Science.gov

Sample records for activation system scale

  1. Antibacterial and enzymatic activity of microbial community during wastewater treatment by pilot scale vermifiltration system.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sudipti; Rajpal, Ankur; Bhargava, Renu; Pruthi, Vikas; Bhatia, Akansha; Kazmi, A A

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated microbial community diversity and antibacterial and enzymatic properties of microorganisms in a pilot-scale vermifiltration system during domestic wastewater treatment. The study included isolation and identification of diverse microbial community by culture-dependent method from a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional geofilter (GF) without earthworms. The results of the four months study revealed that presence of earthworms in VF could efficiently remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and other pathogens. Furthermore, the burrowing activity of earthworms promoted the aeration conditions in VF which led to the predominance of the aerobic microorganisms, accounting for complex microbial community diversity. Antibacterial activity of the isolated microorganisms revealed the mechanism behind the removal of pathogens, which is reported for the first time. Specifically, cellulase, amylase and protease activity is responsible for biodegradation and stabilization of organic matter.

  2. A Step Towards Seascape Scale Conservation: Using Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) to Map Fishing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Matthew J.; Godley, Brendan J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Conservation of marine ecosystems will require a holistic understanding of fisheries with concurrent spatial patterns of biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from the UK Government Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) deployed on UK-registered large fishing vessels we investigate patterns of fisheries activity on annual and seasonal scales. Analysis of VMS data shows that regions of the UK European continental shelf (i.e. Western Channel and Celtic Sea, Northern North Sea and the Goban Spur) receive consistently greater fisheries pressure than the rest of the UK continental shelf fishing zone. Conclusions/Significance VMS provides a unique and independent method from which to derive patterns of spatially and temporally explicit fisheries activity. Such information may feed into ecosystem management plans seeking to achieve sustainable fisheries while minimising putative risk to non-target species (e.g. cetaceans, seabirds and elasmobranchs) and habitats of conservation concern. With multilateral collaboration VMS technologies may offer an important solution to quantifying and managing ecosystem disturbance, particularly on the high-seas. PMID:17971874

  3. Sensitivity of predicted scaling and permeability in Enhanced Geothermal Systems to Thermodynamic Data and Activity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Wagner, Thomas; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Kosakowski, Georg; Driesner, Thomas; Thomsen, Kaj

    2010-05-01

    A consortium of research groups from ETH Zurich, EPF Lausanne, the Paul Scherrer Institut and the University of Bonn collaborates in a comprehensive program of basic research on key aspects of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGSs). As part of this GEOTHERM project (www.geotherm.ethz.ch), we concentrate on the fundamental investigation of thermodynamic models suitable for describing fluid-rock interactions at geothermal conditions. Predictions of the fluid-rock interaction in EGS still face several major challenges. Slight variations in the input thermodynamic and kinetic parameters may result in significant differences in the predicted mineral solubilities and stable assemblage. Realistic modeling of mineral precipitation in turn has implications onto our understanding of the permeability evolution of the geothermal reservoir, as well as the scaling in technical installations. In order to reasonably model an EGS, thermodynamic databases and activity models must be tailored to geothermal conditions. We therefore implemented in GEMS code the Pitzer formalism, which is the standard model used for computing thermodynamic excess properties of brines at elevated temperatures and pressures. This model, however, depends on a vast amount of interaction parameters, which are to a substantial extend unknown. Furthermore, a high order polynomial temperature interpolation makes extrapolation unreliable if not impossible. As an alternative we additionally implemented the EUNIQUAC activity model. EUNIQUAC requires fewer empirical fit parameters (only binary interaction parameters needed) and uses simpler and more stable temperature and pressure extrapolations. This results in an increase in computation speed, which is of crucial importance when performing coupled long term simulations of geothermal reservoirs. To achieve better performance under geothermal conditions, we are currently partly reformulating EUNIQUAC and refitting the existing parameter set. First results of the

  4. Holographic fiber bundle system for patterned optogenetic activation of large-scale neuronal networks

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Nairouz; Levinsky, Alexandra; Brosh, Inbar; Kahn, Itamar; Shoham, Shy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Optogenetic perturbation has become a fundamental tool in controlling activity in neurons. Used to control activity in cell cultures, slice preparations, anesthetized and awake behaving animals, optical control of cell-type specific activity enables the interrogation of complex systems. A remaining challenge in developing optical control tools is the ability to produce defined light patterns such that power-efficient, precise control of neuronal populations is obtained. Here, we describe a system for patterned stimulation that enables the generation of structured activity in neurons by transmitting optical patterns from computer-generated holograms through an optical fiber bundle. The system couples the optical system to versatile fiber bundle configurations, including coherent or incoherent bundles composed of hundreds of up to several meters long fibers. We describe the components of the system, a method for calibration, and a detailed power efficiency and spatial specificity quantification. Next, we use the system to precisely control single-cell activity as measured by extracellular electrophysiological recordings in ChR2-expressing cortical cell cultures. The described system complements recent descriptions of optical control systems, presenting a system suitable for high-resolution spatiotemporal optical control of wide-area neural networks in vitro and in vivo, yielding a tool for precise neural system interrogation. PMID:26793741

  5. PULSE SCALING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Kandiah, K.

    1954-06-01

    Pulse scaling systems embodying multi-electrode gaseous-discharge tubes of the type having a plurality of stable discharge paths are described. The novelty of this particular system lies in the simplification of the stepping arrangement between successive tubes. In one form the invention provides a multistage scaler comprising a pulse generator, a first multi-electrode scaling tube of the type set forth coupled to said generator to receive transfer pulses therefrom and one or more succeeding multi-electrode scaling tubes each deriving its transfer pulses from preceding scaling tubes.

  6. Large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolin, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    Classes of large scale dynamic systems were discussed in the context of modern control theory. Specific examples discussed were in the technical fields of aeronautics, water resources and electric power.

  7. Measuring activity in the ubiquitin-proteasome system: from large scale discoveries to single cells analysis.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Adam T; Woss, Gregery S; Park, Jessica H; Waters, Marcey L; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2013-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the primary pathway responsible for the recognition and degradation of misfolded, damaged, or tightly regulated proteins in addition to performing essential roles in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, cell migration, and the immune response. While traditional biochemical techniques have proven useful in the identification of key proteins involved in this pathway, the implementation of novel reporters responsible for measuring enzymatic activity of the UPS has provided valuable insight into the effectiveness of therapeutics and role of the UPS in various human diseases such as multiple myeloma and Huntington's disease. These reporters, usually consisting of a recognition sequence fused to an analytical handle, are designed to specifically evaluate enzymatic activity of certain members of the UPS including the proteasome, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and deubiquitinating enzymes. This review highlights the more commonly used reporters employed in a variety of scenarios ranging from high-throughput screening of novel inhibitors to single cell microscopy techniques measuring E3 ligase or proteasome activity. Finally, a recent study is presented highlighting the development of a novel degron-based substrate designed to overcome the limitations of current reporting techniques in measuring E3 ligase and proteasome activity in patient samples.

  8. Solar system to scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  9. Modeling a bench-scale alternating aerobic/anoxic activated sludge system for nitrogen removal using a modified ASM1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunook; Noh, Soohong; Colosimo, Mark

    2009-07-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1), developed by The International Association of Water Pollution Research and Control, was applied to model dynamics of NH4+, and NO3- in a bench scale alternating aerobic-anoxic (AAA) activated sludge system for nitrogen removal. The model was modified by eliminating inert soluble COD (S(I)) and inert particulate COD (X(I)) from the model's state variables as these two variables are not involved in any biological reaction and are not readily measurable with conventional routine COD analysis. It was assumed that the soluble COD and particulate COD of wastewater represent readily biodegradable COD (S(S)) and slowly biodegradable (X(S)) in the model, respectively. In addition, alkalinity was also removed from the model, since alkalinity of an AAA system remains stable due to the cyclic modes of the system. Even with the elimination of the three state variables and the assumption made, the model could reasonably predict the NH4+ and NO3- dynamics of the AAA system, and effluent NH4+ and NO3- concentrations with adjustment of only a few kinetic parameters. Compared to the original ASM1, it is expected that the modified ASM1 presented in this study can be more easily utilized by engineers in designing or operating an AAA system in practice, since it requires simple characterization of wastewater COD.

  10. Spatially Oscillating Activity and Microbial Succession of Mercury-Reducing Biofilms in a Technical-Scale Bioremediation System

    PubMed Central

    von Canstein, Harald; Li, Ying; Leonhäuser, Johannes; Haase, Elke; Felske, Andreas; Deckwer, Wolf-Dieter; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated chemical wastewater of a mercury cell chloralkali plant was cleaned on site by a technical-scale bioremediation system. Microbial mercury reduction of soluble Hg(II) to precipitating Hg(0) decreased the mercury load of the wastewater during its flow through the bioremediation system by up to 99%. The system consisted of a packed-bed bioreactor, where most of the wastewater's mercury load was retained, and an activated carbon filter, where residual mercury was removed from the bioreactor effluent by both physical adsorption and biological reduction. In response to the oscillation of the mercury concentration in the bioreactor inflow, the zone of maximum mercury reduction oscillated regularly between the lower and the upper bioreactor horizons or the carbon filter. At low mercury concentrations, maximum mercury reduction occurred near the inflow at the bottom of the bioreactor. At high concentrations, the zone of maximum activity moved to the upper horizons. The composition of the bioreactor and carbon filter biofilms was investigated by 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer polymorphism analysis. Analysis of spatial biofilm variation showed an increasing microbial diversity along a gradient of decreasing mercury concentrations. Temporal analysis of the bioreactor community revealed a stable abundance of two prevalent strains and a succession of several invading mercury-resistant strains which was driven by the selection pressure of high mercury concentrations. In the activated carbon filter, a lower selection pressure permitted a steady increase in diversity during 240 days of operation and the establishment of one mercury-sensitive invader. PMID:11916716

  11. Large-Scale Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Nicol; H. R. Ammerlahn; M. E. Goldsby; M. M. Johnson; D. E. Rhodes; A. S. Yoshimura

    2000-12-01

    Large enterprises are ever more dependent on their Large-Scale Information Systems (LSLS), computer systems that are distinguished architecturally by distributed components--data sources, networks, computing engines, simulations, human-in-the-loop control and remote access stations. These systems provide such capabilities as workflow, data fusion and distributed database access. The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) contains many examples of LSIS components, a fact that motivates this research. However, most LSIS in use grew up from collections of separate subsystems that were not designed to be components of an integrated system. For this reason, they are often difficult to analyze and control. The problem is made more difficult by the size of a typical system, its diversity of information sources, and the institutional complexities associated with its geographic distribution across the enterprise. Moreover, there is no integrated approach for analyzing or managing such systems. Indeed, integrated development of LSIS is an active area of academic research. This work developed such an approach by simulating the various components of the LSIS and allowing the simulated components to interact with real LSIS subsystems. This research demonstrated two benefits. First, applying it to a particular LSIS provided a thorough understanding of the interfaces between the system's components. Second, it demonstrated how more rapid and detailed answers could be obtained to questions significant to the enterprise by interacting with the relevant LSIS subsystems through simulated components designed with those questions in mind. In a final, added phase of the project, investigations were made on extending this research to wireless communication networks in support of telemetry applications.

  12. Scaling laws of human interaction activity.

    PubMed

    Rybski, Diego; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernán A

    2009-08-04

    Even though people in our contemporary technological society are depending on communication, our understanding of the underlying laws of human communicational behavior continues to be poorly understood. Here we investigate the communication patterns in 2 social Internet communities in search of statistical laws in human interaction activity. This research reveals that human communication networks dynamically follow scaling laws that may also explain the observed trends in economic growth. Specifically, we identify a generalized version of Gibrat's law of social activity expressed as a scaling law between the fluctuations in the number of messages sent by members and their level of activity. Gibrat's law has been essential in understanding economic growth patterns, yet without an underlying general principle for its origin. We attribute this scaling law to long-term correlation patterns in human activity, which surprisingly span from days to the entire period of the available data of more than 1 year. Further, we provide a mathematical framework that relates the generalized version of Gibrat's law to the long-term correlated dynamics, which suggests that the same underlying mechanism could be the source of Gibrat's law in economics, ranging from large firms, research and development expenditures, gross domestic product of countries, to city population growth. These findings are also of importance for designing communication networks and for the understanding of the dynamics of social systems in which communication plays a role, such as economic markets and political systems.

  13. Reduction by sonication of excess sludge production in a conventional activated sludge system: continuous flow and lab-scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Vaxelaire, S; Gonze, E; Merlin, G; Gonthier, Y

    2008-12-01

    Conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants currently produce a large quantity of excess sludge. To reduce this sludge production and to improve sludge characteristics in view of their subsequent elimination, an ultrasonic cell disintegration process was studied. In a lab-scale continuous flow pilot plant, part of the return sludge was sonicated by low-frequency and high-powered ultrasound and then recycled to the aeration tank. Two parallel lines were used: one as a control and the other as an assay with ultrasonic treatment. The reactors were continuously fed with synthetic domestic wastewater with a COD (chemical oxygen demand) of approximately 0.5 g l(-) corresponding to a daily load of 0.35-0.50 kg COD kg(-1) TS d(-1). Removal efficiencies (carbon, particles), excess sludge production and sludge characteristics (particle size distribution, mineralization, respiration rate, biological component) were measured every day during the 56-day experiment. This study showed that whilst organic removal efficiency did not deteriorate, excess sludge production was decreased by about 25-30% by an ultrasonic treatment. Several hypotheses are advanced: (i) the treatment made a part of the organic matter soluble as a consequence of the floc disintegration, and optimised the conversion of the carbonaceous pollutants into carbon dioxide and (ii) the treatment modified the physical characteristics of sludge by a mechanical effect: floc size was reduced, increasing the exchange surface and sludge activity. The originality of this study is that experiments were conducted in a continuous-flow activated sludge reactor rather than in a batch reactor.

  14. Time Scales in Particulate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duan

    2013-06-01

    While there are many interests of studying interactions of individual particles, macroscopic collective behavior of particles are our main interest in many practical applications. In this talk, I will give a brief overview of the multiscale methods connecting the physics at individual particles to macroscopic quantities and averaged equations. The emphasis will be on dense dissipative particulate systems, such as powders. Unlike conservative particle systems, such as molecular systems, in a dissipative particle system the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium is not very useful unless in very special cases, because the only true thermodynamically equilibrium state in these systems is the state in which nothing moves. Other than idealized simple systems, mesoscale structures are common and important in many practical systems, especially in dissipative systems. Spatial correlations of these mesoscale structures, such as force chains in dense granular system, particle clusters and streamers in fluidized beds have received some recent attentions, partly because they can be visualized. This talk will emphasize the effects of time correlations related to the mesoscale structures. To consider time correlations and history information of the system, I will introduce the mathematical foundation of the Liouville equation, its applicability and limitations. I will derive the generalized Liouville equations for particulate systems with and without interstitial fluids, and then use them to study averaged transport equations and related closures. Interactions among the time scale of particle interactions, the time scale of the mesocale structures, and the time scale of the physical problem as represented by strain rate will be discussed. The effect of these interactions on the closure relations will be illustrated. I will also discuss possible numerical methods of solving the averaged equations, and multiscale numerical algorithms bridging the particle level calculations to

  15. Long-term analysis of a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment system exhibiting seasonal biological foaming.

    PubMed

    Frigon, Dominic; Guthrie, R Michael; Bachman, G Timothy; Royer, James; Bailey, Barbara; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2006-03-01

    The seasonal accumulation of biological foam on the activated sludge system of the Urbana-Champaign Sanitary District Northeast (UCSD-NE) wastewater treatment plant was investigated over an 8-year period by statistical analyses including path analysis, multivariate regression, and principal component analysis. Results of these analyses suggested that variation in the activated sludge reactor temperature and the use of a stream bypassing the primary clarifier were the two main factors determining the observed temporal foam profile. Characterization of the primary clarifier influent and effluent suggested the involvement of high lipid loading rates from the bypass stream in foam accumulation. In light of these results, it is hypothesized that increasing temperatures and lipid loading rates are responsible for foam formation through the same mechanism: the foam-forming microbial population is specialized in consuming lipids, substrates classified as slowly degradable. When the temperature increases, the rate of lipid hydrolysis becomes sufficiently high for this population to become abundant, accumulate on the surfaces of the aeration basins, and cause biological foaming.

  16. Multi-scale biomedical systems: measurement challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-scale biomedical systems are those that represent interactions in materials, sensors, and systems from a holistic perspective. It is possible to view such multi-scale activity using measurement of spatial scale or time scale, though in this paper only the former is considered. The biomedical application paradigm comprises interactions that range from quantum biological phenomena at scales of 10-12 for one individual to epidemiological studies of disease spread in populations that in a pandemic lead to measurement at a scale of 10+7. It is clear that there are measurement challenges at either end of this spatial scale, but those challenges that relate to the use of new technologies that deal with big data and health service delivery at the point of care are also considered. The measurement challenges lead to the use, in many cases, of model-based measurement and the adoption of virtual engineering. It is these measurement challenges that will be uncovered in this paper.

  17. Sequential modeling of fecal coliform removals in a full-scale activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant using an evolutionary process model induction system.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chang-Won; Lee, Joong-Won; Hong, Yoon-Seok Timothy; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2009-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary process model induction system that is based on the grammar-based genetic programming to automatically discover multivariate dynamic inference models that are able to predict fecal coliform bacteria removals using common process variables instead of directly measuring fecal coliform bacteria concentration in a full-scale municipal activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant. A sequential modeling paradigm is also proposed to derive multivariate dynamic models of fecal coliform removals in the evolutionary process model induction system. It is composed of two parts, the process estimator and the process predictor. The process estimator acts as an intelligent software sensor to achieve a good estimation of fecal coliform bacteria concentration in the influent. Then the process predictor yields sequential prediction of the effluent fecal coliform bacteria concentration based on the estimated fecal coliform bacteria concentration in the influent from the process estimator with other process variables. The results show that the evolutionary process model induction system with a sequential modeling paradigm has successfully evolved multivariate dynamic models of fecal coliform removals in the form of explicit mathematical formulas with high levels of accuracy and good generalization. The evolutionary process model induction system with sequential modeling paradigm proposed here provides a good alternative to develop cost-effective dynamic process models for a full-scale wastewater treatment plant and is readily applicable to a variety of other complex treatment processes.

  18. SCALE Code System 6.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    2016-08-01

    The SCALE Code System is a widely-used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor and lattice physics, radiation shielding, spent fuel and radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results.

  19. A scaling theory for linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of scaling for rational (transfer) functions in terms of transformation groups is developed. Two different four-parameter scaling groups which play natural roles in studying linear systems are identified and the effect of scaling on Fisher information and related statistical measures in system identification are studied. The scalings considered include change of time scale, feedback, exponential scaling, magnitude scaling, etc. The scaling action of the groups studied is tied to the geometry of transfer functions in a rather strong way as becomes apparent in the examination of the invariants of scaling. As a result, the scaling process also provides new insight into the parameterization question for rational functions.

  20. Realizing Student, Faculty, and Institutional Outcomes at Scale: Institutionalizing Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity within Systems and Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, Mitchell; Osborn, Jeffrey M.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of undergraduate research as a student, faculty, and institutional success pathway, and provides the context for the Council on Undergraduate Research's support for developing and enhancing undergraduate research in systems and consortia. The chapter also provides brief introductions to each…

  1. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better

  2. Pilot testing and development of a full-scale Carrousel{reg_sign} activated sludge system for treating potato processing wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, R.; Grames, L.M.

    1996-11-01

    Pilot Carrousel testing was conducted for about three months on wastewaters generated at a major potato processing facility in 1993. The testing focused toward removal of BOD, NH{sub 3} and NO{sub 3}, and Total-P. After five-six weeks that it took for the system to reach steady state operation, the pilot plant was able to treat the wastewaters quite well. Effluent BOD{sub 5} and TKN values were less than 8 and 4 mg/L, respectively, during the second half of testing. Total-P in the effluent was less than 10 mg/L, although this step was not optimized. Based on the pilot testing, a full-scale Carrousel activated sludge plant was designed and commissioned in 1994. This plant is currently treating all the wastewaters from the facility and performing contaminant removals at a very high level.

  3. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  4. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  5. Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalnov, Oksana; Seifert, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Three existing and two new excitation magnitude scaling options for active separation control at Reynolds numbers below one Million. The physical background for the scaling options was discussed and their relevance was evaluated using two different sets of experimental data. For F+ approx. 1, 2D excitation: a) The traditional VR and C(mu) - do not scale the data. b) Only the Re*C(mu) is valid. This conclusion is also limited for positive lift increment.. For F+ > 10, 3D excitation, the Re corrected C(mu), the St corrected velocity ratio and the vorticity flux coefficient, all scale the amplitudes equally well. Therefore, the Reynolds weighted C(mu) is the preferred choice, relevant to both excitation modes. Incidence also considered, using Ue from local Cp.

  6. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  7. Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) System Manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiff, Conrad; Maher, Francis Alfred; Henely, Sean Philip; Rand, David

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is an ambitious NASA space science mission in which 4 spacecraft are flown in tight formation about a highly elliptical orbit. Each spacecraft has multiple instruments that measure particle and field compositions in the Earths magnetosphere. By controlling the members relative motion, MMS can distinguish temporal and spatial fluctuations in a way that a single spacecraft cannot.To achieve this control, 2 sets of four maneuvers, distributed evenly across the spacecraft must be performed approximately every 14 days. Performing a single maneuver on an individual spacecraft is usually labor intensive and the complexity becomes clearly increases with four. As a result, the MMS flight dynamics team turned to the System Manager to put the routine or error-prone under machine control freeing the analysts for activities that require human judgment.The System Manager is an expert system that is capable of handling operations activities associated with performing MMS maneuvers. As an expert system, it can work off a known schedule, launching jobs based on a one-time occurrence or on a set reoccurring schedule. It is also able to detect situational changes and use event-driven programming to change schedules, adapt activities, or call for help.

  8. A proposal of monitoring and forecasting system for crustal activity in and around Japan using a large-scale high-fidelity finite element simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, T.; Ichimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Here we propose a system for monitoring and forecasting of crustal activity, especially great interplate earthquake generation and its preparation processes in subduction zone. Basically, we model great earthquake generation as frictional instability on the subjecting plate boundary. So, spatio-temporal variation in slip velocity on the plate interface should be monitored and forecasted. Although, we can obtain continuous dense surface deformation data on land and partly at the sea bottom, the data obtained are not fully utilized for monitoring and forecasting. It is necessary to develop a physics-based data analysis system including (1) a structural model with the 3D geometry of the plate interface and the material property such as elasticity and viscosity, (2) calculation code for crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation using (1), (3) inverse analysis or data assimilation code both for structure and fault slip using (1)&(2). To accomplish this, it is at least necessary to develop highly reliable large-scale simulation code to calculate crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation for 3D heterogeneous structure. Actually, Ichimura et al. (2014, SC14) has developed unstructured FE non-linear seismic wave simulation code, which achieved physics-based urban earthquake simulation enhanced by 10.7 BlnDOF x 30 K time-step. Ichimura et al. (2013, GJI) has developed high fidelity FEM simulation code with mesh generator to calculate crustal deformation in and around Japan with complicated surface topography and subducting plate geometry for 1km mesh. Further, for inverse analyses, Errol et al. (2012, BSSA) has developed waveform inversion code for modeling 3D crustal structure, and Agata et al. (2015, this meeting) has improved the high fidelity FEM code to apply an adjoint method for estimating fault slip and asthenosphere viscosity. Hence, we have large-scale simulation and analysis tools for monitoring. Furthermore, we are developing the methods for

  9. Scaling of morphogenetic patterns in reaction-diffusion systems.

    PubMed

    Rasolonjanahary, Manan'Iarivo; Vasiev, Bakhtier

    2016-09-07

    Development of multicellular organisms is commonly associated with the response of individual cells to concentrations of chemical substances called morphogens. Concentration fields of morphogens form a basis for biological patterning and ensure its properties including ability to scale with the size of the organism. While mechanisms underlying the formation of morphogen gradients are reasonably well understood, little is known about processes responsible for their scaling. Here, we perform a formal analysis of scaling for chemical patterns forming in continuous systems. We introduce a quantity representing the sensitivity of systems to changes in their size and use it to analyse scaling properties of patterns forming in a few different systems. Particularly, we consider how scaling properties of morphogen gradients forming in diffusion-decay systems depend on boundary conditions and how the scaling can be improved by passive modulation of morphogens or active transport in the system. We also analyse scaling of morphogenetic signal caused by two opposing gradients and consider scaling properties of patterns forming in activator-inhibitor systems. We conclude with a few possible mechanisms which allow scaling of morphogenetic patterns.

  10. Comparison of adsorption behavior of PCDD/Fs on carbon nanotubes and activated carbons in a bench-scale dioxin generating system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xujian; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Shuaixi; Zhao, Xiyuan; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2015-07-01

    Porous carbon-based materials are commonly used to remove various organic and inorganic pollutants from gaseous and liquid effluents and products. In this study, the adsorption of dioxins on both activated carbons and multi-walled carbon nanotube was internally compared, via series of bench scale experiments. A laboratory-scale dioxin generator was applied to generate PCDD/Fs with constant concentration (8.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). The results confirm that high-chlorinated congeners are more easily adsorbed on both activated carbons and carbon nanotubes than low-chlorinated congeners. Carbon nanotubes also achieved higher adsorption efficiency than activated carbons even though they have smaller BET-surface. Carbon nanotubes reached the total removal efficiency over 86.8 % to be compared with removal efficiencies of only 70.0 and 54.2 % for the two other activated carbons tested. In addition, because of different adsorption mechanisms, the removal efficiencies of carbon nanotubes dropped more slowly with time than was the case for activated carbons. It could be attributed to the abundant mesopores distributed in the surface of carbon nanotubes. They enhanced the pore filled process of dioxin molecules during adsorption. In addition, strong interactions between the two benzene rings of dioxin molecules and the hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms in the surface make carbon nanotubes have bigger adsorption capacity.

  11. Survey on large scale system control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    The problem inherent to large scale systems such as power network, communication network and economic or ecological systems were studied. The increase in size and flexibility of future spacecraft has put those dynamical systems into the category of large scale systems, and tools specific to the class of large systems are being sought to design control systems that can guarantee more stability and better performance. Among several survey papers, reference was found to a thorough investigation on decentralized control methods. Especially helpful was the classification made of the different existing approaches to deal with large scale systems. A very similar classification is used, even though the papers surveyed are somehow different from the ones reviewed in other papers. Special attention is brought to the applicability of the existing methods to controlling large mechanical systems like large space structures. Some recent developments are added to this survey.

  12. Scaling Laws for Mesoscale and Microscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry

    1999-08-23

    The set of laws developed and presented here is by no means exhaustive. Techniques have been present to aid in the development of additional scaling laws and to combine these and other laws to produce additional useful relationships. Some of the relationships produced here have yielded perhaps surprising results. Examples include the fifth order scaling law for electromagnetic motor torque and the zero order scaling law for capacitive motor power. These laws demonstrate important facts about actuators in small-scale systems. The primary intent of this introduction into scaling law analysis is to provide needed tools to examine possible areas of the research in small-scale systems and direct research toward more fruitful areas. Numerous examples have been included to show the validity of developing scaling laws based on first principles and how real world systems tend to obey these laws even when many other variables may potentially come into play. Development of further laws may well serve to provide important high-level direction to the continued development of small-scale systems.

  13. Characteristic Energy Scales of Quantum Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michael J.; Jakovidis, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Provides a particle-in-a-box model to help students understand and estimate the magnitude of the characteristic energy scales of a number of quantum systems. Also discusses the mathematics involved with general computations. (MVL)

  14. Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

  15. IAPSA 2 small-scale system specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The details of a hardware implementation of a representative small scale flight critical system is described using Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) building block components and simulated sensor/actuator interfaces. The system was used to study application performance and reliability issues during both normal and faulted operation.

  16. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  17. Method and system for small scale pumping

    DOEpatents

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  18. Large-scale multielectrode recording and stimulation of neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, A.; Chichilnisky, E. J.; Dabrowski, W.; Grillo, A. A.; Grivich, M.; Gunning, D.; Hottowy, P.; Kachiguine, S.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.; Petrusca, D.

    2007-09-01

    Large circuits of neurons are employed by the brain to encode and process information. How this encoding and processing is carried out is one of the central questions in neuroscience. Since individual neurons communicate with each other through electrical signals (action potentials), the recording of neural activity with arrays of extracellular electrodes is uniquely suited for the investigation of this question. Such recordings provide the combination of the best spatial (individual neurons) and temporal (individual action-potentials) resolutions compared to other large-scale imaging methods. Electrical stimulation of neural activity in turn has two very important applications: it enhances our understanding of neural circuits by allowing active interactions with them, and it is a basis for a large variety of neural prosthetic devices. Until recently, the state-of-the-art in neural activity recording systems consisted of several dozen electrodes with inter-electrode spacing ranging from tens to hundreds of microns. Using silicon microstrip detector expertise acquired in the field of high-energy physics, we created a unique neural activity readout and stimulation framework that consists of high-density electrode arrays, multi-channel custom-designed integrated circuits, a data acquisition system, and data-processing software. Using this framework we developed a number of neural readout and stimulation systems: (1) a 512-electrode system for recording the simultaneous activity of as many as hundreds of neurons, (2) a 61-electrode system for electrical stimulation and readout of neural activity in retinas and brain-tissue slices, and (3) a system with telemetry capabilities for recording neural activity in the intact brain of awake, naturally behaving animals. We will report on these systems, their various applications to the field of neurobiology, and novel scientific results obtained with some of them. We will also outline future directions.

  19. Scale economies in rail transit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, I.

    1994-06-01

    The research uses Federal Transit Administration Section 15 data to investigate the operating costs of 13 heavy-rail and 13 light-rail urban mass transit systems for the period 1985-91. A Cobb-Douglas technology is used to investigate various types of economies of scale. The principal findings are: (1) Adding additional passenges to an existing network and schedule of services involves zero marginal cost for heavy-rail systems, and small additional costs for light-rail systems. (2) Adding additional trains, and passengers, to an existing network leads to a less than proportionate increase in costs. (3) An expanded route network results in mild increases in unit costs for the large heavy-rail systems. The smaller light-rail systems display reduced unit costs with an expanded network. The research suggests that the minimum efficient scale for rail operation is approximately 25 route miles.

  20. Scaling view by the Virtual Nature Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenov, Valeriy

    2010-05-01

    The Virtual Nature System is irreplaceable for research and evaluation for governing processes on the Earth. Processes on the Earth depends on external exogenous and endogenous influences, and on own dynamics of the Actual Nature Systems (ANS). To select part of the actors is impossible without take in account factor of the Time, factor for information safety during the Time. The stochastic nature of external influences and stochastic pattern for dynamics of Nature systems complicates evaluation of 2D threat of disasters. These are multi-layer, multi-scale, and multi-driven structures of surface processes. Their spatial-temporal overlapping of them generates relatively stable structure of river basins and of river net. Dynamics of processes in river basins results in remove of the former sediments and levels, and in displace of erosion/sedimentation pattern, in destroy and dissipation for a memory the ANS. This complex process results in the Information Loss Law (ILL) in the ANS, which gradually cut off own Past. This view on the GeoDynamics appeared after long time field measurements thousands of terrace levels, hundreds of terrace ranks, and terrace complexes in river basins (Klenov, 1986, 2004). Action of the ILL leads to blanks in natural records, which are non-linearly increasing to the Past, and in appearance of false trends in the records. This temporal barrier prevents evaluation of the history. The way to view spatial-temporal dynamics of the ANS is creation for the portrait Virtual Nature Systems, as acting doubles of the actual nature systems (ANS). Exogenous and endogenous influences are governing drivers of the ANS and of corresponding VNS. The VNS is necessary for research of spatial-temporal GeoDynamics. Unfortunately, the ILL is working not only for the Past, but also restrict ‘view' the Future. It is because of future drivers are yet unknown with necessary exactness, and due high sensitivity of nature systems to external pressure. However, a time

  1. Performance evaluation of granular activated carbon system at Pantex: Rapid small-scale column tests to simulate removal of high explosives from contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, J.L.; Speitel, G.E.

    1998-08-01

    A granular activated carbon (GAC) system is now in operation at Pantex to treat groundwater from the perched aquifer that is contaminated with high explosives. The main chemicals of concern are RDX and HMX. The system consists of two GAC columns in series. Each column is charged with 10,000 pounds of Northwestern LB-830 GAC. At the design flow rate of 325 gpm, the hydraulic loading is 6.47 gpm/ft{sup 2}, and the empty bed contact time is 8.2 minutes per column. Currently, the system is operating at less than 10% of its design flow rate, although flow rate increases are expected in the relatively near future. This study had several objectives: Estimate the service life of the GAC now in use at Pantex; Screen several GACs to provide a recommendation on the best GAC for use at Pantex when the current GAC is exhausted and is replaced; Determine the extent to which natural organic matter in the Pantex groundwater fouls GAC adsorption sites, thereby decreasing the adsorption capacity for high explosives; and Determine if computer simulation models could match the experimental results, thereby providing another tool to follow system performance.

  2. Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Stephen L.; Peddieson, John; Garbe, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Future science missions will require solar sails on the order of 200 square meters (or larger). However, ground demonstrations and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller sizes, due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This paper will approach the problem of scaling in solar sail models by developing a set of scaling laws or similarity criteria that will provide constraints in the sail design process. These scaling laws establish functional relationships between design parameters of a prototype and model sail that are created at different geometric sizes. This work is applied to a specific solar sail configuration and results in three (four) similarity criteria for static (dynamic) sail models. Further, it is demonstrated that even in the context of unique sail material requirements and gravitational load of earth-bound experiments, it is possible to develop appropriate scaled sail experiments. In the longer term, these scaling laws can be used in the design of scaled experimental tests for solar sails and in analyzing the results from such tests.

  3. The dissolution of scales in oilfield systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmit, A.F.; Ballance, D.C.; Hunton, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenon of scale formation has been experienced by generations of different races whenever water has been used. It was formed in Roman aqueducts and canals and is also found in the present day in the most modern oil production operations. The most commonly found scales in this industry are the carbonate and sulphate salts of calcium, barium and strontium which can be encountered from the reservoir rock itself all the way through the complete process train to the oil exporting system. It can therefore be appreciated that considerable decreases in efficiency of equipment and reservoir production can result from this. The need to maintain high rates of oil production makes this a serious problem and remedial action is desirable. This can be in the form of inhibition to prevent scale formation, or, where scale is already present, removal is required. This paper outlines the mechanisms of scaling and the principles of scale dissolution using sequestrants. Details of treatment techniques, especially in downhole situations, are also presented.

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of large-scale brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Jeremy

    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale brain activity is a tough challenge. One reason for this is the presence of an incredible amount of complexity arising from having roughly 100 billion neurons connected via 100 trillion synapses. Because of the extremely high number of degrees of freedom in the nervous system, the question of how the brain manages to properly function and remain stable, yet also be adaptable, must be posed. Neuroscientists have identified many ways the nervous system makes this possible, of which synaptic plasticity is possibly the most notable one. On the other hand, it is vital to understand how the nervous system also loses stability, resulting in neuropathological diseases such as epilepsy, a disease which affects 1% of the population. In the following work, we seek to answer some of these questions from two different perspectives. The first uses mean-field theory applied to neuronal populations, where the variables of interest are the percentages of active excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a network, to consider how the nervous system responds to external stimuli, self-organizes and generates epileptiform activity. The second method uses statistical field theory, in the framework of single neurons on a lattice, to study the concept of criticality, an idea borrowed from physics which posits that in some regime the brain operates in a collectively stable or marginally stable manner. This will be examined in two different neuronal networks with self-organized criticality serving as the overarching theme for the union of both perspectives. One of the biggest problems in neuroscience is the question of to what extent certain details are significant to the functioning of the brain. These details give rise to various spatiotemporal properties that at the smallest of scales explain the interaction of single neurons and synapses and at the largest of scales describe, for example, behaviors and sensations. In what follows, we will shed some

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Physical Education Activities Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Diane L.; Feng, Du

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measuring adolescent perceptions of physical education (PE) activities is necessary in understanding determinants of school PE activity participation. This study assessed reliability and validity of the Physical Education Activities Scale (PEAS), a 41-item visual analog scale measuring high school adolescent perceptions of school PE…

  6. Monte Carlo Capabilities of the SCALE Code System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rearden, B. T.; Petrie, L. M.; Peplow, D. E.; Bekar, K. B.; Wiarda, D.; Celik, C.; Perfetti, C. M.; Ibrahim, A. M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a "plug-and-play" framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE's graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2, to be released in 2014, will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. An overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.

  7. Active optical zoom system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Shen, Chuan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Chun-Mei

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we propose an active optical zoom system. The zoom module of the system is formed by a liquid lens and a spatial light modulator (SLM). By controlling the focal lengths of the liquid lens and the encoded digital lens on the SLM panel, we can change the magnification of an image without mechanical moving parts and keep the output plane stationary. The magnification can change from 1/3 to 3/2 as the focal length of the encoded lens on the SLM changes from infinity to 24 cm. The proposed active zoom system is simple and flexible, and has widespread application in optical communications, imaging systems, and displays.

  8. Imaging nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Fields, Douglas R; Shneider, Neil; Mentis, George Z; O'Donovan, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    This unit describes methods for loading ion- and voltage-sensitive dyes into neurons, with a particular focus on the spinal cord as a model system. In addition, we describe the use of these dyes to visualize neural activity. Although the protocols described here concern spinal networks in culture or an intact in vitro preparation, they can be, and have been, widely used in other parts of the nervous system.

  9. Large-scale neuromorphic computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furber, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic computing covers a diverse range of approaches to information processing all of which demonstrate some degree of neurobiological inspiration that differentiates them from mainstream conventional computing systems. The philosophy behind neuromorphic computing has its origins in the seminal work carried out by Carver Mead at Caltech in the late 1980s. This early work influenced others to carry developments forward, and advances in VLSI technology supported steady growth in the scale and capability of neuromorphic devices. Recently, a number of large-scale neuromorphic projects have emerged, taking the approach to unprecedented scales and capabilities. These large-scale projects are associated with major new funding initiatives for brain-related research, creating a sense that the time and circumstances are right for progress in our understanding of information processing in the brain. In this review we present a brief history of neuromorphic engineering then focus on some of the principal current large-scale projects, their main features, how their approaches are complementary and distinct, their advantages and drawbacks, and highlight the sorts of capabilities that each can deliver to neural modellers.

  10. Scale-free brain activity: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, “scale-free”). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. While scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains very limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights and analytical tools for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24788139

  11. Active control system trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yore, E. E.; Gunderson, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The active control concepts which achieve the benefit of improved mission performance and lower cost and generate system trends towards improved dynamic performance, more integration, and digital fly by wire mechanization are described. Analytical issues and implementation requirements and tools and approaches developed to address the analytical and implementation issues are briefly discussed.

  12. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  13. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  14. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Vassiljev, N.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Speller, R. D.; Kanicki, J.

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm‑1) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  15. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Vassiljev, N; Konstantinidis, A C; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2017-03-07

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm(-1)) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  16. Large-scale Intelligent Transporation Systems simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.; Canfield, T.; Hannebutte, U.; Levine, D.; Tentner, A.

    1995-06-01

    A prototype computer system has been developed which defines a high-level architecture for a large-scale, comprehensive, scalable simulation of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) capable of running on massively parallel computers and distributed (networked) computer systems. The prototype includes the modelling of instrumented ``smart`` vehicles with in-vehicle navigation units capable of optimal route planning and Traffic Management Centers (TMC). The TMC has probe vehicle tracking capabilities (display position and attributes of instrumented vehicles), and can provide 2-way interaction with traffic to provide advisories and link times. Both the in-vehicle navigation module and the TMC feature detailed graphical user interfaces to support human-factors studies. The prototype has been developed on a distributed system of networked UNIX computers but is designed to run on ANL`s IBM SP-X parallel computer system for large scale problems. A novel feature of our design is that vehicles will be represented by autonomus computer processes, each with a behavior model which performs independent route selection and reacts to external traffic events much like real vehicles. With this approach, one will be able to take advantage of emerging massively parallel processor (MPP) systems.

  17. Method and apparatus for actively controlling a micro-scale flexural plate wave device

    DOEpatents

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    An actively controlled flexural plate wave device provides a micro-scale pump. A method of actively controlling a flexural plate wave device produces traveling waves in the device by coordinating the interaction of a magnetic field with actively controlled currents. An actively-controlled flexural plate wave device can be placed in a fluid channel and adapted for use as a micro-scale fluid pump to cool or drive micro-scale systems, for example, micro-chips, micro-electrical-mechanical devices, micro-fluid circuits, or micro-scale chemical analysis devices.

  18. Basin-Scale Ocean Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    global model with progressively increasing resolution, 1/16° in 2001 and ultimately 1/32° resolution. These systems will include data assimilation of...satellite altimetry, sea surface temperature and in-situ data . OBJECTIVES The development and validation of global and basin-scale ocean prediction...Altimetry Data Fusion Center (ADFC) is distributing processed data from these sensors to operational users in near real time. APPROACH The modeling effort

  19. Fluctuation scaling in complex systems: Taylor's law and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisler, Zoltán; Bartos, Imre; Kertész, János

    2008-01-01

    Complex systems consist of many interacting elements which participate in some dynamical process. The activity of various elements is often different and the fluctuation in the activity of an element grows monotonically with the average activity. This relationship is often of the form 'fluctuations ≈ constant × averageα', where the exponent α is predominantly in the range [1/2, 1]. This power law has been observed in a very wide range of disciplines, ranging from population dynamics through the Internet to the stock market and it is often treated under the names Taylor's law or fluctuation scaling. This review attempts to show how general the above scaling relationship is by surveying the literature, as well as by reporting some new empirical data and model calculations. We also show some basic principles that can underlie the generality of the phenomenon. This is followed by a mean-field framework based on sums of random variables. In this context the emergence of fluctuation scaling is equivalent to some corresponding limit theorems. In certain physical systems fluctuation scaling can be related to finite size scaling.

  20. Monte Carlo capabilities of the SCALE code system

    DOE PAGES

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Petrie, Jr., Lester M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; ...

    2014-09-12

    SCALE is a broadly used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a “plug-and-play” framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport asmore » well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Finally, an overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.« less

  1. Monte Carlo capabilities of the SCALE code system

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Petrie, Jr., Lester M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Celik, Cihangir; Perfetti, Christopher M.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, Michael E.; Marshall, William J.

    2014-09-12

    SCALE is a broadly used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a “plug-and-play” framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Finally, an overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.

  2. Long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rongguo; Yan, Guozheng; Zhang, Wenqiang; Wang, Long

    2008-11-01

    The long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities under normal physiological conditions are studied by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The DFA is an effective period representation with a single quantitative scaling exponent α to accurately quantify long-range correlations naturally presented in a complex non-stationary time series. The method shows that the colonic activities of the healthy subjects exhibit long-range power-law correlations; however such correlations either will be destroyed if we randomly shuffle the original data or will cease to be of a power-law form if we chop some high-amplitude spikes off. These facts indicate that the colonic tissue or enteric nervous system (ENS) with a good functional motility has a good memory to its past behaviours and generates well-organized colonic spikes; however such good memory becomes too long to be remembered for the colonic activity of the slow transit constipation (STC) patient and colonic dysmotility occurs.

  3. Analysis and Management of Large-Scale Activities Based on Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaofan; Ji, Jingwei; Lu, Ligang; Wang, Zhiyi

    Based on the concepts of system safety engineering, life-cycle and interface that comes from American system safety standard MIL-STD-882E, and apply them to the process of risk analysis and management of large-scale activities. Identify the involved personnel, departments, funds and other contents throughout the life cycle of large-scale activities. Recognize and classify the ultimate risk sources of people, objects and environment of large-scale activities from the perspective of interface. Put forward the accident cause analysis model according to the previous large-scale activities' accidents and combine with the analysis of the risk source interface. Analyze the risks of each interface and summary various types of risks the large-scale activities faced. Come up with the risk management consciousness, policies and regulations, risk control and supervision departments improvement ideas.

  4. Engineering management of large scale systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Serita; Gill, Tepper L.; Paul, Arthur S.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of high technology and engineering problem solving, has given rise to an emerging concept. Reasoning principles for integrating traditional engineering problem solving with system theory, management sciences, behavioral decision theory, and planning and design approaches can be incorporated into a methodological approach to solving problems with a long range perspective. Long range planning has a great potential to improve productivity by using a systematic and organized approach. Thus, efficiency and cost effectiveness are the driving forces in promoting the organization of engineering problems. Aspects of systems engineering that provide an understanding of management of large scale systems are broadly covered here. Due to the focus and application of research, other significant factors (e.g., human behavior, decision making, etc.) are not emphasized but are considered.

  5. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  6. The clinical information system implementation evaluation scale.

    PubMed

    Gugerty, Brian; Maranda, Michael; Rook, Dona

    2006-01-01

    Measurement instruments to assess user satisfaction with Clinical Information Systems (CIS) and with the implementation of CIS are needed as part of multi-faceted evaluation of CIS. Seven years of experience in developing measurement instruments to assess staff satisfaction with CIS preceded the development effort that created the Clinical Information System Evaluation Scale (CISIES). The scale was developed using precursors of the CISIES and it was guided by an expert panel. Following its construction the 37-item measurement instrument was piloted as part of the assessment of a Critical Care Clinical Information System implementation at a medical center in Florida, USA. Results indicated satisfaction with the implementation, although not strong, at the time of administration. The results of the CISIES administration were used by informaticians at the research site to plan and execute an intervention to improve satisfaction with the implementation. Re-administration of the CISIES at the site to evaluate the success of this intervention is planned. The CISIES was found to be a useful instrument, easy to administer, acceptable to respondents, easy to score and understandable by non-researcher at the study site. Early indications are that it will be useful in the formative and summative evaluation of CIS implementations.

  7. Runtime Systems for Extreme Scale Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Nodes) 500000 O(Million) Total Concurrency 50 Million O(Billion) Storage 150 PB 300 PB I / O 10 TB/s 20 TB/s Power 10 MW 20 MW Table 1.1 : The...heterogeneous processors, non-uniform clock speeds and other load imbalances across cores due to power management, fault tolerance, and other runtime...future extreme scale systems, driven by a limited power budget, will have reduced shared-memory capacities, lead- ing to an increased focus on efficient

  8. Large scale cryogenic fluid systems testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Cryogenic Fluid Systems Branch (CFSB) within the Space Propulsion Technology Division (SPTD) has the ultimate goal of enabling the long term storage and in-space fueling/resupply operations for spacecraft and reusable vehicles in support of space exploration. Using analytical modeling, ground based testing, and on-orbit experimentation, the CFSB is studying three primary categories of fluid technology: storage, supply, and transfer. The CFSB is also investigating fluid handling, advanced instrumentation, and tank structures and materials. Ground based testing of large-scale systems is done using liquid hydrogen as a test fluid at the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility (K-site) at Lewis' Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. A general overview of tests involving liquid transfer, thermal control, pressure control, and pressurization is given.

  9. Scaling view by the Virtual Nature Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenov, Valeriy

    2010-05-01

    The Actual Nature Systems (ANS) continually are under spatial-temporal governing external influences from other systems (Meteorology and Geophysics). This influences provide own spatial temporal patterns on the Earth Nature Systems, which reforms these influences by own manner and scales. These at last three systems belong to the Open Non Equilibrium Nature Systems (ONES). The Geophysics and Meteorology Systems are both governing for the ANS on the Earth. They provide as continual energetic pressure and impacts, and direct Extremes from the both systems to the ANS on Earth surface (earthquakes, storms, and others). The Geodynamics of the ANS is under mixing of influence for both systems, on their scales and on dynamics of their spatial-temporal structures, and by own ANS properties, as the ONES. To select influences of external systems on the Earth systems always is among major tasks of the Geomorphology. Mixing of the Systems scales and dynamics provide specific properties for the memory of Earth system. The memory of the ANS has practical value for their multi-purpose management. The knowledge of these properties is the key for research spatial-temporal GeoDynamics and Trends of Earth Nature Systems. Selection of the influences in time and space requires for special tool, requires elaboration and action of the Virtual Nature Systems (VNS), which are enliven computer doubles for analysis Geodynamics of the ANS. The Experience on the VNS enables to assess influence of each and both external factors on the ANS. It is source of knowledge for regional tectonic and climate oscillations, trends, and threats. Research by the VNS for spatial-temporal dynamics and structures of stochastic regimes of governing systems and processes results in stochastic GeoDynamics of environmental processes, in forming of false trends and blanks in natural records. This ‘wild dance' of 2D stochastic patterns and their interaction each other and generates acting structures of river nets

  10. Imaging nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Fields, R D; O'Donovan, M J

    2001-05-01

    Optical imaging methods rely upon visualization of three types of signals: (1) intrinsic optical signals, including light scattering and reflectance, birefringence, and spectroscopic changes of intrinsic molecules, such as NADH or oxyhemoglobin; (2) changes in fluorescence or absorbance of voltage-sensitive membrane dyes; and (3) changes in fluorescence or absorbance of calcium-sensitive indicator dyes. Of these, the most widely used approach is fluorescent microscopy of calcium-sensitive dyes. This unit describes protocols for the use of calcium-sensitive dyes and voltage-dependent dyes for studies of neuronal activity in culture, tissue slices, and en-bloc preparations of the central nervous system.

  11. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  12. Active galactic nuclei as scaled-up Galactic black holes.

    PubMed

    McHardy, I M; Koerding, E; Knigge, C; Uttley, P; Fender, R P

    2006-12-07

    A long-standing question is whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) vary like Galactic black hole systems when appropriately scaled up by mass. If so, we can then determine how AGN should behave on cosmological timescales by studying the brighter and much faster varying Galactic systems. As X-ray emission is produced very close to the black holes, it provides one of the best diagnostics of their behaviour. A characteristic timescale--which potentially could tell us about the mass of the black hole--is found in the X-ray variations from both AGN and Galactic black holes, but whether it is physically meaningful to compare the two has been questioned. Here we report that, after correcting for variations in the accretion rate, the timescales can be physically linked, revealing that the accretion process is exactly the same for small and large black holes. Strong support for this linkage comes, perhaps surprisingly, from the permitted optical emission lines in AGN whose widths (in both broad-line AGN and narrow-emission-line Seyfert 1 galaxies) correlate strongly with the characteristic X-ray timescale, exactly as expected from the AGN black hole masses and accretion rates. So AGN really are just scaled-up Galactic black holes.

  13. Fluctuation scaling of quotation activities in the foreign exchange market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro; Nishimura, Maiko; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2010-07-01

    We study the scaling behavior of quotation activities for various currency pairs in the foreign exchange market. The components’ centrality is estimated from multiple time series and visualized as a currency pair network. The power-law relationship between a mean of quotation activity and its standard deviation for each currency pair is found. The scaling exponent α and the ratio between common and specific fluctuations η increase with the length of the observation time window Δt. The result means that although for Δt=1 (min), the market dynamics are governed by specific processes, and at a longer time scale Δt>100 (min) the common information flow becomes more important. We point out that quotation activities are not independently Poissonian for Δt=1 (min), and temporally or mutually correlated activities of quotations can happen even at this time scale. A stochastic model for the foreign exchange market based on a bipartite graph representation is proposed.

  14. Ultra-Large-Scale Systems: Scale Changes Everything

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-06

    elements • Number of computational elements • Number of system purposes and user perception of these purposes • Number of routine processes , interactions...requirements/design/build cycle with standard well-defined processes • centrally controlled implementation and deployment • inherent validation and...environments • Legal issues • Enforcement mechanisms and processes • Definition of common services supporting the ULS system • Rules and regulations

  15. Semi-empirical system scaling rules for DWDM system design.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Brian; Frankel, Michael Y; Pelekhaty, Vladimir

    2012-01-30

    Recently, several theoretical papers have derived relationships for fiber-optic transmission system performance in terms of associated physical layer parameters. At the same time, a large number of detailed experiments have been and continue being performed that demonstrate increasing capacities and unregenerated reach. We use this wealth of experimental data to validate the aforementioned relationships, and to propose a set of simple scaling rules for performance. We find that, despite substantial differences in experimental configurations, overall performance in terms of spectral efficiency and unregenerated reach is well explained by scaling rules. These scaling rules will be useful to carriers seeking to understand what they should expect to see in terms of network performance using deployed or easily accessible technology, which may be radically different from hero experiment results. These rules will also be useful to design engineers seeking cost effective tradeoffs to achieving higher performance using realistic upgrade strategies, and what might be encountered as a fundamental limit.

  16. Comparison of Different Symptom Assessment Scales for Multiple System Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Masaaki; Yabe, Ichiro; Oba, Koji; Sakushima, Ken; Mito, Yasunori; Takei, Asako; Houzen, Hideki; Tsuzaka, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Kazuto; Maruo, Yasunori; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2016-04-01

    To identify the most sensitive scale for use in clinical trials on multiple system atrophy (MSA), a short and sensitive scale is needed for MSA clinical trials. Potential candidates are the Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS), Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), MSA Health-Related Quality of Life scale (MSA-QoL), and Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Autonomic questionnaire (SCOPA-AUT). We enrolled patients with MSA from eight hospitals in Hokkaido, Japan. Board-certified neurologists assessed each patient at 6-month intervals and scored them on the UMSARS, SARA, BBS, MSA-QoL, and SCOPA-AUT. Score changes were evaluated using the standardized response mean (SRM). The correlation between disease duration and each score was examined. The first evaluation was conducted on 85 patients (60 patients with MSA cerebellar ataxia dominant subtype [MSA-C] and 25 patients with MSA Parkinsonism-dominant subtype [MSA-P]). Sixty-nine patients were examined after 6 months and 63 patients after 12 months. The UMSARS Part 4 had the largest SRM after 6 months and the SARA after 12 months. SRMs for MSA-P, the shorter duration group, and the early-onset group were larger than were those for MSA-C, the longer duration group, and the late-onset group. SRMs for items regarding skilled hand activities, walking, and standing were relatively large. Our study indicates that the UMSARS (parts 2 and 4), SARA, and BBS are sensitive scales for evaluating MSA progression over 12 months. Items with large SRMs effectively evaluated short-term changes.

  17. The brief psychiatric rating scale: effect of scaling system on clinical response assessment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Buckley, P F; Meltzer, H Y

    1994-10-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is an 18-item rating scale frequently used to assess change in psychopathology in schizophrenic patients in antipsychotic drug trials. BPRS items may be rated by the use of either a 1 to 7 or 0 to 6 scaling system, with the 1 or 0 rating indicating no pathology, respectively. When percent change in BPRS total score is used as an index of change, measurement considerations indicate that the 0 to 6 scaling system is preferable. Furthermore, when the 1 to 7 scaling system is used, patients whose initial BPRS values fall at the lower end of the range are classified as responders at a lower rate than are patients with higher initial scores. The adoption of the 0 to 6 scaling system for the BPRS and other rating scales, such as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, is advocated.

  18. The visual system of male scale insects.

    PubMed

    Buschbeck, Elke K; Hauser, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Animal eyes generally fall into two categories: (1) their photoreceptive array is convex, as is typical for camera eyes, including the human eye, or (2) their photoreceptive array is concave, as is typical for the compound eye of insects. There are a few rare examples of the latter eye type having secondarily evolved into the former one. When viewed in a phylogenetic framework, the head morphology of a variety of male scale insects suggests that this group could be one such example. In the Margarodidae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), males have been described as having compound eyes, while males of some more derived groups only have two single-chamber eyes on each side of the head. Those eyes are situated in the place occupied by the compound eye of other insects. Since male scale insects tend to be rare, little is known about how their visual systems are organized, and what anatomical traits are associated with this evolutionary transition. In adult male Margarodidae, one single-chamber eye (stemmateran ocellus) is present in addition to a compound eye-like region. Our histological investigation reveals that the stemmateran ocellus has an extended retina which is formed by concrete clusters of receptor cells that connect to its own first-order neuropil. In addition, we find that the ommatidia of the compound eyes also share several anatomical characteristics with simple camera eyes. These include shallow units with extended retinas, each of which is connected by its own small nerve to the lamina. These anatomical changes suggest that the margarodid compound eye represents a transitional form to the giant unicornal eyes that have been described in more derived species.

  19. The visual system of male scale insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbeck, Elke K.; Hauser, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Animal eyes generally fall into two categories: (1) their photoreceptive array is convex, as is typical for camera eyes, including the human eye, or (2) their photoreceptive array is concave, as is typical for the compound eye of insects. There are a few rare examples of the latter eye type having secondarily evolved into the former one. When viewed in a phylogenetic framework, the head morphology of a variety of male scale insects suggests that this group could be one such example. In the Margarodidae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), males have been described as having compound eyes, while males of some more derived groups only have two single-chamber eyes on each side of the head. Those eyes are situated in the place occupied by the compound eye of other insects. Since male scale insects tend to be rare, little is known about how their visual systems are organized, and what anatomical traits are associated with this evolutionary transition. In adult male Margarodidae, one single-chamber eye (stemmateran ocellus) is present in addition to a compound eye-like region. Our histological investigation reveals that the stemmateran ocellus has an extended retina which is formed by concrete clusters of receptor cells that connect to its own first-order neuropil. In addition, we find that the ommatidia of the compound eyes also share several anatomical characteristics with simple camera eyes. These include shallow units with extended retinas, each of which is connected by its own small nerve to the lamina. These anatomical changes suggest that the margarodid compound eye represents a transitional form to the giant unicornal eyes that have been described in more derived species.

  20. The Validation of the Active Learning in Health Professions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…

  1. The Large-Scale Current System During Auroral Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerloev, Jesper

    2015-04-01

    The substorm process has been discussed for more than four decades and new empirical large-scale models continue to be published. The continued activity implies both the importance and the complexity of the problem. We recently published a new model of the large-scale substorm current system (Gjerloev and Hoffman, JGR, 2014). Based on data from >100 ground magnetometers (obtained from SuperMAG), 116 isolated substorms, global auroral images (obtained by the Polar VIS Earth Camera) and a careful normalization technique we derived an empirical model of the ionospheric equivalent current system. Our model yield some unexpected features that appear inconsistent with the classical single current wedge current system. One of these features is a distinct latitudinal shift of the westward electrojet (WEJ) current between the pre- and post-midnight region and we find evidence that these two WEJ regions are quasi disconnected. This, and other observational facts, led us to propose a modified 3D current system configuration that consists of 2 wedge type systems: a current wedge in the pre-midnight region (bulge current wedge), and another current wedge system in the post-midnight region (oval current wedge). The two wedge systems are shifted in latitude but overlap in local time in the midnight region. Our model is at considerable variance with previous global models and conceptual schematics of the large-scale substorm current system. We speculate that the data coverage, the methodologies and the techniques used in these previous global studies are the cause of the differences in solutions. In this presentation we present our model, compare with other published models and discuss possible causes for the differences.

  2. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  3. The scaling of experiments on volcanic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    In this article, the basic principles of the scaling procedure are first reviewed by a presentation of scale factors. Then, taking an idealized example of a brittle volcanic cone intruded by a viscous magma, the way to choose appropriate analogue materials for both the brittle and ductile parts of the cone is explained by the use of model ratios. Lines of similarity are described to show that an experiment simulates a range of physical processes instead of a unique natural case. The pi theorem is presented as an alternative scaling procedure and discussed through the same idealized example to make the comparison with the model ratio procedure. The appropriateness of the use of gelatin as analogue material for simulating dyke formation is investigated. Finally, the scaling of some particular experiments such as pyroclastic flows or volcanic explosions is briefly presented to show the diversity of scaling procedures in volcanology.

  4. Multi-scale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    DOE PAGES

    Gamborino, Diana; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Martinell, Julio J.

    2016-07-08

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps that are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions, we show that the multi-scale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also to be extracted from the analysis.

  5. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls’ Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls’ physical activity in middle school girls. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers’ and boys’ behaviors, respectively, fit the data well in both sixth and eighth graders. SEM detected a positive, significant direct association of the teacher factor, but not the boy factor, with girls’ self-reported physical activity. Conclusions School climate for girls’ physical activity is a measurable construct, and preliminary evidence suggests a relationship with physical activity. PMID:15899688

  6. SciDAC Institute for Ultra-Scale Visualization: Activity Recognition for Ultra-Scale Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Deborah

    2014-04-30

    Understanding the science behind ultra-scale simulations requires extracting meaning from data sets of hundreds of terabytes or more. Developing scalable parallel visualization algorithms is a key step enabling scientists to interact and visualize their data at this scale. However, at extreme scales, the datasets are so huge, there is not even enough time to view the data, let alone explore it with basic visualization methods. Automated tools are necessary for knowledge discovery -- to help sift through the information and isolate characteristic patterns, thereby enabling the scientist to study local interactions, the origin of features and their evolution in large volumes of data. These tools must be able to operate on data of this scale and work with the visualization process. In this project, we developed a framework for activity detection to allow scientists to model and extract spatio-temporal patterns from time-varying data.

  7. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  8. Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J. (Editor); Chapman, G. A. (Editor); Hudson, H. S. (Editor); Willson, R. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

  9. Large-scale violation of detailed balance in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedersz, Chase; Battle, Christopher; Fakhri, Nikta; Mackintosh, Fred; Schmidt, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Living systems are out of equilibrium. A fundamental manifestation of non-equilibrium dynamics in biological systems is the violation of detailed balance: at the microscopic level, enzymatic processes such as kinetic proofreading or molecular motor activity clearly violate detailed balance. We study how such non-equilibrium dynamics emerge at macroscopic scales in cellular assemblies. We measure the steady-state dynamics of two systems, beating flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and mechanosensitive primary cilia protruding from epithelial kidney cells. The flagellum exhibits clear non-equilibrium driving, whereas fluctuations in the primary cilium are difficult to differentiate from Brownian motion. We parameterize the shapes of the flagellum and primary cilium using a low-dimensional representation of their configuration phase space, and use the measured dynamics to infer the steady-state probability distributions and probability currents. For both the flagellum and the primary cilium we find significant, coherent circulating probability currents, demonstrating that these systems violate detailed balance at the mesoscopic scale.

  10. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls' physical activity in middle school girls. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers' and boys' behaviors,…

  11. Correlation Between Fetal Activity and the Neonatal Behavorial Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Akashi; Minamide, Etsuko

    1984-01-01

    A total of 14 women recorded fetal movements during one week of their pregnancies, and Brazelton Neonatal Behavorial Assessment Scale exams were performed on the infants during their first week of life. Correlations were computed between fetal activity and neonatal behavior. (Author/RH)

  12. An Integrated Scale for Measuring an Organizational Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jyothibabu, C.; Farooq, Ayesha; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated measurement scale for an organizational learning system by capturing the learning enablers, learning results and performance outcome in an organization. Design/methodology/approach: A new measurement scale was developed by integrating and modifying two existing scales, identified…

  13. On stabilisability of nonlinear systems on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosiewicz, Zbigniew; Piotrowska, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, stabilisability of nonlinear finite-dimensional control systems on arbitrary time scales is studied. The classical results on stabilisation of nonlinear continuous-time and discrete-time systems are extended to systems on arbitrary time scales with bounded graininess function. It is shown that uniform exponential stability of the linear approximation of a nonlinear system implies uniform exponential stability of the nonlinear system. Then this result is used to show a similar implication for uniform exponential stabilisability.

  14. Portable active interrogation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Brener, M. W.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    The system consists of a pulsed DT neutron generator (5 x 10{sup 7} n/s) and a portable but high intrinsic efficiency, custom-designed, polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He neutron detector. A multichannel scaler card in a ruggedized laptop computer acquires the data. A user-friendly LabVIEW program analyzes and displays the data. The program displays a warning message when highly enriched uranium or any other fissionable materials is detected at a specified number of sigmas above background in the delayed region between pulses. This report describes the system and gives examples of the response of the system to highly enriched uranium and some other fissionable materials, at several distances and with various shielding materials.

  15. Noether theorem for Birkhoffian systems on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chuan-Jing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Birkhoff equations on time scales and Noether theorem for Birkhoffian system on time scales are studied. First, some necessary knowledge of calculus on time scales are reviewed. Second, Birkhoff equations on time scales are obtained. Third, the conditions for invariance of Pfaff action and conserved quantities are presented under the special infinitesimal transformations and general infinitesimal transformations, respectively. Fourth, some special cases are given. And finally, an example is given to illustrate the method and results.

  16. Low-order chaos in sympathetic nerve activity and scaling of heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaka, Motohisa; Kumagai, Hiroo; Sakata, Katsufumi; Onami, Toshiko; Chon, Ki H.; Watanabe, Mari A.; Saruta, Takao

    2003-04-01

    The mechanism of 1/f scaling of heartbeat intervals remains unknown. We recorded heartbeat intervals, sympathetic nerve activity, and blood pressure in conscious rats with normal or high blood pressure. Using nonlinear analyses, we demonstrate that the dynamics of this system of three variables is low-order chaos, and that sympathetic nerve activity leads to heartbeat interval and blood pressure changes. It is suggested that impaired regulation of blood pressure by sympathetic nerve activity is likely to cause experimentally observable steeper scaling of heartbeat intervals in hypertensive (high blood pressure) rats.

  17. The System Effect: Scaling High-Impact Practices across Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Jonathan S.; Martin, Rebecca R.; Wise, Kathleen; Blaich, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the role of systems and consortia in scaling and implementing undergraduate research through a study of the efforts of six systems and consortia working together with the Council on Undergraduate Research.

  18. Fractal Modeling and Scaling in Natural Systems - Editorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The special issue of Ecological complexity journal on Fractal Modeling and Scaling in Natural Systems contains representative examples of the status and evolution of data-driven research into fractals and scaling in complex natural systems. The editorial discusses contributions to understanding rela...

  19. Active Shimmy Control System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    reviewed by thoe nformation Offite (01) end Is reslesuabe to the National Technical Wnrdstleftiv Oervico (WI2B). At N13..S it iuil be, avail-able th the...Figure 2, - are used only for the passive system. BH and BL are hydraulic (velocity squared) and linear shimmy damper constants, and KALP in the...NOTES KPH i.63E6 1.403E6 x KrI 11.20 5000 .. X &T, ~ ipl, , x KOC 77270 - X KALP 18000 -X IPH 69.7 83.9 X ITH .68 x "ITI, .03 - x ITII2 3.h9 - xIA .o

  20. Active Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Modify Forward Computer Models .............................................................................................2 Modify TMGS Simulator...active magnetic gradient measurement system are based upon the existing tensor magnetic gradiometer system ( TMGS ) developed under project MM-1328...Magnetic Gradiometer System ( TMGS ) for UXO Detection, Imaging, and Discrimination.” The TMGS developed under MM-1328 was successfully tested at the

  1. Large-scale systems: Complexity, stability, reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    After showing that a complex dynamic system with a competitive structure has highly reliable stability, a class of noncompetitive dynamic systems for which competitive models can be constructed is defined. It is shown that such a construction is possible in the context of the hierarchic stability analysis. The scheme is based on the comparison principle and vector Liapunov functions.

  2. Component Cost Analysis of Large Scale Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. E.; Yousuff, A.

    1982-01-01

    The ideas of cost decomposition is summarized to aid in the determination of the relative cost (or 'price') of each component of a linear dynamic system using quadratic performance criteria. In addition to the insights into system behavior that are afforded by such a component cost analysis CCA, these CCA ideas naturally lead to a theory for cost-equivalent realizations.

  3. The Tobacco Control Scale: a new scale to measure country activity

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level using a new Tobacco Control Scale and to report initial results using the scale. Method A questionnaire sent to correspondents in 30 European countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of a panel of international tobacco control experts. Results The 30 countries are ranked by their total score on the scale out of a maximum possible score of 100. Only four countries (Ireland, United Kingdom, Norway, Iceland) scored 70 or more, with an eight point gap (most differences in scores are small) to the fifth country, Malta, on 62. Only 13 countries scored above 50, 11 of them from the European Union (EU), and the second largest points gap occurs between Denmark on 45 and Portugal on 39, splitting the table into three groups: 70 and above, 45 to 62, 39 and below. Ireland had the highest overall score, 74 out of 100, and Luxembourg was bottom with 26 points. However even Ireland, much praised for their ban on smoking in public places, did not increase tobacco taxes in 2005, for the first time since 1995. Conclusions Although the Tobacco Control Scale has limitations, this is the first time such a scale has been developed and applied to so many countries. We hope it will be useful in encouraging countries to strengthen currently weak areas of their tobacco control policy. PMID:16728757

  4. Large-Scale Structures of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2015-12-01

    A class of solar system analogs has yet to be identified among the large crop of planetary systems now observed. However, since most observed worlds are more easily detectable than direct analogs of the Sun's planets, the frequency of systems with structures similar to our own remains unknown. Identifying the range of possible planetary system architectures is complicated by the large number of physical processes that affect the formation and dynamical evolution of planets. I will present two ways of organizing planetary system structures. First, I will suggest that relatively few physical parameters are likely to differentiate the qualitative architectures of different systems. Solid mass in a protoplanetary disk is perhaps the most obvious possible controlling parameter, and I will give predictions for correlations between planetary system properties that we would expect to be present if this is the case. In particular, I will suggest that the solar system's structure is representative of low-metallicity systems that nevertheless host giant planets. Second, the disk structures produced as young stars are fed by their host clouds may play a crucial role. Using the observed distribution of RV giant planets as a function of stellar mass, I will demonstrate that invoking ice lines to determine where gas giants can form requires fine tuning. I will suggest that instead, disk structures built during early accretion have lasting impacts on giant planet distributions, and disk clean-up differentially affects the orbital distributions of giant and lower-mass planets. These two organizational hypotheses have different implications for the solar system's context, and I will suggest observational tests that may allow them to be validated or falsified.

  5. Large-scale structural monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Ian; Cunnane, James; Stevenson, Paul

    2000-06-01

    Extensive structural health instrumentation systems have been installed on three long-span cable-supported bridges in Hong Kong. The quantities measured include environment and applied loads (such as wind, temperature, seismic and traffic loads) and the bridge response to these loadings (accelerations, displacements, and strains). Measurements from over 1000 individual sensors are transmitted to central computing facilities via local data acquisition stations and a fault- tolerant fiber-optic network, and are acquired and processed continuously. The data from the systems is used to provide information on structural load and response characteristics, comparison with design, optimization of inspection, and assurance of continued bridge health. Automated data processing and analysis provides information on important structural and operational parameters. Abnormal events are noted and logged automatically. Information of interest is automatically archived for post-processing. Novel aspects of the instrumentation system include a fluid-based high-accuracy long-span Level Sensing System to measure bridge deck profile and tower settlement. This paper provides an outline of the design and implementation of the instrumentation system. A description of the design and implementation of the data acquisition and processing procedures is also given. Examples of the use of similar systems in monitoring other large structures are discussed.

  6. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.; Zempel, John M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P ∝ f-β, are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with β being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. PMID:20471349

  7. Activity blockade and GABAA receptor blockade produce synaptic scaling through chloride accumulation in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons.

    PubMed

    Lindsly, Casie; Gonzalez-Islas, Carlos; Wenner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic scaling represents a process whereby the distribution of a cell's synaptic strengths are altered by a multiplicative scaling factor. Scaling is thought to be a compensatory response that homeostatically controls spiking activity levels in the cell or network. Previously, we observed GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic spinal motoneurons following in vivo blockade of either spiking activity or GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We had determined that activity blockade triggered upward GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, thus increasing the driving force for these currents. To determine whether chloride accumulation also underlies GABAergic scaling following GABAAR blockade we have developed a new technique. We expressed a genetically encoded chloride-indicator, Clomeleon, in the embryonic chick spinal cord, which provides a non-invasive fast measure of intracellular chloride. Using this technique we now show that chloride accumulation underlies GABAergic scaling following blockade of either spiking activity or the GABAAR. The finding that GABAAR blockade and activity blockade trigger scaling via a common mechanism supports our hypothesis that activity blockade reduces GABAAR activation, which triggers synaptic scaling. In addition, Clomeleon imaging demonstrated the time course and widespread nature of GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, as it was also observed in spinal interneurons. This suggests that homeostatic scaling via chloride accumulation is a common feature in many neuronal classes within the embryonic spinal cord and opens the possibility that this process may occur throughout the nervous system at early stages of development.

  8. Tailoring Enterprise Systems Engineering Policy for Project Scale and Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Renee I.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2014-01-01

    Space systems are characterized by varying degrees of scale and complexity. Accordingly, cost-effective implementation of systems engineering also varies depending on scale and complexity. Recognizing that systems engineering and integration happen everywhere and at all levels of a given system and that the life cycle is an integrated process necessary to mature a design, the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a suite of customized implementation approaches based on project scale and complexity. While it may be argued that a top-level system engineering process is common to and indeed desirable across an enterprise for all space systems, implementation of that top-level process and the associated products developed as a result differ from system to system. The implementation approaches used for developing a scientific instrument necessarily differ from those used for a space station. .

  9. Scaling Behavior of Human Locomotor Activity Amplitude: Association with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Indic, Premananda; Salvatore, Paola; Maggini, Carlo; Ghidini, Stefano; Ferraro, Gabriella; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Murray, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Scale invariance is a feature of complex biological systems, and abnormality of multi-scale behaviour may serve as an indicator of pathology. The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a major node in central neural networks responsible for regulating multi-scale behaviour in measures of human locomotor activity. SCN also is implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) or manic-depressive illness, a severe, episodic disorder of mood, cognition and behaviour. Here, we investigated scaling behaviour in actigraphically recorded human motility data for potential indicators of BD, particularly its manic phase. A proposed index of scaling behaviour (Vulnerability Index [VI]) derived from such data distinguished between: [i] healthy subjects at high versus low risk of mood disorders; [ii] currently clinically stable BD patients versus matched controls; and [iii] among clinical states in BD patients. PMID:21655197

  10. Needs, opportunities, and options for large scale systems research

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.L.

    1984-10-01

    The Office of Energy Research was recently asked to perform a study of Large Scale Systems in order to facilitate the development of a true large systems theory. It was decided to ask experts in the fields of electrical engineering, chemical engineering and manufacturing/operations research for their ideas concerning large scale systems research. The author was asked to distribute a questionnaire among these experts to find out their opinions concerning recent accomplishments and future research directions in large scale systems research. He was also requested to convene a conference which included three experts in each area as panel members to discuss the general area of large scale systems research. The conference was held on March 26--27, 1984 in Pittsburgh with nine panel members, and 15 other attendees. The present report is a summary of the ideas presented and the recommendations proposed by the attendees.

  11. Scaling parameters for PFBC cyclone separator system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, A.; Romeo, L.M.; Cortes, C.

    1999-07-01

    Laboratory-scale cold flow models have been used extensively to study the behavior of many installations. In particular, fluidized bed cold flow models have allowed developing the knowledge of fluidized bed hydrodynamics. In order for the results of the research to be relevant to commercial power plants, cold flow models must be properly scaled. Many efforts have been made to understand the performance of fluidized beds, but up to now no attention has been paid in developing the knowledge of cyclone separator systems. CIRCE has worked on the development of scaling parameters to enable laboratory-scale equipment operating at room temperature to simulate the performance of cyclone separator systems. This paper presents the simplified scaling parameters and experimental comparison of a cyclone separator system and a cold flow model constructed and based on those parameters. The cold flow model has been used to establish the validity of the scaling laws for cyclone separator systems and permits detailed room temperature studies (determining the filtration effects of varying operating parameters and cyclone design) to be performed in a rapid and cost effective manner. This valuable and reliable design tool will contribute to a more rapid and concise understanding of hot gas filtration systems based on cyclones. The study of the behavior of the cold flow model, including observation and measurements of flow patterns in cyclones and diplegs will allow characterizing the performance of the full-scale ash removal system, establishing safe limits of operation and testing design improvements.

  12. Very Large Scale Distributed Information Processing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-27

    34Reliable Distributed Database Management", Proc. of the IEEE, May 1987, pp. 601-620. [GOTT881 Gottlob , Georg andRoberto Zicari, "Closed World Databases... Gottlob , and Gio Wiederhold, "Interfacing Relational Databases and Prolog Efficiently," in Proceedings 2nd Expert Database Systems Conference, pp. 141

  13. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  14. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 1. Founding principles and scale laws.

    PubMed

    Auffray, Charles; Nottale, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, and discuss how scale laws of increasing complexity can be used to model and understand the behaviour of complex biological systems. In scale relativity theory, the geometry of space is considered to be continuous but non-differentiable, therefore fractal (i.e., explicitly scale-dependent). One writes the equations of motion in such a space as geodesics equations, under the constraint of the principle of relativity of all scales in nature. To this purpose, covariant derivatives are constructed that implement the various effects of the non-differentiable and fractal geometry. In this first review paper, the scale laws that describe the new dependence on resolutions of physical quantities are obtained as solutions of differential equations acting in the scale space. This leads to several possible levels of description for these laws, from the simplest scale invariant laws to generalized laws with variable fractal dimensions. Initial applications of these laws to the study of species evolution, embryogenesis and cell confinement are discussed.

  15. Large Scale CW ECRH Systems: Some considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erckmann, V.; Kasparek, W.; Plaum, B.; Lechte, C.; Petelin, M. I.; Braune, H.; Gantenbein, G.; Laqua, H. P.; Lubiako, L.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Michel, G.; Turkin, Y.; Weissgerber, M.

    2012-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) is a key component in the heating arsenal for the next step fusion devices like W7-X and ITER. These devices are equipped with superconducting coils and are designed to operate steady state. ECRH must thus operate in CW-mode with a large flexibility to comply with various physics demands such as plasma start-up, heating and current drive, as well as configurationand MHD - control. The request for many different sophisticated applications results in a growing complexity, which is in conflict with the request for high availability, reliability, and maintainability. `Advanced' ECRH-systems must, therefore, comply with both the complex physics demands and operational robustness and reliability. The W7-X ECRH system is the first CW- facility of an ITER relevant size and is used as a test bed for advanced components. Proposals for future developments are presented together with improvements of gyrotrons, transmission components and launchers.

  16. Study on the scale of wet-ash transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yafei; Gao Xiang; Fang Mengxiang; Luo Zhongyang; Shi Zhenglun; Chen Guanyi; Ye Chunzhen; Ni Mingjiang; Cen Kefa

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, the scale phenomenon of a wet-ash transportation system against SFDS-coal ash rich in CaO is studied. The mechanism of scale, the static state dissolution attribute of Ca{sup 2+} and scale dynamic state simulation are investigated. In the research of scale dynamic state simulation experiment, the following factors are analyzed separately: ash type, tube material, flow rate of ash-water, recovery rate of transportation water, retention period of ash-water in ash tanker, operating period in tube and scale along the tube with distance. Results show that the content of basic oxide, especially the content of soluble basic oxide in ash has a decisive effect on scale. Compared with metal tubes, a rubberish tube can reduce scale deposition efficiently. Improving flow rate of ash-water, recovery rate of transportation water and retention period of ash water in ash tanker can reduce scale, too. During ash-water flows in the ash transportation tube, initial scaling rate is lower at first, but it will improve as time goes on until it reaches a constant. Scale along the tube is different in time, scale rate is very high at the entrance but exponential decays along the tube.

  17. ASRM full scale test case cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Cary E.; Hollenbeck, Anne K.

    1993-07-01

    After an ASRM static firing, excessive motorcase heating resulting from Al2O3 accumulation could cause irrecoverable case loss if adequate cooling were not determined and provided. Cooling system performance parameters and design criteria were determined through this analysis. Comparisons were made with data from literature. Advances in the thermal analysis were accomplished as compared to previous investigators. Results were based on the analysis, comparisons to other investigators, and utilization of test data from literature.

  18. Coastal microbial fuel cell: scaling laws and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; McNeilly, Frank J.; Thivierge, Daniel P.; Fredette, Albert R.

    2006-05-01

    Microbes, like Geobacters, have inhabited the seafloors around the world since the early days of earth. Such regions are anaerobic and they gain energy by using the widely prevalent iron oxides and organic matters. Because they appear to colonize conducting surfaces that act as sinks of electrons, microbial fuel cells have been shown to convert organic matter to electricity. A microbial fuel cell system has been deployed in Narragansett Bay in Newport, Rhode Island for a year. Currently, the cathode and anode areas are of the order of that of a small wind mill. Measurements have been carried out to determine the marine scaling laws of power harvesting in passive benthic microbial fuel cells. The focus has been on the ocean engineering aspects such as marine scaling laws and the integration of the biochemical and the electronic systems. The characteristics examined are: the relationship of electrode surface area and power produced, the stabilization rates of ionic paths, that is, the effects of location depth of cathodes on stabilization after deployment, the effects of solar and lunar cycles in the Narragansett Bay on the dynamic components of power produced, and the hysteresis effects between periods of active power harvesting and dormancy; the effects of 'on sediment surface' versus 'in sediment' anode deployment have been examined for smaller electrode areas so far. A capacitance model of power consumption and harvesting has been proposed for the marine environment. It is assumed that the primordial benthic microbe laden layer of the earth acts like a giant capacitor. In the microbial fuel cell, this charged benthic layer acts in series with a smaller constant voltage DC power source. This giant benthic capacitance is a result of untapped accumulated charge from the microbes while the DC source originates from the real-time production due to the microbes. Finally, the microbial fuel cell is integrated with a power conversion system to intermittently energize a

  19. Delocalization and scaling properties of low-dimensional quasiperiodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ai-Min; Xie, X. C.; Sun, Qing-feng

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we explore the localization transition and the scaling properties of both quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional quasiperiodic systems, which are constituted from coupling several Aubry-André (AA) chains along the transverse direction, in the presence of next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) hopping. The localization length, two-terminal conductance, and participation ratio are calculated within the tight-binding Hamiltonian. Our results reveal that a metal-insulator transition could be driven in these systems not only by changing the NNN hopping integral but also by the dimensionality effects. These results are general and hold by coupling distinct AA chains with various model parameters. Furthermore, we show from finite-size scaling that the transport properties of the two-dimensional quasiperiodic system can be described by a single parameter and the scaling function can reach the value 1, contrary to the scaling theory of localization of disordered systems. The underlying physical mechanism is discussed.

  20. Utility-scale system preventive and failure-related maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Hutchinson, P.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance background on PVUSA utility-scale systems at Davis and Kerman, California, and reports on a preventative and failure-related maintenance approach and costs.

  1. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  2. A bibliographical surveys of large-scale systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1970-01-01

    A limited, partly annotated bibliography was prepared on the subject of large-scale system control. Approximately 400 references are divided into thirteen application areas, such as large societal systems and large communication systems. A first-author index is provided.

  3. Scaling the Pipe: NASA EOS Terra Data Systems at 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard products from the five sensors on NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.

  4. Universality and scaling in the behavior of coupled Feigenbaum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. P.

    The paper examines the behavior of two symmetrically coupled identical systems, each of which individually is capable of a transition to chaos through period-doubling bifurcations. Scaling relations are established which represent a generalization of the Feigenbaum scaling laws to coupled systems. A universal configuration of zones of various modes is found in a space of three parameters: the Feigenbaum governing parameter and the coefficients of inertial and dissipative types of coupling.

  5. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  6. Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2004-05-01

    Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these

  7. Microphysics in Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the microphysics development and its performance for the multi-scale modeling system will be presented.

  8. Scale-dependent geomorphic responses to active restoration and implications for cutthroat trout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salant, N.; Miller, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    The predominant goal of instream habitat restoration is to increase the diversity, density and/or biomass of aquatic organisms through enhanced physical heterogeneity and increased food availability. In physically homogenized systems, habitat restoration is most commonly achieved at the reach-scale through the addition of structures or channel reconfiguration. Despite the completion of over 6,000 restoration projects in the United States, studies of fish responses to habitat restoration have largely produced equivocal results. Paradoxically, restoration monitoring overwhelmingly focuses on fish response without understanding how these responses link to the physical variables being altered and the scale at which geomorphic changes occur. Our study investigates whether instream habitat restoration affects geomorphic conditions at spatial scales relevant to the organism of interest (i.e. the spatial scale of the variables limiting to that organism). We measure the effects of active restoration on geomorphic metrics at three spatial scales (local, unit, and reach) using a before-after-control-impact design in a historically disturbed and heavily managed cutthroat trout stream. Observed trout habitat preferences (for spawning and juvenile/adult residence) are used to identify the limiting physical variables and are compared to the scale of spatially explicit geomorphic responses. Four reaches representing three different stages of restoration (before, one month and one year after) are surveyed for local-scale physical conditions, unit- and reach-scale morphology, resident fish use, and redd locations. Local-scale physical metrics include depth, nearbed and average velocity, overhead cover, particle size, and water quality metrics. Point measurements stratified by morphological unit are used to determine physical variability among unit types. Habitat complexity and availability are assessed at the reach-scale from topographic surveys and unit maps. Our multi-scale

  9. Relationships between persistent large-scale flow anomalies and variation in synoptic-scale eddy activity and cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dole, Randall M.; Neilley, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Observational analyses to study the relationships between large-scale flow anomalies and variations in synoptic-scale eddy activity and cyclogenesis are presented. The way in which changes in the large-scale flow influence the behavior of synoptic-scale eddies and the way in which changes in eddies may feedback to influence the large-scale flow anomalies are examined. Situations characterized by differing large-scale flows are compared, showing well-defined diferences in synoptic-scale eddy activity. The net forcings of anomalous mean flows by eddies as deduced from tendency methods and E-vector analyses suggest that synoptic-scale eddies may play an important role in maintaining certain anomalous flow patterns such as blocking.

  10. Recursive architecture for large-scale adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanahara, Kazuyuki; Sugiyama, Yoshihiko

    1994-09-01

    'Large scale' is one of major trends in the research and development of recent engineering, especially in the field of aerospace structural system. This term expresses the large scale of an artifact in general, however, it also implies the large number of the components which make up the artifact in usual. Considering a large scale system which is especially used in remote space or deep-sea, such a system should be adaptive as well as robust by itself, because its control as well as maintenance by human operators are not easy due to the remoteness. An approach to realizing this large scale, adaptive and robust system is to build the system as an assemblage of components which are respectively adaptive by themselves. In this case, the robustness of the system can be achieved by using a large number of such components and suitable adaptation as well as maintenance strategies. Such a system gathers many research's interest and their studies such as decentralized motion control, configurating algorithm and characteristics of structural elements are reported. In this article, a recursive architecture concept is developed and discussed towards the realization of large scale system which consists of a number of uniform adaptive components. We propose an adaptation strategy based on the architecture and its implementation by means of hierarchically connected processing units. The robustness and the restoration from degeneration of the processing unit are also discussed. Two- and three-dimensional adaptive truss structures are conceptually designed based on the recursive architecture.

  11. Reliability assessment for components of large scale photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadi, Amir; Ghadimi, Noradin; Mirabbasi, Davar

    2014-10-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems have significantly shifted from independent power generation systems to a large-scale grid-connected generation systems in recent years. The power output of PV systems is affected by the reliability of various components in the system. This study proposes an analytical approach to evaluate the reliability of large-scale, grid-connected PV systems. The fault tree method with an exponential probability distribution function is used to analyze the components of large-scale PV systems. The system is considered in the various sequential and parallel fault combinations in order to find all realistic ways in which the top or undesired events can occur. Additionally, it can identify areas that the planned maintenance should focus on. By monitoring the critical components of a PV system, it is possible not only to improve the reliability of the system, but also to optimize the maintenance costs. The latter is achieved by informing the operators about the system component's status. This approach can be used to ensure secure operation of the system by its flexibility in monitoring system applications. The implementation demonstrates that the proposed method is effective and efficient and can conveniently incorporate more system maintenance plans and diagnostic strategies.

  12. Escape rate scaling in infinite measure preserving systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, Sara; Knight, Georgie

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the scaling of the escape rate from piecewise linear dynamical systems displaying intermittency due to the presence of an indifferent fixed point. Strong intermittent behaviour in the dynamics can result in the system preserving an infinite measure. We define a neighbourhood of the indifferent fixed point to be a hole through which points escape and investigate the scaling of the rate of this escape as the length of the hole decreases, both in the finite measure preserving case and infinite measure preserving case. In the infinite measure preserving systems we observe logarithmic corrections to and polynomial scaling of the escape rate with hole length. Finally we conjecture a relationship between the wandering rate and the observed scaling of the escape rate.

  13. Mapping brain activity at scale with cluster computing.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeremy; Vladimirov, Nikita; Kawashima, Takashi; Mu, Yu; Sofroniew, Nicholas J; Bennett, Davis V; Rosen, Joshua; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Looger, Loren L; Ahrens, Misha B

    2014-09-01

    Understanding brain function requires monitoring and interpreting the activity of large networks of neurons during behavior. Advances in recording technology are greatly increasing the size and complexity of neural data. Analyzing such data will pose a fundamental bottleneck for neuroscience. We present a library of analytical tools called Thunder built on the open-source Apache Spark platform for large-scale distributed computing. The library implements a variety of univariate and multivariate analyses with a modular, extendable structure well-suited to interactive exploration and analysis development. We demonstrate how these analyses find structure in large-scale neural data, including whole-brain light-sheet imaging data from fictively behaving larval zebrafish, and two-photon imaging data from behaving mouse. The analyses relate neuronal responses to sensory input and behavior, run in minutes or less and can be used on a private cluster or in the cloud. Our open-source framework thus holds promise for turning brain activity mapping efforts into biological insights.

  14. Performance Health Monitoring of Large-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rajamony, Ram

    2014-11-20

    This report details the progress made on the ASCR funded project Performance Health Monitoring for Large Scale Systems. A large-­scale application may not achieve its full performance potential due to degraded performance of even a single subsystem. Detecting performance faults, isolating them, and taking remedial action is critical for the scale of systems on the horizon. PHM aims to develop techniques and tools that can be used to identify and mitigate such performance problems. We accomplish this through two main aspects. The PHM framework encompasses diagnostics, system monitoring, fault isolation, and performance evaluation capabilities that indicates when a performance fault has been detected, either due to an anomaly present in the system itself or due to contention for shared resources between concurrently executing jobs. Software components called the PHM Control system then build upon the capabilities provided by the PHM framework to mitigate degradation caused by performance problems.

  15. Lactococcus lactis BFE920 activates the innate immune system of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), resulting in protection against Streptococcus iniae infection and enhancing feed efficiency and weight gain in large-scale field studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Beck, Bo Ram; Heo, Saet-Byeol; Kim, Jungjoon; Kim, Hyun Duk; Lee, Sun-Min; Kim, Youngchan; Oh, So Young; Lee, Kyungro; Do, HyungKi; Lee, KwanHee; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Song, Seong Kyu

    2013-11-01

    The protective effect of a food-grade lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis BFE920 against disease of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) cultivated on a large scale was studied. Initially, antimicrobial activity of L. lactis against several fish pathogens was evaluated in vitro; the probiotic showed strong antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae, Streptococcus parauberis and Enterococcus viikkiensis, and moderate activity against Lactococcus garviae. When olive flounders were fed for two weeks with experimental diets containing varying concentrations of L. lactis (1 × 10(6), 5 × 10(6), 2.5 × 10(7) and 1.25 × 10(8) CFU/g feed), all the experimental feed groups showed 68-77% survival upon challenge with S. iniae. A field-scale feeding trial with L. lactis dietary supplement was conducted in a local fish farm (n = 12,000) for three months, and disease resistance, innate immune parameters and growth performance were evaluated. The average weight gain and feed efficiency were increased up to 6.8% and 8.5%, respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, the olive flounders were challenged with S. iniae. The L. lactis-fed group was protected from S. iniae challenge with a 66% survival rate. This disease protection is due to the flounder's innate immunity activated by the L. lactis administration: increased lysosomal activities and production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data clearly indicated that L. lactis BFE920 may be developed as a functional feed additive for protection against diseases, and for enhancement of feed efficiency and weight gain in olive flounder farming.

  16. Scaling and extended scaling in sediment registers of a paleolake perturbed by volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, Edgardo; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Vilaclara, Gloria

    2006-07-01

    We analyze a sequence of density variations of sedimentary material from an extinct paleolake of the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico, which we previously obtained by means of computer-aided tomography [J. Miranda, A. Oliver, G. Vilaclara, R. Rico-Montiel, V.M. Macias, J.L. Ruvalcava, M.A. Zenteno, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 85 (1994) 886]. In the stratified blocks chiselled out of mines at the lake bed, low-density sediments have a high concentration of diatomite, while high-density strata show a considerable amount of material external to the lake, mostly of volcanic origin. Two regions can be distinguished by visual inspection: a darker and older one which we attribute to a strongly externally perturbed regime, and a whiter more recent one which appears to have been subjected to less frequent volcanic perturbations. By means of a scaling analysis of the distribution function of density fluctuations, we show that for the most recent region there is a range of scales where these fluctuations present a self-similar behavior. We attribute this observation to a rare event response, namely, the onset of correlations in the lake relaxation processes to steady-state conditions following intense volcanic disturbances. Based on scaling properties of the structure function, we also show that the complete data series presents extended self-similarity as encountered in turbulence studies [R. Benzi, S. Ciliberto, R. Tripiccione, C. Baudet, F. Massoli, S. Succi, Phys. Rev. E 48 (1993) R29]. Our characterization of the statistical behavior of the density fluctuations contributes to our knowledge of the volcanic activity over a period of thousands of years, as well as aspects of ecological interest of the lake's response to these disturbances [G. Vilaclara, E. Ugalde, E. Cuna, G. Martinez-Mekler, Complex dynamics of the evolution of a Paleolake subjected to volcanic activity: geology meets ecology, submitted for publication]. Our approach can be implemented in general to other

  17. Photonic crystal lasers using wavelength-scale embedded active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Shinji; Sato, Tomonari; Takeda, Koji; Shinya, Akihiko; Nozaki, Kengo; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya; Fujii, Takuro; Hasebe, Koichi; Kakitsuka, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Lasers with ultra-low operating energy are desired for use in chip-to-chip and on-chip optical interconnects. If we are to reduce the operating energy, we must reduce the active volume. Therefore, a photonic crystal (PhC) laser with a wavelength-scale cavity has attracted a lot of attention because a PhC provides a large Q-factor with a small volume. To improve this device's performance, we employ an embedded active region structure in which the wavelength-scale active region is buried with an InP PhC slab. This structure enables us to achieve effective confinement of both carriers and photons, and to improve the thermal resistance of the device. Thus, we have obtained a large external differential quantum efficiency of 55% and an output power of -10 dBm by optical pumping. For electrical pumping, we use a lateral p-i-n structure that employs Zn diffusion and Si ion implantation for p-type and n-type doping, respectively. We have achieved room-temperature continuous-wave operation with a threshold current of 7.8 µA and a maximum 3 dB bandwidth of 16.2 GHz. The results of an experimental bit error rate measurement with a 10 Gbit s-1 NRZ signal reveal the minimum operating energy for transferring a single bit of 5.5 fJ. These results show the potential of this laser to be used for very short reach interconnects. We also describe the optimal design of cavity quality (Q) factor in terms of achieving a large output power with a low operating energy using a calculation based on rate equations. When we assume an internal absorption loss of 20 cm-1, the optimized coupling Q-factor is 2000.

  18. Calcium carbonate scale control in once-through cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.M.; McDowell, J.F. ); Heflin, R.F. ); Karlovich, D.N. ); Bloom, M.F. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a laboratory-scale model surface condenser used to design a successful once-through cooling water treatment program for calcium carbonate scale inhibition at Young Station. The treatment program has maintained the station's condenser cleanliness factor at approximately 100% for the duration of the treatment. The model surface condensers simulate cycled systems as well as once-through cooling systems. They are fully automated with computer-controlled chemical feed, flow, heat flux, makeup, and blowdown and data acquisition systems.

  19. Full-scale system impact analysis: Digital document storage project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Document Storage Full Scale System can provide cost effective electronic document storage, retrieval, hard copy reproduction, and remote access for users of NASA Technical Reports. The desired functionality of the DDS system is highly dependent on the assumed requirements for remote access used in this Impact Analysis. It is highly recommended that NASA proceed with a phased, communications requirement analysis to ensure that adequate communications service can be supplied at a reasonable cost in order to validate recent working assumptions upon which the success of the DDS Full Scale System is dependent.

  20. Downscaling modelling system for multi-scale air quality forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Amstrup, B.; Weismann, J.

    2010-09-01

    Urban modelling for real meteorological situations, in general, considers only a small part of the urban area in a micro-meteorological model, and urban heterogeneities outside a modelling domain affect micro-scale processes. Therefore, it is important to build a chain of models of different scales with nesting of higher resolution models into larger scale lower resolution models. Usually, the up-scaled city- or meso-scale models consider parameterisations of urban effects or statistical descriptions of the urban morphology, whereas the micro-scale (street canyon) models are obstacle-resolved and they consider a detailed geometry of the buildings and the urban canopy. The developed system consists of the meso-, urban- and street-scale models. First, it is the Numerical Weather Prediction (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) model combined with Atmospheric Chemistry Transport (the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions) model. Several levels of urban parameterisation are considered. They are chosen depending on selected scales and resolutions. For regional scale, the urban parameterisation is based on the roughness and flux corrections approach; for urban scale - building effects parameterisation. Modern methods of computational fluid dynamics allow solving environmental problems connected with atmospheric transport of pollutants within urban canopy in a presence of penetrable (vegetation) and impenetrable (buildings) obstacles. For local- and micro-scales nesting the Micro-scale Model for Urban Environment is applied. This is a comprehensive obstacle-resolved urban wind-flow and dispersion model based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes approach and several turbulent closures, i.e. k -ɛ linear eddy-viscosity model, k - ɛ non-linear eddy-viscosity model and Reynolds stress model. Boundary and initial conditions for the micro-scale model are used from the up-scaled models with corresponding interpolation conserving the mass. For the boundaries a

  1. Speckle imaging of solar small scale structure. 2: Study of small scale structure in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Luehe, O.

    1994-01-01

    The speckle imaging technique which is described in the first paper of this series (von der Luehe 1993) was used to analyze time series of high angular resolution images of solar small scale structure at a wavelength of 585 nm in active regions with the 76 cm diameter vacuum tower telescope at National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Sac Peak. Two sets of reconstructed images with a field of 4 by 4 arcsec which cover a period of 36 min and 83 min were generated and analyzed. The image reconstructions are supplemented with simultaneous large field photographs taken within a 15 A passband centered on the Ca II K (3933) line. The prime objective of the observing program was the study of the structure and the dynamics of the continuum wavelength counterpart of facular points which appear with high contrast in the Ca pictures, i.e., continuum bright points (CBPs). In addition to CBPs, the reconstructions allow studying other small scale phenomena. Results of the studies are given.

  2. Decentrally stabilizable linear and bilinear large-scale systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Vukcevic, M. B.

    1977-01-01

    Two classes of large-scale systems are identified, which can always be stabilized by decentralized feedback control. For the class of systems composed of interconnected linear subsystems, we can choose local controllers for the subsystems to achieve stability of the overall system. The same linear feedback scheme can be used to stabilize a class of linear systems with bilinear interconnections. In this case, however, the scheme is used to establish a finite region of stability for the overall system. The stabilization algorithm is applied to the design of a control system for the Large-Space Telescope.

  3. Three junction holographic micro-scale PV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work a spectrum splitting micro-scale concentrating PV system is evaluated to increase the conversion efficiency of flat panel PV systems. In this approach, the dispersed spectrum splitting concentration systems is scaled down to a small size and structured in an array. The spectrum splitting configuration allows the use of separate single bandgap PV cells that increase spectral overlap with the incident solar spectrum. This results in an overall increase in the spectral conversion efficiency of the resulting system. In addition other benefits of the micro-scale PV system are retained such reduced PV cell material requirements, more versatile interconnect configurations, and lower heat rejection requirements that can lead to a lower cost system. The system proposed in this work consists of two cascaded off-axis holograms in combination with a micro lens array, and three types of PV cells. An aspherical lens design is made to minimize the dispersion so that higher concentration ratios can be achieved for a three-junction system. An analysis methodology is also developed to determine the optical efficiency of the resulting system, the characteristics of the dispersed spectrum, and the overall system conversion efficiency for a combination of three types of PV cells.

  4. Scaling behaviours in the growth of networked systems and their geometric origins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Li, Xintong; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wu, Lingfei

    2015-04-29

    Two classes of scaling behaviours, namely the super-linear scaling of links or activities, and the sub-linear scaling of area, diversity, or time elapsed with respect to size have been found to prevail in the growth of complex networked systems. Despite some pioneering modelling approaches proposed for specific systems, whether there exists some general mechanisms that account for the origins of such scaling behaviours in different contexts, especially in socioeconomic systems, remains an open question. We address this problem by introducing a geometric network model without free parameter, finding that both super-linear and sub-linear scaling behaviours can be simultaneously reproduced and that the scaling exponents are exclusively determined by the dimension of the Euclidean space in which the network is embedded. We implement some realistic extensions to the basic model to offer more accurate predictions for cities of various scaling behaviours and the Zipf distribution reported in the literature and observed in our empirical studies. All of the empirical results can be precisely recovered by our model with analytical predictions of all major properties. By virtue of these general findings concerning scaling behaviour, our models with simple mechanisms gain new insights into the evolution and development of complex networked systems.

  5. Large-scale smart passive system for civil engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyung-Jo; Jang, Dong-Doo; Lee, Heon-Jae; Cho, Sang-Won

    2008-03-01

    The smart passive system consisting of a magnetorheological (MR) damper and an electromagnetic induction (EMI) part has been recently proposed. An EMI part can generate the input current for an MR damper from vibration of a structure according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. The control performance of the smart passive system has been demonstrated mainly by numerical simulations. It was verified from the numerical results that the system could be effective to reduce the structural responses in the cases of civil engineering structures such as buildings and bridges. On the other hand, the experimental validation of the system is not sufficiently conducted yet. In this paper, the feasibility of the smart passive system to real-scale structures is investigated. To do this, the large-scale smart passive system is designed, manufactured, and tested. The system consists of the large-capacity MR damper, which has a maximum force level of approximately +/-10,000N, a maximum stroke level of +/-35mm and the maximum current level of 3 A, and the large-scale EMI part, which is designed to generate sufficient induced current for the damper. The applicability of the smart passive system to large real-scale structures is examined through a series of shaking table tests. The magnitudes of the induced current of the EMI part with various sinusoidal excitation inputs are measured. According to the test results, the large-scale EMI part shows the possibility that it could generate the sufficient current or power for changing the damping characteristics of the large-capacity MR damper.

  6. Multi-scale validation of a nanodiamond drug delivery system and multi-scale engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalbe, Michelle Kristin

    This dissertation has two primary concerns: (i) evaluating the uncertainty and prediction capabilities of a nanodiamond drug delivery model using Bayesian calibration and bias correction, and (ii) determining conceptual difficulties of multi-scale analysis from an engineering education perspective. A Bayesian uncertainty quantification scheme is used to analyze computational and experimental data for the localized cancer drug delivery system. Since this system is largely unknown, assessing the uncertainty at various developmental stages as well as on different physical scales is important to determine functioning of this system. Adsorption of DOX (a cancer fighting drug) to nanodiamonds is measured in two ways: (1) experimentally via UV Visible Spectroscopy and (2) numerically using stochastic molecular dynamics simulations. These two sets of data are used in a Bayesian calibration and bias correction analysis such that the pH is the input parameter, the percentage of carboxyl, the functional group on the surface of the nanodiamond, is the calibration parameter, and both modeling and experimental errors are accounted for in the uncertainty analysis. The acid dissociating constant pKa value of the nanodiamond is also used for system calibration. A Bayesian bias correction analysis is also performed to measure the impact of nanodiamond aggregation. From these analyses, an estimate of the uncertainty in the system is determined, the optimal pKa value and percentage of carboxyl is found, the impact of the experimental and modeling physical scale differences is examined, the impact of clustering is measured, and a research path to further reducing the system uncertainty is given. The second research issue covered in this dissertation addresses how to effectively teach this type of high-level, cross-disciplinary thinking, and multi-scale research to future engineers. The conceptual hurtles present in understanding multi-scale analysis were identified through one

  7. The silicon chip: A versatile micro-scale platform for micro- and nano-scale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Edward

    Cutting-edge advances in micro- and nano-scale technology require instrumentation to interface with the external world. While technology feature sizes are continually being reduced, the size of experimentalists and their instrumentation do not mirror this trend. Hence there is a need for effective application-specific instrumentation to bridge the gap from the micro and nano-scale phenomena being studied to the comparative macro-scale of the human interfaces. This dissertation puts forward the idea that the silicon CMOS integrated circuit, or microchip in short, serves as an excellent platform to perform this functionality. The electronic interfaces designed for the semiconductor industry are particularly attractive as development platforms, and the reduction in feature sizes that has been a hallmark of the industry suggests that chip-scale instrumentation may be more closely coupled to the phenomena of interest, allowing finer control or improved measurement capabilities. Compatibility with commercial processes will further enable economies of scale through mass production, another welcome feature of this approach. Thus chip-scale instrumentation may replace the bulky, expensive, cumbersome-to-operate macro-scale prototypes currently in use for many of these applications. The dissertation examines four specific applications in which the chip may serve as the ideal instrumentation platform. These are nanorod manipulation, polypyrrole bilayer hinge microactuator control, organic transistor hybrid circuits, and contact fluorescence imaging. The thesis is structured around chapters devoted to each of these projects, in addition to a chapter on preliminary work on an RFID system that serves as a wireless interface model. Each of these chapters contains tools and techniques developed for chip-scale instrumentation, from custom scripts for automated layout and data collection to microfabrication processes. Implementation of these tools to develop systems for the

  8. Shielding analysis methods available in the scale computational system

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Tang, J.S.; Hermann, O.W.; Bucholz, J.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Computational tools have been included in the SCALE system to allow shielding analysis to be performed using both discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques. One-dimensional discrete ordinates analyses are performed with the XSDRNPM-S module, and point dose rates outside the shield are calculated with the XSDOSE module. Multidimensional analyses are performed with the MORSE-SGC/S Monte Carlo module. This paper will review the above modules and the four Shielding Analysis Sequences (SAS) developed for the SCALE system. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  9. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hathout, A M; Westfall, R M; Dodds, Jr, H L

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO/sub 2/ fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments.

  10. Neural Computations in a Dynamical System with Multiple Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xiaohan; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems display rich short-term dynamics at various levels, e.g., spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) at the single-neuron level, and short-term facilitation (STF) and depression (STD) at the synapse level. These dynamical features typically cover a broad range of time scales and exhibit large diversity in different brain regions. It remains unclear what is the computational benefit for the brain to have such variability in short-term dynamics. In this study, we propose that the brain can exploit such dynamical features to implement multiple seemingly contradictory computations in a single neural circuit. To demonstrate this idea, we use continuous attractor neural network (CANN) as a working model and include STF, SFA and STD with increasing time constants in its dynamics. Three computational tasks are considered, which are persistent activity, adaptation, and anticipative tracking. These tasks require conflicting neural mechanisms, and hence cannot be implemented by a single dynamical feature or any combination with similar time constants. However, with properly coordinated STF, SFA and STD, we show that the network is able to implement the three computational tasks concurrently. We hope this study will shed light on the understanding of how the brain orchestrates its rich dynamics at various levels to realize diverse cognitive functions. PMID:27679569

  11. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.K.; Anderson, D.; Atlas, R.; Chern, J.; Houser, P.; Hou, A.; Lang, S.; Lau, W.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kakar, R.; Kumar, S.; Lapenta, W.; Li, X.; Matsui, T.; Rienecker, M.; Shen, B.W.; Shi, J.J.; Simpson, J.; Zeng, X.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical cloud resolving models (CRMs), which are based the non-hydrostatic equations of motion, have been extensively applied to cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that CRMs agree with observations in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and regional scale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a szrper-parameterization or multi-scale modeling -framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign can provide initial conditions as well as validation through utilizing the Earth Satellite simulators. At Goddard, we have developed a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics. The modeling system consists a coupled GCM-CRM (or MMF); a state-of-the-art weather research forecast model (WRF) and a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model). In these models, the same microphysical schemes (2ICE, several 3ICE), radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models are applied. In addition, a comprehensive unified Earth Satellite

  12. Next Generation Active Buffet Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Ryall, Thomas G.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.; White, Edward V.; Zimcik, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon that is common to high performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails like the F/A-18, at high angles of attack. These loads result in significant random stresses, which may cause fatigue damage leading to restricted capabilities and availability of the aircraft. This paper describes an international collaborative research activity among Australia, Canada and the United States involving the use of active structural control to alleviate the damaging structural response to these loads. The research program is being co-ordinated by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and is being conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). This truly unique collaborative program has been developed to enable each participating country to contribute resources toward a program that coalesces a broad range of technical knowledge and expertise into a single investigation. This collaborative program is directed toward a full-scale test of an F/A-18 empennage, which is an extension of an earlier initial test. The current program aims at applying advanced directional piezoactuators, the aircraft rudder, switch mode amplifiers and advanced control strategies on a full-scale structure to demonstrate the enhanced performance and capability of the advanced active BLA control system in preparation for a flight test demonstration.

  13. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  14. Soil biological activity at European scale - two calculation concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. To assess the turnover conditions two model concepts are applied: (I) Biological active time (BAT) regression approach derived from CANDY model (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of air temperature, precipitation and soil texture as a timescale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. (II) Re_clim parameter within the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states the soil temperature and soil water to estimate soil biological activity. The modelling includes two strategies to cover the European scale and conditions. BAT was calculated on a 20x20 km grid basis. The European data sets of precipitation and air temperature (time period 1901-2000, monthly resolution), (Mitchell et al. 2004) were used to derive long-term averages. As we focus on agricultural areas we included CORINE data (2006) to extract arable land. The resulting BATs under co-consideration of the main soil textures (clay, silt, sand and loam) were investigated per environmental zone (ENZs, Metzger et al. 2005) that represents similar conditions for precipitation, temperature and relief to identify BAT ranges and hence turnover conditions for each ENZ. Re_clim was quantified by climatic time series of more than 250 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). Daily temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (maximal thermal extent) were used to calculate

  15. Microalgae bulk growth model with application to industrial scale systems.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jason; de Winter, Lenneke; Bradley, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The scalability of microalgae growth systems is a primary research topic in anticipation of the commercialization of microalgae-based biofuels. To date, there is little published data on the productivity of microalgae in growth systems that are scalable to commercially viable footprints. To inform the development of more detailed assessments of industrial-scale microalgae biofuel processes, this paper presents the construction and validation of a model of microalgae biomass and lipid accumulation in an outdoor, industrial-scale photobioreactor. The model incorporates a time-resolved simulation of microalgae growth and lipid accumulation based on solar irradiation, species specific characteristics, and photobioreactor geometry. The model is validated with 9 weeks of growth data from an industrially-scaled outdoor photobioreactor. Discussion focuses on the sensitivity of the model input parameters, a comparison of predicted microalgae productivity to the literature, and an analysis of the implications of this more detailed growth model on microalgae biofuels lifecycle assessment studies.

  16. Fine-scale topography in sensory systems: insights from Drosophila and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takuya; Ye, Bing

    2015-09-01

    To encode the positions of sensory stimuli, sensory circuits form topographic maps in the central nervous system through specific point-to-point connections between pre- and postsynaptic neurons. In vertebrate visual systems, the establishment of topographic maps involves the formation of a coarse topography followed by that of fine-scale topography that distinguishes the axon terminals of neighboring neurons. It is known that intrinsic differences in the form of broad gradients of guidance molecules instruct coarse topography while neuronal activity is required for fine-scale topography. On the other hand, studies in the Drosophila visual system have shown that intrinsic differences in cell adhesion among the axon terminals of neighboring neurons instruct the fine-scale topography. Recent studies on activity-dependent topography in the Drosophila somatosensory system have revealed a role of neuronal activity in creating molecular differences among sensory neurons for establishing fine-scale topography, implicating a conserved principle. Here we review the findings in both Drosophila and vertebrates and propose an integrated model for fine-scale topography.

  17. Fine-scale topography in sensory systems: insights from Drosophila and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Takuya; Ye, Bing

    2015-01-01

    To encode the positions of sensory stimuli, sensory circuits form topographic maps in the central nervous system through specific point-to-point connections between pre- and post-synaptic neurons. In vertebrate visual systems, the establishment of topographic maps involves the formation of a coarse topography followed by that of fine-scale topography that distinguishes the axon terminals of neighboring neurons. It is known that intrinsic differences in the form of broad gradients of guidance molecules instruct coarse topography while neuronal activity is required for fine-scale topography. On the other hand, studies in the Drosophila visual system have shown that intrinsic differences in cell adhesion among the axon terminals of neighboring neurons instruct the fine-scale topography. Recent studies on activity-dependent topography in the Drosophila somatosensory system have revealed a role of neuronal activity in creating molecular differences among sensory neurons for establishing fine-scale topography, implicating a conserved principle. Here we review the findings in both Drosophila and vertebrates and propose an integrated model for fine-scale topography. PMID:26091779

  18. Technology Overview and Assessment for Small-Scale EDL Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidrich, Casey R.; Smith, Brandon P.; Braun, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by missions to land large rovers and humans at Mars and other bodies, high-mass EDL technologies are a prevalent trend in the research community. In contrast, EDL systems for low-mass payloads have attracted less attention. Significant potential in science and discovery exists in small-scale EDL systems. Payloads acting secondary to a flagship mission are a currently under-utilzed resource. Before taking advantage of these opportunities, further developed of scaled EDL technologies is required. The key limitations identified in this study are compact decelerators and deformable impact systems. Current technologies may enable rough landing of small payloads, with moderate restrictions in packaging volume. Utilization of passive descent and landing stages will greatly increase the applicability of small systems, allowing for vehicles robust to entry environment uncertainties. These architectures will provide an efficient means of achieving science and support objectives while reducing cost and risk margins of a parent mission.

  19. Fisher information and the thermodynamics of scale-invariant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, A.; Vesperinas, C.; Plastino, A.

    2010-02-01

    We present a thermodynamic formulation for scale-invariant systems based on the minimization with constraints of the Fisher information measure. In such a way a clear analogy between these systems’ thermal properties and those of gases and fluids is seen to emerge in a natural fashion. We focus our attention on the non-interacting scenario, speaking thus of scale-free ideal gases (SFIGs) and present some empirical evidences regarding such disparate systems as electoral results, city populations and total citations in Physics journals, that seem to indicate that SFIGs do exist. We also illustrate the way in which Zipf’s law can be understood in a thermodynamical context as the surface of a finite system. Finally, we derive an equivalent microscopic description of our systems which totally agrees with previous numerical simulations found in the literature.

  20. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  1. Computational Complexity, Efficiency and Accountability in Large Scale Teleprocessing Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    COMPLEXITY, EFFICIENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN LARGE SCALE TELEPROCESSING SYSTEMS DAAG29-78-C-0036 STANFORD UNIVERSITY JOHN T. GILL MARTIN E. BELLMAN...solve but easy to check. Ve have also suggested howy sucb random tapes can be simulated by determin- istically generating "pseudorandom" numbers by a

  2. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  3. Ultrafast Outflows: Galaxy-scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  4. Large-scale field trials of active immunizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, W. Charles

    1955-01-01

    In this discussion of the methods to be used in large-scale field trials of active immunizing agents and of the results to be expected from such trials, special emphasis is laid on pertussis vaccine trials in Great Britain. After a review of the criteria for strictly controlled field studies and of the investigation of typhoid vaccines conducted in 1904-08 by the Antityphoid Committee of the British Army, the author describes the pertussis vaccine studies which have been and are now being carried by the Whooping-Cough Immunization Committee of the Medical Research Council of Great Britain. The original strictly controlled trials have been completed and the results published. Studies are now being made of vaccines prepared by different methods and evaluated both in the field and in the laboratory. Each vaccine is given to some 2000-3000 children of 4-6 months to 4 years of age. By the end of the studies 30 000-40 000 children will have been followed up for a period of two years. Since in the current studies all the children are vaccinated and none are left as unvaccinated controls, the relative and not the absolute protective value of the vaccines will be measured. PMID:13270079

  5. Large-scale pattern formation in active particles suspensions: from interacting microtubules to swimming bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor

    2006-03-01

    We consider two biological systems of active particles exhibiting large-scale collective behavior: microtubules interacting with molecular motors and hydrodynamically entrained swimming bacteria. Starting from a generic stochastic microscopic model of inelastically colliding polar rods with an anisotropic interaction kernel, we derive set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. Above certain critical density of rods the model exhibits orientational instability and onset of large-scale coherence. For the microtubules and molecular motors system we demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and asters seen in recent experiments. Similar approach is applied to colonies of swimming bacteria Bacillus subtilis confined in thin fluid film. The model is formulated in term of two-dimensional equations for local density and orientation of bacteria coupled to the low Reynolds number Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid flow velocity. The collective swimming of bacteria is represented by additional source term in the Navier-Stokes equation. We demonstrate that this system exhibits formation of dynamic large-scale patterns with the typical scale determined by the density of bacteria.

  6. Dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Keke Luo, Yiping

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, the dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales are studied. We study the symmetries and quantities based on the calculation of variation and Lie transformation group. Particular focus lies in: the Noether symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity and the Lie symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity if the infinitesimal transformations satisfy the structure equation. As the new application of result, at end of the article, we give a simple example of Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry on time scales.

  7. Dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Keke; Luo, Yiping

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales are studied. We study the symmetries and quantities based on the calculation of variation and Lie transformation group. Particular focus lies in: the Noether symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity and the Lie symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity if the infinitesimal transformations satisfy the structure equation. As the new application of result, at end of the article, we give a simple example of Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry on time scales.

  8. Trapping scaling for bifurcations in the Vlasov systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, J.; Métivier, D.; Yamaguchi, Y. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We study nonoscillating bifurcations of nonhomogeneous steady states of the Vlasov equation, a situation occurring in galactic models, or for Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes in plasma physics. Through an unstable manifold expansion, we show that in one spatial dimension the dynamics is very sensitive to the initial perturbation: the instability may saturate at small amplitude—generalizing the "trapping scaling" of plasma physics—or may grow to produce a large-scale modification of the system. Furthermore, resonances are strongly suppressed, leading to different phenomena with respect to the homogeneous case. These analytical findings are illustrated and extended by direct numerical simulations with a cosine interaction potential.

  9. Testing multi-scale processing in the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Xiangbin; Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David

    2016-01-01

    Natural sounds contain information on multiple timescales, so the auditory system must analyze and integrate acoustic information on those different scales to extract behaviorally relevant information. However, this multi-scale process in the auditory system is not widely investigated in the literature, and existing models of temporal integration are mainly built upon detection or recognition tasks on a single timescale. Here we use a paradigm requiring processing on relatively ‘local’ and ‘global’ scales and provide evidence suggesting that the auditory system extracts fine-detail acoustic information using short temporal windows and uses long temporal windows to abstract global acoustic patterns. Behavioral task performance that requires processing fine-detail information does not improve with longer stimulus length, contrary to predictions of previous temporal integration models such as the multiple-looks and the spectro-temporal excitation pattern model. Moreover, the perceptual construction of putatively ‘unitary’ auditory events requires more than hundreds of milliseconds. These findings support the hypothesis of a dual-scale processing likely implemented in the auditory cortex. PMID:27713546

  10. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nance, Donald K.; Liever, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT), conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  11. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nance, Donald; Liever, Peter; Nielsen, Tanner

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test, conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center. The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  12. Structure and function of large-scale brain systems.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Barker, Lauren A; Joyce, Arthur W; Hrin, Skip

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the functional neuroanatomy of large-scale brain systems. Both the structure and functions of these brain networks are presented. All human behavior is the result of interactions within and between these brain systems. This system of brain function completely changes our understanding of how cognition and behavior are organized within the brain, replacing the traditional lesion model. Understanding behavior within the context of brain network interactions has profound implications for modifying abstract constructs such as attention, learning, and memory. These constructs also must be understood within the framework of a paradigm shift, which emphasizes ongoing interactions within a dynamically changing environment.

  13. Active osmotic exchanger for advanced filtration at the nano scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2015-11-01

    One of the main functions of the kidney is to remove the waste products of an organism, mostly by excreting concentrated urea while reabsorbing water and other molecules. The human kidney is capable of recycling about 200 liters of water per day, at the relatively low cost of 0.5 kJ/L (standard dialysis requiring at least 150 kJ/L). Kidneys are constituted of millions of parallel filtration networks called nephrons. The nephrons of all mammalian kidneys present a specific loop geometry, the Loop of Henle, that is believed to play a key role in the urinary concentrating mechanism. One limb of the loop is permeable to water and the other contains sodium pumps that exchange with a common interstitium. In this work, we take inspiration from this osmotic exchanger design to propose new nanofiltration principles. We first establish simple analytical results to derive general operating principles, based on coupled water permeable pores and osmotic pumps. The best filtration geometry, in terms of power required for a given water recycling ratio, is comparable in many ways to the mammalian nephron. It is not only more efficient than traditional reverse osmosis systems, but can also work at much smaller pressures (of the order of the blood pressure, 0.13 bar, as compared to more than 30 bars for pressure-retarded osmosis systems). We anticipate that our proof of principle will be a starting point for the development of new filtration systems relying on the active osmotic exchanger principle.

  14. Engineering large-scale agent-based systems with consensus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokma, A.; Slade, A.; Kerridge, S.; Johnson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the consensus method for the development of large-scale agent-based systems. Systems can be developed as networks of knowledge based agents (KBA) which engage in a collaborative problem solving effort. The method provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to the development of this type of system. This includes a systematic analysis of user requirements as well as a structured approach to generating a system design which exhibits the desired functionality. There is a direct correspondence between system requirements and design components. The benefits of this approach are that requirements are traceable into design components and code thus facilitating verification. The use of the consensus method with two major test applications showed it to be successful and also provided valuable insight into problems typically associated with the development of large systems.

  15. Artificial cells: building bioinspired systems using small-scale biology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ruder, Warren C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2008-01-01

    Artificial cells have generated much interest since the concept was introduced by Aleksandr Oparin in the 1920s, and they have had an impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry in various areas, including potential therapeutic applications. Here, we discuss the development of small-scale, bio-inspired artificial cell components that recreate the function of key cellular and physiological systems. We describe artificial cells, selected current applications and how small-scale biology could be used to provide what might be a next-generation approach in this area. We believe that this type of work is in its infancy and that exploiting small-scale biological inspiration in the field of artificial cells has great potential for successes in the future.

  16. Large-scale simulations of complex physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belić, A.

    2007-04-01

    Scientific computing has become a tool as vital as experimentation and theory for dealing with scientific challenges of the twenty-first century. Large scale simulations and modelling serve as heuristic tools in a broad problem-solving process. High-performance computing facilities make possible the first step in this process - a view of new and previously inaccessible domains in science and the building up of intuition regarding the new phenomenology. The final goal of this process is to translate this newly found intuition into better algorithms and new analytical results. In this presentation we give an outline of the research themes pursued at the Scientific Computing Laboratory of the Institute of Physics in Belgrade regarding large-scale simulations of complex classical and quantum physical systems, and present recent results obtained in the large-scale simulations of granular materials and path integrals.

  17. Development and validation of a scale for mouth handicap in systemic sclerosis: the Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis scale

    PubMed Central

    Mouthon, L; Rannou, F; Bérezné, A; Pagnoux, C; Arène, J‐P; Foïs, E; Cabane, J; Guillevin, L; Revel, M; Fermanian, J; Poiraudeau, S

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop and assess the reliability and construct validity of a scale assessing disability involving the mouth in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods We generated a 34‐item provisional scale from mailed responses of patients (n = 74), expert consensus (n = 10) and literature analysis. A total of 71 other SSc patients were recruited. The test–retest reliability was assessed using the intraclass coefficient correlation and divergent validity using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Factor analysis followed by varimax rotation was performed to assess the factorial structure of the scale. Results The item reduction process retained 12 items with 5 levels of answers (total score range 0–48). The mean total score of the scale was 20.3 (SD 9.7). The test–retest reliability was 0.96. Divergent validity was confirmed for global disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), r = 0.33), hand function (Cochin Hand Function Scale, r = 0.37), inter‐incisor distance (r = −0.34), handicap (McMaster‐Toronto Arthritis questionnaire (MACTAR), r = 0.24), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD); HADd, r = 0.26) and anxiety (HADa, r = 0.17). Factor analysis extracted 3 factors with eigenvalues of 4.26, 1.76 and 1.47, explaining 63% of the variance. These 3 factors could be clinically characterised. The first factor (5 items) represents handicap induced by the reduction in mouth opening, the second (5 items) handicap induced by sicca syndrome and the third (2 items) aesthetic concerns. Conclusion We propose a new scale, the Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis (MHISS) scale, which has excellent reliability and good construct validity, and assesses specifically disability involving the mouth in patients with SSc. PMID:17502364

  18. Nonlinear Dynamics of Extended Hydrologic Systems over long time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, Upmanu

    2014-05-01

    We often view our knowledge of hydrology and hence of nature as intransient, at least over the time scales over which we study processes we wish to predict and understand. Over the last few decades, this assumption has come under question, largely because of the vocal expression of a changing climate, but also the recurrent demonstration of significant land use change, both of which significantly affect the boundary conditions for terrestrial hydrology that is our forte. Most recently, the concepts of hydromorphology and social hydrology have entered the discussion, and the notion that climate and hydrology influence human action, which in turn shapes hydrology, is being recognized. Finally, as a field, we seem to be coming to the conclusion that the hydrologic system is an open system, whose boundaries evolve in time, and that the hydrologic system, at many scales, has a profound effect on the systems that drive it -- whether they be the ecological and climatic systems, or the social system. What a mess! Complexity! Unpredictability! At a certain level of abstraction, one can consider the evolution of these coupled systems with nonlinear feedbacks and ask what types of questions are relevant in terms of such a coupled evolution? What are their implications at the planetary scale? What are their implications for a subsistence farmer in an arid landscape who may under external influence achieve a new transient hydro-ecological equilibrium? What are the implications for the economy and power of nations? In this talk, I will try to raise some of these questions and also provide some examples with very simple dynamical systems that suggest ways of thinking about some practical issues of feedback across climate, hydrology and human behavior.

  19. Durability study of a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a vehicle-scale demonstration hydrogen storage system as part of a Work for Others project funded by General Motors. This Demonstration System was developed based on the properties and characteristics of sodium alanates which are complex metal hydrides. The technology resulting from this program was developed to enable heat and mass management during refueling and hydrogen delivery to an automotive system. During this program the Demonstration System was subjected to repeated hydriding and dehydriding cycles to enable comparison of the vehicle-scale system performance to small-scale sample data. This paper describes the experimental results of life-cycle studies of the Demonstration System. Two of the four hydrogen storage modules of the Demonstration System were used for this study. A well-controlled and repeatable sorption cycle was defined for the repeated cycling, which began after the system had already been cycled forty-one times. After the first nine repeated cycles, a significant hydrogen storage capacity loss was observed. It was suspected that the sodium alanates had been affected either morphologically or by contamination. The mechanisms leading to this initial degradation were investigated and results indicated that water and/or air contamination of the hydrogen supply may have lead to oxidation of the hydride and possibly kinetic deactivation. Subsequent cycles showed continued capacity loss indicating that the mechanism of degradation was gradual and transport or kinetically limited. A materials analysis was then conducted using established methods including treatment with carbon dioxide to react with sodium oxides that may have formed. The module tubes were sectioned to examine chemical composition and morphology as a function of axial position. The results will be discussed.

  20. A multi-scale approach for macromolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysiak, Silvina

    Understanding biomolecular dynamics at different time and length scales is key to solving major problems in molecular biology and physical-chemistry. Because of the multiple scales that intrinsically coexist in biological macromolecules, the field has evolved through different paths, each focusing on different fixed resolutions. This thesis focuses on developing realistic models to describe complex biomolecular land-scapes at the mesoscale level, and a procedure to bridge different levels of molecular description for liquid water. Toward this goal, we have proposed a realistic coarse-grained protein model and a technique to incorporate experimental data into the model to examine the long time-scale phenomenon of protein folding/misfolding. We have shown that simulations with this simplified protein representation can be used as a predictive tool for misfolding and aggregation of proteins. Moreover, we have developed a coarse-grained model and an analytical theory to study another long time-scale phenomenon in biology: the translocation of DNA and RNA through nanopores. We have shown that our approach to the translocation process reproduces quantitatively, for the first time, all the experimentally observed trends and scaling behaviour, and provides insight into the different regimes present in the system. Modeling explicit water is crucial for realistic biomolecular simulations, but is typically not computationally feasible. To overcome the computational impasse, we have proposed a coarse-grained water model that can reproduce remarkably well the behaviour of liquid water at physiological conditions, and a spatially adaptive procedure to change the molecular resolution of water on-the-fly from a coarse-grained to an all-atom representation. This adaptive multi-scale approach bridges the gap between the time and length scales accessible to simulations without losing atomistic detail on physically relevant regions.

  1. Bench-scale treatment of Lurgi gasifier and H-coal wastewaters by the PACT system

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, T.L.

    1984-11-01

    Laboratory and pilot scale studies were carried out on the feasibility of applying the PACT system (involving addition of powdered activated carbon to the aeration tanks in the activated sludge process, and wet-air oxidation of the sludge to recover carbon) to the treatment of wastewaters from the Lurgi/Mobil M process, which produces synthesis gas, and a coal liquefaction process. The PACT system provided continuous, reliable treatment. A 2-stage process gave the best overall removal of COD and DOC. Both single and 2-stage systems achieved consistent nitrification of the wastewaters, producing effluents containing < 1 mg NH/sub 3//l.

  2. The OME Framework for genome-scale systems biology

    SciTech Connect

    Palsson, Bernhard O.; Ebrahim, Ali; Federowicz, Steve

    2014-12-19

    The life sciences are undergoing continuous and accelerating integration with computational and engineering sciences. The biology that many in the field have been trained on may be hardly recognizable in ten to twenty years. One of the major drivers for this transformation is the blistering pace of advancements in DNA sequencing and synthesis. These advances have resulted in unprecedented amounts of new data, information, and knowledge. Many software tools have been developed to deal with aspects of this transformation and each is sorely needed [1-3]. However, few of these tools have been forced to deal with the full complexity of genome-scale models along with high throughput genome- scale data. This particular situation represents a unique challenge, as it is simultaneously necessary to deal with the vast breadth of genome-scale models and the dizzying depth of high-throughput datasets. It has been observed time and again that as the pace of data generation continues to accelerate, the pace of analysis significantly lags behind [4]. It is also evident that, given the plethora of databases and software efforts [5-12], it is still a significant challenge to work with genome-scale metabolic models, let alone next-generation whole cell models [13-15]. We work at the forefront of model creation and systems scale data generation [16-18]. The OME Framework was borne out of a practical need to enable genome-scale modeling and data analysis under a unified framework to drive the next generation of genome-scale biological models. Here we present the OME Framework. It exists as a set of Python classes. However, we want to emphasize the importance of the underlying design as an addition to the discussions on specifications of a digital cell. A great deal of work and valuable progress has been made by a number of communities [13, 19-24] towards interchange formats and implementations designed to achieve similar goals. While many software tools exist for handling genome-scale

  3. Toward a multi-scale simulation of lipid bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugii, Taisuke; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2006-03-01

    In numerical simulations of lipid bilayer systems, it has become important to treat the membrane molecules (e.g., lipids, proteins, and drug molecules) explicitly for designing medical drugs and for developing drug delivery systems. However, it is difficult to apply straightforwardly a microscopic simulation technique such as the molecular dynamics method to the large-scale bilayer systems, because the length and the time scales of these systems are very large compared to the scales of the molecules. The authors take two approaches for this problem. First, we use the dissipative particle dynamics method and the coarse grained molecular dynamics method in addition to the standard molecular dynamics method. The results are compared with the molecular-dynamics results and experimental data. Secondly we use a molecular dynamics and continuum hybrid simulation method. In this method, the region near the membrane is computed by an atomistic-simulation method and the solvent region is computed by a continuum-simulation method. (In our study, the coarse grained molecular dynamics was used for the atomistic region.) The validity and availability of this later approach will be discussed.

  4. Interpreting chemical compositions of small scale basaltic systems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Lucy E.; Smith, Ian E. M.

    2016-10-01

    Small scale basaltic magmatic systems occur in all of the major tectonic environments of planet Earth and are characteristically expressed at the Earth's surface as fields of small monogenetic cones. The chemical compositions of the materials that make up these cones reflect processes of magma generation and differentiation that occur in their plumbing system. The volumes of magmas involved are very small and significantly their compositional ranges reveal remarkably complex processes which are overwhelmed or homogenized in larger scale systems. Commonly, compositions are basaltic, alkalic and enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, although the spectrum extends from highly enriched nephelinites to subalkalic and tholeiitic basalts. Isotopic analyses of rocks from volcanic fields almost always display compositions which can only be explained by the interaction of two or more mantle sources. Ultimately their basaltic magmas originate by small scale melting of mantle sources. Compositional variety is testament to melting processes at different depths, a range of melting proportions, a heterogeneous source and fractionation, magma mixing and assimilation within the plumbing system that brings magmas to the surface. The fact that such a variety of compositions is preserved in a single field shows that isolation of individual melting events and their ascent is an important and possibly defining feature of monogenetic volcanism, as well as the window their chemical behavior provides into the complex process of melt generation and extraction in the Earth's upper mantle.

  5. Large-scale flow experiments for managing river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.; Olden, Julian D.; Lytle, David A.; Melis, Theodore S.; Schmidt, John C.; Bray, Erin N.; Freeman, Mary C.; Gido, Keith B.; Hemphill, Nina P.; Kennard, Mark J.; McMullen, Laura E.; Mims, Meryl C.; Pyron, Mark; Robinson, Christopher T.; Williams, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of streamflow have been used globally in recent decades to mitigate the impacts of dam operations on river systems. Rivers are challenging subjects for experimentation, because they are open systems that cannot be isolated from their social context. We identify principles to address the challenges of conducting effective large-scale flow experiments. Flow experiments have both scientific and social value when they help to resolve specific questions about the ecological action of flow with a clear nexus to water policies and decisions. Water managers must integrate new information into operating policies for large-scale experiments to be effective. Modeling and monitoring can be integrated with experiments to analyze long-term ecological responses. Experimental design should include spatially extensive observations and well-defined, repeated treatments. Large-scale flow manipulations are only a part of dam operations that affect river systems. Scientists can ensure that experimental manipulations continue to be a valuable approach for the scientifically based management of river systems.

  6. Space and time scales in human-landscape systems.

    PubMed

    Kondolf, G Mathias; Podolak, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Exploring spatial and temporal scales provides a way to understand human alteration of landscape processes and human responses to these processes. We address three topics relevant to human-landscape systems: (1) scales of human impacts on geomorphic processes, (2) spatial and temporal scales in river restoration, and (3) time scales of natural disasters and behavioral and institutional responses. Studies showing dramatic recent change in sediment yields from uplands to the ocean via rivers illustrate the increasingly vast spatial extent and quick rate of human landscape change in the last two millennia, but especially in the second half of the twentieth century. Recent river restoration efforts are typically small in spatial and temporal scale compared to the historical human changes to ecosystem processes, but the cumulative effectiveness of multiple small restoration projects in achieving large ecosystem goals has yet to be demonstrated. The mismatch between infrequent natural disasters and individual risk perception, media coverage, and institutional response to natural disasters results in un-preparedness and unsustainable land use and building practices.

  7. Active thermal control system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petete, Patricia A.; Ames, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    The 'restructured' baseline of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has eliminated many of the growth options for the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). Modular addition of baseline technology to increase heat rejection will be extremely difficult. The system design and the available real estate no longer accommodate this type of growth. As the station matures during its thirty years of operation, a demand of up to 165 kW of heat rejection can be expected. The baseline configuration will be able to provide 82.5 kW at Eight Manned Crew Capability (EMCC). The growth paths necessary to reach 165 kW have been identified. Doubling the heat rejection capability of SSF will require either the modification of existing radiator wings or the attachment of growth structure to the baseline truss for growth radiator wing placement. Radiator performance can be improved by enlarging the surface area or by boosting the operating temperature with a heat pump. The optimal solution will require both modifications. The addition of growth structure would permit the addition of a parallel ATCS using baseline technology. This growth system would simplify integration. The feasibility of incorporating these growth options to improve the heat rejection capacity of SSF is under evaluation.

  8. Diffusional Scaling Laws in Oscillatory Systems with Stochastic Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J. B.; Tung, Wen-wen

    2003-08-01

    Rhythmic motions are ubiquitous in nature and in man-made systems, such as in low Reynolds number wake flows, breathing, and pathological tremors including essential and Parkinsonian. Due to the presence of external noise, those sinusoidal movements are typically only approximately rhythmic, or aperiodic, thus may be interpreted as chaotic. Although existing tests developed for the analysis of chaotic systems may be able to tell some qualitative differences between these stochastically driven oscillatory motions from true chaotic motions, those differences are often not very instructive, because in the study of chaos, one often monitors the motion on fairly short time scales, to be consistent with the one of the key features of chaos—short-term predictability. In this paper, we report a diffusional scaling law for stochastically driven oscillatory motions. By studying a number of measured data such as the fluctuating velocity signals in the near wake of a circular cylinder and pathological tremor data as well as numerically generated data, we shall show that the time scale range for the diffusional scaling law to be valid starts from about one to several tens of the mean oscillation period. Furthermore, we classify the diffusional oscillatory motions into three categories, depending on whether the diffusional exponent less than, equal to, or large than 0.5, and consider the mechanism for each category. It is found that the case with the exponent larger than 0.5 is an anomalous diffusion and is a pre-cursor for noise to induce chaos.

  9. Channel capacity of next generation large scale MIMO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshammari, A.; Albdran, S.; Matin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Information rate that can be transferred over a given bandwidth is limited by the information theory. Capacity depends on many factors such as the signal to noise ratio (SNR), channel state information (CSI) and the spatial correlation in the propagation environment. It is very important to increase spectral efficiency in order to meet the growing demand for wireless services. Thus, Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology has been developed and applied in most of the wireless standards and it has been very successful in increasing capacity and reliability. As the demand is still increasing, attention now is shifting towards large scale multiple input multiple output (MIMO) which has a potential of bringing orders of magnitude of improvement in spectral and energy efficiency. It has been shown that users channels decorrelate after increasing the number of antennas. As a result, inter-user interference can be avoided since energy can be focused on precise directions. This paper investigates the limits of channel capacity for large scale MIMO. We study the relation between spectral efficiency and the number of antenna N. We use time division duplex (TDD) system in order to obtain CSI using training sequence in the uplink. The same CSI is used for the downlink because the channel is reciprocal. Spectral efficiency is measured for channel model that account for small scale fading while ignoring the effect of large scale fading. It is shown the spectral efficiency can be improved significantly when compared to single antenna systems in ideal circumstances.

  10. Optimization of large-scale heterogeneous system-of-systems models.

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, Ojas; Watson, Jean-Paul; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Siirola, John; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Lee, Herbert K. H.; Hart, William Eugene; Gray, Genetha Anne; Woodruff, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Decision makers increasingly rely on large-scale computational models to simulate and analyze complex man-made systems. For example, computational models of national infrastructures are being used to inform government policy, assess economic and national security risks, evaluate infrastructure interdependencies, and plan for the growth and evolution of infrastructure capabilities. A major challenge for decision makers is the analysis of national-scale models that are composed of interacting systems: effective integration of system models is difficult, there are many parameters to analyze in these systems, and fundamental modeling uncertainties complicate analysis. This project is developing optimization methods to effectively represent and analyze large-scale heterogeneous system of systems (HSoS) models, which have emerged as a promising approach for describing such complex man-made systems. These optimization methods enable decision makers to predict future system behavior, manage system risk, assess tradeoffs between system criteria, and identify critical modeling uncertainties.

  11. Scaling analysis for the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for FHRs

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Q.; Kim, I. H.; Sun, X.; Christensen, R. N.; Blue, T. E.; Yoder, G.; Wilson, D.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-01

    The Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive residual heat removal system proposed for the Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that combines the coated particle fuel and graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three natural circulation/convection loops that rely on buoyancy as the driving force and are coupled via two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS heat exchanger and the natural draft heat exchanger. A fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow into the DRACS primary loop and correspondingly the heat loss to the DRACS during reactor normal operation, and to activate the DRACS in accidents when the reactor is shut down. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for FHRs built or tested in the literature. In this paper, a detailed scaling analysis for the DRACS is performed, which will provide guidance for the design of scaled-down DRACS test facilities. Based on the Boussinesq assumption and one-dimensional flow formulation, the governing equations are non-dimensionalized by introducing appropriate dimensionless parameters. The key dimensionless numbers that characterize the DRACS system are obtained from the non-dimensional governing equations. Based on the dimensionless numbers and non-dimensional governing equations, similarity laws are proposed. In addition, a scaling methodology has been developed, which consists of a core scaling and a loop scaling. The consistency between the core and loop scaling is examined via the reference volume ratio, which can be obtained from both the core and loop scaling processes. The scaling methodology and similarity laws have been applied to obtain a scientific design of a scaled-down high-temperature DRACS test facility.

  12. Scaling Analysis for the Direct Reactor Auxillary Cooling System For AHTRS

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Q. NMN; Wang, X. NMN; Sun, X NMN; Christensen, R. N.; Blue, T. E.; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Wilson, Dane F; Subharwall, Piyush; Adams, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive heat removal system proposed for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) that combines the coated particle fuel and graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three coupled natural circulation/convection loops relying completely on buoyancy as the driving force. In the DRACS, two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) and the Natural Draft Heat Exchanger (NDHX) are used to couple these loops. In addition, a fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow during normal operation of the reactor and to activate the DRACS in accidents. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for AHTRs built and tested in the literature. In this paper, a detailed scaling analysis for the DRACS is performed, which will provide guidance for the design of the scaled-down DRACS test facilities. Based on the Boussinesq assumption and one-dimensional flow formulation, the governing equations are non-dimensionalized by introducing appropriate dimensionless parameters. The key dimensionless numbers that characterize the DRACS system are obtained straightforwardly from the non-dimensional governing equations. Based on the dimensionless numbers and non-dimensional governing equations, similarity laws are proposed. In addition, a scaling methodology has also been developed, which consists of the core scaling and loop scaling. The consistence between the core and loop scaling is examined through the reference volume ratio, which can be obtained from the core and loop scaling processes. The scaling methodology and similarity laws have been applied to obtain a design of the scaled-down high-temperature DRACS test facility (HTDF).

  13. Scaling up microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bruce E

    2010-02-01

    Scientific research has advanced on different microbial fuel cell (MFC) technologies in the laboratory at an amazing pace, with power densities having reached over 1 kW/m(3) (reactor volume) and to 6.9 W/m(2) (anode area) under optimal conditions. The main challenge is to bring these technologies out of the laboratory and engineer practical systems for bioenergy production at larger scales. Recent advances in new types of electrodes, a better understanding of the impact of membranes and separators on performance of these systems, and results from several new pilot-scale tests are all good indicators that commercialization of the technology could be possible within a few years. Some of the newest advances and future challenges are reviewed here with respect to practical applications of these MFCs for renewable energy production and other applications.

  14. Reliability Considerations of ULP Scaled CMOS in Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark; MacNeal, Kristen; Cooper, Mark

    2012-01-01

    NASA, the aerospace community, and other high reliability (hi-rel) users of advanced microelectronic products face many challenges as technology continues to scale into the deep sub-micron region. Decreasing the feature size of CMOS devices not only allows more components to be placed on a single chip, but it increases performance by allowing faster switching (or clock) speeds with reduced power compared to larger scaled devices. Higher performance, and lower operating and stand-by power characteristics of Ultra-Low Power (ULP) microelectronics are not only desirable, but also necessary to meet low power consumption design goals of critical spacecraft systems. The integration of these components in such systems, however, must be balanced with the overall risk tolerance of the project.

  15. Parameter study of a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a vehicle-scale prototype hydrogen storage system as part of a Work For Others project funded by General Motors. This Demonstration System was developed using the complex metal hydride sodium alanate. For the current work, we have continued our evaluation of the GM Demonstration System to provide learning to DOE's hydrogen storage programs, specifically the new Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. Baseline refueling data during testing for GM was taken over a narrow range of optimized parameter values. Further testing was conducted over a broader range. Parameters considered included hydrogen pressure and coolant flow rate. This data confirmed the choice of design pressure of the Demonstration System, but indicated that the system was over-designed for cooling. Baseline hydrogen delivery data was insufficient to map out delivery rate as a function of temperature and capacity for the full-scale system. A more rigorous matrix of tests was performed to better define delivery capabilities. These studies were compared with 1-D and 2-D coupled multi-physics modeling results. The relative merits of these models are discussed along with opportunities for improved efficiency or reduced mass and volume.

  16. Quantification and scaling of multipartite entanglement in continuous variable systems.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-11-26

    We present a theoretical method to determine the multipartite entanglement between different partitions of multimode, fully or partially symmetric Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For such states, we determine the exact expression of the logarithmic negativity and show that it coincides with that of equivalent two-mode Gaussian states. Exploiting this reduction, we demonstrate the scaling of the multipartite entanglement with the number of modes and its reliable experimental estimate by direct measurements of the global and local purities.

  17. Multimodel Design of Large Scale Systems with Multiple Decision Makers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    virtue. 5- , Lead me from darkneu to light. - Lead me from death to eternal Life. ( Vedic Payer) p. I, MULTIMODEL DESIGN OF LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS WITH...guidance during the course of *: this research . He would also like to thank Professors W. R. Perkins, P. V. Kokotovic, T. Basar, and T. N. Trick for...thesis concludes with Chapter 7 where we summarize the results obtained, outline the main contributions, and indicate directions for future research . 7- I

  18. An economy of scale system's mensuration of large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deryder, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    The systems technology and cost particulars of using multipurpose platforms versus several sizes of bus type free flyer spacecraft to accomplish the same space experiment missions. Computer models of these spacecraft bus designs were created to obtain data relative to size, weight, power, performance, and cost. To answer the question of whether or not large scale does produce economy, the dominant cost factors were determined and the programmatic effect on individual experiment costs were evaluated.

  19. Development of scales to assess children's perceptions of friend and parental influences on physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L

    2009-01-01

    Background Many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Parents and friends are likely to influence children's physical activity but there is a shortage of measures that are able to capture these influences. Methods A new questionnaire with the following three scales was developed: 1) Parental influence on physical activity; 2) Motives for activity with friends scale; and 3) Physical activity and sedentary group normative values. Content for each scale was informed by qualitative work. One hundred and seventy three, 10-11 year old children completed the new questionnaire twice, one week apart. Participants also wore an accelerometer for 5 days and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, light physical activity and sedentary time per day were obtained. Test-retest reliability of the items was calculated and Principal Component analysis of the scales performed and sub-scales produced. Alphas were calculated for main scales and sub-scales. Correlations were calculated among sub-scales. Correlations between each sub-scale and accelerometer physical activity variables were calculated for all participants and stratified by sex. Results The Parental influence scale yielded four factors which accounted for 67.5% of the variance in the items and had good (α > 0.7) internal consistency. The Motives for physical activity scale yielded four factors that accounted for 66.1% and had good internal consistency. The Physical activity norms scale yielded 4 factors that accounted for 67.4% of the variance, with good internal consistency for the sub-scales and alpha of .642 for the overall scale. Associations between the sub-scales and physical activity differed by sex. Although only 6 of the 11 sub-scales were significantly correlated with physical activity there were a number of associations that were positively correlated >0.15 indicating that these factors may contribute to the explanation of children's physical activity. Conclusion Three scales that

  20. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  1. Optomechanical System Development of the AWARE Gigapixel Scale Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Hui S.

    Electronic focal plane arrays (FPA) such as CMOS and CCD sensors have dramatically improved to the point that digital cameras have essentially phased out film (except in very niche applications such as hobby photography and cinema). However, the traditional method of mating a single lens assembly to a single detector plane, as required for film cameras, is still the dominant design used in cameras today. The use of electronic sensors and their ability to capture digital signals that can be processed and manipulated post acquisition offers much more freedom of design at system levels and opens up many interesting possibilities for the next generation of computational imaging systems. The AWARE gigapixel scale camera is one such computational imaging system. By utilizing a multiscale optical design, in which a large aperture objective lens is mated with an array of smaller, well corrected relay lenses, we are able to build an optically simple system that is capable of capturing gigapixel scale images via post acquisition stitching of the individual pictures from the array. Properly shaping the array of digital cameras allows us to form an effectively continuous focal surface using off the shelf (OTS) flat sensor technology. This dissertation details developments and physical implementations of the AWARE system architecture. It illustrates the optomechanical design principles and system integration strategies we have developed through the course of the project by summarizing the results of the two design phases for AWARE: AWARE-2 and AWARE-10. These systems represent significant advancements in the pursuit of scalable, commercially viable snapshot gigapixel imaging systems and should serve as a foundation for future development of such systems.

  2. Validation of psychosocial scales for physical activity in university students

    PubMed Central

    Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; de Farias, José Cazuza; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Tenório, Maria Cecília Marinho; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Translate the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, adapt it cross-culturally and identify the psychometric properties of the psychosocial scales for physical activity in young university students. METHODS The Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire is made up of 39 items divided into constructs based on the social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model. The analyzed constructs were, as follows: behavior change strategy (15 items), decision-making process (10), self-efficacy (6), support from family (4), and support from friends (4). The validation procedures were conceptual, semantic, operational, and functional equivalences, in addition to the equivalence of the items and of measurements. The conceptual, of items and semantic equivalences were performed by a specialized committee. During measurement equivalence, the instrument was applied to 717 university students. Exploratory factor analysis was used to verify the loading of each item, explained variance and internal consistency of the constructs. Reproducibility was measured by means of intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS The two translations were equivalent and back-translation was similar to the original version, with few adaptations. The layout, presentation order of the constructs and items from the original version were kept in the same form as the original instrument. The sample size was adequate and was evaluated by the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, with values between 0.72 and 0.91. The correlation matrix of the items presented r < 0.8 (p < 0.05). The factor loadings of the items from all the constructs were satisfactory (> 0.40), varying between 0.43 and 0.80, which explained between 45.4% and 59.0% of the variance. Internal consistency was satisfactory (α ≥ 0.70), with support from friends being 0.70 and 0.92 for self-efficacy. Most items (74.3%) presented values above 0.70 for the reproducibility test

  3. Self-* and Adaptive Mechanisms for Large Scale Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragopoulou, P.; Mastroianni, C.; Montero, R.; Andrjezak, A.; Kondo, D.

    Large-scale distributed computing systems and infrastructure, such as Grids, P2P systems and desktop Grid platforms, are decentralized, pervasive, and composed of a large number of autonomous entities. The complexity of these systems is such that human administration is nearly impossible and centralized or hierarchical control is highly inefficient. These systems need to run on highly dynamic environments, where content, network topologies and workloads are continuously changing. Moreover, they are characterized by the high degree of volatility of their components and the need to provide efficient service management and to handle efficiently large amounts of data. This paper describes some of the areas for which adaptation emerges as a key feature, namely, the management of computational Grids, the self-management of desktop Grid platforms and the monitoring and healing of complex applications. It also elaborates on the use of bio-inspired algorithms to achieve self-management. Related future trends and challenges are described.

  4. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

  5. Finding and Scaling Unstable Periodic Orbits in Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Frank

    1998-03-01

    Unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) of low order can be detected in noisy physical(D. Pierson and F. Moss, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 75, 2124 (1995)and biological(X. Pei and F. Moss, Nature) 379, 618 (1996) systems. The statistically based detection method extracts the number of encounters with UPOs of period p, and compares that with findings from surrogate files. UPOs can be distinguished from stable orbits. The results are expressed as a time evolving statistical measure, useful for analyzing short files from non-stationary systems. We show bifurcations between stable and unstable behavior in peripheral cold receptors, neurosecretory hypothalamic cells (both in rat) and electroreceptors in catfish(H.A. Braun, et al., J. Comp. Neurosci.), in press. Since only orbits of the lowest orders (p < 4) can be detected, a scaling is necessary to connect the experimentally observable orbits to the infinite set of UPOs which characterize dissipative chaos. A scaling due to C.-Y. Lai is calculated for the Henon map. Data from crayfish photoreceptor cells for p = 1 to 3 are consistent with this scaling.

  6. Scaling Reversible Adhesion in Synthetic and Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Michael; Irschick, Duncan; Crosby, Alfred

    2013-03-01

    High capacity, easy release polymer adhesives, as demonstrated by a gecko's toe, present unique opportunities for synthetic design. However, without a framework that connects biological and synthetic adhesives from basic nanoscopic features to macroscopic systems, synthetic mimics have failed to perform favorably at large length scales. Starting from an energy balance, we develop a scaling approach to understand unstable interfacial fracture over multiple length scales. The simple theory reveals that reversibly adhesive polymers do not rely upon fibrillar features but require contradicting attributes: maximum compliance normal to the substrate and minimum compliance in the loading direction. We use this counterintuitive criterion to create reversible, easy release adhesives at macroscopic sizes (100 cm2) with unprecedented force capacities on the order of 3000 N. Importantly, we achieve this without fibrillar features, supporting our predictions and emphasizing the importance of subsurface anatomy in biological adhesive systems. Our theory describes adhesive force capacity as a function of material properties and geometry and is supported by over 1000 experiments, spanning both synthetic and biological adhesives, with agreement over 14 orders of magnitude in adhesive force.

  7. Contact changes of sheared systems: Scaling, correlations, and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deen, Merlijn S.; Tighe, Brian P.; van Hecke, Martin

    2016-12-01

    We probe the onset and effect of contact changes in two-dimensional soft harmonic particle packings which are sheared quasistatically under controlled strain. First, we show that, in the majority of cases, the first contact changes correspond to the creation or breaking of contacts on a single particle, with contact breaking overwhelmingly likely for low pressures and/or small systems, and contact making and breaking equally likely for large pressures and in the thermodynamic limit. The statistics of the corresponding strains are near-Poissonian, in particular for large-enough systems. The mean characteristic strains exhibit scaling with the number of particles N and pressure P and reveal the existence of finite-size effects akin to those seen for linear response quantities [C. P. Goodrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095704 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.095704; C. P. Goodrich et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 022138 (2014)]., 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.022138 Second, we show that linear response accurately predicts the strains of the first contact changes, which allows us to accurately study the scaling of the characteristic strains of making and breaking contacts separately. Both of these show finite-size scaling, and we formulate scaling arguments that are consistent with the observed behavior. Third, we probe the effect of the first contact change on the shear modulus G and show in detail how the variation of G remains smooth and bounded in the large-system-size limit: Even though contact changes occur then at vanishingly small strains, their cumulative effect, even at a fixed value of the strain, are limited, so, effectively, linear response remains well defined. Fourth, we explore multiple contact changes under shear and find strong and surprising correlations between alternating making and breaking events. Fifth, we show that by making a link with extremal statistics, our data are consistent with a very slow crossover to self-averaging with system size, so the

  8. Contact changes of sheared systems: Scaling, correlations, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    van Deen, Merlijn S; Tighe, Brian P; van Hecke, Martin

    2016-12-01

    We probe the onset and effect of contact changes in two-dimensional soft harmonic particle packings which are sheared quasistatically under controlled strain. First, we show that, in the majority of cases, the first contact changes correspond to the creation or breaking of contacts on a single particle, with contact breaking overwhelmingly likely for low pressures and/or small systems, and contact making and breaking equally likely for large pressures and in the thermodynamic limit. The statistics of the corresponding strains are near-Poissonian, in particular for large-enough systems. The mean characteristic strains exhibit scaling with the number of particles N and pressure P and reveal the existence of finite-size effects akin to those seen for linear response quantities [C. P. Goodrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095704 (2012)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.095704; C. P. Goodrich et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 022138 (2014)].PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.90.022138 Second, we show that linear response accurately predicts the strains of the first contact changes, which allows us to accurately study the scaling of the characteristic strains of making and breaking contacts separately. Both of these show finite-size scaling, and we formulate scaling arguments that are consistent with the observed behavior. Third, we probe the effect of the first contact change on the shear modulus G and show in detail how the variation of G remains smooth and bounded in the large-system-size limit: Even though contact changes occur then at vanishingly small strains, their cumulative effect, even at a fixed value of the strain, are limited, so, effectively, linear response remains well defined. Fourth, we explore multiple contact changes under shear and find strong and surprising correlations between alternating making and breaking events. Fifth, we show that by making a link with extremal statistics, our data are consistent with a very slow crossover to self-averaging with

  9. Systems metabolic engineering of microorganisms to achieve large-scale production of flavonoid scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjun; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-10-20

    Flavonoids possess pharmaceutical potential due to their health-promoting activities. The complex structures of these products make extraction from plants difficult, and chemical synthesis is limited because of the use of many toxic solvents. Microbial production offers an alternate way to produce these compounds on an industrial scale in a more economical and environment-friendly manner. However, at present microbial production has been achieved only on a laboratory scale and improvements and scale-up of these processes remain challenging. Naringenin and pinocembrin, which are flavonoid scaffolds and precursors for most of the flavonoids, are the model molecules that are key to solving the current issues restricting industrial production of these chemicals. The emergence of systems metabolic engineering, which combines systems biology with synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering at the systems level, offers new perspectives on strain and process optimization. In this review, current challenges in large-scale fermentation processes involving flavonoid scaffolds and the strategies and tools of systems metabolic engineering used to overcome these challenges are summarized. This will offer insights into overcoming the limitations and challenges of large-scale microbial production of these important pharmaceutical compounds.

  10. How High Is It? An Educator's Guide with Activities Focused on Scale Models of Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This guide focuses on scale models of distances. Activities also incorporate mathematics but can be used in science and technology grades 5-8 classes. The content of the book is divided into three sections: (1) Introductory Activities; (2) Core Activities; and (3) Activity/Assessment. Activities include: (1) KWL Chart; (2) Ball and String…

  11. Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on

  12. OBSERVING EVOLUTION IN THE SUPERGRANULAR NETWORK LENGTH SCALE DURING PERIODS OF LOW SOLAR ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Rast, Mark P.; Leamon, Robert J.; Hock, Rachel A.; Ulrich, Roger K.

    2011-03-20

    We present the initial results of an observational study into the variation of the dominant length scale of quiet solar emission: supergranulation. The distribution of magnetic elements in the lanes that from the network affects, and reflects, the radiative energy in the plasma of the upper solar chromosphere and transition region at the magnetic network boundaries forming as a result of the relentless interaction of magnetic fields and convective motions of the Suns' interior. We demonstrate that a net difference of {approx}0.5 Mm in the supergranular emission length scale occurs when comparing observation cycle 22/23 and cycle 23/24 minima. This variation in scale is reproduced in the data sets of multiple space- and ground-based instruments and using different diagnostic measures. By means of extension, we consider the variation of the supergranular length scale over multiple solar minima by analyzing a subset of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory Ca II K image record. The observations and analysis presented provide a tantalizing look at solar activity in the absence of large-scale flux emergence, offering insight into times of 'extreme' solar minimum and general behavior such as the phasing and cross-dependence of different components of the spectral irradiance. Given that the modulation of the supergranular scale imprints itself in variations of the Suns' spectral irradiance, as well as in the mass and energy transport into the entire outer atmosphere, this preliminary investigation is an important step in understanding the impact of the quiet Sun on the heliospheric system.

  13. Observing Evolution in the Supergranular Network Length Scale During Periods of Low Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.; Hock, Rachel A.; Rast, Mark P.; Ulrich, Roger K.

    2011-03-01

    We present the initial results of an observational study into the variation of the dominant length scale of quiet solar emission: supergranulation. The distribution of magnetic elements in the lanes that from the network affects, and reflects, the radiative energy in the plasma of the upper solar chromosphere and transition region at the magnetic network boundaries forming as a result of the relentless interaction of magnetic fields and convective motions of the Suns' interior. We demonstrate that a net difference of ~0.5 Mm in the supergranular emission length scale occurs when comparing observation cycle 22/23 and cycle 23/24 minima. This variation in scale is reproduced in the data sets of multiple space- and ground-based instruments and using different diagnostic measures. By means of extension, we consider the variation of the supergranular length scale over multiple solar minima by analyzing a subset of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory Ca II K image record. The observations and analysis presented provide a tantalizing look at solar activity in the absence of large-scale flux emergence, offering insight into times of "extreme" solar minimum and general behavior such as the phasing and cross-dependence of different components of the spectral irradiance. Given that the modulation of the supergranular scale imprints itself in variations of the Suns' spectral irradiance, as well as in the mass and energy transport into the entire outer atmosphere, this preliminary investigation is an important step in understanding the impact of the quiet Sun on the heliospheric system.

  14. Upscaling a catchment-scale ecohydrology model for regional-scale earth system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. C.; Tague, C.; Liu, M.; Garcia, E.; Choate, J.; Mullis, T.; Hull, R.; Vaughan, J. K.; Kalyanaraman, A.; Nguyen, T.

    2014-12-01

    With a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), BioEarth is an Earth System Model (EaSM) currently in development that explores the interactions between coupled C:N:H2O dynamics and resource management actions at the regional scale. Capturing coupled biogeochemical processes within EaSMs like BioEarth is important for exploring the response of the land surface to changes in climate and resource management actions; information that is important for shaping decisions that promote sustainable use of our natural resources. However, many EaSM frameworks do not adequately represent landscape-scale (< 1 km) spatial heterogeneity that influences land surface response, as relatively coarse resolution simulations (> 10 km) are necessitated by computational limitations. Spatial heterogeneity in a landscape arises due to spatial differences in underlying soil and vegetation properties that control moisture, energy and nutrient fluxes; as well as differences that arise due to spatially-organized connections that may drive an ecohydrologic response by the land surface. While many land surface models used in EaSM frameworks capture the first type of heterogeneity, few account for the influence of lateral connectivity on land surface processes. This type of connectivity can be important when considering soil moisture and nutrient redistribution. The RHESSys model is utilized by BioEarth to enable a "bottom-up" approach that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral connectivity that may be important for coupled C:N:H2O dynamics over larger scales. RHESSys is a distributed eco-hydrologic model that was originally developed to run at relatively fine but computationally intensive spatial resolutions over small catchments. The objective of this presentation is to describe two developments to enable implementation of RHESSys over the PNW. 1) RHESSys is being adapted for BioEarth to allow for moderately coarser resolutions and the flexibility to capture both types of

  15. A laser velocimeter system for large-scale aerodynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinath, M. S.; Orloff, K. L.; Snyder, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    A unique laser velocimeter was developed that is capable of sensing two orthogonal velocity components from a variable remote distance of 2.6 to 10 m for use in the 40- by 80-Foot and 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnels and the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility at Ames Research Center. The system hardware, positioning instrumentation, and data acquisition equipment are described in detail; system capabilities and limitations are discussed; and expressions for systematic and statistical accuracy are developed. Direct and coupled laboratory measurements taken with the system are compared with measurements taken with a laser velocimeter of higher spatial resolution, and sample data taken in the open circuit exhaust flow of a 1/50-scale model of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented.

  16. Reducing Waste in Extreme Scale Systems through Introspective Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista-Gomez, Leonardo; Gainaru, Ana; Perarnau, Swann; Tiwari, Devesh; Gupta, Saurabh; Engelmann, Christian; Cappello, Franck; Snir, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is an important challenge for extreme- scale supercomputers. Today, failures in supercomputers are assumed to be uniformly distributed in time. However, recent studies show that failures in high-performance computing systems are partially correlated in time, generating periods of higher failure density. Our study of the failure logs of multiple supercomputers show that periods of higher failure density occur with up to three times more than the average. We design a monitoring system that listens to hardware events and forwards important events to the runtime to detect those regime changes. We implement a runtime capable of receiving notifications and adapt dynamically. In addition, we build an analytical model to predict the gains that such dynamic approach could achieve. We demonstrate that in some systems, our approach can reduce the wasted time by over 30%.

  17. Optimal Control Modification for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  18. Control of Systems With Slow Actuators Using Time Scale Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vehram; Nguyen, Nhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling a nonlinear plant with a slow actuator using singular perturbation method. For the known plant-actuator cascaded system the proposed scheme achieves tracking of a given reference model with considerably less control demand than would otherwise result when using conventional design techniques. This is the consequence of excluding the small parameter from the actuator dynamics via time scale separation. The resulting tracking error is within the order of this small parameter. For the unknown system the adaptive counterpart is developed based on the prediction model, which is driven towards the reference model by the control design. It is proven that the prediction model tracks the reference model with an error proportional to the small parameter, while the prediction error converges to zero. The resulting closed-loop system with all prediction models and adaptive laws remains stable. The benefits of the approach are demonstrated in simulation studies and compared to conventional control approaches.

  19. Investigation of some green compounds as corrosion and scale inhibitors for cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Farooqi, I.H.; Saini, P.A. )

    1999-05-01

    The performance of an open-recirculating cooling system, an important component in most industries, is affected by corrosion and scale formation. Numerous additives have been used in the past for the control of corrosion and scale formation. Effects of the naturally occurring compounds azadirachta indica (leaves), punica granatum (shell), and momordica charantia (fruits), on corrosion of mild steel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) were assessed using weight loss, electrochemical polarization, and impedance techniques. Extracts of the compounds exhibited excellent inhibition efficiencies comparable to that of hydroxyethylidine diphosphonic acid (HEDP), the most preferred cooling water inhibitor. The compounds were found effective under static and flowing conditions. Extracts were quite effective in retarding formation of scales, and the maximum antiscaling efficiency was exhibited by the extract of azadirachta indica (98%). The blowdown of the cooling system possessed color and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Concentrations of these parameters were reduced by an adsorption process using activated carbon as an adsorbent.

  20. Decentralization, stabilization, and estimation of large-scale linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Vukcevic, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    In this short paper we consider three closely related aspects of large-scale systems: decentralization, stabilization, and estimation. A method is proposed to decompose a large linear system into a number of interconnected subsystems with decentralized (scalar) inputs or outputs. The procedure is preliminary to the hierarchic stabilization and estimation of linear systems and is performed on the subsystem level. A multilevel control scheme based upon the decomposition-aggregation method is developed for stabilization of input-decentralized linear systems Local linear feedback controllers are used to stabilize each decoupled subsystem, while global linear feedback controllers are utilized to minimize the coupling effect among the subsystems. Systems stabilized by the method have a tolerance to a wide class of nonlinearities in subsystem coupling and high reliability with respect to structural perturbations. The proposed output-decentralization and stabilization schemes can be used directly to construct asymptotic state estimators for large linear systems on the subsystem level. The problem of dimensionality is resolved by constructing a number of low-order estimators, thus avoiding a design of a single estimator for the overall system.

  1. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  2. Centennial Scale Variations in Lake Productivity Linked to Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englebrecht, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ingram, L.; Byrne, R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar variations on both decadal and centennial timescales have been associated with climate phenomena (van Loon et al., 2004; Hodell et al., 2001; White et al., 1997). The energy received by the Earth at the peak of the solar cycle increases by <0.1%; so the question has remained of how this could be amplified to produce an observable climate response. Recent modeling shows that the response of the Earth's climate system to the 11-year solar cycle may be amplified through stratosphere and ocean feedbacks and has the potential to impact climate variability on a multidecadal to centennial timescales (Meehl et al., 2009). Here, we report a 1000-year record of changes in the stratigraphy and carbon isotope composition of varved lake sediment from Isla Isabela (22°N, 106°W) in the subtropical northeast Pacific. Stable carbon isotopes and carbonate stratigraphy can be used to infer surface productivity in the lake. Our analysis shows variations in primary productivity on centennial timescales and suggests that solar activity may be an important component of Pacific climate variability. A possible response during solar maxima acts to keep the eastern equatorial Pacific cooler and drier than usual, producing conditions similar to a La Niña event. In the region around Isla Isabela peak solar years were characterized by decreased surface temperatures and suppressed precipitation (Meehl et al., 2009), which enhance productivity at Isabela (Kienel et al. 2011). In the future, we plan to analyze the data using advanced time series analysis techniques like the wavelets together with techniques to handle irregularly spaced time series data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-571672

  3. An Overview of Research Activity at the Launch Systems Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Kandula, Max

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the acoustic testing and analysis activities at the Launch System Testbed (LST) of Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal is to develop passive methods of mitigation of sound from rocket exhaust jets with ducted systems devoid of traditional water injection. Current testing efforts are concerned with the launch-induced vibroacoustic behavior of scaled exhaust jets. Numerical simulations are also developed to study the sound propagation from supersonic jets in free air and through enclosed ducts. Scaling laws accounting for the effects of important parameters such as jet Mach number, jet velocity, and jet temperature on the far-field noise are investigated in order to deduce full-scale environment from small-scale tests.

  4. Scaling Law for Irreversible Entropy Production in Critical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Danh-Tai; Prasanna Venkatesh, B.; Han, Seungju; Jo, Junghyo; Watanabe, Gentaro; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2016-01-01

    We examine the Jarzynski equality for a quenching process across the critical point of second-order phase transitions, where absolute irreversibility and the effect of finite-sampling of the initial equilibrium distribution arise in a single setup with equal significance. We consider the Ising model as a prototypical example for spontaneous symmetry breaking and take into account the finite sampling issue by introducing a tolerance parameter. The initially ordered spins become disordered by quenching the ferromagnetic coupling constant. For a sudden quench, the deviation from the Jarzynski equality evaluated from the ideal ensemble average could, in principle, depend on the reduced coupling constant ε0 of the initial state and the system size L. We find that, instead of depending on ε0 and L separately, this deviation exhibits a scaling behavior through a universal combination of ε0 and L for a given tolerance parameter, inherited from the critical scaling laws of second-order phase transitions. A similar scaling law can be obtained for the finite-speed quench as well within the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. PMID:27277558

  5. Intrinsic Multi-Scale Dynamic Behaviors of Complex Financial Systems.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fang-Yan; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The empirical mode decomposition is applied to analyze the intrinsic multi-scale dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. In this approach, the time series of the price returns of each stock is decomposed into a small number of intrinsic mode functions, which represent the price motion from high frequency to low frequency. These intrinsic mode functions are then grouped into three modes, i.e., the fast mode, medium mode and slow mode. The probability distribution of returns and auto-correlation of volatilities for the fast and medium modes exhibit similar behaviors as those of the full time series, i.e., these characteristics are rather robust in multi time scale. However, the cross-correlation between individual stocks and the return-volatility correlation are time scale dependent. The structure of business sectors is mainly governed by the fast mode when returns are sampled at a couple of days, while by the medium mode when returns are sampled at dozens of days. More importantly, the leverage and anti-leverage effects are dominated by the medium mode.

  6. Intrinsic Multi-Scale Dynamic Behaviors of Complex Financial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang-Yan; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The empirical mode decomposition is applied to analyze the intrinsic multi-scale dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. In this approach, the time series of the price returns of each stock is decomposed into a small number of intrinsic mode functions, which represent the price motion from high frequency to low frequency. These intrinsic mode functions are then grouped into three modes, i.e., the fast mode, medium mode and slow mode. The probability distribution of returns and auto-correlation of volatilities for the fast and medium modes exhibit similar behaviors as those of the full time series, i.e., these characteristics are rather robust in multi time scale. However, the cross-correlation between individual stocks and the return-volatility correlation are time scale dependent. The structure of business sectors is mainly governed by the fast mode when returns are sampled at a couple of days, while by the medium mode when returns are sampled at dozens of days. More importantly, the leverage and anti-leverage effects are dominated by the medium mode. PMID:26427063

  7. Conductance of finite systems and scaling in localization theory

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, I. M.

    2012-11-15

    The conductance of finite systems plays a central role in the scaling theory of localization (Abrahams et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 673 (1979)). Usually it is defined by the Landauer-type formulas, which remain open the following questions: (a) exclusion of the contact resistance in the many-channel case; (b) correspondence of the Landauer conductance with internal properties of the system; (c) relation with the diffusion coefficient D({omega}, q) of an infinite system. The answers to these questions are obtained below in the framework of two approaches: (1) self-consistent theory of localization by Vollhardt and Woelfle, and (2) quantum mechanical analysis based on the shell model. Both approaches lead to the same definition for the conductance of a finite system, closely related to the Thouless definition. In the framework of the self-consistent theory, the relations of finite-size scaling are derived and the Gell-Mann-Low functions {beta}(g) for space dimensions d = 1, 2, 3 are calculated. In contrast to the previous attempt by Vollhardt and Woelfle (1982), the metallic and localized phase are considered from the same standpoint, and the conductance of a finite system has no singularity at the critical point. In the 2D case, the expansion of {beta}(g) in 1/g coincides with results of the {sigma}-model approach on the two-loop level and depends on the renormalization scheme in higher loops; the use of dimensional regularization for transition to dimension d = 2 + {epsilon} looks incompatible with the physical essence of the problem. The results are compared with numerical and physical experiments. A situation in higher dimensions and the conditions for observation of the localization law {sigma}({omega}) {proportional_to} -i{omega} for conductivity are discussed.

  8. Multi-time Scale Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Isolated Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony; Xie, Le; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2016-03-31

    In isolated power systems, including microgrids, distributed assets, such as renewable energy resources (e.g. wind, solar) and energy storage, can be actively coordinated to reduce dependency on fossil fuel generation. The key challenge of such coordination arises from significant uncertainty and variability occurring at small time scales associated with increased penetration of renewables. Specifically, the problem is with ensuring economic and efficient utilization of DERs, while also meeting operational objectives such as adequate frequency performance. One possible solution is to reduce the time step at which tertiary controls are implemented and to ensure feedback and look-ahead capability are incorporated to handle variability and uncertainty. However, reducing the time step of tertiary controls necessitates investigating time-scale coupling with primary controls so as not to exacerbate system stability issues. In this paper, an optimal coordination (OC) strategy, which considers multiple time-scales, is proposed for isolated microgrid systems with a mix of DERs. This coordination strategy is based on an online moving horizon optimization approach. The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated in terms of economics, technical performance, and computation time by varying key parameters that significantly impact performance. The illustrative example with realistic scenarios on a simulated isolated microgrid test system suggests that the proposed approach is generalizable towards designing multi-time scale optimal coordination strategies for isolated power systems.

  9. Microseconds-scale magnetic actuators system for plasma feedback stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, K.; Be'ery, I.; Seemann, O.

    2016-10-01

    Many magnetic confinement machines use active feedback stabilization with magnetic actuators. We present a novel magnetic actuators system with a response time much faster than previous ones, making it capable of coping with the fast plasma instabilities. The system achieved a response time of 3 μs with maximal current of 500 A in a coil with inductance of 5.2 μH. The system is based on commercial solid-state switches and FPGA state machine, making it easily scalable to higher currents or higher inductivity.

  10. Fishing for Space: Fine-Scale Multi-Sector Maritime Activities Influence Fisher Location Choice

    PubMed Central

    Tidd, Alex N.; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul; Pinnegar, John; Blanchard, Julia L.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers’ choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers’ likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential foundation for

  11. Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice.

    PubMed

    Tidd, Alex N; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul; Pinnegar, John; Blanchard, Julia L; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers' choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers' likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential foundation for future

  12. Large-Scale Optimization for Bayesian Inference in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Willcox, Karen; Marzouk, Youssef

    2013-11-12

    The SAGUARO (Scalable Algorithms for Groundwater Uncertainty Analysis and Robust Optimization) Project focused on the development of scalable numerical algorithms for large-scale Bayesian inversion in complex systems that capitalize on advances in large-scale simulation-based optimization and inversion methods. The project was a collaborative effort among MIT, the University of Texas at Austin, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Sandia National Laboratories. The research was directed in three complementary areas: efficient approximations of the Hessian operator, reductions in complexity of forward simulations via stochastic spectral approximations and model reduction, and employing large-scale optimization concepts to accelerate sampling. The MIT--Sandia component of the SAGUARO Project addressed the intractability of conventional sampling methods for large-scale statistical inverse problems by devising reduced-order models that are faithful to the full-order model over a wide range of parameter values; sampling then employs the reduced model rather than the full model, resulting in very large computational savings. Results indicate little effect on the computed posterior distribution. On the other hand, in the Texas--Georgia Tech component of the project, we retain the full-order model, but exploit inverse problem structure (adjoint-based gradients and partial Hessian information of the parameter-to-observation map) to implicitly extract lower dimensional information on the posterior distribution; this greatly speeds up sampling methods, so that fewer sampling points are needed. We can think of these two approaches as ``reduce then sample'' and ``sample then reduce.'' In fact, these two approaches are complementary, and can be used in conjunction with each other. Moreover, they both exploit deterministic inverse problem structure, in the form of adjoint-based gradient and Hessian information of the underlying parameter-to-observation map, to achieve their

  13. Musculoaponeurotic Area of the Hip and Clinicophotographic Scaling System

    PubMed Central

    Mena-Chávez, J. Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the evolution of body contouring, few innovative alternatives have been developed for cosmetic treatment in the hip area. Methods: A multicenter controlled study was conducted, including a prior review of the literature regarding the hip area. Dissections were performed on 4 male cadavers, outlining the “musculoaponeurotic area of the hip.” The area was subdivided into anterior and posterior surfaces. A clinical study was conducted in 79 patients, obtaining a scale by using the most prominent points on the sides of both thighs as the main reference. With the lines marked on photographs and the measurements, a “clinicophotographic scaling system” was designed. Results: The anterior surface corresponds to the tensor fasciae latae and its tendon as well as to the aponeurosis of the gluteus medius. The posterior surface corresponds with the iliotibial tract and the tendon insertions of the gluteus maximus. The average dimensions of the cadaver “musculoaponeurotic area of the hip” are as follows: length, 17.5 cm, and width, 11.5 cm. Using the “clinicophotographic scaling system,” the dimensions are as follows: length, 14.9 cm, and width, 10.3 cm. Conclusions: The “musculoaponeurotic area of the hip” was defined involving muscles, tendons, aponeurosis, fascia, subcutaneous cellular tissue, and skin. The borders were established using important anatomical points that determine the length and width of the area. The “clinicophotographic scaling system” was used to clinically calculate the length and width of the area. By examination and palpation, the borders and dimensions of this area could be determined. PMID:26180724

  14. Time-spectral characteristics of large-scale cloud systems in the tropical Pacific.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikdar, D. N.; Young, J. A.; Suomi, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    Study of time series of areal cloud coverage over the central Pacific to determine the large-scale variations of tropical disturbance activity for a four-month period in 1967. The persistent and fluctuating components are found to be more prevalent in regions of high and low mean cloudiness, respectively, with major longitudinal variations in activity most evident in the Southern Hemisphere. Normalized power spectra show that the transient activity occurring in the equatorial zone is dominated by shorter periods of about four days, while longer periods are dominant away from the equator. Coherency magnitudes and phases between different locations indicate that propagating cloud systems are most identifiable at lower frequencies in the Southern Hemisphere, and at somewhat higher frequencies in the Northern Hemisphere. Activity with periods in excess of five days consists largely of both westward and eastward propagation on the planetary wave scale. The shorter periods appear to consist of both synoptic-scale and planetary-scale modes, with westward propagation dominant near the equator.

  15. Development of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shirley M; Komton, Vilailert; Adegbite-Adeniyi, Clara; Dolansky, Mary A; Hardin, Heather K; Borawski, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric testing of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change (STS-AB). Following item development, initial assessments of understandability and stability of the STS-AB were conducted in a sample of nine adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Exploratory factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB and internal consistency assessments were then done with 359 adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Test-retest reliability of the STS-AB was .71, p = .03; internal consistency reliability was .87. Factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB indicated a one-factor solution with good factor loadings, ranging from .40 to .67. Evidence of construct validity was supported by significant correlations with established measures of variables associated with health behavior change. We provide beginning evidence of the reliability and validity of the STS-AB to measure systems thinking for health behavior change in young adolescents.

  16. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. The following is presented in this report: (1) a brief review of the GCE model and its applications on the impact of aerosols on deep precipitation processes, (2) the Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) a discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications).

  17. Probabilistic voltage security for large scale power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshtan, Majid

    2000-10-01

    Stability is one of the most important problems in power system operation and control. Voltage instability is one type of power system instability that occurs when the system operates close to its limits. Progressive voltage instability, which is also referred to as Voltage Collapse, results in loss of voltage at certain nodes (buses) in the system. Voltage collapse, a slowly occurring phenomena leading to loss of voltage at specific parts of an electric utility, has been observed in the USA, Europe, Japan, Canada, and other places in the world during the past decade. Voltage collapse typically occurs on power systems which are heavily loaded, faulted and/or have reactive power shortages. There are several power system's parameter changes known to contribute to voltage collapse. The most important contributors to voltage instability are: increasing load, generators or SVC reaching reactive power limits, action of tap-changing transformers, line tripping, and generator outages. The differences between voltage collapse and lack of classical transient stability is that in voltage collapse we focus on loads and voltage magnitudes whereas in classical transient stability the focus is on generators' dynamics and voltage angles. Also voltage collapse often includes longer time scale dynamics and includes the effects of continuous changes such as load increases in addition to discrete events such as line outages. Two conventional methods to analyze voltage collapse are P-V and V-Q curves, and modal analyses. Both methods are deterministic and do not encounter any probability for the contingencies causing the voltage collapse. The purpose of this investigation is to identify probabilistic indices to assess the steady-state voltage stability by considering random failures and their dependency in a large-scale power system. The research mainly continues the previous research completed at Tulane University by Dr. J. Bian and Professor P. Rastgoufard and will complement it by

  18. The Internet As a Large-Scale Complex System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kihong; Willinger, Walter

    2005-06-01

    The Internet may be viewed as a "complex system" with diverse features and many components that can give rise to unexpected emergent phenomena, revealing much about its own engineering. This book brings together chapter contributions from a workshop held at the Santa Fe Institute in March 2001. This volume captures a snapshot of some features of the Internet that may be fruitfully approached using a complex systems perspective, meaning using interdisciplinary tools and methods to tackle the subject area. The Internet penetrates the socioeconomic fabric of everyday life; a broader and deeper grasp of the Internet may be needed to meet the challenges facing the future. The resulting empirical data have already proven to be invaluable for gaining novel insights into the network's spatio-temporal dynamics, and can be expected to become even more important when tryin to explain the Internet's complex and emergent behavior in terms of elementary networking-based mechanisms. The discoveries of fractal or self-similar network traffic traces, power-law behavior in network topology and World Wide Web connectivity are instances of unsuspected, emergent system traits. Another important factor at the heart of fair, efficient, and stable sharing of network resources is user behavior. Network systems, when habited by selfish or greedy users, take on the traits of a noncooperative multi-party game, and their stability and efficiency are integral to understanding the overall system and its dynamics. Lastly, fault-tolerance and robustness of large-scale network systems can exhibit spatial and temporal correlations whose effective analysis and management may benefit from rescaling techniques applied in certain physical and biological systems. The present book will bring together several of the leading workers involved in the analysis of complex systems with the future development of the Internet.

  19. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    shape requirements definitions for system upgrade or modification contracts and new baseline contracts. Finally, content analysis training and skill...back to the system designers, this information can then be used to shape requirements definition for system upgrade or modification contracts and new...Activity System Requirements Definition Ensuring the system requirements adequately reflect the stakeholder requirements Negotiating modifications to

  20. Transactive memory systems scale for couples: development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Lauren Y.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2015-01-01

    People in romantic relationships can develop shared memory systems by pooling their cognitive resources, allowing each person access to more information but with less cognitive effort. Research examining such memory systems in romantic couples largely focuses on remembering word lists or performing lab-based tasks, but these types of activities do not capture the processes underlying couples’ transactive memory systems, and may not be representative of the ways in which romantic couples use their shared memory systems in everyday life. We adapted an existing measure of transactive memory systems for use with romantic couples (TMSS-C), and conducted an initial validation study. In total, 397 participants who each identified as being a member of a romantic relationship of at least 3 months duration completed the study. The data provided a good fit to the anticipated three-factor structure of the components of couples’ transactive memory systems (specialization, credibility and coordination), and there was reasonable evidence of both convergent and divergent validity, as well as strong evidence of test–retest reliability across a 2-week period. The TMSS-C provides a valuable tool that can quickly and easily capture the underlying components of romantic couples’ transactive memory systems. It has potential to help us better understand this intriguing feature of romantic relationships, and how shared memory systems might be associated with other important features of romantic relationships. PMID:25999873

  1. Activated scaling in disorder-rounded first-order quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellafard, Arash; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2016-09-01

    First-order phase transitions, classical or quantum, subject to randomness coupled to energylike variables (bond randomness) can be rounded, resulting in continuous transitions (emergent criticality). We study perhaps the simplest such model, the quantum three-color Ashkin-Teller model, and show that the quantum critical point in (1 +1 ) dimension is an unusual one, with activated scaling at the critical point and Griffiths-McCoy phase away from it. The behavior is similar to the transverse random field Ising model, even though the pure system has a first-order transition in this case. We believe that this fact must be attended to when discussing quantum critical points in numerous physical systems.

  2. Ultrasonic processing of dairy systems in large scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Zisu, Bogdan; Bhaskaracharya, Raman; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2010-08-01

    High intensity low frequency ultrasound was used to process dairy ingredients to improve functional properties. Based on a number of lab-scale experiments, several experimental parameters were optimised for processing large volumes of whey and casein-based dairy systems in pilot scale ultrasonic reactors. A continuous sonication process at 20 kHz capable of delivering up to 4 kW of power with a flow-through reactor design was used to treat dairy ingredients at flow rates ranging from 200 to 6000 mL/min. Dairy ingredients treated by ultrasound included reconstituted whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein and milk protein retentates and calcium caseinate. The sonication of solutions with a contact time of less than 1 min and up to 2.4 min led to a significant reduction in the viscosity of materials containing 18% to 54% (w/w) solids. The viscosity of aqueous dairy ingredients treated with ultrasound was reduced by between 6% and 50% depending greatly on the composition, processing history, acoustic power and contact time. A notable improvement in the gel strength of sonicated and heat coagulated dairy systems was also observed. When sonication was combined with a pre-heat treatment of 80 degrees C for 1 min or 85 degrees C for 30s, the heat stability of the dairy ingredients containing whey proteins was significantly improved. The effect of sonication was attributed mainly to physical forces generated through acoustic cavitation as supported by particle size reduction in response to sonication. As a result, the gelling properties and heat stability aspects of sonicated dairy ingredients were maintained after spray drying and reconstitution. Overall, the sonication procedure for processing dairy systems may be used to improve process efficiency, improve throughput and develop value added ingredients with the potential to deliver economical benefits to the dairy industry.

  3. Data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Data Management System-1100 is designed to operate in conjunction with the UNIVAC 1100 Series Operating System on any 1100 Series computer. DMS-1100 is divided into the following four major software components: (1) Data Definition Languages (DDL); (2) Data Management Routine (DMR); (3) Data Manipulation Languages (DML); and (4) Data Base Utilities (DBU). These software components are described in detail.

  4. Transfer printing and micro-scale hybrid materials systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitl, Matthew Alexander

    Micro- and nano-scale engineering, especially as it applies to integrated circuits, has impacted society in revolutionary ways. These integrated circuits are characterized by huge numbers of small electronic devices manufactured on semiconductor wafers. Some emerging technologies will require assemblies of these micro/nano-devices on substrates that are very different from semiconductor wafers in terms of processing schemes and properties. Integration of high quality semiconductors and devices onto large, low-cost, mechanically- deformable, polymeric (plastic or elastomer), and/or functional substrates for unconventional electronics applications (displays, systems-on-a-chip) are a few examples. This dissertation presents methods for assembling small-scale (˜nm to ˜mm) materials elements and devices on many classes of substrate (planar or simply-curved with nearly arbitrary composition) via transfer printing, a form of soft lithography. The approach uses rubber stamps to manipulate arrays of small-scale objects including but not limited to carbon nanotubes, metal thin films, single-crystal silicon and III-V semiconductor microstructures and devices, few-layer graphene, and silica microspheres. Presented here are the techniques for preparing printable materials elements and devices from solution (e.g. surfactant stabilized aqueous carbon nanotube solutions) and from donor/source substrates (e.g. semiconductor wafers) as well as the mechanical phenomena that govern the transfer of materials to and from the stamp. Among these are kinetically-switchable adhesion to a viscoelastic stamp and stress focusing via sharp geometries for controlling fracture. Also presented here are thin-film transistors, photodiodes, and inorganic light-emitting diodes on plastic substrates as well as semiconductor woodpile structures and silicon-III-V heterogeneous integration, examples of the capabilities of the transfer printing approach.

  5. Activation volume of selected liquid crystals in the density scaling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, A.; Urban, S.; Mroz, S.; Paluch, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate and thoroughly analyze the activation volumetric properties of selected liquid crystals in the nematic and crystalline E phases in comparison with those reported for glass-forming liquids. In the analysis, we have employed and evaluated two entropic models (based on either total or configurational entropies) to describe the longitudinal relaxation times of the liquid crystals in the density scaling regime. In this study, we have also exploited two equations of state: volumetric and activation volumetric ones. As a result, we have established that the activation volumetric properties of the selected liquid crystals are quite opposite to such typical properties of glass-forming materials, i.e., the activation volume decreases and the isothermal bulk modulus increases when a liquid crystal is isothermally compressed. Using the model based on the configurational entropy, we suggest that the increasing pressure dependences of the activation volume in isothermal conditions and the negative curvature of the pressure dependences of isothermal longitudinal relaxation times can be related to the formation of antiparallel doublets in the examined liquid crystals. A similar pressure effect on relaxation dynamics may be also observed for other material groups in case of systems, the molecules of which form some supramolecular structures.

  6. Activation volume of selected liquid crystals in the density scaling regime

    PubMed Central

    Grzybowski, A.; Urban, S.; Mroz, S.; Paluch, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate and thoroughly analyze the activation volumetric properties of selected liquid crystals in the nematic and crystalline E phases in comparison with those reported for glass-forming liquids. In the analysis, we have employed and evaluated two entropic models (based on either total or configurational entropies) to describe the longitudinal relaxation times of the liquid crystals in the density scaling regime. In this study, we have also exploited two equations of state: volumetric and activation volumetric ones. As a result, we have established that the activation volumetric properties of the selected liquid crystals are quite opposite to such typical properties of glass-forming materials, i.e., the activation volume decreases and the isothermal bulk modulus increases when a liquid crystal is isothermally compressed. Using the model based on the configurational entropy, we suggest that the increasing pressure dependences of the activation volume in isothermal conditions and the negative curvature of the pressure dependences of isothermal longitudinal relaxation times can be related to the formation of antiparallel doublets in the examined liquid crystals. A similar pressure effect on relaxation dynamics may be also observed for other material groups in case of systems, the molecules of which form some supramolecular structures. PMID:28181530

  7. Thermal Activation of Dislocations in Large Scale Obstacle Bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez Saez, Enrique; Sobie, Cameron; Wen, Wei; Capolungo, Laurent; Patra, Anirban; McDowell, David L.; Tome, Carlos

    2016-08-18

    Irradiation-created defects diffuse and agglomerate presenting obstacles for the dislocation motion (both glide and climb). This effect leads to hardening and loss of toughness, which might drive the system to failure.

  8. Orbiter active thermal control system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description of the Orbiter Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) including (1) major functional requirements of heat load, temperature control and heat sink utilization, (2) the overall system arrangement, and (3) detailed description of the elements of the ATCS.

  9. Large-Scale Activity Initiated BY Halo CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, I.; Grechnev, V.

    We summarize results of our recent studies of CME-associated EUV dimmings and coronal waves by `derotated' fixed-difference SOHO/EIT heliograms at 195 Å with 12-min intervals and at 171, 195, 284, 304 Å with 6-h intervals. Correctness of the derotated fixed-difference technique is confirmed by the consideration of the Bastille Day 2000 event. We also demonstrate that long narrow channeled dimmings and anisotropic coronal waves are typical of the complex global solar magnetosphere near the solar cycle maximum. Homology of large-scale dimmings and coronal waves takes place in a series of recurrent eruptive events. Along with dimmings coinciding entirely or partially in all four EIT bands, there exist dimmings that appear different, mainly in the transition-region line of 304 Å and high-temperature coronal line of 284 Å.

  10. DISTURBANCE PATTERNS IN A SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM AT MULTIPLE SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological systems with hierarchical organization and non-equilibrium dynamics require multiple-scale analyses to comprehend how a system is structured and to formulate hypotheses about regulatory mechanisms. Characteristic scales in real landscapes are determined by, or at least...

  11. Scaling of strontium-vapor laser active volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. N.; Polunin, Yu. P.

    2008-01-01

    Variations in the energy performance of a self-terminating Sr-vapor laser (SrVL) are examined. The active laser volume is varied between 20 and 650 cm 3. A linear relation is revealed between the average power delivered by the SrVL and its active volume. The SrVL efficiency is found to increase with active volume and to be comparable with that of a copper-vapor laser for an active volume V = 650 cm 3 (0.45 %). As the volume is increased, the total lasing pulse duration increases from 30 to 120 ns. The beam divergence problems associated with the use of a Fabry-Perot cavity or an unstable resonator of the telescopic type are discussed. A total average power of 13.5 W is obtained from V = 650 cm 3 at a lasing PRR F = 19 kHz. The output power generated at different laser wavelengths is as follows: 10.4 W at λ = 6.456 μm, 2.6 W at λ = 3 μm, and 0.5 W at λ = 1 μm. The wavelength dependence of the lasing pulse duration is considered.

  12. Can we understand time scales of solar activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremliovsky, M. N.

    1994-05-01

    The dynamo theory of the solar cycle faces numerous difficulties in regard to an explanation of the observed behavior of sunspot activity. In particular, there is an essential irregularity in the sequence of 11(22)-year cycles. In this paper we want to show how the complicated long-term evolution of solar activity can be understood within the framework of a simple model demonstrating low-dimensional chaotic behavior. According to this description we are able to give a definition for the periods of low activity (Global Minima), to describe how the transition to (from) a Global Minimum occurs and to show the role of the 11(22)-year cycle and its phase catastrophe. The explanations of the origin of the Gleissberg cycle and thousand-year variations of solar activity are given. In summary, the independence of the proposed scenario from the particular choice of model is shown. Thus one can formulate dynamics in the language of generalized instabilities which can aid the search for the underlying physical processes.

  13. Validity Evidence for the State Mindfulness Scale for Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Anne E.; Ullrich-French, Sarah; French, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Being attentive to and aware of one's experiences in the present moment with qualities of acceptance and openness reflects the state of mindfulness. Positive associations exist between state mindfulness and state autonomous motivation for everyday activities. Though this suggests that state mindfulness links with adaptive motivational experiences,…

  14. Impact of small-scale storage systems on the photovoltaic penetration potential at the municipal scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Camargo, Luis; Dorner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The yearly cumulated technical energy generation potential of grid-connected roof-top photovoltaic power plants is significantly larger than the demand of domestic buildings in sparsely populated municipalities in central Europe. However, an energy balance with cumulated annual values does not deliver the right picture about the actual potential for photovoltaics since these run on a highly variable energy source as solar radiation. The mismatch between the periods of generation and demand creates hard limitations for the deployment of the theoretical energy generation potential of roof-top photovoltaics. The actual penetration of roof-top photovoltaic is restricted by the energy quality requirements of the grid and/or the available storage capacity for the electricity production beyond the coverage of own demands. In this study we evaluate in how far small-scale storage systems can contribute to increment the grid-connected roof-top photovoltaic penetration in domestic buildings at a municipal scale. To accomplish this, we calculate, in a first step, the total technical roof-top photovoltaic energy generation potential of a municipality in a high spatiotemporal resolution using a procedure that relies on geographic information systems. Posteriorly, we constrain the set of potential photovoltaic plants to the ones that would be necessary to cover the total yearly demand of the municipality. We assume that photovoltaic plants with the highest yearly yield are the ones that should be installed. For this sub-set of photovoltaic plants we consider five scenarios: 1) no storage 2) one 7 kWh battery is installed in every building with a roof-top photovoltaic plant 3) one 10 kWh battery is installed in every building with a roof-top photovoltaic plant 4) one 7 kWh battery is installed in every domestic building in the municipality 5) one 10 kWh battery is installed in every domestic building in the municipality. Afterwards we evaluate the energy balance of the

  15. Genome-scale engineering for systems and synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Esvelt, Kevin M; Wang, Harris H

    2013-01-01

    Genome-modification technologies enable the rational engineering and perturbation of biological systems. Historically, these methods have been limited to gene insertions or mutations at random or at a few pre-defined locations across the genome. The handful of methods capable of targeted gene editing suffered from low efficiencies, significant labor costs, or both. Recent advances have dramatically expanded our ability to engineer cells in a directed and combinatorial manner. Here, we review current technologies and methodologies for genome-scale engineering, discuss the prospects for extending efficient genome modification to new hosts, and explore the implications of continued advances toward the development of flexibly programmable chasses, novel biochemistries, and safer organismal and ecological engineering. PMID:23340847

  16. Genome-scale engineering for systems and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Esvelt, Kevin M; Wang, Harris H

    2013-01-01

    Genome-modification technologies enable the rational engineering and perturbation of biological systems. Historically, these methods have been limited to gene insertions or mutations at random or at a few pre-defined locations across the genome. The handful of methods capable of targeted gene editing suffered from low efficiencies, significant labor costs, or both. Recent advances have dramatically expanded our ability to engineer cells in a directed and combinatorial manner. Here, we review current technologies and methodologies for genome-scale engineering, discuss the prospects for extending efficient genome modification to new hosts, and explore the implications of continued advances toward the development of flexibly programmable chasses, novel biochemistries, and safer organismal and ecological engineering.

  17. Refined scale-dependent permutation entropy to analyze systems complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuen-De; Wu, Chiu-Wen; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify the complexity of systems. Unfortunately, MSE has a temporal complexity in O(N2) , which is unrealistic for long time series. Moreover, MSE relies on the sample entropy computation which is length-dependent and which leads to large variance and possible undefined entropy values for short time series. Here, we propose and introduce a new multiscale complexity measure, the refined scale-dependent permutation entropy (RSDPE). Through the processing of different kinds of synthetic data and real signals, we show that RSDPE has a behavior close to the one of MSE. Furthermore, RSDPE has a temporal complexity in O(N) . Finally, RSDPE has the advantage of being much less length-dependent than MSE. From all this, we conclude that RSDPE over-performs MSE in terms of computational cost and computational accuracy.

  18. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the ph ysical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems.

  19. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the physical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems. In addition, high - resolution (spatial. 2km, and temporal, I minute) visualization showing the model results will be presented.

  20. Large-Scale Extratropical Weather Systems in Mars' Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.

    2013-01-01

    During late autumn through early spring, extratropical regions on Mars exhibit profound mean zonal equator-to-pole thermal contrasts. The imposition of this strong meridional temperature variation supports intense eastward-traveling, synoptic weather systems (i.e., transient baroclinic/barotropic waves) within Mars' extratropical atmosphere. Such disturbances grow, mature and decay within the east-west varying seasonal-mean midlatitude jet stream (i.e., the polar vortex) on the planet. Near the surface, the weather disturbances indicated large-scale spiraling "comma"-shaped dust cloud structures and scimitar-shaped dust fronts, indicative of processes associated with cyclo-/fronto-genesis. The weather systems occur during specific seasons on Mars, and in both hemispheres. The northern hemisphere (NH) disturbances are significantly more intense than their counterparts in the southern hemisphere (SH). Further, the NH weather systems and accompanying frontal waves appear to have significant impacts on the transport of tracer fields (e.g., particularly dust and to some extent water species (vapor/ice) as well). And regarding dust, frontal waves appear to be key agents in the lifting, lofting, organization and transport of this particular atmospheric aerosol. In this paper, a brief background and supporting observations of Mars' extratropical weather systems is presented. This is followed by a short review of the theory and various modeling studies (i.e., ranging from highly simplified, mechanistic and full global circulation modeling investigations) which have been pursued. Finally, a discussion of outstanding issues and questions regarding the character and nature of Mars' extratropical traveling weather systems is offered.

  1. Modeling Cytoskeletal Active Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Robert

    Active networks of filamentous proteins and crosslinking motor proteins play a critical role in many important cellular processes. One of the most important microtubule-motor protein assemblies is the mitotic spindle, a self-organized active liquid-crystalline structure that forms during cell division and that ultimately separates chromosomes into two daughter cells. Although the spindle has been intensively studied for decades, the physical principles that govern its self-organization and function remain mysterious. To evolve a better understanding of spindle formation, structure, and dynamics, I investigate course-grained models of active liquid-crystalline networks composed of microtubules, modeled as hard spherocylinders, in diffusive equilibrium with a reservoir of active crosslinks, modeled as hookean springs that can adsorb to microtubules and and translocate at finite velocity along the microtubule axis. This model is investigated using a combination of brownian dynamics and kinetic monte carlo simulation. I have further refined this model to simulate spindle formation and kinetochore capture in the fission yeast S. pombe. I then make predictions for experimentally realizable perturbations in motor protein presence and function in S. pombe.

  2. Stabilization of large-scale systems - A spinning flexible spacecraft. [Skylab applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stabilization of high-order constant systems by multilevel control is proposed in the framework of the decomposition-aggregation method for stability analysis of large-scale systems. An 11-order linear model of a spinning flexible spacecraft is stabilized by the method using both the passive and the active stabilization devices. The method can take advantage of the special structural features of the model to provide the best estimate of the stability region for an important parameter which couples the wobble and the spin motion of the spacecraft.

  3. A robust activity marking system for exploring active neuronal ensembles.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Cooper, Yonatan A; Baratta, Michael V; Weng, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Yuxiang; Ramamoorthi, Kartik; Fropf, Robin; LaVerriere, Emily; Xue, Jian; Young, Andrew; Schneider, Colleen; Gøtzsche, Casper René; Hemberg, Martin; Yin, Jerry Cp; Maier, Steven F; Lin, Yingxi

    2016-09-23

    Understanding how the brain captures transient experience and converts it into long lasting changes in neural circuits requires the identification and investigation of the specific ensembles of neurons that are responsible for the encoding of each experience. We have developed a Robust Activity Marking (RAM) system that allows for the identification and interrogation of ensembles of neurons. The RAM system provides unprecedented high sensitivity and selectivity through the use of an optimized synthetic activity-regulated promoter that is strongly induced by neuronal activity and a modified Tet-Off system that achieves improved temporal control. Due to its compact design, RAM can be packaged into a single adeno-associated virus (AAV), providing great versatility and ease of use, including application to mice, rats, flies, and potentially many other species. Cre-dependent RAM, CRAM, allows for the study of active ensembles of a specific cell type and anatomical connectivity, further expanding the RAM system's versatility.

  4. Relations between allometric scalings and fluctuations in complex systems: The case of Japanese firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2013-02-01

    To elucidate allometric scaling in complex systems, we investigated the underlying scaling relationships between typical three-scale indicators for approximately 500,000 Japanese firms; namely, annual sales, number of employees, and number of business partners. First, new scaling relations including the distributions of fluctuations were discovered by systematically analyzing conditional statistics. Second, we introduced simple probabilistic models that reproduce all these scaling relations, and we derived relations between scaling exponents and the magnitude of fluctuations.

  5. Dynamic features analysis for the large-scale logistics system warehouse-out operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Xu-Zhou

    2014-12-01

    In the paper, we research on the behavior dynamics for the large-scale logistics system warehouse-out operation systematically. First, we discover that steel products warehouse-out of different warehouses in a large-scale logistics system can be characterized by burst, and the warehouse-out inter-event time follows the power-law distribution with exponents close to α=2.5, which differs from the two classical models proposed by Barabasi (2005) and Vazquez (2005) respectively. By analyzing the warehouse-out inter-event time distribution of the products in one certain large-scale logistics system, we further discuss burst features and mechanisms of logistics system. Additionally, we find that in population behaviors, burst features can be explained by the priority that rooted in holidays and interior task scheduling. However, warehouse-out behaviors of active individuals do not show any features of burst. Further, we find that warehouse-out quantity of steel products follows Fractal Brownian motion with the HURST exponent higher than 0.5 by means of R/S, which infers that the quantity of products in a logistics system is not only guided by prices in the present market, but also related closely to the previous quantity of warehouse-out. Based on V statistic, we compare memory length of different products in warehouses. Finally, we apply complex networks visibility graphs for further validation of fractal features in a logistics system and find that almost every visibility graph exhibits small-world and scale-free features. Both R/S and complex networks visibility graphs reinforce that the warehouse-out quantity of products in a logistics system is not a random walk process, but contains intrinsic regularities and long-term correlation between present and previous warehouse-out quantity.

  6. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  7. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-12-31

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  8. Active vibration control of a full scale aircraft wing using a reconfigurable controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Renjith Kumar, T. G.; Raja, S.; Dwarakanathan, D.; Subramani, H.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work highlights the design of a Reconfigurable Active Vibration Control (AVC) System for aircraft structures using adaptive techniques. The AVC system with a multichannel capability is realized using Filtered-X Least Mean Square algorithm (FxLMS) on Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language, (VHDL). The HDL design is made based on Finite State Machine (FSM) model with Floating point Intellectual Property (IP) cores for arithmetic operations. The use of FPGA facilitates to modify the system parameters even during runtime depending on the changes in user's requirements. The locations of the control actuators are optimized based on dynamic modal strain approach using genetic algorithm (GA). The developed system has been successfully deployed for the AVC testing of the full-scale wing of an all composite two seater transport aircraft. Several closed loop configurations like single channel and multi-channel control have been tested. The experimental results from the studies presented here are very encouraging. They demonstrate the usefulness of the system's reconfigurability for real time applications.

  9. Psychometric assessment of the Adolescent Physical Activity Perceived Benefits and Barriers Scales.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Lorraine B; Wu, Tsu-Yin; Sikorskii, Alla; Morley, Blair

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to psychometrically test the Adolescent Physical Activity Perceived Benefits and Barriers Scales developed for middle-school-age youth. A total of 206 racially diverse 6th, 7th, and 8th graders completed questionnaires at two time points (2 weeks apart). For the 10-item Perceived Benefits Scale and the 9-item Perceived Barriers Scale, test-retest reliability (r = .70; r = .71, respectively) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was .80 and .79, respectively, at time 1) were supported. Principal components analysis with Varimax rotation was employed to assess construct validity. A 2-factor solution emerged for each scale as predicted. The relationship between both scale scores and self-reported physical activity provided additional evidence of validity. Both instruments were found to be reliable and valid for measuring the perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity in middle school youth.

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of archaeological ceramics: scale and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Ronald L; Blackman, M James

    2002-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has become a standard technique for the study of the production and distributional patterns of archaeological pottery. Questions once framed within the context of long distance exchange are now focused on issues of subregional and even intrasite levels. The increasing specificity at which these questions are poised requires a high level of analytical precision as we seek to observe statistically and archaeologically significant differences among groups of pottery produced from geographically closely spaced resources or the compositional differences that arise from production behaviors of the producers of the pottery.

  11. Review and synthesis of problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, A. R.; Dangermond, J.; Marble, D.; Simonett, D. S.; Tomlinson, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development were reviewed and the general problems associated with automated geographic information systems and spatial data handling were addressed.

  12. Scaling Relationships for Biomolecules Adhesion and Activity on Polymeric Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Mr. Andrea Viezolli, Dr. Greg Watson, and Dr. Jon Wright. The first PI wants to thank many in the Simbiosys and Bioflips community for numerous...research and helped in keeping it on track. DARPA Simbiosys ultra-friendly team, ‘people behind the scenes’ such as Steve Kenney; Carol Higgins, and...Bioflips program; one within Simbiosys program. 2 2.0 INTRODUCTION In microfluidics systems, the flow of the fluids is well within the laminar regime

  13. Factor- and Item-Level Analyses of the 38-Item Activities Scale for Kids-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Anita M.; Gorton, George E.; Bjornson, Kristie; Bevans, Katherine; Stout, Jean L.; Narayanan, Unni; Tucker, Carole A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Children and adolescents highly value their ability to participate in relevant daily life and recreational activities. The Activities Scale for Kids-performance (ASKp) instrument measures the frequency of performance of 30 common childhood activities, and has been shown to be valid and reliable. A revised and expanded 38-item ASKp (ASKp38)…

  14. Solid discharge and landslide activity at basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Iadanza, C.; Rossi, M.; Spizzichino, D.; Trigila, A.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents a preliminary analysis aimed at understanding the relationship between landslide sediment supply and sediment yield at basin scale in central and southern Italy. A database of solid discharge measurements regarding 116 gauging stations, located along the Apennines chain in Italy, has been compiled by investigating the catalogues, named Annali Idrologici, published by Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Italiano in the period from 1917 to 1997. The database records several information about the 116 gauging stations, and especially reports the sediment yield monthly measurements (103 ton) and the catchments area (km2). These data have been used to calculate the average solid yield and the normalized solid yield for each station in the observation period. The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) has been used to obtained the size of the landslides, in order to estimate the landslide mobilization rates. The IFFI Project funded by the Italian Government is realized by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research - Geological Survey of Italy) in partnership with the 21 Regions and Self Governing Provinces. 21 of the 116 gauging stations and the related catchments have been selected on the basis of the length of the solid discharge observation period and excluding the catchments with dams located upstream the stations. The landslides inside the selected catchments have been extracted from the IFFI inventory, calculating the planimetric area of each landslide. Considering both the shallow and deep landslides, the landslide volume has been estimated using an empirical power law relation (landslide area vs. volume). The total landslide volume in the study areas and the average sediment yield measured at the gauging stations have been compared, analysing the behaviour of the basins which drainage towards the Tyrrhenian sea and the basins which drainage towards the Adriatic sea.

  15. Cost of energy from utility-scale PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J.; Whisnant, R.A.; McGowin, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    The cost of energy produced by three different photovoltaic (PV) power plants was estimated based on PV cell and module technology expected to be available by 1995. Plant designs were created for two high concentration PV plants (500 suns), both based on advanced back-contact silicon cell technology, and a thin-film, flat plate plant using copper indium diselenide (CIS) cell technology. The concentrator plants included a central receiver plant using stretched-membrane heliostats and a Fresnel-lens module plant, both utilizing two-axis tracking. Basic plant design factors were selected to minimize 30-year levelized energy costs. Total capital requirements to construct the three plants were estimated through detailed cost estimates. Costs of the cell and module components of the plants were determined by modeling their manufacturing processes when producing modules at an annual rate of both 25 MW/year and 100 MW/year. Energy outputs were determined by computer modeling with hourly insolation and temperature profiles for the two sites. Power system simulation studies were carried out to estimate the impact of the PV plants on system power production cost using synthetic, but realistic, utility system definitions. Both high and low growth rate utility system expansion plans were considered, and capacity and energy credits were calculated. Additionally, credits were calculated for environmental externalities. Benefit/cost ratios for each plant and site were determined. The results of the study provide projections in 1990 dollars of the cost of electric energy from utility-scale PV plants assuming a mature technology that may be available by about 1995. The cost of energy produced by the CIS flat plate plant was projected to be as low as 10.8 cents/kWh. The concentrator plant results were only slightly higher at 12.3 cents/kWh for the Fresnel lens plant and 13.1 cents/kWh for the central receiver plant. 18 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. An activated sludge model based on activated sludge model number 3 for full-scale wastewater treatment plant simulation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ji; Lu, Shu-Guang; Qiu, Zhao-fu; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Wen-Zhen

    2009-06-01

    A modified model based on the activated sludge model no. 3 was established to simulate a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China. The activated sludge model no. 3 was modified to describe the simultaneous storage and growth processes occurring in activated sludge systems under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The mechanism of soluble microbial product formation and degradation by microorganisms was considered in this proposed model. Three months simulation was conducted including soluble chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, NO(X)(-)-N and T-N parameters, and compared with measured data from the Quyang wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that the calculated effluent chemical oxygen demand and NH4(+)-N using this proposed model were in good agreement with the measured data. Results also showed that besides inert soluble organic matter contributing to the effluent chemical oxygen demand, soluble microbial products played an important part in the effluent chemical oxygen demand and, therefore, demonstrated that these products composed an important portion of effluent soluble chemical oxygen demand in wastewater treatment plants and should not be neglected.

  17. Fully-automated roller bottle handling system for large scale culture of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kunitake, R; Suzuki, A; Ichihashi, H; Matsuda, S; Hirai, O; Morimoto, K

    1997-01-20

    A fully automatic and continuous cell culture system based on roller bottles is described in this paper. The system includes a culture rack storage station for storing a large number of roller bottles filled with culture medium and inoculated with mammalian cells, mass-handling facility for extracting completed cultures from the roller bottles, and replacing the culture medium. The various component units of the system were controlled either by a general-purpose programmable logic controller or a dedicated controller. The system provided four subsequent operation modes: cell inoculation, medium change, harvesting, and medium change. The operator could easily select and change the appropriate mode from outside of the aseptic area. The development of the system made large-scale production of mammalian cells, and manufacturing and stabilization of high quality products such as erythropoietin possible under total aseptic control, and opened up the door for industrial production of physiologically active substances as pharmaceutical drugs by mammalian cell culture.

  18. Using active colloids as machines to weave and braid on the micrometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Carl P.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Controlling motion at the microscopic scale is a fundamental goal in the development of biologically inspired systems. We show that the motion of active, self-propelled colloids can be sufficiently controlled for use as a tool to assemble complex structures such as braids and weaves out of microscopic filaments. Unlike typical self-assembly paradigms, these structures are held together by geometric constraints rather than adhesive bonds. The out-of-equilibrium assembly that we propose involves precisely controlling the 2D motion of active colloids so that their path has a nontrivial topology. We demonstrate with proof-of-principle Brownian dynamics simulations that, when the colloids are attached to long semiflexible filaments, this motion causes the filaments to braid. The ability of the active particles to provide sufficient force necessary to bend the filaments into a braid depends on a number of factors, including the self-propulsion mechanism, the properties of the filament, and the maximum curvature in the braid. Our work demonstrates that nonequilibrium assembly pathways can be designed using active particles.

  19. Activation volume in the density scaling regime: Equation of state and its test by using experimental and simulation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, A.; Koperwas, K.; Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Paluch, M.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, a formalism for the activation volume of glass-forming materials is suggested. An isothermal equation of state for the activation volume is formulated, which is extended to a generalized equation of state that describes the activation volume as a function of temperature and pressure. Both the equations of state are very successfully validated by using experimental and simulation data collected for supercooled Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones liquid and materials from various material groups such as van der Waals liquids, polymers, protic ionic liquids, and strongly hydrogen-bonded liquids. Some predictions based on these equations of state for the activation volume are also very satisfactorily verified in the case of each considered system, especially a kind of activation volume scaling is confirmed, which is possible by using the scaling exponent that also constitutes the slope of the expected linear pressure dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus for the activation volume. The until recently unexpected negative value of the slope is explained in the case of the systems that obey the thermodynamic scaling law, at least to a good approximation.

  20. Large-scale weather systems: A future research priority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Huw C.

    2006-12-01

    A brief assessment is provided of both the case against and the case for assigning priority to research on large-scale weather systems (LSWS). The three-fold case against is based upon: the emergence of new overarching themes in environmental science; the fresh emphasis upon other sub-disciplines of the atmospheric science; and the mature state of research and prediction of LSWS. The case for is also supported by three arguments. First is the assertion that LSWS research should not merely be an integral but a major component of future research related to both the new overarching themes and the other sub-disciplines. Second recent major developments in LSWS research, as epitomized by the paradigm shifts in the prediction strategy for LSWS and the emergence of the potential vorticity perspective, testify to the theme’s on-going vibrancy. Third the field’s future development, as exemplified by the new international THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) programme, embodies a perceptive dovetailing of intellectually challenging fundamental research with directed application(s) of societal and economic benefit. It is thus inferred that LSWS research, far from being in demise, will feature at the forefront of the new relationship between science and society.

  1. Inferring cortical function in the mouse visual system through large-scale systems neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Anastassiou, Costas; Arkhipov, Anton; Berg, Jim; Buice, Michael; Cain, Nicholas; Gouwens, Nathan W; Gratiy, Sergey; Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Lee, Jung Hoon; Mihalas, Stefan; Mitelut, Catalin; Olsen, Shawn; Reid, R Clay; Teeter, Corinne; de Vries, Saskia; Waters, Jack; Zeng, Hongkui; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-05

    The scientific mission of the Project MindScope is to understand neocortex, the part of the mammalian brain that gives rise to perception, memory, intelligence, and consciousness. We seek to quantitatively evaluate the hypothesis that neocortex is a relatively homogeneous tissue, with smaller functional modules that perform a common computational function replicated across regions. We here focus on the mouse as a mammalian model organism with genetics, physiology, and behavior that can be readily studied and manipulated in the laboratory. We seek to describe the operation of cortical circuitry at the computational level by comprehensively cataloging and characterizing its cellular building blocks along with their dynamics and their cell type-specific connectivities. The project is also building large-scale experimental platforms (i.e., brain observatories) to record the activity of large populations of cortical neurons in behaving mice subject to visual stimuli. A primary goal is to understand the series of operations from visual input in the retina to behavior by observing and modeling the physical transformations of signals in the corticothalamic system. We here focus on the contribution that computer modeling and theory make to this long-term effort.

  2. Inferring cortical function in the mouse visual system through large-scale systems neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Anastassiou, Costas; Arkhipov, Anton; Berg, Jim; Buice, Michael; Cain, Nicholas; Gouwens, Nathan W.; Gratiy, Sergey; Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Lee, Jung Hoon; Mihalas, Stefan; Mitelut, Catalin; Olsen, Shawn; Reid, R. Clay; Teeter, Corinne; de Vries, Saskia; Waters, Jack; Zeng, Hongkui; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    The scientific mission of the Project MindScope is to understand neocortex, the part of the mammalian brain that gives rise to perception, memory, intelligence, and consciousness. We seek to quantitatively evaluate the hypothesis that neocortex is a relatively homogeneous tissue, with smaller functional modules that perform a common computational function replicated across regions. We here focus on the mouse as a mammalian model organism with genetics, physiology, and behavior that can be readily studied and manipulated in the laboratory. We seek to describe the operation of cortical circuitry at the computational level by comprehensively cataloging and characterizing its cellular building blocks along with their dynamics and their cell type-specific connectivities. The project is also building large-scale experimental platforms (i.e., brain observatories) to record the activity of large populations of cortical neurons in behaving mice subject to visual stimuli. A primary goal is to understand the series of operations from visual input in the retina to behavior by observing and modeling the physical transformations of signals in the corticothalamic system. We here focus on the contribution that computer modeling and theory make to this long-term effort. PMID:27382147

  3. Active assembly for large-scale manufacturing of integrated nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerke, Erik David; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Bachand, George David; Hendricks, Judy K.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins are protein-based biological agents that work cooperatively to facilitate the organization and transport of nanomaterials within living organisms. This report describes the application of these biological agents as tools in a novel, interdisciplinary scheme for assembling integrated nanostructures. Specifically, selective chemistries were used to direct the favorable adsorption of active motor proteins onto lithographically-defined gold electrodes. Taking advantage of the specific affinity these motor proteins have for microtubules, the motor proteins were used to capture polymerized microtubules out of suspension to form dense patterns of microtubules and microtubule bridges between gold electrodes. These microtubules were then used as biofunctionalized templates to direct the organization of functionalized nanocargo including single-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles. This biologically-mediated scheme for nanomaterials assembly has shown excellent promise as a foundation for developing new biohybrid approaches to nanoscale manufacturing.

  4. An active tactile perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petriu, E.; Greenspan, M.; Gelinas, F.; McMath, W. S.; Yeung, S. K.

    System development and application aspects are described for an experimental robotic system for the tactile perception of the global geometric profile of object surfaces which are larger than the dimensions of the tactile sensor. Local cutaneous information provided by a tactile sensor is integrated with the kinesthetic position parameters of a robot arm, resulting in a 3D geometric model of the tactile sensor pose on the explored object surface. Currently available tactile sensors provide poor information on the geometric profile of 3D object surfaces. In order to maximize the information available for 3D analysis, an instrumented passive compliant wrist was used to attach a pressure measuring tactile probe to the robot arm carrier. Data was collected by a noncompliant planar sensing array in direct contact with an object surface. Information recorded includes the following: positional and orientation data on the robot arm manipulator, passive compliance kinesthetic data as measured by the kinematics of the wrist, and cutaneous tactile data represented by the binary image of the sensors pose on the object. The dimensions of the sensor array were found to be a critical factor in system performance. Use of a large array results in fewer touch poses being required to explore an object's surface, on the other hand a large planar array will touch fewer and higher peaks thus missing surface detail. To improve performance, there is a need to design tactile sensors specifically for geometric profile measuring.

  5. Linking basin-scale and pore-scale gas hydrate distribution patterns in diffusion-dominated marine hydrate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.; Hillman, Jess I. T.; Malinverno, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study is to computationally determine the potential distribution patterns of diffusion-driven methane hydrate accumulations in coarse-grained marine sediments. Diffusion of dissolved methane in marine gas hydrate systems has been proposed as a potential transport mechanism through which large concentrations of hydrate can preferentially accumulate in coarse-grained sediments over geologic time. Using one-dimensional compositional reservoir simulations, we examine hydrate distribution patterns at the scale of individual sand layers (1-20 m thick) that are deposited between microbially active fine-grained material buried through the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We then extrapolate to two-dimensional and basin-scale three-dimensional simulations, where we model dipping sands and multilayered systems. We find that properties of a sand layer including pore size distribution, layer thickness, dip, and proximity to other layers in multilayered systems all exert control on diffusive methane fluxes toward and within a sand, which in turn impact the distribution of hydrate throughout a sand unit. In all of these simulations, we incorporate data on physical properties and sand layer geometries from the Terrebonne Basin gas hydrate system in the Gulf of Mexico. We demonstrate that diffusion can generate high hydrate saturations (upward of 90%) at the edges of thin sands at shallow depths within the GHSZ, but that it is ineffective at producing high hydrate saturations throughout thick (greater than 10 m) sands buried deep within the GHSZ. Furthermore, we find that hydrate in fine-grained material can preserve high hydrate saturations in nearby thin sands with burial.Plain Language SummaryThis study combines one-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations to explore one potential process by which methane dissolved in water beneath the seafloor can be converted into solid methane hydrate. This work specifically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMP....57h2701Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMP....57h2701Z"><span>Noether theorem for nonholonomic nonconservative mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> in phase space on time <span class="hlt">scales</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zu, Qi-hang; Zhu, Jian-qing</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The paper focuses on studying the Noether theorem for nonholonomic nonconservative mechanical <span class="hlt">systems</span> in phase space on time <span class="hlt">scales</span>. First, the Hamilton equations of nonholonomic nonconservative <span class="hlt">systems</span> on time <span class="hlt">scales</span> are established, which is based on the Lagrange equations for nonholonomic <span class="hlt">systems</span> on time <span class="hlt">scales</span>. Then, based upon the quasi-invariance of Hamilton action of <span class="hlt">systems</span> under the infinitesimal transformations with respect to the time and generalized coordinate on time <span class="hlt">scale</span>, the Noether identity and the conserved quantity of nonholonomic nonconservative <span class="hlt">systems</span> on time <span class="hlt">scales</span> are obtained. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the application of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760013609','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760013609"><span>JPL <span class="hlt">Activated</span> Carbon Treatment <span class="hlt">System</span> (ACTS) for sewage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">Activated</span> Carbon Treatment <span class="hlt">System</span> (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. <span class="hlt">Activities</span> reported include pyrolysis and <span class="hlt">activation</span> of carbon-sewage sludge, and <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and <span class="hlt">activation</span>. Tests were conducted on a laboratory <span class="hlt">scale</span>, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to <span class="hlt">activated</span> sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSMSE..22e5002C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSMSE..22e5002C"><span>EON: software for long time simulations of atomic <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chill, Samuel T.; Welborn, Matthew; Terrell, Rye; Zhang, Liang; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Pedersen, Andreas; Jónsson, Hannes; Henkelman, Graeme</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The EON software is designed for simulations of the state-to-state evolution of atomic <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> over timescales greatly exceeding that of direct classical dynamics. States are defined as collections of atomic configurations from which a minimization of the potential energy gives the same inherent structure. The time evolution is assumed to be governed by rare events, where transitions between states are uncorrelated and infrequent compared with the timescale of atomic vibrations. Several methods for calculating the state-to-state evolution have been implemented in EON, including parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics and adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo. Global optimization methods, including simulated annealing, basin hopping and minima hopping are also implemented. The software has a client/server architecture where the computationally intensive evaluations of the interatomic interactions are calculated on the client-side and the state-to-state evolution is managed by the server. The client supports optimization for different computer architectures to maximize computational efficiency. The server is written in Python so that developers have access to the high-level functionality without delving into the computationally intensive components. Communication between the server and clients is abstracted so that calculations can be deployed on a single machine, clusters using a queuing <span class="hlt">system</span>, large parallel computers using a message passing interface, or within a distributed computing environment. A generic interface to the evaluation of the interatomic interactions is defined so that empirical potentials, such as in LAMMPS, and density functional theory as implemented in VASP and GPAW can be used interchangeably. Examples are given to demonstrate the range of <span class="hlt">systems</span> that can be modeled, including surface diffusion and island ripening of adsorbed atoms on metal surfaces, molecular diffusion on the surface of ice and global structural optimization of nanoparticles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MAR.A4003G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MAR.A4003G"><span>Modelling large <span class="hlt">scale</span> human <span class="hlt">activity</span> in San Francisco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Marta</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Diverse group of people with a wide variety of schedules, <span class="hlt">activities</span> and travel needs compose our cities nowadays. This represents a big challenge for modeling travel behaviors in urban environments; those models are of crucial interest for a wide variety of applications such as traffic forecasting, spreading of viruses, or measuring human exposure to air pollutants. The traditional means to obtain knowledge about travel behavior is limited to surveys on travel journeys. The obtained information is based in questionnaires that are usually costly to implement and with intrinsic limitations to cover large number of individuals and some problems of reliability. Using mobile phone data, we explore the basic characteristics of a model of human travel: The distribution of agents is proportional to the population density of a given region, and each agent has a characteristic trajectory size contain information on frequency of visits to different locations. Additionally we use a complementary data set given by smart subway fare cards offering us information about the exact time of each passenger getting in or getting out of the subway station and the coordinates of it. This allows us to uncover the temporal aspects of the mobility. Since we have the actual time and place of individual's origin and destination we can understand the temporal patterns in each visited location with further details. Integrating two described data set we provide a dynamical model of human travels that incorporates different aspects observed empirically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=333791','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=333791"><span>East Fork Watershed Cooperative: Toward better <span class="hlt">system-scale</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The East Fork Watershed Cooperative is a group intent on understanding how to best manage water quality in a large mixed-use Midwestern watershed <span class="hlt">system</span>. The <span class="hlt">system</span> contains a reservoir that serves as a source of drinking water and is popular for water recreation. The reservoir is experience harmful algal blooms. The <span class="hlt">system</span> including the reservoir has become a significant case study for EPA ORD research and development. The Cooperative includes affiliates from the USACE, the OHIO EPA, the USGS, the USDA, and local Soil and Water Conservation districts as well as utility operators and water quality protection offices. The presentation includes a description of the water quality monitoring and modeling program in the watershed, followed by the results of using the watershed model to estimate the costs associated with nutrient reduction to Harsha Lake, and then ends with an explanation of temporal changes observed for important factors controlling harmful algae in Harsha Lake and how this lake relates to other reservoirs in the Ohio River Basin. This presentation is an invited contribution to the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Workshop sponsored by the US ACE and the US EPA. The presentation describes the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the East Fork Watershed Cooperative and the knowledge it has gained to help better manage a case study watershed <span class="hlt">system</span> over the last few years. The East Fork of the Little Miami River is the focal watershed. It is a significant tributary to the Lit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JCMD...13..201T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JCMD...13..201T"><span>Software Integration in Multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Simulations: the PUPIL <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torras, J.; Deumens, E.; Trickey, S. B.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>The state of the art for computational tools in both computational chemistry and computational materials physics includes many algorithms and functionalities which are implemented again and again. Several projects aim to reduce, eliminate, or avoid this problem. Most such efforts seem to be focused within a particular specialty, either quantum chemistry or materials physics. Multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> simulations, by their very nature however, cannot respect that specialization. In simulation of fracture, for example, the energy gradients that drive the molecular dynamics (MD) come from a quantum mechanical treatment that most often derives from quantum chemistry. That “QM” region is linked to a surrounding “CM” region in which potentials yield the forces. The approach therefore requires the integration or at least inter-operation of quantum chemistry and materials physics algorithms. The same problem occurs in “QM/MM” simulations in computational biology. The challenge grows if pattern recognition or other analysis codes of some kind must be used as well. The most common mode of inter-operation is user intervention: codes are modified as needed and data files are managed “by hand” by the user (interactively and via shell scripts). User intervention is however inefficient by nature, difficult to transfer to the community, and prone to error. Some progress (e.g Sethna’s work at Cornell [C.R. Myers et al., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 538(1999) 509, C.-S. Chen et al., Poster presented at the Material Research Society Meeting (2000)]) has been made on using Python scripts to achieve a more efficient level of interoperation. In this communication we present an alternative approach to merging current working packages without the necessity of major recoding and with only a relatively light wrapper interface. The scheme supports communication among the different components required for a given multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> calculation and access to the functionalities of those components</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4692486','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4692486"><span>Multistability in Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Models of Brain <span class="hlt">Activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Golos, Mathieu; Jirsa, Viktor; Daucé, Emmanuel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Noise driven exploration of a brain network’s dynamic repertoire has been hypothesized to be causally involved in cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration. The dynamic repertoire crucially depends on the network’s capacity to store patterns, as well as their stability. Here we systematically explore the capacity of networks derived from human connectomes to store attractor states, as well as various network mechanisms to control the brain’s dynamic repertoire. Using a deterministic graded response Hopfield model with connectome-based interactions, we reconstruct the system’s attractor space through a uniform sampling of the initial conditions. Large fixed-point attractor sets are obtained in the low temperature condition, with a bigger number of attractors than ever reported so far. Different variants of the initial model, including (i) a uniform <span class="hlt">activation</span> threshold or (ii) a global negative feedback, produce a similarly robust multistability in a limited parameter range. A numerical analysis of the distribution of the attractors identifies spatially-segregated components, with a centro-medial core and several well-delineated regional patches. Those different modes share similarity with the fMRI independent components observed in the “resting state” condition. We demonstrate non-stationary behavior in noise-driven generalizations of the models, with different meta-stable attractors visited along the same time course. Only the model with a global dynamic density control is found to display robust and long-lasting non-stationarity with no tendency toward either overactivity or extinction. The best fit with empirical signals is observed at the edge of multistability, a parameter region that also corresponds to the highest entropy of the attractors. PMID:26709852</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987708','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987708"><span><span class="hlt">Scales</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Murray Gibson</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Musical <span class="hlt">scales</span> involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987708','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987708"><span><span class="hlt">Scales</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murray Gibson</p> <p>2007-04-27</p> <p>Musical <span class="hlt">scales</span> involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343742-linking-basin-scale-pore-scale-gas-hydrate-distribution-patterns-diffusion-dominated-marine-hydrate-systems','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343742-linking-basin-scale-pore-scale-gas-hydrate-distribution-patterns-diffusion-dominated-marine-hydrate-systems"><span>Linking basin-<span class="hlt">scale</span> and pore-<span class="hlt">scale</span> gas hydrate distribution patterns in diffusion-dominated marine hydrate <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Nole, Michael; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann E.; ...</p> <p>2017-02-07</p> <p>The goal of this study is to computationally determine the potential distribution patterns of diffusion-driven methane hydrate accumulations in coarse-grained marine sediments. Diffusion of dissolved methane in marine gas hydrate <span class="hlt">systems</span> has been proposed as a potential transport mechanism through which large concentrations of hydrate can preferentially accumulate in coarse-grained sediments over geologic time. Using one-dimensional compositional reservoir simulations, we examine hydrate distribution patterns at the <span class="hlt">scale</span> of individual sand layers (1 to 20 m thick) that are deposited between microbially <span class="hlt">active</span> fine-grained material buried through the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We then extrapolate to two- dimensional and basin-scalemore » three-dimensional simulations, where we model dipping sands and multilayered <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We find that properties of a sand layer including pore size distribution, layer thickness, dip, and proximity to other layers in multilayered <span class="hlt">systems</span> all exert control on diffusive methane fluxes toward and within a sand, which in turn impact the distribution of hydrate throughout a sand unit. In all of these simulations, we incorporate data on physical properties and sand layer geometries from the Terrebonne Basin gas hydrate <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Gulf of Mexico. We demonstrate that diffusion can generate high hydrate saturations (upward of 90%) at the edges of thin sands at shallow depths within the GHSZ, but that it is ineffective at producing high hydrate saturations throughout thick (greater than 10 m) sands buried deep within the GHSZ. As a result, we find that hydrate in fine-grained material can preserve high hydrate saturations in nearby thin sands with burial.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1061142.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1061142.pdf"><span>Perceived Usability Evaluation of Learning Management <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: Empirical Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">System</span> Usability <span class="hlt">Scale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The <span class="hlt">System</span> Usability <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.513d2021G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.513d2021G"><span>Rucio - The next generation of large <span class="hlt">scale</span> distributed <span class="hlt">system</span> for ATLAS Data Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garonne, V.; Vigne, R.; Stewart, G.; Barisits, M.; eermann, T. B.; Lassnig, M.; Serfon, C.; Goossens, L.; Nairz, A.; Atlas Collaboration</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Rucio is the next-generation Distributed Data Management (DDM) <span class="hlt">system</span> benefiting from recent advances in cloud and "Big Data" computing to address HEP experiments <span class="hlt">scaling</span> requirements. Rucio is an evolution of the ATLAS DDM <span class="hlt">system</span> Don Quijote 2 (DQ2), which has demonstrated very large <span class="hlt">scale</span> data management capabilities with more than 140 petabytes spread worldwide across 130 sites, and accesses from 1,000 <span class="hlt">active</span> users. However, DQ2 is reaching its limits in terms of scalability, requiring a large number of support staff to operate and being hard to extend with new technologies. Rucio will deal with these issues by relying on a conceptual data model and new technology to ensure <span class="hlt">system</span> scalability, address new user requirements and employ new automation framework to reduce operational overheads. We present the key concepts of Rucio, including its data organization/representation and a model of how to manage central group and user <span class="hlt">activities</span>. The Rucio design, and the technology it employs, is described, specifically looking at its RESTful architecture and the various software components it uses. We show also the performance of the <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23957906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23957906"><span>Validation and factorial invariance of children's attraction to physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (CAPA) <span class="hlt">scale</span> in Portugal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seabra, Ana C; Malina, Robert M; Parker, Melissa; Seabra, André; Brustad, Robert; Maia, José A; Fonseca, António M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Children's Attraction to Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> (CAPA) <span class="hlt">scale</span> assesses interest in and attraction to the physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PA) of children of elementary school age. The original (25 items) and shorter versions (15 items) of the <span class="hlt">scale</span> were developed and validated with American children. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the shorter version of the CAPA <span class="hlt">scale</span> for use with Portuguese schoolchildren and to examine the invariance of the multidimensional factor structure of the <span class="hlt">scale</span> in two samples. The sample comprised 683 children (7-10 years) from public primary schools. The sample was divided into calibration and cross-validation samples. The <span class="hlt">scale</span> was translated into Portuguese and underwent forward translation, synthesis of the translation and backward translation and was then subjected to expert committee review, pretest and reliability assessment. Internal consistency for each of the five subscales within the a priori 5-factor structure of the CAPA <span class="hlt">scale</span> was evaluated through Cronbach's alpha, followed by a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) for both the calibration and cross-validation samples. The maximum likelihood robust estimation method was used. The CFA demonstrated that a 5-factor structural model of the Portuguese translation of the CAPA <span class="hlt">scale</span> was invariant. The construct analysed had the same basic meaning and structural and item differences within the two samples. The results indicated that the CAPA <span class="hlt">scale</span> is appropriate for use with Portuguese schoolchildren. The availability of a valid and reliable <span class="hlt">scale</span> should enhance opportunities for further understanding of children's involvement in PA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212108','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212108"><span><span class="hlt">Scaling</span> the Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Grid to 100Gbps Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Balman, Mehmet; Sim, Alex</p> <p>2012-03-02</p> <p>The SC11 demonstration, titled <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> the Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Grid to 100Gbps Networks, showed the ability to use underlying infrastructure for the movement of climate data over 100Gbps network. Climate change research is one of the critical data intensive sciences, and the amount of data is continuously growing. Climate simulation data is geographically distributed over the world, and it needs to be accessed from many sources for fast and efficient analysis and inter-comparison of simulations. We used a 100Gbps link connecting National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the demo, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-3) dataset was staged into the memory of computing nodes at ANL and ORNL from NERSC over the 100Gbps network for analysis and visualization. In general, climate simulation data consists of relatively small and large files with irregular file size distribution in each dataset. In this demo, we addressed challenges on data management in terms of high bandwidth networks, usability of existing protocols and middleware tools, and how applications can adapt and benefit from next generation networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9970E..1JA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9970E..1JA"><span>Uplink channel estimation error for large <span class="hlt">scale</span> MIMO <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albdran, Saleh; Alshammari, Ahmad; Matin, Mohammad</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The high demand on the wireless networks and the need for higher data rates are the motivation to develop new technologies. Recently, the idea of using large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> MIMO <span class="hlt">systems</span> has grabbed great attention from the researchers due to its high spectral and energy efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the UL channel estimation error using large number of antennas in the base station where the UL channel is based on predefined pilot signal. By making a comparison between the identified UL pilot signal and the received UL signal we can get the realization of the channel. We choose to deal with one cell scenario where the effect of inter-cell interference is eliminated for the sake of studying simple approach. While the number of antennas is very large in the base station side, we choose to have one antennal in the user terminal side. We choose to have two models to generate the channel covariance matrix includes one-ring model and exponential correlation model. Figures of channel estimation error are generated where the performance of the mean square error MSE per antenna is presented as a function signal to noise ratio SNR. The simulation results show that the higher the SNR the better the performance. Furthermore, the affect of the pilot length on the channel estimation error is studied where two different covariance models are used to see the impact of the two cases. In the two cases, the increase of the pilot length has improved the estimation accuracy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27533867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27533867"><span>Pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> study of powdered <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meinel, F; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M</p> <p></p> <p>Adsorption onto powdered <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon (PAC) is a promising technique for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from treated wastewater. To enhance the adsorption efficiency, PAC is recycled back into the adsorption stage. This technique was examined in pilot <span class="hlt">scale</span> in comparison to a reference without recirculation. Coagulation with Fe(3+) was carried out simultaneously to adsorption. Extensive OMP measurements showed that recirculation significantly increased OMP eliminations. Thus, significant PAC savings were feasible. The PAC concentration in the contact reactor proved to be an important operating parameter that can be surrogated by the easily measurable total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. OMP eliminations increased with increasing TSS concentrations. At 20 mg PAC L(-1) and 2.8 g TSS L(-1) in the contact reactor, well-adsorbable carbamazepine was eliminated by 97%, moderately adsorbable diclofenac was eliminated by 92% and poorly-adsorbable acesulfame was eliminated by 54% in comparison to 49%, 35% and 18%, respectively, without recirculation. The recirculation <span class="hlt">system</span> represents an efficient technique, as the PAC's adsorption capacity is practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yield high OMP eliminations. Poorly-adsorbable gabapentin was eliminated to an unexpectedly high degree. A laboratory-<span class="hlt">scale</span> biomass inhibition study showed that aerobic biodegradation removed gabapentin in addition to adsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23A0892I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23A0892I"><span>A new vegetation model at the topographic <span class="hlt">scale</span> in Mongolia under human <span class="hlt">activity</span> and climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishii, R.; Matsuoka, M.; Fujita, N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>To predict future vegetation not only the changes in climate conditions but those of essential human <span class="hlt">activities</span> must also be incorporated in a vegetation model, since most terrestrial <span class="hlt">systems</span> are now under the strong influence of both of these drivers. Previous dynamic vegetation models, however, had difficulties to incorporate these effects in a comparative way and one of the critical barrier was the mismatch of the spatial <span class="hlt">scales</span> at which both of these drivers are quantified, that is, climate conditions are generally observed and modeled with much coarser resolutions than human <span class="hlt">activities</span> often influenced by topography or transportation networks. In northern part of Mongolia, where plant growth is basically limited by water availability and grazing pressure by livestock, the vegetation exhibits a clear discontinuous transition between grassland and forest but no sound modeling could be achieved to clarify the transition mechanisms nor to project future vegetation and hence the distribution of ecosystem functions. To tackle this problem, we developed a pair of new models at the topographic <span class="hlt">scale</span> (Models 1&2) based on the observation in a sample region in Mongolia. Model 1 is a mathematical model for the dynamic interactions among the two plant biomasses (grass and trees) and local soil water content (SWC). We here assume positive/negative feedbacks in plant growth-SWC interaction and uneven grazing pressures for the two plants. Model 2 estimates numerically the spatial distribution of the potential SWC governed by climate and topography conditions in a given region. We used satellite remote sensing data to obtain the spatial distributions of the initial vegetation cover and the topography. By integrating these two models we could successfully reconstruct the current spatial vegetation patterns in our sample area only when we assumed a strong positive feedback in plant growth-SWC interaction and grazing pressure. This result underscores the importance of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871116"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> microrheology in <span class="hlt">active</span> matter <span class="hlt">systems</span>: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an <span class="hlt">active</span> matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied <span class="hlt">activity</span>. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the <span class="hlt">active</span> media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an <span class="hlt">activity</span>-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate <span class="hlt">activity</span> levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher <span class="hlt">activity</span> cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large <span class="hlt">activities</span>, the <span class="hlt">system</span> enters what we characterize as an <span class="hlt">active</span> jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk <span class="hlt">systems</span> near the jamming transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1265444','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1265444"><span>Understanding and Exploiting Spatial Properties of <span class="hlt">System</span> Failures on Extreme-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> HPC <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rogers, James H; Maxwell, Don E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As we approach exascale, the scientific simulations are expected to experience more interruptions due to increased <span class="hlt">system</span> failures. Designing better HPC resilience techniques requires understanding the key characteristics of <span class="hlt">system</span> failures on these <span class="hlt">systems</span>. While temporal properties of <span class="hlt">system</span> failures on HPC <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been well-investigated, there is limited understanding about the spatial characteristics of <span class="hlt">system</span> failures and its impact on the resilience mechanisms. Therefore, we examine the spatial characteristics and behavior of <span class="hlt">system</span> failures. We investigate the interaction between spatial and temporal characteristics of failures and its implications for <span class="hlt">system</span> operations and resilience mechanisms on large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> HPC <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We show that <span class="hlt">system</span> failures have spatial locality at different granularity in the <span class="hlt">system</span>; study impact of different failure-types; and investigate the correlation among different failure-types. Finally, we propose a novel scheme that exploits the spatial locality in failures to improve application and <span class="hlt">system</span> performance. Our evaluation shows that the proposed scheme significantly improves the <span class="hlt">system</span> performance in a dynamic and production-level HPC <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...328..492V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...328..492V"><span>A multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> model of the oxygen reduction reaction on highly <span class="hlt">active</span> graphene nanosheets in alkaline conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vazquez-Arenas, Jorge; Ramos-Sanchez, Guadalupe; Franco, Alejandro A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> model based on a mean field approach, is proposed to describe the ORR mechanism on N-GN catalysts in alkaline media. The model implements <span class="hlt">activation</span> energies calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the atomistic level, and <span class="hlt">scales</span> up them into a continuum framework describing the cathode/electrolyte interface at the mesoscale level. The model also considers mass and momentum transports arising in the region next to the rotating electrode for all ionic species and O2; correction of potential drop and electrochemical double-layer capacitance. Most fitted parameters describing the kinetics of ORR elementary reactions are sensitive in the multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> model, which results from the incorporation of <span class="hlt">activation</span> energies using the mean field method, unlike single-<span class="hlt">scale</span> modelling Errors in the deviations from <span class="hlt">activation</span> energies are found to be moderate, except for the elementary step (2) related to the formation of O2ads, which can be assigned to the inherent DFT limitations. The consumption of O2ads to form OOHads is determined as the rate-determining step as a result of its highest energy barrier (163.10 kJ mol-1) in the <span class="hlt">system</span>, the largest error obtained for the deviation from <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy (28.15%), and high sensitivity. This finding is confirmed with the calculated surface concentration and coverage of electroactive species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kafka&id=EJ1041209','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kafka&id=EJ1041209"><span>A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service <span class="hlt">Activities</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span> in Turkey: A Social Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service <span class="hlt">Activities</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service <span class="hlt">activities</span>. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=economic+AND+scale&pg=7&id=EJ1002010','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=economic+AND+scale&pg=7&id=EJ1002010"><span><span class="hlt">Scales</span> of <span class="hlt">Active</span> Citizenship: New Zealand Teachers' Diverse Perceptions and Practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wood, Bronwyn Elisabeth</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The heightened focus on "<span class="hlt">active</span>" citizenship in New Zealand's current curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007) mirrors a pattern observed in many nation's curricula in the past decade. The <span class="hlt">scale</span> of <span class="hlt">active</span> citizenship in this curriculum includes an expectation that students will participate in local and national communities but also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930018980','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930018980"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> impedance matching of complex structural <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Viewgraphs on <span class="hlt">active</span> impedance matching of complex structural <span class="hlt">systems</span> are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; <span class="hlt">active</span> strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pass&pg=5&id=EJ1041252','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pass&pg=5&id=EJ1041252"><span>PASS: Creating Physically <span class="hlt">Active</span> School <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>PASS, a Physically <span class="hlt">Active</span> School <span class="hlt">System</span>, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890040282&hterms=integrated+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dintegrated%2Bsystems','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890040282&hterms=integrated+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dintegrated%2Bsystems"><span>National full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> aerodynamic complex integrated <span class="hlt">systems</span> test data <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Oscar; Maynard, Everett</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The data acquisition <span class="hlt">system</span> of the 80 by 120 foot wind tunnel of the National Full-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Aerodynamic Facility (NFAC) is described. How the various satellite data stations are connected to the data acquisition <span class="hlt">system</span> is shown. As an illustrative example, a strain gage signal is traced from one of the satellite data locations to its final destination in the data <span class="hlt">system</span> where the signal is processed, observed in real time on various parallel graphic displays, and stored on magnetic disks for postrun data reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345580','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5345580"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> isolation and cytotoxicity of extracellular vesicles derived from <span class="hlt">activated</span> human natural killer cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jong, Ambrose Y.; Wu, Chun-Hua; Li, Jingbo; Sun, Jianping; Fabbri, Muller; Wayne, Alan S.; Seeger, Robert C.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the focus of great interest, as they appear to be involved in numerous important cellular processes. They deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types, including immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK), and they may play important roles in the immune <span class="hlt">system</span>. Currently, a large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> procedure to obtain functional NK EVs is lacking, limiting their use clinically. In this report, we present a simple, robust, and cost-effective method to isolate a large quantity of NK EVs. After propagating and <span class="hlt">activating</span> NK cells ex vivo and then incubating them in exosome-free medium for 48 h, EVs were isolated using a polymer precipitation method. The isolated vesicles contain the tetraspanin CD63, an EV marker, and associated proteins (fibronectin), but are devoid of cytochrome C, a cytoplasmic marker. Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed a size distribution between 100 and 200 nm while transmission electron microscopy imaging displayed vesicles with an oval shape and comparable sizes, fulfilling the definition of EV. Importantly, isolated EV fractions were cytotoxic against cancer cells. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that isolated <span class="hlt">activated</span> NK (aNK) cell EVs contain the cytotoxic proteins perforin, granulysin, and granzymes A and B, incorporated from the aNK cells. <span class="hlt">Activation</span> of caspase -3, -7 and -9 was detected in cancer cells incubated with aNK EVs, and caspase inhibitors blocked aNK EV-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting that aNK EVs <span class="hlt">activate</span> caspase pathways in target cells. The ability to isolate functional aNK EVs on a large <span class="hlt">scale</span> may lead to new clinical applications. Abbreviations: NK: natural killer cells; <span class="hlt">activated</span> NK (aNK) cells; EVs: extracellular vesicles; ALL: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; aAPC: artificial antigen-presenting cell; TEM: transmission</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19387653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19387653"><span><span class="hlt">Activity</span> affects intraspecific body-size <span class="hlt">scaling</span> of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glazier, Douglas Stewart</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Metabolic rate is commonly thought to <span class="hlt">scale</span> with body mass (M) to the 3/4 power. However, the metabolic <span class="hlt">scaling</span> exponent (b) may vary with <span class="hlt">activity</span> state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature data to test whether b changes with <span class="hlt">activity</span> level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show that b is usually higher during <span class="hlt">active</span> exercise (mean +/- 95% confidence limits = 0.918 +/- 0.038) than during rest (0.768 +/- 0.069). This significant upward shift in b to near 1 is consistent with the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, which predicts that maximal metabolic rate during exercise should be chiefly influenced by volume-related muscular power production (<span class="hlt">scaling</span> as M (1)). This dependence of b on <span class="hlt">activity</span> level does not appear to be a simple temperature effect because body temperature in ectotherms changes very little during exercise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......201H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......201H"><span>Integrated chemical and biological <span class="hlt">systems</span> in nanowire structures towards nano-<span class="hlt">scale</span> sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernandez, Rose M.</p> <p></p> <p>Nanowires composed of metal and conducting polymers with integrated proteins and chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been investigated as building blocks for next-generation nano-<span class="hlt">scale</span> sensors and assemblies. These nanowires were fabricated by combining chemical and electrochemical methods of synthesis of gold and conducting polymers in nanopores of anodized alumina membranes. Polymer nanowires were synthesized from buffer solutions as a mean to promote a biocompatible environment for the incorporation of proteins. A variety of proteins were incorporated into the polymer matrix by entrapment during polymerization that imparted the polymer material with biological functionality. Another class of composite nanowires containing electro-<span class="hlt">active</span> conducting polymer junctions was developed for applications in chemical sensor arrays. The methodologies described in this thesis provide an inexpensive and straightforward approach to the synthesis of anisotropic nanoparticles incorporating a variety of biological and inorganic species that can be integrated to current microelectronic technologies for the development of nano-<span class="hlt">scale</span> sensor arrays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002617"><span>A unique cellular <span class="hlt">scaling</span> rule in the avian auditory <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Although it is clear that neural structures <span class="hlt">scale</span> with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular <span class="hlt">scaling</span> rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the <span class="hlt">scaling</span> of auditory structures in birds and show that the <span class="hlt">scaling</span> rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular <span class="hlt">scaling</span> rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric <span class="hlt">scaling</span> of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural <span class="hlt">scaling</span> across vertebrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPD....42.0602Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPD....42.0602Y"><span>Utilizing Nst Data To Look For Connection Between Photospheric Dynamics And Small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Chromospheric <span class="hlt">Activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yurchyshyn, Vasyl B.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The largest ground-based solar telescope, the new solar telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory now allows us to address many important issues of coupling between the photosphere and chromosphere by means of simultaneous observations of photospheric granulation with well resolved bright points (BPs) and associated dynamics in the low chromosphere, as seen in H-alpha spectral line. Excellent seeing conditions, augmented with an adaptive optics <span class="hlt">system</span> and speckle-reconstruction applications produce diffraction limited images. We use these data to search for any possible connection between typical dynamics of bright points (collision, clustering and rapid motions) and chromospheric <span class="hlt">activity</span>, such as jets that are visible on all <span class="hlt">scales</span> down to the smallest resolved features. In this presentation we will highlight the most important findings, which include the following. 1) In mostly unipolar coronal holes, the majority of colliding/interacting BPs are not associated with any detectable chromospheric <span class="hlt">activity</span>. This means that the component reconnection, presumably occurring when the same polarity BPs interact, may not be very effective in producing chromospheric flows. We speculate that interaction of opposite polarity BPs may be more effective in generating up-flows. 2) NST/TiO images further reveal the hidden structure of plasma vortex tubes, previously predicted by Steiner et al. Besides the bright granular lane, a vortex tube structure also includes rapidly developing bright grain co-spatial with the tube's axis. Finally, some vortex tube events, detected in a CH data set, are co-spatial with small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> chromospheric jets, which suggests that they may be associated with new magnetic flux emerging within a granule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6029526','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6029526"><span>Metals distributions in <span class="hlt">activated</span> sludge <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Patterson, J.W.; Kodukula, P.S.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>Despite extensive laboratory and field studies over the past 25 years, little advance has been made in prediction of metals distribution and removal in <span class="hlt">activated</span> sludge treatment <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This paper reports the results of carefully controlled pilot studies, from which empirical metals distribution models were developed. The models accurately predict the distribution of process stream metals at each point in the <span class="hlt">activated</span> sludge process between the soluble and solids phases. The distribution models together with data on primary and secondary clarifier suspended solids removal efficiencies, are easily applied to predict the removals of influent metals in <span class="hlt">activated</span> sludge <span class="hlt">systems</span>. 36 references, 2 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868743','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868743"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> with Faraday filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Snyder, James J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">active</span> imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The <span class="hlt">system</span> has high sensitivity to the laser illumination while eliminating solar background.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6227600','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6227600"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> with Faraday filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Snyder, J.J.</p> <p>1993-04-13</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">active</span> imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The <span class="hlt">system</span> has high sensitivity to the laser illumination while eliminating solar background.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Adsorption&pg=3&id=ED523258','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Adsorption&pg=3&id=ED523258"><span>Multi-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Validation of a Nanodiamond Drug Delivery <span class="hlt">System</span> and Multi-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Engineering Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schwalbe, Michelle Kristin</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation has two primary concerns: (i) evaluating the uncertainty and prediction capabilities of a nanodiamond drug delivery model using Bayesian calibration and bias correction, and (ii) determining conceptual difficulties of multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> analysis from an engineering education perspective. A Bayesian uncertainty quantification scheme…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........40A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........40A"><span>Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small <span class="hlt">scale</span> gasification power <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria</p> <p></p> <p>Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small <span class="hlt">scale</span> from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..81f6112F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvE..81f6112F"><span>Origins of Taylor's power law for fluctuation <span class="hlt">scaling</span> in complex <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Taylor’s fluctuation <span class="hlt">scaling</span> (FS) has been observed in many natural and man-made <span class="hlt">systems</span> revealing an amazing universality of the law. Here, we give a reliable explanation for the origins and abundance of Taylor’s FS in different complex <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The universality of our approach is validated against real world data ranging from bird and insect populations through human chromosomes and traffic intensity in transportation networks to stock market dynamics. Using fundamental principles of statistical physics (both equilibrium and nonequilibrium) we prove that Taylor’s law results from the well-defined number of states of a <span class="hlt">system</span> characterized by the same value of a macroscopic parameter (i.e., the number of birds observed in a given area, traffic intensity measured as a number of cars passing trough a given observation point or daily <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the stock market measured in millions of dollars).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11213252','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11213252"><span>The plasminogen <span class="hlt">activator</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>: biology and regulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Irigoyen, J P; Muñoz-Cánoves, P; Montero, L; Koziczak, M; Nagamine, Y</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>The regulation of plasminogen <span class="hlt">activation</span> involves genes for two plasminogen <span class="hlt">activators</span> (tissue type and urokinase type), two specific inhibitors (type 1 and type 2), and a membrane-anchored urokinase-type plasminogen-<span class="hlt">activator</span>-specific receptor. This <span class="hlt">system</span> plays an important role in various biological processes involving extracellular proteolysis. Recent studies have revealed that the <span class="hlt">system</span>, through interplay with integrins and the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, is also involved in the regulation of cell migration and proliferation in a manner independent of proteolytic <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The genes are expressed in many different cell types and their expression is under the control of diverse extracellular signals. Gene expression reflects the levels of the corresponding mRNA, which should be the net result of synthesis and degradation. Thus, modulation of mRNA stability is an important factor in overall regulation. This review summarizes current understanding of the biology and regulation of genes involved in plasminogen <span class="hlt">activation</span> at different levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/576638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/576638"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> containment <span class="hlt">systems</span> incorporating modified pillared clays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lundie, P. |; McLeod, N.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The application of treatment technologies in <span class="hlt">active</span> containment <span class="hlt">systems</span> provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The application of modified pillared clays in <span class="hlt">active</span> containment <span class="hlt">systems</span> provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the <span class="hlt">active</span> containment <span class="hlt">system</span> and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10595443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10595443"><span>Pilot <span class="hlt">scale</span> study on retrofitting conventional <span class="hlt">activated</span> sludge plant for biological nutrient removal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiang, W W; Qasim, S R; Zhu, G; Crosby, E C</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Eutrophication of receiving waters due to the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus through the wastewater effluent has received much interest in recent years. Numerous techniques have been proposed and aimed at retrofitting the existing conventional <span class="hlt">activated</span> sludge process for nutrient removal. A pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> research program was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a biological nutrient process for this purpose. The results indicated that creating an anoxic/anaerobic zone before aeration basin significantly enhances total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) removal. Without internal cycle, about 80 percent TP and TN removal were respectively achieved under their optimal conditions. However, adverse trends for phosphorus and nitrogen removal were observed when the ratio of return sludge to the influent was varied in the range between 0.5 and 3.0. The total phosphorus removal decreased as the concentration of BOD5 in the mixture of influent and return sludge decreased. Improved sludge settling properties and reduced foaming problems were also observed during the pilot plant operation. Based upon experimental results, the strategies to modify an existing conventional <span class="hlt">activated</span> sludge plant into a biological nutrient removal (BNR) <span class="hlt">system</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854391"><span>Infrared-<span class="hlt">active</span> quadruple contrast FePt nanoparticles for multiple <span class="hlt">scale</span> molecular imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chou, Shang-Wei; Liu, Chien-Liang; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Shen, Yu-Fang; Kuo, Lun-Chang; Wu, Cheng-Ham; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Yang, Che-Chang; Chang, Kai-Yao; Lu, Meng-Hua; Li, Pai-Chi; Chen, Shi-Ping; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lu, Chen-Wen; Chen, Yi-An; Huang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Churng-Ren Chris; Hsiao, Jong-Kai; Li, Meng-Lin; Chou, Pi-Tai</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A single nanomaterial with multiple imaging contrasts and functions is highly desired for multiscale theragnosis. Herein, we demonstrate single 1-1.9 μm infrared-<span class="hlt">active</span> FePt alloy nanoparticles (FePt NPs) offering unprecedented four-contrast-in-one molecular imaging - computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), photoacoustic (PA) imaging, and high-order multiphoton luminescence (HOMPL) microscopy. The PA response of FePt NPs outperforms that of infrared-<span class="hlt">active</span> gold nanorods by 3- to 5.6-fold under identical excitation fluence and particle concentrations. HOMPL (680 nm) of an isolated FePt NP renders spatial full-width-at-half-maximum values of 432 nm and 300 nm beyond the optical diffraction limit for 1230-nm and 920-nm excitation, respectively. The in vivo targeting function was successfully visualized using HOMPL, PA imaging, CT, and MRI, thereby validating FePt as a single nanomaterial <span class="hlt">system</span> covering up to four types (Optical/PA/CT/MRI) of molecular imaging contrast, ranging from the microscopic level to whole-body <span class="hlt">scale</span> investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3440596','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3440596"><span>Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling <span class="hlt">system</span> using bilateral control with feed operation <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and cutting force <span class="hlt">scaling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting <span class="hlt">systems</span> such as robotic drilling <span class="hlt">systems</span> are required. Methods A telerobotic-assisted drilling <span class="hlt">system</span> is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control <span class="hlt">system</span> is implemented in linear actuators in a master–slave <span class="hlt">system</span> for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master–slave <span class="hlt">system</span>. Moreover, position <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and force <span class="hlt">scaling</span> are achieved. <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Results Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. Conclusions The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling <span class="hlt">system</span> achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2799C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2799C"><span>Impact of a <span class="hlt">scale</span>-aware cumulus parameterization in an operational NWP <span class="hlt">system</span> modeling <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Baode; Yang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaofeng</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>To better understand the behavior of convective schemes across the grey zone, we carried out one-month (July of 2013) realtime-like experiment with an operational NWP <span class="hlt">system</span> modeling <span class="hlt">system</span> which includes the ADAS data assimilation scheme and WRF forecast model. The Grell-Freitas cumulus parameterization scheme, which is a <span class="hlt">scale</span>-aware convective parameterization scheme and has been developed to better handle the transition in behavior of the sub-grid <span class="hlt">scale</span> convective processes through the grey zone, was used in different resolution (15km, 9km and 3km) model set-up. Subjective and quantitative evaluations of the forecasts were conducted and the skills of the different experimental forecasts relatively to existing forecasting guidance were compared. A summary of the preliminary findings about the proportion of resolved vs unresolved physical processes in the gray zone will be presented along with a discussion of the potential operational impacts of the cumulus parameterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22882957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22882957"><span>Morphological and physicochemical characteristics of iron corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> formed under different water source histories in a drinking water distribution <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Gu, Junnong; Wang, Dongsheng; Yang, Min</p> <p>2012-10-15</p> <p>The corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> on iron pipes could have great impact on the water quality in drinking water distribution <span class="hlt">systems</span> (DWDS). Unstable and less protective corrosion <span class="hlt">scale</span> is one of the main factors causing "discolored water" issues when quality of water entering into distribution <span class="hlt">system</span> changed significantly. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> formed under different source water histories in duration of about two decades were systematically investigated in this work. Thick corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> or densely distributed corrosion tubercles were mostly found in pipes transporting surface water, but thin corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> and hollow tubercles were mostly discovered in pipes transporting groundwater. Magnetite and goethite were main constituents of iron corrosion products, but the mass ratio of magnetite/goethite (M/G) was significantly different depending on the corrosion <span class="hlt">scale</span> structure and water source conditions. Thick corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> and hard shell of tubercles had much higher M/G ratio (>1.0), while the thin corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> had no magnetite detected or with much lower M/G ratio. The M/G ratio could be used to identify the characteristics and evaluate the performances of corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> formed under different water conditions. Compared with the pipes transporting ground water, the pipes transporting surface water were more seriously corroded and could be in a relatively more <span class="hlt">active</span> corrosion status all the time, which was implicated by relatively higher siderite, green rust and total iron contents in their corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span>. Higher content of unstable ferric components such as γ-FeOOH, β-FeOOH and amorphous iron oxide existed in corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> of pipes receiving groundwater which was less corroded. Corrosion <span class="hlt">scales</span> on groundwater pipes with low magnetite content had higher surface area and thus possibly higher sorption capacity. The primary trace inorganic elements in corrosion products were Br and heavy metals. Corrosion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24410456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24410456"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> assessment of <span class="hlt">activity</span> landscape feature probabilities of bioactive compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kayastha, Shilva; Dimova, Dilyana; Iyer, Preeti; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen</p> <p>2014-02-24</p> <p><span class="hlt">Activity</span> landscape representations integrate pairwise compound similarity and potency relationships and provide direct access to characteristic structure-<span class="hlt">activity</span> relationship features in compound data sets. Because pairwise compound comparisons provide the foundation of <span class="hlt">activity</span> landscape design, the assessment of specific landscape features such as <span class="hlt">activity</span> cliffs has generally been confined to the level of compound pairs. A conditional probability-based approach has been applied herein to assign most probable <span class="hlt">activity</span> landscape features to individual compounds. For example, for a given data set compound, it was determined if it would preferentially engage in the formation of <span class="hlt">activity</span> cliffs or other landscape features. In a large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> effort, we have determined conditional <span class="hlt">activity</span> landscape feature probabilities for more than 160,000 compounds with well-defined <span class="hlt">activity</span> annotations contained in 427 different target-based data sets. These landscape feature probabilities provide a detailed view of how different <span class="hlt">activity</span> landscape features are distributed over currently available bioactive compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880047652&hterms=feature+discrete&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfeature%2Bdiscrete','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880047652&hterms=feature+discrete&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfeature%2Bdiscrete"><span>Singular perturbations and time <span class="hlt">scales</span> (SPaTS) in discrete control <span class="hlt">systems</span>-An overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Naidu, D. S.; Hibey, J. L.; Price, D. B.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Recent developments in the theory of singular perturbations and time <span class="hlt">scales</span> (SPaTS) in discrete control <span class="hlt">systems</span> are reviewed. Sources of discrete models and the effect of the discretizing interval on the model are examined. The analysis of two-time <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> is presented to bring out typical characteristic features of SPaTS. In the control of the two-time <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>, the important issue of multirate sampling is addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4730856','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4730856"><span>Connecting multiple spatial <span class="hlt">scales</span> to decode the population <span class="hlt">activity</span> of grid cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stemmler, Martin; Mathis, Alexander; Herz, Andreas V. M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mammalian grid cells fire when an animal crosses the points of an imaginary hexagonal grid tessellating the environment. We show how animals can navigate by reading out a simple population vector of grid cell <span class="hlt">activity</span> across multiple spatial <span class="hlt">scales</span>, even though neural <span class="hlt">activity</span> is intrinsically stochastic. This theory of dead reckoning explains why grid cells are organized into discrete modules within which all cells have the same lattice <span class="hlt">scale</span> and orientation. The lattice <span class="hlt">scale</span> changes from module to module and should form a geometric progression with a <span class="hlt">scale</span> ratio of around 3/2 to minimize the risk of making large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> errors in spatial localization. Such errors should also occur if intermediate-<span class="hlt">scale</span> modules are silenced, whereas knocking out the module at the smallest <span class="hlt">scale</span> will only affect spatial precision. For goal-directed navigation, the allocentric grid cell representation can be readily transformed into the egocentric goal coordinates needed for planning movements. The goal location is set by nonlinear gain fields that act on goal vector cells. This theory predicts neural and behavioral correlates of grid cell readout that transcend the known link between grid cells of the medial entorhinal cortex and place cells of the hippocampus. PMID:26824061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1081913','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1081913"><span><span class="hlt">Scaling</span> and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Greater than 175 kW in Capacity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abdelaziz, Omar; West, David L; Mallow, Anne M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for <span class="hlt">scaling</span> magnetic refrigeration <span class="hlt">systems</span> for commercial building cooling applications. <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been developed. As <span class="hlt">system</span> refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet <span class="hlt">systems</span> becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of <span class="hlt">system</span> requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based <span class="hlt">systems</span> to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based <span class="hlt">active</span> magnetic regeneration (AMR) <span class="hlt">system</span>. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this <span class="hlt">system</span>. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet <span class="hlt">system</span> consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A <span class="hlt">system</span> COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based <span class="hlt">system</span> can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional <span class="hlt">systems</span> and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA610485','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA610485"><span>Does <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Really Matter? Ultra-Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Seven Years after the Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-24</p> <p>Cai, Claudio Sant’Anna, Kevin Sullivan, Thomas Cottenier, and James Noble. ŗrd Workshop on Assessment of Contemporary Modularization Techniques...7 Haber, Arne, Holger Rendel, Bernhard Rumpe, and Ina Schaefer. "Evolving Delta- Oriented Software Product Line Architectures." In Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span>...Seven Years Later Linda Northrop: May 24, 2013 © 2013 Carnegie Mellon University References - 14 Valerdi, Ricardo, Elliot Axelband, Thomas Baehren, Barry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048188','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048188"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">Active</span>-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>An advanced thrust-measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> utilizes <span class="hlt">active</span> magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This <span class="hlt">system</span> was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This <span class="hlt">system</span> offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement <span class="hlt">systems</span> based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The <span class="hlt">system</span> includes multiple <span class="hlt">active</span> magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other <span class="hlt">active</span> magnetic bearings, the <span class="hlt">active</span> magnetic bearings of this <span class="hlt">system</span> include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the <span class="hlt">system</span> minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The <span class="hlt">active</span> magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement <span class="hlt">systems</span>, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement <span class="hlt">systems</span>, this <span class="hlt">system</span> offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior <span class="hlt">active</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5035142','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5035142"><span>A robust <span class="hlt">activity</span> marking <span class="hlt">system</span> for exploring <span class="hlt">active</span> neuronal ensembles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sørensen, Andreas T; Cooper, Yonatan A; Baratta, Michael V; Weng, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Yuxiang; Ramamoorthi, Kartik; Fropf, Robin; LaVerriere, Emily; Xue, Jian; Young, Andrew; Schneider, Colleen; Gøtzsche, Casper René; Hemberg, Martin; Yin, Jerry CP; Maier, Steven F; Lin, Yingxi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Understanding how the brain captures transient experience and converts it into long lasting changes in neural circuits requires the identification and investigation of the specific ensembles of neurons that are responsible for the encoding of each experience. We have developed a Robust <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Marking (RAM) <span class="hlt">system</span> that allows for the identification and interrogation of ensembles of neurons. The RAM <span class="hlt">system</span> provides unprecedented high sensitivity and selectivity through the use of an optimized synthetic <span class="hlt">activity</span>-regulated promoter that is strongly induced by neuronal <span class="hlt">activity</span> and a modified Tet-Off <span class="hlt">system</span> that achieves improved temporal control. Due to its compact design, RAM can be packaged into a single adeno-associated virus (AAV), providing great versatility and ease of use, including application to mice, rats, flies, and potentially many other species. Cre-dependent RAM, CRAM, allows for the study of <span class="hlt">active</span> ensembles of a specific cell type and anatomical connectivity, further expanding the RAM system’s versatility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13918.001 PMID:27661450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26890426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26890426"><span>The <span class="hlt">activities</span>-specific balance confidence <span class="hlt">scale</span> and berg balance <span class="hlt">scale</span>: Reliability and validity in Arabic-speaking vestibular patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alghwiri, Alia A; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Al-Momani, Murad O; Whitney, Susan L</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Persons with vestibular disorders are susceptible to imbalance. The <span class="hlt">Activities</span>-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) <span class="hlt">scale</span> and Berg Balance <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (BBS) have been validated in persons with vestibular disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Arabic versions of ABC and BBS among Arabic-speaking persons with vestibular disorders in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the A-ABC and A-BBS were administered to a convenience sample of 82 persons with vestibular disorders (age = 43 ± 14), (56% female). The test-retest reliability of the A-ABC item and total score as well as the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the A-BBS total score reflected high agreement. Significant and large correlations were found between the A-ABC and the A-BBS (r= 0.54, P< 0.05), the A-ABC and the Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory (A-DHI) (r= -0.76, P< 0.05), and the A-BBS and the A-DHI (r= -0.56, P< 0.05). The A-ABC and the A-BBS demonstrated good reliability and validity and can be utilized with Arabic-speaking persons with vestibular disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/89538','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/89538"><span>Aging assessment for <span class="hlt">active</span> fire protection <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of <span class="hlt">active</span> fire protection <span class="hlt">systems</span> including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection <span class="hlt">system</span> components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection <span class="hlt">system</span> aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B41D0468M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B41D0468M"><span>Development of an Unmanned Aerial <span class="hlt">System</span> (UAS) for <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> Terrestrial Ecosystem Traits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meng, R.; McMahon, A. M.; Serbin, S.; Rogers, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The next generation of Ecosystem and Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Models (EESMs) will require detailed information on ecosystem structure and function, including properties of vegetation related to carbon (C), water, and energy cycling, in order to project the future state of ecosystems. High spatial-temporal resolution measurements of terrestrial ecosystem are also important for EESMs, because they can provide critical inputs and benchmark datasets for evaluation of EESMs simulations across <span class="hlt">scales</span>. The recent development of high-quality, low-altitude remote sensing platforms or small UAS (< 25 kg) enables measurements of terrestrial ecosystems at unprecedented temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">scales</span>. Specifically, these new platforms can provide detailed information on patterns and processes of terrestrial ecosystems at a critical intermediate <span class="hlt">scale</span> between point measurements and suborbital and satellite platforms. Given their potential for sub-decimeter spatial resolution, improved mission safety, high revisit frequency, and reduced operation cost, these platforms are of particular interest in the development of ecological <span class="hlt">scaling</span> algorithms to parameterize and benchmark EESMs, particularly over complex and remote terrain. Our group is developing a small UAS platform and integrated sensor package focused on measurement needs for <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and informing ecosystem modeling <span class="hlt">activities</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and mapping plant functional traits. To do this we are developing an integrated software workflow and hardware package using off-the-shelf instrumentation including a high-resolution digital camera for Structure from Motion, spectroradiometer, and a thermal infrared camera. Our workflow includes platform design, measurement, image processing, data management, and information extraction. The fusion of 3D structure information, thermal-infrared imagery, and spectroscopic measurements, will provide a foundation for the development of ecological <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and mapping algorithms. Our initial focus is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM12B..01N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM12B..01N"><span>Heliophysics/Geospace <span class="hlt">System</span> Observatory: <span class="hlt">System</span> level science by large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> space-ground coordination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nishimura, T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Moore, T. E.; Samara, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent multi-satellite and ground-based network measurements have revealed importance of cross-<span class="hlt">scale</span> and cross-regional coupling processes for understanding key issues in geospace such as magnetic reconnection, substorms and particle acceleration. In particular, localized and fast plasma transport in a global <span class="hlt">scale</span> has been recognized to play a fundamental role in regulating evolution of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling. Those results call for coordinated measurements multi-missions and facilities in a global <span class="hlt">scale</span> for understanding global coupling processes in a <span class="hlt">system</span> level. In fact, the National Research Council recommends to use NASA's existing heliophysics flight missions and NSF's ground-based facilities by forming a network of observing platforms that operate simultaneously to investigate the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. This array can be thought of as a single observatory, the Heliophysics/Geospace <span class="hlt">System</span> Observatory (H/GSO). Motivated by the successful launch of MMS and the healthy status of THEMIS, Van Allen Probes and other missions, we plan a strategic use of existing and upcoming assets in space and ground in the next two years. In the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 northern winter seasons, MMS will be in the dayside over northern Europe, and THEMIS will be in the nightside over North America. In the 2016 and 2017 southern winter seasons, THEMIS will be in the dayside over the South Pole, and MMS will be in the nightside in the Australian sector. These are favorable configurations for simultaneous day-night coupling measurements of magnetic reconnection and related plasma transport both in space and on the ground, and also provide excellent opportunities for cross-<span class="hlt">scale</span> coupling, global effects of dayside transients, tail-inner magnetosphere coupling, and other global processes. This presentation will give the current status and plan of the H/GSO and these science targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPBra..22...32K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPBra..22...32K"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> Displacement Control of <span class="hlt">Active</span> Magnetic Bearing <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kertész, Milan; Kozakovič, Radko; Magdolen, Luboš; Masaryk, Michal</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The worldwide energy production nowadays is over 3400 GW while storage <span class="hlt">systems</span> have a capacity of only 90 GW [1]. There is a good solution for additional storage capacity in flywheel energy storage <span class="hlt">systems</span> (FES). The main advantage of FES is its relatively high efficiency especially with using the <span class="hlt">active</span> magnetic bearing <span class="hlt">system</span>. Therefore there exist good reasons for appropriate simulations and for creating a suitable magneto-structural control <span class="hlt">system</span>. The magnetic bearing, including actuation, is simulated in the ANSYS parametric design language (APDL). APDL is used to create the loops of transient simulations where boundary conditions (BC) are updated based upon a "gap sensor" which controls the nodal position values of the centroid of the shaft and the current density inputs onto the copper windings.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA344640','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA344640"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> Materials for Photonic <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (AMPS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>market . Overall Program Summary The overall objective of the <span class="hlt">Active</span> Materials for Photonic <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (AMPS) program was to develop and demonstrate...mode fiber, with alignment tolerances of several microns functions well for data communications , single mode fiber is required for several significant...in the laser/optics community . Boeing and MCNC have signed a memorandum of agreement for commercialization and are <span class="hlt">actively</span> seeking partners for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4116362','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4116362"><span>Development and psychometric testing of the <span class="hlt">active</span> aging <span class="hlt">scale</span> for Thai adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Active</span> aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about <span class="hlt">active</span> aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of <span class="hlt">scales</span> to measure the expression of <span class="hlt">active</span> aging attributes. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite <span class="hlt">scale</span> of <span class="hlt">active</span> aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods Eight steps of <span class="hlt">scale</span> development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item <span class="hlt">scale</span> consisting of seven factors of <span class="hlt">active</span> aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being <span class="hlt">actively</span> engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in <span class="hlt">active</span> learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed. Conclusion The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of <span class="hlt">active</span> aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28096409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28096409"><span>Field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip</p> <p>2017-01-31</p> <p>Knowledge of production-<span class="hlt">system</span> performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Although yield gaps between plot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> and field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> crop-yield results can inform field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based-organic, management practices for a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> yields well matched field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> yields for conventional management but not for alternative <span class="hlt">systems</span>. For all three crops, at the plot <span class="hlt">scale</span>, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field <span class="hlt">scale</span>, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot <span class="hlt">scale</span>, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field <span class="hlt">scale</span>, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental <span class="hlt">scale</span> than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-<span class="hlt">system</span> performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced <span class="hlt">systems</span> typical of much of the developing world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6116876','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6116876"><span>Justification for using <span class="hlt">scale</span> models for impact response evaluation of the SST Transportation <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berry, R.E.</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>The validity of <span class="hlt">scale</span> model impact evaluation of the SST Transportation <span class="hlt">System</span> is acceptable based on Dimensional Analysis (Buckingham Pi Theorem) and the work of numerous programs that have evaluated the agreement among dimensional analysis, several different reduced-size models and full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> impact test data. Excellent accuracy has been demonstrated between <span class="hlt">scale</span> models and full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> impact data when collected in conformance with the Buckingham Pi Theorem. 20 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5293036','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5293036"><span>Field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Robertson, G. Philip</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of production-<span class="hlt">system</span> performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Although yield gaps between plot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> and field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> crop-yield results can inform field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based–organic, management practices for a corn–soybean–wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> yields well matched field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> yields for conventional management but not for alternative <span class="hlt">systems</span>. For all three crops, at the plot <span class="hlt">scale</span>, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field <span class="hlt">scale</span>, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot <span class="hlt">scale</span>, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field <span class="hlt">scale</span>, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental <span class="hlt">scale</span> than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-<span class="hlt">system</span> performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced <span class="hlt">systems</span> typical of much of the developing world. PMID:28096409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19303787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19303787"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">scaling</span> factors for the <span class="hlt">activated</span> concrete of the KRR-2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Sang-Bum; Kang, Mun-Ja; Lee, Ki-Won; Chung, Un-Soo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The biological shielding concrete of KRR-2 was <span class="hlt">activated</span> by a thermal neutron reaction during the operation of the reactor, thus a variety of radionuclides were generated in the concrete. In order to verify the radioactivity for the final disposal of waste and to achieve a more efficient cutting of the concrete, the radioactivity inventories and distributions of the <span class="hlt">activated</span> concrete were evaluated. The <span class="hlt">activity</span> of gamma-emitting radionuclides was measured by using an HPGe detector. The beta-emitting radionuclides were measured by an oxidation/combustion method for (3)H and (14)C and a combined method of an extraction chromatography and a liquid scintillation for (55)Fe and (63)Ni. The dominant radioactive nuclides in the <span class="hlt">activated</span> concrete were (3)H, (14)C, (55)Fe and (60)Co, and the maximum gamma <span class="hlt">activity</span> was 105Bq/g at the surface around the thermal column. The specific <span class="hlt">activities</span> of all the nuclides were found to decrease almost linearly on a logarithmic <span class="hlt">scale</span> along the depth from the inner surface of the concrete. Equations for <span class="hlt">scaling</span> factors were obtained by a linear regression of logarithms from the radioactivity data of (3)H/(60)Co, (14)C/(60)Co and (55)Fe/(60)Co nuclide pairs of the <span class="hlt">activated</span> concrete. The <span class="hlt">scaling</span> factors can be utilized for the estimation of beta radioactivity without the time consuming separation processes of the nuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JEMat..18..301M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JEMat..18..301M"><span>The parylene-aluminum multilayer interconnection <span class="hlt">system</span> for wafer <span class="hlt">scale</span> integration and wafer <span class="hlt">scale</span> hybrid packaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Majid, N.; Dabral, S.; McDonald, J. F.</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>Polyimides have been considered as interlayer dielectrics for wafer <span class="hlt">scale</span> integration (WSI) and wafer <span class="hlt">scale</span> hybrid packaging (WSHP). However, high temperature curing steps for polyimide lead to large stresses in polyimide films. This is due to differing thermal expansion coefficients of the metal conductor, insulator and substrate materials causing yield and reliability problems. Polyimides also require the use of solvents, and tend to outgas during subsequent processing. They tend to absorb moisture with resulting degradation of dielectric constants. Also, the spin on method used to apply and planarize polyimide layers exhibits nonuniformity of thickness on large wafers. In this paper we examine parylene (Poly-p-xylylene) and some of its derivatives as possible interlayer dielectrics due to some of their attractive features. Parylene has a low dielectric constant. It can be vapor deposited at low temperatures and in vacuum. It is also highly resistant to corrosion and is a clear, transparent material with possible use for optical interconnections. This paper studies the reactive ion etching properties for polyimides and parylenes in an oxygen containing plasma under identical conditions. The etching rates of the parylenes and polyimides have been compared. The surface properties of these polymers are examined. Further, the film growth properties of aluminum deposited on the etched surfaces using the ionized cluster beam are investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://peer.berkeley.edu/publications/peer_reports/reports_2012/webPEER-2012-01-REZAEIAN.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://peer.berkeley.edu/publications/peer_reports/reports_2012/webPEER-2012-01-REZAEIAN.pdf"><span>Spectral damping <span class="hlt">scaling</span> factors for shallow crustal earthquakes in <span class="hlt">active</span> tectonic regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Campbell, Kenneth; Abrahamson, Norman; Silva, Walter</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra, including the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models, are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and non-structural <span class="hlt">systems</span> can have damping ratios other than 5%, depending on various factors such as structural types, construction materials, level of ground motion excitations, among others. This report provides the findings of a comprehensive study to develop a new model for a Damping <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> Factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE to spectral ordinates with damping ratios between 0.5 to 30%. Using the updated, 2011 version of the NGA database of ground motions recorded in worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in <span class="hlt">active</span> tectonic regions (i.e., the NGA-West2 database), dependencies of the DSF on variables including damping ratio, spectral period, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, duration, and local site conditions are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions are found to have less significant influence on DSF and are not included in the model. The proposed model for DSF provides functional forms for the median value and the logarithmic standard deviation of DSF. This model is heteroscedastic, where the variance is a function of the damping ratio. Damping <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> Factor models are developed for the “average” horizontal ground motion components, i.e., RotD50 and GMRotI50, as well as the vertical component of ground motion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AAS...21841102H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AAS...21841102H"><span>The Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> Ballet: A Kinesthetic Spatial Astronomy <span class="hlt">Activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heyer, Inge; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; Astronomy, Center; Education ResearchCAPER, Physics</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> Ballet was developed in order for students of all ages to learn about the planets, their motions, their distances, and their individual characteristics. To teach people about the structure of our Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> can be revealing and rewarding, for students and teachers. Little ones (and some bigger ones, too) often cannot yet grasp theoretical and spatial ideas purely with their minds. Showing a video is better, but being able to learn with their bodies, essentially being what they learn about, will help them understand and remember difficult concepts much more easily. There are three segments to this <span class="hlt">activity</span>, which can be done together or separately, depending on time limits and age of the students. Part one involves a short introductory discussion about what students know about the planets. Then students will act out the orbital motions of the planets (and also moons for the older ones) while holding a physical model. During the second phase we look at the structure of the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> as well as the relative distances of the planets from the Sun, first by sketching it on paper, then by recreating a <span class="hlt">scaled</span> version in the class room. Again the students act out the parts of the Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> bodies with their models. The third segment concentrates on recreating historical measurements of Earth-Moon-Sun <span class="hlt">system</span>. The Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> Ballet <span class="hlt">activity</span> is suitable for grades K-12+ as well as general public informal learning <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.110e5702M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.110e5702M"><span>Traveling and Resting Crystals in <span class="hlt">Active</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menzel, Andreas M.; Löwen, Hartmut</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>A microscopic field theory for crystallization in <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> is proposed which unifies the phase-field-crystal model of freezing with the Toner—Tu theory for self-propelled particles. A wealth of different <span class="hlt">active</span> crystalline states are predicted and characterized. In particular, for increasing strength of self-propulsion, a transition from a resting crystal to a traveling crystalline state is found where the particles migrate collectively while keeping their crystalline order. Our predictions, which are verifiable in experiments and in particle-resolved computer simulations, provide a starting point for the design of new <span class="hlt">active</span> materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.3507S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.3507S"><span>Universal <span class="hlt">scaling</span> of spontaneous imbibition for water-wet <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmid, K. S.; Geiger, S.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Spontaneous, counter-current imbibition (SI) is a key mechanism in many multiphase flow processes, such as cleanup of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), bioremediation, or CO2 storage. For interpreting and upscaling laboratory SI data, and modeling and prediction purposes, <span class="hlt">scaling</span> groups are an essential tool. The question of how to formulate a general <span class="hlt">scaling</span> group has been debated for over 90 years. Here we propose the first <span class="hlt">scaling</span> group that incorporates the influence of all parameters on SI that are present in the two-phase Darcy model. The group is derived rigorously from the only known exact analytical solution for spontaneous imbibition by relating the cumulative water phase imbibed to the normalized pore volume. We show the validity of the group by applying it to 42 published SI studies for water-oil and water-air experiments, for a wide range of viscosity ratios, different materials, different initial water saturations, and different length-<span class="hlt">scales</span>. In all cases, water was the wetting phase. Our group serves as a "master equation" whose generality allows the rigorous prediction of the validity of a large number of specialized <span class="hlt">scaling</span> groups proposed during the last 90 years. Furthermore, our results give strong evidence that the Darcy model is suitable for describing SI, and that including dynamic effects in capillary pressure is not necessary for counter-current SI, contrary to what has been hypothesized. Two key applications of the group are discussed: First, the group can serve as the long sought after general transfer rate for imbibition used in dual-porosity models. Second, it is the so far missing proportionality constant in imbibition-germination models for plant seeds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/263989','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/263989"><span>Summary of pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span> with resorcinol ion exchange resin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.</p> <p>1995-10-02</p> <p>The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-<span class="hlt">scale</span> studies and pilot <span class="hlt">scale</span> testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-<span class="hlt">scale</span> studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 <span class="hlt">activities</span>, SRTC performed crucible-<span class="hlt">scale</span> studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th <span class="hlt">scale</span> of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-<span class="hlt">scale</span> studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3269033','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3269033"><span>Gamma Band <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in the Reticular <span class="hlt">Activating</span> <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Urbano, Francisco J.; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Garcia-Rill, Edgar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular <span class="hlt">activating</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> (RAS) exhibit gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally <span class="hlt">activated</span>, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high-threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this <span class="hlt">activity</span>. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep–wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> demonstrates the global nature of sleep–wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem–thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep–wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the RAS follows recent reports of such <span class="hlt">activity</span> in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable <span class="hlt">activation</span> state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by pre-conscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the RAS that could participate in the processes of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319508"><span>Gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the reticular <span class="hlt">activating</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Urbano, Francisco J; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Garcia-Rill, Edgar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular <span class="hlt">activating</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> (RAS) exhibit gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally <span class="hlt">activated</span>, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high-threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this <span class="hlt">activity</span>. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> demonstrates the global nature of sleep-wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem-thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep-wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the RAS follows recent reports of such <span class="hlt">activity</span> in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable <span class="hlt">activation</span> state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by pre-conscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the RAS that could participate in the processes of pre</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E..101a2142D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E..101a2142D"><span>An analytical approach to designing a thermosiphon cooling <span class="hlt">system</span> for large <span class="hlt">scale</span> superconducting magnets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhanaraj, N.; Tatkowski, G.; Huang, Y.; Page, T. M.; Lamm, M. J.; Schmitt, R. L.; Peterson, T. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A Thermosiphon cooling scheme is a productive way of cooling large <span class="hlt">scale</span> superconducting magnets. The absence of <span class="hlt">active</span> pumping and the availability of the higher heat capacity parameter “latent heat” make this an attractive cooling method. Nevertheless, the design of such a <span class="hlt">system</span> demands a well-organized study of the effect of various flow parameters, such as, mass flow rates, flow quality, etc., and also a robust mechanical design of the various components of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. This paper presents an analytical approach to designing a thermosiphon cooling scheme based on homogeneous flow conditions as well as separated flow conditions. The design of the mechanical components such as the piping is also discussed. The design approach presented here has been applied to the reference design of two large superconducting solenoids, the Production Solenoid and the Detector Solenoid of the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10166916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10166916"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> with Faraday filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Snyder, J.J.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>This invention is comprised of an <span class="hlt">active</span> imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> which has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and a receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The <span class="hlt">system</span> has high sensitivity to the laser illumination wile eliminating solar background.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32.1143Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdAtS..32.1143Z"><span>Study on multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> blending initial condition perturbations for a regional ensemble prediction <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hanbin; Chen, Jing; Zhi, Xiefei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yanan</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>An initial conditions (ICs) perturbation method was developed with the aim to improve an operational regional ensemble prediction <span class="hlt">system</span> (REPS). Three issues were identified and investigated: (1) the impacts of perturbation <span class="hlt">scale</span> on the ensemble spread and forecast skill of the REPS; (2) the <span class="hlt">scale</span> characteristic of the IC perturbations of the REPS; and (3) whether the REPS's skill could be improved by adding large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> information to the IC perturbations. Numerical experiments were conducted to reveal the impact of perturbation <span class="hlt">scale</span> on the ensemble spread and forecast skill. The <span class="hlt">scales</span> of IC perturbations from the REPS and an operational global ensemble prediction <span class="hlt">system</span> (GEPS) were analyzed. A "multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> blending" (MSB) IC perturbation scheme was developed, and the main findings can be summarized as follows: The growth rates of the ensemble spread of the REPS are sensitive to the <span class="hlt">scale</span> of the IC perturbations; the ensemble forecast skills can benefit from large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> perturbations; the global ensemble IC perturbations exhibit more power at larger <span class="hlt">scales</span>, while the regional ensemble IC perturbations contain more power at smaller <span class="hlt">scales</span>; the MSB method can generate IC perturbations by combining the small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> component from the REPS and the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> component from the GEPS; the energy norm growth of the MSB-generated perturbations can be appropriate at all forecast lead times; and the MSB-based REPS shows higher skill than the original <span class="hlt">system</span>, as determined by ensemble forecast verification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730556"><span>Reliability and Validity of the Commitment to Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span> for Adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robbins, Lorraine B; Ling, Jiying; Wesolek, Stacey M; Kazanis, Anamaria S; Bourne, Kelly A; Resnicow, Ken</p> <p>2016-01-05</p> <p>Purpose . To examine psychometric properties of a Commitment to Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span> for Adolescents (CPASA). Design . Two test-retest studies and a prospective study, approved by a university institutional review board, were conducted in midwestern U.S. urban areas. Setting . The first test-retest study occurred in four community centers, the second test-retest study took place in a community school, and the prospective study occurred in eight middle schools. Subjects . To measure commitment at baseline and 1 week later, 51 girls in the first test-retest study completed an original 26-item <span class="hlt">scale</span>, and 91 in the second test-retest study completed a revised 11-item <span class="hlt">scale</span>. In the prospective study, 503 girls completed the 11-item <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Measures . Commitment was measured via the CPASA. After completing the CPASA, girls in the prospective study wore ActiGraph GT3X-plus accelerometers that measured light, moderate, and vigorous physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (LMVPA) and moderate to vigorous physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (MVPA). Analysis . Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated. Both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to cross-validate the factor structure. Results . For the 11-item CPASA, Cronbach α ranged from .81 to .82, and test-retest reliability was .88. Both EFA and CFA indicated a single factor. The <span class="hlt">scale</span> was significantly correlated with LMVPA (r = .10) and MVPA (r = .11). Conclusion . The 11-item CPASA demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity with girls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JHyd..365..310H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JHyd..365..310H"><span>Hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of stormwater biofiltration <span class="hlt">systems</span> at the field <span class="hlt">scale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatt, Belinda E.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Deletic, Ana</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>SummaryBiofiltration <span class="hlt">systems</span> are a recommended and increasingly popular technology for stormwater management; however there is a general lack of performance data for these <span class="hlt">systems</span>, particularly at the field <span class="hlt">scale</span>. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of three field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> biofiltration <span class="hlt">systems</span> in two different climates. Biofilters were shown to effectively attenuate peak runoff flow rates by at least 80%. Performance assessment of a lined biofilter demonstrated that retention of inflow volumes by the filter media, for subsequent loss via evapotranspiration, reduced runoff volumes by 33% on average. Retention of water was found to be most influenced by inflow volumes, although only small to medium storms could be assessed. Vegetation was shown to be important for maintaining hydraulic capacity, because root growth and senescence countered compaction and clogging. Suspended solids and heavy metals were effectively removed, irrespective of the design configuration, with load reductions generally in excess of 90%. In contrast, nutrient retention was variable, and ranged from consistent leaching to effective and reliable removal, depending on the design. To ensure effective removal of phosphorus, a filter medium with a low phosphorus content should be selected. Nitrogen is more difficult to remove because it is highly soluble and strongly influenced by the variable wetting and drying regime that is inherent in biofilter operation. The results of this research suggest that reconfiguration of biofilter design to manage the deleterious effects of drying on biological <span class="hlt">activity</span> is necessary to ensure long term nitrogen removal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960770','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960770"><span><span class="hlt">Activity</span>Sim: large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> agent based <span class="hlt">activity</span> generation for infrastructure simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gali, Emmanuel; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Mniszewski, Sue; Cuellar, Leticia; Teuscher, Christof</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The United States' Department of Homeland Security aims to model, simulate, and analyze critical infrastructure and their interdependencies across multiple sectors such as electric power, telecommunications, water distribution, transportation, etc. We introduce <span class="hlt">Activity</span>Sim, an <span class="hlt">activity</span> simulator for a population of millions of individual agents each characterized by a set of demographic attributes that is based on US census data. <span class="hlt">Activity</span>Sim generates daily schedules for each agent that consists of a sequence of <span class="hlt">activities</span>, such as sleeping, shopping, working etc., each being scheduled at a geographic location, such as businesses or private residences that is appropriate for the <span class="hlt">activity</span> type and for the personal situation of the agent. <span class="hlt">Activity</span>Sim has been developed as part of a larger effort to understand the interdependencies among national infrastructure networks and their demand profiles that emerge from the different <span class="hlt">activities</span> of individuals in baseline scenarios as well as emergency scenarios, such as hurricane evacuations. We present the scalable software engineering principles underlying <span class="hlt">Activity</span>Sim, the socia-technical modeling paradigms that drive the <span class="hlt">activity</span> generation, and proof-of-principle results for a scenario in the Twin Cities, MN area of 2.6 M agents.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......138G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......138G"><span>Research and Development of a Small-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Adsorption Cooling <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, Yeshpal</p> <p></p> <p> work, a small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> proof-of-concept prototype of the adsorption <span class="hlt">system</span> was assembled using some novel heat transfer enhancement strategies. <span class="hlt">Activated</span> carbon and butane was chosen as the adsorbent-refrigerant pair. It was found that a COP of 0.12 and a cooling capacity of 89.6 W can be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682433','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682433"><span>Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: <span class="hlt">active</span> and passive measurements at canopy and leaf <span class="hlt">scales</span> with different nitrogen treatments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cendrero-Mateo, M. Pilar; Moran, M. Susan; Papuga, Shirley A.; Thorp, K.R.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Rascher, U.; Wang, G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using <span class="hlt">active</span> techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy <span class="hlt">scales</span>. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using <span class="hlt">active</span> techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">scales</span>. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which <span class="hlt">active</span> and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that <span class="hlt">active</span> and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average <span class="hlt">scale</span>. At the single-leaf <span class="hlt">scale</span>, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of <span class="hlt">active</span> and passive ChlF at the single-leaf <span class="hlt">scale</span> are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average <span class="hlt">active</span> measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11D1042S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11D1042S"><span>Design strategies for human & earth <span class="hlt">systems</span> modeling to meet emerging multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> decision support needs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spak, S.; Pooley, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The next generation of coupled human and earth <span class="hlt">systems</span> models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth <span class="hlt">system</span> model design must: * seamlessly <span class="hlt">scale</span> in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component <span class="hlt">systems</span> * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing <span class="hlt">systems</span> * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human <span class="hlt">activity</span> affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot <span class="hlt">activities</span> using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional <span class="hlt">scales</span> for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED123409.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED123409.pdf"><span>A Navy Shore <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Manpower Planning <span class="hlt">System</span> for Civilians. Technical Report No. 24.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Niehaus, R. J.; Sholtz, D.</p> <p></p> <p>This report describes the U.S. Navy Shore <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Manpower Planning <span class="hlt">System</span> (SAMPS) advanced development research project. This effort is aimed at large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> feasibility tests of manpower models for large Naval installations. These local planning <span class="hlt">systems</span> are integrated with Navy-wide information <span class="hlt">systems</span> on a data-communications network accessible…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4161037','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4161037"><span>Chronic, Wireless Recordings of Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Brain <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in Freely Moving Rhesus Monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schwarz, David A.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Hanson, Timothy L.; Dimitrov, Dragan F.; Lehew, Gary; Meloy, Jim; Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Subramanian, Vivek; Ifft, Peter J.; Li, Zheng; Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Tate, Andrew; Zhuang, Katie; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Advances in techniques for recording large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> brain <span class="hlt">activity</span> contribute to both the elucidation of neurophysiological principles and the development of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). Here we describe a neurophysiological paradigm for performing tethered and wireless large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> recordings based on movable volumetric three-dimensional (3D) multielectrode implants. This approach allowed us to isolate up to 1,800 units per animal and simultaneously record the extracellular <span class="hlt">activity</span> of close to 500 cortical neurons, distributed across multiple cortical areas, in freely behaving rhesus monkeys. The method is expandable, in principle, to thousands of simultaneously recorded channels. It also allows increased recording longevity (5 consecutive years), and recording of a broad range of behaviors, e.g. social interactions, and BMI paradigms in freely moving primates. We propose that wireless large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> recordings could have a profound impact on basic primate neurophysiology research, while providing a framework for the development and testing of clinically relevant neuroprostheses. PMID:24776634</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1136226','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1136226"><span>Battery Energy Storage <span class="hlt">System</span> (BESS) and Battery Management <span class="hlt">System</span> (BMS) for Grid-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lawder, M. T.; Suthar, B.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Hoff, C. M.; Leitermann, O.; Crow, M. L.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Subramanian, V. R.</p> <p>2014-05-07</p> <p>The current electric grid is an inefficient <span class="hlt">system</span> that wastes significant amounts of the electricity it produces because there is a disconnect between the amount of energy consumers require and the amount of energy produced from generation sources. Power plants typically produce more power than necessary to ensure adequate power quality. By taking advantage of energy storage within the grid, many of these inefficiencies can be removed. Advanced modeling is required when using battery energy storage <span class="hlt">systems</span> (BESS) for grid storage in order to accurately monitor and control the storage <span class="hlt">system</span>. Battery management <span class="hlt">systems</span> (BMS) control how the storage <span class="hlt">system</span> will be used and a BMS that utilizes advanced physics-based models will offer for much more robust operation of the storage <span class="hlt">system</span>. The paper outlines the current state of the art for modeling in BMS and the advanced models required to fully utilize BMS for both lithium-ion batteries and vanadium redox-flow batteries. In addition, <span class="hlt">system</span> architecture and how it can be useful in monitoring and control is discussed. A pathway for advancing BMS to better utilize BESS for grid-<span class="hlt">scale</span> applications is outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945980"><span>[Validity and reliability of a <span class="hlt">scale</span> to assess self-efficacy for physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in elderly].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borges, Rossana Arruda; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Meurer, Simone Teresinha; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study aimed to analyze the confirmatory factor validity and reliability of a self-efficacy <span class="hlt">scale</span> for physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in a sample of 118 elderly (78% women) from 60 to 90 years of age. Mplus 6.1 was used to evaluate the confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and temporal stability. The original <span class="hlt">scale</span> consisted of five items with dichotomous answers (yes/no), independently for walking and moderate and vigorous physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The analysis excluded the item related to confidence in performing physical <span class="hlt">activities</span> when on vacation. Two constructs were identified, called "self-efficacy for walking" and "self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>", with a factor load ≥ 0.50. Internal consistency was adequate both for walking (> 0.70) and moderate and vigorous physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (> 0.80), and temporal stability was adequate for all the items. In conclusion, the self-efficacy <span class="hlt">scale</span> for physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> showed adequate validity, reliability, and internal consistency for evaluating this construct in elderly Brazilians.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED562148.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED562148.pdf"><span>A Fundamental Study for Efficient Implementaion of Online Collaborative <span class="hlt">Activities</span> in Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Classes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Matsuba, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Yusei; Kubota, Shin-Ichiro; Miyazaki, Makoto</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We study tactics for writing skills development through cross-disciplinary learning in online large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> classes, and particularly are interested in implementation of online collaborative <span class="hlt">activities</span> such as peer reviewing of writing. The goal of our study is to carry out collaborative works efficiently via online effectively in large-scale…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22037242','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22037242"><span>CURRENT HELICITY OF <span class="hlt">ACTIVE</span> REGIONS AS A TRACER OF LARGE-<span class="hlt">SCALE</span> SOLAR MAGNETIC HELICITY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, H.; Gao, Y.; Xu, H.; Moss, D.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Kuzanyan, K.; Sokoloff, D.</p> <p>2012-05-20</p> <p>We demonstrate that the current helicity observed in solar <span class="hlt">active</span> regions traces the magnetic helicity of the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> dynamo generated field. We use an advanced two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with dynamo saturation based on the evolution of the magnetic helicity and algebraic quenching. For comparison, we also studied a more basic two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with simple algebraic alpha-quenching only. Using these numerical models we obtained butterfly diagrams both for the small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> current helicity and also for the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> magnetic helicity, and compared them with the butterfly diagram for the current helicity in <span class="hlt">active</span> regions obtained from observations. This comparison shows that the current helicity of <span class="hlt">active</span> regions, as estimated by -A {center_dot} B evaluated at the depth from which the <span class="hlt">active</span> region arises, resembles the observational data much better than the small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> current helicity calculated directly from the helicity evolution equation. Here B and A are, respectively, the dynamo generated mean magnetic field and its vector potential. A theoretical interpretation of these results is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3416602','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3416602"><span>Microbial Survey of a Full-<span class="hlt">Scale</span>, Biologically <span class="hlt">Active</span> Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DeBry, Ronald W.; Lytle, Darren A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The microbial community of a full-<span class="hlt">scale</span>, biologically <span class="hlt">active</span> drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods. PMID:22752177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pea&id=EJ1015943','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pea&id=EJ1015943"><span>Reliability and Construct Validity of Turkish Version of Physical Education <span class="hlt">Activities</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Memis, Ugur Altay</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This research was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of physical education <span class="hlt">activities</span> <span class="hlt">scale</span> (PEAS) which was developed by Thomason (2008). Participants in this study included 313 secondary and high school students from 7th to 11th grades. To analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis, post hoc…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752177"><span>Microbial survey of a full-<span class="hlt">scale</span>, biologically <span class="hlt">active</span> filter for treatment of drinking water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, Colin P; Debry, Ronald W; Lytle, Darren A</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The microbial community of a full-<span class="hlt">scale</span>, biologically <span class="hlt">active</span> drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26980666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26980666"><span>Psychometric Evaluation of the Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Enjoyment <span class="hlt">Scale</span> in Adults with Functional Limitations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Enjoyment is an important construct for understanding physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> participation, and it has not been examined in adults with functional limitations. This secondary analysis reported the reliability and validity of the Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Enjoyment <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (PACES) in a convenience sample of 40 adults with functional limitations. The participants completed the PACES, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (CES-D), and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) prior to beginning a 12-week feasibility dance intervention study. Results indicated reliability as Cronbach's alpha was .95 and mean inter-item correlation was .52. To further support reliability, homogeneity of the instrument was evaluated using item-to-total <span class="hlt">scale</span> correlations. Homogeneity was supported as all items had corrected item-to-total correlations greater than .30. For validity, the PACES was significantly related to only the Physical Function component of the LLFDI (r = .38, p = .02), but not the CES-D. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure that accounted for 73.76% of the variance. This feasibility intervention dance study represented the first attempt to examine the psychometric properties of the PACES in adults with functional limitations. The findings demonstrate support for the <span class="hlt">scale</span>'s reliability and validity among adults with functional limitations. Results are informative as further psychometric testing of the PACES is recommended using randomized clinical trials with larger sample sizes. Enjoyment for physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> is an important construct for understanding physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> participation in adults with functional limitations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ACLS&pg=2&id=EJ953048','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ACLS&pg=2&id=EJ953048"><span>Validity and Reliability of a Turkish Version of the Friendship <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nalbant, Sibel; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Hutzler, Yeshayahu</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable Turkish version of the Friendship <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (FAS). Both the English and Turkish versions of the FAS were administered to 36 students to check for language equivalence. The Turkish version of the FAS was then administered to 226 students to ensure internal consistency, and to 61…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=229061','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=229061"><span>Estimates of genetic parameters among <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">activity</span> scores, growth, and fatness in pigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Genetic parameters for <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">activity</span> score were estimated from generations 5, 6, and 7 of a randomly selected, composite population composed of Duroc, Large White, and two sources of Landrace (n = 2,186). At approximately 156 d of age, pigs were weighed (WT) and ultrasound backfat measurements (BF1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhDT........97C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhDT........97C"><span>Investigations of Static and Dynamic <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> Phenomena in Polymeric <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Iksoo</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation we study two aspects of polymer physics, namely polymer statics and polymer dynamics. Particularly we investigate the tricritical collapse transition of trails in two dimensions and the dynamics of an entangled linear polymer in a fixed network. In order to clarify whether tricritical trails belong to the same universality class of the self-avoiding walk (SAW) at the Theta- and Theta^'-temperatures, we systematically investigate the asymptotic <span class="hlt">scaling</span> behavior of different properties of tricritical trials. Using numerical methods such as exact series enumeration on a triangular lattice and the scanning simulation method on a square lattice, we estimate accurately the tricritical temperature T_ t, size exponent nu _ t, partition function exponent gamma_ t, connectivity constant mu_ t, crossover exponent phi_ t, specific heat exponent alpha_ t, universal ratio < G^2>/ < R^2>, winding angle distribution P_ N(theta), and surface partition function exponents gamma _{1t}, gamma_ {11t} for tricritical trails. We provide analytic bounds for T_ t, gamma_ t and mu_ t. We also study the tricritical collapse transition of trails as well as other lattice walks on a two dimensional Sierpinski gasket using real space renormalization group. Comparison of our results with those of the SAW at the Theta - and Theta^' -temperatures suggests that tricritical trails may not belong to the same universality class as that of the SAW at the Theta- and Theta^ '-temperatures. We investigate the dynamics of an entangled linear polymer in a fixed network on the basis of the recently proposed repton model. We put a special emphasis on resolving the discrepancies between the reptation theory and experiments. First we examine the <span class="hlt">scaling</span> of the disengagement time tau_ d, Rouse time tau _ R, and a mean square displacement of a single repton phi(t) for the whole hierarchy of characteristic time <span class="hlt">scales</span>. The <span class="hlt">scaling</span> of these quantities agree with Doi's theory. We examine the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191849','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191849"><span>Engineering <span class="hlt">scale</span> mixing <span class="hlt">system</span> tests for MWTF title II design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang, S.C.</p> <p>1994-10-10</p> <p>Mixing tests for the Multifunction Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) were conducted in 1/25 and 1/10 <span class="hlt">scale</span> test tanks with different slurry levels, solids concentrations, different jet mixers and with simulated in-tank structures. The same test procedure was used as in the Title I program, documented in WHC-SD-W236A-ER-005. The test results support the <span class="hlt">scaling</span> correlation derived previously in the Title I program. The tests also concluded that a partially filled tank requires less mixing power, and horizontal and angled jets in combination (H/A mixer) are significantly more effective than the two horizontal jet mixers (H/H mixer) when used for mixing slurry with a high solids concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhA...50g4001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhA...50g4001H"><span>Transport in <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> crowded by obstacles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Mu-Jie; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The reactive and diffusive dynamics of a single chemically powered Janus motor in a crowded medium of moving but passive obstacles is investigated using molecular simulation. It is found that the reaction rate of the catalytic motor reaction decreases in a crowded medium as the volume fraction of obstacles increases as a result of a reduction in the Smoluchowski diffusion-controlled reaction rate coefficient that contributes to the overall reaction rate. A continuum model is constructed and analyzed to interpret the dependence of the steady-state reaction rate observed in simulations on the volume fraction of obstacles in the <span class="hlt">system</span>. The steady-state concentration fields of reactant and product are shown to be sensitive to the local structure of obstacles around the Janus motor. It is demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">active</span> motor exhibits enhanced diffusive motion at long times with a diffusion constant that decreases as the volume fraction of crowding species increases. In addition, the dynamical properties of a passive tracer particle in a <span class="hlt">system</span> containing many <span class="hlt">active</span> Janus motors is studied to investigate how an <span class="hlt">active</span> environment influences the transport of non-<span class="hlt">active</span> species. The diffusivity of a passive tracer particle in an <span class="hlt">active</span> medium is found to be enhanced in <span class="hlt">systems</span> with forward-moving Janus motors due to the cooperative dynamics of these motors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/57886','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/57886"><span>Validation of the <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> for PWR spent fuel isotopic composition analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.; Brady, M.C.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>The validity of the computation of pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel isotopic composition by the <span class="hlt">SCALE</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> depletion analysis was assessed using data presented in the report. Radiochemical measurements and <span class="hlt">SCALE</span>/SAS2H computations of depleted fuel isotopics were compared with 19 benchmark-problem samples from Calvert Cliffs Unit 1, H. B. Robinson Unit 2, and Obrigheim PWRs. Even though not exhaustive in scope, the validation included comparison of predicted and measured concentrations for 14 actinides and 37 fission and <span class="hlt">activation</span> products. The basic method by which the SAS2H control module applies the neutron transport treatment and point-depletion methods of <span class="hlt">SCALE</span> functional modules (XSDRNPM-S, NITAWL-II, BONAMI, and ORIGEN-S) is described in the report. Also, the reactor fuel design data, the operating histories, and the isotopic measurements for all cases are included in detail. The underlying radiochemical assays were conducted by the Materials Characterization. Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Approved Testing Material program and by four different laboratories in Europe on samples processed at the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24864168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24864168"><span>Application of the resource-based relative value <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> to pediatrics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gerstle, Robert S; Molteni, Richard A; Andreae, Margie C; Bradley, Joel F; Brewer, Eileen D; Calabrese, Jamie; Krug, Steven E; Liechty, Edward A; Linzer, Jeffrey F; Pillsbury, Julia M; Tuli, Sanjeev Y</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The majority of public and private payers in the United States currently use the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value <span class="hlt">Scale</span> as the basis for physician payment. Many large group and academic practices have adopted this objective <span class="hlt">system</span> of physician work to benchmark physician productivity, including using it, wholly or in part, to determine compensation. The Resource-Based Relative Value <span class="hlt">Scale</span> survey instrument, used to value physician services, was designed primarily for procedural services, leading to current concerns that American Medical Association/Specialty Society Relative Value <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Update Committee (RUC) surveys may undervalue nonprocedural evaluation and management services. The American Academy of Pediatrics is represented on the RUC, the committee charged with maintaining accurate physician work values across specialties and age groups. The Academy, working closely with other primary care and subspecialty societies, <span class="hlt">actively</span> pursues a balanced RUC membership and a survey instrument that will ensure appropriate work relative value unit assignments, thereby allowing pediatricians to receive appropriate payment for their services relative to other services.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22system+identification%22&pg=6&id=EJ393723','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22system+identification%22&pg=6&id=EJ393723"><span>Psychometric Properties of the Dyskinesia Identification <span class="hlt">System</span>: Condensed User <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (DISCUS).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sprague, Robert L.; And Others</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Individuals with developmental disability (n=400) were assessed with the "Dyskinesia Identification <span class="hlt">System</span>: Condensed User <span class="hlt">Scale</span>" (DISCUS), a 15-item tardive dyskinesia rating <span class="hlt">scale</span> shortened from the "Dyskinesia Identification <span class="hlt">System</span>-Coldwater." Based on interrater reliability, 2-week stability, and other analyses, DISCUS is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Path-+AND+goal+AND+theory&pg=3&id=ED546408','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Path-+AND+goal+AND+theory&pg=3&id=ED546408"><span>The Emergence of Dominant Design(s) in Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Cyber-Infrastructure <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Diamanti, Eirini Ilana</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cyber-infrastructure <span class="hlt">systems</span> are integrated large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> IT <span class="hlt">systems</span> designed with the goal of transforming scientific practice by enabling multi-disciplinary, cross-institutional collaboration. Their large <span class="hlt">scale</span> and socio-technical complexity make design decisions for their underlying architecture practically irreversible. Drawing on three…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ogata&pg=2&id=EJ814067','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ogata&pg=2&id=EJ814067"><span>Supporting Classroom <span class="hlt">Activities</span> with the BSUL <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Nobuji A.; Paredes J., Rosa G.; San Martin, Gerardo Ayala; Yano, Yoneo</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing <span class="hlt">systems</span> into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field <span class="hlt">activities</span>. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA202129','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA202129"><span>Critical Problems in Very Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Computer <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-09-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">SYSTEMS</span> Semiannual Technical Report for the period April 1, 1988 to September 30, 1988 Massachusetts Institute of Technology D T 1C Cambridge...4 <span class="hlt">System</span> s Software...1988. Also, MIT VLSI Memo No. 88-465, August 1988. *Paul Y. Song, Design of a Network for Concurrent Message Passing <span class="hlt">Systems</span> M. S. Thesis, Department of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA537058','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA537058"><span>Source Code Analysis Laboratory (<span class="hlt">SCALe</span>) for Energy Delivery <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>applications for conformance to one of the CERT® secure coding standards. CERT secure coding standards provide a detailed enumeration of coding errors...automated analysis tools to help them code securely. Secure coding standards provide a detailed enumeration of coding errors that have caused...including possible additional job aids . <span class="hlt">SCALe</span> analysts will also be interviewed for context information surrounding incorrect judgments as part of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA434565','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA434565"><span>Quantifying Channelized Submarine Depositional <span class="hlt">Systems</span> From Bed to Basin <span class="hlt">Scale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Biostratigraphic appli- cation and ecology of agglutinated foraminifera in Gulf of Mexico Basin Cenozoic exploration. GCAGS Transactions, 52:65-76, 2002. S.Q...Using seismic data from the Fisk Basin, Gulf of Mexico , I find that, during periods of broadly distributed, sheet-like deposition, equilibrium time is on...time <span class="hlt">scales</span> for channel/levee com- plexes and sheet-like deposits: Fisk Basin, Gulf of Mexico 97 3.1 Introduction - Channel/levee complexes and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19129882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19129882"><span>Chip-<span class="hlt">scale</span> hybrid optical sensing <span class="hlt">systems</span> using digital signal processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Sang-Yeon; Borah, Deva K</p> <p>2009-01-05</p> <p>We propose a novel hybrid optical sensing <span class="hlt">system</span> for standalone, chip-<span class="hlt">scale</span> sensing applications. The hybrid optical sensing <span class="hlt">system</span> detects any spectral shift of the microresonator sensor output by estimating the effective refractive index using maximum likelihood estimation. The performance evaluation of the proposed hybrid sensing <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Gaussian-noise dominant environment shows excellent estimation accuracy. This innovative approach allows fully functional integrated hybrid sensing <span class="hlt">systems</span>, offering great potential in various chip-<span class="hlt">scale</span> sensing applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070038194','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070038194"><span><span class="hlt">Scaling</span> and <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Considerations in Pulsed Inductive Thrusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Polzin, Kurt A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Performance <span class="hlt">scaling</span> in pulsed inductive thrusters is discussed in the context of previous experimental studies and modeling results. Two processes, propellant ionization and acceleration, are interconnected where overall thruster performance and operation are concerned, but they are separated here to gain physical insight into each process and arrive at quantitative criteria that should be met to address or mitigate inherent inductive thruster difficulties. The effects of preionization in lowering the discharge energy requirements relative to a case where no preionization is employed, and in influencing the location of the initial current sheet, are described. The relevant performance <span class="hlt">scaling</span> parameters for the acceleration stage are reviewed, emphasizing their physical importance and the numerical values required for efficient acceleration. The <span class="hlt">scaling</span> parameters are then related to the design of the pulsed power train providing current to the acceleration stage. The impact of various choices in pulsed power train and circuit topology selection are reviewed, paying special attention to how these choices mitigate or exacerbate switching, lifetime, and power consumption issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.716a2022F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.716a2022F"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> damping performance of the KAGRA seismic attenuation <span class="hlt">system</span> prototype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujii, Yoshinori; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Aso, Yoichi; Barton, Mark; Erasmo Peña Arellano, Fabián; Shoda, Ayaka; Akutsu, Tomotada; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Hirata, Naoatsu; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Okutomi, Koki; Miyamoto, Takahiro; Ishizuka, Hideki; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Flaminio, Raffaele</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (formerly LCGT now KAGRA) is presently under construction in Japan. This May we assembled a prototype of the seismic attenuation <span class="hlt">system</span> (SAS) for the beam splitter and the signal recycling mirrors of KAGRA, which we call Type-B SAS, and evaluated its performance at NAOJ (Mitaka, Toyko). We investigated its frequency response, <span class="hlt">active</span> damping performance, vibration isolation performance and long-term stability both in and out of vacuum. From the frequency response test and the <span class="hlt">active</span> damping performance test, we confirmed that the SAS worked as we designed and that all mechanical resonances which could disturb lock acquisition and observation are damped within 1 minute, which is required for KAGRA, by the <span class="hlt">active</span> controls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5174115','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5174115"><span>Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Cortical Functional Networks Associated with Slow-Wave and Spindle-Burst-Related Spontaneous <span class="hlt">Activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McVea, David A.; Murphy, Timothy H.; Mohajerani, Majid H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cortical sensory <span class="hlt">systems</span> are <span class="hlt">active</span> with rich patterns of <span class="hlt">activity</span> during sleep and under light anesthesia. Remarkably, this <span class="hlt">activity</span> shares many characteristics with those present when the awake brain responds to sensory stimuli. We review two specific forms of such <span class="hlt">activity</span>: slow-wave <span class="hlt">activity</span> (SWA) in the adult brain and spindle bursts in developing brain. SWA is composed of 0.5–4 Hz resting potential fluctuations. Although these fluctuations synchronize wide regions of cortex, recent large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> imaging has shown spatial details of their distribution that reflect underlying cortical structural projections and networks. These networks are regulated, as prior awake experiences alter both the spatial and temporal features of SWA in subsequent sleep. <span class="hlt">Activity</span> patterns of the immature brain, however, are very different from those of the adult. SWA is absent, and the dominant pattern is spindle bursts, intermittent high frequency oscillations superimposed on slower depolarizations within sensory cortices. These bursts are driven by intrinsic brain <span class="hlt">activity</span>, which act to generate peripheral inputs, for example via limb twitches. They are present within developing sensory cortex before they are mature enough to exhibit directed movements and respond to external stimuli. Like in the adult, these patterns resemble those evoked by sensory stimulation when awake. It is suggested that spindle-burst <span class="hlt">activity</span> is generated purposefully by the developing nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> as a proxy for true external stimuli. While the sleep-related functions of both slow-wave and spindle-burst <span class="hlt">activity</span> may not be entirely clear, they reflect robust regulated phenomena which can engage select wide-spread cortical circuits. These circuits are similar to those <span class="hlt">activated</span> during sensory processing and volitional events. We highlight these two patterns of brain <span class="hlt">activity</span> because both are prominent and well-studied forms of spontaneous <span class="hlt">activity</span> that will yield valuable insights into brain function in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7039O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7039O"><span>Earth History databases and visualization - the Time<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Creator <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogg, James; Lugowski, Adam; Gradstein, Felix</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The "Time<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Creator" team (www.tscreator.org) and the Subcommission on Stratigraphic Information (stratigraphy.science.purdue.edu) of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (www.stratigraphy.org) has worked with numerous geoscientists and geological surveys to prepare reference datasets for global and regional stratigraphy. All events are currently calibrated to Geologic Time <span class="hlt">Scale</span> 2004 (Gradstein et al., 2004, Cambridge Univ. Press) and Concise Geologic Time <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (Ogg et al., 2008, Cambridge Univ. Press); but the array of intercalibrations enable dynamic adjustment to future numerical age <span class="hlt">scales</span> and interpolation methods. The main "global" database contains over 25,000 events/zones from paleontology, geomagnetics, sea-level and sequence stratigraphy, igneous provinces, bolide impacts, plus several stable isotope curves and image sets. Several regional datasets are provided in conjunction with geological surveys, with numerical ages interpolated using a similar flexible inter-calibration procedure. For example, a joint program with Geoscience Australia has compiled an extensive Australian regional biostratigraphy and a full array of basin lithologic columns with each formation linked to public lexicons of all Proterozoic through Phanerozoic basins - nearly 500 columns of over 9,000 data lines plus hot-curser links to oil-gas reference wells. Other datapacks include New Zealand biostratigraphy and basin transects (ca. 200 columns), Russian biostratigraphy, British Isles regional stratigraphy, Gulf of Mexico biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy, high-resolution Neogene stable isotope curves and ice-core data, human cultural episodes, and Circum-Arctic stratigraphy sets. The growing library of datasets is designed for viewing and chart-making in the free "Time<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Creator" JAVA package. This visualization <span class="hlt">system</span> produces a screen display of the user-selected time-span and the selected columns of geologic time <span class="hlt">scale</span> information. The user can change the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980SPIE..230..137S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980SPIE..230..137S"><span>Closed-loop <span class="hlt">active</span> optical <span class="hlt">system</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sparks, T. E.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A control <span class="hlt">system</span>, based on a real-time lateral shear interferometer has been developed for use in control during thermal tests and static error compensation experiments. The minicomputer which controls the interferometer and provides its service functions also controls the <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, thereby giving flexibility to the algorithm. The minicomputer <span class="hlt">system</span> contains 288 K bytes of memory and 15 M bytes of disk storage. The interferometer <span class="hlt">system</span> employed is composed of the measuring head and its support electronics, a video display on which wavefront contour maps are generated, and a DECwriter operator console. The versatility provided by the use of a general purpose interferometer <span class="hlt">system</span> allows for interactive control of the closed-loop process. Various arithmetic capabilities such as the addition of wavefronts, division by a constant, and fitting of wavefront data with Zernike polynomials, allow for measurements to be averaged and for removal of alignment errors before correction is performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdOT....3..151G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdOT....3..151G"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> gated imaging in driver assistance <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grauer, Yoav</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, we shall present the <span class="hlt">active</span> gated imaging <span class="hlt">system</span> (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide <span class="hlt">active</span> gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the <span class="hlt">system</span> parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance <span class="hlt">systems</span> (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22452956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22452956"><span>Theoretical analysis of the kinetic performance of laboratory- and full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> composting <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baptista, Marco; Silveira, Ana; Antunes, Fernando</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Composting research at laboratory-<span class="hlt">scale</span> is critical for the development of optimized full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> plants. Discrepancies between processes at laboratory-<span class="hlt">scale</span> and full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been investigated in terms of heat balances, but a kinetic analysis of this issue is still missing. In this study, the composting rate at laboratory-<span class="hlt">scale</span> was, on average, between 1.9 and 5.7 times faster than in full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> for a set of published studies using municipal solid waste, food waste or similar materials. Laboratory-<span class="hlt">scale</span> performance and full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> were limited to 71 and 46%, respectively, of their maximum potential due to poor management of environmental process conditions far from their optimum. The main limiting environmental factor was found to be moisture content, followed by temperature. Besides environmental factors, waste composition and particle size were identified as factors accounting for kinetic differences between laboratory- and full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Overall, this study identifies those factors that affect the kinetics of the composting process most and revealed a significant margin for reducing process time in full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> composting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95c2606S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95c2606S"><span>Dynamic phases of <span class="hlt">active</span> matter <span class="hlt">systems</span> with quenched disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sándor, Cs.; Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C.; Olson Reichhardt, C. J.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Depinning and nonequilibrium transitions within sliding states in <span class="hlt">systems</span> driven over quenched disorder arise across a wide spectrum of size <span class="hlt">scales</span> ranging from atomic friction at the nanoscale, flux motion in type II superconductors at the mesoscale, colloidal motion in disordered media at the microscale, and plate tectonics at geological length <span class="hlt">scales</span>. Here we show that <span class="hlt">active</span> matter or self-propelled particles interacting with quenched disorder under an external drive represents a class of <span class="hlt">system</span> that can also exhibit pinning-depinning phenomena, plastic flow phases, and nonequilibrium sliding transitions that are correlated with distinct morphologies and velocity-force curve signatures. When interactions with the substrate are strong, a homogeneous pinned liquid phase forms that depins plastically into a uniform disordered phase and then dynamically transitions first into a moving stripe coexisting with a pinned liquid and then into a moving phase-separated state at higher drives. We numerically map the resulting dynamical phase diagrams as a function of external drive, substrate interaction strength, and self-propulsion correlation length. These phases can be observed for <span class="hlt">active</span> matter moving through random disorder. Our results indicate that intrinsically nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">systems</span> can exhibit additional nonequilibrium transitions when subjected to an external drive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..419..268C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..419..268C"><span>Examining a <span class="hlt">scaled</span> dynamical <span class="hlt">system</span> of telomere shortening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cyrenne, Benoit M.; Gooding, Robert J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A model of telomere dynamics is proposed and examined. Our model, which extends a previously introduced model that incorporates stem cells as progenitors of new cells, imposes the Hayflick limit, the maximum number of cell divisions that are possible. This new model leads to cell populations for which the average telomere length is not necessarily a monotonically decreasing function of time, in contrast to previously published models. We provide a phase diagram indicating where such results would be expected via the introduction of <span class="hlt">scaled</span> populations, rate constants and time. The application of this model to available leukocyte baboon data is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24005851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24005851"><span>Bayer-<span class="hlt">activities</span> of daily living <span class="hlt">scale</span> in mild and moderate dementia of the Alzheimer type.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagaratnam, Nages; Nagaratnam, Kujan; O'Mara, Deborah</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The main purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of the Bayer-<span class="hlt">Activities</span> of Daily Living (B-ADL) <span class="hlt">scale</span> when used as a cognitive screening instrument for mild and moderate dementia of the Alzheimer type. This is a retrospective study of 66 patients with dementia. The B-ADL <span class="hlt">scale</span> was completed by the caregiver or the family member at the first encounter. The internal consistency was found to be 0.94 for the 27 patients that completed all 25 questions in the <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Significant correlation and receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis were found for the B-ADL total score and subscale 1 (tasks requiring short- and long-term memory) for Clinical Dementia Rating <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Severity of dementia by the B-ADL <span class="hlt">scale</span> is statistically similar but not the same as Mini-Mental State Examination. Our findings confirm that B-ADL <span class="hlt">scale</span> is a valid indicator of the cognitive status of patients with Alzheimer's disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA561797','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA561797"><span>Micro-Stirling <span class="hlt">Active</span> Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Micro- Stirling <span class="hlt">Active</span> Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Douglas S. Beck Beck Engineering , Inc. 1490 Lumsden Road, Port Orchard...refrigerator. We are developing for DARPA a cm-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Micro- Stirling <span class="hlt">Active</span> Cooling Module (MS/ACM) micro- refrigerator to benefit the DoD <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Under...a DARPA contract, we are designing, building, and demonstrating a breadboard MS/ACM. Keywords: Stirling ; cooler; <span class="hlt">active</span> cooling module; micro</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039502','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039502"><span>Lattice physics capabilities of the <span class="hlt">SCALE</span> code <span class="hlt">system</span> using TRITON</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DeHart, M. D.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper describes ongoing calculations used to validate the TRITON depletion module in <span class="hlt">SCALE</span> for light water reactor (LWR) fuel lattices. TRITON has been developed to provide improved resolution for lattice physics mixed-oxide fuel assemblies as programs to burn such fuel in the United States begin to come online. Results are provided for coupled TRITON/PARCS analyses of an LWR core in which TRITON was employed for generation of appropriately weighted few-group nodal cross-sectional sets for use in core-level calculations using PARCS. Additional results are provided for code-to-code comparisons for TRITON and a suite of other depletion packages in the modeling of a conceptual next-generation boiling water reactor fuel assembly design. Results indicate that the set of <span class="hlt">SCALE</span> functional modules used within TRITON provide an accurate means for lattice physics calculations. Because the transport solution within TRITON provides a generalized-geometry capability, this capability is extensible to a wide variety of non-traditional and advanced fuel assembly designs. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006smqw.confE..56K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006smqw.confE..56K"><span>Jet-dominated advective <span class="hlt">systems</span> of all mass <span class="hlt">scales</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Körding, Elmar; Fender, R.</p> <p></p> <p>We show that the radio emission of black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries (XRBs) follows the analytical prediction of a jet model where the jet carries a constant fraction of the accretion power. The radio emission can therefore be used as a tracer of the accretion rate. This measure is normalised with efficiently radiating objects. As it is independent of the X-ray fluxes, the measure allows us to compare the accretion rate dependency of the bolometric X-ray lumi- nosity of BHs and NSs. For NSs, it <span class="hlt">scales</span> linearly with accretion rate while the <span class="hlt">scaling</span> for BHs is quadratic - as expected for inefficient accretion flows. We find the same behaviour in AGN. This new approach uses the jet power to obtain the accretion rate. Thus, we know both the jet power and the radiated power of an accreting BH. This allows us to show that some accretion power is likely to be advected into the black hole, while the jet power dominates over the bolometric luminosity of a hard state BH.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1214793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1214793"><span>HPC Colony II: FAST_OS II: Operating <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Runtime <span class="hlt">Systems</span> at Extreme <span class="hlt">Scale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moreira, Jose</p> <p>2013-11-13</p> <p>HPC Colony II has been a 36-month project focused on providing portable performance for leadership class machines—a task made difficult by the emerging variety of more complex computer architectures. The project attempts to move the burden of portable performance to adaptive <span class="hlt">system</span> software, thereby allowing domain scientists to concentrate on their field rather than the fine details of a new leadership class machine. To accomplish our goals, we focused on adding intelligence into the <span class="hlt">system</span> software stack. Our revised components include: new techniques to address OS jitter; new techniques to dynamically address load imbalances; new techniques to map resources according to architectural subtleties and application dynamic behavior; new techniques to dramatically improve the performance of checkpoint-restart; and new techniques to address membership service issues at <span class="hlt">scale</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3386897','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3386897"><span>Release probability of hippocampal glutamatergic terminals <span class="hlt">scales</span> with the size of the <span class="hlt">active</span> zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holderith, Noemi; Lorincz, Andrea; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Kulik, Akos; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nusser, Zoltan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cortical synapses display remarkable structural, molecular and functional heterogeneity. Our knowledge regarding the relationship between the ultrastructural and functional parameters is still fragmented. Here we asked how the release probability and presynaptic [Ca2+] transients relate to the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal glutamatergic axon terminals. Two-photon Ca2+ imaging-derived optical quantal analysis and correlated electron microscopic reconstructions revealed a tight correlation between the release probability and the <span class="hlt">active</span> zone area. The peak amplitude of [Ca2+] transients in single boutons also positively correlated with the <span class="hlt">active</span> zone area. Freeze-fracture immunogold labeling revealed that the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel subunit Cav2.1 and the presynaptic protein Rim1/2 are confined to the <span class="hlt">active</span> zone and their numbers <span class="hlt">scale</span> linearly with the <span class="hlt">active</span> zone area. Gold particles for Cav2.1 showed a nonrandom distribution within the <span class="hlt">active</span> zones. Our results demonstrate that the number of several <span class="hlt">active</span> zone proteins, including presynaptic Ca2+ channels, docked vesicles and the release probability <span class="hlt">scales</span> linearly with the <span class="hlt">active</span> zone area. PMID:22683683</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAMTP..57.1239G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAMTP..57.1239G"><span>Generation of large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> structures and vortex <span class="hlt">systems</span> in numerical experiments for rotating annular channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gledzer, A. E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Methods for solving shallow-water equations that describe flows in rotating annular channels are considered and the results of numerical calculations are analyzed for the possible generation of global large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> flows, narrow jets, and numerous small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> vortices in laboratory experiments. External effects in fluids are induced using a mass source-sink and the MHD-method of interaction of radial electric current with the magnetic field generated by the field of permanent magnets. A central-upwind scheme modified to suit the specific aspects of geophysical hydrodynamics. Initially, this method was used to solve shallow-water equations only in hydraulic problems, such as for flows in dam breaks, channels, rivers, and lakes. Geophysical hydrodynamics (in addition to free surface and topography) requires a rotation of the <span class="hlt">system</span> as a whole, which is accompanied by the appearance of a complex <span class="hlt">system</span> of vortices, jets, and turbulence (these should be taken into account in the formulation of the problem). Accordingly, the basic features of the central-upwind method should be changed. The modifications should ensure that the scheme is well-balanced and choose interpolation methods for desired variables. The main result of this modification is the control over numerical viscosity affecting the fluid motion variety. The <span class="hlt">active</span> dynamics of a large number of vortices transformed into jets or generating large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> streams is the general result of modifications suitable for geophysical hydrodynamics. Because there are technical difficulties in the creation of an appropriate laboratory setup for modeling of geophysical flows with the help of numerous source-sinks, it will be appropriate to use numerical experiments for studying the motions generated by this method. Unlike this method, the MHD-method can be rather easily used in laboratory conditions to generate a large variety of flows and vortex currents in the channel by a relatively small number of permanent magnets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20709933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20709933"><span>A linear <span class="hlt">systems</span> analysis of the yaw dynamics of a dynamically <span class="hlt">scaled</span> insect model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dickson, William B; Polidoro, Peter; Tanner, Melissa M; Dickinson, Michael H</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Recent studies suggest that fruit flies use subtle changes to their wing motion to <span class="hlt">actively</span> generate forces during aerial maneuvers. In addition, it has been estimated that the passive rotational damping caused by the flapping wings of an insect is around two orders of magnitude greater than that for the body alone. At present, however, the relationships between the <span class="hlt">active</span> regulation of wing kinematics, passive damping produced by the flapping wings and the overall trajectory of the animal are still poorly understood. In this study, we use a dynamically <span class="hlt">scaled</span> robotic model equipped with a torque feedback mechanism to study the dynamics of yaw turns in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Four plausible mechanisms for the <span class="hlt">active</span> generation of yaw torque are examined. The mechanisms deform the wing kinematics of hovering in order to introduce asymmetry that results in the <span class="hlt">active</span> production of yaw torque by the flapping wings. The results demonstrate that the stroke-averaged yaw torque is well approximated by a model that is linear with respect to both the yaw velocity and the magnitude of the kinematic deformations. Dynamic measurements, in which the yaw torque produced by the flapping wings was used in real-time to determine the rotation of the robot, suggest that a first-order linear model with stroke-average coefficients accurately captures the yaw dynamics of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. Finally, an analysis of the stroke-average dynamics suggests that both damping and inertia will be important factors during rapid body saccades of a fruit fly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070035077','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070035077"><span>Full-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> <span class="hlt">System</span> for Quantifying Leakage of Docking <span class="hlt">System</span> Seals for Space Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Erker, Arthur H.; Robbie, Malcolm G.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Drlik, Gary J.; Tong, Michael T.; Penney, Nicholas</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>NASA is developing a new docking and berthing <span class="hlt">system</span> to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit, the Moon, and Mars. This mechanism, called the Low Impact Docking <span class="hlt">System</span>, is designed to connect pressurized space vehicles and structures. NASA Glenn Research Center is playing a key role in developing advanced technology for the main interface seal for this new docking <span class="hlt">system</span>. The baseline <span class="hlt">system</span> is designed to have a fully androgynous mating interface, thereby requiring a seal-on-seal configuration when two <span class="hlt">systems</span> mate. These seals will be approximately 147 cm (58 in.) in diameter. NASA Glenn has designed and fabricated a new test fixture which will be used to evaluate the leakage of candidate full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. This includes testing under seal-on-seal or seal-on-plate configurations, temperatures from -50 to 50 C (-58 to 122 F), operational and pre-flight checkout pressure gradients, and vehicle misalignment (plus or minus 0.381 cm (0.150 in.)) and gapping (up to 0.10 cm (0.040 in.)) conditions. This paper describes the main design features of the test rig and techniques used to overcome some of the design challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890009145','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890009145"><span>Advanced extravehicular <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> requirements definition study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular <span class="hlt">activities</span> (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA <span class="hlt">system</span> capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA <span class="hlt">system</span> which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA <span class="hlt">systems</span> technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA <span class="hlt">system</span> are identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950989','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950989"><span>Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Cyber Security Standards Support <span class="hlt">Activities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robert Evans</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Department of Homeland Security’s Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This document describes CSSP’s current <span class="hlt">activities</span> with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control <span class="hlt">systems</span> cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023907','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023907"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> State Model for Autonomous <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The concept of the <span class="hlt">active</span> state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) <span class="hlt">systems</span> for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering <span class="hlt">systems</span> that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI <span class="hlt">system</span> based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI <span class="hlt">system</span> under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a <span class="hlt">system</span> is regarded as <span class="hlt">active</span> when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering <span class="hlt">system</span>, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a <span class="hlt">system</span> may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2244995','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2244995"><span>Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Portability of Hospital Information <span class="hlt">System</span> Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Munnecke, Thomas H.; Kuhn, Ingeborg M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>As part of its Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP) the Veterans Administration installed new hospital information <span class="hlt">systems</span> in 169 of its facilities during 1984 and 1985. The application software for these <span class="hlt">systems</span> is based on the ANS MUMPS language, is public domain, and is designed to be operating <span class="hlt">system</span> and hardware independent. The software, developed by VA employees, is built upon a layered approach, where application packages layer on a common data dictionary which is supported by a Kernel of software. Communications between facilities are based on public domain Department of Defense ARPA net standards for domain naming, mail transfer protocols, and message formats, layered on a variety of communications technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED097019.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED097019.pdf"><span>Disk File Management in a Medium-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Time-Sharing <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fitzhugh, Robert J.; Pethia, Richard D.</p> <p></p> <p>The paper descibes a compact and highly efficient disk file management <span class="hlt">system</span> responsible for the management and allocation of space on moving head disk drives in a medium-<span class="hlt">scale</span> time-sharing <span class="hlt">system</span>. The disk file management <span class="hlt">system</span> is a major component of the Experimental Time-Sharing <span class="hlt">System</span> (ETSS) developed at the Learning Research and Development…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015078','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015078"><span>PCM Passive Cooling <span class="hlt">System</span> Containing <span class="hlt">Active</span> Subsystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A multistage <span class="hlt">system</span> has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The <span class="hlt">system</span> would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, <span class="hlt">active</span> cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be <span class="hlt">active</span>, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the <span class="hlt">system</span> more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling <span class="hlt">system</span>. The <span class="hlt">system</span> would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391062','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391062"><span>Threshold-based queuing <span class="hlt">system</span> for performance analysis of cloud computing <span class="hlt">system</span> with dynamic <span class="hlt">scaling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Samouylov, Konstantin E.; Gaidamaka, Yuliya V.; Gudkova, Irina A.; Sopin, Eduard S.</p> <p>2015-03-10</p> <p>Cloud computing is promising technology to manage and improve utilization of computing center resources to deliver various computing and IT services. For the purpose of energy saving there is no need to unnecessarily operate many servers under light loads, and they are switched off. On the other hand, some servers should be switched on in heavy load cases to prevent very long delays. Thus, waiting times and <span class="hlt">system</span> operating cost can be maintained on acceptable level by dynamically adding or removing servers. One more fact that should be taken into account is significant server setup costs and <span class="hlt">activation</span> times. For better energy efficiency, cloud computing <span class="hlt">system</span> should not react on instantaneous increase or instantaneous decrease of load. That is the main motivation for using queuing <span class="hlt">systems</span> with hysteresis for cloud computing <span class="hlt">system</span> modelling. In the paper, we provide a model of cloud computing <span class="hlt">system</span> in terms of multiple server threshold-based infinite capacity queuing <span class="hlt">system</span> with hysteresis and noninstantanuous server <span class="hlt">activation</span>. For proposed model, we develop a method for computing steady-state probabilities that allow to estimate a number of performance measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992MecEn.114...52O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992MecEn.114...52O"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> magnetic bearings give <span class="hlt">systems</span> a lift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Connor, Leo</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>While the <span class="hlt">active</span> magnetic bearings currently being used in such specialized applications as centrifugal compressors for natural gas pumps are more expensive than conventional bearings, they furnish improved machine service life, controlled damping of high-speed rotors to eliminate critical-speed vibrations, and the obviation of lubrication <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Attention is presently given to magnetic bearings used by the electric power industry, homopolar magnetic radial and thrust bearings, weapon-<span class="hlt">system</span> and gas turbine engine applications of magnetic bearings, and the benefits of magnetic bearings for energy-storage flywheels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=238292&keyword=palms&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78185250&CFTOKEN=39162604','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=238292&keyword=palms&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78185250&CFTOKEN=39162604"><span>Regeneration of Full <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Adsorptive Media <span class="hlt">Systems</span> - Update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Presentation provides an update of the regeneration studies conducted at Twentynine Palms, CA. Following a short introduction, the presentation summarizes the results of the three regeneration tests conducted on the exhausted media of the arsenic removal <span class="hlt">system</span> at Twentynine Pal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1333713','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1333713"><span>International Collaboration <span class="hlt">Activities</span> on Engineered Barrier <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jove-Colon, Carlos F.</p> <p>2016-08-31</p> <p>The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program has been engaging in international collaborations between repository R&D programs for high-level waste (HLW) disposal to leverage on gathered knowledge and laboratory/field data of near- and far-field processes from experiments at underground research laboratories (URL). Heater test experiments at URLs provide a unique opportunity to mimetically study the thermal effects of heat-generating nuclear waste in subsurface repository environments. Various configurations of these experiments have been carried out at various URLs according to the disposal design concepts of the hosting country repository program. The FEBEX (Full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Engineered Barrier Experiment in Crystalline Host Rock) project is a large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> heater test experiment originated by the Spanish radioactive waste management agency (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. – ENRESA) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) URL in Switzerland. The project was subsequently managed by CIEMAT. FEBEX-DP is a concerted effort of various international partners working on the evaluation of sensor data and characterization of samples obtained during the course of this field test and subsequent dismantling. The main purpose of these field-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments is to evaluate feasibility for creation of an engineered barrier <span class="hlt">system</span> (EBS) with a horizontal configuration according to the Spanish concept of deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. Another key aspect of this project is to improve the knowledge of coupled processes such as thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermal-hydro-chemical (THC) operating in the near-field environment. The focus of these is on model development and validation of predictions through model implementation in computational tools to simulate coupled THM and THC processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150009341','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150009341"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> Aircraft Pylon Noise Control <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J (Inventor); Elmiligui, Alaa A. (Inventor)</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">active</span> pylon noise control <span class="hlt">system</span> for an aircraft includes a pylon structure connecting an engine <span class="hlt">system</span> with an airframe surface of the aircraft and having at least one aperture to supply a gas or fluid therethrough, an intake portion attached to the pylon structure to intake a gas or fluid, a regulator connected with the intake portion via a plurality of pipes, to regulate a pressure of the gas or fluid, a plenum chamber formed within the pylon structure and connected with the regulator, and configured to receive the gas or fluid as regulated by the regulator, and a plurality of injectors in communication with the plenum chamber to <span class="hlt">actively</span> inject the gas or fluid through the plurality of apertures of the pylon structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3633122','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3633122"><span>Bacteriophage: A Model <span class="hlt">System</span> for <span class="hlt">Active</span> Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LUCIANO, CARL S.; YOUNG, MATTHEW W.; PATTERSON, ROBIN R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Although bacteriophage provided a useful model <span class="hlt">system</span> for the development of molecular biology, its simplicity, accessibility, and familiarity have not been fully exploited in the classroom. We describe a student-centered laboratory course in which student teams selected phage from sewage samples and characterized the phage in a semester-long project that modeled real-life scientific research. The course used an instructional approach that included <span class="hlt">active</span> learning, collaboration, and learning by inquiry. Cooperative student teams had primary responsibility for organizing the content of the course, writing to learn using a journal article format, involving the entire group in shared laboratory responsibilities, and applying knowledge to the choice of new experiments. The results of student evaluations indicated a high level of satisfaction with the course. Our positive experience with this course suggests that phage provides an attractive model <span class="hlt">system</span> for an <span class="hlt">active</span>-learning classroom. PMID:23653543</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009297','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009297"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter <span class="hlt">active</span> transmission isolation <span class="hlt">system</span> to provide the capability of utilizing the <span class="hlt">system</span> as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full <span class="hlt">scale</span> vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the <span class="hlt">systems</span> wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA134663','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA134663"><span>A Photoacoustic Study of Chemically <span class="hlt">Active</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>unless so designated by other documentation IS. KEY WORDS (Continue w reverse aide If neceeairy wd Identify by block nmber) Photoacoustic, Spectroscopy ...CwcAhnm i, pwo If w M Idntitty by block nin1b9) -,xThe method of gas-microphone photoacoustic spectroscopy and the related photothermal deflection... spectroscopy have been developed for application to chemically <span class="hlt">active</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectros- copy has been used to study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296716"><span>Spontaneous <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the developing auditory <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Han Chin; Bergles, Dwight E</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Spontaneous electrical <span class="hlt">activity</span> is a common feature of sensory <span class="hlt">systems</span> during early development. This sensory-independent neuronal <span class="hlt">activity</span> has been implicated in promoting their survival and maturation, as well as growth and refinement of their projections to yield circuits that can rapidly extract information about the external world. Periodic bursts of action potentials occur in auditory neurons of mammals before hearing onset. This <span class="hlt">activity</span> is induced by inner hair cells (IHCs) within the developing cochlea, which establish functional connections with spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) several weeks before they are capable of detecting external sounds. During this pre-hearing period, IHCs fire periodic bursts of Ca(2+) action potentials that excite SGNs, triggering brief but intense periods of <span class="hlt">activity</span> that pass through auditory centers of the brain. Although spontaneous <span class="hlt">activity</span> requires input from IHCs, there is ongoing debate about whether IHCs are intrinsically <span class="hlt">active</span> and their firing periodically interrupted by external inhibitory input (IHC-inhibition model), or are intrinsically silent and their firing periodically promoted by an external excitatory stimulus (IHC-excitation model). There is accumulating evidence that inner supporting cells in Kölliker's organ spontaneously release ATP during this time, which can induce bursts of Ca(2+) spikes in IHCs that recapitulate many features of auditory neuron <span class="hlt">activity</span> observed in vivo. Nevertheless, the role of supporting cells in this process remains to be established in vivo. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for generating IHC <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the developing cochlea will help reveal how these events contribute to the maturation of nascent auditory circuits.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040186&hterms=content+management+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcontent%2Bmanagement%2Bsystem','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040040186&hterms=content+management+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcontent%2Bmanagement%2Bsystem"><span>[<span class="hlt">Activities</span> of <span class="hlt">System</span> Studies and Simulation, Inc.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Contents include the following: 1. Launch Vehicle Interface Work Performed: a. S3 provided to KSC the new launch inclination targets needed for the April '04 launch date. 2. Prelaunch operations work performed: a. S3 updated the staffing plan for MSFC on-console personnel\\during the Final Countdown prior to launch. 3. Software Assessment Work Performed: a. S3 evaluated and recommended approval for Program Control Board (PCB) proposed change 649 for ground software changes, as well as change 650 and 650A for Stored Program Commands. 4. Education and Public Outreach Work Performed: a. S3 continues to coordinate the effort for the design and fabrication of <span class="hlt">scale</span> models of the GP-3 for use at the launch site, education forums, and management/technical briefings. S3 also prepared a Change Request for additional funds needed for fabrication of additional <span class="hlt">scale</span> models. S3 drafted the planned uses of these models, including the possibility of participation in the Boston, MA showings of the traveling Einstein Exhibit. 5. Program Management Support Work Performed: a. S3 prepared the input for and closed three MSFC Centerwide Action Item Tracking <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (CAITS) actions during this period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17911015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17911015"><span>Volumetric <span class="hlt">scale</span>-up of a three stage fermentation <span class="hlt">system</span> for food waste treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Jung Kon; Han, Gui Hwan; Oh, Baek Rock; Chun, Young Nam; Eom, Chi-Yong; Kim, Si Wouk</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>In this study, a volumetric <span class="hlt">scale</span>-up of this <span class="hlt">system</span> was designed and built on a field pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> (total digester volume 10 m(3)), with the results from the field pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments compared with those from the bench-<span class="hlt">scale</span> (total digester volume 0.4 m(3)) process prior to <span class="hlt">scale</span>-up. The reduction rate of total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) and the maximum methane content produced in the biogas from the bench-<span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> were 90.6% and 72%; whereas those from the field pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> were 90.1% and 68%, respectively. The estimated methane yields were 282 and 254 l CH(4)/kg tCOD(degraded) in bench and field pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> fermentation <span class="hlt">systems</span>, respectively. These results indicate that the three stage fermentation <span class="hlt">system</span> developed in this study can be applied as a commercial process for the disposal of food waste in view of process stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013679','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013679"><span>A Universal <span class="hlt">Scaling</span> for the Energetics of Relativistic Jets From Black Hole <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nemmen, R. S.; Georganopoulos, M.; Guiriec, S.; Meyer, E. T.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R. M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies (<span class="hlt">active</span> galactic nuclei; AGN). How jet physics <span class="hlt">scales</span> from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGNs is still unknown. Here we show that jets produced by AGNs and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGNs and GRBs lying at the low and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole <span class="hlt">systems</span> is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23239730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23239730"><span>A universal <span class="hlt">scaling</span> for the energetics of relativistic jets from black hole <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nemmen, R S; Georganopoulos, M; Guiriec, S; Meyer, E T; Gehrels, N; Sambruna, R M</p> <p>2012-12-14</p> <p>Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets, which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies [<span class="hlt">active</span> galactic nuclei (AGN)]. How jet physics <span class="hlt">scales</span> from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGN is still unknown. Here, we show that jets produced by AGN and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGN and GRBs lying at the low- and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole <span class="hlt">systems</span> is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990106580&hterms=activity+Physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dactivity%2BPhysics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990106580&hterms=activity+Physics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dactivity%2BPhysics"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Coronal Heating from "Cool" <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in the Solar Magnetic Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>In Fe XII images from SOHO/EIT, the quiet solar corona shows structure on <span class="hlt">scales</span> ranging from sub-supergranular (i.e., bright points and coronal network) to multi-supergranular (large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> corona). In Falconer et al 1998 (Ap.J., 501, 386) we suppressed the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> background and found that the network-<span class="hlt">scale</span> features are predominantly rooted in the magnetic network lanes at the boundaries of the supergranules. Taken together, the coronal network emission and bright point emission are only about 5% of the entire quiet solar coronal Fe XII emission. Here we investigate the relationship between the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> corona and the network as seen in three different EIT filters (He II, Fe IX-X, and Fe XII). Using the median-brightness contour, we divide the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Fe XII corona into dim and bright halves, and find that the bright-half/dim half brightness ratio is about 1.5. We also find that the bright half relative to the dim half has 10 times greater total bright point Fe XII emission, 3 times greater Fe XII network emission, 2 times greater Fe IX-X network emission, 1.3 times greater He II network emission, and has 1.5 times more magnetic flux. Also, the cooler network (He II) radiates an order of magnitude more energy than the hotter coronal network (Fe IX-X, and Fe XII). From these results we infer that: 1) The heating of the network and the heating of the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> corona each increase roughly linearly with the underlying magnetic flux. 2) The production of network coronal bright points and heating of the coronal network each increase nonlinearly with the magnetic flux. 3) The heating of the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> corona is driven by widespread cooler network <span class="hlt">activity</span> rather than by the exceptional network <span class="hlt">activity</span> that produces the network coronal bright points and the coronal network. 4) The large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> corona is heated by a nonthermal process since the driver of its heating is cooler than it is. This work was funded by the Solar Physics Branch of NASA's office of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25030911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25030911"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> filament formation inhibits the <span class="hlt">activity</span> of CTP synthetase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barry, Rachael M; Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Lorestani, Alexander; Charles, Emeric J; Habrian, Chris H; Hansen, Jesse M; Li, Hsin-Jung; Baldwin, Enoch P; Wingreen, Ned S; Kollman, Justin M; Gitai, Zemer</p> <p>2014-07-16</p> <p>CTP Synthetase (CtpS) is a universally conserved and essential metabolic enzyme. While many enzymes form small oligomers, CtpS forms large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> filamentous structures of unknown function in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. By simultaneously monitoring CtpS polymerization and enzymatic <span class="hlt">activity</span>, we show that polymerization inhibits <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and CtpS's product, CTP, induces assembly. To understand how assembly inhibits <span class="hlt">activity</span>, we used electron microscopy to define the structure of CtpS polymers. This structure suggests that polymerization sterically hinders a conformational change necessary for CtpS <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Structure-guided mutagenesis and mathematical modeling further indicate that coupling <span class="hlt">activity</span> to polymerization promotes cooperative catalytic regulation. This previously uncharacterized regulatory mechanism is important for cellular function since a mutant that disrupts CtpS polymerization disrupts E. coli growth and metabolic regulation without reducing CTP levels. We propose that regulation by large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> polymerization enables ultrasensitive control of enzymatic <span class="hlt">activity</span> while storing an enzyme subpopulation in a conformationally restricted form that is readily activatable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14753532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14753532"><span>A small <span class="hlt">scale</span> hydroponics wastewater treatment <span class="hlt">system</span> under Swedish conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norström, A; Larsdotter, K; Gumaelius, L; la Cour Jansen, J; Dalhammar, G</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A treatment plant using conventional biological treatment combined with hydroponics and microalgae is constructed in a greenhouse in the area of Stockholm, Sweden. The treatment plant is built for research purposes and presently treats 0.559 m3 of domestic wastewater from the surrounding area per day. The <span class="hlt">system</span> uses anoxic pre-denitrification followed by aerobic tanks for nitrification and plant growth. A microalgal step further reduces phosphorus, and a final sand filter polishes the water. During a three week period in July 2002 the treatment capacity of this <span class="hlt">system</span> was evaluated with respect to removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen. 90% COD removal was obtained early in the <span class="hlt">system</span>. Nitrification and denitrification was well established with total nitrogen reduction of 72%. Phosphorus was removed by 47% in the process. However, higher phosphorus removal values are expected as the microalgal step will be further developed. The results show that acceptable treatment can be achieved using this kind of <span class="hlt">system</span>. Further optimisation of the <span class="hlt">system</span> will lead to clean water as well as valuable plants to be harvested from the nutrient rich wastewater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4009841','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4009841"><span>Genome <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Modeling in <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Biology: Algorithms and Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Najafi, Ali; Bidkhori, Gholamreza; Bozorgmehr, Joseph H.; Koch, Ina; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, in silico studies and trial simulations have complemented experimental procedures. A model is a description of a <span class="hlt">system</span>, and a <span class="hlt">system</span> is any collection of interrelated objects; an object, moreover, is some elemental unit upon which observations can be made but whose internal structure either does not exist or is ignored. Therefore, any network analysis approach is critical for successful quantitative modeling of biological <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This review highlights some of most popular and important modeling algorithms, tools, and emerging standards for representing, simulating and analyzing cellular networks in five sections. Also, we try to show these concepts by means of simple example and proper images and graphs. Overall, <span class="hlt">systems</span> biology aims for a holistic description and understanding of biological processes by an integration of analytical experimental approaches along with synthetic computational models. In fact, biological networks have been developed as a platform for integrating information from high to low-throughput experiments for the analysis of biological <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We provide an overview of all processes used in modeling and simulating biological networks in such a way that they can become easily understandable for researchers with both biological and mathematical backgrounds. Consequently, given the complexity of generated experimental data and cellular networks, it is no surprise that researchers have turned to computer simulation and the development of more theory-based approaches to augment and assist in the development of a fully quantitative understanding of cellular dynamics. PMID:24822031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.172..147M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.172..147M"><span>Seasonal prediction of lightning <span class="hlt">activity</span> in North Western Venezuela: Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> versus local drivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muñoz, Á. G.; Díaz-Lobatón, J.; Chourio, X.; Stock, M. J.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The Lake Maracaibo Basin in North Western Venezuela has the highest annual lightning rate of any place in the world (~ 200 fl km- 2 yr- 1), whose electrical discharges occasionally impact human and animal lives (e.g., cattle) and frequently affect economic <span class="hlt">activities</span> like oil and natural gas exploitation. Lightning <span class="hlt">activity</span> is so common in this region that it has a proper name: Catatumbo Lightning (plural). Although short-term lightning forecasts are now common in different parts of the world, to the best of the authors' knowledge, seasonal prediction of lightning <span class="hlt">activity</span> is still non-existent. This research discusses the relative role of both large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> and local climate drivers as modulators of lightning <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the region, and presents a formal predictability study at seasonal <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Analysis of the Catatumbo Lightning Regional Mode, defined in terms of the second Empirical Orthogonal Function of monthly Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS-TRMM) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite data for North Western South America, permits the identification of potential predictors at seasonal <span class="hlt">scale</span> via a Canonical Correlation Analysis. Lightning <span class="hlt">activity</span> in North Western Venezuela responds to well defined sea-surface temperature patterns (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode) and changes in the low-level meridional wind field that are associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and tropical cyclone <span class="hlt">activity</span>, but it is also linked to local drivers like convection triggered by the topographic configuration and the effect of the Maracaibo Basin Nocturnal Low Level Jet. The analysis indicates that at seasonal <span class="hlt">scale</span> the relative contribution of the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> drivers is more important than the local (basin-wide) ones, due to the synoptic control imposed by the former. Furthermore, meridional CAPE transport at 925 mb is identified as the best potential predictor for lightning <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the Lake</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP43A0816L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP43A0816L"><span>Beaver <span class="hlt">Activity</span>, Holocene Climate and Riparian Landscape Change Across Stream <span class="hlt">Scales</span> in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levine, R.; Meyer, G. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Beaver (Castor canadensis) have been part of the fluvial and riparian landscape across much of North America since the Pleistocene, increasing channel habitat complexity and expanding riparian landscapes. The fur trade, however, decimated beaver populations by the 1840s, and other human <span class="hlt">activities</span> have limited beaver in many areas, including parts of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Understanding fluctuations in beaver occupation through the Holocene will aid in understanding the natural range of variability in beaver <span class="hlt">activity</span> as well as climatic and anthropogenic impacts to fluvial <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We are developing a detailed chronology of beaver-assisted sedimentation and overall fluvial <span class="hlt">activity</span> for Odell and Red Rock Creeks (basin areas 83 and 99 km2) in Centennial Valley (CV), Montana, to augment related studies on the long-term effects of beaver on smaller GYE fluvial <span class="hlt">systems</span> (basin areas 0.1-50 km2). In developing the CV chronology, we use the presence of concentrations of beaver-chewed sticks as a proxy for beaver occupancy. Beaver-stick deposits are found in paleochannel and fluvial terrace exposures. The relative ages of exposures were determined by elevation data from airborne LiDAR and ground surveys. Numerical ages were obtained from 36 14C ages (~30 more are pending) of beaver-stick wood collected during investigation of the stratigraphy. Most beaver-stick deposits are associated with ~ 1 meter of fine-grained sediment, interpreted as overbank deposits, commonly overlying gravelly sand or pebble gravel channel deposits which is consistent with enhanced overbank sedimentation associated with <span class="hlt">active</span> beaver dams in CV streams. The CV deposits differ from those on smaller GYE streams where beaver-stick deposits are associated with abandoned dams (berms), infilled ponds and laminated sediments. The lack of pond-related deposition associated with CV beaver-stick deposits is consistent with frequent dam breaching (≤ 5 years) in the modern channel of Odell</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612474','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612474"><span>Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> CW ECRH <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: Meeting a Challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Erckmann, V.; Braune, H.; Laqua, H. P.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Michel, G.; Kasparek, W.; Plaum, B.; Lechte, C.; Stuttgart, IPF; Petelin, M. I.; Lubiako, L.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Bin, W.; Van Den Braber, R.; Doelman, N.; Gantenbein, G.; Thumm, M.</p> <p>2011-12-23</p> <p>Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) <span class="hlt">systems</span> for next step-fusion devices like W7-X and ITER operate in CW-mode and provide a large flexibility to comply with various physics demands such as plasma start-up, heating and current drive, as well as configuration and MHD control. The request for many different sophisticated applications results in a growing complexity of the <span class="hlt">systems</span>. This is in conflict with the request for high availability, reliability, and maintainability, which arises from DEMO demands. 'Advanced' ECRH-components must, therefore, comply with both the complex physics demands and operational robustness and reliability. The W7-X ECRH <span class="hlt">system</span> is the first CW facility of an ITER relevant size and is used as a test bed for such components. Results on improvements of gyrotrons, transmission components and launchers are presented together with proposals for future developments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000560','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000560"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Cryogen <span class="hlt">Systems</span> and Test Facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, R. G.; Sass, J. P.; Hatfield, W. H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>NASA has completed initial construction and verification testing of the Integrated <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Test Facility (ISTF) Cryogenic Testbed. The ISTF is located at Complex 20 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The remote and secure location is ideally suited for the following functions: (1) development testing of advanced cryogenic component technologies, (2) development testing of concepts and processes for entire ground support <span class="hlt">systems</span> designed for servicing large launch vehicles, and (3) commercial sector testing of cryogenic- and energy-related products and <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The ISTF Cryogenic Testbed consists of modular fluid distribution piping and storage tanks for liquid oxygen/nitrogen (56,000 gal) and liquid hydrogen (66,000 gal). Storage tanks for liquid methane (41,000 gal) and Rocket Propellant 1 (37,000 gal) are also specified for the facility. A state-of-the-art blast proof test command and control center provides capability for remote operation, video surveillance, and data recording for all test areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/192090','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/192090"><span>Managing large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> multi-voltage distribution <span class="hlt">system</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walton, C.M.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The challenge for electricity utilities in the 90`s to deliver ever more reliable service at reduced cost and with fewer technical staff is the driver towards the next generation of automated network analysis tools. The paper discusses the application of an Automatic Loss Minimiser (ALM) and Fault Study Package (FSP) under the control of a Sequence Processor to an existing high resolution graphics network analysis package. Automated, sorted management summaries enable limited resources and <span class="hlt">system</span> automation to be directed at those networks with the poorest performance and/or the largest potential savings from reduced <span class="hlt">system</span> losses. The impact regular automatic monitoring has on the quality of the database and the scope for integration of the modules with other <span class="hlt">System</span> Automation initiatives is also considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1337962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1337962"><span>Exploring Asynchronous Many-Task Runtime <span class="hlt">Systems</span> toward Extreme <span class="hlt">Scales</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knight, Samuel; Baker, Gavin Matthew; Gamell, Marc; Hollman, David; Sjaardema, Gregor; Kolla, Hemanth; Teranishi, Keita; Wilke, Jeremiah J; Slattengren, Nicole; Bennett, Janine Camille</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Major exascale computing reports indicate a number of software challenges to meet the dramatic change of <span class="hlt">system</span> architectures in near future. While several-orders-of-magnitude increase in parallelism is the most commonly cited of those, hurdles also include performance heterogeneity of compute nodes across the <span class="hlt">system</span>, increased imbalance between computational capacity and I/O capabilities, frequent <span class="hlt">system</span> interrupts, and complex hardware architectures. Asynchronous task-parallel programming models show a great promise in addressing these issues, but are not yet fully understood nor developed su ciently for computational science and engineering application codes. We address these knowledge gaps through quantitative and qualitative exploration of leading candidate solutions in the context of engineering applications at Sandia. In this poster, we evaluate MiniAero code ported to three leading candidate programming models (Charm++, Legion and UINTAH) to examine the feasibility of these models that permits insertion of new programming model elements into an existing code base.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Cryo...49..638S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Cryo...49..638S"><span>A large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> cryoelectronic <span class="hlt">system</span> for biological sample banking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shirley, Stephen G.; Durst, Christopher H. P.; Fuchs, Christian C.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Ihmig, Frank R.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We describe a polymorphic electronic infrastructure for managing biological samples stored over liquid nitrogen. As part of this <span class="hlt">system</span> we have developed new cryocontainers and carrier plates attached to Flash memory chips to have a redundant and portable set of data at each sample. Our experimental investigations show that basic Flash operation and endurance is adequate for the application down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This identification technology can provide the best sample identification, documentation and tracking that brings added value to each sample. The first application of the <span class="hlt">system</span> is in a worldwide collaborative research towards the production of an AIDS vaccine. The functionality and versatility of the <span class="hlt">system</span> can lead to an essential optimization of sample and data exchange for global clinical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28024389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28024389"><span>Tribotronic Transistor Array as an <span class="hlt">Active</span> Tactile Sensing <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Zhi Wei; Pang, Yaokun; Zhang, Limin; Lu, Cunxin; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin</p> <p>2016-12-27</p> <p>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> tactile sensor arrays are of great importance in flexible electronics, human-robot interaction, and medical monitoring. In this paper, a flexible 10 × 10 tribotronic transistor array (TTA) is developed as an <span class="hlt">active</span> tactile sensing <span class="hlt">system</span> by incorporating field-effect transistor units and triboelectric nanogenerators into a polyimide substrate. The drain-source current of each tribotronic transistor can be individually modulated by the corresponding external contact, which has induced a local electrostatic potential to act as the conventional gate voltage. By <span class="hlt">scaling</span> down the pixel size from 5 × 5 to 0.5 × 0.5 mm(2), the sensitivities of single pixels are systematically investigated. The pixels of the TTA show excellent durability, independence, and synchronicity, which are suitable for applications in real-time tactile sensing, motion monitoring, and spatial mapping. The integrated tribotronics provides an unconventional route to realize an <span class="hlt">active</span> tactile sensing <span class="hlt">system</span>, with prospective applications in wearable electronics, human-machine interfaces, fingerprint identification, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6087....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6087....1H"><span>Light and immune <span class="hlt">systems</span>: <span class="hlt">activation</span> of immunological <span class="hlt">activities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Zheng; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Light has been used to treat diseases for hundreds of years. Convenient and powerful light sources such as lasers make photomedicine a major branch in diseases treatment and detection. Originally, light was often used for local treatment, using photomechanical, photochemical, photothermal reactions and photomodulation as the major mechanisms. More and more investigators have become interested in the <span class="hlt">systemic</span> effects of light, particularly in its effects on immune <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Much work has been done to <span class="hlt">activate</span> and/or enhance the host immune <span class="hlt">system</span> to combat cancer, either using light as a direct tool or as an adjuvant method. Light has long been used for assisting disease detection and diagnosis. Advances in light technology have made photo-diagnostics ever more precise spatially and temporally. Many techniques facilitate observation of bio-molecule interactions and other biological processes at the cellular level, hence providing opportunities to detect and monitor immune <span class="hlt">activities</span>. This manuscript will review recent photo-immunological research in treatment of cancer. The recent development of combination therapies involving lasers will be presented. Specifically, the results of cancer treatment using laser photothermal interaction, either with or without additional immunological stimulation will be discussed. The immunological effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT), and of its combination with immunotherapy in cancer treatment will also be discussed. Much interest has been recently concentrated in the immunological responses after laser treatment. Such responses at cellular and molecular levels will be discussed. The effect of these treatment modalities on the distant metastases also showed promise of light induced antitumor immunity. The combination therapy and induced immunological responses appear to be the key for long-term control of tumors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJST.225.2465U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJST.225.2465U"><span>Numerical continuation methods for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> dissipative dynamical <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Umbría, Juan Sánchez; Net, Marta</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A tutorial on continuation and bifurcation methods for the analysis of truncated dissipative partial differential equations is presented. It focuses on the computation of equilibria, periodic orbits, their loci of codimension-one bifurcations, and invariant tori. To make it more self-contained, it includes some definitions of basic concepts of dynamical <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and some preliminaries on the general underlying techniques used to solve non-linear <span class="hlt">systems</span> of equations by inexact Newton methods, and eigenvalue problems by means of subspace or Arnoldi iterations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1150741','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1150741"><span>High-precision micro/nano-<span class="hlt">scale</span> machining <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kapoor, Shiv G.; Bourne, Keith Allen; DeVor, Richard E.</p> <p>2014-08-19</p> <p>A high precision micro/nanoscale machining <span class="hlt">system</span>. A multi-axis movement machine provides relative movement along multiple axes between a workpiece and a tool holder. A cutting tool is disposed on a flexible cantilever held by the tool holder, the tool holder being movable to provide at least two of the axes to set the angle and distance of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. A feedback control <span class="hlt">system</span> uses measurement of deflection of the cantilever during cutting to maintain a desired cantilever deflection and hence a desired load on the cutting tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009372','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009372"><span>Emergency Locator Transmitter <span class="hlt">System</span> Performance During Three Full-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> General Aviation Crash Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Full-<span class="hlt">scale</span> crash tests were conducted on three Cessna 172 aircraft at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research facility during the summer of 2015. The purpose of the three tests was to evaluate the performance of commercially available Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) <span class="hlt">systems</span> and support development of enhanced installation guidance. ELTs are used to provide location information to Search and Rescue (SAR) organizations in the event of an aviation distress situation, such as a crash. The crash tests simulated three differing severe but survivable crash conditions, in which it is expected that the onboard occupants have a reasonable chance of surviving the accident and would require assistance from SAR personnel. The first simulated an emergency landing onto a rigid surface, while the second and third simulated controlled flight into terrain. Multiple ELT <span class="hlt">systems</span> were installed on each airplane according to federal regulations. The majority of the ELT <span class="hlt">systems</span> performed nominally. In the <span class="hlt">systems</span> which did not <span class="hlt">activate</span>, post-test disassembly and inspection offered guidance for non-<span class="hlt">activation</span> cause in some cases, while in others, no specific cause could be found. In a subset of installations purposely disregarding best practice guidelines, failure of the ELT-to-antenna cabling connections were found. Recommendations for enhanced installation guidance of ELT <span class="hlt">systems</span> will be made to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 229 for consideration for adoption in a future release of ELT minimum operational performance specifications. These recommendations will be based on the data gathered during this test series as well as a larger series of crash simulations using computer models that will be calibrated based on these data</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940032318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940032318"><span>Global Positioning <span class="hlt">System</span> Synchronized <span class="hlt">Active</span> Light Autonomous Docking <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Howard, Richard (Inventor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A Global Positioning <span class="hlt">System</span> Synchronized <span class="hlt">Active</span> Light Autonomous Docking <span class="hlt">System</span> (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprises at least one <span class="hlt">active</span> light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the <span class="hlt">active</span> light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning <span class="hlt">System</span> receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> of the chase vehicle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960034310','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960034310"><span>Global Positioning <span class="hlt">System</span> Synchronized <span class="hlt">Active</span> Light Autonomous Docking <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor); Bell, Joseph L. (Inventor)</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A Global Positioning <span class="hlt">System</span> Synchronized <span class="hlt">Active</span> Light Autonomous Docking <span class="hlt">System</span> (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprising at least one <span class="hlt">active</span> light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the <span class="hlt">active</span> light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning <span class="hlt">System</span> receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> of the chase vehicle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..89...71H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..89...71H"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> open boundary forcing using dual relaxation time-<span class="hlt">scales</span> in downscaled ocean models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herzfeld, M.; Gillibrand, P. A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Regional models <span class="hlt">actively</span> forced with data from larger <span class="hlt">scale</span> models at their open boundaries often contain motion at different time-<span class="hlt">scales</span> (e.g. tidal and low frequency). These motions are not always individually well specified in the forcing data, and one may require a more <span class="hlt">active</span> boundary forcing while the other exert less influence on the model interior. If a single relaxation time-<span class="hlt">scale</span> is used to relax toward these data in the boundary equation, then this may be difficult. The method of fractional steps is used to introduce dual relaxation time-<span class="hlt">scales</span> in an open boundary local flux adjustment scheme. This allows tidal and low frequency oscillations to be relaxed independently, resulting in a better overall solution than if a single relaxation parameter is optimized for tidal (short relaxation) or low frequency (long relaxation) boundary forcing. The dual method is compared to the single relaxation method for an idealized test case where a tidal signal is superimposed on a steady state low frequency solution, and a real application where the low frequency boundary forcing component is derived from a global circulation model for a region extending over the whole Great Barrier Reef, and a tidal signal subsequently superimposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9560H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9560H"><span>Large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> geometry and timing of the detachment <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the Cyclades (Greece). Insight from Makronisos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huet, Benjamin; Loisl, Johannes; Lindner, Karoline; Grasemann, Bernhard; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Soukis, Konstantinos; Schneider, David</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Characterizing the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> geometry of detachment zones and the timing of their movement is crucial to our overall understanding of the dynamics of metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). The Cyclades presents a world-class example of middle and lower crust that was exhumed below low angle detachments in such MCCs. They formed during Oligo-Miocene times in the stretched back-arc of the Hellenic subduction zone. Recently, regional correlations have emphasized the role of two large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> detachment <span class="hlt">systems</span>: the North Cycladic Detachment <span class="hlt">System</span> (NCDS), running from Evia to Mykonos (at least) and the Western Cyclades Detachment <span class="hlt">System</span> (WCDS) running from Serifos to Kea. Both detachment <span class="hlt">systems</span> exhumed the Cycladic Blueschist unit and the basement unit below the Pelagonian. However, they are antithetic, with the NCDS having a top-NNE and the WCDS a top-SSW movement, and their timings are, in detail, different. Lithological and structural observations, together with radiochronologic and metamorphic constraints from the island of Makronisos allow us to bridge the gap between the Western Cyclades and Attica and prolongate the WCDS towards the NW, giving it an overall length of 90 km. Depending on the tectonostratigraphic position of Makronisos, which remains unclear, we propose two alternative scenarios for the large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> geometry and dynamics of the WCDS. We also integrate our data within a model at the <span class="hlt">scale</span> of the whole Cycladic realm and propose a mechanical explanation for the <span class="hlt">activity</span>, location and timing of the major detachment <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eysenck&pg=3&id=EJ848093','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eysenck&pg=3&id=EJ848093"><span>Psychometric Properties of the Scores on the Behavioral Inhibition and <span class="hlt">Activation</span> <span class="hlt">Scales</span> in a Sample of Norwegian Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bjornebekk, Gunnar</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The primary aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the scores on a version for children of the Carver and White Behavioral Inhibition and <span class="hlt">Activation</span> <span class="hlt">scales</span> (the BIS-BAS <span class="hlt">scales</span>). This involved administering the BIS-BAS <span class="hlt">scales</span>, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923157','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923157"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> polarimeter optical <span class="hlt">system</span> laser hazard analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Augustoni, Arnold L.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL <span class="hlt">Active</span> Polarimeter Optical <span class="hlt">System</span> based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The <span class="hlt">Active</span> Polarimeter Optical <span class="hlt">System</span> (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The <span class="hlt">system</span> is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The <span class="hlt">system</span> is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18470821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18470821"><span>Processing abstract language modulates motor <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">activity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Embodiment theory proposes that neural <span class="hlt">systems</span> for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action <span class="hlt">systems</span> during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">activity</span> during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...787...62M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...787...62M"><span>Evidence of Parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Jets in Low-luminosity <span class="hlt">Active</span> Galactic Nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mezcua, M.; Prieto, M. A.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The nuclear radio emission of low-luminosity <span class="hlt">active</span> galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) is often associated with unresolved cores. In this paper we show that most LLAGNs present extended jet radio emission when observed with sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity. They are thus able to power, at least, parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> radio jets. To increase the detection rate of jets in LLAGNs, we analyze subarcsecond resolution data of three low-ionization nuclear emission regions. This yields the detection of extended jet-like radio structures in NGC 1097 and NGC 2911 and the first resolved parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> jet of NGC 4594 (Sombrero). The three sources belong to a sample of nearby LLAGNs for which high-spatial-resolution spectral energy distribution of their core emission is available. This allows us to study their accretion rate and jet power (Q jet) without drawing on (most) of the ad hoc assumptions usually considered in large statistical surveys. We find that those LLAGNs with large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> radio jets (>100 pc) have Q jet > 1042 erg s-1, while the lowest Q jet correspond to those LLAGNs with parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> (<=100 pc) jets. The Q jet is at least as large as the radiated bolometric luminosity for all LLAGN, in agreement with previous statistical studies. Our detection of parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> jets in individual objects further shows that the kinematic jet contribution is equally important in large- or parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> objects. We also find that the Eddington-<span class="hlt">scaled</span> accretion rate is still highly sub-Eddingtonian (<10-4) when adding the Q jet to the total emitted luminosity (radiated plus kinetic). This indicates that LLAGNs are not only inefficient radiators but that they also accrete inefficiently or are very efficient advectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356827','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356827"><span>Evidence of parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> jets in low-luminosity <span class="hlt">active</span> galactic nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mezcua, M.; Prieto, M. A.</p> <p>2014-05-20</p> <p>The nuclear radio emission of low-luminosity <span class="hlt">active</span> galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) is often associated with unresolved cores. In this paper we show that most LLAGNs present extended jet radio emission when observed with sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity. They are thus able to power, at least, parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> radio jets. To increase the detection rate of jets in LLAGNs, we analyze subarcsecond resolution data of three low-ionization nuclear emission regions. This yields the detection of extended jet-like radio structures in NGC 1097 and NGC 2911 and the first resolved parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> jet of NGC 4594 (Sombrero). The three sources belong to a sample of nearby LLAGNs for which high-spatial-resolution spectral energy distribution of their core emission is available. This allows us to study their accretion rate and jet power (Q {sub jet}) without drawing on (most) of the ad hoc assumptions usually considered in large statistical surveys. We find that those LLAGNs with large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> radio jets (>100 pc) have Q {sub jet} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}, while the lowest Q {sub jet} correspond to those LLAGNs with parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> (≤100 pc) jets. The Q {sub jet} is at least as large as the radiated bolometric luminosity for all LLAGN, in agreement with previous statistical studies. Our detection of parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> jets in individual objects further shows that the kinematic jet contribution is equally important in large- or parsec-<span class="hlt">scale</span> objects. We also find that the Eddington-<span class="hlt">scaled</span> accretion rate is still highly sub-Eddingtonian (<10{sup –4}) when adding the Q {sub jet} to the total emitted luminosity (radiated plus kinetic). This indicates that LLAGNs are not only inefficient radiators but that they also accrete inefficiently or are very efficient advectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27448030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27448030"><span>Measuring emotions during epistemic <span class="hlt">activities</span>: the Epistemically-Related Emotion <span class="hlt">Scales</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pekrun, Reinhard; Vogl, Elisabeth; Muis, Krista R; Sinatra, Gale M</p> <p>2016-07-22</p> <p>Measurement instruments assessing multiple emotions during epistemic <span class="hlt">activities</span> are largely lacking. We describe the construction and validation of the Epistemically-Related Emotion <span class="hlt">Scales</span>, which measure surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration, and boredom occurring during epistemic cognitive <span class="hlt">activities</span>. The instrument was tested in a multinational study of emotions during learning from conflicting texts (N = 438 university students from the United States, Canada, and Germany). The findings document the reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the instrument. A seven-factor model best fit the data, suggesting that epistemically-related emotions should be conceptualised in terms of discrete emotion categories, and the <span class="hlt">scales</span> showed metric invariance across the North American and German samples. Furthermore, emotion scores changed over time as a function of conflicting task information and related significantly to perceived task value and use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070018054','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070018054"><span>Extravehicular <span class="hlt">Activity</span> (EVA) 101: Constellation EVA <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, Nicole C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A viewgraph presentation on Extravehicular <span class="hlt">Activity</span> (EVA) <span class="hlt">Systems</span> is shown. The topics include: 1) Why do we need space suits? 2) Protection From the Environment; 3) Primary Life Support <span class="hlt">System</span> (PLSS); 4) Thermal Control; 5) Communications; 6) Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assy; 7) Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assy; 8) Display and Controls Module (DCM); 9) Gloves; 10) Lower Torso Assembly (LTA); 11) What Size Do You Need?; 12) Boot and Sizing Insert; 13) Boot Heel Clip and Foot Restraint; 14) Advanced and Crew Escape Suit; 15) Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing; 16) Gemini Program (mid-1960s); 17) Apollo EVA on Service Module; 18) A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress; 19) EVA <span class="hlt">System</span> Missions; 20) Configurations; 21) Reduced Gravity Program; and 22) Other Opportunities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007377','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007377"><span>Multi-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation <span class="hlt">System</span> for Coastal Ocean Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhijin; Chao, Yi; Li, P. Peggy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A multi-<span class="hlt">scale</span> three-dimensional variational data assimilation <span class="hlt">system</span> (MS-3DVAR) has been formulated and the associated software <span class="hlt">system</span> has been developed for improving high-resolution coastal ocean prediction. This <span class="hlt">system</span> helps improve coastal ocean prediction skill, and has been used in support of operational coastal ocean forecasting <span class="hlt">systems</span> and field experiments. The <span class="hlt">system</span> has been developed to improve the capability of data assimilation for assimilating, simultaneously and effectively, sparse vertical profiles and high-resolution remote sensing surface measurements into coastal ocean models, as well as constraining model biases. In this <span class="hlt">system</span>, the cost function is decomposed into two separate units for the large- and small-<span class="hlt">scale</span> components, respectively. As such, data assimilation is implemented sequentially from large to small <span class="hlt">scales</span>, the background error covariance is constructed to be <span class="hlt">scale</span>-dependent, and a <span class="hlt">scale</span>-dependent dynamic balance is incorporated. This scheme then allows effective constraining large <span class="hlt">scales</span> and model bias through assimilating sparse vertical profiles, and small <span class="hlt">scales</span> through assimilating high-resolution surface measurements. This MS-3DVAR enhances the capability of the traditional 3DVAR for assimilating highly heterogeneously distributed observations, such as along-track satellite altimetry data, and particularly maximizing the extraction of information from limited numbers of vertical profile observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3262302','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3262302"><span>The large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> structure of software-intensive <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Booch, Grady</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The computer metaphor is dominant in most discussions of neuroscience, but the semantics attached to that metaphor are often quite naive. Herein, we examine the ontology of software-intensive <span class="hlt">systems</span>, the nature of their structure and the application of the computer metaphor to the metaphysical questions of self and causation. PMID:23386964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26549332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26549332"><span>Multi-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Molecular Deconstruction of the Serotonin Neuron <span class="hlt">System</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okaty, Benjamin W; Freret, Morgan E; Rood, Benjamin D; Brust, Rachael D; Hennessy, Morgan L; deBairos, Danielle; Kim, Jun Chul; Cook, Melloni N; Dymecki, Susan M</p> <p>2015-11-18</p> <p>Serotonergic (5HT) neurons modulate diverse behaviors and physiology and are implicated in distinct clinical disorders. Corresponding diversity in 5HT neuronal phenotypes is becoming apparent and is likely rooted in molecular differences, yet a comprehensive approach characterizing molecular variation across the 5HT <span class="hlt">system</span> is lacking, as is concomitant linkage to cellular phenotypes. Here we combine intersectional fate mapping, neuron sorting, and genome-wide RNA-seq to deconstruct the mouse 5HT <span class="hlt">system</span> at multiple levels of granularity-from anatomy, to genetic sublineages, to single neurons. Our unbiased analyses reveal principles underlying <span class="hlt">system</span> organization, 5HT neuron subtypes, constellations of differentially expressed genes distinguishing subtypes, and predictions of subtype-specific functions. Using electrophysiology, subtype-specific neuron silencing, and conditional gene knockout, we show that these molecularly defined 5HT neuron subtypes are functionally distinct. Collectively, this resource classifies molecular diversity across the 5HT <span class="hlt">system</span> and discovers sertonergic subtypes, markers, organizing principles, and subtype-specific functions with potential disease relevance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4809055','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4809055"><span>Multi-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Molecular Deconstruction of the Serotonin Neuron <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Okaty, Benjamin W.; Freret, Morgan E.; Rood, Benjamin D.; Brust, Rachael D.; Hennessy, Morgan L.; deBairos, Danielle; Kim, Jun Chul; Cook, Melloni N.; Dymecki, Susan M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Serotonergic (5HT) neurons modulate diverse behaviors and physiology and are implicated in distinct clinical disorders. Corresponding diversity in 5HT neuronal phenotypes is becoming apparent and is likely rooted in molecular differences, yet a comprehensive approach characterizing molecular variation across the 5HT <span class="hlt">system</span> is lacking, as is concomitant linkage to cellular phenotypes. Here we combine intersectional fate mapping, neuron sorting, and genome-wide RNA-Seq to deconstruct the mouse 5HT <span class="hlt">system</span> at multiple levels of granularity—from anatomy, to genetic sublineages, to single neurons. Our unbiased analyses reveal: principles underlying <span class="hlt">system</span> organization, novel 5HT neuron subtypes, constellations of differentially expressed genes distinguishing subtypes, and predictions of subtype-specific functions. Using electrophysiology, subtype-specific neuron silencing, and conditional gene knockout, we show that these molecularly defined 5HT neuron subtypes are functionally distinct. Collectively, this resource classifies molecular diversity across the 5HT <span class="hlt">system</span> and discovers new subtypes, markers, organizing principles, and subtype-specific functions with potential disease relevance. PMID:26549332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778883"><span>A common mass <span class="hlt">scaling</span> for satellite <span class="hlt">systems</span> of gaseous planets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Canup, Robin M; Ward, William R</p> <p>2006-06-15</p> <p>The Solar <span class="hlt">System</span>'s outer planets that contain hydrogen gas all host <span class="hlt">systems</span> of multiple moons, which notably each contain a similar fraction of their respective planet's mass (approximately 10(-4)). This mass fraction is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the largest satellites of the solid planets (such as the Earth's Moon), and its common value for gas planets has been puzzling. Here we model satellite growth and loss as a forming giant planet accumulates gas and rock-ice solids from solar orbit. We find that the mass fraction of its satellite <span class="hlt">system</span> is regulated to approximately 10(-4) by a balance of two competing processes: the supply of inflowing material to the satellites, and satellite loss through orbital decay driven by the gas. We show that the overall properties of the satellite <span class="hlt">systems</span> of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus arise naturally, and suggest that similar processes could limit the largest moons of extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets to Moon-to-Mars size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=zwick&pg=2&id=EJ970741','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=zwick&pg=2&id=EJ970741"><span><span class="hlt">Scaling</span>, Linking, and Reporting in a Periodic Assessment <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mislevy, Robert J.; Zwick, Rebecca</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A new entry in the testing lexicon is through-course summative assessment, a <span class="hlt">system</span> consisting of components administered periodically during the academic year. As defined in the Race to the Top program, these assessments are intended to yield a yearly summative score for accountability purposes. They must provide for both individual and group…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA631270','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA631270"><span>Exploring the Architecture of Ultra Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>rather than business goals): • ICANN for internet •US Department of Energy for US energy grid •Zoning board for our analogy Policy board has expert...<span class="hlt">systems</span> goals - 2 Broad policy objectives • ICANN first objective • Preserve and enhance the operational stability, reliability, security, and global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877528','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877528"><span>Spontaneous Neuronal <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luhmann, Heiko J.; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C.; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Neuronal <span class="hlt">activity</span> has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous <span class="hlt">activity</span> is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> network <span class="hlt">activity</span> is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels <span class="hlt">activated</span> by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits. PMID:27252626</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1058085','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1058085"><span>Summary Report on FY12 Small-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Test <span class="hlt">Activities</span> High Temperature Electrolysis Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James O'Brien</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">activities</span> described in this report represent a much smaller effort.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17930809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17930809"><span><span class="hlt">Activation</span> barrier <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and crossover for noise-induced switching in micromechanical parametric oscillators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chan, H B; Stambaugh, C</p> <p>2007-08-10</p> <p>We explore fluctuation-induced switching in parametrically driven micromechanical torsional oscillators. The oscillators possess one, two, or three stable attractors depending on the modulation frequency. Noise induces transitions between the coexisting attractors. Near the bifurcation points, the <span class="hlt">activation</span> barriers are found to have a power law dependence on frequency detuning with critical exponents that are in agreement with predicted universal <span class="hlt">scaling</span> relationships. At large detuning, we observe a crossover to a different power law dependence with an exponent that is device specific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22421818D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22421818D"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> region 11748: Recurring X-class flares, large <span class="hlt">scale</span> dimmings and waves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davey, Alisdair R.; Malanushenko, Anna; McIntosh, Scott W.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>AR 11748 was a relatively compact <span class="hlt">active</span> region that crossed the solar disk between 05/14/2013 and 05/26/2013. Despite its size it produced a number X-class flares, and global <span class="hlt">scale</span> eruptive events that were captured by the SDO Feature Finding Team's (FFT) Dimming Region Detector. Using the results of this module and other FFT modules, we present an analysis of the this AR region and investigate why it was so globally impactful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887857','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887857"><span>RESPONSIVENESS OF THE <span class="hlt">ACTIVITIES</span> OF DAILY LIVING <span class="hlt">SCALE</span> OF THE KNEE OUTCOME SURVEY AND NUMERIC PAIN RATING <span class="hlt">SCALE</span> IN PATIENTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Piva, Sara R.; Gil, Alexandra B.; Moore, Charity G.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective To assess internal and external responsiveness of the <span class="hlt">Activity</span> of Daily Living <span class="hlt">Scale</span> of the Knee Outcome Survey and Numeric Pain Rating <span class="hlt">Scale</span> on patients with patellofemoral pain. Design One group pre-post design. Subjects A total of 60 individuals with patellofemoral pain (33 women; mean age 29.9 (standard deviation 9.6) years). Methods The <span class="hlt">Activity</span> of Daily Living <span class="hlt">Scale</span> and the Numeric Pain Rating <span class="hlt">Scale</span> were assessed before and after 8 weeks of physical therapy program. Patients completed a global rating of change <span class="hlt">scale</span> at the end of therapy. The standardized effect size, Guyatt responsiveness index, and the minimum clinical important difference were calculated. Results Standardized effect size of the <span class="hlt">Activity</span> of Daily Living <span class="hlt">Scale</span> was 0.63, Guyatt responsiveness index was 1.4, area under the curve was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.72, 0.94), and the minimum clinical important difference corresponded to an increase of 7.1 percentile points. Standardized effect size of the Numeric Pain Rating <span class="hlt">Scale</span> was 0.72, Guyatt responsiveness index was 2.2, area under the curve was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.70, 0.92), and the minimum clinical important difference corresponded to a decrease of 1.16 points. Conclusion Information from this study may be helpful to therapists when evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation intervention on physical function and pain, and to power future clinical trials on patients with patellofemoral pain. PMID:19229444</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=scales&pg=2&id=EJ1094342','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=scales&pg=2&id=EJ1094342"><span>The Development and Validation of the Student Response <span class="hlt">System</span> Benefit <span class="hlt">Scale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hooker, J. F.; Denker, K. J.; Summers, M. E.; Parker, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Previous research into the benefits student response <span class="hlt">systems</span> (SRS) that have been brought into the classroom revealed that SRS can contribute positively to student experiences. However, while the benefits of SRS have been conceptualized and operationalized into a widely cited <span class="hlt">scale</span>, the validity of this <span class="hlt">scale</span> had not been tested. Furthermore,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/967749','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/967749"><span>Performance Measurements of the Injection Laser <span class="hlt">System</span> Configured for Picosecond <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Advanced Radiographic Capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haefner, L C; Heebner, J E; Dawson, J W; Fochs, S N; Shverdin, M Y; Crane, J K; Kanz, K V; Halpin, J M; Phan, H H; Sigurdsson, R J; Brewer, S W; Britten, J A; Brunton, G K; Clark, W J; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Shaw, B H; Hackel, R P; Hermann, M R; Tietbohl, G L; Siders, C W; Barty, C J</p> <p>2009-10-23</p> <p>We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser <span class="hlt">system</span> and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a <span class="hlt">scaled</span> down replica of the meter-<span class="hlt">scale</span> grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088013','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088013"><span>Final Report for Enhancing the MPI Programming Model for Peta<span class="hlt">Scale</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gropp, William Douglas</p> <p>2013-07-22</p> <p>This project performed research into enhancing the MPI programming model in two ways: developing improved algorithms and implementation strategies, tested and realized in the MPICH implementation, and exploring extensions to the MPI standard to better support Peta<span class="hlt">Scale</span> and Exa<span class="hlt">Scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA221603','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA221603"><span>Critical Problems in Very Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Computer <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-03-31</p> <p>Overview 2 2 Circuits 2 3 Processing Elements 3 4 Comimunicat ions Topology and Routing Algorithms 4 5 <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Software 5 6 Algorithms 6 7 Applications...methods to semiconductors, they are decomposing the field calculation into a part due to charged particles, a part due to dopant ions , and a part due to...Internal Memoranda [51] Anant Agarwal. Li . iits to network performance, or, moderate dimensions are better. To appear as a MIT VLSI Memo. L52] Anant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16259427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16259427"><span>Properties of pyrolytic chars and <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbons derived from pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> pyrolysis of used tires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, S Q; Yao, Q; Wen, S E; Chi, Y; Yan, J H</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Used tires were pyrolyzed in a pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> quasi-inert rotary kiln. Influences of variables, such as time, temperature, and agent flow, on the <span class="hlt">activation</span> of obtained char were subsequently investigated in a laboratory-<span class="hlt">scale</span> fixed bed. Mesoporous pores are found to be dominant in the pore structures of raw char. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surfaces of <span class="hlt">activated</span> chars increased linearly with carbon burnoff. The carbon burnoff of tire char achieved by carbon dioxide (CO2) under otherwise identical conditions was on average 75% of that achieved by steam, but their BET surfaces are almost the same. The proper <span class="hlt">activation</span> greatly improved the aqueous adsorption of raw char, especially for small molecular adsorbates, for example, phenol from 6 to 51 mg/g. With increasing burnoff, phenol adsorption exhibited a first-stage linear increase followed by a rapid drop after 30% burnoff. Similarly, iodine adsorption first increased linearly, but it held as the burnoff exceeded 40%, which implied that the reduction of iodine adsorption due to decreasing micropores was partially made up by increasing mesopores. Both raw chars and <span class="hlt">activated</span> chars showed appreciable adsorption capacity of methylene-blue comparable with that of commercial carbons. Thus, tire-derived <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbons can be used as an excellent mesoporous adsorbent for larger molecular species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4992939','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4992939"><span>The Possibilities for <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (PActS): Development, validity, and reliability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Laliberte-Rudman (2005) proposed the concept of occupational possibilities to represent what older adults feel they “should be” and “could be” doing. Purpose This study aimed to develop and validate a measure of perceived occupational possibilities: the Possibilities for <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Scale</span> (PActS). Method Two factors of the PActS, <span class="hlt">activity</span> expectations and <span class="hlt">activity</span> self-efficacy, were operationalized in a 14-item instrument. The instrument was then evaluated with a sample of older adults diagnosed with cancer (n = 179). Findings The PActS demonstrated promising internal consistency reliability (stratified coefficient α =.77) and construct-related (r =. 58; p < .0001), structural (Chi-square, 61.57; CFI, .97; RMSEA, 0.05; TLI, .96; NFI, .91) and known-groups validity. Implications The PActS appears to be a useful measure of internalized occupational possibilities for participation in <span class="hlt">activity</span> for older adults with cancer. This <span class="hlt">scale</span> can enhance the measurement of participation in <span class="hlt">activity</span> by evaluating the perceptions of occupational possibilities. PMID:26281432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215345"><span>Industrial <span class="hlt">Scale</span> Energy <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ruth, Mark</p> <p>2015-07-28</p> <p>The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy <span class="hlt">systems</span> (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy <span class="hlt">systems</span> (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPCM...21T0301E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPCM...21T0301E"><span>FOREWORD: Heterogenous nucleation and microstructure formation—a <span class="hlt">scale</span>- and <span class="hlt">system</span>-bridging approach Heterogenous nucleation and microstructure formation—a <span class="hlt">scale</span>- and <span class="hlt">system</span>-bridging approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Emmerich, H.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Scope and aim of this volume. Nucleation and initial microstructure formation play an important role in almost all aspects of materials science [1-5]. The relevance of the prediction and control of nucleation and the subsequent microstructure formation is fully accepted across many areas of modern surface and materials science and technology. One reason is that a large range of material properties, from mechanical ones such as ductility and hardness to electrical and magnetic ones such as electric conductivity and magnetic hardness, depend largely on the specific crystalline structure that forms in nucleation and the subsequent initial microstructure growth. A very demonstrative example for the latter is the so called bamboo structure of an integrated circuit, for which resistance against electromigration [6] , a parallel alignment of grain boundaries vertical to the direction of electricity, is most favorable. Despite the large relevance of predicting and controlling nucleation and the subsequent microstructure formation, and despite significant progress in the experimental analysis of the later stages of crystal growth in line with new theoretical computer simulation concepts [7], details about the initial stages of solidification are still far from being satisfactorily understood. This is in particular true when the nucleation event occurs as heterogenous nucleation. The Priority Program SPP 1296 'Heterogenous Nucleation and Microstructure Formation—a <span class="hlt">Scale</span>- and <span class="hlt">System</span>-Bridging Approach' [8] sponsored by the German Research Foundation, DFG, intends to contribute to this open issue via a six year research program that enables approximately twenty research groups in Germany to work interdisciplinarily together following this goal. Moreover, it enables the participants to embed themselves in the international community which focuses on this issue via internationally open joint workshops, conferences and summer schools. An outline of such <span class="hlt">activities</span> can be found</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4853475','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4853475"><span>Imaging large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> cellular <span class="hlt">activity</span> in spinal cord of freely behaving mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sekiguchi, Kohei J.; Shekhtmeyster, Pavel; Merten, Katharina; Arena, Alexander; Cook, Daniela; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Ngo, Alexander; Nimmerjahn, Axel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Sensory information from mechanoreceptors and nociceptors in the skin plays key roles in adaptive and protective motor behaviours. To date, very little is known about how this information is encoded by spinal cord cell types and their <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns, particularly under freely behaving conditions. To enable stable measurement of neuronal and glial cell <span class="hlt">activity</span> in behaving mice, we have developed fluorescence imaging approaches based on two- and miniaturized one-photon microscopy. We show that distinct cutaneous stimuli <span class="hlt">activate</span> overlapping ensembles of dorsal horn neurons, and that stimulus type and intensity is encoded at the single-cell level. In contrast, astrocytes show large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> coordinated calcium responses to intense but not weak sensory inputs. Sensory-evoked <span class="hlt">activity</span> is potently suppressed by anaesthesia. By revealing the cellular and computational logic of spinal cord networks under behaving conditions, our approach holds promise for better understanding of healthy and aberrant spinal cord processes. PMID:27121084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16444178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16444178"><span>Cardiac autonomic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> <span class="hlt">activity</span> in obesity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liatis, Stavros; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Katsilambros, Nikolaos</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>The development of obesity is caused by a disturbance of energy balance, with energy intake exceeding energy expenditure. As the autonomic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (ANS) has a role in the regulation of both these variables, it has become a major focus of investigation in the fields of obesity pathogenesis. The enhanced cardiac sympathetic drive shown in most of the studies in obese persons might be due to an increase in their levels of circulating insulin. The role of leptin needs further investigation with studies in humans. There is a blunted response of the cardiac sympathetic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (SNS) <span class="hlt">activity</span> in obese subjects after consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal as well as after insulin administration. This might be due to insulin resistance. It is speculated that increased SNS <span class="hlt">activity</span> in obesity may contribute to the development of hypertension in genetically susceptible individuals. It is also speculated that the increase in cardiac SNS <span class="hlt">activity</span> under fasting conditions in obesity may be associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070003732','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070003732"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> Thermal Control <span class="hlt">System</span> Development for Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Westheimer, David</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. <span class="hlt">Active</span> Thermal Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, <span class="hlt">Active</span> Thermal Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has been <span class="hlt">actively</span> developing technologies that will enable future missions or will provide significant improvements over the state of the art technologies. These technologies have are targeted for application on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), or Orion, and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM..ED21C11M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM..ED21C11M"><span>Construction of a 40-mile long roadside <span class="hlt">scale</span> model of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> in northern Maine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCartney, K.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>The Maine Solar <span class="hlt">System</span> Model is currently under construction along Route 1 between Houlton and Presque Isle, in Aroostook County, northern Maine. The <span class="hlt">scale</span> is 1:93,000,000, or 1 mile equals an astronomical unit. There is a 40 mile distance between the Sun (diameter 49.5 feet) and Pluto (diameter 1 inch). The model will include the Sun, nine planets and seven moons, with diameters and distances all to the same <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Except for the Sun, all components will be three-dimensional and built to withstand the northern Maine climate. Construction is generally of steel with fiberglass globes positioned on steel posts at least ten feet above ground and 55 feet off the roadway. Road safety concerns require that the Jupiter and Saturn sites include parking lots. Educational information associated with the model will be provided on brochures, since textual information at the sites would require excessive stops and parking problems. Learning exercises will also be provided by travelling trunks prepared by Maine teachers to support the State of Maine Learning Results. This is a community project with the various components being built by ten area schools and with <span class="hlt">active</span> assistance from many community members and organizations. It is being built with with very little money, with most materials and labor donated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2383T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2383T"><span>Towards integrated approaches to advance understanding of ecohydrological <span class="hlt">systems</span> across <span class="hlt">scales</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Soulsby, Chris</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>It is increasingly recognised that the processes and connections in our landscapes are influencing the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Fundamental scientific understanding of the functioning of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is required for an integrated and sustainable management of landscapes and riverscapes to maintain their ecosystem services and biological integrity at multiple <span class="hlt">scales</span>. This talk will show how the interactions and feedbacks in ecohydrological <span class="hlt">systems</span> can be quantitatively assessed through a number of novel, integrated approaches. Importantly, this talk will discuss the need to understand the role of vegetation on water partitioning at the terrestrial and aquatic interface. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are interacting at every <span class="hlt">scale</span> level and cross-<span class="hlt">scale</span> investigations are extremely useful to gain an integrated understanding of ecohydrological <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Environmental tracers are valuable tools to understand the functioning of ecohydrological <span class="hlt">systems</span> at the landscape <span class="hlt">scale</span> in terms of understand flow paths, sources of water and associated biogeochemical interactions. Extensive empirical studies were conducted at the plot and hillslope <span class="hlt">scale</span> to understand ecohydrological <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and in particular, soil-vegetation-water interlinkages. This empirically based understanding was then integrated into spatially distributed, tracer-aided models to understand mixing of water, flows to the stream and water age distribution at the catchment <span class="hlt">scale</span>. Finally, remote sensing techniques were used to integrate empirically based findings and to extrapolate <span class="hlt">system</span> understanding to cross-regional <span class="hlt">scales</span>, specifically in terms of studying hydroclimatic variability, vegetation dynamics and consequent changes of plant water use and water partitioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970001606','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970001606"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">Active</span> Thermal Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Architecture Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced <span class="hlt">active</span> thermal control <span class="hlt">systems</span> (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control <span class="hlt">systems</span>, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control <span class="hlt">system</span>; an external thermal control <span class="hlt">system</span>; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9906E..3BT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9906E..3BT"><span>LSST <span class="hlt">active</span> optics <span class="hlt">system</span> software architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Sandrine J.; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Lotz, Paul; Xin, Bo; Claver, Charles; Angeli, George; Sebag, Jacques; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory P.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an 8-meter class wide-field telescope now under construction on Cerro Pachon, near La Serena, Chile. This ground-based telescope is designed to conduct a decade-long time domain survey of the optical sky. In order to achieve the LSST scientific goals, the telescope requires delivering seeing limited image quality over the 3.5 degree field-of-view. Like many telescopes, LSST will use an <span class="hlt">Active</span> Optics <span class="hlt">System</span> (AOS) to correct in near real-time the <span class="hlt">system</span> aberrations primarily introduced by gravity and temperature gradients. The LSST AOS uses a combination of 4 curvature wavefront sensors (CWS) located on the outside of the LSST field-of-view. The information coming from the 4 CWS is combined to calculate the appropriate corrections to be sent to the 3 different mirrors composing LSST. The AOS software incorporates a wavefront sensor estimation pipeline (WEP) and an <span class="hlt">active</span> optics control <span class="hlt">system</span> (AOCS). The WEP estimates the wavefront residual error from the CWS images. The AOCS determines the correction to be sent to the different degrees of freedom every 30 seconds. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of the AOS. More particularly, we will focus on the software architecture as well as the AOS interactions with the various subsystems within LSST.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864200','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864200"><span>Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and <span class="hlt">scaling</span> in geothermal flow <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Harrar, Jackson E.; Lorensen, Lyman E.; Locke, Frank E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A method for inhibiting silica <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and precipitation in geothermal flow <span class="hlt">systems</span> by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6485163','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6485163"><span>Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and <span class="hlt">scaling</span> in geothermal flow <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Harrar, J.E.; Lorensen, L.E.; Locke, F.E.</p> <p>1980-06-13</p> <p>A method for inhibiting silica <span class="hlt">scaling</span> and precipitation in geothermal flow <span class="hlt">systems</span> by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds is described.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1172904','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1172904"><span><span class="hlt">Active</span> Storage with Analytics Capabilities and I/O Runtime <span class="hlt">System</span> for Petascale <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Choudhary, Alok</p> <p>2015-03-18</p> <p>Computational scientists must understand results from experimental, observational and computational simulation generated data to gain insights and perform knowledge discovery. As <span class="hlt">systems</span> approach the petascale range, problems that were unimaginable a few years ago are within reach. With the increasing volume and complexity of data produced by ultra-<span class="hlt">scale</span> simulations and high-throughput experiments, understanding the science is largely hampered by the lack of comprehensive I/O, storage, acceleration of data manipulation, analysis, and mining tools. Scientists require techniques, tools and infrastructure to facilitate better understanding of their data, in particular the ability to effectively perform complex data analysis, statistical analysis and knowledge discovery. The goal of this work is to enable more effective analysis of scientific datasets through the integration of enhancements in the I/O stack, from <span class="hlt">active</span> storage support at the file <span class="hlt">system</span> layer to MPI-IO and high-level I/O library layers. We propose to provide software components to accelerate data analytics, mining, I/O, and knowledge discovery for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> scientific applications, thereby increasing productivity of both scientists and the <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Our approaches include 1) design the interfaces in high-level I/O libraries, such as parallel netCDF, for applications to <span class="hlt">activate</span> data mining operations at the lower I/O layers; 2) Enhance MPI-IO runtime <span class="hlt">systems</span> to incorporate the functionality developed as a part of the runtime <span class="hlt">system</span> design; 3) Develop parallel data mining programs as part of runtime library for server-side file <span class="hlt">system</span> in PVFS file <span class="hlt">system</span>; and 4) Prototype an <span class="hlt">active</span> storage cluster, which will utilize multicore CPUs, GPUs, and FPGAs to carry out the data mining workload.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA175058','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA175058"><span>Robust Control of Multivariable and Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-03-14</p> <p>a double Bezout identity to obtain the coefficients of K. (Youla, Jabr, and Bongiorno (1976), Desoer , Liu, Murray, and Saeks (1980) ). For simplicity...and M. Vidyasagar, "Feedback <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: Input-Output Properties", New York: Academic Press, 1975. [D4] C.A. Desoer and W.S. Chan, "The feedback...interconnection of linear time-invariant sys- tems," J. Franklin Inst., 300, 1975, pp. 335-351. [D51 C.A. Desoer , R.W. Liu, J. Murray, and R. Saeks</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003306','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003306"><span>Computationally Efficient Modeling and Simulation of Large <span class="hlt">Scale</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jain, Jitesh (Inventor); Cauley, Stephen F (Inventor); Li, Hong (Inventor); Koh, Cheng-Kok (Inventor); Balakrishnan, Vankataramanan (Inventor)</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">system</span> for simulating operation of a VLSI interconnect structure having capacitive and inductive coupling between nodes thereof, including a processor, and a memory, the processor configured to perform obtaining a matrix X and a matrix Y containing different combinations of passive circuit element values for the interconnect structure, the element values for each matrix including inductance L and inverse capacitance P, obtaining an adjacency matrix A associated with the interconnect structure, storing the matrices X, Y, and A in the memory, and performing numerical integration to solve first and second equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175793','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175793"><span>Interactive display <span class="hlt">system</span> having a <span class="hlt">scaled</span> virtual target zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard</p> <p>2006-06-13</p> <p>A display <span class="hlt">system</span> includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector and imaging device cooperate with the panel for projecting a video image thereon. An optical detector bridges at least a portion of the waveguides for detecting a location on the outlet face within a target zone of an inbound light spot. A controller is operatively coupled to the imaging device and detector for displaying a cursor on the outlet face corresponding with the detected location of the spot within the target zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=318051','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=318051"><span>A pilot <span class="hlt">scale</span> electrical infrared dry-peeling <span class="hlt">system</span> for tomatoes: design and performance evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A pilot <span class="hlt">scale</span> infrared dry-peeling <span class="hlt">system</span> for tomatoes was designed and constructed. The <span class="hlt">system</span> consisted of three major sections including the IR heating, vacuum, and pinch roller sections. The peeling performance of the <span class="hlt">system</span> was examined under different operational conditions using tomatoes with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22562744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22562744"><span>Scuba diving <span class="hlt">activates</span> vascular antioxidant <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Ferrer, M D; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. <span class="hlt">Activities</span> of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these <span class="hlt">activities</span> remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase <span class="hlt">activity</span> and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth <span class="hlt">activated</span> the plasma antioxidant <span class="hlt">system</span> against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23666435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23666435"><span>Measuring cardiac autonomic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (ANS) <span class="hlt">activity</span> in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Dijk, Aimée E; van Lien, René; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; de Geus, Eco J</p> <p>2013-04-29</p> <p>The autonomic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (ANS) controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis, like heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration and renal function. The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>, preparing the human body for action in times of danger and stress, and the parasympathetic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>, which regulates the resting state of the body. ANS <span class="hlt">activity</span> can be measured invasively, for instance by radiotracer techniques or microelectrode recording from superficial nerves, or it can be measured non-invasively by using changes in an organ's response as a proxy for changes in ANS <span class="hlt">activity</span>, for instance of the sweat glands or the heart. Invasive measurements have the highest validity but are very poorly feasible in large <span class="hlt">scale</span> samples where non-invasive measures are the preferred approach. Autonomic effects on the heart can be reliably quantified by the recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in combination with the impedance cardiogram (ICG), which reflects the changes in thorax impedance in response to respiration and the ejection of blood from the ventricle into the aorta. From the respiration and ECG signals, respiratory sinus arrhythmia can be extracted as a measure of cardiac parasympathetic control. From the ECG and the left ventricular ejection signals, the preejection period can be extracted as a measure of cardiac sympathetic control. ECG and ICG recording is mostly done in laboratory settings. However, having the subjects report to a laboratory greatly reduces ecological validity, is not always doable in large <span class="hlt">scale</span> epidemiological studies, and can be intimidating for young children. An ambulatory device for ECG and ICG simultaneously resolves these three problems. Here, we present a study design for a minimally invasive and rapid assessment of cardiac autonomic control in children, using a validated ambulatory device (1-5), the VU University Ambulatory Monitoring <span class="hlt">System</span> (VU</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579692','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579692"><span>Tracking and visualization of space-time <span class="hlt">activities</span> for a micro-<span class="hlt">scale</span> flu transmission study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large <span class="hlt">scale</span> dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based <span class="hlt">activity</span> and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local <span class="hlt">scale</span>. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones). The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-<span class="hlt">scale</span> flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Methods Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional <span class="hlt">activity</span> diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. Results When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who did not revealed interesting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21162134','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21162134"><span>Mercury emissions control in coal combustion <span class="hlt">systems</span> using potassium iodide: bench-<span class="hlt">scale</span> and pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ying Li; Michael Daukoru; Achariya Suriyawong; Pratim Biswas</p> <p>2009-01-15</p> <p>Bench- and pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments were conducted using potassium iodide (KI) for capture and removal of Hg in air and coal combustion exhaust. Two bench-<span class="hlt">scale</span> reactor <span class="hlt">systems</span> were used: (1) a packed-bed reactor (PBR) packed with granular or powder KI and (2) an aerosol flow reactor (AFR) with injection of KI particles. It was found that a higher temperature, a higher concentration of KI, and a longer gas residence time resulted in a higher Hg removal efficiency. A 100% Hg removal was achieved in the PBR above 300{sup o}C using 0.5 g of powder KI and in the AFR above 500{sup o}C with a KI/Hg molar ratio of 600 at a 5.8 s residence time. The low KI injection ratio relative to Hg indicated that KI is highly effective for Hg removal in air. Formation of I{sub 2} vapor by the oxidation of KI by O{sub 2} at high temperatures, which then reacts with Hg to produce HgI{sub 2}, was identified as the pathway for removal. The pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments were conducted in a 160 kW pulverized coal combustor. KI was introduced in two ways: as a powder mixed with coal and by spraying KI solution droplets into the flue gas. In both cases the Hg removal efficiency increased with an increase in the feed rate of KI. Mixing KI powder with coal was found to be more effective than spraying KI into the flue gas. The Hg removal by KI was less efficient in the pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> tests than in the bench-<span class="hlt">scale</span> tests probably due to certain flue gas components reacting with KI or I{sub 2}. Hg speciation measurements in both bench- and pilot-<span class="hlt">scale</span> experiments indicated no oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators where particulate-bound Hg can be efficiently removed. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802341"><span>Velocity distribution in <span class="hlt">active</span> particles <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo; Gnan, Nicoletta; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Maggi, Claudio; Di Leonardo, Roberto</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We derive an analytic expression for the distribution of velocities of multiple interacting <span class="hlt">active</span> particles which we test by numerical simulations. In clear contrast with equilibrium we find that the velocities are coupled to positions. Our model shows that, even for two particles only, the individual velocities display a variance depending on the interparticle separation and the emergence of correlations between the velocities of the particles. When considering <span class="hlt">systems</span> composed of many particles we find an analytic expression connecting the overall velocity variance to density, at the mean-field level, and to the pair distribution function valid in the limit of small noise correlation times. Finally we discuss the intriguing analogies and main differences between our effective free energy functional and the theoretical scenario proposed so far for phase-separating <span class="hlt">active</span> particles. PMID:27001289</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/433009','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/433009"><span>Drift-<span class="hlt">scale</span> thermomechanical analysis for the retrievability <span class="hlt">systems</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsai, F.C.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>A numerical method was used to estimate the stability of potential emplacement drifts without considering a ground support <span class="hlt">system</span> as a part of the Thermal Loading <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Study for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The stability of the drift is evaluated with two variables: the level of thermal loading and the diameter of the emplacement drift. The analyses include the thermomechanical effects generated by the excavation of the drift, subsequently by the thermal loads from heat-emitting waste packages, and finally by the thermal reduction resulting from rapid cooling ventilation required for the waste retrieval if required. The Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) code was used to analyze the thermomechanical response of the rock mass of multiple blocks separated by joints. The result of this stability analysis is used to discuss the geomechanical considerations for the advanced conceptual design (ACD) with respect to retrievability. In particular, based on the rock mass strength of the host rock described in the current version of the Reference Information Base, the computed thermal stresses, generated by 111 MTU/acre thermal loads in the near field at 100 years after waste emplacement, is beyond the criterion for the rock mass strength used to predict the stability of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5914643','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5914643"><span>Optimization algorithms for large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> multireservoir hydropower <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hiew, K.L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Five optimization algorithms were vigorously evaluated based on applications on a hypothetical five-reservoir hydropower <span class="hlt">system</span>. These algorithms are incremental dynamic programming (IDP), successive linear programing (SLP), feasible direction method (FDM), optimal control theory (OCT) and objective-space dynamic programming (OSDP). The performance of these algorithms were comparatively evaluated using unbiased, objective criteria which include accuracy of results, rate of convergence, smoothness of resulting storage and release trajectories, computer time and memory requirements, robustness and other pertinent secondary considerations. Results have shown that all the algorithms, with the exception of OSDP converge to optimum objective values within 1.0% difference from one another. The highest objective value is obtained by IDP, followed closely by OCT. Computer time required by these algorithms, however, differ by more than two orders of magnitude, ranging from 10 seconds in the case of OCT to a maximum of about 2000 seconds for IDP. With a well-designed penalty scheme to deal with state-space constraints, OCT proves to be the most-efficient algorithm based on its overall performance. SLP, FDM, and OCT were applied to the case study of Mahaweli project, a ten-powerplant <span class="hlt">system</span> in Sri Lanka.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1159355','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1159355"><span>Impact of Utility-<span class="hlt">Scale</span> Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level <span class="hlt">System</span> Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power <span class="hlt">system</span> with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity <span class="hlt">systems</span>. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-<span class="hlt">scale</span> distributed wind power on bulk <span class="hlt">system</span> operations by performing a case study on the power <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Independent <span class="hlt">System</span> Operator-New England (ISO-NE).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24284770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24284770"><span>Alignment of the measurement <span class="hlt">scale</span> mark during immersion hydrometer calibration using an image processing <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peña-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio</p> <p>2013-10-24</p> <p>The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement <span class="hlt">scale</span> mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration <span class="hlt">system</span> of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision <span class="hlt">system</span> to align the <span class="hlt">scale</span> mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750021782','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750021782"><span>Some aspects of control of a large-<span class="hlt">scale</span> dynamic <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aoki, M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Techniques of predicting and/or controlling the dynamic behavior of large <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> are discussed in terms of decentralized decision making. Topics discussed include: (1) control of large <span class="hlt">scale</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span> by dynamic team with delayed information sharing; (2) dynamic resource allocation problems by a team (hierarchical structure with a coordinator); and (3) some problems related to the construction of a model of reduced dimension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1279405','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1279405"><span>Utilizing Semantic Big Data for realizing a National-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Infrastructure Vulnerability Analysis <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chinthavali, Supriya; Shankar, Mallikarjun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Critical Infrastructure <span class="hlt">systems</span>(CIs) such as energy, water, transportation and communication are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways. Robust modeling of CIs interconnections is crucial to identify vulnerabilities in the CIs. We present here a national-<span class="hlt">scale</span> Infrastructure Vulnerability Analysis <span class="hlt">System</span> (IVAS) vision leveraging Se- mantic Big Data (SBD) tools, Big Data, and Geographical Information <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (GIS) tools. We survey existing ap- proaches on vulnerability analysis of critical infrastructures and discuss relevant <span class="hlt">systems</span> and tools aligned with our vi- sion. Next, we present a generic <span class="hlt">system</span> architecture and discuss challenges including: (1) Constructing and manag- ing a CI network-of-networks graph, (2) Performing analytic operations at <span class="hlt">scale</span>, and (3) Interactive visualization of ana- lytic output to generate meaningful insights. We argue that this architecture acts as a baseline to realize a national-<span class="hlt">scale</span> network based vulnerability analysis <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828292','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828292"><span>SMALL <span class="hlt">SCALE</span> FUEL CELL AND REFORMER <span class="hlt">SYSTEMS</span> FOR REMOTE POWER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dennis Witmer</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power <span class="hlt">systems</span> could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, <span class="hlt">system</span> efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a <span class="hlt">system</span> for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.142..105G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.142..105G"><span>Spatial and seasonal patterns of fine-<span class="hlt">scale</span> to mesoscale upper ocean dynamics in an Eastern Boundary Current <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grados, Daniel; Bertrand, Arnaud; Colas, François; Echevin, Vincent; Chaigneau, Alexis; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Vargas, Gary; Fablet, Ronan</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The physical forcing of the ocean surface includes a variety of energetic processes, ranging from internal wave (IW) to submesoscale and mesoscale, associated with characteristic horizontal <span class="hlt">scales</span>. While the description of mesoscale ocean dynamics has greatly benefited from the availability of satellite data, observations of finer <span class="hlt">scale</span> patterns remain scarce. Recent studies showed that the vertical displacements of the oxycline depth, which separates the well-mixed oxygenated surface layer from the less oxygenated deeper ocean, estimated by acoustics, provide a robust proxy of isopycnal displacements over a wide range of horizontal <span class="hlt">scales</span>. Using a high-resolution and wide-range acoustic data set in the Northern Humboldt Current <span class="hlt">System</span> (NHCS) off Peru, the spatial and temporal patterns of fine-<span class="hlt">scale</span>-to-mesoscale upper ocean dynamics are investigated. The spectral content of oxycline/pycnocline profiles presents patterns characteristic of turbulent flows, from the mesoscale to the fine <span class="hlt">scale</span>, and an energization at the IW <span class="hlt">scale</span> (2 km-200 m). On the basis of a typology performed on 35,000 structures we characterized six classes of physical structures according to their shape and <span class="hlt">scale</span> range. The analysis reveals the existence of distinct features for the fine-<span class="hlt">scale</span> range below ∼2-3 km, and clearly indicates the existence of intense IW and submesoscale <span class="hlt">activity</span> over the entire NHCS region. Structures at <span class="hlt">scales</span> smaller than ∼2 km were more numerous and energetic in spring than in summer. Their spatiotemporal variability supports the interpretation that these processes likely relate to IW generation by interactions between tidal flows, stratification and the continental slope. Given the impact of the physical forcing on the biogeochemical and ecological dynamics in EBUS, these processes should be further considered in future ecosystem studies based on observations and models. The intensification of upper ocean stratification resulting from climate change makes such</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910015755&hterms=Active+components&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DActive%2Bcomponents','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910015755&hterms=Active+components&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DActive%2Bcomponents"><span>LDEF <span class="hlt">active</span> optical <span class="hlt">system</span> components experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blue, M. D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A preliminary report on the <span class="hlt">Active</span> Optical <span class="hlt">System</span> Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six-inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. The experimental results for those component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017851&hterms=optical+interference&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Doptical%2Binterference','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920017851&hterms=optical+interference&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Doptical%2Binterference"><span>LDEF <span class="hlt">active</span> optical <span class="hlt">system</span> components experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blue, M. D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A preliminary report on the <span class="hlt">Active</span> Optical <span class="hlt">System</span> Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. Thermal, mechanical, and structural considerations leading to the design of the tray hardware are discussed. In general, changes in the retested component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials, multilayer optical interference filters, and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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