ca2+ and mPTP), and modifying protein kinase and Ubiquitination/Proteasome System. PMID:26998193

  8. ROS-induced ROS release in vascular biology: redox-redox signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zinkevich, Natalya S.

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating vascular function both in normal vessels and as part of an adaptive response during disease has been intensively studied. From the recognition that ROS serve as important signaling molecules has emerged multiple lines of evidence that there is a functional connectivity between intracellular sites of ROS production. This cross talk has been termed ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR) and is supported by a variety of observations showing that RIRR is a common mechanism for ROS amplification and regional ROS generation. The compartmentalization of ROS production within a cell is critical to its signaling function and is facilitated by microlocalization of specific scavengers. This review will provide descriptions and examples of important mechanisms of RIRR. PMID:21685266

  9. GADD45B mediates podocyte injury in zebrafish by activating the ROS-GADD45B-p38 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z; Wan, X; Hou, Q; Shi, S; Wang, L; Chen, P; Zhu, X; Zeng, C; Qin, W; Zhou, W; Liu, Z

    2016-01-01

    GADD45 gene has been implicated in cell cycle arrest, cell survival or apoptosis in a cell type specific and context-dependent manner. Members of GADD45 gene family have been found differentially expressed in several podocyte injury models, but their roles in podocytes are unclear. Using an in vivo zebrafish model of inducible podocyte injury that we have previously established, we found that zebrafish orthologs of gadd45b were induced upon the induction of podocyte injury. Podocyte-specific overexpression of zebrafish gadd45b exacerbated edema, proteinuria and foot-process effacement, whereas knockdown of gadd45b by morpholino-oligos in zebrafish larvae ameliorated podocyte injury. We then explored the role of GADD45B induction in podocyte injury using in vitro podocyte culture. We confirmed that GADD45B was significantly upregulated during the early phase of podocyte injury in cultured human podocytes and that podocyte apoptosis induced by TGF-β and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) was aggravated by GADD45B overexpression but ameliorated by shRNA-mediated GADD45B knockdown. We also showed that ROS inhibitor NAC suppressed PAN-induced GADD45B expression and subsequent activation of p38 MAPK pathway in podocytes and that inhibition of GADD45B diminished PAN-induced p38 MAPK activation. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that GADD45B has an important role in podocyte injury and may be a therapeutic target for the management of podocyte injury in glomerular diseases. PMID:26794661

  10. High glucose and hyperglycemic sera from type 2 diabetic patients impair DC differentiation by inducing ROS and activating Wnt/β-catenin and p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Gilardini Montani, Maria Saveria; Granato, Marisa; Cuomo, Laura; Valia, Sandro; Di Renzo, Livia; D'Orazi, Gabriella; Faggioni, Alberto; Cirone, Mara

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 is the type of diabetes with higher prevalence in contemporary time, representing about 90% of the global cases of diabetes. In the course of diabetes, several complications can occur, mostly due to hyperglycemia and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. One of them is represented by an increased susceptibility to microbial infections and by a reduced capacity to clear them. Therefore, knowing the impact of hyperglycemia on immune system functionality is of utmost importance for the management of the disease. In this study, we show that medium containing high glucose reduced the in-vitro differentiation of monocytes into functional DCs and their activation mediated by PAMPs or DAMPs. Most importantly, the same effects were mediated by the hyperglycemic sera derived by type 2 diabetic patients, mimicking a more physiologic condition. DC dysfunction caused by hyperglycemia may be involved in the inefficient control of infections observed in diabetic patients, given the pivotal role of these cells in both the innate and adaptive immune response. Searching for the molecular mechanisms underlying DC dysfunction, we found that canonical Wnt/β-catenin and p38 MAPK pathways were activated in the DCs differentiated either in the presence of high glucose or of hyper-glycemic sera. Interestingly, the activation of these pathways and the DC immune dysfunction were partially counteracted by the anti-oxidant quercetin, a flavonoid already known to exert several beneficial effects in diabetes. PMID:26769359

  11. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hoon Hong, Sang; Deuk Kim, Nam; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Preclinical Research Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation. Drug Dev Res 77 : 73-86, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971531

  12. Novel ROS-activated agents utilize a tethered amine to selectively target acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Horwath, Tiffany R.; Vadukoot, Anish Kizhakkekkara; Thowfeik, Fathima Shazna; Li, Guorui; Wunderlich, Mark; Mulloy, James C.; Merino, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the possible use of reactive oxygen-activated DNA modifying agents against acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A key amine on the lead agent was investigated via cytotoxicity assays and was found necessary for potency. The two best compounds were screened via the NCI-60 cell panel. These two compounds had potency between 200 and 800 nM against many of the leukemia cancer cell types. Subsequent experiments explored activity against a transformed AML model that mimics the molecular signatures identified in primary AML patient samples. A lead compound had an IC50 of 760 nM against this AML cell line as well as a therapeutic index of 7.7 ± 3 between the transformed AML model cell line and non-cancerous human CD34+ blood stem/progenitor cells (UCB). The selectivity was much greater than the mainstays of AML treatment: doxorubicin and cytarabine. This manuscript demonstrates that this novel type of agent may be useful against AML. PMID:23578690

  13. The characterization of anti-T. cruzi activity relationships between ferrocenyl, cyrhetrenyl complexes and ROS release.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, César; Romero, Valentina; Arancibia, Rodrigo; Klahn, Hugo; Montorfano, Ignacio; Armisen, Ricardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Simon, Felipe; Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Nifurtimox is the most used drug against the T. cruzi, this drug increases intermediaries nitro group, being mainly responsible for the high toxicity component, for this reason it is important to study new organic compounds and thus improve therapeutic strategies against Chagas disease. The electronic effects of ferrocenyl and cyrhetrenyl fragments were investigated by DFT calculation. A close correlation was found between HOMO-LUMO gap of nitro radical NO 2 (-) with the experimental reduction potential found for nitro group and IC50 of two forms the T. cruzi (epimastigote and trypomastigote). The IC50 on human hepatoma cells is higher for both compounds compared to IC50 demonstrated in the two forms the T. cruzi, and additionally show reactive oxygen species release. The information obtained in this paper could generate two new drugs with anti-T. cruzi activity, but additional studies are needed. PMID:27460450

  14. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on ROS production and growth inhibition using freshwater green algae pre-exposed to UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling; Hamzeh, Mahsa; Dodard, Sabine; Zhao, Yuan H; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the possibility that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) toxicity in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, using the dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) assay. Algae were exposed to nano-TiO2 under laboratory fluorescent lamps supplemented with UV irradiation for 3h, with or without a UV filter. Results showed that nano-TiO2 increased ROS production in UV-exposed cells, with or without a UV filter (LOEC values were 250 and 10mg/L, respectively). Sublethal effects of nano-TiO2 on UV pre-exposed algae were also examined. Toxicity studies indicated that exposure to nano-TiO2 agglomerates decreased algal growth following 3h pre-exposure to UV, with or without a UV filter (EC50s were 8.7 and 6.3mg/L, respectively). The present study suggests that the growth inhibitory effects of nano-TiO2 in algae occurred at concentrations lower than those that can elevate DCF fluorescence, and that ROS generation is not directly involved with the sublethal effects of nano-TiO2 in algae. PMID:25867689

  15. Vinca alkaloids cause aberrant ROS-mediated JNK activation, Mcl-1 downregulation, DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wei-Hsin; Luo, Sheng-Jei; Chen, Chia-Ling; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Huang, Wei-Ching; Su, Wu-Chou; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Vinca alkaloids are clinically used to inhibit the growth of malignancy by interfering with microtubule polymerization. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying growth inhibition as well as apoptosis in vinca alkaloid-treated lung adenocarcinoma cells. Consistent with nocodazole, treatment with vinorelbine (VNR) caused mitotic prometaphase arrest in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by cell apoptosis, dependent on both dose and time. VNR sequentially induced mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) loss and caspase-dependent apoptosis following myeloid cell leukemia (Mcl) 1 downregulation. Prolonged activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was required for vinca alkaloid- and nocodazole-induced apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest. Vinca alkaloids and nocodazole caused glutathione/reactive oxygen species (ROS) imbalance, and inhibiting ROS prevented prolonged JNK activation, decreased Mcl-1 levels, MTP loss, and apoptosis. Notably, cell size and granularity were enlarged in stimulated cells; unexpectedly, many ROS-producing mitochondria were accumulated followed by aberrant JNK-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Unlike cisplatin, which causes DNA damage in each phase of the cell cycle, VNR and nocodazole induced aberrant JNK-regulated DNA damage in prometaphase; however, inhibiting ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) did not reverse mitotic arrest or apoptosis. These results demonstrate an essential role of ROS in vinca alkaloid-induced aberrant JNK-mediated Mcl-1 downregulation and DNA damage followed by mitochondrial dysfunction-related apoptosis but not mitotic arrest. PMID:22285910

  16. Direct ROS scavenging activity of CueP from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Bo-Young; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Sik; Um, Si-Hyeon; Jo, Inseong; Lee, Kangseok; Kim, Yong-Hak; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an intracellular pathogen that has evolved to survive in the phagosome of macrophages. The periplasmic copper-binding protein CueP was initially known to confer copper resistance to S. Typhimurium. Crystal structure and biochemical studies on CueP revealed a putative copper binding site surrounded by the conserved cysteine and histidine residues. A recent study reported that CueP supplies copper ions to periplasmic Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SodCII) at a low copper concentration and thus enables the sustained SodCII activity in the periplasm. In this study, we investigated the role of CueP in copper resistance at a high copper concentration. We observed that the survival of a cueP-deleted strain of Salmonella in macrophage phagosome was significantly reduced. Subsequent biochemical experiments revealed that CueP specifically mediates the reduction of copper ion using electrons released during the formation of the disulfide bond. We observed that the copper ion-mediated Fenton reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was blocked by CueP. This study provides insight into how CueP confers copper resistance to S. Typhimurium in copper-rich environments such as the phagosome of macrophages. PMID:24598994

  17. Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles—the role of ROS mediated cell injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, Anat; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles, such as those comprised of ZnO, has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water, and to increase with a decrease in particle size. In the present study, we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect the viability of the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. albicans was observed. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0.1 mg ml - 1 ZnO; this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C. albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, in cell death. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds.

  18. Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles--the role of ROS mediated cell injury.

    PubMed

    Lipovsky, Anat; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel

    2011-03-11

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have marked antibacterial activity. The toxic effect of these nanoparticles, such as those comprised of ZnO, has been found to occur due to an interaction of the nanoparticle surface with water, and to increase with a decrease in particle size. In the present study, we tested the ability of ZnO nanoparticles to affect the viability of the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). A concentration-dependent effect of ZnO on the viability of C. albicans was observed. The minimal fungicidal concentration of ZnO was found to be 0.1 mg ml(-1) ZnO; this concentration caused an inhibition of over 95% in the growth of C. albicans. ZnO nanoparticles also inhibited the growth of C. albicans when it was added at the logarithmic phase of growth. Addition of histidine (a quencher of hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen) caused reduction in the effect of ZnO on C. albicans depending on its concentration. An almost complete elimination of the antimycotic effect was achieved following addition of 5 mM of histidine. Exciting the ZnO by visible light increased the yeast cell death. The effects of histidine suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, in cell death. In light of the above results it appears that metal oxide nanoparticles may provide a novel family of fungicidal compounds. PMID:21289395

  19. Relationship of semen hyperviscosity with IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and ROS production in seminal plasma of infertile patients with prostatitis and prostato-vesiculitis.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, R; Salemi, M; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E

    2014-12-01

    Changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity (SFV) have recently received increasing research interest. We analysed whether SFV was associated with ROS generation, levels of cytokines TNF-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-10 and seminal leucocyte concentration, and whether ROS production was related to the extent of infections/inflammations at one (prostatitis) or two (prostato-vesiculitis) male accessory glands. We studied 169 infertile patients, with chronic bacterial prostatitis (PR, n = 74) and/or bilateral prostato-vesiculitis (PV, n = 95), as diagnosed by the ultrasound (US) criteria. Healthy fertile men (n = 42) served as controls. In the PV patient group, SFV, semen characteristics and ROS production had median values that were significantly higher than those found in PR patients and controls, although other sperm variables had values significantly lower than those found in PR patients or controls. In PV infertile patients, ROS generation and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were higher than those found in PR infertile patients and controls, although seminal IL-10 levels in PV and PR patients were lower than those found in the controls. In PR patients, the levels of SFV were positively related to TNF-α (r = 0.67; P < 0.01), fMLP-stimulated ROS production in the 45% Percoll fraction (r = 0.687, P < 0.01) and the 90% Percoll fraction in basal condition (r = 0.695, P < 0.01), and after fMLP-stimulation (r = 0.688, P < 0.01). Thus, our data indicated that seminal hyperviscosity is associated with increased oxidative stress in infertile men and increased pro-inflammatory interleukins in patients with male accessory gland infection, more when the infection was extended to the seminal vesicles. PMID:24329571

  20. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-02-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved. PMID:25772107

  1. Cellular responses associated with ROS production and cell fate decision in early stress response to iron limitation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chun-Shan; Liang, Jun-Rong; Lin, Qun; Li, Caixia; Bowler, Chris; Anderson, Donald M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Xin-Wei; Gao, Ya-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of how diatoms cope with the rapid fluctuations in iron bioavailability in marine environments may facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying their ecological success, in particular their ability to proliferate rapidly during favorable conditions. In this study, using in vivo biochemical markers and whole-cell iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis, we explored the cellular responses associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell fate decision during the early response to Fe limitation in the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Fe limitation caused a significant decrease in Photosystem (PS) II photosynthetic efficiency, damage to the photosynthetic electron transport chain in PS I, and blockage of the respiratory chain in complexes III and IV, which could all result in excess ROS accumulation. The increase in ROS likely triggered programmed cell death (PCD) in some of the Fe-limited cells through synthesis of a series of proteins involved in the delicate balance between pro-survival and pro-PCD factors. The results provide molecular-level insights into the major strategies that may be employed by T. pseudonana in response to Fe-limitation: the reduction of cell population density through PCD to reduce competition for available Fe, the reallocation of intracellular nitrogen and Fe to ensure survival, and an increase in expression of antioxidant and anti-PCD proteins to cope with stress. PMID:25372880

  2. Cellular Responses Associated with ROS Production and Cell Fate Decision in Early Stress Response to Iron Limitation in the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of how diatoms cope with the rapid fluctuations in iron bioavailability in marine environments may facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying their ecological success, in particular their ability to proliferate rapidly during favorable conditions. In this study, using in vivo biochemical markers and whole-cell iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis, we explored the cellular responses associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell fate decision during the early response to Fe limitation in the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Fe limitation caused a significant decrease in Photosystem (PS) II photosynthetic efficiency, damage to the photosynthetic electron transport chain in PS I, and blockage of the respiratory chain in complexes III and IV, which could all result in excess ROS accumulation. The increase in ROS likely triggered programmed cell death (PCD) in some of the Fe-limited cells through synthesis of a series of proteins involved in the delicate balance between pro-survival and pro-PCD factors. The results provide molecular-level insights into the major strategies that may be employed by T. pseudonana in response to Fe-limitation: the reduction of cell population density through PCD to reduce competition for available Fe, the reallocation of intracellular nitrogen and Fe to ensure survival, and an increase in expression of antioxidant and anti-PCD proteins to cope with stress. PMID:25372880

  3. Near-Infrared Light Triggered ROS-activated Theranostic Platform based on Ce6-CPT-UCNPs for Simultaneous Fluorescence Imaging and Chemo-Photodynamic Combined Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Caixia; Zhang, Chunlei; Alfranca, Gabriel; Yang, Yao; Jiang, Xinquan; Yang, Yuming; Pan, Fei; de la Fuente, Jesús M.; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-01

    Many drug controlled release methods have been integrated in multifunctional nanoparticles, such as pH-, redox-, temperature-, enzyme-, and light-responsive release. However, few report is associated with the ROS responsive drug controlled release. Herein, a thioketal linker-based ROS responsive drug (camptothecin conjugated with thioketal linker, abbreviated as TL-CPT) was prepared and the thioketal linker could be cleaved by ROS(reactive oxygen species). To achieve cancer simultaneous optical imaging, photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy, the photosensitizer Chlorin e6(Ce6), TL-CPT and carboxyl-mPEG were loaded on the upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), which were named as Ce6-CPT-UCNPs. Under 980 nm laser irradiation, Ce6-CPT-UCNPs emitted a narrow emission band at 645-675 nm which was overlapped with Ce6 absorption peak. Ce6 absorbed the light to produce ROS, which was used for photodynamic therapy and to cleave the thioketal linker in Ce6-CPT-UCNPs to release camptothecin for chemotherapy. Meanwhile, Ce6 absorbed the light, was used for near-infrared fluorescence imaging. The in vivo biodistribution studies showed that the prepared nanoparticles had high orthotopic lung cancer targeting efficiency. The in vivo therapeutic results demonstrated that NCI-H460 lung cancers could be completely eliminated by combining chemo- and photodynamic therapy under 980 nm laser irradiation. The prepared multifunctional Ce6-CPT-UCNPs have great potential in applications such as cancer targeted fluorescent imaging, simultaneous ROS activated chemo- and photodynamic therapy in near future. PMID:26941840

  4. ROS1 fusions in cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Uguen, Arnaud; De Braekeleer, Marc

    2016-08-01

    The ROS1 gene belongs to the sevenless subfamily of tyrosine kinase insulin receptor genes. A literature review identified a ROS1 fusion in 2.54% of the patients with lung adenocarcinoma and even higher frequencies in spitzoid neoplasms and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. At present, 26 genes were found to fuse with ROS1, some of them already known to fuse with RET and ALK. All the fusion proteins retain the ROS1 kinase domain, but rarely its transmembrane domain. Most of the partners have dimerization domains that are retained in the fusion, presumably leading to constitutive ROS1 tyrosine kinase activation. Some partners have transmembrane domains that are retained or not in the chimeric proteins. Therefore, different ROS1 fusions have distinct subcellular localization, suggesting that they may activate different substrates in vivo. PMID:27256160

  5. Inhibitors of ROS production by the ubiquinone-binding site of mitochondrial complex I identified by chemical screening.

    PubMed

    Orr, Adam L; Ashok, Deepthi; Sarantos, Melissa R; Shi, Tong; Hughes, Robert E; Brand, Martin D

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species is often considered an unavoidable consequence of aerobic metabolism and currently cannot be manipulated without perturbing oxidative phosphorylation. Antioxidants are widely used to suppress effects of reactive oxygen species after formation, but they can never fully prevent immediate effects at the sites of production. To identify site-selective inhibitors of mitochondrial superoxide/H2O2 production that do not interfere with mitochondrial energy metabolism, we developed a robust small-molecule screen and secondary profiling strategy. We describe the discovery and characterization of a compound (N-cyclohexyl-4-(4-nitrophenoxy)benzenesulfonamide; CN-POBS) that selectively inhibits superoxide/H2O2 production from the ubiquinone-binding site of complex I (site I(Q)) with no effects on superoxide/H2O2 production from other sites or on oxidative phosphorylation. Structure/activity studies identified a core structure that is important for potency and selectivity for site I(Q). By employing CN-POBS in mitochondria respiring on NADH-generating substrates, we show that site I(Q) does not produce significant amounts of superoxide/H2O2 during forward electron transport on glutamate plus malate. Our screening platform promises to facilitate further discovery of direct modulators of mitochondrially derived oxidative damage and advance our ability to understand and manipulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production under both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:23994103

  6. Female protection from slow-pressor effects of AngII involves prevention of ROS production independent of NMDA receptor trafficking in hypothalamic neurons expressing angiotensin-1A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Lopes, Jose; Lynch, Mary-Katherine; Van Kempen, Tracey A.; Waters, Elizabeth M.; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Pickel, Virginia M.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system over-activity, up-regulation of post-synaptic NMDA receptor function, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are hallmarks of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension, which is far more common in young males than in young females. We hypothesize that the sex differences in hypertension are related to differential AngII-induced changes in post-synaptic trafficking of the essential NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit and ROS production in PVN cells expressing angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR). We tested this hypothesis using slow-pressor (14 day) infusion of AngII (600ng/kg/min) in mice, which elicits hypertension in males but not in young females. Two month-old male and female transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in AT1aR-containing cells were used. In males, but not females, AngII increased blood pressure and ROS production in AT1aR-EGFP PVN cells at baseline and following NMDA treatment. Electron microscopy showed that AngII increased cytoplasmic and total GluN1-silver-intensified immunogold (SIG) densities, and induced a trend towards an increase in near plasmalemmal GluN1-SIG density in AT1aR-EGFP dendrites of males and females. Moreover, AngII decreased dendritic area and diameter in males, but increased dendritic area of small (<1μm) dendrites and decreased diameter of large (>1μm) dendrites in females. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that AT1aR and estrogen receptor β do not co-localize suggesting that, if estrogen is involved, its effect is indirect. The data suggest that the sexual dimorphism in AngII-induced hypertension is associated with sex differences in ROS production in AT1aR-containing PVN cells, but not with post-synaptic NMDA receptor trafficking. PMID:25559190

  7. Lipopolysaccharide induced LOX-1 expression via TLR4/MyD88/ROS activated p38MAPK-NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenwen; Ma, Guixin; Chen, Xiuping

    2014-12-01

    Lectin-like receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (LOX-1) plays a key role in endothelial ox-LDL endocytosis, endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. In the present study, the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on LOX-1 expression and the underlying molecular pathways were investigated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with LPS and the protein expressions of LOX-1, TLR4, TLR2, MyD88, Nox4, Nox2, PI3K, p38MAPK, JNK, ERK, Nrf1, Nrf2 and p65 were examined by Western blotting. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was examined by flow cytometry with fluorescence probe DCFH2-DA. The role of TLR4, MyD88 and Nox4 were determined with specific siRNA. The endothelial ox-LDL uptake and the endothelial-monocyte adhesion were evaluated with DiI-ox-LDL and Hoechst 33342 respectively. The effect of LPS on LOX-1 expression in aorta tissue was also studied with male C57/BL6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. The results showed that LPS induced LOX-1 protein expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of LOX-1 was also upregulated. The protein expression of LOX-1 and phosphorylated p38MAPK, p65 was significantly enhanced by LPS both in vitro and in vivo. LPS induced LOX-1 expression was blocked by siRNA for TLR4, MyD88, and Nox4 and inhibitors for p38MAPK, NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, and NADPH oxidase. Both LPS induced ox-LDL uptake and endothelial-monocyte adhesion were significantly inhibited by anti-LOX-1 antibody. LPS dramatically induced LOX-1 protein expression in aorta tissues. In conclusion, our data suggested that LPS induces LOX-1 expression via TLR4/MyD88/ROS activated p38MAPK/NF-κB pathway in endothelial cells, which provides new regulatory mechanisms for LOX-1 expression. PMID:25135647

  8. α-Lipoic acid inhibits liver fibrosis through the attenuation of ROS-triggered signaling in hepatic stellate cells activated by PDGF and TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Foo, Ning-Ping; Lin, Shu-Huei; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2011-03-28

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrosis. We previously reported that α-lipoic acid (LA) and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) inhibited toxicant-induced inflammation and ROS generation. In the present study, we further examined the effects of LA/DHLA on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms in hepatic stellate cells in vitro. We found that co-administration of LA to rats chronically treated with TAA inhibited the development of liver cirrhosis, as indicated by reductions in cirrhosis incidence, hepatic fibrosis, and AST/ALT activities. We also found that DHLA inhibited TGF-β/PDGF-stimulated HSC-T6 activation and ROS generation. These effects could be mediated by the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. According to our current results, LA may have a beneficial role in the treatment of chronic liver diseases caused by ongoing hepatic damage. PMID:21251946

  9. Exendin-4 Suppresses Src Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rat Islets in an Epac-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Eri; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Sato, Hiroki; Oneyama, Chitose; Kominato, Rieko; Sato, Yuichi; Sasaki, Mayumi; Nishi, Yuichi; Okada, Masato; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of most important factors in impaired metabolism secretion coupling in pancreatic β-cells. We recently reported that elevated ROS production and impaired ATP production at high glucose in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets are effectively ameliorated by Src inhibition, suggesting that Src activity is upregulated. In the present study, we investigated whether the glucagon-like peptide-1 signal regulates Src activity and ameliorates endogenous ROS production and ATP production in GK islets using exendin-4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Isolated islets from GK and control Wistar rats were used for immunoblotting analyses and measurements of ROS production and ATP content. Src activity was examined by immunoprecipitation of islet lysates followed by immunoblotting. ROS production was measured with a fluorescent probe using dispersed islet cells. RESULTS Exendin-4 significantly decreased phosphorylation of Src Tyr416, which indicates Src activation, in GK islets under 16.7 mmol/l glucose exposure. Glucose-induced ROS production (16.7 mmol/l) in GK islet cells was significantly decreased by coexposure of exendin-4 as well as PP2, a Src inhibitor. The Src kinase–negative mutant expression in GK islets significantly decreased ROS production induced by high glucose. Exendin-4, as well as PP2, significantly increased impaired ATP elevation by high glucose in GK islets. The decrease in ROS production by exendin-4 was not affected by H-89, a PKA inhibitor, and an Epac-specific cAMP analog (8CPT-2Me-cAMP) significantly decreased Src Tyr416 phosphorylation and ROS production. CONCLUSIONS Exendin-4 decreases endogenous ROS production and increases ATP production in diabetic GK rat islets through suppression of Src activation, dependently on Epac. PMID:20978090

  10. Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Inhibitors Involved in ROS Production Induced by Acute High Concentrations of Iodide and the Effects of SOD as a Protective Factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingyan; Duan, Qi; Wang, Tingting; Ahmed, Mohamed; Zhang, Na; Li, Yongmei; Li, Lanying; Yao, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    A major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is the mitochondria. By using flow cytometry of the mitochondrial fluorescent probe, MitoSOX Red, western blot of mitochondrial ROS scavenger Peroxiredoxin (Prx) 3 and fluorescence immunostaining, ELISA of cleaved caspases 3 and 9, and TUNEL staining, we demonstrated that exposure to 100 μM KI for 2 hours significantly increased mitochondrial superoxide production and Prx 3 protein expression with increased expressions of cleaved caspases 3 and 9. Besides, we indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) at 1000 unit/mL attenuated the increase in mitochondrial superoxide production, Prx 3 protein expression, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and improved the relative cell viability at 100 μM KI exposure. However, SOD inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETC) (2 mM), Rotenone (0.5 μM), a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, and Antimycin A (10 μM), a complex III inhibitor, caused an increase in mitochondrial superoxide production, Prx 3 protein expression, and LDH release and decreased the relative cell viability. We conclude that the inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I or III may be involved in oxidative stress caused by elevated concentrations of iodide, and SOD demonstrates its protective effect on the Fischer rat thyroid cell line (FRTL) cells. PMID:26294939

  11. RAGE Expression and ROS Generation in Neurons: Differentiation versus Damage

    PubMed Central

    Piras, S.; Furfaro, A. L.; Domenicotti, C.; Traverso, N.; Marinari, U. M.; Pronzato, M. A.; Nitti, M.

    2016-01-01

    RAGE is a multiligand receptor able to bind advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), amphoterin, calgranulins, and amyloid-beta peptides, identified in many tissues and cells, including neurons. RAGE stimulation induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly through the activity of NADPH oxidases. In neuronal cells, RAGE-induced ROS generation is able to favor cell survival and differentiation or to induce death through the imbalance of redox state. The dual nature of RAGE signaling in neurons depends not only on the intensity of RAGE activation but also on the ability of RAGE-bearing cells to adapt to ROS generation. In this review we highlight these aspects of RAGE signaling regulation in neuronal cells. PMID:27313835

  12. ROS generation and multiple forms of mammalian mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Mráček, Tomáš; Holzerová, Eliška; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kovářová, Nikola; Vrbacký, Marek; Ješina, Pavel; Houštěk, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in a range of pathologies. Mitochondrial flavin dehydrogenases glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) represent important ROS source, but the mechanism of electron leak is still poorly understood. To investigate the ROS production by the isolated dehydrogenases, we used brown adipose tissue mitochondria solubilized by digitonin as a model. Enzyme activity measurements and hydrogen peroxide production studies by Amplex Red fluorescence, and luminol luminescence in combination with oxygraphy revealed flavin as the most likely source of electron leak in SDH under in vivo conditions, while we propose coenzyme Q as the site of ROS production in the case of mGPDH. Distinct mechanism of ROS production by the two dehydrogenases is also apparent from induction of ROS generation by ferricyanide which is unique for mGPDH. Furthermore, using native electrophoretic systems, we demonstrated that mGPDH associates into homooligomers as well as high molecular weight supercomplexes, which represent native forms of mGPDH in the membrane. By this approach, we also directly demonstrated that isolated mGPDH itself as well as its supramolecular assemblies are all capable of ROS production. PMID:23999537

  13. Liraglutide protects cardiac microvascular endothelial cells against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through the suppression of the SR-Ca(2+)-XO-ROS axis via activation of the GLP-1R/PI3K/Akt/survivin pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Hao; Wu, Wenbo; Shi, Chen; Hu, Shunying; Yin, Tong; Ma, Qiang; Han, Tianwen; Zhang, Yingqian; Tian, Feng; Chen, Yundai

    2016-06-01

    Microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) oxidative damage resulting from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is responsible for microcirculation perfusion disturbances and the progression of cardiac dysfunction. However, few strategies are available to reverse such pathologies. Here, we studied the effects and mechanisms of liraglutide on CEMCs oxidative damage, focusing in particular on calcium overload-triggered free radical injury signals and the GLP-1R/PI3K/Akt/survivin survival pathways. The results indicate that H/R increased IP3R expression but reduced SERCA2a expression, which rapidly raised intracellular Ca(2+) levels, subsequently leading to Ca(2+)-dependent xanthine oxidase (XO) activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the cellular apoptosis of CMECs. However, liraglutide pretreatment abrogated Ca(2+)-mediated oxidative apoptosis. Furthermore, liraglutide regulated the rate of IP3R/SERCA2a gene transcription and conserved SERCA2a-ATPase activity via the maintenance of ATP production under H/R, which drove excessive Ca(2+) reflux to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and inhibited Ca(2+) release from the SR, ultimately restoring Ca(2+) homeostasis. Furthermore, the regulatory role of liraglutide on Ca(2+) balance in conjunction with its up-regulation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase collectively scavenged the excess ROS under H/R. Moreover, we showed that liraglutide strengthened Akt phosphorylation and subsequently survivin expression. In addition, both the blockade of the GLP-1R/PI3K/Akt pathways and the siRNA-mediated knockdown of survivin abolished the protective effects of liraglutide on SR-Ca(2+) function and CMECs oxidative apoptosis. In summary, this study confirmed that H/R induced CMECs oxidative damage through the SR-Ca(2+)-XO-ROS injury signals and that liraglutide pretreatment may suppress such CMECs damage through the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathways. PMID:27038735

  14. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-10-15

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ► ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ► Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin-mediated signaling. ► ROS

  15. Human cell line-dependent WC-Co nanoparticle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity: a key role of ROS production.

    PubMed

    Paget, V; Moche, H; Kortulewski, T; Grall, R; Irbah, L; Nesslany, F; Chevillard, S

    2015-02-01

    Although tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used because of their robustness, their risk to human health remains poorly studied, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifying them as "probably carcinogenic" for humans (Group 2A) in 2006. Our current study aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of one set of commercially available 60-nm diameter WC-Co NPs on three human cell lines representative of potential target organs: A549 (lung), Hep3B (liver), and Caki-1 (kidney). The cytotoxicity of WC-Co NPs was determined by evaluating cell impedance (xCELLigence), cell survival/death, and cell cycle checkpoints. Flow cytometry was used to not only evaluate cell cycle checkpoints, but to also estimate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In addition, γ-H2Ax foci detection (confocal microscopy), considered to be the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks, was utilized to evaluate genotoxicity. As a final part of this study, we assessed the cellular incorporation of WC-Co NPs, first byflow cytometry (side scatter), and then by confocal microscopy (light reflection) to ensure that the NPs had entered cells. Overall, our current findings demonstrate that WC-Co NPs induce cell mortality, DNA double-strand breaks, and cell cycle arrest in human renal (Caki-1) and liver (Hep3B) cell lines, but do not induce significant cytotoxic effects in A549 lung cells. Interestingly, although WC-Co NPs effectively entered the cells in all 3 lines tested, ROS were detected in Caki-1 and Hep3B, but not in A549. This may explain the great differences in the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects we observed between these lines. PMID:25398624

  16. Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Morphology, Cell Cycle, Proliferation, Apoptosis, Autophagy and ROS Production in Endothelial Cells and Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Focaccetti, Chiara; Bruno, Antonino; Magnani, Elena; Bartolini, Desirée; Principi, Elisa; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Bucci, Eraldo O.; Finzi, Giovanna; Sessa, Fausto; Noonan, Douglas M.; Albini, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Antimetabolites are a class of effective anticancer drugs interfering in essential biochemical processes. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its prodrug Capecitabine are widely used in the treatment of several solid tumors (gastro-intestinal, gynecological, head and neck, breast carcinomas). Therapy with fluoropyrimidines is associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal pain, nausea, stomatitis, and hand-foot syndrome. Among the 5-FU side effects, increasing attention is given to cardiovascular toxicities induced at different levels and intensities. Since the mechanisms related to 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity are still unclear, we examined the effects of 5-FU on primary cell cultures of human cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, which represent two key components of the cardiovascular system. We analyzed at the cellular and molecular level 5-FU effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle, survival and induction of apoptosis, in an experimental cardioncology approach. We observed autophagic features at the ultrastructural and molecular levels, in particular in 5-FU exposed cardiomyocytes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation characterized the endothelial response. These responses were prevented by a ROS scavenger. We found induction of a senescent phenotype on both cell types treated with 5-FU. In vivo, in a xenograft model of colon cancer, we showed that 5-FU treatment induced ultrastructural changes in the endothelium of various organs. Taken together, our data suggest that 5-FU can affect, both at the cellular and molecular levels, two key cell types of the cardiovascular system, potentially explaining some manifestations of 5-FU-induced cardiovascular toxicity. PMID:25671635

  17. 8β-hydroxy-3-oxopimar-15-ene exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ROS-mediated activation of the TRAF6-ASK1-p38 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Heung; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Nam, Dongwoo; Shim, Bum Sang; Song, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Sang Hoon; Chung, Won-Seok; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2013-10-01

    The flying squirrel's droppings (Pteropus pselaphon) have been used for improving the blood circulation, arresting bleeding to treat hematological disorders, and reducing pain. Here, 8β-hydroxy-3-oxopimar-15-ene (OXO), one of main constituents of P. pselaphon, was examined for its anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages. We found that OXO significantly suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) without exerting cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells. OXO inhibited the expression of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein and their mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Also, TNF-α, IL-6, and PGE2 secretion was decreased by OXO in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These inflammatory biomarkers were attributed to the suppression of LPS-induced activation of p38 MAPK and subsequent activation of two components of AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos), but not of ERK, JNK, NF-κB. Moreover, OXO inhibited LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and co-incubation of OXO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, OXO completely disrupted the formation of TRAF6-ASK complex in the cells. Therefore, we demonstrate here that OXO can potentially inhibit several biomarkers related to inflammation through inhibition of ROS-mediated activation of TRAF6-ASK1-p38 pathway. PMID:23914844

  18. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  19. β-Elemonic acid inhibits the cell proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells: The role of MAPK, ROS activation and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsu-Tuan; Lu, Chien-Lin; Lin, Hen-I; Chen, Bing-Fang; Jow, Guey-Mei

    2016-01-01

    β-elemonic acid, a known triterpene, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, yet research on the pharmacological effects of β-elemonic acid is rare. We investigated the anticancer effects and the related molecular mechanisms of β-elemonic acid on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells. The effects of β-elemonic acid on the growth of A549 cells were studied using a 3-(4,5)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V staining. The effect of β-elemonic acid on the cell cycle of A549 cells was assessed using the propidium iodide method. The change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using a dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay with microscopic examination. The expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family proteins and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were detected using western blot analysis. Our data revealed that β-elemonic acid strongly induced human A549 lung cancer cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner as determined by the MTT assay. β-elemonic acid-induced cell death was considered to be apoptotic when the phosphatidylserine exposure was observed using Annexin V staining. The death of human A549 lung cancer cells was caused by apoptosis induced by activation of ROS activity, increase in the sub-G1 proportion, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression, upregulation of Bax expression and inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathways. These results clearly demonstrated that β-elemonic acid inhibits proliferation by inducing hypoploid cells and cell apoptosis. Moreover, the anticancer effects of β-elemonic acid were related to the MAPK signaling pathway, ROS activation and glutathione depletion in human A549 lung cancer cells. PMID:26530631

  20. ROS signaling during granzyme B-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Martinvalet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in cell signaling, aging, and death and play a role in carcinogenesis. However, whether ROS are bystanders or active effectors of apoptosis was unclear until recently. New evidence shows that the killer lymphocyte protease granzyme B activates a conserved biochemical pathway centered on respiratory chain disruption to trigger mitocentric ROS-dependent apoptosis. PMID:27308474

  1. Increased antioxidant response and capability to produce ROS in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis L. exposed to anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Natalotto, Antonino; Alvarez, Elvira; Deudero, Salud

    2013-10-01

    Environmental pollutants exert immunotoxical effects on aquatic organisms. The aim was to determine the antioxidant response, markers of oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis, the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea, under anthropogenic pressure. P. nobilis individuals were collected from two locations along Mallorca Island waters attending to different degree of human impact and the hemocytes were obtained. Specimens from the impacted area showed increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes - catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase -, myeloperoxidase activity and reduced glutathione levels. No differences in oxidative damage markers - malondiahdehyde and carbonyl index - were evidenced between the pristine and polluted areas. Hemocytes from the polluted area presented increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species and nitrite/nitrate when activated. In conclusion, the human activities primed hemocytes for oxidative burst and increased the antioxidant mechanism without evidence of oxidative damage. PMID:23871388

  2. Palmitic acid induces interleukin-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses through ROS production in human placental cells.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Takano, Hiroki; Seno, Kotomi; Ohtsu, Ayaka; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Suzuki, Hirotada; Matsubara, Shigeki; Iwata, Hisataka; Kuwayama, Takehito

    2016-08-01

    Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals. We hypothesized that inflammatory responses associated with gestational obesity cause inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses in a human Sw.71 trophoblast cell line. Palmitic acid stimulated caspase-1 activation and markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in Sw.71 cells. Treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor diminished palmitic acid-induced IL-1β release. In addition, NLRP3 and caspase-1 genome editing using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in Sw.71 cells suppressed IL-1β secretion, which was stimulated by palmitic acid. Moreover, palmitic acid stimulated caspase-3 activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-6 and IL-8). Palmitic acid-induced cytokine secretion were dependent on caspase-3 activation. In addition, palmitic acid-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In conclusion, palmitic acid caused activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses, inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion, which is associated with ROS generation, in human Sw.71 placental cells. We suggest that obesity-related palmitic acid induces placental inflammation, resulting in association with pregnancy complications. PMID:27300134

  3. Disruption of Interleukin-1β Autocrine Signaling Rescues Complex I Activity and Improves ROS Levels in Immortalized Epithelial Cells with Impaired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Function

    PubMed Central

    Clauzure, Mariángeles; Valdivieso, Angel G.; Massip Copiz, María M.; Schulman, Gustavo; Teiber, María Luz; Santa-Coloma, Tomás A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have elevated concentration of cytokines in sputum and a general inflammatory condition. In addition, CF cells in culture produce diverse cytokines in excess, including IL-1β. We have previously shown that IL-1β, at low doses (∼30 pM), can stimulate the expression of CFTR in T84 colon carcinoma cells, through NF-κB signaling. However, at higher doses (>2.5 ng/ml, ∼150 pM), IL-1β inhibit CFTR mRNA expression. On the other hand, by using differential display, we found two genes with reduced expression in CF cells, corresponding to the mitochondrial proteins CISD1 and MTND4. The last is a key subunit for the activity of mitochondrial Complex I (mCx-I); accordingly, we later found a reduced mCx-I activity in CF cells. Here we found that IB3-1 cells (CF cells), cultured in serum-free media, secrete 323±5 pg/ml of IL-1β in 24 h vs 127±3 pg/ml for S9 cells (CFTR-corrected IB3-1 cells). Externally added IL-1β (5 ng/ml) reduces the mCx-I activity and increases the mitochondrial (MitoSOX probe) and cellular (DCFH-DA probe) ROS levels of S9 (CFTR-corrected IB3-1 CF cells) or Caco-2/pRSctrl cells (shRNA control cells) to values comparable to those of IB3-1 or Caco-2/pRS26 cells (shRNA specific for CFTR). Treatments of IB3-1 or Caco-2/pRS26 cells with either IL-1β blocking antibody, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IKK inhibitor III (NF-κB pathway) or SB203580 (p38 MAPK pathway), restored the mCx-I activity. In addition, in IB3-1 or Caco-2/pRS26 cells, IL-1β blocking antibody, IKK inhibitor III or SB203580 reduced the mitochondrial ROS levels by ∼50% and the cellular ROS levels near to basal values. The AP-1 inhibitors U0126 (MEK1/2) or SP600125 (JNK1/2/3 inhibitor) had no effects. The results suggest that in these cells IL-1β, through an autocrine effect, acts as a bridge connecting the CFTR with the mCx-I activity and the ROS levels. PMID:24901709

  4. Synergistic activities of a silver(I) glutamic acid complex and reactive oxygen species (ROS): a novel antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Batarseh, K I; Smith, M A

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic activities of a silver(I) glutamic acid complex with the synergistic concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated here. The ROS generation system employed was via Fenton chemistry. The antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 and Escherichia coli bacteria, and Vero and MCF-7 tumor cell lines, respectively. Antimicrobial activities were conducted by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), while chemotherapeutic efficacies were done by serial dilution using standard techniques to determine the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). The antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic results obtained were compared with positive control drugs gentamicin, oxacillin, penicillin, streptomycin and cisplatin, a ubiquitously used platinum-based antitumor drug, and with the silver(I) glutamic acid complex and hydrogen peroxide separately. Based on MIC and IC50 values, it was determined that this synergistic approach was very effective at extremely low concentrations, especially when compared with the other drugs evaluated here. This finding might be of great significance regarding metronomic dosing when this synergistic approach is clinically implemented. Since silver at low concentrations exhibits no toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic activities, this might offer an alternative approach for the development of safer silver-based antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic drugs, thereby reducing or even eliminating the toxicity associated with current drugs. Accordingly, the present approach might be integrated into the systemic clinical treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:22680634

  5. Reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant enzyme activity during epididymal sperm maturation in Corynorhinus mexicanus bats.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Rosado García, Adolfo; Cortés-Barberena, Edith; Königsberg, Mina; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela; Rodríguez-Tobón, Ahiezer; Fuentes-Mascorro, Gisela; León-Galván, Miguel Angel

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged sperm storage in the epididymis of Corynorhinus mexicanus bats after testicular regression has been associated with epididymal sperm maturation in the caudal region, although the precise factors linked with this phenomenon are unknown. The aim of this work is to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in antioxidant enzymatic activity occurring in the spermatozoa and epididymal fluid over time, in sperm maturation and storage in the caput, corpus and cauda of the bat epididymis. Our data showed that an increment in ROS production coincided with an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in epididymal fluid and with a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity in the spermatozoa in at different time points and epididymal regions. The increase in ROS production was not associated with oxidative damage measured by lipid peroxidation. The results of the current study suggest the existence of a shift in the redox balance, which might be associated with sperm maturation and storage. PMID:26952757

  6. Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse Electron Transport Extend Animal Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M.; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P.; Sanz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse electron transport extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse electron transport rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse electron transport. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging. PMID:27076081

  7. Cu(II)-coumestrol interaction leads to ROS-mediated DNA damage and cell death: a putative mechanism for anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Atif; Singh, Swarnendra; Naseem, Imrana

    2016-07-01

    Phytoestrogens have attracted considerable interest as natural alternatives to hormone replacement therapy and their potential as cancer therapeutic agents. Among phytoestrogens, coumestrol has shown multipharmacological properties such as antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, osteoblastic differentiation and anticancer. Though several studies have described anticancer effects of coumestrol, a clear underlying molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells contain elevated copper levels that play an integral role in angiogenesis. Copper is an important metal ion associated with the chromatin DNA, particularly with guanine. Thus, targeting copper in cancer cells can serve as effective anticancer strategy. Using human peripheral lymphocytes, we assessed lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage and apoptosis by coumestrol in the presence of exogenously added Cu(II) in cells to simulate malignancy-like condition. Results showed that Cu(II)-coumestrol interaction leads to lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation (markers of oxidative stress), DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in treated lymphocytes. Further, incubation of lymphocytes with ROS scavengers and membrane-permeant copper chelator, neocuproine, resulted in inhibition of DNA damage and apoptosis. This suggests that coumestrol engages in redox cycling of Cu(II) to generate ROS that leads to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that coumestrol targets cellular copper to induce prooxidant death in malignant cells. We believe that such a prooxidant cytotoxic mechanism better explains the anticancer activity of coumestrol. These findings will provide significant insights into the development of new chemical molecules with better copper-chelating and prooxidant properties against cancer cells. PMID:27260464

  8. Activation of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel by ROS contributes to ER stress and cardiac contractile dysfunction: involvement of CHOP through Wnt.

    PubMed

    Shen, M; Wang, L; Wang, B; Wang, T; Yang, G; Shen, L; Wang, T; Guo, X; Liu, Y; Xia, Y; Jia, L; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurring in stringent conditions is critically involved in cardiomyocytes apoptosis and cardiac contractile dysfunction (CCD). However, the molecular machinery that mediates cardiac ER stress and subsequent cell death remains to be fully deciphered, which will hopefully provide novel therapeutic targets for these disorders. Here, we establish tunicamycin-induced model of cardiomyocyte ER stress, which effectively mimicks pathological stimuli to trigger CCD. Tunicamycin activates volume-sensitive outward rectifying Cl(-) currents. Blockade of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channel by 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a non-selective Cl(-) channel blocker, and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), a selective VSOR Cl(-) channel blocker, improves cardiac contractility, which correlates with suppressed ER stress through inhibiting the canonical GRP78/eIF2α/ATF4 and XBP1 pathways, and promotes survival of cardiomyocytes by inverting tunicamycin-induced decrease of Wnt through the CHOP pathway. VSOR activation of tunicamycin-treated cardiomyocytes is attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our study demonstrates a pivotal role of ROS/VSOR in mediating ER stress and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes via the CHOP-Wnt pathway, and suggests the therapeutic values of VSOR Cl(-) channel blockers against ER stress-associated cardiac anomalies. PMID:25412307

  9. Increased tolerance to salt stress in OPDA-deficient rice ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE mutants is linked to an increased ROS-scavenging activity

    PubMed Central

    Hazman, Mohamed; Hause, Bettina; Eiche, Elisabeth; Nick, Peter; Riemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress represents a global constraint for rice, the most important staple food worldwide. Therefore the role of the central stress signal jasmonate for the salt response was analysed in rice comparing the responses to salt stress for two jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis rice mutants (cpm2 and hebiba) impaired in the function of ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (AOC) and their wild type. The aoc mutants were less sensitive to salt stress. Interestingly, both mutants accumulated smaller amounts of Na+ ions in their leaves, and showed better scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under salt stress. Leaves of the wild type and JA mutants accumulated similar levels of abscisic acid (ABA) under stress conditions, and the levels of JA and its amino acid conjugate, JA–isoleucine (JA-Ile), showed only subtle alterations in the wild type. In contrast, the wild type responded to salt stress by strong induction of the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), which was not observed in the mutants. Transcript levels of representative salinity-induced genes were induced less in the JA mutants. The absence of 12-OPDA in the mutants correlated not only with a generally increased ROS-scavenging activity, but also with the higher activity of specific enzymes in the antioxidative pathway, such as glutathione S-transferase, and fewer symptoms of damage as, for example, indicated by lower levels of malondialdehyde. The data are interpreted in a model where the absence of OPDA enhanced the antioxidative power in mutant leaves. PMID:25873666

  10. Activation of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel by ROS contributes to ER stress and cardiac contractile dysfunction: involvement of CHOP through Wnt

    PubMed Central

    Shen, M; Wang, L; Wang, B; Wang, T; Yang, G; Shen, L; Wang, T; Guo, X; Liu, Y; Xia, Y; Jia, L; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurring in stringent conditions is critically involved in cardiomyocytes apoptosis and cardiac contractile dysfunction (CCD). However, the molecular machinery that mediates cardiac ER stress and subsequent cell death remains to be fully deciphered, which will hopefully provide novel therapeutic targets for these disorders. Here, we establish tunicamycin-induced model of cardiomyocyte ER stress, which effectively mimicks pathological stimuli to trigger CCD. Tunicamycin activates volume-sensitive outward rectifying Cl− currents. Blockade of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl− channel by 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a non-selective Cl− channel blocker, and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), a selective VSOR Cl− channel blocker, improves cardiac contractility, which correlates with suppressed ER stress through inhibiting the canonical GRP78/eIF2α/ATF4 and XBP1 pathways, and promotes survival of cardiomyocytes by inverting tunicamycin-induced decrease of Wnt through the CHOP pathway. VSOR activation of tunicamycin-treated cardiomyocytes is attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our study demonstrates a pivotal role of ROS/VSOR in mediating ER stress and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes via the CHOP-Wnt pathway, and suggests the therapeutic values of VSOR Cl− channel blockers against ER stress-associated cardiac anomalies. PMID:25412307

  11. Activation of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Stimulates Cardiac ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels via a ROS/Calmodulin/CaMKII Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yongping; Zhang, Dai-Min; Lin, Yu-Fung

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is recognized as an important signaling component in diverse cell types. PKG may influence the function of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, an ion channel critical for stress adaptation in the heart; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to address this issue. Methods and Findings Single-channel recordings of cardiac KATP channels were performed in both cell-attached and inside-out patch configurations using transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells and rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes. We found that Kir6.2/SUR2A (the cardiac-type KATP) channels were activated by cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast in a concentration-dependent manner in cell-attached patches obtained from HEK293 cells, an effect mimicked by the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP whereas abolished by selective PKG inhibitors. Intriguingly, direct application of PKG moderately reduced rather than augmented Kir6.2/SUR2A single-channel currents in excised, inside-out patches. Moreover, PKG stimulation of Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells was abrogated by ROS/H2O2 scavenging, antagonism of calmodulin, and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. Exogenous H2O2 also concentration-dependently stimulated Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells, and its effect was prevented by inhibition of calmodulin or CaMKII. PKG stimulation of KATP channels was confirmed in intact ventricular cardiomyocytes, which was ROS- and CaMKII-dependent. Kinetically, PKG appeared to stimulate these channels by destabilizing the longest closed state while stabilizing the long open state and facilitating opening transitions. Conclusion The present study provides novel evidence that PKG exerts dual regulation of cardiac KATP channels, including marked stimulation resulting from intracellular signaling mediated by ROS (H2O2 in

  12. Production of hydrogen peroxide and expression of ROS generating genes in peach flower petals in response to host and non-host pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play dual roles in plant-microbe interactions in that they can either stimulate host resistance or benefit pathogen virulence. Accumulation of ROS was determined in peach petals in response to Monilinia fructicola (a compatible pathogen) and Penicillium digitatum (an i...

  13. β-Caryophyllene oxide inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 pathways and ROS-mediated MAPKs activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ran; Nam, Dongwoo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Sethi, Gautam; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2011-12-22

    Both PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play an important role in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells. In the present report, we investigated the effects of β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated from essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK activation pathways in human prostate and breast cancer cells. We found that CPO not only inhibited the constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling cascade; but also caused the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in tumor cells. CPO induced increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from mitochondria, which is associated with the induction of apoptosis as characterized by positive Annexin V binding and TUNEL staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly prevented CPO-induced apoptosis. Subsequently, CPO also down-regulated the expression of various downstream gene products that mediate cell proliferation (cyclin D1), survival (bcl-2, bcl-xL, survivin, IAP-1, and IAP-2), metastasis (COX-2), angiogenesis (VEGF), and increased the expression of p53 and p21. Interestingly, we also observed that CPO can significantly potentiate the apoptotic effects of various pharmacological PI3K/AKT inhibitors when employed in combination in tumor cells. Overall, these findings suggest that CPO can interfere with multiple signaling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and used as a potential therapeutic candidate for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:21924548

  14. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hebron C; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50-200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways. PMID:26823953

  15. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hebron C.; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50–200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways. PMID:26823953

  16. ROS-dependent phosphorylation of Bax by wortmannin sensitizes melanoma cells for TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Quast, S-A; Berger, A; Eberle, J

    2013-01-01

    The pathways of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis induction, of Bax activation and the sensitization of tumor cells for TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-induced apoptosis are still largely elusive. Here, sensitization of melanoma cells for TRAIL by the PI3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin correlated to the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Apoptosis was dependent on Bax and abrogated by Bcl-2 overexpression. The synergistic enhancement was explained by Bax activation through wortmannin, which tightly correlated to the characteristic Bax phosphorylation patterns. Thus, wortmannin resulted in early reduction of the Bax-inactivating phosphorylation at serine-184, whereas the Bax-activating phosphorylation at threonine-167 was enhanced. Proving the responsibility of the pathway, comparable effects were obtained with an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206); while suppressed phosphorylation of serine-184 may be attributed to reduced Akt activity itself, the causes of enhanced threonine-167 phosphorylation were addressed here. Characteristically, production of ROS was seen early in response to wortmannin and MK-2206. Providing the link between ROS and Bax, we show that abrogated ROS production by α-tocopherol or by NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) siRNA suppressed apoptosis and Bax activation. This correlated with reduced Bax phosphorylation at threonine-167. The data unraveled a mechanism by which NOX4-dependent ROS production controls apoptosis via Bax phosphorylation. The pathway may be considered for proapoptotic, anticancer strategies. PMID:24113173

  17. Cyanine fluorophores for cellular protection against ROS in stimulated macrophages and two-photon ROS detection.

    PubMed

    Chan, M S; Xu, D; Guo, L; Tam, D Y; Liu, L S; Chen, Y; Wong, M S; Lo, P K

    2015-07-14

    We report the first example of a novel two-photon active, biocompatible, and macrophage cell-membrane permeable carbazole-based cyanine fluorophore for the detection of three biologically important ROS, namely, ˙OH, O2(-) and OCl(-) in solution. This versatile probe shows cellular protection not only in stimulated macrophages from phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced morphological changes but also lipopolysaccharide-induced cytotoxicity by quenching with the O2(-) and OCl(-) production, respectively. Such protection could be visualized by a distinct change in the fluorescence intensity of the probe. PMID:26059852

  18. Disulfiram targeting lymphoid malignant cell lines via ROS-JNK activation as well as Nrf2 and NF-kB pathway inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disulfiram (DS), an anti-alcoholism drug, demonstrates strong antitumor activity in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of DS/Cu complex in lymphoid malignant cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Method Raji cells were subjected to different treatments and thereafter MTT assay, flow cytometry were used to determine IC50 and apoptotic status. We also tested the cytotoxicity of DS/Cu in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Molt4 in vitro. In vivo experiments were also performed to demonstrate the anticancer efficacy of DS/Cu in Raji cells xenografted nude mice. Results In combination with a low concentration (1 μM) of Cu2+, DS induced cytotoxicity in Raji cells with an IC50 of 0.085 ± 0.015 μM and in Molt4 cells with an IC50 of 0.435 ± 0.109 μM. The results of our animal experiments also showed that the mean tumor volume in DS/Cu-treated mice was significantly smaller than that in DS or control group, indicating that DS/Cu inhibits the proliferation of Raji cells in vivo. DS/Cu also induced apoptosis in 2 lymphoid malignant cell lines. After exposure to DS (3.3 μM)/Cu (1 μM) for 24 hours, apoptosis was detected in 81.03 ± 7.91% of Raji cells. DS/Cu induced significant apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest apoptotic proportion (DS/Cu: 89.867 ± 4.69%) at a concentration of 2 μM in Molt4 cells. After 24 h exposure, DS/Cu inhibits Nrf2 expression. Flow cytometric analysis shows that DS/Cu induced ROS generation. DS/Cu induced phosphorylation of JNK and inhibits p65 expression as well as Nrf2 expression both in vitro and in vivo. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, can partially attenuate DS/Cu complex-induced apoptosis and block JNK activation in vitro. In addition, NAC is able to restore Nrf2 nuclear translocation and p65 expression. Conclusion Our study manifests that DS/Cu complex targets lymphoid malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. Generation of ROS might

  19. Activated G-protein releases cGMP from high affinity binding sites on PDE from toad rod outer segments (ROS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, P.S.T.; Walseth, T.F.; Panter, S.S.; Sundby, S.R.; Graeff, R.M.; Goldberg, N.D.

    1987-05-01

    cGMP binding proteins in toad ROS were identified by direct photoaffinity labeling (PAL) with /sup 32/P-cGMP and quantified by retention of complexes on nitrocellulose filters. By PAL, high affinity sites were present on the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) which have MW/sub app/ of 94 and 90 kDa. A doublet was deduced from its photolabeling properties to represent PDE/sub ..gamma../ photocrosslinked with PDE/sub ..cap alpha../ or PDE/sub ..beta../, respectively. cGMP prebound to these high affinity sites was released by light-activated G-protein or its ..cap alpha.. subunit complexed with GTP..gamma..S; this inhibition of cGMP binding to PDE did not result from decreased cGMP availability due to enhanced hydrolysis. A low affinity cGMP binding component identified by PAL is tightly associated with ROS membranes. Apparent ATP/light-dependent stimulation of cGMP binding was shown to result from light activated cGMP hydrolysis in conjunction with ATP-promoted conversion of GMP to GDP/GTP and increased GDP/GTP binding. These findings coincide with a model for light-related regulation of cGMP binding and metabolism predicted from intact and cellfree kinetic measurements: in the dark state the cGMP hydrolic rate is constrained by the availability of cGMP because of its binding to high affinity sites on PDE. Light activated G-protein releases cGMP from these sites and allows for its redistribution to lower affinity sites represented by PDE catalytic site(s) and possible cGMP-dependent membrane cation channels.

  20. Endogenous Cytokinin Overproduction Modulates ROS Homeostasis and Decreases Salt Stress Resistance in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanping; Shen, Wenzhong; Chan, Zhulong; Wu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins in plants are crucial for numerous biological processes, including seed germination, cell division and differentiation, floral initiation and adaptation to abiotic stresses. The salt stress can promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in plants which are highly toxic and ultimately results in oxidative stress. However, the correlation between endogenous cytokinin production and ROS homeostasis in responding to salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of overexpressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene AtIPT8 (adenosine phosphate-isopentenyl transferase 8) and the response of salt stress in Arabidopsis. Overproduction of cytokinins, which was resulted by the inducible overexpression of AtIPT8, significantly inhibited the primary root growth and true leaf emergence, especially under the conditions of exogenous salt, glucose and mannitol treatments. Upon cytokinin overproduction, the salt stress resistance was declined, and resulted in less survival rates and chlorophyll content. Interestingly, ROS production was obviously increased with the salt treatment, accompanied by endogenously overproduced cytokinins. The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are responsible for scavenging ROS, were also affected. Transcription profiling revealed that the differential expressions of ROS-producing and scavenging related genes, the photosynthesis-related genes and stress responsive genes were existed in transgenic plants of overproducing cytokinins. Our results suggested that broken in the homeostasis of cytokinins in plant cells could modulate the salt stress responses through a ROS-mediated regulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26635831

  1. Endogenous Cytokinin Overproduction Modulates ROS Homeostasis and Decreases Salt Stress Resistance in Arabidopsis Thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Shen, Wenzhong; Chan, Zhulong; Wu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins in plants are crucial for numerous biological processes, including seed germination, cell division and differentiation, floral initiation and adaptation to abiotic stresses. The salt stress can promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in plants which are highly toxic and ultimately results in oxidative stress. However, the correlation between endogenous cytokinin production and ROS homeostasis in responding to salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of overexpressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene AtIPT8 (adenosine phosphate-isopentenyl transferase 8) and the response of salt stress in Arabidopsis. Overproduction of cytokinins, which was resulted by the inducible overexpression of AtIPT8, significantly inhibited the primary root growth and true leaf emergence, especially under the conditions of exogenous salt, glucose and mannitol treatments. Upon cytokinin overproduction, the salt stress resistance was declined, and resulted in less survival rates and chlorophyll content. Interestingly, ROS production was obviously increased with the salt treatment, accompanied by endogenously overproduced cytokinins. The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are responsible for scavenging ROS, were also affected. Transcription profiling revealed that the differential expressions of ROS-producing and scavenging related genes, the photosynthesis-related genes and stress responsive genes were existed in transgenic plants of overproducing cytokinins. Our results suggested that broken in the homeostasis of cytokinins in plant cells could modulate the salt stress responses through a ROS-mediated regulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26635831

  2. Curcumin Ameliorates Furazolidone-Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Hepatocyte L02 Cells by Inhibiting ROS Production and Mitochondrial Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chongshan; Li, Daowen; Gong, Lijing; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Furazolidone (FZD), a synthetic nitrofuran derivative, has been widely used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent. Recently, the potential toxicity of FZD has raised concerns, but its mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin on FZD-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human hepatocyte L02 cells. The results showed that curcumin pre-treatment significantly ameliorated FZD-induced oxidative stress, characterized by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde formation, and increased superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and glutathione contents. In addition, curcumin pre-treatment significantly ameliorated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the activations of caspase-9 and -3, and apoptosis caused by FZD. Alkaline comet assay showed that curcumin markedly reduced FZD-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin pre-treatment consistently and markedly down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of p53, Bax, caspase-9 and -3 and up-regulated the mRNA expression level of Bcl-2. Taken together, these results reveal that curcumin protects against FZD-induced DNA damage and apoptosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway. Our study indicated that curcumin may be a promising combiner with FZD to reduce FZD-related toxicity in clinical applications. PMID:27556439

  3. The J-protein AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ning; Lv, Ting-Ting; Li, Mi-Xin; Wei, Shan-Shan; Li, Yan-Yi; Zhao, Chun-Lan; Li, Bing

    2016-05-01

    AtDjB1 is a mitochondria-located J-protein in Arabidopsis thaliana It is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development; however, the exact mechanisms remain to be determined. We performed comparison analyses of phenotypes, auxin signalling, redox status, mitochondrial structure and function using wild-type plants, AtDjB1 mutants, rescued AtDjB1 mutants by AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 (an auxin synthesis gene), and AtDjB1 overexpression plants. AtDjB1 mutants (atj1-1 or atj1-4) exhibited inhibition of growth and development and reductions in the level of IAA and the expression of YUCCA genes compared to wild-type plants. The introduction of AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 into atj1-1 largely rescued phenotypic defects and the IAA level, indicating that AtDjB1 probably regulates growth and development via auxin. Furthermore, atj1-1 plants displayed a significant reduction in amount/activity of mitochondrial complex I compared to wild-type plants; this resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, exogenous H2O2 markedly inhibited the expression of YUCCA genes in wild-type plants. In contrast, the reducing agent ascorbate increased the expression of YUCCA genes and IAA level in atj1-1 plants, indicating that the low auxin level observed in atj1-1 was probably due to the high oxidation status. Overall, the data presented here suggest that AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling in Arabidopsis. PMID:27117341

  4. ROS-Mediated Decline in Maximum Ca2+-Activated Force in Rat Skeletal Muscle Fibers following In Vitro and In Vivo Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Dutka, Travis L.; Verburg, Esther; Larkins, Noni; Hortemo, Kristin H.; Lunde, Per K.; Sejersted, Ole M.; Lamb, Graham D.

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesised that normal skeletal muscle stimulated intensely either in vitro or in situ would exhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated contractile apparatus changes common to many pathophysiological conditions. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of the rat were bubbled with 95% O2 and stimulated in vitro at 31°C to give isometric tetani (50 Hz for 0.5 s every 2 s) until maximum force declined to ≤30%. Skinned superficial slow-twitch fibers from the SOL muscles displayed a large reduction (∼41%) in maximum Ca2+-activated specific force (Fmax), with Ca2+-sensitivity unchanged. Fibers from EDL muscles were less affected. The decrease in Fmax in SOL fibers was evidently due to oxidation effects on cysteine residues because it was reversed if the reducing agent DTT was applied prior to activating the fiber. The GSH∶GSSG ratio was ∼3-fold lower in the cytoplasm of superficial fibers from stimulated muscle compared to control, confirming increased oxidant levels. The presence of Tempol and L-NAME during in vitro stimulation prevented reduction in Fmax. Skinned fibers from SOL muscles stimulated in vivo at 37°C with intact blood supply also displayed reduction in Fmax, though to a much smaller extent (∼12%). Thus, fibers from muscles stimulated even with putatively adequate O2 supply display a reversible oxidation-induced decrease in Fmax without change in Ca2+-sensitivity, consistent with action of peroxynitrite (or possibly superoxide) on cysteine residues of the contractile apparatus. Significantly, the changes closely resemble the contractile deficits observed in a range of pathophysiological conditions. These findings highlight how readily muscle experiences ROS-related deficits, and also point to potential difficulties when defining muscle performance and fatigue. PMID:22629297

  5. ROS-mediated decline in maximum Ca2+-activated force in rat skeletal muscle fibers following in vitro and in vivo stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dutka, Travis L; Verburg, Esther; Larkins, Noni; Hortemo, Kristin H; Lunde, Per K; Sejersted, Ole M; Lamb, Graham D

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesised that normal skeletal muscle stimulated intensely either in vitro or in situ would exhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated contractile apparatus changes common to many pathophysiological conditions. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of the rat were bubbled with 95% O(2) and stimulated in vitro at 31°C to give isometric tetani (50 Hz for 0.5 s every 2 s) until maximum force declined to ≤30%. Skinned superficial slow-twitch fibers from the SOL muscles displayed a large reduction (∼41%) in maximum Ca(2+)-activated specific force (F(max)), with Ca(2+)-sensitivity unchanged. Fibers from EDL muscles were less affected. The decrease in F(max) in SOL fibers was evidently due to oxidation effects on cysteine residues because it was reversed if the reducing agent DTT was applied prior to activating the fiber. The GSH:GSSG ratio was ∼3-fold lower in the cytoplasm of superficial fibers from stimulated muscle compared to control, confirming increased oxidant levels. The presence of Tempol and L-NAME during in vitro stimulation prevented reduction in F(max). Skinned fibers from SOL muscles stimulated in vivo at 37°C with intact blood supply also displayed reduction in F(max), though to a much smaller extent (∼12%). Thus, fibers from muscles stimulated even with putatively adequate O(2) supply display a reversible oxidation-induced decrease in F(max) without change in Ca(2+)-sensitivity, consistent with action of peroxynitrite (or possibly superoxide) on cysteine residues of the contractile apparatus. Significantly, the changes closely resemble the contractile deficits observed in a range of pathophysiological conditions. These findings highlight how readily muscle experiences ROS-related deficits, and also point to potential difficulties when defining muscle performance and fatigue. PMID:22629297

  6. Mediating the potent ROS toxicity of acrolein in neurons with silica nanoparticles and a natural product approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.

    2014-03-01

    Acrolein, a very reactive aldehyde, is a culprit in the biochemical cascade after primary, mechanical spinal cord injury (SCI), which leads to the destruction of tissue initially unharmed, referred to as "secondary injury". Additionally, in models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some clinical research, acrolein levels are significantly increased. Due to its ability to make more copies of itself in the presence of tissue via lipid peroxidation, researchers believe that acrolein plays a role in the increased destruction of the central nervous system in both SCI and MS. Hydralazine, an FDAapproved hypotensive drug, has been shown to scavenge acrolein, but its side effects and short half life at the appropriate dose for acrolein scavenging must be improved for beneficial clinical translation. Therefore, a nanomedical approach has been designed using silica nanoparticles as a porous delivery vehicle hydralazine. The silica particles are formed in a one-step method that incorporates poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), a stealth molecule, directly onto the nanoparticles. As an additional avenue for study, a natural product in green tea, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has been explored for its ability to react with acrolein, disabling its reactive capabilities. Upon demonstration of attenuating acrolein, EGCG's delivery may also be improved using the nanomedical approach. The current work exposes the potential of using silica nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle and EGCG's antioxidant capabilities in B35 neuroblastoma cells exposed to acrolein. We also measure nanotoxicity to individual rat neurons using high-throughput image scanning cytometry.

  7. Akt mediated ROS-dependent selective targeting of mutant KRAS tumors.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Kartini; Rezlan, Majidah; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in a variety of cellular processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to cell death. Previously, we reported the ability of a small molecule compound, C1, to induce ROS dependent autophagy associated apoptosis in human cancer cell lines and primary tumor cells (Wong C. et al. 2010). Our ongoing investigations have unraveled a hitherto undefined novel signaling network involving hyper-phosphorylation of Akt and Akt-mediated ROS production in cancer cell lines. Interestingly, drug-induced Akt activation is selectively seen in cell lines that carry mutant KRAS; HCT116 cells that carry the V13D KRAS mutation respond favorably to C1 while HT29 cells expressing wild type KRAS are relatively resistant. Of note, not only does the compound target mutant KRAS expressing cells but also induces RAS activation as evidenced by the PAK pull down assay. Corroborating this, pharmacological inhibition as well as siRNA mediated silencing of KRAS or Akt, blocked C1-induced ROS production and rescued tumor colony forming ability in HCT116 cells. To further confirm the involvement of KRAS, we made use of mutant KRAS transformed RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells. Notably, drug-induced ROS generation and death sensitivity was significantly higher in RWPE-1-KRAS cells than the RWPE-1-vector cells, thus confirming the results obtained with mutant KRAS colorectal carcinoma cell line. Lastly, we made use of HCT116 mutant KRAS knockout cells (KO) where the mutant KRAS allele had been deleted, thus expressing a single wild-type KRAS allele. Exposure of the KO cells to C1 failed to induce Akt activation and mitochondrial ROS production. Taken together, results show the involvement of activated Akt in ROS-mediated selective targeting of mutant KRAS expressing tumors, which could have therapeutic implications given the paucity of chemotherapeutic strategies specifically targeting KRAS mutant cancers. PMID:26461287

  8. Silencing of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene results in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased ROS production in human lens cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Maria A.; Lee, Wanda; Cowell, Tracy L.; Wells, Tracy M.; Weissbach, Herbert; Kantorow, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) is a significant feature of human cataract and previous studies have shown that methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), which acts to repair Met(O), can defend human lens cells against oxidative stress induced cell death. A key feature of oxidative stress is increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in association with loss of mitochondrial function. Here, we sought to establish a potential role for MsrA in the accumulation of ROS in lens cells and the corresponding mitochondrial membrane potential in these cells. Targeted gene silencing was used to establish populations of lens cells expressing different levels of MsrA, and the mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS levels of these cell populations were monitored. Decreased MsrA levels were found to be associated with loss of cell viability, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased ROS levels in the absence of oxidative stress. These effects were augmented upon oxidative stress treatment. These results provide evidence that MsrA is a major determinant for accumulation of ROS in lens cells and that increased ROS levels in lens cells are associated with a corresponding decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential that is likely related to the requirement for MsrA in lens cell viability. PMID:16934804

  9. Conditioning of Roots with Hypoxia Increases Aluminum and Acid Stress Tolerance by Mitigating Activation of K+ Efflux Channels by ROS in Barley: Insights into Cross-Tolerance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanling; Zhu, Min; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is prevalent in soils, but Al toxicity is manifested only under acid conditions. It causes severe damages to the root system. Short-term waterlogging stress can occur simultaneously with Al toxicity in areas with high rainfall or an inappropriate irrigation pattern. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most Al-sensitive small-grained cereals. In this work, we have investigated effects of short-term treatments with hypoxia and phenolic acid (two major constraints in waterlogged soils) on root sensitivity to low-pH and Al stresses. We showed that hypoxia-primed roots maintained higher cell viability when exposed to low-pH/Al stress, in both elongation and mature root zones, and possessed superior ability to retain K(+) in response to low-pH/Al stresses. These priming effects were not related to higher H(+)-ATPase activity and better membrane potential maintenance, and could not be explained by the increased expression levels of HvHAK1, which mediates high-affinity K(+) uptake in roots. Instead, hypoxia-conditioned roots were significantly less sensitive to H2O2 treatment, indicated by the 10-fold reduction in the magnitude of K(+) efflux changes. This suggested that roots pre-treated with hypoxia desensitized reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducible K(+) efflux channels in root epidermis, most probably via enhanced antioxidative capacity. A possible role for Ca(2+) in stress-induced ROS signaling pathways is also discussed. Overall, our results report, for the first time, the phenomenon of cross-protection between hypoxia and low-pH/Al stresses, and causally link it to the cell's ability to maintain cytosolic K(+) homeostasis. PMID:26581863

  10. Effects of combinations of ROS scavengers on oxidative DNA damage caused by visible-light-activated camphorquinone/N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungbum; Pagoria, Dustin; Raigrodski, Ariel; Geurtsen, Werner

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to analyze whether various combinations of the ROS scavengers glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), and vitamins C and E decrease DNA damage due to visible-light-irradiated (VL-irradiated) camphorquinone/N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (CQ/DMT) compared with individual vitamin C or E. PhiX-174 RF plasmid DNA was used to determine single and double strand breaks as parameters of DNA damage. Individual ROS scavengers and combinations of the antioxidants were added to plasmid DNA treated with VL-irradiated CQ/DMT/Cu (II). After incubation, DNA was loaded into a 1% agarose gel. Following electrophoresis, gels stained with 0.5 microg/mL ethidium bromide were photographed under ultraviolet illumination and analyzed with NIH ImageJ software. Results were evaluated between groups for statistical significance using Student's paired t-test (p < 0.05). Glutathione significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage at all test concentrations when combined with vitamin C or vitamin E. The concentration of damaged DNA observed in the presence of combinations of GSH with vitamin C or vitamin E was significantly lower compared with all other combinations of antioxidants investigated in our study (p < 0.05). In contrast to GSH, NAC was not able to compensate the pro-oxidative effects of vitamin C and vitamin E. Only at a concentration of 2 mM, NAC combined with vitamin C efficiently prevented CQ/DMT/Cu (II)-associated DNA damage. Our data indicate that solely the combinations of GSH with vitamin C or vitamin E significantly reduce the severity of oxidative DNA damage caused by CQ/DMT, whereas NAC may even increase the pro-oxidant activity of vitamin C and vitamin E. PMID:17443666

  11. A Home Production Activity Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Ivan F.; Owen, Alma J.

    1980-01-01

    The family is examined as a focal unit of production and a home production activity model is developed. An interdisciplinary approach is used which puts the broad range of family activities on a continuum from production to consumption. (Author/SK)

  12. Cabozantinib overcomes crizotinib resistance in ROS1 fusion positive cancer

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Yuka; Friboulet, Luc; Lockerman, Elizabeth. L.; Koike, Sumie; Shaw, Alice T.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose ROS1 rearrangement leads to constitutive ROS1 activation with potent transforming activity. In an ongoing phase 1 trial, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib shows remarkable initial responses in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring ROS1 fusions; however, cancers eventually develop crizotinib resistance due to acquired mutations such as G2032R in ROS1. Thus, understanding the crizotinib resistance mechanisms in ROS1 rearranged NSCLC and identification of therapeutic strategies to overcome the resistance are required. Experimental Design The sensitivity of CD74-ROS1-transformed Ba/F3 cells to multiple ALK inhibitors was examined. Acquired ROS1 inhibitor resistant mutations in CD74-ROS1 fusion were screened by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis with Ba/F3 cells. To overcome the resistance mutation, we performed high throughput drug screening with small molecular inhibitors and anticancer drugs used in clinical practice or being currently tested in clinical trials. The effect of the identified drug was assessed in the CD74-ROS1 mutant Ba/F3 cells and crizotinib resistant patient-derived cancer cells (MGH047) harboring G2032R mutated CD74-ROS1. Results We identified multiple novel crizotinib resistance mutations in the ROS1 kinase domain including the G2032R mutation. As the result of high-throughput drug screening, we found that the cMET/RET/VEGFR inhibitor cabozantinib (XL184) effectively inhibited the survival of CD74-ROS1-WT and resistant mutants harboring Ba/F3 and MGH047 cells. Furthermore, cabozantinib could overcome all the resistance by all newly identified secondary mutations. Conclusions We developed a comprehensive model of acquired resistance to ROS1 inhibitors in NSCLC with ROS1 rearrangement and identified cabozantinib as a therapeutic strategy to overcome the resistance. PMID:25351743

  13. Relation between cell death progression, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential in fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under heat-shock conditions.

    PubMed

    Pyatrikas, Darya V; Fedoseeva, Irina V; Varakina, Nina N; Rusaleva, Tatyana M; Stepanov, Alexei V; Fedyaeva, Anna V; Borovskii, Gennadii B; Rikhvanov, Eugene G

    2015-06-01

    Moderate heat shock increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that led to cell death in glucose-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Conditions that disturb mitochondrial functions such as treatment by uncouplers and petite mutation were shown to inhibit ROS production and protects cell from thermal death. Hence, mitochondria are responsible for ROS production and play an active role in cell death. An increase in ROS production was accompanied by hyperpolarization of inner mitochondrial membrane. All agents suppressing hyperpolarization also suppressed heat-induced ROS production. It was supposed that generation of ROS under moderate heat shock in glucose-grown S. cerevisiae cells is driven by the mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:25991811

  14. A Comparison of B16 Melanoma Cells and 3T3 Fibroblasts Concerning Cell Viability and ROS Production in the Presence of Melatonin, Tested Over a Wide Range of Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bonmati-Carrion, Maria Angeles; Alvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule with many cellular and systemic actions, including chronobiotic effects. Beneficial effects are widely documented concerning the treatment of neoplastic diseases in vivo as well as reductions in viability of cultured cells from melanoma, one of the most aggressive cancers in humans. However, studies of its effects on non-tumor cells in vitro have not focused on viability, except for experiments aiming to protect against oxidotoxicity or other toxicological insults. Furthermore, there is no agreement on the range of effective melatonin concentrations in vitro, and the mechanisms that reduce cell viability have remained unclear. Tumor cell-specific increases in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) may provide a possible explanation. Our aim was to analyze the potential inhibition of tumor (B16 melanoma 4A5) and non-tumor cell (3T3 Swiss albino) viability using a wide range of melatonin concentrations (10-11-10-2 M), and to determine whether intracellular ROS enhancement was involved in this process. In the absence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), low melatonin concentrations (10-9-10-5 M) reduced the proliferation of melanoma cells with no effect in fibroblasts, whereas, in the presence of FBS, they had no effect or even increased the proliferation of both fibroblast and melanoma cells. Melatonin concentrations in the upper millimolar range increased ROS levels and reduced the viability of both cell types, but more markedly so in non-tumor cells. Thus, low melatonin concentrations reduce proliferation in this specific melanoma cell line, whereas high concentrations affect the viability of both tumor (B16 4A5 melanoma) and non-tumor (3T3 fibroblasts) cells. Increased ROS levels in both lines indicate a role for ROS production in the reduction of cell viability at high-but not low-melatonin concentrations, although the mechanism of action still remains to be elucidated. PMID:23434670

  15. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cell-free model using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) assay-limitations of method.

    PubMed

    Szychowski, Konrad A; Rybczyńska-Tkaczyk, Kamila; Leja, Marcin L; Wójtowicz, Anna K; Gmiński, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant, applied in a variety of commercial and household products, mainly electronic ones. Since the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered one of the principal cytotoxicity mechanisms, numerous studies undertake that aspect of TBBPA's mechanism of action. The present study verifies if the fluorogenic substrate 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) should be used to detect ROS production induced by TBBPA. To determine the ability of TBBPA alone to stimulate the conversion of H2DCFDA to its fluorescent product 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF), we used a cell-free model. In the experiments we check different cultured media also in combination with free radical scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Additionally, experiments with stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) have been made. The presented data showed that TBBPA in all tested concentrations interacts with H2DCFDA in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer while in micromolar concentrations in the DMEM/F12 medium with and without serum. The addition of NAC inhibited the interaction of TBBPA with H2DCFDA. Experiments with DPPH· showed that, in the presence of NAC, TBBPA acts like a free radical. TBBPA has similar properties to free radical and is susceptible to free radical scavenging properties of NAC. Our results indicated that H2DCFDA assay cannot be used to evaluate cellular ROS production in TBBPA studies. The study connected with TBBPA-stimulated ROS production in cell culture models using the H2DCFDA assay should be revised using a different method. However, due to the free radical-like nature of TBBPA, it can be very difficult. Therefore, further investigation of the nature of TBBPA as a compound with similar properties to free radical is required. PMID:26976009

  16. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Kumar Jaganathan, Saravana; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184). The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract) and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL) and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL). The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated. PMID:27410459

  17. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Kumar Jaganathan, Saravana; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184). The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract) and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL) and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL). The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated. PMID:27410459

  18. Antioxidant Activity/Capacity Measurement. 3. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (ROS/RNS) Scavenging Assays, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, and Chromatographic/Chemometric Assays.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Çapanoğlu, Esra

    2016-02-10

    There are many studies in which the antioxidant potential of different foods have been analyzed. However, there are still conflicting results and lack of information as a result of unstandardized assay techniques and differences between the principles of the methods applied. The measurement of antioxidant activity, especially in the case of mixtures, multifunctional or complex multiphase systems, cannot be evaluated satisfactorily using a simple antioxidant test due to the many variables influencing the results. In the literature, there are many antioxidant assays that are used to measure the total antioxidant activity/capacity of food materials. In this review, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) scavenging assays are evaluated with respect to their mechanism, advantages, disadvantages, and potential use in food systems. On the other hand, in vivo antioxidant activity (AOA) assays including oxidative stress biomarkers and cellular-based assays are covered within the scope of this review. Finally, chromatographic and chemometric assays are reviewed, focusing on their benefits especially with respect to their time saving, cost-effective, and sensitive nature. PMID:26689748

  19. Identification of Novel ROS Inducers: Quinone Derivatives Tethered to Long Hydrocarbon Chains.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yeonsun; Sengupta, Sandip; Hur, Wooyoung; Sim, Taebo

    2015-05-14

    We performed the first synthesis of the 17-carbon chain-tethered quinone moiety 22 (SAN5201) of irisferin A, a natural product exhibiting anticancer activity, and its derivatives. We found that 22 is a potent ROS inducer and cytotoxic agent. Compound 25 (SAN7401), the hydroquinone form of 22, induced a significant release of intracellular ROS and apoptosis (EC50 = 1.3-2.6 μM) in cancer cell lines, including A549 and HCT-116. Compared with the activity of a well-known ROS inducer, piperlongumine, 22 and 25 showed stronger cytotoxicity and higher selectivity over noncancerous cells. Another hydroquinone tethering 12-carbon chain, 26 (SAN4601), generated reduced levels of ROS but showed more potent cytotoxicity (EC50 = 0.8-1.6 μM) in cancer cells, although it lacked selectivity over noncancerous cells, implying that the naturally occurring 17-carbon chain is also crucial for ROS production and a selective anticancer effect. Both 25 and 26 displayed strong, equipotent activities against vemurafenib-resistant SK-Mel2 melanoma cells and p53-deficient H1299 lung cancer cells as well, demonstrating their broad therapeutic potential as anticancer agents. PMID:25826398

  20. Curcumin enhances the antitumor effect of ABT-737 via activation of the ROS-ASK1-JNK pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, RUINIAN; YOU, ZHIJIAN; JIA, JUN; LIN, SHUNHUAN; HAN, SHUAI; LIU, AIXUE; LONG, HUIDONG; WANG, SENMING

    2016-01-01

    At present, the therapeutic treatment strategies for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unsatisfactory, and novel methods are urgently required to treat this disease. Members of the B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family are anti-apoptotic proteins, which are commonly expressed at high levels in certain HCC tissues and positively correlate with the treatment resistance of patients with HCC. ABT-737, an inhibitor of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic proteins, has been demonstrated to exhibit potent antitumor effects in several types of tumor, including HCC. However, treatment with ABT-737 alone also activates certain pro-survival signaling pathways, which attenuate the antitumor validity of ABT-737. Curcumin, which is obtained from Curcuma longa, is also an antitumor potentiator in multiple types of cancer. In the present study, the synergistic effect of curcumin and ABT-737 on HCC cells was investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. It was found that curcumin markedly enhanced the antitumor effects of ABT-737 on HepG2 cells, which was partially dependent on the induction of apoptosis, according to western blot analysis and flow cytometric apoptosis analysis. In addition, the sustained activation of the ROS-ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway may be an important mediator of the synergistic effect of curcumin and ABT-737. Collectively, these results indicated that the combination of curcumin and ABT-737 can efficaciously induce the death of HCC cells, and may offer a potential treatment strategy for patients with HCC. PMID:26707143

  1. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Ye, Chaofei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Xin; Liu, Wu-zhen; Wu, Feifei; Yan, Jingli; Jiang, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo

    2015-11-27

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of a series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death. PMID:26498521

  2. Environmental changes in oxygen tension reveal ROS-dependent neurogenesis and regeneration in the adult newt brain.

    PubMed

    Hameed, L Shahul; Berg, Daniel A; Belnoue, Laure; Jensen, Lasse D; Cao, Yihai; Simon, András

    2015-01-01

    Organisms need to adapt to the ecological constraints in their habitat. How specific processes reflect such adaptations are difficult to model experimentally. We tested whether environmental shifts in oxygen tension lead to events in the adult newt brain that share features with processes occurring during neuronal regeneration under normoxia. By experimental simulation of varying oxygen concentrations, we show that hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation lead to neuronal death and hallmarks of an injury response, including activation of neural stem cells ultimately leading to neurogenesis. Neural stem cells accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during re-oxygenation and inhibition of ROS biosynthesis counteracts their proliferation as well as neurogenesis. Importantly, regeneration of dopamine neurons under normoxia also depends on ROS-production. These data demonstrate a role for ROS-production in neurogenesis in newts and suggest that this role may have been recruited to the capacity to replace lost neurons in the brain of an adult vertebrate. PMID:26485032

  3. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W; Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  5. Eugenol Provokes ROS-Mediated Membrane Damage-Associated Antibacterial Activity Against Clinically Isolated Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Das, Balaram; Mandal, Debasis; Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Sourav; Tripathy, Satyajit; Dolai, Durga Pada; Dey, Sankar Kumar; Roy, Somenath

    2016-01-01

    Due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, resistance to antibiotics has increased remarkably in Staphylococcus aureus. Vancomycin is the final drug to treat the S. aureus infection, but nowadays, resistance to this antibiotic is also increasing. So, the investigation of antibiotic resistance pattern is important. As there is already resistance to vancomycin, there is an urgent need to develop a new kind of antimicrobial to treat S. aureus infection. Eugenol may be the new drug of choice. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of eugenol against vancomycin-resistant S. aureus isolated from clinical pus samples. Thirty six pus samples were included in the study. Samples were isolated, identified and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed as per routine laboratory protocol. The antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of killing of eugenol were studied. Out of 36 pus samples, only 20 isolates were confirmed as S. aureus strains and 6 isolates exhibited vancomycin resistance. Eugenol successfully destroyed the vancomycin-resistant strains via reactive oxygen species generation and membrane damage. The prevalence of vancomycin resistance is increased day by day in different countries, and necessary steps to prevent the spread and emergence of resistance should be taken. The findings of the study suggested that eugenol might be used to treat vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:26917967

  6. Investigating ROS sources in male infertility: a common end for numerous pathways.

    PubMed

    Lavranos, G; Balla, M; Tzortzopoulou, A; Syriou, V; Angelopoulou, R

    2012-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are active byproducts of aerobic metabolism. Although they are constantly produced during normal cellular activities in the mitochondria, their action is counteracted by inherent antioxidant systems. This equilibrium is distorted in the case of acute or chronic inflammation, which results in increased ROS production and, ultimately, oxidative stress. In sperm, ROS are produced by both spermatozoa and circulating leucocytes and may be part of normal adaptive reactions, such as the capacitation process. However, a number of external toxicants may also contribute to ROS production in the testis and epididymis, leading to a decrease in sperm viability and motility and, therefore, an increased onset of the male factor of infertility. Such pro-oxidative conditions include, among others, exposure to radiation, extreme temperature, certain drugs, toxins, heavy metals, smoking and biological hazards. The current review paper summarizes the available evidence incriminating ROS and oxidative stress as the underlying pathophysiological mechanism leading to the onset of reproductive toxicity in each of these settings. PMID:22749934

  7. Mitochondria and Mitochondrial ROS in Cancer: Novel Targets for Anticancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuhui; Karakhanova, Svetlana; Hartwig, Werner; D'Haese, Jan G; Philippov, Pavel P; Werner, Jens; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria are indispensable for energy metabolism, apoptosis regulation, and cell signaling. Mitochondria in malignant cells differ structurally and functionally from those in normal cells and participate actively in metabolic reprogramming. Mitochondria in cancer cells are characterized by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, which promotes cancer development by inducing genomic instability, modifying gene expression, and participating in signaling pathways. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA mutations caused by oxidative damage that impair the oxidative phosphorylation process will result in further mitochondrial ROS production, completing the "vicious cycle" between mitochondria, ROS, genomic instability, and cancer development. The multiple essential roles of mitochondria have been utilized for designing novel mitochondria-targeted anticancer agents. Selective drug delivery to mitochondria helps to increase specificity and reduce toxicity of these agents. In order to reduce mitochondrial ROS production, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can specifically accumulate in mitochondria by affiliating to a lipophilic penetrating cation and prevent mitochondria from oxidative damage. In consistence with the oncogenic role of ROS, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are found to be effective in cancer prevention and anticancer therapy. A better understanding of the role played by mitochondria in cancer development will help to reveal more therapeutic targets, and will help to increase the activity and selectivity of mitochondria-targeted anticancer drugs. In this review we summarized the impact of mitochondria on cancer and gave summary about the possibilities to target mitochondria for anticancer therapies. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2570-2581, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26895995

  8. ROS1 Kinase Inhibitors for Molecular-Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Al-Sanea, M M; Abdelazem, A Z; Park, B S; Yoo, K H; Sim, T; Kwon, Y J; Lee, S H

    2016-01-01

    ROS1 is a pivotal transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase which regulates several cellular processes like apoptosis, survival, differentiation, proliferation, cell migration, and transformation. There is increasing evidence supporting that ROS1 plays an important role in different malignancies including glioblastoma, colorectal cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, ovarian cancer, angiosarcoma, and non small cell lung cancer; thus, ROS1 has become a potential drug discovery target. ROS1 shares about 49% sequence homology with ALK primary structure; therefore, wide range of ALK kinase inhibitors have shown in vitro inhibitory activity against ROS1 kinase. After Crizotinib approval by FDA for the management of ALK-rearranged lung cancer, ROS1-positive tumors have been focused. Although significant advancements have been achieved in understanding ROS1 function and its signaling pathways plus recent discovery of small molecules modulating ROS1 protein, a vital need of medicinal chemistry efforts is still required to produce selective and potent ROS1 inhibitors as an important therapeutic strategy for different human malignancies. This review focuses on the current knowledge about different scaffolds targeting ROS1 rearrangements, methods to synthesis, and some biological data about the most potent compounds that have delivered various scaffold structures. PMID:26438251

  9. Downregulation of TFAM inhibits the tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer by activating ROS-mediated JNK/p38MAPK signaling and reducing cellular bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Shangguan, Fugeng; Lin, Xiaoming; Chen, Fuhong; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Ya; Chen, Zilei; Huang, Kate; Wang, Rongrong; Wang, Lu; Song, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yongzhang; Lu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is essential for the replication, transcription and maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The role of TFAM in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains largely unknown. Herein, we report that downregulation of TFAM in NSCLC cells resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and significantly blocked NSCLC cell growth and migration through the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced c-Jun amino-terminal kinase(JNK)/p38 MAPK signaling and decreased cellular bioenergetics. We further found that TFAM downregulation in NSCLC cells led to increased apoptotic cell death and enhanced the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to cisplatin. Tissue microarray (TMA) data showed that elevated expression of TFAM was related to the histological grade and TNM stage of NSCLC patients. We also demonstrated that TFAM is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our findings suggest that TFAM could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and molecular target for the treatment of NSCLC, as well as for prediction of the effectiveness of chemotherapy. PMID:26820294

  10. Knockdown of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptosis of H1299 cells via ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Yim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Song, Jie-Young; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk; Park, In-Chul; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. • ROS generation enhances NF-κB activity, which acts as an upstream signal in the c-Myc/Noxa apoptotic pathway. - Abstract: We previously identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistant biomarker in p53 wild-type A549 cells and found that p53-dependent induction of the PUMA pathway was a critical event in regulating the radioresistant phenotype. Here, we found that HRP-3 knockdown regulates the radioresistance of p53-null H1299 cells through a distinctly different molecular mechanism. HRP-3 depletion was sufficient to cause apoptosis of H1299 cells by generating substantial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. Subsequent, ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation stimulated expression of c-Myc and Noxa proteins, thereby inducing the apoptotic machinery. Our results thus extend the range of targets for the development of new drugs to treat both p53 wild-type or p53-null radioresistant lung cancer cells.

  11. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chuen-Mao; Lee, I-Ta; Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der

    2013-10-15

    TNF-α plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-α in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-α induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-α-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-κB (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47{sup phox}, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-α markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-α-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-α-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-α-stimulated MAPKs and NF-κB activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-κB cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-α-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-α on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-α induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-α induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF

  12. ROS Function in Redox Signaling and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Michael; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress refers to elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. Oxidative stress has been linked to a myriad of pathologies. However, elevated ROS are also signaling molecules i.e. redox biology that maintain physiological functions. In this review we discuss the two faces of ROS, redox signaling and oxidative stress, and their contribution to both physiological and pathological conditions. Redox biology refers to low levels of ROS that activate signaling pathways to initiate biological processes while oxidative stress denotes high levels of ROS that incur damage to DNA, protein or lipids. Thus, the response to ROS displays hormesis. The In this review, we argue that redox biology, rather than oxidative stress, underlies physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24845678

  13. Patterns of ROS Accumulation in the Stigmas of Angiosperms and Visions into Their Multi-Functionality in Plant Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Zafra, Adoración; Rejón, Juan D.; Hiscock, Simon J.; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the stigma of several plant species has been investigated. Four developmental stages (unopened flower buds, recently opened flowers, dehiscent anthers, and flowers after fertilization) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using the ROS-specific probe DCFH2-DA. In all plants scrutinized, the presence of ROS in the stigmas was detected at higher levels during those developmental phases considered “receptive” to pollen interaction. In addition, these molecules were also present at early (unopened flower) or later (post-fertilization) stages, by following differential patterns depending on the different species. The biological significance of the presence ROS may differ between these stages, including defense functions, signaling and senescence. Pollen-stigma signaling is likely involved in the different mechanisms of self-incompatibility in these plants. The study also register a general decrease in the presence of ROS in the stigmas upon pollination, when NO is supposedly produced in an active manner by pollen grains. Finally, the distribution of ROS in primitive Angiosperms of the genus Magnolia was determined. The production of such chemical species in these plants was several orders of magnitude higher than in the remaining species evoking a massive displacement toward the defense function. This might indicate that signaling functions of ROS/NO in the stigma evolved later, as fine tune likely involved in specialized interactions like self-incompatibility. PMID:27547207

  14. Patterns of ROS Accumulation in the Stigmas of Angiosperms and Visions into Their Multi-Functionality in Plant Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Zafra, Adoración; Rejón, Juan D; Hiscock, Simon J; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the stigma of several plant species has been investigated. Four developmental stages (unopened flower buds, recently opened flowers, dehiscent anthers, and flowers after fertilization) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using the ROS-specific probe DCFH2-DA. In all plants scrutinized, the presence of ROS in the stigmas was detected at higher levels during those developmental phases considered "receptive" to pollen interaction. In addition, these molecules were also present at early (unopened flower) or later (post-fertilization) stages, by following differential patterns depending on the different species. The biological significance of the presence ROS may differ between these stages, including defense functions, signaling and senescence. Pollen-stigma signaling is likely involved in the different mechanisms of self-incompatibility in these plants. The study also register a general decrease in the presence of ROS in the stigmas upon pollination, when NO is supposedly produced in an active manner by pollen grains. Finally, the distribution of ROS in primitive Angiosperms of the genus Magnolia was determined. The production of such chemical species in these plants was several orders of magnitude higher than in the remaining species evoking a massive displacement toward the defense function. This might indicate that signaling functions of ROS/NO in the stigma evolved later, as fine tune likely involved in specialized interactions like self-incompatibility. PMID:27547207

  15. Mitochondrial flashes: new insights into mitochondrial ROS signalling and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tingting; Wang, Xianhua; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Heping

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory mitochondria undergo stochastic, intermittent bursts of superoxide production accompanied by transient depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and reversible opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. These discrete events were named 'superoxide flashes' for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal involved, and 'mitochondrial flashes' (mitoflashes) for the entirety of the multifaceted and intertwined mitochondrial processes. In contrast to the flashless basal ROS production of 'homeostatic ROS' for redox regulation, bursting ROS production during mitoflashes may provide 'signalling ROS' at the organelle level, fulfilling distinctly different cell functions. Mounting evidence indicates that mitoflash frequency is richly regulated over a broad range, and represents a novel, universal, and 'digital' readout of mitochondrial functional status and of the mitochondrial stress response. An emerging view is that mitoflashes participate in vital processes including metabolism, cell differentiation, the stress response and ageing. These recent advances shed new light on the role of mitochondrial functional dynamics in health and disease. PMID:25038239

  16. Feedback regulation via AMPK and HIF-1 mediates ROS-dependent longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ara B.; Ryu, Eun-A; Artan, Murat; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Kabir, Mohammad Humayun; Nam, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Dongyeop; Yang, Jae-Seong; Kim, Sanguk; Mair, William B.; Lee, Cheolju; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiration extends the lifespan of many species. In Caenorhabditis elegans, reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote longevity by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in response to reduced mitochondrial respiration. However, the physiological role and mechanism of ROS-induced longevity are poorly understood. Here, we show that a modest increase in ROS increases the immunity and lifespan of C. elegans through feedback regulation by HIF-1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We found that activation of AMPK as well as HIF-1 mediates the longevity response to ROS. We further showed that AMPK reduces internal levels of ROS, whereas HIF-1 amplifies the levels of internal ROS under conditions that increase ROS. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS increase resistance to various pathogenic bacteria, suggesting a possible association between immunity and long lifespan. Thus, AMPK and HIF-1 may control immunity and longevity tightly by acting as feedback regulators of ROS. PMID:25288734

  17. Cysteines under ROS attack in plants: a proteomics view.

    PubMed

    Akter, Salma; Huang, Jingjing; Waszczak, Cezary; Jacques, Silke; Gevaert, Kris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Plants generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of their metabolism and in response to various external stress factors, potentially causing significant damage to biomolecules and cell structures. During the course of evolution, plants have adapted to ROS toxicity, and use ROS as signalling messengers that activate defence responses. Cysteine (Cys) residues in proteins are one of the most sensitive targets for ROS-mediated post-translational modifications, and they have become key residues for ROS signalling studies. The reactivity of Cys residues towards ROS, and their ability to react to different oxidation states, allow them to appear at the crossroads of highly dynamic oxidative events. As such, a redox-active cysteine can be present as S-glutathionylated (-SSG), disulfide bonded (S-S), sulfenylated (-SOH), sulfinylated (-SO2H), and sulfonylated (-SO3H). The sulfenic acid (-SOH) form has been considered as part of ROS-sensing pathways, as it leads to further modifications which affect protein structure and function. Redox proteomic studies are required to understand how and why cysteines undergo oxidative post-translational modifications and to identify the ROS-sensor proteins. Here, we update current knowledge of cysteine reactivity with ROS. Further, we give an overview of proteomic techniques that have been applied to identify different redox-modified cysteines in plants. There is a particular focus on the identification of sulfenylated proteins, which have the potential to be involved in plant signal transduction. PMID:25750420

  18. Potential chemoprevention of LPS-stimulated nitric oxide and prostaglandin E₂ production by α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-indolecarbonate in BV2 microglial cells through suppression of the ROS/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Moon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Hak-Ju; Yun, Sung Gyu; Kim, Gi-Young

    2014-02-01

    α-l-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-indolecarbonate (RG3I) is a chemical constituent isolated from the commonly used Asian traditional medicinal plant, Clematis mandshurica; however, no studies have been reported on its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we found that RG3I attenuates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) via the dephosphorylation of PI3K/Akt in BV2 microglial cells, leading to a suppression of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, along with that of their regulatory genes, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). Further, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002 diminished the expression of LPS-stimulated iNOS and COX-2 genes by suppressing NF-κB activity. Moreover, RG3I significantly inhibited LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation similar to the ROS inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH). Notably, NAC and GSH abolished the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and Cox-2 in BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting NF-κB activity. Taken together, our data indicate that RG3I suppresses the production of proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 as well as their regulatory genes in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt- and ROS-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway, suggesting that RG3I may be a good candidate to regulate LPS-induced inflammatory response. PMID:24486459

  19. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key factor for stimulation of macrophage proliferation by ceramide 1-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Arana, Lide; Gangoiti, Patricia; Ouro, Alberto; Rivera, Io-Guane; Ordonez, Marta; Trueba, Miguel; Lankalapalli, Ravi S.; Bittman, Robert; Gomez-Munoz, Antonio

    2012-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is mitogenic for fibroblasts and macrophages. However, the mechanisms involved in this action were only partially described. Here, we demonstrate that C1P stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and that ROS are required for the mitogenic effect of C1P. ROS production was dependent upon prior activation of NADPH oxidase by C1P, which was determined by measuring phosphorylation of the p40phox subunit and translocation of p47phox from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In addition, C1P activated cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A{sub 2} and protein kinase C-{alpha}, and NADPH oxidase activation was blocked by selective inhibitors of these enzymes. These inhibitors, and inhibitors of ROS production, blocked the mitogenic effect of C1P. By using BHNB-C1P (a photolabile caged-C1P analog), we demonstrate that all of these C1P actions are caused by intracellular C1P. It can be concluded that the enzyme responsible for C1P-stimulated ROS generation in bone marrow-derived macrophages is NADPH oxidase, and that this enzyme is downstream of PKC-{alpha} and cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} in this pathway. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enzyme responsible for ROS generation by C1P in macrophages is NADPH oxidase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NADPH oxidase lies downstream of cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} and PKC-{alpha} in this pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROS generation is essential for the stimulation of macrophage proliferation by C1P.

  20. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-01-01

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced--turnover of LC3-II and--accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors--chloroquine and--bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that α-solanine induces

  1. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-01-01

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced – turnover of LC3-II and – accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors – chloroquine and – bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that

  2. Extracellular α-crystallin protects astrocytes from cell death through activation of MAPK, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and blockade of ROS release from mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhihui; Li, Rongyu; Stricker, Rolf; Reiser, Georg

    2015-09-16

    α-Crystallin with two isoforms, αA-crystallin (HSPB4) and αB-crystallin (HSPB5), is found in eye lens, spleen, lung, kidney, cornea, skin, but also in brain. Several studies revealed roles of αA/αB-crystallin in regulating cell viability and protection in the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that α-crystallin serves as an intracellular protectant in astrocytes. Compared to well-studied intracellular functions of α-crystallin, there is limited proof for the role of α-crystallin as extracellular protectant. In order to clarify protective effects of extracellular αA/αB-crystallin, we exposed astrocytes to the toxic agents, staurosporine or C2-ceramide, or serum-starvation in the presence of αA/αB-crystallin. Extracellular αA/αB-crystallin protected astrocytes from staurosporine- and C2-ceramide-induced cell death. In addition, extracellular αB-crystallin/HSPB5 effectively promoted astrocytes viability through phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling pathways under serum-deprivation. Furthermore, αB-crystallin/HSPB5 decreases the staurosporine-mediated cleavage of caspase 3 through PI3K/Akt signaling preventing apoptosis of astrocytes. Thus, the current study indicates that extracellular αA/αB-crystallin protects astrocytes exposed to various harmful stimuli. Furthermore, application of αB-crystallin/HSPB5 to isolated rat brain mitochondria inhibits ROS generation induced by complex III inhibition with Antimycin A. PMID:25998538

  3. Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Preferentially Induces Apoptosis in p53-Mutated Cancer Cells by Activating ROS Stress-Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yonghao; Ha, Chang Seung; Hwang, Seok Won; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Lee, Kyo-Won; Song, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) is an ionized gas at room temperature and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy that acts by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is imperative to determine its selectivity and standardize the components and composition of NTAPP. Here, we designed an NTAPP-generating apparatus combined with a He gas feeding system and demonstrated its high selectivity toward p53-mutated cancer cells. We first determined the proper conditions for NTAPP exposure to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The apoptotic effect of NTAPP was greater for p53-mutated cancer cells; artificial p53 expression in p53-negative HT29 cells decreased the pro-apoptotic effect of NTAPP. We also examined extra- and intracellular ROS levels in NTAPP-treated cells to deduce the mechanism of NTAPP action. While NTAPP-mediated increases in extracellular nitric oxide (NO) did not affect cell viability, intracellular ROS increased under NTAPP exposure and induced apoptotic cell death. This effect was dose-dependently reduced following treatment with ROS scavengers. NTAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of NTAPP as a potent cancer therapy. Collectively, these results strongly support the potential of NTAPP as a selective anticancer treatment, especially for p53-mutated cancer cells. PMID:24759730

  4. ATM functions at the peroxisome to induce pexophagy in response to ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangwei; Tripathi, Durga Nand; Jing, Ji; Alexander, Angela; Kim, Jinhee; Powell, Reid T; Dere, Ruhee; Tait-Mulder, Jacqueline; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Paull, Tanya T; Pandita, Raj K; Charaka, Vijaya K; Pandita, Tej K; Kastan, Michael B; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-10-01

    Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative damage and promoting diseases such as cancer. We report that the PEX5 peroxisome import receptor binds ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and localizes this kinase to the peroxisome. In response to ROS, ATM signalling activates ULK1 and inhibits mTORC1 to induce autophagy. Specificity for autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy) is provided by ATM phosphorylation of PEX5 at Ser 141, which promotes PEX5 monoubiquitylation at Lys 209, and recognition of ubiquitylated PEX5 by the autophagy adaptor protein p62, directing the autophagosome to peroxisomes to induce pexophagy. These data reveal an important new role for ATM in metabolism as a sensor of ROS that regulates pexophagy. PMID:26344566

  5. Rapamycin reverses age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, oxidative stress, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, and lipofuscin level, and increases autophagy, in the liver of middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cisuelo, V; Gómez, J; García-Junceda, I; Naudí, A; Cabré, R; Mota-Martorell, N; López-Torres, M; González-Sánchez, M; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2016-10-01

    Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver. After 7weeks of dietary treatment all those increases were totally or partially (lipofuscin) abolished by rapamycin, middle aged rapamycin-treated animals showing similar levels in those parameters to young animals. The decrease in mitochondrial ROS production was due to qualitative instead of quantitative changes in complex I. The decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoxidation was not due to decreases in the amount of highly oxidizable unsaturated fatty acids. Rapamycin also decreased the amount of RAPTOR (of mTOR complex) and increased the amounts of the PGC1-α and ATG13 proteins. The results are consistent with the possibility that rapamycin increases longevity in mice at least in part by lowering mitochondrial ROS production and increasing autophagy, decreasing the derived final forms of damage accumulated with age which are responsible for increased longevity. The decrease in lipofuscin accumulation induced by rapamycin adds to previous information suggesting that the increase in longevity induced by this drug can be due to a decrease in the rate of aging. PMID:27498120

  6. A Key Role for Mg2+ in TRPM7’s Control of ROS Levels During Cell Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiang-Chin; Su, Li-Ting; González-Pagán, Omayra; Overton, Jeffrey D.; Runnels, Loren W.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The TRPM7 channel has been shown to play a pivotal role in cell survival during brain ischemia as well as in the survival of other cell types challenged with apoptotic stimuli. Ca2+ is thought to be central to the channel’s ability to regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, channel-mediated entry of Mg2+ and Zn2+ have also been implicated in cell death. Here we show that depletion of TRPM7 by RNA interference in fibroblasts increases cell resistance to apoptotic stimuli by decreasing ROS levels in a Mg2+-dependent manner. Depletion of TRPM7 lowered cellular Mg2+, decreased the concentration of ROS and lessened p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation as well as decreased caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in response to apoptotic stimuli. Re-expression of TRPM7 or of a kinase-inactive mutant of TRPM7 in TRPM7-knockdown cells increased cellular Mg2+ and ROS levels, as did expression of the Mg2+ transporter SLC41A2. In addition, expression of SLC41A2 increased TRPM7-knockdown cells’ sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli as well as boosted ROS generation in response to cell stress. Together these data uncover an essential role for Mg2+ in TRPM7’s control of cell survival and in the regulation of cellular ROS levels. PMID:22587440

  7. Genetic disorders coupled to ROS deficiency.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sharon; Brault, Julie; Stasia, Marie-Jose; Knaus, Ulla G

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining the redox balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for health. Disturbances such as continuously elevated ROS levels will result in oxidative stress and development of disease, but likewise, insufficient ROS production will be detrimental to health. Reduced or even complete loss of ROS generation originates mainly from inactivating variants in genes encoding for NADPH oxidase complexes. In particular, deficiency in phagocyte Nox2 oxidase function due to genetic variants (CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, NCF4) has been recognized as a direct cause of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited immune disorder. More recently, additional diseases have been linked to functionally altered variants in genes encoding for other NADPH oxidases, such as for DUOX2/DUOXA2 in congenital hypothyroidism, or for the Nox2 complex, NOX1 and DUOX2 as risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. A comprehensive overview of novel developments in terms of Nox/Duox-deficiency disorders is presented, combined with insights gained from structure-function studies that will aid in predicting functional defects of clinical variants. PMID:26210446

  8. Genetic disorders coupled to ROS deficiency

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Sharon; Brault, Julie; Stasia, Marie-Jose; Knaus, Ulla G.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the redox balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for health. Disturbances such as continuously elevated ROS levels will result in oxidative stress and development of disease, but likewise, insufficient ROS production will be detrimental to health. Reduced or even complete loss of ROS generation originates mainly from inactivating variants in genes encoding for NADPH oxidase complexes. In particular, deficiency in phagocyte Nox2 oxidase function due to genetic variants (CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, NCF4) has been recognized as a direct cause of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited immune disorder. More recently, additional diseases have been linked to functionally altered variants in genes encoding for other NADPH oxidases, such as for DUOX2/DUOXA2 in congenital hypothyroidism, or for the Nox2 complex, NOX1 and DUOX2 as risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. A comprehensive overview of novel developments in terms of Nox/Duox-deficiency disorders is presented, combined with insights gained from structure–function studies that will aid in predicting functional defects of clinical variants. PMID:26210446

  9. The interplay between ROS and tubulin cytoskeleton in plants

    PubMed Central

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Plants have to deal with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, since it could potentially cause severe damages to different cellular components. On the other hand, ROS functioning as important second messengers are implicated in various developmental processes and are transiently produced during biotic or abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the microtubules (MTs) play a primary role in plant development and appear as potent players in sensing stressful situations and in the subsequent cellular responses. Emerging evidence suggests that ROS affect MTs in multiple ways. The cellular redox status seems to be tightly coupled with MTs. ROS signals regulate the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton and induce tubulin modifications. This review aims at summarizing the signaling mechanisms and the key operators orchestrating the crosstalk between ROS and tubulin cytoskeleton in plant cells. The contribution of several molecules, including microtubule associated proteins, oxidases, kinases, phospholipases, and transcription factors, is highlighted. PMID:24521945

  10. Reactive oxygen species induced by presynaptic glutamate receptor activation is involved in [(3)H]GABA release from rat brain cortical nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, A; Krupko, O; Himmelreich, N

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a response to presynaptic glutamate receptor activation, and the role of ROS in neurotransmitter (GABA) release. Experiments were performed with rat brain cortical synaptosomes using glutamate, NMDA and kainate as agonists of glutamate receptors. ROS production was evaluated with the fluorogenic compound dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCF-DA), and GABA release was studied using synaptosomes loaded with [(3)H]GABA. All agonists were found to stimulate ROS production, and specific antagonists of NMDA and kainate/AMPA receptors, dizocilpine hydrogen maleate (MK-801) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-done (CNQX), significantly inhibited the ROS increase. Spontaneous as well as agonist-evoked ROS production was effectively attenuated by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a commonly used potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase activity, that suggests a high contribution of NADPH-oxidase to this process. The replacement of glucose with pyruvate or the simultaneous presence of both substrates in the medium led to the decrease in spontaneous and NMDA-evoked ROS production, but to the increase in ROS production induced by kainate. Scavenging of agonist-evoked ROS production by a potent antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was tightly correlated with the inhibition of agonist-evoked GABA release. Together, these findings show that the activation of presynaptic glutamate receptors induces an increase in ROS production, and there is a tight correlation between ROS production and GABA secretion. The pivotal role of kainate/AMPA receptors in ROS production is under discussion. PMID:22864357

  11. Contributions of reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in arsenite-stimulated hemeoxygenase-1 production

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Karen L.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G. . E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu

    2007-01-15

    Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an oxidative stress responsive gene upregulated by various physiological and exogenous stimuli. HO-1 has cytoprotective activities and arsenite is a potent inducer of HO-1 in many cell types and tissues, including epidermal keratinocytes. We investigated the potential contributions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation to arsenite-dependent regulation of HO-1 in HaCaT cells, an immortalized human keratinocyte line. Both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and arsenite stimulated ROS production was detected by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining and fluorescence microscopy. Arsenite induced HO-1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, while HO-1 expression in response to EGF was modest and evident at extended time points (48-72 h). Inhibition of EGF receptor, MEK I/II or Src decreased arsenite-stimulated HO-1 expression by 20-30%. In contrast, addition of a superoxide scavenger or inhibition of p38 activity decreased the arsenite-dependent response by 80-90% suggesting that ROS and p38 are required for HO-1 induction. However, ROS generation alone was insufficient for the observed arsenite-dependent response as use of a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system to generate ROS did not produce an equivalent upregulation of HO-1. Cooperation between ERK signaling and ROS generation was demonstrated by synergistic induction of HO-1 in cells co-treated with EGF and xanthine/xanthine oxidase resulting in a response nearly equivalent to that observed with arsenite. These findings suggest that the ERK/MAPK activation is necessary but not sufficient for optimal arsenite-stimulated HO-1 induction. The robust and persistent upregulation of HO-1 may have a role in cellular adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure.

  12. Mouse Model for ROS1-Rearranged Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hiromi; Hama, Natsuko; Kohno, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Yoshida, Akihiko; Asamura, Hisao; Mutoh, Michihiro; Hosoda, Fumie; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Genetic rearrangement of the ROS1 receptor tyrosine kinase was recently identified as a distinct molecular signature for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, direct evidence of lung carcinogenesis induced by ROS1 fusion genes remains to be verified. The present study shows that EZR-ROS1 plays an essential role in the oncogenesis of NSCLC harboring the fusion gene. EZR-ROS1 was identified in four female patients of lung adenocarcinoma. Three of them were never smokers. Interstitial deletion of 6q22–q25 resulted in gene fusion. Expression of the fusion kinase in NIH3T3 cells induced anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. This transforming ability was attributable to its kinase activity. The ALK/MET/ROS1 kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, suppressed fusion-induced anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3 cells. Most importantly, established transgenic mouse lines specifically expressing EZR-ROS1 in lung alveolar epithelial cells developed multiple adenocarcinoma nodules in both lungs at an early age. These data suggest that the EZR-ROS1 is a pivotal oncogene in human NSCLC, and that this animal model could be valuable for exploring therapeutic agents against ROS1-rearranged lung cancer. PMID:23418494

  13. ROS Involves the Fungicidal Actions of Thymol against Spores of Aspergillus flavus via the Induction of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qingshan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Hongbo; Hu, Liangbin; Mo, Haizhen

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogenic fungus for both crops and human beings. The acquisition of resistance to azoles by A. flavus is leading to more failures occurring in the prevention of infection by A. flavus. In this study, we found that thymol, one of the major chemical constituents of the essential oil of Monarda punctate, had efficient fungicidal activity against A. flavus and led to sporular lysis. Further studies indicated that thymol treatment induced the generation of both ROS and NO in spores, whereas NO accumulation was far later than ROS accumulation in response to thymol. By blocking ROS production with the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, NO generation was also significantly inhibited in the presence of thymol, which indicated that ROS induced NO generation in A. flavus in response to thymol treatment. Moreover, the removal of either ROS or NO attenuated lysis and death of spores exposed to thymol. The addition of SNP (exogenous NO donor) eliminated the protective effects of the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on thymol-induced lysis and death of spores. Taken together, it could be concluded that ROS is involved in spore death induced by thymol via the induction of NO. PMID:27196096

  14. Thermosensitive Polypeptide Hydrogels as a Platform for ROS-Triggered Cargo Release with Innate Cytoprotective Ability under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinghua; He, Chaoliang; Ren, Kaixuan; Xiao, Chunsheng; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in cell signaling pathways, while increased production of ROS may disrupt cellular homeostasis, giving rise to a series of diseases. Therefore, materials responding to ROS at physiological levels are of great significance. In this work, a novel ROS-responsive thermogelling hydrogel based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-methionine) diblock copolymers is designed and synthesized. The mechanism for solution-to-hydrogel (sol-gel) phase transitions of the copolymer aqueous solutions is studied. Incubation of the hydrogels in the presence of peroxide hydrogen (H2 O2 ) displays a H2 O2 -responsive degradation process. The hydrogels containing Rhodamine 6G exhibit sustained release profiles that are accelerated in response to H2 O2 . An innate cytoprotective ability of the hydrogels is revealed by incubation of L929 cells with the hydrogels under oxidative stress, which reduces H2 O2 -mediated cell death. ROS produced by activated macrophages can accelerate the erosion of the hydrogel, suggesting that the hydrogel is also responsive to pathological level of H2 O2 . Meanwhile, the poly(l-methionine)-based hydrogels degrade within 6 weeks after subcutaneous injection into rats, with a good biocompatibility in vivo. Overall, the injectable, ROS-responsive hydrogels may serve as promising platforms for sustained drug delivery and cell-based therapies in treatment of diseases with local oxidative stress. PMID:27283999

  15. ROS Involves the Fungicidal Actions of Thymol against Spores of Aspergillus flavus via the Induction of Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingshan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Hongbo; Hu, Liangbin; Mo, Haizhen

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogenic fungus for both crops and human beings. The acquisition of resistance to azoles by A. flavus is leading to more failures occurring in the prevention of infection by A. flavus. In this study, we found that thymol, one of the major chemical constituents of the essential oil of Monarda punctate, had efficient fungicidal activity against A. flavus and led to sporular lysis. Further studies indicated that thymol treatment induced the generation of both ROS and NO in spores, whereas NO accumulation was far later than ROS accumulation in response to thymol. By blocking ROS production with the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, NO generation was also significantly inhibited in the presence of thymol, which indicated that ROS induced NO generation in A. flavus in response to thymol treatment. Moreover, the removal of either ROS or NO attenuated lysis and death of spores exposed to thymol. The addition of SNP (exogenous NO donor) eliminated the protective effects of the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on thymol-induced lysis and death of spores. Taken together, it could be concluded that ROS is involved in spore death induced by thymol via the induction of NO. PMID:27196096

  16. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 regulates ROS homeostasis and oxidative stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Alvina Grace; Doherty, Colleen J.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Kay, Steve A.; Schippers, Jos H. M.; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms have evolved endogenous biological clocks as internal timekeepers to coordinate metabolic processes with the external environment. Here, we seek to understand the mechanism of synchrony between the oscillator and products of metabolism known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Arabidopsis thaliana. ROS-responsive genes exhibit a time-of-day–specific phase of expression under diurnal and circadian conditions, implying a role of the circadian clock in transcriptional regulation of these genes. Hydrogen peroxide production and scavenging also display time-of-day phases. Mutations in the core-clock regulator, CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), affect the transcriptional regulation of ROS-responsive genes, ROS homeostasis, and tolerance to oxidative stress. Mis-expression of EARLY FLOWERING 3, LUX ARRHYTHMO, and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 affect ROS production and transcription, indicating a global effect of the clock on the ROS network. We propose CCA1 as a master regulator of ROS homeostasis through association with the Evening Element in promoters of ROS genes in vivo to coordinate time-dependent responses to oxidative stress. We also find that ROS functions as an input signal that affects the transcriptional output of the clock, revealing an important link between ROS signaling and circadian output. Temporal coordination of ROS signaling by CCA1 and the reciprocal control of circadian output by ROS reveal a mechanistic link that allows plants to master oxidative stress responses. PMID:23027948

  17. Chaetocin-induced ROS-mediated apoptosis involves ATM–YAP1 axis and JNK-dependent inhibition of glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, D; Ghildiyal, R; Anto, N P; Sen, E

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress serves as an important regulator of both apoptosis and metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells. Chaetocin, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor, is known to induce ROS generation. As elevating basal ROS level sensitizes glioma cells to apoptosis, the ability of Chaetocin in regulating apoptotic and metabolic adaptive responses in glioma was investigated. Chaetocin induced glioma cell apoptosis in a ROS-dependent manner. Increased intracellular ROS induced (i) Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) expression independent of the canonical Hippo pathway as well as (ii) ATM and JNK activation. Increased interaction of YAP1 with p73 and p300 induced apoptosis in an ATM-dependent manner. Chaetocin induced JNK modulated several metabolic parameters like glucose uptake, lactate production, ATP generation, and activity of glycolytic enzymes hexokinase and pyruvate kinase. However, JNK had no effect on ATM or YAP1 expression. Coherent with the in vitro findings, Chaetocin reduced tumor burden in heterotypic xenograft glioma mouse model. Chaetocin-treated tumors exhibited heightened ROS, pATM, YAP1 and pJNK levels. Our study highlights the coordinated control of glioma cell proliferation and metabolism by ROS through (i) ATM-YAP1-driven apoptotic pathway and (ii) JNK-regulated metabolic adaptation. The elucidation of these newfound connections and the roles played by ROS to simultaneously shift metabolic program and induce apoptosis could provide insights toward the development of new anti-glioma strategies. PMID:24810048

  18. Hemodynamic Shear Stress via ROS Modulates PCSK9 Expression in Human Vascular Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells and Along the Mouse Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zufeng; Wang, Xianwei; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Sun, Changqing; Wang, Yannian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To investigate a possible link between hemodynamic shear stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) expression. Results: Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, we observed that PCSK9 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) reached maximal value at low shear stress (3–6 dynes/cm2), and then began to decline with an increase in shear stress. PCSK9 expression increased when cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide. PCSK9 expression was always greater in SMCs than in ECs. ROS generation followed the same pattern as PCSK9 expression. Aortic branching and aorta–iliac bifurcation regions of mouse aorta that express low shear stress were also found to have greater PCSK9 expression (vs. other regions). To determine a relationship between ROS and PCSK9 expression, ECs and SMCs were treated with ROS inhibitors diphenylene-iodonium chloride and apocynin, and both markedly reduced PCSK9 expression. Relationship between PCSK9 and ROS was further studied in p47phox and gp91phox knockout mice; both mice strains revealed low PCSK9 levels in serum and mRNA levels in aorta–iliac bifurcation regions (vs. wild-type mice). Other studies showed that ROS and NF-κB activation plays a bridging role in PCSK9 expression via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1). Innovation: Low shear stress induces PCSK9 expression, which is mediated by NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that low shear stress enhances PCSK9 expression in concert with ROS generation in vascular ECs and SMCs. ROS seem to regulate PCSK9 expression. We propose that PCSK9-ROS interaction may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in arterial channels with low shear stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 760–771. PMID:25490141

  19. P2X4 assembles with P2X7 and pannexin-1 in gingival epithelial cells and modulates ATP-induced reactive oxygen species production and inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shu-Chen; Choi, Chul Hee; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Johnson, Larry; Atanasova, Kalina Rosenova; Sellami, Hanen; Yilmaz, Özlem; Ojcius, David M

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that Porphyromonas gingivalis infection of gingival epithelial cells (GEC) requires an exogenous danger signal such as ATP to activate an inflammasome and caspase-1, thereby inducing secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. Stimulation with extracellular ATP also stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in GEC. However, the mechanism by which ROS is generated in response to ATP, and the role that different purinergic receptors may play in inflammasome activation, is still unclear. In this study, we revealed that the purinergic receptor P2X(4) is assembled with the receptor P2X(7) and its associated pore, pannexin-1. ATP induces ROS production through a complex consisting of the P2X(4), P2X(7), and pannexin-1. P2X(7)-mediated ROS production can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1. Furthermore, separate depletion or inhibition of P2X(4), P2X(7), or pannexin-1 complex blocks IL-1β secretion in P. gingivalis-infected GEC following ATP treatment. However, activation via P2X(4) alone induces ROS generation but not inflammasome activation. These results suggest that ROS is generated through stimulation of a P2X(4)/P2X(7)/pannexin-1 complex, and reveal an unexpected role for P2X(4), which acts as a positive regulator of inflammasome activation during microbial infection. PMID:23936165

  20. P2X4 Assembles with P2X7 and Pannexin-1 in Gingival Epithelial Cells and Modulates ATP-induced Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Inflammasome Activation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Larry; Atanasova, Kalina Rosenova; Sellami, Hanen; Yilmaz, Özlem; Ojcius, David M.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that Porphyromonas gingivalis infection of gingival epithelial cells (GEC) requires an exogenous danger signal such as ATP to activate an inflammasome and caspase-1, thereby inducing secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. Stimulation with extracellular ATP also stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in GEC. However, the mechanism by which ROS is generated in response to ATP, and the role that different purinergic receptors may play in inflammasome activation, is still unclear. In this study, we revealed that the purinergic receptor P2X4 is assembled with the receptor P2X7 and its associated pore, pannexin-1. ATP induces ROS production through a complex consisting of the P2X4, P2X7, and pannexin-1. P2X7−mediated ROS production can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1. Furthermore, separate depletion or inhibition of P2X4, P2X7, or pannexin-1 complex blocks IL-1β secretion in P. gingivalis-infected GEC following ATP treatment. However, activation via P2X4 alone induces ROS generation but not inflammasome activation. These results suggest that ROS is generated through stimulation of a P2X4/P2X7/pannexin-1 complex, and reveal an unexpected role for P2X4, which acts as a positive regulator of inflammasome activation during microbial infection. PMID:23936165

  1. Vermicompost humic acids modulate the accumulation and metabolism of ROS in rice plants.

    PubMed

    García, Andrés Calderín; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrósio; Tavares, Orlando Carlos Huertas; Zonta, Everaldo; Gomes, Ernane Tarcisio Martins; García-Mina, José Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-03-15

    This work aims to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, gene expression, anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and derived effects on membrane lipid peroxidation and certain stress markers (proline and malondialdehyde-MDA) in the roots of unstressed and PEG-stressed rice plants associated with vermicompost humic acid (VCHA) application. The results show that the application of VCHA to the roots of unstressed rice plants caused a slight but significant increase in root ROS accumulation and the gene expression and activity of the major anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase). This action did not have negative effects on root development, and an increase in both root growth and root proliferation occurred. However, the root proline and MDA concentrations and the root permeability results indicate the development of a type of mild stress associated with VCHA application. When VCHA was applied to PEG-stressed plants, a clear alleviation of the inhibition in root development linked to PEG-mediated osmotic stress was observed. This was associated with a reduction in root ROS production and anti-oxidant enzymatic activity caused by osmotic stress. This alleviation of stress caused by VCHA was also reflected as a reduction in the PEG-mediated concentration of MDA in the root as well as root permeability. In summary, the beneficial action of VCHA on the root development of unstressed or PEG-stressed rice plants clearly involves the modulation of ROS accumulation in roots. PMID:26851887

  2. Curcumin attenuates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis by regulating functional connections between caveolin-1 phosphorylation and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-na; Liu, Xiang-chun; Chen, Xiang-jun; Guan, Guang-ju; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Caveolin-1 (cav-1) is a major multifunctional scaffolding protein of caveolae. Cav-1 is primarily expressed in mesangial cells, renal proximal tubule cells and podocytes in kidneys. Recent evidence shows that the functional connections between cav-1 and ROS play a key role in many diseases. In this study we investigated whether regulating the functional connections between cav-1 and ROS in kidneys contributed to the beneficial effects of curcumin in treating diabetic nephropathy in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cultured mouse podocytes (mpc5) were incubated in a high glucose (HG, 30 mmol/L) medium for 24, 48 or 72 h. Male rats were injected with STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) to induce diabetes. ROS generation, SOD activity, MDA content and caspase-3 activity in the cultured cells and kidney cortex homogenate were determined. Apoptotic proteins and cav-1 phosphorylation were analyzed using Western blot analyses. Results: Incubation in HG-containing medium time-dependently increased ROS production, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cav-1 phosphorylation in podocytes. Pretreatment with curcumin (1, 5, and 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated these abnormalities in HG-treated podocytes. Furthermore, in HG-containing medium, the podocytes transfected with a recombinant plasmid GFP-cav-1 Y14F (mutation at a cav-1 phosphorylation site) exhibited significantly decreased ROS production and apoptosis compared with the cells transfected with empty vector. In diabetic rats, administration of curcumin (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight per day, ig, for 8 weeks) not only significantly improved the renal function, but also suppressed ROS levels, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cav-1 phosphorylation in the kidneys. Conclusion: Curcumin attenuates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis in vitro and diabetic nephropathy in vivo partly through regulating the functional connections between cav-1 phosphorylation and ROS. PMID:26838071

  3. Phytohormones Signaling Pathways and ROS Involvement in Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Oracz, Krystyna; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major determinants of the regulation of development and stress responses in plants. During life cycle of these organisms, signaling networks of plant growth regulators and ROS interact in order to render an appropriate developmental and environmental response. In plant’s photosynthetic (e.g., leaves) and non-photosynthetic (e.g., seeds) tissues, enhanced and suboptimal ROS production is usually associated with stress, which in extreme cases can be lethal to cells, a whole organ or even an organism. However, controlled production of ROS is appreciated for cellular signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in plant biology and increasing number of findings that have revealed roles of ROS and hormonal signaling in germination, some questions still arise, e.g., what are the downstream protein targets modified by ROS enabling stimulus-specific cellular responses of the seed? Or which molecular regulators allow ROS/phytohormones interactions and what is their function in seed life? In this particular review the role of some transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases is discussed, especially those which usually known to be involved in ROS and hormonal signal transduction under stress in plants, may also play a role in the regulation of processes occurring in seeds. The summarized recent findings regarding particular ROS- and phytohormones-related regulatory proteins, as well as their integration, allowed to propose a novel, possible model of action of LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1, and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 functioning during seeds life. PMID:27379144

  4. Diallylsulfide attenuates excessive collagen production and apoptosis in a rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis through the involvement of protease activated receptor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Kalayarasan, Srinivasan Sriram, Narayanan; Soumyakrishnan, Syamala; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can be a devastating lung disease. It is primarily caused by inflammation leading to severe damage of the alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiology of PF is not yet been clearly defined, but studying lung parenchymal injury by involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may provide promising results. PAR-2 is a G-protein coupled receptor is known to play an important role in the development of PF. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory role of diallylsulfide (DAS) against ROS mediated activation of PAR-2 and collagen production accompanied by epithelial cell apoptosis. Bleomycin induced ROS levels may prompt to induce the expression of PAR-2 as well as extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), such as MMP 2 and 9, collagen specific proteins HSP-47, α-SMA, and cytokines IL-6, and IL-8RA. Importantly DAS treatment effectively decreased the expression of all these proteins. The inhibitory effect of DAS on profibrotic molecules is mediated by blocking the ROS level. To identify apoptotic signaling as a mediator of PF induction, we performed apoptotic protein expression, DNA fragmentation analysis and ultrastructural details of the lung tissue were performed. DAS treatment restored all these changes to near normalcy. In conclusion, treatment of PF bearing rats with DAS results in amelioration of the ROS production, PAR-2 activation, ECM production, collagen synthesis and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis during bleomycin induction. We attained the first evidence that treatment of DAS decreases the ROS levels and may provide a potential therapeutic effect attenuating bleomycin induced PF. - Highlights: • DAS inhibits PAR-2 activity; bleomycin stimulates PAR-2 activity. • Increase in PAR-2 activity is correlated with pulmonary fibrosis • DAS reduces pro-inflammatory activity linked to facilitating pulmonary fibrosis. • DAS inhibits apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

  5. Fibulin-5 Blocks Microenvironmental ROS in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Topalovski, Mary; Toombs, Jason E; Wright, Christopher M; Moore, Zachary R; Boothman, David A; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Wang, Huamin; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka; Castrillon, Diego H; Brekken, Rolf A

    2015-12-01

    Elevated oxidative stress is an aberration seen in many solid tumors, and exploiting this biochemical difference has the potential to enhance the efficacy of anticancer agents. Homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is important for normal cell function, but excessive production of ROS can result in cellular toxicity, and therefore ROS levels must be balanced finely. Here, we highlight the relationship between the extracellular matrix and ROS production by reporting a novel function of the matricellular protein Fibulin-5 (Fbln5). We used genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and found that mutation of the integrin-binding domain of Fbln5 led to decreased tumor growth, increased survival, and enhanced chemoresponse to standard PDAC therapies. Through mechanistic investigations, we found that improved survival was due to increased levels of oxidative stress in Fbln5-mutant tumors. Furthermore, loss of the Fbln5-integrin interaction augmented fibronectin signaling, driving integrin-induced ROS production in a 5-lipooxygenase-dependent manner. These data indicate that Fbln5 promotes PDAC progression by functioning as a molecular rheostat that modulates cell-ECM interactions to reduce ROS production, and thus tip the balance in favor of tumor cell survival and treatment-refractory disease. PMID:26577699

  6. Exercise-induced ROS in heat shock proteins response.

    PubMed

    Dimauro, Ivan; Mercatelli, Neri; Caporossi, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Cells have evolved multiple and sophisticated stress response mechanisms aiming to prevent macromolecular (including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) damage and to maintain or re-establish cellular homeostasis. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are among the most highly conserved, ubiquitous, and abundant proteins in all organisms. Originally discovered more than 50 years ago through heat shock stress, they display multiple, remarkable roles inside and outside cells under a variety of stresses, including also oxidative stress and radiation, recognizing unfolded or misfolded proteins and facilitating their restructuring. Exercise consists in a combination of physiological stresses, such as metabolic disturbances, changes in circulating levels of hormones, increased temperature, induction of mild to severe inflammatory state, increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). As a consequence, exercise is one of the main stimuli associated with a robust increase in different HSPs in several tissues, which appears to be also fundamental in facilitating the cellular remodeling processes related to the training regime. Among all factors involved in the exercise-related modulation of HSPs level, the ROS production in the contracting muscle or in other tissues represents one of the most attracting, but still under discussion, mechanism. Following exhaustive or damaging muscle exercise, major oxidative damage to proteins and lipids is likely involved in HSP expression, together with mechanically induced damage to muscle proteins and the inflammatory response occurring several days into the recovery period. Instead, the transient and reversible oxidation of proteins by physiological concentrations of ROS seems to be involved in the activation of stress response following non-damaging muscle exercise. This review aims to provide a critical update on the role of HSPs response in exercise-induced adaptation or damage in humans, focusing on experimental

  7. 8,8'-Bieckol, isolated from edible brown algae, exerts its anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of NF-κB signaling and ROS production in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yeong-In; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2014-12-01

    Ecklonia cava (E. cava) is an abundant brown alga that contains high levels of phlorotannins, which are unique marine polyphenolic compounds. It has been suggested that E. cava phlorotannins exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanism exerted by 8,8'-bieckol isolated from E. cava have not been reported. Thus, in this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of 8,8'-bieckol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that 8,8'-bieckol suppressed key inflammatory mediator [i.e., nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)] production in both primary and RAW 264.7 macrophages. 8,8'-Bieckol inhibited NO by suppressing LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA and protein levels in primary macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, 8,8'-bieckol decreased the production and mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, 8,8'-bieckol treatment diminished transactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and suppressed LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages. Furthermore, 8,8'-bieckol markedly reduced mortality in LPS-induced septic mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of 8,8'-bieckol are associated with the suppression of NO, PGE2, and IL-6 via negative regulation of the NF-κB pathway and ROS production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, 8,8'-bieckol protects mice from endotoxin shock. PMID:25261704

  8. Oxidative metabolism, ROS and NO under oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Blokhina, Olga; Fagerstedt, Kurt V

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen deprivation, in line with other stress conditions, is accompanied by reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) formation and is characterised by a set of metabolic changes collectively named as the 'oxidative stress response'. The controversial induction of oxidative metabolism under the lack of oxygen is necessitated by ROS and RNS signaling in the induction of adaptive responses, and inevitably results in oxidative damage. To prevent detrimental effects of oxidative stress, the levels of ROS and NO are tightly controlled on transcriptional, translational and metabolic levels. Hypoxia triggers the induction of genes responsible for ROS and NO handling and utilization (respiratory burst oxidase, non-symbiotic hemoglobins, several cytochromes P450, mitochondrial dehydrogenases, and antioxidant-related transcripts). The level of oxygen in the tissue is also under metabolic control via multiple mechanisms: Regulation of glycolytic and fermentation pathways to manage pyruvate availability for respiration, and adjustment of mitochondrial electron flow through NO and ROS balance. Both adaptive strategies are controlled by energy status and aim to decrease the respiratory capacity and to postpone complete anoxia. Besides local oxygen concentration, ROS and RNS formation is controlled by an array of antioxidants. Hypoxic treatment leads to the upregulation of multiple transcripts associated with ascorbate, glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism. The production of ROS and NO is an integral part of the response to oxygen deprivation which encompasses several levels of metabolic regulation to sustain redox signaling and to prevent oxidative damage. PMID:20303775

  9. PGF2α-associated vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy is ROS dependent and involves the activation of mTOR, p70S6k, and PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Uddemarri, S.; Desai, D. H.; Morrison, R.G.; Harris, R.; Wright, G.L.; Blough, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy by largely unknown mechanism(s). To investigate the signaling events governing PGF2α –induced VSMC hypertrophy we examined the ability of the PGF2α analog, fluprostenol to elicit phosphorylation of Akt, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6k), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in growth arrested A7r5 VSMC. Fluprostenol-induced hypertrophy was associated with increased ROS, mTOR translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, along with Akt, mTOR, GSK-3β, PTEN and ERK1/2 but not JNK phosphorylation. Whereas inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) by LY294002 blocked fluprostenol-induced changes in total protein content, pretreatment with rapamycin or with the ERK1/2-MAPK inhibitor UO126 did not. Taken together, these findings suggest that fluprostenol-induced changes in A7R5 hypertrophy involve mTOR translocation and occur through PI3K-dependent mechanisms. PMID:18160324

  10. Roles for ROS and hydrogen sulfide in the longevity response to germline loss in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuehua; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, removing germ cells slows aging and extends life. Here we show that transcription factors that extend life and confer protection to age-related protein-aggregation toxicity are activated early in adulthood in response to a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a shift in sulfur metabolism. Germline loss triggers H2S production, mitochondrial biogenesis, and a dynamic pattern of ROS in specific somatic tissues. A cytoskeletal protein, KRI-1, plays a key role in the generation of H2S and ROS. These kri-1–dependent redox species, in turn, promote life extension by activating SKN-1/Nrf2 and the mitochondrial unfolded-protein response, respectively. Both H2S and, remarkably, kri-1–dependent ROS are required for the life extension produced by low levels of the superoxide-generator paraquat and by a mutation that inhibits respiration. Together our findings link reproductive signaling to mitochondria and define an inducible, kri-1–dependent redox-signaling module that can be invoked in different contexts to extend life and counteract proteotoxicity. PMID:27140632

  11. Roles for ROS and hydrogen sulfide in the longevity response to germline loss in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuehua; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2016-05-17

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, removing germ cells slows aging and extends life. Here we show that transcription factors that extend life and confer protection to age-related protein-aggregation toxicity are activated early in adulthood in response to a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a shift in sulfur metabolism. Germline loss triggers H2S production, mitochondrial biogenesis, and a dynamic pattern of ROS in specific somatic tissues. A cytoskeletal protein, KRI-1, plays a key role in the generation of H2S and ROS. These kri-1-dependent redox species, in turn, promote life extension by activating SKN-1/Nrf2 and the mitochondrial unfolded-protein response, respectively. Both H2S and, remarkably, kri-1-dependent ROS are required for the life extension produced by low levels of the superoxide-generator paraquat and by a mutation that inhibits respiration. Together our findings link reproductive signaling to mitochondria and define an inducible, kri-1-dependent redox-signaling module that can be invoked in different contexts to extend life and counteract proteotoxicity. PMID:27140632

  12. Cloning and characterization of two lipopolysaccharide-binding protein/bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (LBP/BPI) genes from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with diversified function in modulating ROS production.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Che, Zhongjie; Zhang, Pengjuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Duan, Xuemei; Li, Ye

    2015-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (LBP/BPI) play crucial role in modulating cellular signals in response to Gram-negative bacteria infection. In the present study, two isoforms of LBP/BPI genes (designated as AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2, respectively) were cloned from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by RACE approach. The full-length cDNAs of AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2 were of 1479 and 1455 bp and encoded two secreted proteins of 492 and 484 amino acid residues, respectively. Signal peptide, two BPI/LBP/CETP and one central domain were totally conserved in the deduced amino acid of AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2. Phylogentic analysis further supported that AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2 belonged to new members of invertebrates LBP/BPI family. Spatial expression analysis revealed that both AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2 were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with the larger magnitude in AjLBP/BPI1. The Vibrio splenfidus challenge and LPS stimulation could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression of both AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2, with the increase of AjLBP/BPI2 expression occurred earlier than that of AjLBP/BPI1. More importantly, we found that LPS induced ROS production was markedly depressed after AjLBP/BPI1 knock-down, but there was no significant change by AjLBP/BPI2 silencing. Consistently, the expression level of unclassified AjToll, not AjTLR3, was tightly correlated with that of AjLBP/BPI1. Silencing the AjToll also depressed the ROS production in the cultured coelomocytes. All these results indicated that AjLBP/BPI1 and AjLBP/BPI2 probably played distinct roles in bacterial mediating immune response in sea cucumber, and AjLBP/BPI1 depressed coelomocytes ROS production via modulating AjToll cascade. PMID:25956196

  13. Extensive Dark Biological Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Brackish and Freshwater Ponds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Hansel, Colleen M; Voelker, Bettina M; Lamborg, Carl H

    2016-03-15

    Within natural waters, photodependent processes are generally considered the predominant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a suite of biogeochemically important molecules. However, recent discoveries of dark particle-associated ROS production in aquatic environments and extracellular ROS production by various microorganisms point to biological activity as a significant source of ROS in the absence of light. Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of dark biological production of the ROS superoxide (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in brackish and freshwater ponds. Here we show that the ROS superoxide and hydrogen peroxide were present in dark waters at comparable concentrations as in sunlit waters. This suggests that, at least for the short-lived superoxide species, light-independent processes were an important control on ROS levels in these natural waters. Indeed, we demonstrated that dark biological production of ROS extensively occurred in brackish and freshwater environments, with greater dark ROS production rates generally observed in the aphotic relative to the photic zone. Filtering and formaldehyde inhibition confirmed the biological nature of a majority of this dark ROS production, which likely involved phytoplankton, particle-associated heterotrophic bacteria, and NADH-oxidizing enzymes. We conclude that biological ROS production is widespread, including regions devoid of light, thereby expanding the relevance of these reactive molecules to all regions of our oxygenated global habit. PMID:26854358

  14. The pentachlorophenol metabolite tetrachlorohydroquinone induces massive ROS and prolonged p-ERK expression in splenocytes, leading to inhibition of apoptosis and necrotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Min; Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Chen, Rong-Jane; Wang, Bour-Jr; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used extensively as a biocide and a wood preservative and has been reported to be immunosuppressive in rodents and humans. Tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) is a major metabolite of PCP. TCHQ has been identified as the main cause of PCP-induced genotoxicity due to reactive oxidant stress (ROS). However, the precise mechanisms associated with the immunotoxic effects of PCP and TCHQ remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of PCP and TCHQ on the induction of ROS and injury to primary mouse splenocytes. Our results shown that TCHQ was more toxic than PCP and that a high dose of TCHQ led to necrotic cell death of the splenocytes through induction of massive and sudden ROS and prolonged ROS-triggered ERK activation. Inhibition of ROS production by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) partially restored the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited ERK activity, elevated caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage, and, eventually, switched the TCHQ-induced necrosis to apoptosis. We suggest that prolonged ERK activation is essential for TCHQ-induced necrosis, and that ROS play a pivotal role in the different TCHQ-induced cell death mechanisms. PMID:24586814

  15. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuen-Mao; Lee, I-Ta; Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der

    2013-10-15

    TNF-α plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-α in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-α induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-α-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-κB (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47(phox), p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-α markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-α-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-α-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-α-stimulated MAPKs and NF-κB activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-κB cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-α-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-α on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. PMID:23774252

  16. Ilimaquinone induces death receptor expression and sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Do, Minh Truong; Na, MinKyun; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Oh, Seok Hoon; Hwang, In Hyun; Chung, Young Chul; Kim, Hee Suk; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-09-01

    TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, development of resistance to TRAIL is a major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Therefore, novel pharmacological agents that enhance sensitivity to TRAIL are necessary. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which ilimaquinone isolated from a sea sponge sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL. Ilimaquinone pretreatment significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT 116 cells and sensitized colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through increased caspase-8, -3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA damage. Ilimaquinone also reduced the cell survival proteins Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, while strongly up-regulating death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5 expression. Induction of DR4 and DR5 by ilimaquinone was mediated through up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). The up-regulation of CHOP, DR4 and DR5 expression was mediated through activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Finally, the generation of ROS was required for CHOP and DR5 up-regulation by ilimaquinone. These results demonstrate that ilimaquinone enhanced the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP-mediated up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 expression, suggesting that ilimaquinone could be developed into an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug. PMID:24930757

  17. Self-Assembled ROS-Sensitive Polymer-Peptide Therapeutics Incorporating Built-in Reporters for Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zeng-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Cong, Yong; Zhang, Di; Hu, Zhiyuan; Duan, Zhong-Yu; Wang, Hao

    2016-05-01

    One of the major challenges in current cancer therapy is to maximize therapeutic effect and evaluate tumor progression under the scheduled treatment protocol. To address these challenges, we synthesized the cytotoxic peptide (KLAKLAK)2 (named KLAK) conjugated amphiphilic poly(β-thioester)s copolymers (H-P-K) composed of reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive backbones and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) side chains. H-P-K could self-assemble into micelle-like nanoparticles by hydrophobic interaction with copolymer backbones as cores and PEG and KLAK as shells. The assembled polymer-peptide nanoparticles remarkably improved cellular internalization and accumulation of therapeutic KLAK in cells. Compared to free KLAK peptide, the antitumor activity of H-P-K was significantly enhanced up to ∼400 times, suggesting the effectiveness of the nanoscaled polymer-peptide conjugation as biopharmaceuticals. The higher antitumor activity of nanoparticles was attributed to the efficient disruption of mitochondrial membranes and subsequent excessive ROS production in cells. To realize the ROS monitoring and treatment evaluation, we encapsulated squaraine (SQ) dyes as built-in reporters in ROS-sensitive H-P-K micelles. The overgenerated ROS around mitochondria stimulated the swelling of nanoparticles and subsequent release of SQ, which formed H-aggregates and significantly increased the photoacoustic (PA) signal. We believed that this self-assembled polymer-peptide nanotherapeutics incorporating built-in reporters has great potential for high antitumor performance and in situ treatment evaluation. PMID:27023216

  18. Silica nanoparticles activate purinergic signaling via P2X7 receptor in dendritic cells, leading to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kana; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Tanuma, Sei-Ichi; Takeda, Ken; Kojima, Shuji

    2016-09-01

    We examined the mechanism of SNP-mediated stimulation of IL-1β and IL-18 production via P2R-mediated pathways in mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (mBMDCs). Examination of uptake of SNPs with diameters of 30, 70, and 300nm (SNP30, SNP70, and SNP300, respectively) by lipopolysaccharide-matured mBMDCs revealed that significant uptake of SNP30 occurred within as short a time as 1h. Production of IL-1β and IL-18 by cells exposed to SNPs increased dose-dependently, and was highest in cells exposed to SNP30. The SNP30-induced cytokine production was significantly inhibited by ATPase (apyrase) and by P2X7 receptor antagonist (A438079). ATP release was also highest in SNP30-exposed cells. Treatment of mBMDCs with exogenous ATP induced release of high levels of IL-1β and IL-18, and this release was also significantly inhibited by apyrase and A438079. The order of effectiveness of the three SNPs for inducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accorded well with those of cytokine production and ATP release. ROS production was inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). SNPs, especially SNP30, activate purinergic signaling in matured mBMDCs by inducing ATP release via P2X7 receptor. ATP induces ROS production via NADPH oxidase, and ROS activate inflammasomes, leading to caspase-1-dependent processing of pro-cytokines and release of IL-1β and IL-18. PMID:27311643

  19. Energy recovery during advanced wastewater treatment: simultaneous estrogenic activity removal and hydrogen production through solar photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenlong; Li, Yi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Qing

    2013-03-01

    Simultaneous estrogenic activity removal and hydrogen production from secondary effluent were successfully achieved using TiO(2) microspheres modified with both platinum nanoparticles and phosphates (P-TiO(2)/Pt) for the first time. The coexistence of platinum and phosphate on the surface of TiO(2) microspheres was confirmed by transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. P-TiO(2)/Pt microspheres showed a significantly higher photocatalytic activity than TiO(2) microspheres and TiO(2) powders (P25) for the removal of estrogenic activity from secondary effluent with the removal ratio of 100%, 58.2% and 48.5% in 200 min, respectively. Moreover, the marked production of hydrogen (photonic efficiency: 3.23 × 10(-3)) was accompanied by the removal of estrogenic activity only with P-TiO(2)/Pt as photocatalysts. The hydrogen production rate was increasing with decreased DO concentration in secondary effluent. Results of reactive oxygen species (ROS) evaluation during P-TiO(2)/Pt photocatalytic process showed that O(2)(-)and OH were dominant ROS in aerobic phase, while OH was the most abundant ROS in anoxic phase. Changes of effluent organic matter (EfOM) during photocatalysis revealed that aromatic, hydrophobic, and high molecular weight fractions of EfOM were preferentially transformed into non-humic, hydrophilic, and low MW fractions (e.g. aldehydes and carboxylic acids), which were continuously utilized as electron donors in hydrogen production process. PMID:23269320

  20. A Glycine soja methionine sulfoxide reductase B5a interacts with the Ca(2+) /CAM-binding kinase GsCBRLK and activates ROS signaling under carbonate alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Chen, Chao; Yu, Qingyue; Zhu, Yanming

    2016-06-01

    Although research has extensively illustrated the molecular basis of plant responses to salt and high-pH stresses, knowledge on carbonate alkaline stress is poor and the specific responsive mechanism remains elusive. We have previously characterized a Glycine soja Ca(2+) /CAM-dependent kinase GsCBRLK that could increase salt tolerance. Here, we characterize a methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) B protein GsMSRB5a as a GsCBRLK interactor by using Y2H and BiFc assays. Further analyses showed that the N-terminal variable domain of GsCBRLK contributed to the GsMSRB5a interaction. Y2H assays also revealed the interaction specificity of GsCBRLK with the wild soybean MSRB subfamily proteins, and determined that the BoxI/BoxII-containing regions within GsMSRBs were responsible for their interaction. Furthermore, we also illustrated that the N-terminal basic regions in GsMSRBs functioned as transit peptides, which targeted themselves into chloroplasts and thereby prevented their interaction with GsCBRLK. Nevertheless, deletion of these regions allowed them to localize on the plasma membrane (PM) and interact with GsCBRLK. In addition, we also showed that GsMSRB5a and GsCBRLK displayed overlapping tissue expression specificity and coincident expression patterns under carbonate alkaline stress. Phenotypic experiments demonstrated that GsMSRB5a and GsCBRLK overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced carbonate alkaline stress tolerance. Further investigations elucidated that GsMSRB5a and GsCBRLK inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by modifying the expression of ROS signaling, biosynthesis and scavenging genes. Summarily, our results demonstrated that GsCBRLK and GsMSRB5a interacted with each other, and activated ROS signaling under carbonate alkaline stress. PMID:27121031

  1. ROS and RNS in plant physiology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Del Río, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the unavoidable consequence of aerobic life. ROS is a collective term that includes both oxygen radicals, like superoxide (O 2. -) and hydroxyl (·OH) radicals, and other non-radicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen ((1)O2 or (1)Δg), etc. In plants, ROS are produced in different cell compartments and are oxidizing species, particularly hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, that can produce serious damage in biological systems (oxidative stress). However, plant cells also have an array of antioxidants which, normally, can scavenge the excess oxidants produced and so avoid deleterious effects on the plant cell bio-molecules. The concept of 'oxidative stress' was re-evaluated in recent years and the term 'oxidative signalling' was created. This means that ROS production, apart from being a potentially harmful process, is also an important component of the signalling network that plants use for their development and for responding to environmental challenges. It is known that ROS play an important role regulating numerous biological processes such as growth, development, response to biotic and environmental stresses, and programmed cell death. The term reactive nitrogen species (RNS) includes radicals like nitric oxide (NO· ) and nitric dioxide (NO2.), as well as non-radicals such as nitrous acid (HNO2) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), among others. RNS are also produced in plants although the generating systems have still not been fully characterized. Nitric oxide (NO·) has an important function as a key signalling molecule in plant growth, development, and senescence, and RNS, like ROS, also play an important role as signalling molecules in the response to environmental (abiotic) stress. Similarly, NO· is a key mediator, in co-operation with ROS, in the defence response to pathogen attacks in plants. ROS and RNS have been demonstrated to have an increasingly important role in biology and medicine

  2. Bax inhibitor 1 regulates ER-stress-induced ROS accumulation through the regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Cho, Eun Yi; Chae, Soo-Wan; Ahn, Taeho; Chae, Han-Jung

    2009-04-15

    This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which Bax inhibitor 1 (BI1) abrogates the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Electron uncoupling between NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (NPR) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (P450 2E1) is a major source of ROS on the ER membrane. ER stress produced ROS accumulation and lipid peroxidation of the ER membrane, but BI1 reduced this accumulation. Under ER stress, expression of P450 2E1 in control cells was upregulated more than in BI1-overexpressing cells. In control cells, inhibiting P450 2E1 through chemical or siRNA approaches suppressed ROS accumulation, ER membrane lipid peroxidation and the resultant cell death after ER stress. However, it had little effect in BI1-overexpressing cells. In addition, BI1 knock down also increased ROS accumulation and expression of P450 2E1. In a reconstituted phospholipid membrane containing purified BI1, NPR and P450 2E1, BI1 dose-dependently decreased the production of ROS. BI1 bound to NPR with higher affinity than P450 2E1. Furthermore, BI1 overexpression reduced the interaction of NPR and P450 2E1, and decreased the catalytic activity of P450 2E1, suggesting that the flow of electrons from NPR to P450 2E1 can be modulated by BI1. In summary, BI1 reduces the accumulation of ROS and the resultant cell death through regulating P450 2E1. PMID:19339548

  3. PGC-1α regulates the cell cycle through ATP and ROS in CH1 cells* #

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xu-feng; Yao, Kun; Du, Xing; Li, Yan; Yang, Xiu-yu; Yu, Min; Li, Mei-zhang; Cui, Qing-hua

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional co-activator involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, respiratory capacity, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). PGC-1α plays an important role in cellular metabolism and is associated with tumorigenesis, suggesting an involvement in cell cycle progression. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating its involvement in these processes remain unclear. To elucidate the signaling pathways involved in PGC-1α function, we established a cell line, CH1 PGC-1α, which stably overexpresses PGC-1α. Using this cell line, we found that over-expression of PGC-1α stimulated extra adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These effects were accompanied by up-regulation of the cell cycle checkpoint regulators CyclinD1 and CyclinB1. We hypothesized that ATP and ROS function as cellular signals to regulate cyclins and control cell cycle progression. Indeed, we found that reduction of ATP levels down-regulated CyclinD1 but not CyclinB1, whereas elevation of ROS levels down-regulated CyclinB1 but not CyclinD1. Furthermore, both low ATP levels and elevated ROS levels inhibited cell growth, but PGC-1α was maintained at a constant level. Together, these results demonstrate that PGC-1α regulates cell cycle progression through modulation of CyclinD1 and CyclinB1 by ATP and ROS. These findings suggest that PGC-1α potentially coordinates energy metabolism together with the cell cycle. PMID:26834014

  4. Diallylsulfide attenuates excessive collagen production and apoptosis in a rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis through the involvement of protease activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Kalayarasan, Srinivasan; Sriram, Narayanan; Soumyakrishnan, Syamala; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) can be a devastating lung disease. It is primarily caused by inflammation leading to severe damage of the alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiology of PF is not yet been clearly defined, but studying lung parenchymal injury by involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may provide promising results. PAR-2 is a G-protein coupled receptor is known to play an important role in the development of PF. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory role of diallylsulfide (DAS) against ROS mediated activation of PAR-2 and collagen production accompanied by epithelial cell apoptosis. Bleomycin induced ROS levels may prompt to induce the expression of PAR-2 as well as extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), such as MMP 2 and 9, collagen specific proteins HSP-47, α-SMA, and cytokines IL-6, and IL-8RA. Importantly DAS treatment effectively decreased the expression of all these proteins. The inhibitory effect of DAS on profibrotic molecules is mediated by blocking the ROS level. To identify apoptotic signaling as a mediator of PF induction, we performed apoptotic protein expression, DNA fragmentation analysis and ultrastructural details of the lung tissue were performed. DAS treatment restored all these changes to near normalcy. In conclusion, treatment of PF bearing rats with DAS results in amelioration of the ROS production, PAR-2 activation, ECM production, collagen synthesis and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis during bleomycin induction. We attained the first evidence that treatment of DAS decreases the ROS levels and may provide a potential therapeutic effect attenuating bleomycin induced PF. PMID:23656969

  5. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  6. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  7. Cellular localization of ROS and NO in olive reproductive tissues during flower development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    interaction between pollen and pistil which may determine the presence of a receptive phase in the stigma. The study confirms the enhanced production of NO by pollen grains and tubes during the receptive phase, and the decrease in the presence of ROS when NO is actively produced. PMID:20181244

  8. PO2 Cycling Reduces Diaphragm Fatigue by Attenuating ROS Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Li; Diaz, Philip T.; Chien, Michael T.; Roberts, William J.; Kishek, Juliana; Best, Thomas M.; Wagner, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged muscle exposure to low PO2 conditions may cause oxidative stress resulting in severe muscular injuries. We hypothesize that PO2 cycling preconditioning, which involves brief cycles of diaphragmatic muscle exposure to a low oxygen level (40 Torr) followed by a high oxygen level (550 Torr), can reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as attenuate muscle fatigue in mouse diaphragm under low PO2. Accordingly, dihydrofluorescein (a fluorescent probe) was used to monitor muscular ROS production in real time with confocal microscopy during a lower PO2 condition. In the control group with no PO2 cycling, intracellular ROS formation did not appear during the first 15 min of the low PO2 period. However, after 20 min of low PO2, ROS levels increased significantly by ∼30% compared to baseline, and this increase continued until the end of the 30 min low PO2 condition. Conversely, muscles treated with PO2 cycling showed a complete absence of enhanced fluorescence emission throughout the entire low PO2 period. Furthermore, PO2 cycling-treated diaphragm exhibited increased fatigue resistance during prolonged low PO2 period compared to control. Thus, our data suggest that PO2 cycling mitigates diaphragm fatigue during prolonged low PO2. Although the exact mechanism for this protection remains to be elucidated, it is likely that through limiting excessive ROS levels, PO2 cycling initiates ROS-related antioxidant defenses. PMID:25299212

  9. Mitochondria-Ros Crosstalk in the Control of Cell Death and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Saverio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Suski, Jan M.; Agnoletto, Chiara; Bononi, Angela; Bonora, Massimo; De Marchi, Elena; Missiroli, Sonia; Patergnani, Simone; Poletti, Federica; Rimessi, Alessandro; Duszynski, Jerzy; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules, mainly generated inside mitochondria that can oxidize DNA, proteins, and lipids. At physiological levels, ROS function as “redox messengers” in intracellular signalling and regulation, whereas excess ROS induce cell death by promoting the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Recent work has pointed to a further role of ROS in activation of autophagy and their importance in the regulation of aging. This review will focus on mitochondria as producers and targets of ROS and will summarize different proteins that modulate the redox state of the cell. Moreover, the involvement of ROS and mitochondria in different molecular pathways controlling lifespan will be reported, pointing out the role of ROS as a “balance of power,” directing the cell towards life or death. PMID:22175013

  10. Cross Talk Mechanism among EMT, ROS, and Histone Acetylation in Phorbol Ester-Treated Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tetsuro; Goto, Aki; Kurokawa, Eri; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a pivotal role in the progression of cancer, and some transcription factors including Slug and Snail are known to be involved in EMT processes. It has been well established that the excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epigenetics such as DNA methylation and histone modifications participate in carcinogenesis; however, the cross talk mechanism among EMT, ROS, and epigenetics remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that the treatment of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with phorbol ester (TPA), a protein kinase C activator, significantly induced cell proliferation and migration, and these were accompanied by the significant induction of Slug expression. Moreover, the TPA-elicited induction of Slug expression was regulated by histone H3 acetylation and NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2-derived ROS signaling, indicating that ROS and histone acetylation are involved in TPA-elicited EMT processes. We herein determined the cross talk mechanism among EMT, ROS, and histone acetylation, and our results provide an insight into the progression of cancer metastasis. PMID:27127545

  11. RacA-Mediated ROS Signaling Is Required for Polarized Cell Differentiation in Conidiogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Myoung-Hwan; Craven, Kelly D.

    2016-01-01

    Conidiophore development of fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus involves dynamic changes in cellular polarity and morphogenesis. Synchronized differentiation of phialides from the subtending conidiophore vesicle is a good example of the transition from isotropic to multi-directional polarized growth. Here we report a small GTPase, RacA, which is essential for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the vesicle as well as differentiation of phialides in Aspergillus fumigatus. We found that wild type A. fumigatus accumulates ROS in these conidiophore vesicles and that null mutants of racA did not, resulting in the termination of conidiophore development in this early vesicle stage. Further, we found that stress conditions resulting in atypical ROS accumulation coincide with partial recovery of phialide emergence but not subsequent apical dominance of the phialides in the racA null mutant, suggesting alternative means of ROS generation for the former process that are lacking in the latter. Elongation of phialides was also suppressed by inhibition of NADPH-oxidase activity. Our findings provide not only insights into role of ROS in fungal cell polarity and morphogenesis but also an improved model for the developmental regulatory pathway of conidiogenesis in A. fumigatus. PMID:26890813

  12. Insulin elicits a ROS-activated and an IP₃-dependent Ca²⁺ release, which both impinge on GLUT4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Llanos, Paola; Vásquez, César; Espinosa, Alejandra; Osorio-Fuentealba, César; Arias-Calderon, Manuel; Lavandero, Sergio; Klip, Amira; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    Insulin signaling includes generation of low levels of H2O2; however, its origin and contribution to insulin-stimulated glucose transport are unknown. We tested the impact of H2O2 on insulin-dependent glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cells. H2O2 increased the translocation of GLUT4 with an exofacial Myc-epitope tag between the first and second transmembrane domains (GLUT4myc), an effect additive to that of insulin. The anti-oxidants N-acetyl L-cysteine and Trolox, the p47(phox)-NOX2 NADPH oxidase inhibitory peptide gp91-ds-tat or p47(phox) knockdown each reduced insulin-dependent GLUT4myc translocation. Importantly, gp91-ds-tat suppressed insulin-dependent H2O2 production. A ryanodine receptor (RyR) channel agonist stimulated GLUT4myc translocation and insulin stimulated RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) release by promoting RyR1 S-glutathionylation. This pathway acts in parallel to insulin-mediated stimulation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-activated Ca(2+) channels, in response to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and its downstream target phospholipase C, resulting in Ca(2+) transfer to the mitochondria. An inhibitor of IP3 receptors, Xestospongin B, reduced both insulin-dependent IP3 production and GLUT4myc translocation. We propose that, in addition to the canonical α,β phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to Akt pathway, insulin engages both RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release and IP3-receptor-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, and that these signals jointly stimulate glucose uptake. PMID:24569874

  13. Hypoxia dysregulates the production of adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 independent of reactive oxygen species in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Baoying; Lam, Karen S.L.; Wang Yu; Wu Donghai; Lam, Michael C.; Shen Jiangang; Wong Laiching; Hoo, Ruby L.C.; Zhang Jialiang; Xu Aimin . E-mail: amxu@hkucc.hku.hk

    2006-03-10

    Low plasma levels of adiponectin (hypoadiponectinemia) and elevated circulating concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 are causally associated with obesity-related insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism that mediates the aberrant production of these two adipokines in obesity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on production of adiponectin and PAI-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative PCR and immunoassays showed that ambient hypoxia markedly suppressed adiponectin mRNA expression and its protein secretion, and increased PAI-1 production in mature adipocytes. Dimethyloxallyl glycine, a stabilizer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), mimicked the hypoxia-mediated modulations of these two adipokines. Hypoxia caused a modest elevation of ROS in adipocytes. However, ablation of intracellular ROS by antioxidants failed to alleviate hypoxia-induced aberrant production of adiponectin and PAI-1. On the other hand, the antioxidants could reverse hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced dysregulation of adiponectin and PAI-1 production. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP{alpha}), but had no effect on HIF-1{alpha}, whereas hypoxia stabilized HIF-1{alpha} and decreased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, but not PPAR{gamma}. Taken together, these data suggest that hypoxia and ROS decrease adiponectin production and augment PAI-1 expression in adipocytes via distinct signaling pathways. These effects may contribute to hypoadiponectinemia and elevated PAI-1 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Modulatory effect of fatty acids on fungicidal activity, respiratory burst and TNF-α and IL-6 production in J774 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Martins de Lima-Salgado, Thais; Coccuzzo Sampaio, Sandra; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Curi, Rui

    2011-04-01

    The reported effects of different families of fatty acids (FA; SFA, MUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA) on human health and the importance of macrophage respiratory burst and cytokine release to immune defence led us to examine the influence of palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA on macrophage function. We determined fungicidal activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine production after the treatment of J774 cells with non-toxic concentrations of the FA. PA had a late and discrete stimulating effect on ROS production, which may be associated with the reduced fungicidal activity of the cells after treatment with this FA. OA presented a sustained stimulatory effect on ROS production and increased fungicidal activity of the cells, suggesting that enrichment of diets with OA may be beneficial for pathogen elimination. The effects of PUFA on ROS production were time- and dose-dependently regulated, with no evident differences between n-3 and n-6 PUFA. It was worth noting that most changes induced after stimulation of the cells with lipopolysaccharide were suppressed by the FA. The present results suggest that supplementation of the diet with specific FA, not classes of FA, might enable an improvement in host defence mechanisms or a reduction in adverse immunological reactions. PMID:21232170

  15. Hitting the Bull’s-Eye in Metastatic Cancers—NSAIDs Elevate ROS in Mitochondria, Inducing Malignant Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Stephen John; Pritchard, Rhys; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Ralph, Raymond Keith

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metastases that impede the function of vital organs are a major cause of cancer related mortality. Mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by hypoxia, low nutrient levels, or other stresses, such as genotoxic events, act as key drivers of the malignant changes in primary tumors to enhance their progression to metastasis. Emerging evidence now indicates that mitochondrial modifications and mutations resulting from oxidative stress, and leading to OxPhos stimulation and/or enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, are essential for promoting and sustaining the highly metastatic phenotype. Moreover, the modified mitochondria in emerging or existing metastatic cancer cells, by their irreversible differences, provide opportunities for selectively targeting their mitochondrial functions with a one-two punch. The first blow would block their anti-oxidative defense, followed by the knockout blow—promoting production of excess ROS, capitulating the terminal stage—activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), specifically killing metastatic cancer cells or their precursors. This review links a wide area of research relevant to cellular mechanisms that affect mitochondria activity as a major source of ROS production driving the pro-oxidative state in metastatic cancer cells. Each of the important aspects affecting mitochondrial function are discussed including: hypoxia, HIFs and PGC1 induced metabolic changes, increased ROS production to induce a more pro-oxidative state with reduced antioxidant defenses. It then focuses on how the mitochondria, as a major source of ROS in metastatic cancer cells driving the pro-oxidative state of malignancy enables targeting drugs affecting many of these altered processes and why the NSAIDs are an excellent example of mitochondria-targeted agents that provide a one-two knockout activating the mPTP and their efficacy as selective anticancer metastasis drugs. PMID:25688484

  16. Structural insight into selectivity and resistance profiles of ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Davare, Monika A.; Vellore, Nadeem A.; Wagner, Jacob P.; Eide, Christopher A.; Goodman, James R.; Drilon, Alexander; Deininger, Michael W.; O’Hare, Thomas; Druker, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins are molecular drivers in multiple malignancies, including a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phylogenetic proximity of the ROS1 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) catalytic domains led to the clinical repurposing of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ALK inhibitor crizotinib as a ROS1 inhibitor. Despite the antitumor activity of crizotinib observed in both ROS1- and ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients, resistance due to acquisition of ROS1 or ALK kinase domain mutations has been observed clinically, spurring the development of second-generation inhibitors. Here, we profile the sensitivity and selectivity of seven ROS1 and/or ALK inhibitors at various levels of clinical development. In contrast to crizotinib’s dual ROS1/ALK activity, cabozantinib (XL-184) and its structural analog foretinib (XL-880) demonstrate a striking selectivity for ROS1 over ALK. Molecular dynamics simulation studies reveal structural features that distinguish the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains and contribute to differences in binding site and kinase selectivity of the inhibitors tested. Cell-based resistance profiling studies demonstrate that the ROS1-selective inhibitors retain efficacy against the recently reported CD74-ROS1G2032R mutant whereas the dual ROS1/ALK inhibitors are ineffective. Taken together, inhibitor profiling and stringent characterization of the structure–function differences between the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains will facilitate future rational drug design for ROS1- and ALK-driven NSCLC and other malignancies. PMID:26372962

  17. A key role for Mg(2+) in TRPM7's control of ROS levels during cell stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Chin; Su, Li-Ting; González-Pagán, Omayra; Overton, Jeffrey D; Runnels, Loren W

    2012-08-01

    The TRPM7 (transient receptor potential melastatin 7) channel has been shown to play a pivotal role in cell survival during brain ischaemia as well as in the survival of other cell types challenged with apoptotic stimuli. Ca(2+) is thought to be central to the channel's ability to regulate ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. However, channel-mediated entry of Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) have also been implicated in cell death. In the present study, we show that depletion of TRPM7 by RNA interference in fibroblasts increases cell resistance to apoptotic stimuli by decreasing ROS levels in an Mg(2+)-dependent manner. Depletion of TRPM7 lowered cellular Mg(2+), decreased the concentration of ROS and lessened p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) activation as well as decreased caspase 3 activation and PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage in response to apoptotic stimuli. Re-expression of TRPM7 or of a kinase-inactive mutant of TRPM7 in TRPM7-knockdown cells increased cellular Mg(2+) and ROS levels, as did expression of the Mg(2+) transporter SLC41A2 (solute carrier family 41 member 2). In addition, expression of SLC41A2 increased the sensitivity of TRPM7-knockdown cells to apoptotic stimuli and boosted ROS generation in response to cell stress. Taken together, these data uncover an essential role for Mg(2+) in TRPM7's control of cell survival and in the regulation of cellular ROS levels. PMID:22587440

  18. Modulation of host ROS metabolism is essential for viral infection of a bloom-forming coccolithophore in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Sheyn, Uri; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Porat, Ziv; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-07-01

    The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular eukaryotic alga responsible for vast blooms in the ocean. These blooms have immense impact on large biogeochemical cycles and are terminated by a specific large double-stranded DNA E. huxleyi virus (EhV, Phycodnaviridae). EhV infection is accompanied by induction of hallmarks of programmed cell death and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we characterized alterations in ROS metabolism and explored its role during infection. Transcriptomic analysis of ROS-related genes predicted an increase in glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 production during infection. In accordance, using biochemical assays and specific fluorescent probes we demonstrated the overproduction of GSH during lytic infection. We also showed that H2O2 production, rather than superoxide, is the predominant ROS during the onset of the lytic phase of infection. Using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and multispectral imaging flow cytometry, we showed that the profound co-production of H2O2 and GSH occurred in the same subpopulation of cells but at different subcellular localization. Positively stained cells for GSH and H2O2 were highly infected compared with negatively stained cells. Inhibition of ROS production by application of a peroxidase inhibitor or an H2O2 scavenger inhibited host cell death and reduced viral production. We conclude that viral infection induced remodeling of the host antioxidant network that is essential for a successful viral replication cycle. This study provides insight into viral replication strategy and suggests the use of specific cellular markers to identify and quantify the extent of active viral infection during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean. PMID:26784355

  19. Live Candida albicans Suppresses Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Phagocytes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wellington, Melanie; Dolan, Kristy; Krysan, Damian J.

    2009-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important aspect of phagocyte-mediated host responses. Since phagocytes play a crucial role in the host response to Candida albicans, we examined the ability of Candida to modulate phagocyte ROS production. ROS production was measured in the murine macrophage cell line J774 and in primary phagocytes using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. J774 cells, murine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), human monocytes, and human PMN treated with live C. albicans produced significantly less ROS than phagocytes treated with heat-killed C. albicans. Live C. albicans also suppressed ROS production in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/6 mice, but not from BALB/c mice. Live C. albicans also suppressed ROS in response to external stimuli. C. albicans and Candida glabrata suppressed ROS production by phagocytes, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated ROS production. The cell wall is the initial point of contact between Candida and phagocytes, but isolated cell walls from both heat-killed and live C. albicans stimulated ROS production. Heat-killed C. albicans has increased surface exposure of 1,3-β-glucan, a cell wall component that can stimulate phagocytes. To determine whether surface 1,3-β-glucan exposure accounted for the difference in ROS production, live C. albicans cells were treated with a sublethal dose of caspofungin to increase surface 1,3-β-glucan exposure. Caspofungin-treated C. albicans was fully able to suppress ROS production, indicating that suppression of ROS overrides stimulatory signals from 1,3-β-glucan. These studies indicate that live C. albicans actively suppresses ROS production in phagocytes in vitro, which may represent an important immune evasion mechanism. PMID:18981256

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers ROS signalling, changes the redox state, and regulates the antioxidant defence of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Inefficient chaperone activity in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes accumulation of unfolded proteins and is called ER stress, which triggers the unfolded protein response. For proper oxidative protein folding, reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 are produced in the ER. Although the role of ROS during abiotic stresses such as salinity is well documented, the role of ER-related ROS production and its signalling is not yet known. Moreover, how H2O2 production, redox regulation, and antioxidant defence are affected in salt-treated plants when ER protein-folding machinery is impaired needs to be elucidated. For this aim, changes in NADPH-oxidase-dependent ROS signalling and H2O2 content at sequential time intervals and after 48h of ER stress, induced by tunicamycin (Tm), salinity, and their combination were determined in Arabidopsis thaliana. The main root growth was inhibited by ER stress, while low levels of Tm caused an increase in lateral root density. Salt stress and Tm induced the expression of ER-stress-related genes (bZIP17, bZIP28, bZIP60, TIN1, BiP1, BiP3) and ERO1. Tm induced expression of RBOHD and RBOHF, which led to an early increase in H2O2 and triggered ROS signalling. This study is the first report that ER stress induces the antioxidant system and the Asada–Halliwell pathway of A. thaliana in a similar way to salinity. ER stress caused oxidative damage, as evident by increased H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. As a result, this study shows that ER stress triggers ROS signalling, changes the redox state, and regulates the antioxidant defence of A. thaliana. PMID:24558072

  1. TPD52L1-ROS1, a new ROS1 fusion variant in lung adenosquamous cell carcinoma identified by comprehensive genomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Viola Weijia; Upadhyay, Daya; Schrock, Alexa B; Gowen, Kyle; Ali, Siraj M; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2016-07-01

    Crizotinib was approved for the treatment of ROS1-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in the US on 11 March, 2016. Interestingly no one companion diagnostic test (CDx) has been approved simultaneously with this approval of crizotinib. Hence, an ideal and adequate CDx will have to be able to identify ROS1 fusions without the knowledge of the fusion partners to ROS1, and as to date there are 13 fusion partners reported for ROS1 in NSCLC. Here we report a novel TPD52L1-ROS1 fusion variant in NSCLC. This novel TPD52L1-ROS1 fusion variant is generated by the fusion of exons 1-3 of TPD52L1 on chromosome 6q22-23 to the exons 33-43 of ROS1 on chromosome 6q22, likely from an intra-chromosomal deletion and subsequent fusion event similar to the generation of EML4-ALK. The predicted TPD52L1-ROS1 protein product contains 655 amino acids comprising of the N-terminal amino acids 1-95 of TPD52L1 and C-terminal amino acids of 1789-2348 of ROS1. In summary, TPD52L1-ROS1 is a novel ROS1 fusion variant in NSCLC identified by comprehensive genomic profiling and should be included in any ROS1 detecting assays that depend on identifying the corresponding fusion partners, such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PMID:27237027

  2. ROS production in homogenate from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus under UVA irradiation: ESR spin-trapping study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hang; Dong, Xiu-fang; Zhao, Ya-ping; Li, Nan; Fu, Hui; Feng, Ding-ding; Liu, Li; Yu, Chen-xu

    2016-02-01

    Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (S. japonicus) shows a strong ability of autolysis, which leads to severe deterioration in sea cucumber quality during processing and storage. In this study, to further characterize the mechanism of sea cucumber autolysis, hydroxyl radical production induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation was investigated. Homogenate from the body wall of S. japonicas was prepared and subjected to UVA irradiation at room temperature. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectra of the treated samples were subsequently recorded. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals (OH) became more abundant while the time of UVA treatment and the homogenate concentration were increased. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, EDTA, desferal, NaN3 and D2O to the homogenate samples led to different degrees of inhibition on OH production. Metal cations and pH also showed different effects on OH production. These results indicated that OH was produced in the homogenate with a possible pathway as follows: O2(-) → H2O2 → OH, suggesting that OH might be a critical factor in UVA-induced S. japonicus autolysis. PMID:26304359

  3. Testing the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging in primate fibroblasts: is there a correlation between species longevity and cellular ROS production?

    PubMed

    Csiszar, Anna; Podlutsky, Andrej; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Sonntag, William E; Merlin, Steven Z; Philipp, Eva E R; Doyle, Kristian; Davila, Antonio; Recchia, Fabio A; Ballabh, Praveen; Pinto, John T; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to test predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging assessing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress resistance in cultured fibroblasts from 13 primate species ranging in body size from 0.25 to 120 kg and in longevity from 20 to 90 years. We assessed both basal and stress-induced reactive oxygen species production in fibroblasts from five great apes (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan), four Old World monkeys (baboon, rhesus and crested black macaques, and patas monkey), three New World monkeys (common marmoset, red-bellied tamarin, and woolly monkey), and one lemur (ring-tailed lemur). Measurements of cellular MitoSox fluorescence, an indicator of mitochondrial superoxide (O2(·-)) generation, showed an inverse correlation between longevity and steady state or metabolic stress-induced mitochondrial O2(·-) production, but this correlation was lost when the effects of body mass were removed, and the data were analyzed using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Fibroblasts from longer-lived primate species also exhibited superior resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptotic cell death than cells from shorter-living primates. After correction for body mass and lack of phylogenetic independence, this correlation, although still discernible, fell short of significance by regression analysis. Thus, increased longevity in this sample of primates is not causally associated with low cellular reactive oxygen species generation, but further studies are warranted to test the association between increased cellular resistance to oxidative stressor and primate longevity. PMID:22219516

  4. Opposing effects of TIGAR- and RAC1-derived ROS on Wnt-driven proliferation in the mouse intestine

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Eric C.; Lee, Pearl; Ceteci, Fatih; Nixon, Colin; Blyth, Karen; Sansom, Owen J.; Vousden, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in numerous cell responses, including proliferation, DNA damage, and cell death. Based on these disparate activities, both promotion and inhibition of ROS have been proposed for cancer therapy. However, how the ROS response is determined is not clear. We examined the activities of ROS in a model of Apc deletion, where loss of the Wnt target gene Myc both rescues APC loss and prevents ROS accumulation. Following APC loss, Myc has been shown to up-regulate RAC1 to promote proliferative ROS through NADPH oxidase (NOX). However, APC loss also increased the expression of TIGAR, which functions to limit ROS. To explore this paradox, we used three-dimensional (3D) cultures and in vivo models to show that deletion of TIGAR increased ROS damage and inhibited proliferation. These responses were suppressed by limiting damaging ROS but enhanced by lowering proproliferative NOX-derived ROS. Despite having opposing effects on ROS levels, loss of TIGAR and RAC1 cooperated to suppress intestinal proliferation following APC loss. Our results indicate that the pro- and anti-proliferative effects of ROS can be independently modulated in the same cell, with two key targets in the Wnt pathway functioning to integrate the different ROS signals for optimal cell proliferation. PMID:26679840

  5. Intracellular ROS Scavenging Activity and Downregulation of Inflammatory Mediators in RAW264.7 Macrophage by Fresh Leaf Extracts of Pseuderanthemum palatiferum

    PubMed Central

    Sittisart, Patcharawan

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial antioxidant phytochemicals are found in many medicinal plants. Pseuderanthemum palatiferum (PP), a well-known Vietnamese traditional medicinal plant in Thailand, has long been used in folk medicine for curing inflammatory diseases, often with limited support of scientific research. Therefore, this study aimed to determine antioxidant and modulation of inflammatory mediators of ethanol and water extracts of PP (EEP and WEP, resp.). WEP had significantly higher phenolic and flavonoid levels and DPPH radical scavenging activity than EEP. However, EEP exhibited greater reducing power than WEP. A greater decrease of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in RAW264.7 macrophage cells was also observed with EEP. Modulation of inflammatory mediators of EEP and WEP was evaluated on LPS plus IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EEP more potently suppressed LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production than WEP. Both EEP and WEP also suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein levels. Collectively, these results suggest that PP possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24744809

  6. A P-Loop NTPase Regulates Quiescent Center Cell Division and Distal Stem Cell Identity through the Regulation of ROS Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Root.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qianqian; Tian, Huiyu; Yue, Kun; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Bing; Li, Xugang; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized as important regulators of cell division and differentiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana P-loop NTPase encoded by APP1 affects root stem cell niche identity through its control of local ROS homeostasis. The disruption of APP1 is accompanied by a reduction in ROS level, a rise in the rate of cell division in the quiescent center (QC) and the promotion of root distal stem cell (DSC) differentiation. Both the higher level of ROS induced in the app1 mutant by exposure to methyl viologen (MV), and treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) rescued the mutant phenotype, implying that both the increased rate of cell division in the QC and the enhancement in root DSC differentiation can be attributed to a low level of ROS. APP1 is expressed in the root apical meristem cell mitochondria, and its product is associated with ATP hydrolase activity. The key transcription factors, which are defining root distal stem niche, such as SCARECROW (SCR) and SHORT ROOT (SHR) are both significantly down-regulated at both the transcriptional and protein level in the app1 mutant, indicating that SHR and SCR are important downstream targets of APP1-regulated ROS signaling to control the identity of root QC and DSCs. PMID:27583367

  7. How aluminum, an intracellular ROS generator promotes hepatic and neurological diseases: the metabolic tale.

    PubMed

    Han, Sungwon; Lemire, Joseph; Appanna, Varun P; Auger, Christopher; Castonguay, Zachary; Appanna, Vasu D

    2013-04-01

    Metal pollutants are a global health risk due to their ability to contribute to a variety of diseases. Aluminum (Al), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant is implicated in anemia, osteomalacia, hepatic disorder, and neurological disorder. In this review, we outline how this intracellular generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggers a metabolic shift towards lipogenesis in astrocytes and hepatocytes. This Al-evoked phenomenon is coupled to diminished mitochondrial activity, anerobiosis, and the channeling of α-ketoacids towards anti-oxidant defense. The resulting metabolic reconfiguration leads to fat accumulation and a reduction in ATP synthesis, characteristics that are common to numerous medical disorders. Hence, the ability of Al toxicity to create an oxidative environment promotes dysfunctional metabolic processes in astrocytes and hepatocytes. These molecular events triggered by Al-induced ROS production are the potential mediators of brain and liver disorders. PMID:23463459

  8. Testing the Oxidative Stress Hypothesis of Aging in Primate Fibroblasts: Is There a Correlation Between Species Longevity and Cellular ROS Production?

    PubMed Central

    Csiszar, Anna; Podlutsky, Andrej; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Sonntag, William E.; Merlin, Steven Z.; Philipp, Eva E. R.; Doyle, Kristian; Davila, Antonio; Recchia, Fabio A.; Ballabh, Praveen; Pinto, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to test predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging assessing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress resistance in cultured fibroblasts from 13 primate species ranging in body size from 0.25 to 120 kg and in longevity from 20 to 90 years. We assessed both basal and stress-induced reactive oxygen species production in fibroblasts from five great apes (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan), four Old World monkeys (baboon, rhesus and crested black macaques, and patas monkey), three New World monkeys (common marmoset, red-bellied tamarin, and woolly monkey), and one lemur (ring-tailed lemur). Measurements of cellular MitoSox fluorescence, an indicator of mitochondrial superoxide (O2·−) generation, showed an inverse correlation between longevity and steady state or metabolic stress–induced mitochondrial O2·− production, but this correlation was lost when the effects of body mass were removed, and the data were analyzed using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Fibroblasts from longer-lived primate species also exhibited superior resistance to H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death than cells from shorter-living primates. After correction for body mass and lack of phylogenetic independence, this correlation, although still discernible, fell short of significance by regression analysis. Thus, increased longevity in this sample of primates is not causally associated with low cellular reactive oxygen species generation, but further studies are warranted to test the association between increased cellular resistance to oxidative stressor and primate longevity. PMID:22219516

  9. A Novel Nontoxic Inhibitor of the Activation of NADPH Oxidase Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Mouse LungS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Intae; Dodia, Chandra; Chatterjee, Shampa; Zagorski, John; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A.; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Jain, Mahendra

    2013-01-01

    1-Hexadecyl-3-trifluoroethylglycero-sn-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33) is a fluorinated phospholipid analog that inhibits the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6). Prdx6 PLA2 activity is required for activation of NADPH oxidase 2 and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, MJ33 inhibited agonist-stimulated production of ROS by the isolated perfused mouse lung, lung microvascular endothelial cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. MJ33 (0.02–0.5 µmol MJ33/kg body weight) in mixed unilamellar liposomes was administered to C57BL/6 mice by either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. routes. Lung MJ33 content, measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, showed uptake of 67–87% of the injected dose for i.t. and 23–42% for i.v. administration at 4 hours postinjection. PLA2 activity of lung homogenates was markedly inhibited (>85%) at 4 hours postadministration. Both MJ33 content and PLA2 activity gradually returned to near control levels over the subsequent 24–72 hours. Mice treated with MJ33 at 12.5–25 µmol/kg did not show changes (compared with control) in clinical symptomatology, body weight, hematocrit, and histology of lung, liver, and kidney during a 30- to 50-day observation period. Thus, the toxic dose of MJ33 was >25 µmol/kg, whereas the PLA2 inhibitory dose was approximately 0.02 µmol/kg, indicating a high margin of safety. MJ33 administered to mice prior to lung isolation markedly reduced ROS production and tissue lipid and protein oxidation during ischemia followed by reperfusion. Thus, MJ33 could be useful as a therapeutic agent to prevent ROS-mediated tissue injury associated with lung inflammation or in harvested lungs prior to transplantation. PMID:23475902

  10. Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS.

    PubMed

    Chouchani, Edward T; Pell, Victoria R; Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijević, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y; Robb, Ellen L; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M; Ord, Emily N J; Smith, Anthony C; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J; James, Andrew M; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S H; Brookes, Paul S; Davidson, Sean M; Duchen, Michael R; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J; Robinson, Alan J; Work, Lorraine M; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P

    2014-11-20

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury occurs when the blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death and aberrant immune responses through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although mitochondrial ROS production in ischaemia reperfusion is established, it has generally been considered a nonspecific response to reperfusion. Here we develop a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis, and unexpectedly identify widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during ischaemia reperfusion. We show that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase, which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. After reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidized by succinate dehydrogenase, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a new pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation after subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease ischaemia

  11. Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS

    PubMed Central

    Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijević, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y.; Robb, Ellen L.; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Ord, Emily N. J.; Smith, Anthony C.; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J.; James, Andrew M.; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C.; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S.H.; Brookes, Paul S.; Davidson, Sean M.; Duchen, Michael R.; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J.; Robinson, Alan J.; Work, Lorraine M.; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death, and aberrant immune responses through generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)1-5. Although mitochondrial ROS production in IR is established, it has generally been considered a non-specific response to reperfusion1,3. Here, we developed a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis and unexpectedly identified widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during IR. We showed that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. Upon reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidised by SDH, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport (RET) at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo IR injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of IR injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a novel pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation upon subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease IR injury in a range of pathologies. PMID:25383517

  12. ROS and RNS signaling in skeletal muscle: critical signals and therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Luke P; Iler, Colleen; Ward, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    The health of skeletal muscle is promoted by optimal nutrition and activity/exercise through the activation of molecular signaling pathways. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been shown to modulate numerous biochemical processes including glucose uptake, gene expression, calcium signaling and contractility. In pathological conditions, ROS/RNS signaling excess or dysfunction contributes to contractile dysfunction and myopathy in skeletal muscle. Here we provide a brief review of ROS/RNS chemistry and discuss concepts of ROS/RNS signaling and its role in physiological and pathophysiological processes within striated muscle. PMID:24894146

  13. Soybean Salt Tolerance 1 (GmST1) Reduces ROS Production, Enhances ABA Sensitivity, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shuxin; Lyle, Chimera; Jiang, Guo-liang; Penumala, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1 kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27148284

  14. Soybean Salt Tolerance 1 (GmST1) Reduces ROS Production, Enhances ABA Sensitivity, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shuxin; Lyle, Chimera; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Penumala, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1 kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27148284

  15. Mitochondrial respiratory chain Complexes I and IV are impaired by β-amyloid via direct interaction and through Complex I-dependent ROS production, respectively.

    PubMed

    Bobba, A; Amadoro, G; Valenti, D; Corsetti, V; Lassandro, R; Atlante, A

    2013-07-01

    Here we investigate the effect of β-amyloid on mitochondrial respiratory function, i.e. mitochondrial oxygen consumption and membrane potential generation as well as the individual activities of both the mitochondrial Complexes I-IV, that compose mitochondrial electron transport chain, and the ATP synthase, by using homogenate from cerebellar granule cells, treated with low concentrations of β-amyloid, and Alzheimer synaptic-enriched brain samples. We found that β-amyloid caused both a selective defect in Complex I activity associated with an increase (5 fold) of intracellular reactive oxygen species and an impairment of Complex IV likely due to membrane lipid peroxidation. In addition, a 130% increase of the GSSG/GSH ratio was measured in Alzheimer brains with respect to age-matched controls. Knowing the mechanisms of action of β-amyloid could allow to mitigate or even to interrupt the toxic cascade that leads a cell to death. The results of this study represent an important innovation because they offer the possibility to act at mitochondrial level and on specific sites to protect cells, for example by preventing the interaction of β-amyloid with the identified targets, by stabilizing or by restoring mitochondrial function or by interfering with the energy metabolism. PMID:23562762

  16. The ROS Wheel: Refining ROS Transcriptional Footprints1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Noctor, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, microarray studies have delivered extensive inventories of transcriptome-wide changes in messenger RNA levels provoked by various types of oxidative stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Previous cross-study comparisons indicated how different types of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their subcellular accumulation sites are able to reshape the transcriptome in specific manners. However, these analyses often employed simplistic statistical frameworks that are not compatible with large-scale analyses. Here, we reanalyzed a total of 79 Affymetrix ATH1 microarray studies of redox homeostasis perturbation experiments. To create hierarchy in such a high number of transcriptomic data sets, all transcriptional profiles were clustered on the overlap extent of their differentially expressed transcripts. Subsequently, meta-analysis determined a single magnitude of differential expression across studies and identified common transcriptional footprints per cluster. The resulting transcriptional footprints revealed the regulation of various metabolic pathways and gene families. The RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG F-mediated respiratory burst had a major impact and was a converging point among several studies. Conversely, the timing of the oxidative stress response was a determining factor in shaping different transcriptome footprints. Our study emphasizes the need to interpret transcriptomic data sets in a systematic context, where initial, specific stress triggers can converge to common, aspecific transcriptional changes. We believe that these refined transcriptional footprints provide a valuable resource for assessing the involvement of ROS in biological processes in plants. PMID:27246095

  17. EPR spin trapping evaluation of ROS production in human fibroblasts exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles: evidence for NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial stimulation.

    PubMed

    Culcasi, Marcel; Benameur, Laila; Mercier, Anne; Lucchesi, Céline; Rahmouni, Hidayat; Asteian, Alice; Casano, Gilles; Botta, Alain; Kovacic, Hervé; Pietri, Sylvia

    2012-09-30

    To better understand the antioxidant (enzyme mimetic, free radical scavenger) versus oxidant and cytotoxic properties of the industrially used cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO(2)), we investigated their effects on reactive oxygen species formation and changes in the antioxidant pool of human dermal and murine 3T3 fibroblasts at doses relevant to chronic inhalation or contact with skin. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with the nitrone DEPMPO showed that pretreatment of the cells with the nanoparticles dose-dependently triggered the release in the culture medium of superoxide dismutase- and catalase-inhibitable DEPMPO/hydroxyl radical adducts (DEPMPO-OH) and ascorbyl radical, a marker of ascorbate depletion. This DEPMPO-OH formation occurred 2 to 24 h following removal of the particles from the medium and paralleled with an increase of cell lipid peroxidation. These effects of internalized nano-CeO(2) on spin adduct formation were then investigated at the cellular level by using specific NADPH oxidase inhibitors, transfection techniques and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. When micromolar doses of nano-CeO(2) were used, weak DEPMPO-OH levels but no loss of cell viability were observed, suggesting that cell signaling mechanisms through protein synthesis and membrane NADPH oxidase activation occurred. Incubation of the cells with higher millimolar doses provoked a 25-60-fold higher DEPMPO-OH formation together with a decrease in cell viability, early apoptosis induction and antioxidant depletion. These cytotoxic effects could be due to activation of both the mitochondrial source and Nox2 and Nox4 dependent NADPH oxidase complex. Regarding possible mechanisms of nano-CeO(2)-induced free radical formation in cells, in vitro EPR and spectrophotometric studies suggest that, contrary to Fe(2+) ions, the Ce(3+) redox state at the surface of the particles is probably not an efficient catalyst of hydroxyl radical formation by a Fenton-like reaction

  18. Zinc Chelation Mediates the Lysosomal Disruption without Intracellular ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Andreza Cândido; Manieri, Tânia Maria; Cerchiaro, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    We report the molecular mechanism for zinc depletion caused by TPEN (N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine) in neuroblastoma cells. The activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently caspase 3 is not due to or followed by redox imbalance or ROS generation, though these are commonly observed in literature. We found that TPEN is not responsible for ROS generation and the mechanism involves essentially lysosomal disruption caused by intracellular zinc depletion. We also observed a modest activation of Bax and no changes in the Bcl-2 proteins. As a result, we suggest that TPEN causes intracellular zinc depletion which can influence the breakdown of lysosomes and cell death without ROS generation. PMID:27123155

  19. Evaluation of changes in lipid peroxidation, ROS production, surface structures, secondary metabolites and yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) under individual and combined stress of ultraviolet-B and ozone using open top chambers.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

    2013-08-01

    The individual and interactive effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B) (ambient + 7.2 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) and elevated O3 (ambient + 10 ppb) were evaluated under field conditions using open top chambers on two cultivars, Padmini and T-397 of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Mean monthly surface level of O3 concentrations varied from 27.7 ppb to 59.0 ppb during the experimental period. Both UV-B and O03 induced the production of ROS (H2O2 and O2*-), resulting in significant damage of membranes due to lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. Synthesis of secondary metabolites (flavonoids, anthocyanin, lignin and wax) was also enhanced in all the treatments, whereas biomass and yield were reduced. Alterations in frequency of stomata and wax distribution were also observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cultivar Padmini was found to be more sensitive because of higher damage of membrane vis-a-vis reduction in biomass and seed yield. However, concentrations of flavonoids, anthocyanin, lignin and wax were higher in T-397, suggesting its relative resistance against applied stress. Combined exposure of sUV-B and O3 was less harmful, as compared to their individual treatment. Among the three treatments, O3 was found to be more detrimental for overall growth and sUV-B for economic yield. PMID:24772952

  20. Induced reactive oxygen species improve enzyme production from Aspergillus niger cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Susmita; Rao, K Krishnamurthy; Suraishkumar, G K

    2003-05-01

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) induction by HOCl was used as a novel strategy to improve enzyme productivities in Aspergillus niger growing in a bioreactor. With induced iROS, the specific intracellular activities of alpha-amylase, protease, catalase, and glucose oxidase were increased by about 170%, 250%, 320%, and 260%, respectively. The optimum specific iROS level for achieving maximum cell concentration and enzyme production was about 15 mmol g cell-1. The type of iROS inducing the enzyme production was identified to be a derivative of the superoxide radical. PMID:12882014

  1. Activation of ROS/NF-{kappa}B and Ca{sup 2+}/CaM kinase II are necessary for VCAM-1 induction in IL-1{beta}-treated human tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, S.-F.; Chang, C.-C.; Lee, I-T.; Lee, C.-W.; Lin, W.-N.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2009-05-15

    Histone acetylation regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) plays a critical role in the expression of inflammatory genes, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Oxidative processes have been shown to induce VCAM-1 expression. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying IL-1{beta}-induced VCAM-1 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). Our results showed that IL-1{beta} enhanced HTSMCs-monocyte adhesion through up-regulation of VCAM-1, which was inhibited by pretreatment with selective inhibitors of PKC{alpha} (Goe6976), c-Src (PP1), NADPH oxidase [diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and apocynin (APO)], intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA/AM), PI-PLC (U73122), CaM (calmidazolium chloride), CaM kinase II (KN62), p300 (garcinol), NF-{kappa}B (Bay11-7082), HDAC (trichostatin A), and ROS scavenger [N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)] or transfection with siRNAs of MyD88, PKC{alpha}, Src, p47{sup phox}, p300, and HDAC4. Moreover, IL-1{beta} stimulated NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII phosphorylation through MyD88-dependent PI-PLC/PKC{alpha}/c-Src/ROS and PI-PLC/Ca{sup 2+}/CaM pathways, respectively. Activation of NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII may eventually lead to the acetylation of histone residues and phosphorylation of histone deacetylases. These findings suggested that IL-1{beta} induced VCAM-1 expression via these multiple signaling pathways in HTSMCs. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte adhesion via VCAM-1 suppression and attenuation of the inflammatory responses in airway diseases.

  2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS): involvement in bovine follicular cysts etiopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Minoia, Giuseppe; Trisolini, Carmelinda; Mutinati, Maddalena; Spedicato, Massimo; Jirillo, Felicita; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Ovulation is compared to an acute inflammatory process during which vasoactive agents, prostanoids, leukotrienes and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) develop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of ROS in cystic and follicular fluid, in order to establish their involvement in the etiopathogenesis of Cystic Ovarian Follicle (COF) in dairy cows. The study was conducted in 30 healthy cows (group C) and 30 cows affected by COF (group COF). The fluid of follicular cysts and of preovulatory follicles was drawn by means of ultrasound guided aspiration from the cows of both groups. The fluid obtained was analyzed by a photometric analytical system to detect ROS level. ROS concentration was statistically lower in the cystic fluid than in the follicular one (62.4 +/- 13.36 U.Carr vs. 84.89 +/- 26.99 U.Carr) (p<0.05), thus suggesting that an alteration of the cascade responsible for ROS production may be implicated in the complex etipathogenesis of COF. PMID:19874233

  3. Environmental changes in oxygen tension reveal ROS-dependent neurogenesis and regeneration in the adult newt brain

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, L Shahul; Berg, Daniel A; Belnoue, Laure; Jensen, Lasse D; Cao, Yihai; Simon, András

    2015-01-01

    Organisms need to adapt to the ecological constraints in their habitat. How specific processes reflect such adaptations are difficult to model experimentally. We tested whether environmental shifts in oxygen tension lead to events in the adult newt brain that share features with processes occurring during neuronal regeneration under normoxia. By experimental simulation of varying oxygen concentrations, we show that hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation lead to neuronal death and hallmarks of an injury response, including activation of neural stem cells ultimately leading to neurogenesis. Neural stem cells accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during re-oxygenation and inhibition of ROS biosynthesis counteracts their proliferation as well as neurogenesis. Importantly, regeneration of dopamine neurons under normoxia also depends on ROS-production. These data demonstrate a role for ROS-production in neurogenesis in newts and suggest that this role may have been recruited to the capacity to replace lost neurons in the brain of an adult vertebrate. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08422.001 PMID:26485032

  4. ROS and Phytohormones in Plant-Plant Allelopathic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    Allelopathy refers to plant-plant interference mediated mostly by plant released products of secondary metabolism. It was recently suggested that allelochamicals may influence growth of neighboring plants by induction of oxidative stress. We have focused on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phytohormons (ABA and ethylene) in the biochemical and molecular regulation of plant response to sunflower phytotoxins. PMID:19704634

  5. Measurement of OH, NO, O and N atoms in helium plasma jet for ROS/RNS controlled biomedical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemori, Seiya; Kamakura, Taku; Ono, Ryo

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasmas are of emerging interest for new plasma applications such as cancer treatment, cell activation and sterilization. In those biomedical processes, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are said that they play significant role. It is though that active species give oxidative stress and induce biomedical reactions. In this study, we measured OH, NO, O and N atoms using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement and found that voltage polarity affect particular ROS. When negative high voltage was applied to the plasma jet, O atom density was tripled compared to the case of positive applied voltage. In that case, O atom density was around 3 × 1015 [cm-3] at maximum. In contrast, OH and NO density did not change their density depending on the polarity of applied voltage, measured as in order of 1013 and 1014 [cm-3] at maximum, respectively. From ICCD imaging measurement, it could be seen that negative high voltage enhanced secondary emission in plasma bullet propagation and it can affect the effective production of particular ROS. Since ROS/RNS dose can be a quantitative criterion to control plasma biomedical application, those measurement results is able to be applied for in vivo and in vitro plasma biomedical experiments. This study is supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Science Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology.

  6. P8 deficiency increases cellular ROS and induces HO-1.

    PubMed

    Weis, Sebastian; Bielow, Tobias; Sommerer, Ines; Iovanna, Juan; Malicet, Cédric; Mössner, Joachim; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    The gene p8 encodes for a small cytoprotective protein with no apparent enzymatic activity being proposed to act as co-transcription factor whose expression is increased during inflammation. Recent data from astrocytes demonstrates that p8 suppression leads to induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Here, we assessed the cross-talk between p8 and HO-1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) observing an increased expression of HO-1 in p8-deficient (p8(-/-)) MEFs in non-treated and treated conditions. This effect was independent of the cell cycle. Our findings revealed that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher in p8(-/-) MEFs. Mitochondria and NADPH oxidases were not the origin of ROS. This observation was not restricted to MEF as suppression of p8 gene transcription in MiaPaCa-2 cells also led to increased intracellular ROS. Additionally, p8 deficiency did not affect the Rac1 dependant NADPH oxidase complex. Our data shows that p8 deficiency increases ROS and subsequently the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes, such as HO-1, suggesting an involvement in the anti-oxidative defense. Moreover, we suggest that the severity of AP observed in p8(-/-) mice is induced by an impaired anti oxidative capacity of the pancreas, which is caused by increased generation of ROS. PMID:25475530

  7. Ischemic A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I and its role in ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Dröse, Stefan; Stepanova, Anna; Galkin, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a key enzyme in cellular energy metabolism and provides approximately 40% of the proton-motive force that is utilized during mitochondrial ATP production. The dysregulation of complex I function--either genetically, pharmacologically, or metabolically induced--has severe pathophysiological consequences that often involve an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Slow transition of the active (A) enzyme to the deactive, dormant (D) form takes place during ischemia in metabolically active organs such as the heart and brain. The reactivation of complex I occurs upon reoxygenation of ischemic tissue, a process that is usually accompanied by an increase in cellular ROS production. Complex I in the D-form serves as a protective mechanism preventing the oxidative burst upon reperfusion. Conversely, however, the D-form is more vulnerable to oxidative/nitrosative damage. Understanding the so-called active/deactive (A/D) transition may contribute to the development of new therapeutic interventions for conditions like stroke, cardiac infarction, and other ischemia-associated pathologies. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the mechanism of A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I considering recently available structural data and site-specific labeling experiments. In addition, this review discusses in detail the impact of the A/D transition on ROS production by complex I and the S-nitrosation of a critical cysteine residue of subunit ND3 as a strategy to prevent oxidative damage and tissue damage during ischemia-reperfusion injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26777588

  8. Expression and rearrangement of the ROS1 gene in human glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Birchmeier, C.; Sharma, S.; Wigler, M.

    1987-12-01

    The human ROS1 gene, which possibly encodes a growth factor receptor, was found to be expressed in human tumor cell lines. In a survey of 45 different human cell lines, the authors found ROS1 to be expressed in glioblastoma-derived cell lines at high levels and not to be expressed at all, or expressed at very low levels, in the remaining cell lines. The ROS1 gene was present in normal copy numbers in all cell lines that expressed the gene. However, in one particular glioblastoma line, they detected a potentially activating mutation at the ROS1 locus.

  9. 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin (TCDD) induces premature senescence in human and rodent neuronal cells via ROS-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunhua; Liu, Jiao; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhao, Jianya; Zhou, Songlin; Duan, Zhiqing; Tang, Cuiying; Liang, Lingwei; Xu, Guangfei

    2014-01-01

    The widespread environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent toxicant that causes significant neurotoxicity. However, the biological events that participate in this process remain largely elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that TCDD exposure triggered apparent premature senescence in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay revealed that TCDD induced senescence in PC12 neuronal cells at doses as low as 10 nM. TCDD led to F-actin reorganization and the appearance of an alternative senescence marker, γ-H2AX foci, both of which are important features of cellular senescence. In addition, TCDD exposure altered the expression of senescence marker proteins, such as p16, p21 and p-Rb, in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TCDD promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC12 cells, leading to the activation of signaling pathways that are involved in ROS metabolism and senescence. TCDD-induced ROS generation promoted significant oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. Notably, treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly attenuated TCDD-induced ROS production, cellular oxidative damage and neuronal senescence. Moreover, we found that TCDD induced a similar ROS-mediated senescence response in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In sum, these results demonstrate for the first time that TCDD induces premature senescence in neuronal cells by promoting intracellular ROS production, supporting the idea that accelerating the onset of neuronal senescence may be an important mechanism underlying TCDD-induced neurotoxic effects. PMID:24587053

  10. 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (TCDD) Induces Premature Senescence in Human and Rodent Neuronal Cells via ROS-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiaoke; Zhao, Jianya; Zhou, Songlin; Duan, Zhiqing; Tang, Cuiying; Liang, Lingwei; Xu, Guangfei

    2014-01-01

    The widespread environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent toxicant that causes significant neurotoxicity. However, the biological events that participate in this process remain largely elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that TCDD exposure triggered apparent premature senescence in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay revealed that TCDD induced senescence in PC12 neuronal cells at doses as low as 10 nM. TCDD led to F-actin reorganization and the appearance of an alternative senescence marker, γ-H2AX foci, both of which are important features of cellular senescence. In addition, TCDD exposure altered the expression of senescence marker proteins, such as p16, p21 and p-Rb, in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TCDD promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC12 cells, leading to the activation of signaling pathways that are involved in ROS metabolism and senescence. TCDD-induced ROS generation promoted significant oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. Notably, treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly attenuated TCDD-induced ROS production, cellular oxidative damage and neuronal senescence. Moreover, we found that TCDD induced a similar ROS-mediated senescence response in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In sum, these results demonstrate for the first time that TCDD induces premature senescence in neuronal cells by promoting intracellular ROS production, supporting the idea that accelerating the onset of neuronal senescence may be an important mechanism underlying TCDD-induced neurotoxic effects. PMID:24587053

  11. Natural products and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Wahlqvist, Mark L; He, Guoqing; Yang, Min; Li, Duo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review paper was to summarise some commonly available natural products and their anti-inflammatory activity. We have collected data from MEDLINE, Current Contents and scientific journals, which included 92 publications. There are numerous natural products detailed in this literature; however we have summarized a few of the most commonly available and potent ones. In this paper, the natural products with anti-inflammatory activity including curcumin, parthenolide, cucurbitacins, 1,8-cineole, pseudopterosins, lyprinol, bromelain, flavonoids, saponins, marine sponge natural products and Boswellia serrata gum resin were reviewed. Natural products play a significant role in human health in relation to the prevention and treatment of inflammatory conditions. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, safety and long term side effect of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with food and drug components. PMID:16672197

  12. Apoptosis induced by para-phenylenediamine involves formation of ROS and activation of p38 and JNK in chang liver cells.

    PubMed

    Chye, Soi Moi; Tiong, Yee Lian; Yip, Wai Kien; Koh, Rhun Yian; Len, Yi Won; Seow, Heng Fong; Ng, Khuen Yen; Ranjit, De Alwis; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2014-09-01

    para-Phenylenediamine (p-PD) is a suspected carcinogen, but it has been widely used as a component in permanent hair dyes. In this study, the mechanism of p-PD-induced cell death in normal Chang liver cells was investigated. The results demonstrated that p-PD decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Cell death via apoptosis was confirmed by enhanced DNA damage and increased cell number in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, using Hoechst 33258 dye staining and flow cytometry analysis. Apoptosis via reactive oxygen species generation was detected by the dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining method. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was assessed by western blot analysis and revealed that p-PD activated not only stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 MAPK but also extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by p-PD were markedly enhanced by ERK activation and selectively inhibited by ERK inhibitor PD98059, thus indicating a negative role of ERK. In contrast, inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with the p38-specific inhibitor SB203580 moderately inhibited cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by p-PD. Similarly, SP600125, an inhibitor of SAPK/JNK, moderately inhibited cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by p-PD, thus implying that p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK had a partial role in p-PD-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that p-PD significantly increased phosphorylation of p38 and SAPK/JNK and decreased phosphorylation of ERK. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that SAPK/JNK and p38 cooperatively participate in apoptosis induced by p-PD and that a decreased ERK signal contributes to growth inhibition or apoptosis. PMID:23172806

  13. Overexpression of the yeast transcription activator Msn2 confers furfural resistance and increases the initial fermentation rate in ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ukibe, Ken; Inai, Tomomi; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source for bioethanol production, because it is abundant worldwide and has few competing uses. However, the treatment of lignocelllulosic biomass with weak acid to release cellulose and hemicellulose generates many kinds of byproducts including furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which inhibit fermentation by yeast, because they generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. In order to acquire high tolerance to oxidative stress in bioethanol yeast strains, we focused on the transcription activator Msn2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates numerous genes involved in antioxidative stress responses, and constructed bioethanol yeast strains that overexpress Msn2 constitutively. The Msn2-overexpressing bioethanol strains showed tolerance to oxidative stress, probably due to the high-level expression of various antioxidant enzyme genes. Unexpectedly, these strains showed ethanol sensitivity compared with the control strain, probably due to imbalance of the expression level between Msn2 and Msn4. In the presence of furfural, the engineered strains exhibited reduced intracellular ROS levels, and showed rapid growth compared with the control strain. The fermentation test in the presence of furfural revealed that the Msn2-overexpressing strains showed improvement of the initial rate of fermentation. Our results indicate that overexpression of the transcription activator Msn2 in bioethanol yeast strains confers furfural tolerance by reducing the intracellular ROS levels and enhances the initial rate of fermentation in the presence of furfural, suggesting that these strains are capable of adapting rapidly to various compounds that inhibit fermentation by inducing ROS accumulation. Our results not only promise to improve bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, but also provide novel insights for molecular breeding of industrial yeast strains. PMID:22178024

  14. Dynamic changes in intracellular ROS levels regulate airway basal stem cell homeostasis through Nrf2-dependent Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Paul, MK; Bisht, B; Darmawan, DO; Chiou, R; Ha, VL; Wallace, WD; Chon, AC; Hegab, AE; Grogan, T; Elashoff, DA; Alva-Ornelas, JA; Gomperts, BN

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Airways are exposed to myriad environmental and damaging agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which also have physiological roles as signaling molecules that regulate stem cell function. However, the functional significance of both steady and dynamically changing ROS levels in different stem cell populations, as well as downstream mechanisms that integrate ROS sensing into decisions regarding stem cell homeostasis, are unclear. Here, we show in mouse and human airway basal stem cells (ABSCs) that intracellular flux from low to moderate ROS levels is required for stem cell self-renewal and proliferation. Changing ROS levels activate Nrf2, which activates the Notch pathway to stimulate ABSC self-renewal as well an antioxidant program that scavenges intracellular ROS, returning overall ROS levels to a low state to maintain homeostatic balance. This redox-mediated regulation of lung stem cell function has significant implications for stem cell biology, repair of lung injuries, and diseases such as cancer. PMID:24953182

  15. The regulatory roles of ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant salt stress responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Smith, J Andrew C; Harberd, Nicholas P; Jiang, Caifu

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most commonly encountered environmental stresses affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Accordingly, plants have evolved a variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies that enable them to adapt to saline growth conditions. For example, it has long been known that salinity-stress increases both the production of the gaseous stress hormone ethylene and the in planta accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding how the fine-tuning of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling transduction can promote salinity tolerance, and how salinity-induced ROS accumulation also acts as a signal in the mediation of salinity tolerance. Furthermore, recent advances have indicated that ethylene signaling modulates salinity responses largely via regulation of ROS-generating and ROS-scavenging mechanisms. This review focuses on these recent advances in understanding the linked roles of ethylene and ROS in salt tolerance. PMID:27233644

  16. ROS/redox signaling regulates bone turnover in an age-specific manner in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide appears to be an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. ROS signaling has been suggested to increase RANKL mRNA and protein expression, thus enha...

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of ROS1 is useful for identifying ROS1 rearrangements in lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Tsuta, Koji; Wakai, Susumu; Arai, Yasuhito; Asamura, Hisao; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Furuta, Koh; Kohno, Takashi; Kushima, Ryoji

    2014-05-01

    The recent discovery and characterization of an oncogenic ROS1 gene fusion in a subset of lung cancers has raised significant clinical interest because small molecule inhibitors may be effective to these tumors. As lung cancers with ROS1 rearrangements comprise only 1-3% of lung adenocarcinomas, patients with such tumors must be identified to gain optimal benefit from molecular therapy. Recently, immunohistochemical analyses using a novel anti-ROS1 rabbit monoclonal antibody (D4D6) have shown promise for accurate identification of ROS1-rearranged cancers. To validate this finding, we compared the immunostaining results of tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing 17 ROS1-rearranged and 253 ROS1-non-rearranged lung carcinomas. All 17 ROS1-rearranged cancers showed ROS1 immunoreactivity mostly in a diffuse and moderate-to-strong manner with an H-score range of 5-300 (median, 260). In contrast, 69% of ROS1-non-rearranged cancers lacked detectable immunoreactivity, whereas the remaining 31% showed reactivity mainly in a weak or focal manner. The H-score for the entire ROS1-non-rearranged group ranged from 0 to 240 (median, 0). The difference in H-score between the two cohorts was statistically significant, and the H-score cutoff (≥150) allowed optimal discrimination (94% sensitivity and 98% specificity). Similar but slightly less-specific performance was achieved using the extent of diffuse (≥75%) staining or ≥2+ staining intensity as cutoffs. CD74-ROS1 and EZR-ROS1 fusions were significantly associated with at least focal globular immunoreactivity and plasma membranous accentuation, respectively, and these patterns were specific to ROS1-rearranged cases. Although full-length ROS1 is expressed in some ROS1-non-rearranged cases, we showed that establishment of an optimal set of interpretative criteria makes ROS1 immunohistochemistry a valuable method to rapidly and accurately screen lung cancer patients for appropriate molecular therapy. PMID:24186139

  18. Chronic Inhibition of STAT3/STAT5 in Treatment-Resistant Human Breast Cancer Cell Subtypes: Convergence on the ROS/SUMO Pathway and Its Effects on xCT Expression and System xc- Activity

    PubMed Central

    Linher-Melville, Katja; Nashed, Mina G.; Ungard, Robert G.; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A.; Gunning, Patrick T.; Singh, Gurmit

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically targeting activated STAT3 and/or STAT5 has been an active area of cancer research. The cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-, contributes to redox balance and export of intracellularly produced glutamate in response to up-regulated glutaminolysis in cancer cells. We have previously shown that blocking STAT3/5 using the small molecule inhibitor, SH-4-54, which targets the SH2 domains of both proteins, increases xCT expression, thereby increasing system xc- activity in human breast cancer cells. The current investigation demonstrates that chronic SH-4-54 administration, followed by clonal selection of treatment-resistant MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells, elicits distinct subtype-dependent effects. xCT mRNA and protein levels, glutamate release, and cystine uptake are decreased relative to untreated passage-matched controls in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, with the inverse occurring in estrogen-responsive T47D cells. This “ying-yang” effect is linked with a shifted balance between the phosphorylation status of STAT3 and STAT5, intracellular ROS levels, and STAT5 SUMOylation/de-SUMOylation. STAT5 emerged as a definitive negative regulator of xCT at the transcriptional level, while STAT3 activation is coupled with increased system xc- activity. We propose that careful classification of a patient’s breast cancer subtype is central to effectively targeting STAT3/5 as a therapeutic means of treating breast cancer, particularly given that xCT is emerging as an important biomarker of aggressive cancers. PMID:27513743

  19. Intracellular Generation of ROS by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol: Persistence, Cellular Response, and Impact of Molecular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated extensive human exposure to the monocyclic aromatic amines, particularly to 3,5-dimethylaniline, and found an association between exposure to these compounds and risk for bladder cancer. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that might lead to the observed risk. We previously suggested that the hydroxylated 3,5-dimethylaniline metabolite, 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), played a central role in effecting genetic change through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycle with 3,5-dimethylquinoneimine. Experiments here characterize ROS generation by 3,5-DMAP exposure in nucleotide repair-proficient and -deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of time. Besides, various cellular responses discussed herein indicate that ROS production is the principal cause of cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP confirmed that ROS production occurs in the nuclear compartment, as suggested by a previous study demonstrating covalent linkage between 3,5-DMAP and histones. 3,5-DMAP was also compared with 3,5-dimethylhydroquinone to determine whether substitution of one of the phenolic hydroxyl groups by an amino group had a significant effect on some of the investigated parameters. The comparatively much longer duration of observable ROS produced by 3,5-DMAP (7 vs. 1 day) provides further evidence that 3,5-DMAP becomes embedded in the cellular matrix in a form capable of continued redox cycling. 3,5-DMAP also induced dose-dependent increase of H2O2 and ·OH, which were determined as the major free radicals contributing to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis mediated via caspase-3 activation. Overall, this study provides insight into the progression of alkylaniline-induced toxicity. PMID:24973092

  20. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar; Adeli, Khosrow; Meshkani, Reza

    2015-08-21

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  1. RosR (Cg1324), a Hydrogen Peroxide-sensitive MarR-type Transcriptional Regulator of Corynebacterium glutamicum*

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Michael; Baumgart, Meike; Bott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The cg1324 gene (rosR) of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes a MarR-type transcriptional regulator. By a comparative transcriptome analysis with DNA microarrays of a ΔrosR mutant and the wild type and subsequent EMSAs with purified RosR protein, direct target genes of RosR were identified. The narKGHJI operon, which encodes a nitrate/nitrite transporter and the dissimilatory nitrate reductase complex, was activated by RosR. All other target genes were repressed by RosR. They encode four putative monooxygenases, two putative FMN reductases, a protein of the glutathione S-transferase family, a putative polyisoprenoid-binding protein, and RosR itself. The DNA binding site of RosR was characterized as an 18-bp inverted repeat with the consensus sequence TTGTTGAYRYRTCAACWA. The in vitro DNA binding activity of RosR was reversibly inhibited by the oxidant H2O2. Mutational analysis of the three cysteine residues present in RosR (Cys-64, Cys-92, and Cys-151) showed that these are responsible for the inhibition of DNA binding by H2O2. A deletion mutant (Δcg1322) lacking the putative polyisoprenoid-binding protein showed an increased sensitivity to H2O2, supporting the role of RosR in the oxidative stress response of C. glutamicum. PMID:20643656

  2. Classical ROS-dependent and early/rapid ROS-independent release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps triggered by Leishmania parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rochael, Natalia C.; Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B.; Nascimento, Michelle T. C.; DeSouza-Vieira, Thiago S.; Oliveira, Matheus P.; Garcia e Souza, Luiz F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Saraiva, Elvira M.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) extruded from neutrophils upon activation are composed of chromatin associated with cytosolic and granular proteins, which ensnare and kill microorganisms. This microbicidal mechanism named classical netosis has been shown to dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by NADPH oxidase and also chromatin decondensation dependent upon the enzymes (PAD4), neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). NET release also occurs through an early/rapid ROS-independent mechanism, named early/rapid vital netosis. Here we analyze the role of ROS, NE, MPO and PAD4 in the netosis stimulated by Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes in human neutrophils. We demonstrate that promastigotes induce a classical netosis, dependent on the cellular redox imbalance, as well as by a chloroamidine sensitive and elastase activity mechanism. Additionally, Leishmania also induces the early/rapid NET release occurring only 10 minutes after neutrophil-parasite interaction. We demonstrate here, that this early/rapid mechanism is dependent on elastase activity, but independent of ROS generation and chloroamidine. A better understanding of both mechanisms of NET release, and the NETs effects on the host immune system modulation, could support the development of new potential therapeutic strategies for leishmaniasis. PMID:26673780

  3. ROS-mediated enhanced transcription of CYP38 promotes the plant tolerance to high light stress by suppressing GTPase activation of PsbO2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Zeng, Lizhang; Xing, Da

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the Immunophilin family, cyclophilin38 (CYP38) is discovered to be localized in the thylakoid lumen, and is reported to be a participant in the function regulation of thylakoid membrane protein. However, the molecule mechanisms remain unclear. We found that, CYP38 plays an important role in the process of regulating and protecting the plant to resist high light (HL) stress. Under HL condition, the gene expression of CYP38 is enhanced, and if CYP38 gene is deficient, photochemistry efficiency, and chlorophyll content falls distinctly, and excessive reactive oxygen species synthesis occurs in the chloroplast. Western blot results showed that the D1 degradation rate of cyp38 mutant plants is faster than that of wide type plants. Interestingly, both gene expression and activity of PsbO2 were drastically enhanced in cyp38 mutant plants and less changed when the deleted gene of CYP38 was restored under HL treatment. This indicates that CYP38 may impose a negative regulation effect on PsbO2, which exerts a positive regulation effect in facilitating the dephosphorylation and subsequent degradation of D1. It is also found that, under HL condition, the cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2+)]cyt) concentration and the gene expression level of calmodulin 3 (CaM3) arose markedly, which occurs upstream of CYP38 gene expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that CYP38 plays an important role in plant strengthening HL resistibility, which provides a new insight in the research of mechanisms of CYP38 protein in plants. PMID:26483802

  4. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Bioactive Thiazinoquinone Marine Natural Products Thiaplidiaquinones A and B

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Jacquie L.; Khalil, Iman M.; Shaw, Lisa; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Dubois, Joëlle; Valentin, Alexis; Barker, David; Copp, Brent R.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to more accurately define the mechanism of cell death and to establish structure-activity relationship requirements for the marine meroterpenoid alkaloids thiaplidiaquinones A and B, we have evaluated not only the natural products but also dioxothiazine regioisomers and two precursor quinones in a range of bioassays. While the natural products were found to be weak inducers of ROS in Jurkat cells, the dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A and a synthetic precursor to thiaplidiaquinone B were found to be moderately potent inducers. Intriguingly, and in contrast to previous reports, the mechanism of Jurkat cell death (necrosis vs. apoptosis) was found to be dependent upon the positioning of one of the geranyl sidechains in the compounds with thiaplidiaquinone A and its dioxothiazine regioisomer causing death dominantly by necrosis, while thiaplidiaquinone B and its dioxothiazine isomer caused cell death via apoptosis. The dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A exhibited more potent in vitro antiproliferative activity against human tumor cells, with NCI sub-panel selectivity towards melanoma cell lines. The non-natural dioxothiazine regioisomers were also more active in antiplasmodial and anti-farnesyltransferase assays than their natural product counterparts. The results highlight the important role that natural product total synthesis can play in not only helping understand the structural basis of biological activity of natural products, but also the discovery of new bioactive scaffolds. PMID:26266415

  5. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Bioactive Thiazinoquinone Marine Natural Products Thiaplidiaquinones A and B.

    PubMed

    Harper, Jacquie L; Khalil, Iman M; Shaw, Lisa; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Dubois, Joëlle; Valentin, Alexis; Barker, David; Copp, Brent R

    2015-08-01

    In an effort to more accurately define the mechanism of cell death and to establish structure-activity relationship requirements for the marine meroterpenoid alkaloids thiaplidiaquinones A and B, we have evaluated not only the natural products but also dioxothiazine regioisomers and two precursor quinones in a range of bioassays. While the natural products were found to be weak inducers of ROS in Jurkat cells, the dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A and a synthetic precursor to thiaplidiaquinone B were found to be moderately potent inducers. Intriguingly, and in contrast to previous reports, the mechanism of Jurkat cell death (necrosis vs. apoptosis) was found to be dependent upon the positioning of one of the geranyl sidechains in the compounds with thiaplidiaquinone A and its dioxothiazine regioisomer causing death dominantly by necrosis, while thiaplidiaquinone B and its dioxothiazine isomer caused cell death via apoptosis. The dioxothiazine regioisomer of thiaplidiaquinone A exhibited more potent in vitro antiproliferative activity against human tumor cells, with NCI sub-panel selectivity towards melanoma cell lines. The non-natural dioxothiazine regioisomers were also more active in antiplasmodial and anti-farnesyltransferase assays than their natural product counterparts. The results highlight the important role that natural product total synthesis can play in not only helping understand the structural basis of biological activity of natural products, but also the discovery of new bioactive scaffolds. PMID:26266415

  6. Carnosic acid inhibits STAT3 signaling and induces apoptosis through generation of ROS in human colon cancer HCT116 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hee; Park, Ki-Woong; Chae, In Gyeong; Kundu, Juthika; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Chun, Kyung-Soo

    2016-06-01

    Carnosic acid (CA), the main antioxidant compound of Rosmarinus officinalis L., has been reported to possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of CA remain poorly understood. Our study revealed that CA treatment significantly reduced the viability of human colon cancer HCT116, SW480, and HT-29 cells. Treatment with CA induced apoptosis, which was associated with the induction of p53 and Bax, inhibition of Mdm2, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl expression, activation of caspase-9, and -3, and the cleavage of PARP in HCT116 cells. CA inhibited the constitutive phosphorylation, the DNA binding and the reporter gene activity of STAT3 in HCT116 cells by blocking the phosphorylation of upstream JAK2 and Src kinases. Moreover, CA attenuated the expression of STAT3 target gene products, such as survivin, cyclin D1, D2, and D3. In STAT3-overexpressed HCT116 cells, CA inhibited cell viability and the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin. Furthermore, CA treatment induced the generation of ROS in these colon cancer cells. Pretreatment of cells with ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine abrogated the inhibitory effect of CA on the JAK2-STAT3/Src-STAT3 signaling and rescued cells from CA-induced apoptosis by blocking the induction of p53 and the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP in HCT116 cells. However, L-buthionine-sulfoximine, a pharmacological inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased CA-induced ROS production, thereby potentiating apoptotic effect of CA. In conclusion, our study provides the first report that CA induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells via generation of ROS, induction of p53, activation of caspases, and inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26152521

  7. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by lunar simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Rickman, Douglas; Schoonen, Martin A.

    2016-05-01

    .5 h. By contrast ROS is formed rapidly within 30 min when simulants are dispersed in DI, but then the concentration either stabilizes or decreases over time. The results indicate that mechanical stress and the absence of molecular oxygen and water, which are important environmental characteristics of the lunar environment, can lead to enhanced production of ROS in general. However, compositional difference among simulants is the most important factor in governing the production of ROS. Simulants with glass content in excess of 40 wt% appear to produce as much as of order of magnitude more ROS than simulants with lower glass content.

  8. MCAM, as a novel receptor for S100A8/A9, mediates progression of malignant melanoma through prominent activation of NF-κB and ROS formation upon ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Murata, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masami; Huang, Peng; Kinoshita, Rie; Futami, Junichiro; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Akira; Sumardika, I Wayan; Youyi, Chen; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nishibori, Masahiro; Hibino, Toshihiko; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2016-08-01

    The dynamic interaction between tumor cells and their microenvironment induces a proinflammatory milieu that