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Sample records for activation test bat

  1. Bats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

  2. Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul M.; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Johnson, Jessica A.; Todd, Christopher M.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread bat fatalities at industrial wind turbines are a conservation issue with the potential to inhibit efficient use of an abundant source of energy. Bat fatalities can be reduced by altering turbine operations, but such curtailment decreases turbine efficiency. If additional ways of reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines were available such tradeoffs might not be needed. Based on the facts that bats perceive distant objects primarily through vision and can see in very dim lighting conditions, and the possibility that bats might interact with turbines after approaching them as they would trees, we propose a novel method of reducing bat activity at wind turbines: illumination of the structure with dim light. As a first step toward assessing this approach, we illuminated trees with dim flickering ultraviolet (UV) light in areas frequented by Hawaiian hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus semotus, an endangered subspecies affected by wind turbines. We used a repeated-measures design to quantify bat activity near trees with acoustic detectors and thermal video cameras in the presence and absence of UV illumination, while concurrently monitoring insect numbers. Results indicate that dim UV reduces bat activity despite an increase in insect numbers. Experimental treatment did not completely inhibit bat activity near trees, nor did all measures of bat activity show statistically significant differences due to high variance in bat activity among sites. However, the observed decreases in bat activity with dim UV illumination justify further testing of this method as a means to reduce bat fatalities at wind turbines.

  3. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    PubMed

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

  4. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

  5. Bats at risk? Bat activity and insecticide residue analysis of food items in an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Peter; Brühl, Carsten A

    2012-07-01

    Although bats are reported as being threatened by pesticides, they are currently not considered in European Union pesticide risk assessments. The reason for that contradiction is probably related to the scarcity of information on bat activity in pesticide-treated fields and the pesticide residues on their food items. The authors recorded bat activity and measured pesticide residues on bat-specific food items following applications of two insecticides in an apple orchard. High activity levels of the common pipistrelle bat, a foraging habitat generalist, were detected. Airborne foragers and bats that take part of their food by gleaning arthropods from the vegetation were recorded frequently. The initial value and the decline of pesticide residues were found to depend on the arthropod type, their surface to volume ratio, their mobility, and the mode of action of the applied pesticide. The highest initial residue values were measured on foliage-dwelling arthropods. By following the toxicity-exposure ratio approaches of the current pesticide risk assessment, no acute dietary risk was found for all recorded bat species. However, a potential reproductive risk for bat species that include foliage-dwelling arthropods in their diet was indicated. The results emphasize the importance of adequately evaluating the risks of pesticides to bats, which, compared to other mammals, are potentially more sensitive due to their ecological traits. PMID:22505289

  6. Telomerase activity in the bats Hipposideros armiger and Rousettus leschenaultia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; McAllan, B M; He, Guimei

    2011-09-01

    Telomerase activity was examined in two species of bat, Hipposideros armiger and Rousettus leschenaultia, which have similar body mass and lifespan but differ in use of hibernation. We found that telomerase activity was present in all tissues sampled, but it was greater in metabolically active tissues such as liver, spleen, and kidney. Of special interest is the raised activity found in the heterothermic bat H. armiger, and the hibernating bats having raised values for spleen, heart, and kidney. These findings show that maintenance of high levels of telomerase is an essential part of the regulation of cellular activities during hibernation. PMID:22082270

  7. Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

  8. A comprehensive landscape approach for monitoring bats on the Nevada Test Site in south-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in south-central Nevada and encompasses approximately 3,497 square kilometers (1,350 square miles). It straddles both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts and includes a distinct transition region between these two deserts. Because of its geographical location, a great level of vegetative and physiographic diversity exists on the NTS. Also, numerous mines and tunnels are found on the NTS which are potential roost sites for bats. Multiple technqiues are being used to inventory and monitor the bat fauna on the NTS. These techniques include mistnetting at water sources with concurrent use of the Anabat II bat detection system, conducting road surveys with the Anabat II system, and conducting exit surveys at mine and tunnel entrances using the Anabat II system. To date, a total of 13 species of bats has been documented on the NTS, of which six are considered species of concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These include Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii), spotted bat (Euderma maculatum), small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum), long-eared myotis (M. evotis), fringed myotis (M. thysanodes), and long-legged myotis (M. volans). Results from mistnet and Anabat surveys reveal that all bat species of concern except for the long-legged myotis are found exclusively in the Great Basin Desert portion of the NTS. The long-legged myotis is found throughout the NTS. The Anabat II system has greatly facilitated the monitoring of bats on the NTS, and allowed biologists to cost effectively survey large areas for bat activity. Information obtained from bat monitoring will be used to develop and update guidelines for managing bats on the NTS.

  9. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions. PMID:24724516

  10. Monitoring seasonal bat activity on a coastal barrier island in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joshua B; Gates, J Edward; Zegre, Nicolas P

    2011-02-01

    Research on effects of wind turbines on bats has increased dramatically in recent years because of significant numbers of bats killed by rotating wind turbine blades. Whereas most research has focused on the Midwest and inland portions of eastern North America, bat activity and migration on the Atlantic Coast has largely been unexamined. We used three long-term acoustic monitoring stations to determine seasonal bat activity patterns on the Assateague Island National Seashore, a barrier island off the coast of Maryland, from 2005 to 2006. We recorded five species, including eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Seasonal bat activity (number of bat passes recorded) followed a cosine function and gradually increased beginning in April, peaked in August, and declined gradually until cessation in December. Based on autoregressive models, inter-night bat activity was autocorrelated for lags of seven nights or fewer but varied among acoustic monitoring stations. Higher nightly temperatures and lower wind speeds positively affected bat activity. When autoregressive model predictions were fitted to the observed nightly bat pass totals, model residuals>2 standard deviations from the mean existed only during migration periods, indicating that periodic increases in bat activity could not be accounted for by seasonal trends and weather variables alone. Rather, the additional bat passes were attributable to migrating bats. We conclude that bats, specifically eastern red, hoary, and silver-haired bats, use this barrier island during migration and that this phenomenon may have implications for the development of near and offshore wind energy. PMID:20364316

  11. Bat activity in harvested and intact forest stands in the allegheny mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, S.F.; Menzel, M.A.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.; Menzel, J.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Wood, P.B.; Miller, K.V.

    2004-01-01

    We used Anabat acoustical monitoring devices to examine bat activity in intact canopy forests, complex canopy forests with gaps, forests subjected to diameter-limit harvests, recent deferment harvests, clearcuts and unmanaged forested riparian areas in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia in the summer of 1999. We detected eight species of bats, including the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). Most bat activity was concentrated in forested riparian areas. Among upland habitats, activity of silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) was higher in open, less cluttered vegetative types such as recent deferment harvests and clearcuts. Our results suggest that bat species in the central Appalachians partially segregate themselves among vegetative conditions based on differences in body morphology and echolocation call characteristics. From the standpoint of conserving bat foraging habitat for the maximum number of species in the central Appalachians, special emphasis should be placed on protecting forested riparian areas.

  12. Vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator is quiescent in human plasma in the absence of fibrin unlike human tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Gardell, S J; Hare, T R; Bergum, P W; Cuca, G C; O'Neill-Palladino, L; Zavodny, S M

    1990-12-15

    The vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (Bat-PA) is a potent PA that exhibits remarkable selectivity toward fibrin-bound plasminogen (Gardell et al, J Biol Chem 256: 3568, 1989). Herein, we describe the activity of recombinant DNA-derived Bat-PA (rBat-PA) in a human plasma milieu. rBat-PA and recombinant human single-chain tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are similarly efficacious at lysing plasma clots. In stark contrast to rt-PA, the addition of 250 nmol/L rBat-PA to plasma in the absence of a clot failed to deplete plasminogen, alpha 2-antiplasmin and fibrinogen. The lytic activities exhibited by finger-domain minus Bat-PA (F- rBat-PA) and finger and epidermal growth factor-like domains minus Bat-PA (FG- rBat-PA) were less than rBat-PA, especially at low concentrations of PA; nevertheless, these truncated forms also possessed a strict requirement for a fibrin cofactor. The loss of PA activity following the addition of rBat-PA to plasma was slower than that observed when either rt-PA or two-chain rt-PA was added. The efficacy, fibrin selectivity, and decreased susceptibility to inactivation exhibited by rBat-PA in vitro in a human plasma milieu suggests that rBat-PA may be superior to rt-PA for the treatment of thrombotic complications. PMID:2124935

  13. Electromyographic activity of lower limbs to stop baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Miura, Akito; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the muscle activation pattern of the lower limbs for the stopping motion of baseball batting by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from 8 muscles, the left and right rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. First, muscle activities for 'Swing' and 'Stopping' trials were examined in 10 skilled baseball players and 10 unskilled novices. Second, the characteristics of EMG activities for 'Stopping' were compared between the 2 groups. The peak latencies of EMG were significantly shorter in 'Stopping' than in 'Swing' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG between both groups. The peak amplitudes of EMG activity were significantly larger in 'Swing' than in 'Stopping' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG in both groups. In addition, the peak amplitudes of EMG activity for 'Stopping' were significantly larger in the players than in novices at the right-RF and right-TA. The characteristics of EMG activity clearly differed between 'Swing' and 'Stopping,' and between baseball players and nonplayers, indicating that evaluating the EMG activity in batting enables the understanding of proficiency. Our findings should help players, novices, and coaches to optimize batting performance. PMID:22614137

  14. Testing the free radical theory of aging in bats.

    PubMed

    Brunet Rossinni, Anja K

    2004-06-01

    The extended longevity of bats, despite their high metabolic rates, may provide insight to patterns and mechanisms of aging. I tested the free radical theory of aging as an explanation for the extreme longevity of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus (maximum life span potential [MLSP] = 34 years). In a comparative study, I measured whole-organism oxygen consumption and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production in brain, heart, and kidney tissues from M. lucifugus and short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda (MLSP = 2 years). As predicted by the free radical theory of aging, M. lucifugus produced approximately half the amount of hydrogen peroxide as B. brevicauda. In addition, I compared oxygen consumption and hydrogen peroxide production of adult (approximately 1 year) and juvenile (fully developed and fledged young of the year) M. lucifugus to assess oxidative damage to mitochondria (measured as an increase in hydrogen peroxide production) due to the high metabolic rate associated with flight. Contrary to my prediction, juveniles had significantly higher levels of hydrogen peroxide production than adults. I propose that the decreased free radical production in adults is the result of within-individual selection of efficient mitochondria due to selective pressure created by the high energetic demands of flight. PMID:15247075

  15. Bat mortality and activity at a Northern Iowa wind resource area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, A.A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Hancock, A.W.; Zenner, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined bat collision mortality, activity and species composition at an 89-turbine wind resource area in farmland of north-central Iowa from mid-Apr. to mid-Dec., 2003 and mid-Mar. to mid-Dec., 2004. We found 30 bats beneath turbines on cleared ground and gravel access areas in 2003 and 45 bats in 2004. After adjusting for search probability, search efficiency and scavenging rate, we estimated total bat mortality at 396 ?? 72 (95 ci) in 2003 and 636 ?? 112 (95 ci) in 2004. Although carcasses were mostly migratory tree bats, we found a considerable proportion of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). We recorded 1465 bat echolocation call files at turbine sites ( 34.88 call files/detector-night) and 1536 bat call files at adjacent non-turbine sites ( 36.57 call files/detector-night). Bat activity did not differ significantly between turbine and non-turbine sites. A large proportion of recorded call files were made by Myotis sp. but this may be because we detected activity at ground level only. There was no relationship between types of turbine lights and either collision mortality or echolocation activity. The highest levels of bat echolocation activity and collision mortality were recorded during Jul. and Aug. during the autumn dispersal and migration period. The fatality rates for bats in general and little brown bats in particular were higher at the Top of Iowa Wind Resource Area than at other, comparable studies in the region. Future efforts to study behavior of bats in flight around turbines as well as cumulative impact studies should not ignore non-tree dwelling bats, generally regarded as minimally affected. ?? 2011, American Midland Naturalist.

  16. BAT3 Analyzer: Real-Time Data Display and Interpretation Software for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winston, Richard B.; Shapiro, Allen M.

    2007-01-01

    The BAT3 Analyzer provides real-time display and interpretation of fluid pressure responses and flow rates measured during geochemical sampling, hydraulic testing, or tracer testing conducted with the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3) (Shapiro, 2007). Real-time display of the data collected with the Multifunction BAT3 allows the user to ensure that the downhole apparatus is operating properly, and that test procedures can be modified to correct for unanticipated hydraulic responses during testing. The BAT3 Analyzer can apply calibrations to the pressure transducer and flow meter data to display physically meaningful values. Plots of the time-varying data can be formatted for a specified time interval, and either saved to files, or printed. Libraries of calibrations for the pressure transducers and flow meters can be created, updated and reloaded to facilitate the rapid set up of the software to display data collected during testing with the Multifunction BAT3. The BAT3 Analyzer also has the functionality to estimate calibrations for pressure transducers and flow meters using data collected with the Multifunction BAT3 in conjunction with corroborating check measurements. During testing with the Multifunction BAT3, and also after testing has been completed, hydraulic properties of the test interval can be estimated by comparing fluid pressure responses with model results; a variety of hydrogeologic conceptual models of the formation are available for interpreting fluid-withdrawal, fluid-injection, and slug tests.

  17. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  18. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  19. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  20. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  1. 49 CFR 40.247 - What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a... What procedures does the BAT or STT follow after a screening test result? (a) If the test result is an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as the BAT or STT, you must do the following: (1) Sign and...

  2. Distribution of the Chuckwalla, Western Burrowing Owl, and Six Bat Species on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Willis

    1997-05-01

    Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS.

  3. Virtual bats: manipulating the activities of bats and insects as a practical application for integrated pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects, including many agricultural pests, respond to the ultrasonic calls of bats by taking evasive action and curtailing flight activity. Earlier attempts to exploit this co-evolved relationship to inhibit insect activity for crop protection (Belton and Kempster 1962) showed promise, but we...

  4. The Hemagglutinin of Bat-Associated Influenza Viruses Is Activated by TMPRSS2 for pH-Dependent Entry into Bat but Not Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Markus; Krüger, Nadine; Zmora, Pawel; Wrensch, Florian; Herrler, Georg; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    New World bats have recently been discovered to harbor influenza A virus (FLUAV)-related viruses, termed bat-associated influenza A-like viruses (batFLUAV). The internal proteins of batFLUAV are functional in mammalian cells. In contrast, no biological functionality could be demonstrated for the surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)-like (HAL) and neuraminidase (NA)-like (NAL), and these proteins need to be replaced by their human counterparts to allow spread of batFLUAV in human cells. Here, we employed rhabdoviral vectors to study the role of HAL and NAL in viral entry. Vectors pseudotyped with batFLUAV-HAL and -NAL were able to enter bat cells but not cells from other mammalian species. Host cell entry was mediated by HAL and was dependent on prior proteolytic activation of HAL and endosomal low pH. In contrast, sialic acids were dispensable for HAL-driven entry. Finally, the type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was able to activate HAL for cell entry indicating that batFLUAV can utilize human proteases for HAL activation. Collectively, these results identify viral and cellular factors governing host cell entry driven by batFLUAV surface proteins. They suggest that the absence of a functional receptor precludes entry of batFLUAV into human cells while other prerequisites for entry, HAL activation and protonation, are met in target cells of human origin. PMID:27028521

  5. The Hemagglutinin of Bat-Associated Influenza Viruses Is Activated by TMPRSS2 for pH-Dependent Entry into Bat but Not Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Markus; Krüger, Nadine; Zmora, Pawel; Wrensch, Florian; Herrler, Georg; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    New World bats have recently been discovered to harbor influenza A virus (FLUAV)-related viruses, termed bat-associated influenza A-like viruses (batFLUAV). The internal proteins of batFLUAV are functional in mammalian cells. In contrast, no biological functionality could be demonstrated for the surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)-like (HAL) and neuraminidase (NA)-like (NAL), and these proteins need to be replaced by their human counterparts to allow spread of batFLUAV in human cells. Here, we employed rhabdoviral vectors to study the role of HAL and NAL in viral entry. Vectors pseudotyped with batFLUAV-HAL and -NAL were able to enter bat cells but not cells from other mammalian species. Host cell entry was mediated by HAL and was dependent on prior proteolytic activation of HAL and endosomal low pH. In contrast, sialic acids were dispensable for HAL-driven entry. Finally, the type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was able to activate HAL for cell entry indicating that batFLUAV can utilize human proteases for HAL activation. Collectively, these results identify viral and cellular factors governing host cell entry driven by batFLUAV surface proteins. They suggest that the absence of a functional receptor precludes entry of batFLUAV into human cells while other prerequisites for entry, HAL activation and protonation, are met in target cells of human origin. PMID:27028521

  6. Bat activity in thinned, unthinned, and old-growth forests in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humes, Marcia L.; Hayes, J.P.; Collopy, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    Many aspects of the influences of forest management activities on bats (Chiroptera) in the Pacific Northwest are poorly known. We compared thinned and unthinned forest stands of the same age and old-growth forest stands to determine potential differences in structure and amount of use by bats. We hypothesized that activity levels of bats would differ in stands differing in structure as a result of management history and that activity of bats would be similar in stands of similar structure. We used automated ultrasonic detectors (Anabat II) to record calls of bats in 50-100-year-old thinned and unthinned stands, and in old-growth (a?Y200 yr old) stands in the Oregon Coast Range during the summers of 1994 and 1995. Our median index of bat activity was higher in old-growth than in unthinned stands and higher in thinned than in unthinned stands. We were not able to detect a significant difference between the index of median bat activity for old-growth and thinned stands. More than 90% of identifiable passes were identified as calls from Myotis species. The 3 stand types we examined differed in certain structural characteristics such as density and size of trees, and amount of overstory and understory cover. We concluded that the structural changes caused by thinning may benefit bats by creating habitat structure in young stands that bats are able to use more effectively.

  7. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  8. Patterns of acoustical activity of bats prior to and following White-nose Syndrome occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Johnson, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS), a wildlife health concern that has decimated cave-hibernating bat populations in eastern North America since 2006, began affecting source-caves for summer bat populations at Fort Drum, a U.S. Army installation in New York in the winter of 2007–2008. As regional die-offs of bats became evident, and Fort Drum's known populations began showing declines, we examined whether WNS-induced change in abundance patterns and seasonal timing of bat activity could be quantified using acoustical surveys, 2003–2010, at structurally uncluttered riparian–water habitats (i.e., streams, ponds, and wet meadows). As predicted, we observed significant declines in overall summer activity between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for little brown bats Myotis lucifugus, northern bats M. septentrionalis, and Indiana bats M. sodalis. We did not observe any significant change in activity patterns between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for big brown bats Eptesicus fuscus, eastern red bats Lasiurus borealis, or the small number of tri-colored bats Perimyotis subflavus. Activity of silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans increased from pre-WNS to post-WNS years. Activity levels of hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus significantly declined between pre- and post-WNS years. As a nonhibernating, migratory species, hoary bat declines might be correlated with wind-energy development impacts occurring in the same time frame rather than WNS. Intraseason activity patterns also were affected by WNS, though the results were highly variable among species. Little brown bats showed an overall increase in activity from early to late summer pre-WNS, presumably due to detections of newly volant young added to the local population. However, the opposite occurred post-WNS, indicating that reproduction among surviving little brown bats may be declining. Our data suggest that acoustical monitoring during the summer season can provide insights into species' relative abundance on the

  9. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-10-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  10. Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  11. Bat consumption in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption. PMID:26806167

  12. Cloning, expression and antiviral activity of IFNγ from the Australian fruit bat, Pteropus alecto.

    PubMed

    Janardhana, Vijaya; Tachedjian, Mary; Crameri, Gary; Cowled, Chris; Wang, Lin-Fa; Baker, Michelle L

    2012-03-01

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts to a variety of viruses, many of which cause morbidity and mortality in other mammals. Currently there is a paucity of information regarding the nature of the immune response to viral infections in bats, partly due to a lack of appropriate bat specific reagents. IFNγ plays a key role in controlling viral replication and coordinating a response for long term control of viral infection. Here we describe the cloning and expression of IFNγ from the Australian flying fox, Pteropus alecto and the generation of mouse monoclonal and chicken egg yolk antibodies specific to bat IFNγ. Our results demonstrate that P. alecto IFNγ is conserved with IFNγ from other species and is induced in bat splenocytes following stimulation with T cell mitogens. P. alecto IFNγ has antiviral activity on Semliki forest virus in cell lines from P. alecto and the microbat, Tadarida brasiliensis. Additionally recombinant bat IFNγ was able to mitigate Hendra virus infection in P. alecto cells. These results provide the first evidence for an antiviral role for bat IFNγin vitro in addition to the application of important immunological reagents for further studies of bat antiviral immunity. PMID:22093696

  13. Bat Facts and Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit of study for elementary school science on bats. Students investigate the different types of bats; examine their behavior; find facts that other students are unlikely to know; write stories about bats; and examine the concept of echolocation, the means by which bats navigate. Suggests integrated activities for mathematics…

  14. Audiomotor integration for active sensing in the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Cynthia F.; Sinha, Shiva R.; Ghose, Kaushik

    2003-10-01

    Echolocating bats probe the environment with sonar signals that change as they seek, pursue and intercept insect prey on the wing. Coordinating its sonar vocalizations with flight dynamics in response to changing echo information, the bat exhibits a dazzling display of sensorimotor integration. Our work aims at understanding the mechanisms supporting audiomotor integration for echolocation in the FM-bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Behavioral studies measure adaptive responses of free-flying bats engaged in complex spatial tasks. The directional aim of the bat's sonar beam and temporal patterning of cries provide explicit data on the motor commands that feed directly back to the auditory system for spatially-guided behavior. Neural studies focus on the superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure implicated in species-specific orienting behaviors. A population of SC neurons shows echo-delay tuning, a response property believed to play a role in target range coding. Microstimulation of the SC elicits head and pinna movements, along with sonar vocalizations. SC recordings from tethered, vocalizing bats reveal bursts of neural activity preceding each sonar cry. Collectively, these results suggest that the bat SC plays a functional role in the auditory information processing and orienting behaviors that operate together in echolocation. [Work supported by NSF, NIMH and Whitehall Foundation.

  15. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    PubMed

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  16. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T.; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  17. Ensemble Composition and Activity Levels of Insectivorous Bats in Response to Management Intensification in Coffee Agroforestry Systems

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

    2011-01-01

    Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats – nearly half the Neotropical bat species – change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures. PMID:21298059

  18. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans.

  19. Thermal Vacuum/Balance Test Results of Swift BAT with Loop Heat Pipe Thermal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array is thermally well coupled to eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) embedded in the Detector Array Plate PAP), and two loop heat pipes (LHPs) transport heat from the CCHPs to a radiator. The CCHPs have ammonia as the working fluid and the LHPs have propylene as the working fluid. Precision heater controllers, which have adjustable set points in flight, are used to control the LHP compensation chamber and Detector Array xA1 ASIC temperatures. The radiator has AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint as the thermal coating, and is located on the anti-sun side of the spacecraft. A thermal balance (T/B) test on the BAT was successfully completed. It validated that the thermal design satisfies the temperature requirements of the BAT in the flight thermal environments. Instrument level and observatory level thermal vacuum (TN) cycling tests of the BAT Detector Array by using the LHP thermal system were successfully completed. This paper presents the results of the T/B test and T N cycling tests.

  20. Seasonal influence on stimulated BAT activity in prospective trials: a retrospective analysis of BAT visualized on 18F-FDG PET-CTs and 123I-mIBG SPECT-CTs.

    PubMed

    Bahler, Lonneke; Deelen, Jan W; Hoekstra, Joost B; Holleman, Frits; Verberne, Hein J

    2016-06-15

    Retrospective studies have shown that outdoor temperature influences the prevalence of detectable brown adipose tissue (BAT). Prospective studies use acute cold exposure to activate BAT. In prospective studies, BAT might be preconditioned in winter months leading to an increased BAT response to various stimuli. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether outdoor temperatures and other weather characteristics modulate the response of BAT to acute cold. To assess metabolic BAT activity and sympathetic outflow to BAT, 64 (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and 56 additional (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) single-photon emission computed tomography-CT (SPECT-CT) scans, respectively, of subjects participating in previously executed trials were retrospectively included. BAT activity was measured in subjects after an overnight fast, following 2 h of cold exposure (∼17°C). The average daytime outdoor temperatures and other weather characteristics were obtained from the Dutch Royal Weather Institute. Forty-nine subjects were BAT positive. One week prior to the scan, outdoor temperature was significantly lower in the BAT-positive group compared with the BAT-negative group. Higher outdoor temperatures on preceding days resulted in lower stimulated metabolic BAT activity and volume (all P < 0.01). Outdoor temperatures did not correlate with sympathetic outflow to BAT. In conclusion, outdoor temperatures influence metabolic BAT activity and volume, but not sympathetic outflow to BAT, in subjects exposed to acute cold. To improve the consistency of the findings of future BAT studies in humans and to exclude bias introduced by outdoor temperatures, these studies should be planned in periods of similar outdoor temperatures. PMID:27079691

  1. Comparison of Brain Transcriptome of the Greater Horseshoe Bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) in Active and Torpid Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ming; Dong, Dong; Mu, Shuo; Pan, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Hibernation is an energy-saving strategy which is widely adopted by heterothermic mammals to survive in the harsh environment. The greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) can hibernate for a long period in the hibernation season. However, the global gene expression changes between hibernation and non-hibernation season in the greater horseshoe bat remain largely unknown. We herein reported a comprehensive survey of differential gene expression in the brain between winter hibernating and summer active greater horseshoe bats using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 90,314,174 reads were generated and we identified 1,573 differentially expressed genes between active and torpid states. Interestingly, we found that differentially expressed genes are over-represented in some GO categories (such as metabolic suppression, cellular stress responses and oxidative stress), which suggests neuroprotective strategies might play an important role in hibernation control mechanisms. Our results determined to what extent the brain tissue of the greater horseshoe bats differ in gene expression between summer active and winter hibernating states and provided comprehensive insights into the adaptive mechanisms of bat hibernation. PMID:25251558

  2. A comparison of bat activity at low and high elevations in the Black Hills of western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, J.; Adams, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the differences in activity patterns and community structure of bats between low (<150 m) and high ( ! 575 m) elevation sites in two habitats of the Capitol State Forest, Washington. Total bat activity averaged four times higher at low elevation sites than at high elevation sites. Feeding activity was almost 20 times higher at low elevation sites. However, the non-myotis group had similar activity levels at high and low elevation, whereas myotis group activity decreased at higher elevations. Different levels of activity between elevations could be the result of differences in insect availability, climatic conditions, and morphology of the bat species.

  3. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife

  4. IMPACT OF BT ( BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ) CROPS ON BAT ACTIVITY IN SOUTH TEXAS AGROECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal crops raises concerns that nontarget species may be harmed and food webs disrupted. The goal of this research is to determine how transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops impact the activity of Brazilian freetailed bats (Tada...

  5. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    PubMed Central

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these ‘light-intolerant’ bat species. PMID:27008274

  6. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, Detlev H.; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C.; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l−1 blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators. PMID:21490011

  7. Species diversity and activity of insectivorous bats in three habitats in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Pineapple farms make up 45,000 ha of Costa Rican landscape and are the second most exported crop. This is economically beneficial for the Costa Ricans, but greatly affects the natural flora and fauna because it is such a low growing crop. This study examined the differences in insectivorous bat species diversity and activity in the habitat gradient between the forest in Tirimbina Biological Reserve in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica and the nearby pineapple farm called Finca Corsicana. Over a four week period in March and April 2013, ultrasonic recorders were placed at different sites to pick up the bats' calls. Then the recordings were analyzed to identify the species. There were four families present and 19 different species. There was a significant decrease in the number of bat passes (the number of times a bat passes the recorder) in the pineapple farm (x = 22.6), in comparison to the border (x = 39.9), and the forest (x = 44.2) (p = 0.0028). Agricultural environ- ments affected and lowered bat presence. Also, a greater mean number of bats recorded between 1900-1930 hrs compared to 1730-1800 hrs, coincided with the setting of the sun and beginning of bat activity. More research is need throughout the night and the year to establish clearer patterns of bat use and activity in different habitats. PMID:25412526

  8. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    PubMed

    Rowse, Elizabeth G; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species. PMID:27008274

  9. Comparing passive and active hearing: spectral analysis of transient sounds in bats.

    PubMed

    Goerlitz, Holger R; Hübner, Mathias; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2008-06-01

    In vision, colour constancy allows the evaluation of the colour of objects independent of the spectral composition of a light source. In the auditory system, comparable mechanisms have been described that allows the evaluation of the spectral shape of sounds independent of the spectral composition of ambient background sounds. For echolocating bats, the evaluation of spectral shape is vitally important both for the analysis of external sounds and the analysis of the echoes of self-generated sonar emissions. Here, we investigated how the echolocating bat Phyllostomus discolor evaluates the spectral shape of transient sounds both in passive hearing and in echolocation as a specialized mode of active hearing. Bats were trained to classify transients of different spectral shape as low- or highpass. We then assessed how the spectral shape of an ambient background noise influenced the spontaneous classification of the transients. In the passive-hearing condition, the bats spontaneously changed their classification boundary depending on the spectral shape of the background. In the echo-acoustic condition, the classification boundary did not change although the background- and spectral-shape manipulations were identical in the two conditions. These data show that auditory processing differs between passive and active hearing: echolocation represents an independent mode of active hearing with its own rules of auditory spectral analysis. PMID:18515714

  10. Activation of Innate Immune-Response Genes in Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) Infected with the Fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    PubMed Central

    Rapin, Noreen; Johns, Kirk; Martin, Lauren; Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Voyles, Jamie; Misra, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Recently bats have been associated with the emergence of diseases, both as reservoirs for several new viral diseases in humans and other animals and, in the northern Americas, as hosts for a devastating fungal disease that threatens to drive several bat species to regional extinction. However, despite these catastrophic events little Information is available on bat defences or how they interact with their pathogens. Even less is known about the response of bats to infection during torpor or long-term hibernation. Using tissue samples collected at the termination of an experiment to explore the pathogenesis of White Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats, we determined if hibernating bats infected with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans could respond to infection by activating genes responsible for innate immune and stress responses. Lesions due to fungal infection and, in some cases, secondary bacterial infections, were restricted to the skin. However, we were unable to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA from these sites. We therefore examined lungs for response at an epithelial surface not linked to the primary site of infection. We found that bats responded to infection with a significant increase in lungs of transcripts for Cathelicidin (an anti-microbial peptide) as well as the immune modulators tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 10 and 23. In conclusion, hibernating bats can respond to experimental P. destructans infection by activating expression of innate immune response genes. PMID:25391018

  11. Activation of innate immune-response genes in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) infected with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    PubMed

    Rapin, Noreen; Johns, Kirk; Martin, Lauren; Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Willis, Craig K R; Voyles, Jamie; Misra, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Recently bats have been associated with the emergence of diseases, both as reservoirs for several new viral diseases in humans and other animals and, in the northern Americas, as hosts for a devastating fungal disease that threatens to drive several bat species to regional extinction. However, despite these catastrophic events little Information is available on bat defences or how they interact with their pathogens. Even less is known about the response of bats to infection during torpor or long-term hibernation. Using tissue samples collected at the termination of an experiment to explore the pathogenesis of White Nose Syndrome in Little Brown Bats, we determined if hibernating bats infected with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans could respond to infection by activating genes responsible for innate immune and stress responses. Lesions due to fungal infection and, in some cases, secondary bacterial infections, were restricted to the skin. However, we were unable to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA from these sites. We therefore examined lungs for response at an epithelial surface not linked to the primary site of infection. We found that bats responded to infection with a significant increase in lungs of transcripts for Cathelicidin (an anti-microbial peptide) as well as the immune modulators tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 10 and 23. In conclusion, hibernating bats can respond to experimental P. destructans infection by activating expression of innate immune response genes. PMID:25391018

  12. Influence of Landscape Structure and Human Modifications on Insect Biomass and Bat Foraging Activity in an Urban Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Threlfall, Caragh G.; Law, Bradley; Banks, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Urban landscapes are often located in biologically diverse, productive regions. As such, urbanization may have dramatic consequences for this diversity, largely due to changes in the structure and function of urban communities. We examined the influence of landscape productivity (indexed by geology), housing density and vegetation clearing on the spatial distribution of nocturnal insect biomass and the foraging activity of insectivorous bats in the urban landscape of Sydney, Australia. Nocturnal insect biomass (g) and bat foraging activity were sampled from 113 sites representing backyard, open space, bushland and riparian landscape elements, across urban, suburban and vegetated landscapes within 60 km of Sydney's Central Business District. We found that insect biomass was at least an order of magnitude greater within suburban landscapes in bushland and backyard elements located on the most fertile shale influenced geologies (both p<0.001) compared to nutrient poor sandstone landscapes. Similarly, the feeding activity of bats was greatest in bushland, and riparian elements within suburbs on fertile geologies (p = 0.039). Regression tree analysis indicated that the same three variables explained the major proportion of the variation in insect biomass and bat foraging activity. These were ambient temperature (positive), housing density (negative) and the percent of fertile shale geologies (positive) in the landscape; however variation in insect biomass did not directly explain bat foraging activity. We suggest that prey may be unavailable to bats in highly urbanized areas if these areas are avoided by many species, suggesting that reduced feeding activity may reflect under-use of urban habitats by bats. Restoration activities to improve ecological function and maintain the activity of a diversity of bat species should focus on maintaining and restoring bushland and riparian habitat, particularly in areas with fertile geology as these were key bat foraging

  13. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats.

    PubMed

    Amichai, Eran; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-12-22

    Active-sensing systems such as echolocation provide animals with distinct advantages in dark environments. For social animals, however, like many bat species, active sensing can present problems as well: when many individuals emit bio-sonar calls simultaneously, detecting and recognizing the faint echoes generated by one's own calls amid the general cacophony of the group becomes challenging. This problem is often termed 'jamming' and bats have been hypothesized to solve it by shifting the spectral content of their calls to decrease the overlap with the jamming signals. We tested bats' response in situations of extreme interference, mimicking a high density of bats. We played-back bat echolocation calls from multiple speakers, to jam flying Pipistrellus kuhlii bats, simulating a naturally occurring situation of many bats flying in proximity. We examined behavioural and echolocation parameters during search phase and target approach. Under severe interference, bats emitted calls of higher intensity and longer duration, and called more often. Slight spectral shifts were observed but they did not decrease the spectral overlap with jamming signals. We also found that pre-existing inter-individual spectral differences could allow self-call recognition. Results suggest that the bats' response aimed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and not to avoid spectral overlap. PMID:26702045

  14. Reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant enzyme activity during epididymal sperm maturation in Corynorhinus mexicanus bats.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Rosado García, Adolfo; Cortés-Barberena, Edith; Königsberg, Mina; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela; Rodríguez-Tobón, Ahiezer; Fuentes-Mascorro, Gisela; León-Galván, Miguel Angel

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged sperm storage in the epididymis of Corynorhinus mexicanus bats after testicular regression has been associated with epididymal sperm maturation in the caudal region, although the precise factors linked with this phenomenon are unknown. The aim of this work is to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in antioxidant enzymatic activity occurring in the spermatozoa and epididymal fluid over time, in sperm maturation and storage in the caput, corpus and cauda of the bat epididymis. Our data showed that an increment in ROS production coincided with an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in epididymal fluid and with a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity in the spermatozoa in at different time points and epididymal regions. The increase in ROS production was not associated with oxidative damage measured by lipid peroxidation. The results of the current study suggest the existence of a shift in the redox balance, which might be associated with sperm maturation and storage. PMID:26952757

  15. Torpor and activity in a free-ranging tropical bat: implications for the distribution and conservation of mammals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Stawski, Clare; Bondarenco, Artiom; Pavey, Chris R.

    2011-05-01

    Bats are most diverse in the tropics, but there are no quantitative data on torpor use for energy conservation by any tropical bat in the wild. We examined the thermal biology, activity patterns and torpor use of two tree-roosting long-eared bats ( Nyctophilus geoffroyi, 7.8 g) in tropical northern Australia in winter using temperature telemetry. Bats commenced activity about 20 min after sunset, ended activity about 2.5 h before sunrise and entered torpor everyday in the early morning even when minimum ambient temperatures ( T a) were as high as 23°C. On average, bats remained torpid for almost 5 h, mean minimum skin temperature ( T skin) measured was 22.8 ± 0.1°C and daily T skin minima were correlated with T a. Our study shows that even in the tropics, torpor is frequently employed by bats, suggesting that worldwide most bat species are heterothermic and use torpor for energy conservation. We propose that the ability of employing torpor and the resulting highly plastic energy requirements may partially explain why these small insectivorous bats can inhabit almost the entire Australian continent despite vastly different climatic and likely trophic conditions. Reduced energy requirements also may permit survival in degraded or modified habitats, reduce the need for foraging and reduce exposure to predators. Thus, the ability to employ torpor may be one important reason for why most Australian bats and other heterothermic mammals have not gone extinct whereas many obligatory homeothermic mammals that cannot employ torpor and have high energy and foraging requirements have suffered high rates of extinctions.

  16. Torpor and activity in a free-ranging tropical bat: implications for the distribution and conservation of mammals?

    PubMed

    Geiser, Fritz; Stawski, Clare; Bondarenco, Artiom; Pavey, Chris R

    2011-05-01

    Bats are most diverse in the tropics, but there are no quantitative data on torpor use for energy conservation by any tropical bat in the wild. We examined the thermal biology, activity patterns and torpor use of two tree-roosting long-eared bats (Nyctophilus geoffroyi, 7.8 g) in tropical northern Australia in winter using temperature telemetry. Bats commenced activity about 20 min after sunset, ended activity about 2.5 h before sunrise and entered torpor everyday in the early morning even when minimum ambient temperatures (T (a)) were as high as 23°C. On average, bats remained torpid for almost 5 h, mean minimum skin temperature (T (skin)) measured was 22.8 ± 0.1°C and daily T (skin) minima were correlated with T(a). Our study shows that even in the tropics, torpor is frequently employed by bats, suggesting that worldwide most bat species are heterothermic and use torpor for energy conservation. We propose that the ability of employing torpor and the resulting highly plastic energy requirements may partially explain why these small insectivorous bats can inhabit almost the entire Australian continent despite vastly different climatic and likely trophic conditions. Reduced energy requirements also may permit survival in degraded or modified habitats, reduce the need for foraging and reduce exposure to predators. Thus, the ability to employ torpor may be one important reason for why most Australian bats and other heterothermic mammals have not gone extinct whereas many obligatory homeothermic mammals that cannot employ torpor and have high energy and foraging requirements have suffered high rates of extinctions. PMID:21416134

  17. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116

  18. Ecological Factors Associated with European Bat Lyssavirus Seroprevalence in Spanish Bats

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480

  19. Bat lyssavirus infections.

    PubMed

    McColl, K A; Tordo, N; Aguilar Setién, A A

    2000-04-01

    Bats, which represent approximately 24% of all known mammalian species, frequently act as vectors of lyssaviruses. In particular, insectivorous bats play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies and some rabies-like viruses, while the haematophagous vampire bats are the major wildlife vector for rabies in Latin America. In contrast, the role of fruit bats (flying foxes) in the epidemiology of the recently discovered Australian bat lyssavirus is only just emerging. Information on the pathogenesis of lyssaviruses in bats is scarce. However, in general, mortality in bats infected via a natural route appears to be low, and seroconversion occurs in many of those that survive. While transmission of rabies from an infected bat may be via a bite, other routes are apparently also possible. Methods for the diagnosis of bat lyssavirus infections in bats and terrestrial mammals (including humans) are similar to the classical procedures for rabies. Measures for the prevention and control of these diseases are also similar to those for rabies, although additional innovative methods have been tested, specifically to control vampire bat rabies. PMID:11189715

  20. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  1. Bat Rabies in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  2. Sylvatic rabies and the perception of vampire bat activity in communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Escobar, Natalia; Utzet, Mireia; Feijoo-Cid, Maria; Martin, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of sylvatic rabies was reported in indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon in November 2011. The objective of this study was to analyze family dwelling characteristics and other sociodemographic factors associated with the perception of an increase in hematophagous bat bites in humans and domestic animals to assist the implementation of intervention policies in the region. A total of 381 households from communities covered by the outbreak response activities were surveyed. Despite being associated with poorer dwelling conditions, the possession of domestic animals is associated with the perception of an increase in bat bites among animals. Better dwelling conditions, use of protective measures, access to electricity, and no domestic animals are variables associated with the perception of a rise in attacks on humans. The analysis of perceptions of bite frequency is fundamental to improve the effectiveness of vaccination programs and strategies to promote the adoption of preventive measures against rabies among the population. PMID:24714956

  3. K(ATP)-channel-dependent regulation of catecholaminergic neurons controls BAT sympathetic nerve activity and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Sulay; Paeger, Lars; Hess, Simon; Morgan, Donald A; Hausen, A Christine; Brönneke, Hella S; Hampel, Brigitte; Ackermann, P Justus; Evers, Nadine; Büning, Hildegard; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Rahmouni, Kamal; Kloppenburg, Peter; Brüning, Jens C

    2013-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical regulator of glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, and its activity is tightly controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. However, the mechanisms underlying CNS-dependent control of BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) are only partly understood. Here, we demonstrate that catecholaminergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) adapt their firing frequency to extracellular glucose concentrations in a K(ATP)-channel-dependent manner. Inhibiting K(ATP)-channel-dependent control of neuronal activity via the expression of a variant K(ATP) channel in tyrosine-hydroxylase-expressing neurons and in neurons of the LC enhances diet-induced obesity in mice. Obesity results from decreased energy expenditure, lower steady-state BAT SNA, and an attenuated ability of centrally applied glucose to activate BAT SNA. This impairs the thermogenic transcriptional program of BAT. Collectively, our data reveal a role of K(ATP)-channel-dependent neuronal excitability in catecholaminergic neurons in maintaining thermogenic BAT sympathetic tone and energy homeostasis. PMID:24011078

  4. Analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.

    PubMed

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  5. Analysis of Cathepsin and Furin Proteolytic Enzymes Involved in Viral Fusion Protein Activation in Cells of the Bat Reservoir Host

    PubMed Central

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  6. Vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator exhibits a strict and fastidious requirement for polymeric fibrin as its cofactor, unlike human tissue-type plasminogen activator. A kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergum, P W; Gardell, S J

    1992-09-01

    The vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (BatPA) is virtually inactive toward Glu-plasminogen in the absence of a fibrin-like cofactor, unlike human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) (the kcat/Km values were 4 and 470 M-1 s-1, respectively). In the presence of fibrin II, tPA and BatPA activated Glu-plasminogen with comparable catalytic efficiencies (158,000 and 174,000 M-1 s-1, respectively). BatPA's cofactor requirement was partially satisfied by polymeric fibrin I (54,000 M-1 s-1), but monomeric fibrin I was virtually ineffective (970 M-1 s-1). By comparison, a variety of monomeric and polymeric fibrin-like species markedly enhanced tPA-mediated activation of Glu-plasminogen. Fragment X polymer was 2-fold better but 9-fold worse as cofactor for tPA and BatPA, respectively, relative to fibrin II. Fibrinogen, devoid of plasminogen, was a 10-fold better cofactor for tPA than fibrinogen rigorously depleted of plasminogen, Factor XIII, and fibronectin; the enhanced stimulatory effect of the less-purified fibrinogen was apparently due to the presence of Factor XIII. By contrast, the two fibrinogen preparations were equally poor cofactors of BatPA-mediated activation of Glu-plasminogen. BatPA possessed only 23 and 4% of the catalytic efficiencies of tPA and two-chain tPA, respectively, in hydrolyzing the chromogenic substrate Spectrozyme tPA. However in the presence of fibrin II, BatPA and tPA exhibited similar kcat/Km values for the hydrolysis of Spectrozyme tPA. Our data revealed that BatPA, unlike tPA, displayed a strict and fastidious requirement for polymeric fibrin I or II. Consequently, BatPA may preferentially promote plasmin generation during a narrow temporal window of fibrin formation and dissolution. PMID:1387641

  7. [Rabies in bats].

    PubMed

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans. PMID:27450525

  8. Design of a novel chimeric tissue plasminogen activator with favorable Vampire bat plasminogen activator properties.

    PubMed

    Kazemali, MohammadReza; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Sardari, Soroush; Saadatirad, Amir Hossein; Khalaj, Vahid; Zarei, Najmeh; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Adeli, Ahmad; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2014-12-01

    Fibrinolytic agents are widely used in treatment of the thromboembolic disorders. The new generations like recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, alteplase) are not showing promising results in clinical practice in spite of displaying specific binding to fibrin in vitro. Vampire bat plasminogen activator (b-PA) is a plasminogen activator with higher fibrin affinity and specificity in comparison to t-PA resulting in reduced probability of hemorrhage. b-PA is also resistant to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showing higher half-life compared to other variants of t-PA. However, its non-human origin was a driving force to design a human t-PA with favorable properties of b-PA. In the present study, we designed a chimeric t-PA with desirable b-PA properties and this new molecule was called as CT-b. The construct was prepared through kringle 2 domain removal and replacement of t-PA finger domain with b-PA one. In addition, the KHRR sequence at the initial part of protease domain was replaced by four alanine residues. The novel construct was integrated in Pichia pastoris genome by electroporation. Catalytic activity was investigated in the presence and absence of fibrin. The purified protein was analyzed by western blot. Fibrin binding and PAI resistance assays were also conducted. The activity of the recombinant protein in the presence of fibrin was 1560 times more than its activity in the absence of fibrin, showing its higher specificity to fibrin. The fibrin binding of CT-b was 1.2 fold more than t-PA. In addition, it was inhibited by PAI enzyme 44% less than t-PA. Although the presented data demonstrate a promising in vitro activity, more in vivo studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic advantage of this novel plasminogen activator. PMID:25442953

  9. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session. PMID:24324421

  10. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session. PMID:24324421

  11. Plasma proteomic analysis of active and torpid greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis)

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Alexander M.; Braun, Beate C.; Krause, Eberhard; Voigt, Christian C.; Greenwood, Alex D.; Czirják, Gábor Á.

    2015-01-01

    Hibernation is a physiological adaptation to overcome extreme environmental conditions. It is characterized by prolonged periods of torpor interrupted by temporary arousals during winter. During torpor, body functions are suppressed and restored rapidly to almost pre-hibernation levels during arousal. Although molecular studies have been performed on hibernating rodents and bears, it is unclear how generalizable the results are among hibernating species with different physiology such as bats. As targeted blood proteomic analysis are lacking in small hibernators, we investigated the general plasma proteomic profile of European Myotis myotis and hibernation associated changes between torpid and active individuals by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Results revealed an alternation of proteins involved in transport, fuel switching, innate immunity and blood coagulation between the two physiological states. The results suggest that metabolic changes during hibernation are associated with plasma proteomic changes. Further characterization of the proteomic plasma profile identified transport proteins, coagulation proteins and complement factors and detected a high abundance of alpha-fetoprotein. We were able to establish for the first time a basic myotid bat plasma proteomic profile and further demonstrated a modulated protein expression during torpor in Myotis myotis, indicating both novel physiological pathways in bats in general, and during hibernation in particular. PMID:26586174

  12. Going, going, gone: the impact of white-nose syndrome on the summer activity of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)

    PubMed Central

    Dzal, Yvonne; McGuire, Liam P.; Veselka, Nina; Fenton, M. Brock

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery in the winter of 2005–2006, white-nose syndrome (WNS) has killed over one million little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in the American northeast. Although many studies have reported die-offs of bats at winter hibernacula, it is important to understand how bat mortality linked to WNS at winter hibernacula affects bat activity levels in their summer ranges. In the summer (May–August) of 2007, 2008 and 2009, we recorded echolocation calls to determine bat activity at sites along the Hudson River, NY (within approx. 100 km of where WNS was first reported). We documented a 78 per cent decline in the summer activity of M. lucifugus, coinciding with the arrival and spread of WNS. We suggest that mortality of M. lucifugus in winter hibernacula is reflected by reduced levels of activity in the summer and that WNS affects the entire bat population of an area, and not only individual hibernacula. PMID:21106570

  13. Going, going, gone: the impact of white-nose syndrome on the summer activity of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus).

    PubMed

    Dzal, Yvonne; McGuire, Liam P; Veselka, Nina; Fenton, M Brock

    2011-06-23

    Since its discovery in the winter of 2005-2006, white-nose syndrome (WNS) has killed over one million little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in the American northeast. Although many studies have reported die-offs of bats at winter hibernacula, it is important to understand how bat mortality linked to WNS at winter hibernacula affects bat activity levels in their summer ranges. In the summer (May-August) of 2007, 2008 and 2009, we recorded echolocation calls to determine bat activity at sites along the Hudson River, NY (within approx. 100 km of where WNS was first reported). We documented a 78 per cent decline in the summer activity of M. lucifugus, coinciding with the arrival and spread of WNS. We suggest that mortality of M. lucifugus in winter hibernacula is reflected by reduced levels of activity in the summer and that WNS affects the entire bat population of an area, and not only individual hibernacula. PMID:21106570

  14. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT. PMID:26981234

  15. Generation and Optimization of the Self-Administered Bleeding Assessment Tool (Self-BAT) and its Validation as a Screening Test for von Willebrand Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deforest, Meghan; Grabell, Julie; Albert, Shirren; Young, Jane; Tuttle, Angie; Hopman, Wilma M.; James, Paula D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction/Aim Our aim was to generate, optimize and validate a self-administered bleeding assessment tool (BAT) for von Willebrand disease (VWD). Methods In Phase 1, medical terminology in the expert-administered ISTH-BAT was converted to a grade 4 reading level to produce the first version of the Self-BAT which was then optimized to ensure agreement with the ISTH-BAT. In Phase 2, the normal range of bleeding scores was determined and test-retest reliability analyzed. In Phase 3, the optimized Self-BAT was tested as a screening tool for first time referrals to the Hematology clinic. Results BS from the final optimized version of the Self-BAT showed an excellent intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.87 with ISTH-BAT BS in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the normal range of bleeding scores for the optimized Self-BAT was determined to be 0 to +5 for females and 0 to +3 for males and excellent test-retest reliability was shown (ICC = 0.95). In Phase 3, we showed that a positive Self-BAT BS (≥ 6 for females, ≥ 4 for males) has a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 23%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.15 and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.86 for VWD; these figures improved when just the females were analyzed; sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 21%, PPV=0.17 and NPV=1.0. Conclusion We show an optimized Self-BAT can generate comparable BS to the expert-administered ISTH-BAT and is a reliable, effective screening tool to incorporate into the assessment of individuals, particularly women, referred for a possible bleeding disorder. PMID:26179127

  16. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU. PMID:24527415

  17. The aversive effect of electromagnetic radiation on foraging bats: a possible means of discouraging bats from approaching wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines and there is at present no accepted method of reducing or preventing this mortality. Following our demonstration that bat activity is reduced in the vicinity of large air traffic control and weather radars, we tested the hypothesis that an electromagnetic signal from a small portable radar can act as a deterrent to foraging bats. From June to September 2007 bat activity was compared at 20 foraging sites in northeast Scotland during experimental trials (radar switched on) and control trials (no radar signal). Starting 45 minutes after sunset, bat activity was recorded for a period of 30 minutes during each trial and the order of trials were alternated between nights. From July to September 2008 aerial insects at 16 of these sites were sampled using two miniature light-suction traps. At each site one of the traps was exposed to a radar signal and the other functioned as a control. Bat activity and foraging effort per unit time were significantly reduced during experimental trials when the radar antenna was fixed to produce a unidirectional signal therefore maximising exposure of foraging bats to the radar beam. However, although bat activity was significantly reduced during such trials, the radar had no significant effect on the abundance of insects captured by the traps. PMID:19606214

  18. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  19. A Test of Rensch’s Rule in Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) with Female-Biased Sexual Size Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui; Jiang, Tinglei; Huang, Xiaobin; Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Lei; Niu, Hongxing; Feng, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is widespread within the animal kingdom. Rensch’s rule describes a relationship between SSD and body size: SSD increases with body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases with body size when females are the larger sex. Rensch’s rule is well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD but patterns of allometry among taxa with female-biased size dimorphism are mixed, there is evidence both for and against the rule. Furthermore, most studies have investigated Rensch’s rule across a variety of taxa; but among-population studies supporting Rensch’s rule are lacking, especially in taxa that display only slight SSD. Here, we tested whether patterns of intraspecific variation in SSD in greater horseshoe bats conform to Rensch’s rule, and evaluated the contribution of latitude to Rensch’s rule. Our results showed SSD was consistently female-biased in greater horseshoe bats, although female body size was only slightly larger than male body size. The slope of major axis regression of log10 (male) on log10 (female) was significantly different from 1. Forearm length for both sexes of greater horseshoe bats was significantly negatively correlated with latitude, and males displayed a slightly but nonsignificant steeper latitudinal cline in body size than females. We suggest that variation in patterns of SSD among greater horseshoe bat populations is consistent with Rensch’s rule indicating that males were the more variable sex. Males did not have a steeper body size–latitude relationship than females suggesting that sex-specific latitudinal variation in body size may not be an important contributing factor to Rensch’s rule. Future research on greater horseshoe bats might best focus on more comprehensive mechanisms driving the pattern of female-biased SSD variation. PMID:24465886

  20. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    PubMed

    Minderman, Jeroen; Pendlebury, Chris J; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Park, Kirsty J

    2012-01-01

    The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating <50 kW) sector is growing rapidly. In spite of evidence of effects of large wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height) and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m), bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour) decreases from 84% (71-91%) to 28% (11-54%) as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m) from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89%) to 59% (32-81%)), and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat. PMID:22859969

  1. Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity

    PubMed Central

    Minderman, Jeroen; Pendlebury, Chris J.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Park, Kirsty J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating <50 kW) sector is growing rapidly. In spite of evidence of effects of large wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6–18 m hub height) and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0–5 m), bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat “pass” per hour) decreases from 84% (71–91%) to 28% (11–54%) as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20–25 m) from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65–89%) to 59% (32–81%)), and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat. PMID:22859969

  2. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases energy consumption through activation of BAT in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Susumu; Kim, Minji; Awa, Riyo; Kuwahara, Hiroshige; Kano, Yuriko; Kawada, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is a member of the ginger family and is known in Thailand as Thai ginseng, Krachai Dam or Black Ginger. TheK. parviflora extract (KPE) was previously reported to have a number of physiological effects; however, the antiobesity effects of KPE and its mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted KPE feeding experiments (low dose: 0.5% KPE, high dose: 1.0% KPE) in mice to examine the antiobesity effects. For both 0.5% KPE and 1.0% KPE, 7 weeks’ feeding of KPE contained in a high-fat diet (HFD) significantly decreased body weight gain, intraabdominal fat accumulation, and plasma triglyceride and leptin levels. Concurrently, KPE administration increased oxygen consumption in mice fed on a HFD. We also found that 1.0% KPE feeding significantly increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Moreover, KPE administration increased urinary noradrenaline secretion levels. These results demonstrate that KPE promotes energy metabolism by activation of BAT, at both doses and up-regulation of UCP1 protein at a high dose. Although numerous challenges remain, the present study demonstrated that KPE suppresses HFD-induced obesity through increased energy metabolism. PMID:25493179

  3. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases energy consumption through activation of BAT in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Susumu; Kim, Minji; Awa, Riyo; Kuwahara, Hiroshige; Kano, Yuriko; Kawada, Teruo

    2014-11-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is a member of the ginger family and is known in Thailand as Thai ginseng, Krachai Dam or Black Ginger. TheK. parviflora extract (KPE) was previously reported to have a number of physiological effects; however, the antiobesity effects of KPE and its mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted KPE feeding experiments (low dose: 0.5% KPE, high dose: 1.0% KPE) in mice to examine the antiobesity effects. For both 0.5% KPE and 1.0% KPE, 7 weeks' feeding of KPE contained in a high-fat diet (HFD) significantly decreased body weight gain, intraabdominal fat accumulation, and plasma triglyceride and leptin levels. Concurrently, KPE administration increased oxygen consumption in mice fed on a HFD. We also found that 1.0% KPE feeding significantly increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Moreover, KPE administration increased urinary noradrenaline secretion levels. These results demonstrate that KPE promotes energy metabolism by activation of BAT, at both doses and up-regulation of UCP1 protein at a high dose. Although numerous challenges remain, the present study demonstrated that KPE suppresses HFD-induced obesity through increased energy metabolism. PMID:25493179

  4. Vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator promotes rapid and sustained reperfusion without concomitant systemic plasminogen activation in a canine model of arterial thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mellott, M J; Stabilito, I I; Holahan, M A; Cuca, G C; Wang, S; Li, P; Barrett, J S; Lynch, J J; Gardell, S J

    1992-02-01

    The efficacy of recombinant vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (bat-PA) as a thrombolytic agent was compared with that of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in a canine model of arterial thrombosis. An occlusive thrombus was formed in the femoral artery by insertion of a thrombogenic copper coil; femoral arterial blood flow was monitored with a Doppler flow meter. Bat-PA and t-PA, when administered by 5-minute intravenous infusion (14 nmol/kg), reperfused seven out of eight and four out of eight dogs, respectively. The median reperfusion times in the bat-PA and t-PA groups were 24 and greater than or equal to 131 minutes, respectively. The mean reperfusion times (+/- SEM) in the recanalized bat-PA- and t-PA-treated dogs were similar (20 +/- 5 and 11 +/- 2 minutes, respectively, p = NS). Maximal blood flow after reperfusion was greater with bat-PA than with t-PA (80 +/- 10% and 41 +/- 15% of control flow, respectively, p less than 0.05). Furthermore, the median reocclusion time was markedly delayed in the bat-PA group relative to the t-PA group (131 versus 34 minutes, respectively, p less than 0.05). Plasma fibrinogen and plasminogen were not significantly depleted by the administration of t-PA or bat-PA. However, plasma alpha 2-antiplasmin activity was moderately depressed in the t-PA group relative to the bat-PA group (p less than 0.05). The clearance profile for t-PA was monoexponential, with a half-life (t1/2) of 2.4 +/- 0.3 minutes and a mean residence time of 3.5 +/- 0.4 minutes. The clearance profile for bat-PA was biexponential, with a t1/2 alpha of 0.9 +/- 0.2 minutes, a t1/2 beta of 20.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, and a mean residence time of 21.3 +/- 4.3 minutes. The steady-state volume of distribution displayed by bat-PA was 16-fold greater than that of t-PA. Zymography of serial plasma samples from the bat-PA-treated dogs failed to demonstrate the apparent generation of a complex between bat-PA and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; the

  5. Basophil activation test discriminates between allergy and tolerance in peanut-sensitized children

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Alexandra F.; Douiri, Abdel; Bécares, Natalia; Wu, Shih-Ying; Stephens, Alick; Radulovic, Suzana; Chan, Susan M.H.; Fox, Adam T.; Du Toit, George; Turcanu, Victor; Lack, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Background Most of the peanut-sensitized children do not have clinical peanut allergy. In equivocal cases, oral food challenges (OFCs) are required. However, OFCs are laborious and not without risk; thus, a test that could accurately diagnose peanut allergy and reduce the need for OFCs is desirable. Objective To assess the performance of basophil activation test (BAT) as a diagnostic marker for peanut allergy. Methods Peanut-allergic (n = 43), peanut-sensitized but tolerant (n = 36) and non–peanut-sensitized nonallergic (n = 25) children underwent skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut and its components. BAT was performed using flow cytometry, and its diagnostic performance was evaluated in relation to allergy versus tolerance to peanut and validated in an independent population (n = 65). Results BAT in peanut-allergic children showed a peanut dose-dependent upregulation of CD63 and CD203c while there was no significant response to peanut in peanut-sensitized but tolerant (P < .001) and non–peanut-sensitized nonallergic children (P < .001). BAT optimal diagnostic cutoffs showed 97% accuracy, 95% positive predictive value, and 98% negative predictive value. BAT allowed reducing the number of required OFCs by two-thirds. BAT proved particularly useful in cases in which specialists could not accurately diagnose peanut allergy with SPT and sIgE to peanut and to Arah2. Using a 2-step diagnostic approach in which BAT was performed only after equivocal SPT or Arah2-sIgE, BAT had a major effect (97% reduction) on the number of OFCs required. Conclusions BAT proved to be superior to other diagnostic tests in discriminating between peanut allergy and tolerance, particularly in difficult cases, and reduced the need for OFCs. PMID:25065721

  6. Bat Predation by Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (∼90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436

  7. [Application of basophil activation test in diagnosing aspirin hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Gawinowska, Marika; Specjalski, Krzysztof; Chełmińska, Marta; Łata, Jakub; Zieliński, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    In the face of increasing prevalence of hypersensitivity reactions, introduction of effective, reliable and safe methods plays a crucial role in their diagnosing. Among the currently available laboratory (in vitro) methods is basophil activation test (BAT). It is a flow- cytometry based assay that allows to identificate in the blood sample basophils and additionally to asses the degree of cell activation after exposure to an antigen. The most common superficial identification markers are CD63 and CD203c, which increase in number after activation. Basophil actvation test can be applied to confirm diagnosis of allergy to Hymenoptera venoms, food, pollens and hypersensitivity to drugs. The aim of present paper is to present theoretical methods of this test as well as its pros and cons. We focus also on presentation of clinical case where BAT seemed to be a necessary addition to a routine diagnostic pathway. We present a case of identification of the culprit drug which caused an anaphylactic reaction. PMID:25577537

  8. Schizotrypanum in British bats.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R A; Molyneux, D H

    1988-08-01

    Two species of Schizotrypanum, T. (S.) dionisii and T. (S.) vespertilionis, were identified from British bats. Laboratory studies on stocks of isolated trypanosomes from 5 species of bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, N. noctula, Eptesicus serotinus and Myotis brandti) indicated that the predominant species was T. d. dionisii. Collections and dissection of the bat bug Cimex pipistrelli from bat roosts revealed flagellate infection in a total of 12 out of 20 bugs; 7 of these bugs had metacyclic trypanosomes present. C. pipistrelli and the human bed bug, C. lectularius were reared in the laboratory and allowed to feed on wild-caught bats known to be infected with T. d. dionisii. Development occurred in both species of Cimex. Cimex spp. could be used to detect subpatent Schizotrypanum infections by xenodiagnosis. This technique was used to test the parasitological status of bats collected in the wild or reared in captivity. On a single occasion an apparent transmission of T. d. dionisii to an uninfected (by xenodiagnosis) laboratory reared bat was achieved. A stock of Schizotrypanum isolated from a wild-caught C. pipistrelli collected in a N. leisteri roost was identified by DNA buoyant density centrifugation as T. (S.) vespertilionis. A P. pipistrellus known to be infected with T. d. dionisii was found to have cyst-like structures in thoracic skeletal muscle containing amastigotes. The study provided the strongest evidence yet that C. pipistrelli is the vector of Schizotrypanum in British bats. PMID:3174237

  9. Method of Generating Transient Equivalent Sink and Test Target Temperatures for Swift BAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Swift mission has a 600-km altitude and a 22 degrees maximum inclination. The sun angle varies from 45 degrees to 180 degrees in normal operation. As a result, environmental heat fluxes absorbed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) radiator and loop heat pipe (LHP) compensation chambers (CCs) vary transiently. Therefore the equivalent sink temperatures for the radiator and CCs varies transiently. In thermal performance verification testing in vacuum, the radiator and CCs radiated heat to sink targets. This paper presents an analytical technique for generating orbit transient equivalent sink temperatures and a technique for generating transient sink target temperatures for the radiator and LHP CCs. Using these techniques, transient target temperatures for the radiator and LHP CCs were generated for three thermal environmental cases: worst hot case, worst cold case, and cooldown and warmup between worst hot case in sunlight and worst cold case in the eclipse, and three different heat transport values: 128 W, 255 W, and 382 W. The 128 W case assumed that the two LHPs transport 255 W equally to the radiator. The 255 W case assumed that one LHP fails so that the remaining LHP transports all the waste heat from the detector array to the radiator. The 382 W case assumed that one LHP fails so that the remaining LHP transports all the waste heat from the detector array to the radiator, and has a 50% design margin. All these transient target temperatures were successfully implemented in the engineering test unit (ETU) LHP and flight LHP thermal performance verification tests in vacuum.

  10. Effects of seasonal adiposity on ovarian activity of Vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi: Proteomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajit; Powell, Michael D.; Sridaran, Rajagopala; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-01-01

    In present study comparative proteomics was utilized to identify ovarian protein profiles and correlate the expression of these proteins with adiposity induced changes in ovarian activity leading to suppression of ovulation (delayed ovulation) in the bat, S. heathi. To achieve this, two-dimension gel electrophoresis combined with protein identification by tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was applied. Protein profiles were obtained from intact ovaries of bats collected during recrudescence (basal body weight) and delayed ovulation (increased body weight) phases of reproductive cycle. Out of 42 differentially expressed protein spots, 15 protein spots were identified by LC–MS/MS. A majority of the 15 protein spots identified belonged to a group of enzymes within the glycolytic and citrate cycles. Greater concentrations of these enzymes were found during the period of delayed ovulation, which may be responsible for an increase in the production of ATP within the ovary. The increased metabolic activity and energy production observed within the ovary during winter dormancy may be required for increased steroidogenic activity during this period. The protein 14-3-3 identified by LC–MS/MS was verified by immunoblotting, which confirmed its increased expression during the period of delayed ovulation and may be associated with development of insulin resistance. Treatment with adipokines (adiponectin, resistin) is responsible for increased expression of 14-3-3 protein in the ovary of S. heathi. Adiposity-associated rise in adipokines are thus responsible for increased expression of 14-3-3 protein in the ovary of S. heathi, which may be responsible for prolonged survival of antral follicles and suppression of ovulation. The 14-3-3 protein may represent a new marker for adiposity associated ovarian anovulation (disorders). PMID:25305638

  11. XMM FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS OF THREE SWIFT BAT-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Trippe, M. L.; Reynolds, C. S.; Koss, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Winter, L. M.

    2011-08-01

    We present XMM-Newton observations of three active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken as part of a hunt to find very heavily obscured Compton-thick AGNs. For obscuring columns greater than 10{sup 25} cm{sup -2}, AGNs are only visible at energies below 10 keV via reflected/scattered radiation, characterized by a flat power law. We therefore selected three objects (ESO 417-G006, IRAS 05218-1212, and MCG -01-05-047) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray survey catalog with Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) 0.5-10 keV spectra with flat power-law indices as candidate Compton-thick sources for follow-up observations with the more sensitive instruments on XMM-Newton. The XMM spectra, however, rule out reflection-dominated models based on the weakness of the observed Fe K{alpha} lines. Instead, the spectra are well fit by a model of a power-law continuum obscured by a Compton-thin absorber plus a soft excess. This result is consistent with previous follow-up observations of two other flat-spectrum BAT-detected AGNs. Thus, out of the six AGNs in the 22 month BAT catalog with apparently flat Swift XRT spectra, all five that have had follow-up observations are not likely Compton thick. We also present new optical spectra of two of these objects, IRAS 05218-1212 and MCG -01-05-047. Interestingly, though both the AGNs have similar X-ray spectra, their optical spectra are completely different, adding evidence against the simplest form of the geometric unified model of AGNs. IRAS 05218-1212 appears in the optical as a Seyfert 1, despite the {approx}8.5 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} line-of-sight absorbing column indicated by its X-ray spectrum. MCG -01-05-047's optical spectrum shows no sign of AGN activity; it appears as a normal galaxy.

  12. Bat Bonanza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

  13. Breaking Bat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  14. Distress calls of the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Subramanian; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2013-09-01

    In a stressful situation, greater short-nosed fruit bats (Cynopterus sphinx) emit audible vocalization either to warn or to inform conspecifics. We examined the effect of distress calls on bats emitting the call as well as the bats receiving the distress signal through analysis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and catacholaminargic systems. We measured the levels of neurotransmitters [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE)] and stress hormones [(adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT)]. Our results showed that distress call emission elevated the level of ACTH and CORT, as well as 5-HT, DA and NE in the amygdala, for both the call emitting bat and the responding bat. Subsequently, we observed increased activity of glucocorticoid receptor and its steroid receptor co-activator (SRC-1). An expression of SRC-1 was up-regulated in the distress call emitter only, whereas it was at a similar level in both the call responder and silent bats. These findings suggest that bats emitting distress calls and also bats responding to such calls have similar neurotransmitter expression patterns, and may react similarly in response to stress. PMID:23832467

  15. Functional roles of a predicted branched chain aminotransferase encoded by the LkBAT1 gene of the yeast Lachancea kluyveri.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Arredondo, Javier; Jiménez-Benítez, Ángel; Colón-González, Maritrini; González-Flores, James; Flores-Villegas, Mirelle; González, Alicia; Riego-Ruiz, Lina

    2015-12-01

    Branched chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCATs) catalyze the last step of the biosynthesis and the first step of the catabolism of branched chain amino acids. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BCATs are encoded by the ScBAT1 and ScBAT2 paralogous genes. Analysis of Lachancea kluyveri genome sequence, allowed the identification of the LkBAT1 locus, which could presumably encode a BCAT. A second unlinked locus (LkBAT1bis), exhibiting sequence similarity to LkBAT1 was also identified. To determine the function of these putative BCATs, L. kluyveri mutant strains lacking LkBAT1, LkBAT1bis or both genes were generated and tested for VIL metabolism. LkBat1 displayed branched chain aminotransferase activity and is required for VIL biosynthesis and catabolism. However, Lkbat1Δ mutant is a valine and isoleucine auxotroph and a leucine bradytroph indicating that L. kluyveri harbors an alternative enzyme(s) involved in leucine biosynthesis. Additionally, heterologous reciprocal gene complementation between S. cerevisiae and L. kluyveri orthologous LkBAT1, ScBAT1 and ScBAT2 genes, confirmed that the mitochondrial LkBat1 functions as BCAT in S. cerevisiae, restoring wild type phenotype to the ScBAT1 null mutant. Conversely, LkBAT1bis did not display a role in BCAAs metabolism. However, when ethanol was used as carbon source, deletion of LkBAT1bis in an Lkbat1Δ null strain resulted in an extended 'lag' growth phase, pointing to a potential function of LkBAT1 and LkBAT1bis in the aerobic metabolism of L. kluyveri. These results confirm the BCAT function of LkBAT1 in L. kluyveri, and further support the proposition that the BCAT function in ancestral-type yeasts has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26563416

  16. Active Listening in a Bat Cocktail Party: Adaptive Echolocation and Flight Behaviors of Big Brown Bats, Eptesicus fuscus, Foraging in a Cluttered Acoustic Environment.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Michaela; Chiu, Chen; Engelberg, Jonathan; Moss, Cynthia F

    2015-09-01

    In their natural environment, big brown bats forage for small insects in open spaces, as well as in vegetation and in the presence of acoustic clutter. While searching and hunting for prey, bats experience sonar interference, not only from densely cluttered environments, but also from calls of conspecifics foraging in close proximity. Previous work has shown that when two bats compete for a single prey item in a relatively open environment, one of the bats may go silent for extended periods of time, which can serve to minimize sonar interference between conspecifics. Additionally, pairs of big brown bats have been shown to adjust frequency characteristics of their vocalizations to avoid acoustic interference in echo processing. In this study, we extended previous work by examining how the presence of conspecifics and environmental clutter influence the bat's echolocation behavior. By recording multichannel audio and video data of bats engaged in insect capture in open and cluttered spaces, we quantified the bats' vocal and flight behaviors. Big brown bats flew individually and in pairs in an open and cluttered room, and the results of this study shed light on the different strategies that this species employs to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:26398707

  17. Differential Expression of Hepatic Genes of the Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) between the Summer Active and Winter Torpid States

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yanhong; Wu, Yonghua; Sun, Keping; Wang, Hui; Jiang, Tinglei; Shi, Limin; Wang, Lei; Lin, Aiqing; Yue, Xinke; Li, Chenji; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Hibernation is one type of torpor, a hypometabolic state in heterothermic mammals, which can be used as an energy-conservation strategy in response to harsh environments, e.g. limited food resource. The liver, in particular, plays a crucial role in adaptive metabolic adjustment during hibernation. Studies on ground squirrels and bears reveal that many genes involved in metabolism are differentially expressed during hibernation. Especially, the genes involved in carbohydrate catabolism are down-regulated during hibernation, while genes responsible for lipid β-oxidation are up-regulated. However, there is little transcriptional evidence to suggest physiological changes to the liver during hibernation in the greater horseshoe bat, a representative heterothermic bat. In this study, we explored the transcriptional changes in the livers of active and torpid greater horseshoe bats using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 1358 genes were identified as differentially expressed during torpor. In the functional analyses, differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in metabolic depression, shifts in the fuel utilization, immune function and response to stresses. Our findings provide a comprehensive evidence of differential gene expression in the livers of greater horseshoe bats during active and torpid states and highlight potential evidence for physiological adaptations that occur in the liver during hibernation. PMID:26698122

  18. Expression of the activity of cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, system x(c)(-), by xCT and rBAT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyu; Tamba, Michiko; Kimata, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Kazuichi; Bannai, Shiro; Sato, Hideyo

    2003-06-01

    The expression of the activity of cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, designated system x(c)(-), requires two components, xCT and 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) in Xenopus oocytes. rBAT (related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter) has a significant homology to 4F2hc and is known to be located in the apical membrane of epithelial cells. To determine whether xCT can associate with rBAT and express the activity of system x(c)(-), xCT, and rBAT were co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cultured cells. In the oocytes injected with rBAT cRNA alone, the activities of cystine and arginine transport were induced, indicating that the system b(0,+)-like transporter was expressed by associating the exogenous rBAT with an endogenous b(0,+)AT-like factor as reported previously. In the oocytes injected with xCT and rBAT cRNAs, the activity of cystine transport was further induced. This induced activity of cystine transport was partially inhibited by glutamate or arginine and completely inhibited by adding both amino acids. In these oocytes, the activity of glutamate transport was also induced and it was strongly inhibited by cystine. In NIH3T3 cells transfected with xCT cDNA alone, the activity of cystine transport was significantly increased, and in the cells transfected with both xCT and rBAT cDNAs, the activity of cystine transport was further enhanced. The enhanced activity was Na(+)-independent and was inhibited by glutamate and homocysteate. These results indicate that rBAT can replace 4F2hc in the expression of the activity of system x(c)(-) and suggest that system x(c)(-) activity could be expressed in the apical membrane of epithelial cells. PMID:12763038

  19. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Marcel A.; Devignot, Stéphanie; Lattwein, Erik; Corman, Victor Max; Maganga, Gaël D.; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, Petra; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Weber, Friedemann; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The geographic range of human CCHF cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. However, highly similar CCHFV lineages occur in geographically distant regions. Tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. Bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from CCHFV. In order to assess the presence of CCHFV in a wide range of bat species over a wide geographic range, we analyzed 1,135 sera from 16 different bat species collected in Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Germany, and Panama. Using a CCHFV glycoprotein-based indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), we identified reactive antibodies in 10.0% (114/1,135) of tested bats, pertaining to 12/16 tested species. Depending on the species, 3.6%–42.9% of cave-dwelling bats and 0.6%–7.1% of foliage-living bats were seropositive (two-tailed t-test, p = 0.0447 cave versus foliage). 11/30 IIFT-reactive sera from 10 different African bat species had neutralizing activity in a virus-like particle assay. Neutralization of full CCHFV was confirmed in 5 of 7 sera. Widespread infection of cave-dwelling bats may indicate a role for bats in the life cycle and geographic dispersal of CCHFV. PMID:27217069

  20. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marcel A; Devignot, Stéphanie; Lattwein, Erik; Corman, Victor Max; Maganga, Gaël D; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, Petra; Cottontail, Veronika M; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Weber, Friedemann; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The geographic range of human CCHF cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. However, highly similar CCHFV lineages occur in geographically distant regions. Tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. Bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from CCHFV. In order to assess the presence of CCHFV in a wide range of bat species over a wide geographic range, we analyzed 1,135 sera from 16 different bat species collected in Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Germany, and Panama. Using a CCHFV glycoprotein-based indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), we identified reactive antibodies in 10.0% (114/1,135) of tested bats, pertaining to 12/16 tested species. Depending on the species, 3.6%-42.9% of cave-dwelling bats and 0.6%-7.1% of foliage-living bats were seropositive (two-tailed t-test, p = 0.0447 cave versus foliage). 11/30 IIFT-reactive sera from 10 different African bat species had neutralizing activity in a virus-like particle assay. Neutralization of full CCHFV was confirmed in 5 of 7 sera. Widespread infection of cave-dwelling bats may indicate a role for bats in the life cycle and geographic dispersal of CCHFV. PMID:27217069

  1. Relaxed Evolution in the Tyrosine Aminotransferase Gene Tat in Old World Fruit Bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet. PMID:24824435

  2. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet. PMID:24824435

  3. Late-seasonal activity and diet of the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geluso, K.; Damm, J.P.; Valdez, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, Nebraska represents part of the northwestern edge of the distribution for the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis). To date, little information on this bat's natural history has been published from the state or from other parts of the Great Plains. Here we report on aspects of its natural history in Nebraska from 2 localities. In late summer and early autumn of 2006, we documented individuals farther west in Nebraska (Harlan County) than previously reported and determined that individuals fed mainly on Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In 2006, evening bats appeared to migrate from Nebraska during late September-early October, and individuals were extremely fat, about 15 g, prior to migration. Evening bats likely are more widespread and common in south central Nebraska than previously documented. On 6 October 2005, we reported on an individual from eastern Nebraska (Douglas County), which represents the latest seasonal record of N. humeralis from the state.

  4. Best available techniques (BATs) for oil spill response in the Mediterranean Sea: calm sea and presence of economic activities.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Giambattista; Sliskovic, Merica; Violante, Anna Carmela; Vukic, Luka

    2016-01-01

    An oil spill is the accidental or intentional discharge of petroleum products into the environment due to human activities. Although oil spills are actually just a little percent of the total world oil pollution problem, they represent the most visible form of it. The impact on the ecosystems can be severe as well as the impact on economic activities. Oil spill cleanup is a very difficult and expensive activity, and many techniques are available for it. In previous works, a methodology based on different kinds of criteria in order to come to the most satisfactory technique was proposed and the relative importance of each impact criterion on the basis of the Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was also evaluated. After a review of the best available techniques (BATs) available for oil spill response, this work suggests criteria for BATs' selection when oil spills occur in the Mediterranean Sea under well-defined circumstances: calm sea and presence of economic activities in the affected area. A group of experts with different specializations evaluated the alternative BATs by means of AHP method taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:26498811

  5. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Schmieder, Daniela A.; Benítez, Hugo A.; Borissov, Ivailo M.; Fruciano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species – in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) – based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern. PMID:25965335

  6. Rapid frequency control of sonar sounds by the FM bat, Miniopterus fuliginosus, in response to spectral overlap.

    PubMed

    Hase, Kazuma; Miyamoto, Takara; Kobayasi, Kohta I; Hiryu, Shizuko

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of multiple flying conspecifics, echolocating bats avoid jamming by adjusting the spectral and/or temporal features of their vocalizations. However, little is known about how bats alter their pulse acoustic characteristics to adapt to an acoustically jamming situation during flight. We investigated echolocation behavior in a bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) during free flight under acoustic jamming conditions created by downward FM jamming sounds mimicking bat echolocation sounds. In an experimental chamber, the flying bat was exposed to FM jamming sounds with different terminal frequencies (TFs) from loudspeakers. Echolocation pulses emitted by the flying bat were recorded using a telemetry microphone (Telemike) mounted on the back of the bat. The bats immediately (within 150ms) shifted the TFs of emitted pulses upward when FM jamming sounds were presented. Moreover, the amount of upward TF shift differed depending on the TF ranges of the jamming sounds presented. When the TF range was lower than or overlapped the bat's mean TF, the bat TF shifted significantly upward (by 1-2kHz, Student's t-test, P<0.05), corresponding to 3-5% of the total bandwidth of their emitted pulses. These findings indicate that bats actively avoid overlap of the narrow frequency band around the TF. PMID:27157002

  7. What the bat's voice tells the bat's brain

    PubMed Central

    Ulanovsky, Nachum; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2008-01-01

    For over half a century, the echolocating bat has served as a valuable model in neuroscience to elucidate mechanisms of auditory processing and adaptive behavior in biological sonar. Our article emphasizes the importance of the bat's vocal-motor system to spatial orientation by sonar, and we present this view in the context of three problems that the echolocating bat must solve: (i) auditory scene analysis, (ii) sensorimotor transformations, and (iii) spatial memory and navigation. We summarize our research findings from behavioral studies of echolocating bats engaged in natural tasks and from neurophysiological studies of the bat superior colliculus and hippocampus, brain structures implicated in sensorimotor integration, orientation, and spatial memory. Our perspective is that studies of neural activity in freely vocalizing bats engaged in natural behaviors will prove essential to advancing a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying perception and memory in mammals. PMID:18562301

  8. GENETIC ACTIVITY PROFILES AND PATTERN RECOGNITION IN TEST BATTERY SELECTION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-generated genetic activity profiles and pairwise matching procedures may aid in the selection of the most appropriate short-term bioassays to be used in test batteries for the evaluation of the genotoxicity of a given chemical or group of chemicals. Selection of test bat...

  9. The regulatory problems in estimating the toxicity of wood preservatives to bats.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, J; Reston, S

    1993-01-01

    Bat populations in general are in decline and are protected under the UK Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981. There is great concern about the effects of wood preservative treatments on (UK) bat populations. The ethics of using wild bats in tests have been questioned. Proposals are now being developed to use a mouse model. However, no laboratory test animal is likely to accurately reflect the metabolism and behaviour of bats which can be considered as atypical within the animal kingdom. English Nature has pioneered a Relative Toxicity Index (RTI) in order to predict the risks to bats from new and existing active ingredients in remedial timber treatments in the absence of toxicological testing on bats. This is based on the oral LD50 (rat) and assumes that rats and bats are equally sensitive to the same active ingredient in different formulations. Under the auspices of the UK Health and Safety Executive an expert group is developing and refining test methods in order to develop a realistic and reliable classification and labelling scheme for bats. PMID:8108717

  10. Breaking Bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-02-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created by the collision with the ball. The kind of wood that is used plays a role in the manner in which the bat breaks—-its "failure mode." We report on a simple experiment to compare the breaking strength and failure modes of ash and maple dowels. The results illustrate some of the features of breaking bats under game conditions.

  11. Are Bats Dangerous?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kim

    2004-01-01

    There are many reasons people are afraid of bats but most are myths. Many people are also afraid of bats because they believe all bats are vampire bats, or bats that feed on blood. There are a few species of bats called "vampire" bats;however, these bats are found in Central and South America--there are no vampire bats in the United States or…

  12. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats. PMID:22469192

  13. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis heats brain and body as part of the brain-coordinated ultradian basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC)

    PubMed Central

    Ootsuka, Youichirou; de Menezes, Rodrigo C.; Alimoradian, Abbas; Zaretsky, Dmitry V.; Hunt, Joseph; Stefanidis, Aneta; Oldfield, Brian J.; Blessing, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures, as well as behavioral activity, arterial pressure and heart rate, increase episodically during the waking (dark) phase of the circadian cycle in rats. Phase-linking of combinations of these ultradian (<24 hour) events has previously been noted, but no synthesis of their overall interrelationships has emerged. We hypothesized that they are coordinated by brain central command, and that BAT thermogenesis, itself controlled by the brain, contributes to increases in brain and body temperature. We used chronically implanted instruments to measure combinations of BAT, brain and body temperatures, behavioral activity, tail artery blood flow, and arterial pressure and heart rate, in conscious freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats during the 12 hour dark active period. Ambient temperature was kept constant for any particular 24 hour day, varying between 22°C and 27°C on different days. Increases in BAT temperature (≥0.5°C) occurred in an irregular episodic manner every 94±43 min (mean±SD). Varying the temperature over a wider range (18–30°C) on different days did not change the periodicity, and neither body nor brain temperature fell before BAT temperature episodic increases. These increases are thus unlikely to reflect thermoregulatory homeostasis. Episodic BAT thermogenesis still occurred in food-deprived rats. Behavioral activity, arterial pressure (18±5 mmHg every 98±49 min) and heart rate (86±31 beats/min) increased approximately 3 min before each increase in BAT temperature. Increases in BAT temperature (1.1±0.4°C) were larger than corresponding increases in brain (0.8±0.4°C) and body (0.6±0.3°C) temperature and the BAT episodes commenced 2–3 min before body and brain episodes, suggesting that BAT thermogenesis warms body and brain. Hippocampal 5–8 Hz theta rhythm, indicating active engagement with the environment, increased before the behavioral and autonomic events, suggesting coordination

  14. Guide to the BATS Resource Trunk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Phoenix.

    This guide provides detailed information, resources, and activities to teach students about the bats of Arizona. Chapters include: (1) "What is a Bat?"; (2) "Megabat or Microbat?"; (3) "Bat Anatomy"; (4) Diet and Feeding"; (5) Echolocation"; (6) Reproduction and Lifespan"; (7) "Flight"; (8) "Migration and Hibernation"; (9) Habitat and Roost…

  15. Trapped in the darkness of the night: thermal and energetic constraints of daylight flight in bats

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Christian C.; Lewanzik, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Bats are one of the most successful mammalian groups, even though their foraging activities are restricted to the hours of twilight and night-time. Some studies suggested that bats became nocturnal because of overheating when flying in daylight. This is because—in contrast to feathered wings of birds—dark and naked wing membranes of bats efficiently absorb short-wave solar radiation. We hypothesized that bats face elevated flight costs during daylight flights, since we expected them to alter wing-beat kinematics to reduce heat load by solar radiation. To test this assumption, we measured metabolic rate and body temperature during short flights in the tropical short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata at night and during the day. Core body temperature of flying bats differed by no more than 2°C between night and daytime flights, whereas mass-specific CO2 production rates were higher by 15 per cent during daytime. We conclude that increased flight costs only render diurnal bat flights profitable when the relative energy gain during daytime is high and risk of predation is low. Ancestral bats possibly have evolved dark-skinned wing membranes to reduce nocturnal predation, but a low degree of reflectance of wing membranes made them also prone to overheating and elevated energy costs during daylight flights. In consequence, bats may have become trapped in the darkness of the night once dark-skinned wing membranes had evolved. PMID:21208959

  16. Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

  17. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Juliane; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

  18. Bat Rabies in Canada 1963-1967

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, M.

    1969-01-01

    Six hundred and twenty-eight insectivorous bats originating from seven provinces were submitted to this Institute for rabies diagnosis between August 1, 1963 and December 31, 1967. Brain tissue was examined by the fluorescent antibody technique and the mouse infectivity test was carried out with brain, salivary gland, interscapular adipose tissue and kidney samples. Rabies virus was detected in 44 bats, 29 of which were from Ontario, 12 from British Columbia and three from Manitoba. Most of the positive cases were diagnosed in summer months. Seven species were represented among the specimens found to be rabid; there were 32 big brown bats, three hoary bats, three silver-haired bats, two little brown bats, one eastern pipistrelle, one Keen myotis and one red bat. Another bat which was not identified also proved to be infected with rabies. PMID:4242773

  19. Bat ecology and public health surveillance for rabies in an urbanizing region of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Cryan, P.M.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Pape, W.J.; Bowen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe use of Fort Collins, Colorado, and nearby areas by bats in 2001-2005, and link patterns in bat ecology with concurrent public health surveillance for rabies. Our analyses are based on evaluation of summary statistics, and information-theoretic support for results of simple logistic regression. Based on captures in mist nets, the city bat fauna differed from that of the adjacent mountains, and was dominated by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Species, age, and sex composition of bats submitted for rabies testing locally and along the urbanizing Front Range Corridor were similar to those of the mist-net captures and reflected the annual cycle of reproduction and activity of big brown bats. Few submissions occurred November- March, when these bats hibernated elsewhere. In summer females roosted in buildings in colonies and dominated health samples; fledging of young corresponded to a summer peak in health submissions with no increase in rabies prevalence. Roosting ecology of big brown bats in buildings was similar to that reported for natural sites, including colony size, roost-switching behavior, fidelity to roosts in a small area, and attributes important for roost selection. Attrition in roosts occurred from structural modifications of buildings to exclude colonies by citizens, but without major effects on long-term bat reproduction or survival. Bats foraged in areas set aside for nature conservation. A pattern of lower diversity in urban bat communities with dominance by big brown bats may occur widely in the USA, and is consistent with national public health records for rabies surveillance. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  20. The Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT): Measuring Avoidance in High-, Mid-, and Low-Spider-Fearful Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Andy; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    One hundred twenty female participants, with varying levels of spider fear were asked to complete an automated 8-step perceived-threat behavioral approach test (PT-BAT). The steps involved asking the participants if they were willing to put their hand into a number of opaque jars with an incrementally increasing risk of contact with a spider (none…

  1. Baseball batting. An electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, B; Jobe, F W; Pink, M; Perry, J

    1993-07-01

    The muscle firing pattern in 12 muscles throughout the lower extremity, trunk, and upper extremity during the batting swing is described in this study. The two hamstring muscles studied and the gluteal muscle had a similar pattern of high muscle activity during pre-swing and early swing, and then rapidly diminished. The vastus medialis demonstrated peak activity between 95 and 110% maximum muscle test (MMT) throughout the swing phases and follow-through. The erector spinae demonstrated activity from 85 to 185% MMT during the swing phases. The abdominal obliques showed greater than 100% MMT during the swing phases and follow-through. The supraspinatus and serratus anterior showed relatively low muscle activity (less than 40% MMT). These results show that batting is a sequence of coordinated muscle activity, beginning with the hip, followed by the trunk, and terminating with the arms. Power in the swing is initiated in the hip, and therefore exercises that emphasize such strength development are indicated. The maintained, high muscle activity in the trunk muscles indicates a need for back and abdominal stabilization and rotation exercises. The relatively low level of activity in the four scapulohumeral muscles tested indicated that emphasis should be placed on the trunk and hip muscles for a batter's strengthening program. PMID:8519123

  2. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  3. MetaBAT

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Assembling individual genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequences derived from complex microbial communities is so far one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. As it is impractical to directly assemble full-length genomes, a first step that groups contigs from the same organisms, called metagenome binning, has been developed to provide insights of individual organisms. However, current binning methods perform poorly in the context of large complex community, and as a result they fail to recover many novel genomes. To overcome this limitation, we developed integrated software, called MetaBAT, which automatically forms hundreds of individual genome bins from metagenome contigs. Probabilistic models of abundance and tetranucleotide frequency were trained by extensive empirical studies and integrated to decide the membership of contigs iteratively. To test the performance of MetaBAT, we applied MetaBAT to both synthetic and several large-scale real world metagenome datasets. By using two independent metrics, we demonstrate that in all the data sets tested MetaBAT achieves good sensitivity (16~87%) and very high specificity (56~99%) in forming genome bins. Further analyses of the novel genomes recovered from the human gut microbiome suggest a subset of these genomes are potentially associated with pathological conditions. In conclusion, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool

  4. MetaBAT

    2014-04-01

    Assembling individual genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequences derived from complex microbial communities is so far one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. As it is impractical to directly assemble full-length genomes, a first step that groups contigs from the same organisms, called metagenome binning, has been developed to provide insights of individual organisms. However, current binning methods perform poorly in the context of large complex community, and as a result they fail to recovermore » many novel genomes. To overcome this limitation, we developed integrated software, called MetaBAT, which automatically forms hundreds of individual genome bins from metagenome contigs. Probabilistic models of abundance and tetranucleotide frequency were trained by extensive empirical studies and integrated to decide the membership of contigs iteratively. To test the performance of MetaBAT, we applied MetaBAT to both synthetic and several large-scale real world metagenome datasets. By using two independent metrics, we demonstrate that in all the data sets tested MetaBAT achieves good sensitivity (16~87%) and very high specificity (56~99%) in forming genome bins. Further analyses of the novel genomes recovered from the human gut microbiome suggest a subset of these genomes are potentially associated with pathological conditions. In conclusion, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool« less

  5. Personality Variation in Little Brown Bats

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Allyson K.; Timonin, Mary E.; McGuire, Liam P.; Willis, Craig K. R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals) but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY) and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age. PMID:24312205

  6. Spatial and temporal trends of bat-borne rabies in Chile.

    PubMed

    Escobar, L E; Restif, O; Yung, V; Favi, M; Pons, D J; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-05-01

    In Chile, while dog rabies has decreased markedly over the last 30 years, bat rabies is still reported frequently. In order to shed new light on the spatiotemporal trends of these reports, we analysed active and passive data from years 1985 and 2012, which included 61 076 samples from 289 counties of Chile. We found that from 1994 to 2012, more than 15 000 bat samples were submitted for diagnostics through passive surveillance, 9·5% of which tested positive for rabies. By contrast, the prevalence of infection was only ~0·4% among the nearly 12 000 bat samples submitted through active surveillance. We found that the prevalence of dog rabies dropped steadily over the same period, with just a single confirmed case since 1998. None of the 928 samples from wild animals, other than bats, were positive for rabies. Although there has been only one confirmed case of human rabies in Chile since 1985, and a single confirmed case in a dog since 1998, bats remain a reservoir for rabies viruses. While active surveillance indicates that rabies prevalence is low in bat colonies, the high proportion of positive bats submitted through passive surveillance is a concern. To prevent human rabies, local public health agencies should increase research on the basic ecology of bats and the role of stray dogs and cats as potential rabies amplifiers. PMID:25166219

  7. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n=86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  8. Frequent Arousals from Winter Torpor in Rafinesque’s Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph S.; Lacki, Michael J.; Thomas, Steven C.; Grider, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n = 86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  9. Seroprevalence Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in a Multispecies Bat Colony

    PubMed Central

    López-Roig, Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Lavenir, Rachel; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis). Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%–26.57%) was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%–20.54%). The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence). However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence. PMID:25192547

  10. Survey for bat lyssaviruses, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Boongird, Kalyanee; Wanghongsa, Sawai; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Chanhome, Lawan; Khawplod, Pkamatz; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Kuzmin, Ivan; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2005-02-01

    Surveillance for lyssaviruses was conducted among bat populations in 8 provinces in Thailand. In 2002 and 2003, a total of 932 bats of 11 species were captured and released after serum collection. Lyssavirus infection was determined by conducting virus neutralization assays on bat serum samples. Of collected samples, 538 were either hemolysed or insufficient in volume, which left 394 suitable for analysis. These samples included the following: Pteropus lylei (n = 335), Eonycteris spelaea (n = 45), Hipposideros armiger (n = 13), and Rousettus leschennaulti (n = 1). No serum samples had evidence of neutralizing antibodies when tested against rabies virus. However, 16 samples had detectable neutralizing antibodies against Aravan virus, Khujand virus, Irkut virus, or Australian bat lyssavirus; all were specifically associated with fruit bats P. lylei (n = 15) and E. spelaea (n = 1). These results are consistent with the presence of naturally occurring viruses related to new putative lyssavirus genotypes. PMID:15752440

  11. Survey sequencing reveals elevated DNA transposon activity, novel elements, and variation in repetitive landscapes among vesper bats.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Heidi J T; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2012-01-01

    The repetitive landscapes of mammalian genomes typically display high Class I (retrotransposon) transposable element (TE) content, which usually comprises around half of the genome. In contrast, the Class II (DNA transposon) contribution is typically small (<3% in model mammals). Most mammalian genomes exhibit a precipitous decline in Class II activity beginning roughly 40 Ma. The first signs of more recently active mammalian Class II TEs were obtained from the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and are reflected by higher genome content (~5%). To aid in determining taxonomic limits and potential impacts of this elevated Class II activity, we performed 454 survey sequencing of a second Myotis species as well as four additional taxa within the family Vespertilionidae and an outgroup species from Phyllostomidae. Graph-based clustering methods were used to reconstruct the major repeat families present in each species and novel elements were identified in several taxa. Retrotransposons remained the dominant group with regard to overall genome mass. Elevated Class II TE composition (3-4%) was observed in all five vesper bats, while less than 0.5% of the phyllostomid reads were identified as Class II derived. Differences in satellite DNA and Class I TE content are also described among vespertilionid taxa. These analyses present the first cohesive description of TE evolution across closely related mammalian species, revealing genome-scale differences in TE content within a single family. PMID:22491057

  12. The impacts of new street light technologies: experimentally testing the effects on bats of changing from low-pressure sodium to white metal halide

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Emma Louise; Wakefield, Andrew; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light at night is a major feature of anthropogenic global change and is increasingly recognized as affecting biodiversity, often negatively. On a global scale, newer technology white lights are replacing orange sodium lights to reduce energy waste. In 2009, Cornwall County Council (UK) commenced replacement of existing low-pressure sodium (LPS) high intensity discharge (HID) street lights with new Phillips CosmoPolis white ceramic metal halide street lights to reduce energy wastage. This changeover provided a unique collaborative opportunity to implement a before-after-control-impact field experiment to investigate the ecological effects of newly installed broad spectrum light technologies. Activity of the bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus and Nyctalus/Eptesicus spp. was significantly higher at metal halide than LPS lights, as found in other studies of bat activity at old technology (i.e. mercury vapour) white light types. No significant difference was found in feeding attempts per bat pass between light types, though more passes overall were recorded at metal halide lights. Species-specific attraction of bats to the metal halide lights could have cascading effects at lower trophic levels. We highlight the need for further research on possible ecosystem-level effects of light technologies before they are installed on a wide scale. PMID:25780239

  13. The impacts of new street light technologies: experimentally testing the effects on bats of changing from low-pressure sodium to white metal halide.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Wakefield, Andrew; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2015-05-01

    Artificial light at night is a major feature of anthropogenic global change and is increasingly recognized as affecting biodiversity, often negatively. On a global scale, newer technology white lights are replacing orange sodium lights to reduce energy waste. In 2009, Cornwall County Council (UK) commenced replacement of existing low-pressure sodium (LPS) high intensity discharge (HID) street lights with new Phillips CosmoPolis white ceramic metal halide street lights to reduce energy wastage. This changeover provided a unique collaborative opportunity to implement a before-after-control-impact field experiment to investigate the ecological effects of newly installed broad spectrum light technologies. Activity of the bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus and Nyctalus/Eptesicus spp. was significantly higher at metal halide than LPS lights, as found in other studies of bat activity at old technology (i.e. mercury vapour) white light types. No significant difference was found in feeding attempts per bat pass between light types, though more passes overall were recorded at metal halide lights. Species-specific attraction of bats to the metal halide lights could have cascading effects at lower trophic levels. We highlight the need for further research on possible ecosystem-level effects of light technologies before they are installed on a wide scale. PMID:25780239

  14. Defining torpor in free-ranging bats: experimental evaluation of external temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters and the concept of active temperature.

    PubMed

    Willis, C K R; Brigham, R M

    2003-07-01

    A variety of definitions involving body temperature (Tb), metabolic rate and behavior have been used to define torpor in mammals and birds. This problem is confounded in some studies of free-ranging animals that employ only skin temperature (Tsk), a measure that approximates but may not precisely reflect Tb. We assess the accuracy of Tsk in the context of a recent definition for torpor called active temperature. We compared the active temperatures of individual big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), which aggregate in cavities, with solitary, foliage-roosting hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus). In captive big brown bats, we compared Tsk and core Tb at a range of ambient temperatures for clustered and solitary roosting animals, compared Tsk and Tb during arousal from torpor, and quantified the effect of flight on warming from torpor. Hoary bats had significantly lower active temperatures than big brown bats despite having the same normothermic Tsk. Tsk was significantly lower than Tb during normothermia but often greater than Tb during torpor. Flight increased the rate of warming from torpor. This effect was more pronounced for Tsk than Tb. This suggests that bats could rely on heat generated by flight muscles to complete the final stages of arousal. Using active temperature to define torpor may underestimate torpor due to ambient cooling of external transmitters or animals leaving roosts while still torpid. Conversely, active temperature may also overestimate shallow torpor use if it is recorded during active arousal when shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis warm external transmitters. Our findings illuminate the need for laboratory studies that quantify the relationship between metabolic rate and Tsk over a range of ambient temperatures. PMID:12764630

  15. Acute effects of various weighted bat warm-up protocols on bat velocity.

    PubMed

    Reyes, G Francis; Dolny, Dennis

    2009-10-01

    Although research has provided evidence of increased muscular performance following a facilitation set of resistance exercise, this has not been established for use prior to measuring baseball bat velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of selected weighted bat warm-up protocols to enhance bat velocity in collegiate baseball players. Nineteen collegiate baseball players (age = 20.15 +/- 1.46 years) were tested for upper-body strength by a 3-repetition maximum (RM) bench press (mean = 97.98 +/- 14.54 kg) and mean bat velocity. Nine weighted bat warm-up protocols, utilizing 3 weighted bats (light = 794 g; standard = 850 g; heavy = 1,531 g) were swung in 3 sets of 6 repetitions in different orders. A control trial involved the warm-up protocol utilizing only the standard bat. Pearson product correlation revealed a significant relationship between 3RM strength and pretest bat velocity (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant treatment effects of warm-up protocol on bat velocity. However, the order of standard, light, heavy bat sequence resulted in the greatest increase in bat velocity (+6.03%). These results suggest that upper-body muscle strength influences bat velocity. It appears that the standard, light, heavy warm-up order may provide the greatest benefit to increase subsequent bat velocity and may warrant use in game situations. PMID:19855339

  16. Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Allen M.

    2007-01-01

    A borehole testing apparatus has been designed to isolate discrete intervals of a bedrock borehole and conduct hydraulic tests or collect water samples for geochemical analyses. This borehole testing apparatus, referred to as the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3), includes two borehole packers, which when inflated can form a pressure-tight seal against smooth borehole walls; a pump apparatus to withdraw water from between the two packers; a fluid-injection apparatus to inject water between the two packers; pressure transducers to monitor fluid pressure between the two packers, as well as above and below the packers; flowmeters to monitor rates of fluid withdrawal or fluid injection; and data-acquisition equipment to record and store digital records from the pressure transducers and flowmeters. The generic design of this apparatus was originally discussed in United States Patent Number 6,761,062 (Shapiro, 2004). The prototype of the apparatus discussed in this report is designed for boreholes that are approximately 6 inches in diameter and can be used to depths of approximately 300 feet below land surface. The apparatus is designed to fit in five hard plastic boxes that can be shipped by overnight freight car-riers. The equipment can be assembled rapidly once it is removed from the shipping boxes, and the length of the test interval (the distance between the two packers) can be adjusted to account for different borehole conditions without reconfiguring the downhole components. The downhole components of the Multifunction BAT3 can be lowered in a borehole using steel pipe or a cable; a truck mounted winch or a winch and tripod can be used for this purpose. The equipment used to raise and lower the downhole components of the Multifunction BAT3 must be supplied on site, along with electrical power, a compressor or cylinders of compressed gas to inflate the packers and operate downhole valves, and the proper length of tubing to connect the

  17. Bat white-nose syndrome: a real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructanstructans.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, Laura K.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; O'Connor, Michael; Gargas, Andrea; Blehert, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Geomyces destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has killed millions of North American hibernating bats. We describe a real-time TaqMan PCR test that detects DNA from G. destructans by targeting a portion of the multicopy intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene complex. The test is highly sensitive, consistently detecting as little as 3.3 fg of genomic DNA from G. destructans. The real-time PCR test specifically amplified genomic DNA from G. destructans but did not amplify target sequence from 54 closely related fungal isolates (including 43 Geomyces spp. isolates) associated with bats. The test was further qualified by analyzing DNA extracted from 91 bat wing skin samples, and PCR results matched histopathology findings. These data indicate the real-time TaqMan PCR method described herein is a sensitive, specific, and rapid test to detect DNA from G. destructans and provides a valuable tool for WNS diagnostics and research.

  18. Bat white-nose syndrome: a real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructans.

    PubMed

    Muller, Laura K; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lindner, Daniel L; O'Connor, Michael; Gargas, Andrea; Blehert, David S

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Geomyces destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has killed millions of North American hibernating bats. We describe a real-time TaqMan PCR test that detects DNA from G. destructans by targeting a portion of the multicopy intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene complex. The test is highly sensitive, consistently detecting as little as 3.3 fg genomic DNA from G. destructans. The real-time PCR test specifically amplified genomic DNA from G. destructans but did not amplify target sequence from 54 closely related fungal isolates (including 43 Geomyces spp. isolates) associated with bats. The test was qualified further by analyzing DNA extracted from 91 bat wing skin samples, and PCR results matched histopathology findings. These data indicate the real-time TaqMan PCR method described herein is a sensitive, specific and rapid test to detect DNA from G. destructans and provides a valuable tool for WNS diagnostics and research. PMID:22962349

  19. Bartonella Species in Bats (Chiroptera) and Bat Flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0–45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25229701

  20. Numerical analysis of maximal bat performance in baseball.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle L; Miller, Karol; Elliott, Bruce C

    2006-01-01

    Metal baseball bats have been experimentally demonstrated to produce higher ball exit velocity (BEV) than wooden bats. In the United States, all bats are subject to BEV tests using hitting machines that rotate the bat in a horizontal plane. In this paper, a model of bat-ball impact was developed based on 3-D translational and rotational kinematics of a swing performed by high-level players. The model was designed to simulate the maximal performance of specific models of a wooden bat and a metal bat when swung by a player, and included material properties and kinematics specific to each bat. Impact dynamics were quantified using the finite element method (ANSYS/LSDYNA, version 6.1). Maximum BEV from both a metal (61.5 m/s) and a wooden (50.9 m/s) bat exceeded the 43.1 m/s threshold by which bats are certified as appropriate for commercial sale. The lower BEV from the wooden bat was attributed to a lower pre-impact bat linear velocity, and a more oblique impact that resulted in a greater proportion of BEV being lost to lateral and vertical motion. The results demonstrate the importance of factoring bat linear velocity and spatial orientation into tests of maximal bat performance, and have implications for the design of metal baseball bats. PMID:15878593

  1. Hibernation by tree-roosting bats.

    PubMed

    Turbill, Christopher; Geiser, Fritz

    2008-07-01

    In summer, long-eared bats (Nyctophilus spp.) roost under bark and in tree cavities, where they appear to benefit from diurnal heating of roosts. In contrast, hibernation is thought to require a cool stable temperature, suggesting they should prefer thermally insulated tree cavities during winter. To test this prediction, we quantified the winter thermoregulatory physiology and ecology of hibernating tree-roosting bats, Nyctophilus geoffroyi and N. gouldi in the field. Surprisingly, bats in winter continued to roost under exfoliating bark (65%) on the northern, sunny side of trees and in shallow tree cavities (35%). Despite passive re-warming of torpid bats by 10-20 degrees C per day, torpor bouts lasted up to 15 days, although shorter bouts were also common. Arousals occurred more frequently and subsequent activity lasted longer on warmer nights, suggesting occasional winter foraging. We show that, because periodic arousals coincide with maximum roost temperatures, when costs of rewarming and normothermic thermoregulation are minimal, exposure to a daily temperature cycle could largely reduce energy expenditure during hibernation. Our study provides further evidence that models of torpor patterns and energy expenditure from hibernators in cold temperate climates are not directly applicable in milder climates, where prolonged torpor can be interspersed with more frequent arousals and occasional foraging. PMID:18210129

  2. The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats—A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines and there is at present no accepted method of reducing or preventing this mortality. Following our demonstration that bat activity is reduced in the vicinity of large air traffic control and weather radars, we tested the hypothesis that an electromagnetic signal from a small portable radar can act as a deterrent to foraging bats. From June to September 2007 bat activity was compared at 20 foraging sites in northeast Scotland during experimental trials (radar switched on) and control trials (no radar signal). Starting 45 minutes after sunset, bat activity was recorded for a period of 30 minutes during each trial and the order of trials were alternated between nights. From July to September 2008 aerial insects at 16 of these sites were sampled using two miniature light-suction traps. At each site one of the traps was exposed to a radar signal and the other functioned as a control. Bat activity and foraging effort per unit time were significantly reduced during experimental trials when the radar antenna was fixed to produce a unidirectional signal therefore maximising exposure of foraging bats to the radar beam. However, although bat activity was significantly reduced during such trials, the radar had no significant effect on the abundance of insects captured by the traps. PMID:19606214

  3. Bats and bacterial pathogens: a review.

    PubMed

    Mühldorfer, K

    2013-02-01

    The occurrence of emerging infectious diseases and their relevance to human health has increased the interest in bats as potential reservoir hosts and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. But while previous and ongoing research activities predominantly focused on viral agents, the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in bats and their impact on bat mortality have largely neglected. Enteric pathogens found in bats are often considered to originate from the bats' diet and foraging habitats, despite the fact that little is known about the actual ecological context or even transmission cycles involving bats, humans and other animals like pets and livestock. For some bacterial pathogens common in human and animal diseases (e.g. Pasteurella, Salmonella, Escherichia and Yersinia spp.), the pathogenic potential has been confirmed for bats. Other bacterial pathogens (e.g. Bartonella, Borrelia and Leptospira spp.) provide evidence for novel species that seem to be specific for bat hosts but might also be of disease importance in humans and other animals. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of bacterial pathogens identified in bats and to consider factors that might influence the exposure and susceptibility of bats to bacterial infection but could also affect bacterial transmission rates between bats, humans and other animals. PMID:22862791

  4. Models of baseball bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Howard

    1990-08-01

    By observing the vibrations of a hand-held baseball bat, it is possible to show that the bat behaves as if it were a free body at the impact of the bat and the ball. The hand-held bat shows none of the behavior of a bat with one end firmly clamped in a vise.

  5. Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

    2010-07-01

    Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

  6. Bat Rabies in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, M.; Stewart, R. C.

    1964-01-01

    Rabies has been diagnosed for the first time in the bat population of Ontario. In the course of a study involving 72 bats from 24 counties of the province, five big brown bats (E. fuscus) were found to be infected with rabies through the mouse inoculation test. At the present time, it does not look as if bats have been connected with the epizootic of sylvatic rabies in Ontario. La rage est apparue pour la première fois chez les chauves-souris en Ontario. Au cours d'une étude qui a porté sur 72 de ces animaux provenant de 24 comtés de la province, l'inoculation d'animaux de laboratoire a permis confirmer la présence de la maladie chez cinq grosses chauves-souris brunes (E. fuscus). A date, il ne semble toutefois pas que les chauves-souris soient impliquées dans l'épizootie de rage sylvatique qui sévit en Orntario. PMID:17649490

  7. Bats in Agroecosytems around California's Central Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, A.

    2014-12-01

    Bats in agroecosystems around California's Central Coast: A full quarter of California's land area is farmland. Crops account for 32.5 billion of California's GDP. Insect control is a big problem for farmers, and California bats eat only insects, saving farmers an estimated 3 to $53 billion a year. As farmers maximize crop yield, they use more pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which contaminate runoff streams that bats drink from. Also, pesticide use kills bats' sole food source: insects. My research objective was to find out how farm management practices and landscape complexity affect bat diversity and activity, and to see which one affects bat activity more. We monitored 18 sites, including conventional, organic, and low and high-complexity landscapes. We noted more bat activity at sites with high complexity landscapes and organic practices than at sites with either low-complexity landscapes or conventional farming practices. I captured and processed bats and recorded data. I also classified insects collected from light traps. I learned how to handle bats and measure forearm length and weight, as well as how to indentify their gender. I took hair clippings and fecal samples, which yield data about the bats' diet. Their diet, in turn, gives us data about which pests they eat and therefore help control. I also learned about bats' echolocation: they have a special muscle over their ears that closes when they echolocate so that they don't burst their own eardrum. Also, some insects have evolved a special call that will disrupt bats echolocation so bats can't track it.

  8. Do predators influence the behaviour of bats?

    PubMed

    Lima, Steven L; O'Keefe, Joy M

    2013-08-01

    Many aspects of animal behaviour are affected by real-time changes in the risk of predation. This conclusion holds for virtually all taxa and ecological systems studied, but does it hold for bats? Bats are poorly represented in the literature on anti-predator behaviour, which may reflect a lack of nocturnal predators specialized on bats. If bats actually experience a world with minimal anti-predator concerns, then they will provide a unique contrast within the realm of vertebrate ecology. Alternatively, such predator-driven behaviour in bats may not yet be fully understood, given the difficulties in working with these highly mobile and nocturnal animals. We provide a wide-ranging exploration of these issues in bat behaviour. We first cover the basic predator-prey information available on bats, both on potential predators and the ways in which bats might perceive predators and respond to attacks. We then cover work relevant to key aspects of bat behaviour, such as choice of daytime roosts, the nature of sleep and torpor, evening roost departures, moonlight avoidance, landscape-related movement patterns, and habitat selection. Overall, the evidence in favour of a strong influence of predators on bat behaviour is equivocal, with the picture clouded by contradictory results and a lack of information on potential predators and the perception of risk by bats. It seems clear that day-active bats run a considerable risk of being killed by diurnal raptors, which are able to capture bats with relative ease. Thus, bats taking advantage of a pulse of insects just prior to sunset are likely taking risks to gain much-needed energy. Further, the choice of daytime roosts by bats is probably strongly influenced by roost safety. Few studies, however, have directly addressed either of these topics. As a group, insectivorous temperate-zone bats show no clear tendency to avoid apparently risky situations, such as activity on moonlit nights. However, some observations are consistent

  9. Bag6/Bat3/Scythe: a novel chaperone activity with diverse regulatory functions in protein biogenesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Gu; Ye, Yihong

    2013-04-01

    Upon emerging from the ribosome exiting tunnel, polypeptide folding occurs immediately with the assistance of both ribosome-associated and free chaperones. While many chaperones known to date are dedicated folding catalysts, recent studies have revealed a novel chaperoning system that functions at the interface of protein biogenesis and quality control by using a special "holdase" activity in order to sort and channel client proteins to distinct destinations. The key component, Bag6/Bat3/Scythe, can effectively shield long hydrophobic segments exposed on the surface of a polypeptide, preventing aggregation or inappropriate interactions before a triaging decision is made. The biological consequences of Bag6-mediated chaperoning are divergent for different substrates, ranging from membrane integration to proteasome targeting and destruction. Accordingly, Bag6 can act in various cellular contexts in order to execute many essential cellular functions, while dysfunctions in the Bag6 system can cause severe cellular abnormalities that may be associated with some pathological conditions. PMID:23417671

  10. RABIES SURVEILLANCE AMONG BATS IN TENNESSEE, USA, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy T; McCracken, Gary F; Sheeler, Lorinda L; Muller, Lisa I; O'Rourke, Dorcas; Kelch, William J; New, John C

    2015-10-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) infects multiple bat species in the Americas, and enzootic foci perpetuate in bats principally via intraspecific transmission. In recent years, bats have been implicated in over 90% of human rabies cases in the US. In Tennessee, two human cases of rabies have occurred since 1960: one case in 1994 associated with a tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) RABV variant and another in 2002 associated with the tricolored/silver-haired bat (P. subflavus/Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV variant. From 1996 to 2010, 2,039 bats were submitted for rabies testing in Tennessee. Among 1,943 bats in satisfactory condition for testing and with a reported diagnostic result, 96% (1,870 of 1,943) were identified to species and 10% (196 of 1,943) were rabid. Big brown (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored, and eastern red (Lasiurus borealis) bats comprised 77% of testable bat submissions and 84% of rabid bats. For species with five or more submissions during 1996-2010, the highest proportion of rabid bats occurred in hoary (Lasiurus cinereus; 46%), unspecified Myotis spp. (22%), and eastern red (17%) bats. The best model to predict rabid bats included month of submission, exposure history of submission, species, and sex of bat. PMID:26251992

  11. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  12. Thermal Vacuum Testing of a Novel Loop Heat Pipe Design for the Swift BAT Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura; Ku, Jentung; Feenan, David

    2003-01-01

    An advanced thermal control system for the Burst Alert Telescope on the Swift satellite has been designed and an engineering test unit (ETU) has been built and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber. The ETU assembly consists of a propylene loop heat pipe, two constant conductance heat pipes, a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP), which is used for rough temperature control of the system, and a radiator. The entire assembly was tested in a thermal vacuum chamber at NASA/GSFC in early 2002. Tests were performed with thermal mass to represent the instrument and with electrical resistance heaters providing the heat to be transferred. Start-up and heat transfer of over 300 W was demonstrated with both steady and variable condenser sink temperatures. Radiator sink temperatures ranged from a high of approximately 273 K, to a low of approximately 83 K, and the system was held at a constant operating temperature of 278 K throughout most of the testing. A novel LHP temperature control methodology using both temperature-controlled electrical resistance heaters and a small VCHP was demonstrated. This paper describes the system and the tests performed and includes a discussion of the test results.

  13. Experimental Assessment of the Impacts of Northern Long-Eared Bats on Ovipositing Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Reiskind, Michael H.; Wund, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of predation as a mortality factor in adult mosquitoes has received only limited attention in the scientific literature. Despite the lack of consensus among researchers as to whether bats are important predators of mosquitoes, there have been no attempts to directly document the effect of bats on mosquito populations or behavior. We conducted an enclosure experiment to test the hypothesis that bats reduce the local abundance of ovipositing female mosquitoes by examining whether the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trouessart) had an effect on Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) oviposition, using naturally occurring mosquitoes, either through direct predation or trait mediated effects on mosquito behavior. We found a signiÞcant, 32% reduction in egg-laying activity associated with bat predation. Artificial oviposition habitats directly outside bat enclosures experienced no reduction in oviposition; we attributed the observed reduction in egg-laying activity to direct predation on ovipositing females by bats and not changes in mosquito behavior. In addition, we noted a decrease in the number of larval mosquitoes in enclosures exposed to bat predation. These results suggest the impact of aerial predators on pathogen transmission may be large, and warrants further scientific investigation. PMID:19769034

  14. Experimental assessment of the impacts of northern long-eared bats on ovipositing Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Wund, Matthew A

    2009-09-01

    The importance of predation as a mortality factor in adult mosquitoes has received only limited attention in the scientific literature. Despite the lack of consensus among researchers as to whether bats are important predators of mosquitoes, there have been no attempts to directly document the effect of bats on mosquito populations or behavior. We conducted an enclosure experiment to test the hypothesis that bats reduce the local abundance of ovipositing female mosquitoes by examining whether the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trouessart) had an effect on Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) oviposition, using naturally occurring mosquitoes, either through direct predation or trait mediated effects on mosquito behavior. We found a significant, 32% reduction in egg-laying activity associated with bat predation. Artificial oviposition habitats directly outside bat enclosures experienced no reduction in oviposition; we attributed the observed reduction in egg-laying activity to direct predation on ovipositing females by bats and not changes in mosquito behavior. In addition, we noted a decrease in the number of larval mosquitoes in enclosures exposed to bat predation. These results suggest the impact of aerial predators on pathogen transmission may be large, and warrants further scientific investigation. PMID:19769034

  15. Flight metabolism in relation to speed in Chiroptera: testing the U-shape paradigm in the short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    von Busse, Rhea; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-06-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that flight for fixed-wing aircraft requires more energy at low and high speeds compared with intermediate speeds, and this theory has often been extended to predict speed-dependent metabolic rates and optimal flight speeds for flying animals. However, the theoretical U-shaped flight power curve has not been robustly tested for Chiroptera, the only mammals capable of flapping flight. We examined the metabolic rate of seven Seba's short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel at air speeds from 1 to 7 m s(-1). Following intra-peritoneal administration of (13)C-labeled Na-bicarbonate, we measured the enrichment in (13)C of exhaled breath before and after flight. We converted fractional turnover of (13)C into metabolic rate and power, based on the assumption that bats oxidized glycogen during short flights. Power requirements of flight varied with air speed in a U-shaped manner in five out of seven individuals, whereas energy turnover was not related to air speed in two individuals. Power requirements of flight were close to values predicted by Pennycuick's aerodynamic model for minimum power speed, but differed for maximum range speed. The results of our experiment support the theoretical expectation of a U-shaped power curve for flight metabolism in a bat. PMID:23430989

  16. Bat feces as an indoor allergen.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Irañeta, S G; Rodríguez, S M; Scavini, L M; Rodríguez, S R

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated in an animal model (specific IgG) as well as in atopic patients suffering from rhinitis/asthma (specific IgE) that bat feces have antigenic properties. A single peak with high glycoprotein content was obtained by chromatography, while SDS-PAGE revealed several proteins between 29 and 116 kDa which showed immune serum blotting at 43.6 and 66 kDa. Positive specific skin tests with bat feces and IgE-RAST anti-bat feces were detected in atopic patients living in tall buildings and old houses in Buenos Aires. As bat feces did not cross-react with bat epithelium, studies evaluating rat serum and epithelium and pigeon feces in order to analyze the role of bat serum proteins, such as IgA, are encouraged. PMID:10028484

  17. Short delays and low pulse amplitudes produce widespread activation in the target-distance processing area of auditory cortex of the mustached bat.

    PubMed

    Macías, Silvio; Hechavarría, Julio C

    2016-08-01

    While approaching an object, echolocating bats decrease the amplitude of their vocalizations. This behavior is known as "echo-level compensation." Here, the activation pattern of the cortical FM-FM (frequency modulated) area of the mustached bat is assessed by using acoustic stimuli that correspond to sonar signals and their echoes emitted during echo-level compensation behavior. Activation maps were calculated from the delay response areas of 86 cortical neurons, and these maps were used to explore the topography of cortical activation during echolocation and its relation to the bats' cortical "chronotopy." Chronotopy predicts short echo-delays to be represented by rostral auditory cortex neurons while caudal neurons represent long echo-delays. The results show that a chronotopic activation of the cortex is evident only at loud pulse amplitudes [80-90 dB sound pressure level (SPL)]. In response to fainter pulse levels (60-70 dB SPL), as those produced as the animals zoom-in on targets, chronotopic activation of the cortex becomes less clear because units throughout the FM-FM area start firing, especially in response to short echo-delays. The fact that cortical activity is more widespread in response to combinations of short echo-delays and faint pulse amplitudes could represent an adaptation that enhances cortical activity in the late stages of echo-level compensation. PMID:27586724

  18. Genetic diversity in migratory bats: Results from RADseq data for three tree bat species at an Ohio windfarm.

    PubMed

    Sovic, Michael G; Carstens, Bryan C; Gibbs, H Lisle

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses can identify the scale at which wildlife species are impacted by human activities, and provide demographic information useful for management. Here, we use thousands of nuclear DNA genetic loci to assess whether genetic structure occurs within Lasiurus cinereus (Hoary Bat), L. borealis (Red Bat), and Lasionycteris noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat) bats found at a wind turbine site in Ohio, and to also estimate demographic parameters in each of these three groups. Our specific goals are to: 1) demonstrate the feasibility of isolating RADseq loci from these tree bat species, 2) test for genetic structure within each species, including any structure that may be associated with time (migration period), and 3) use coalescent-based modeling approaches to estimate genetically-effective population sizes and patterns of population size changes over evolutionary timescales. Thousands of loci were successfully genotyped for each species, demonstrating the value of RADseq for generating polymorphic loci for population genetic analyses in these bats. There was no evidence for genetic differentiation between groups of samples collected at different times throughout spring and fall migration, suggesting that individuals from each species found at the wind facility are from single panmictic populations. Estimates of present-day effective population sizes varied across species, but were consistently large, on the order of 10(5)-10(6). All populations show evidence of expansions that date to the Pleistocene. These results, along with recent work also suggesting limited genetic structure in bats across North America, argue that additional biomarker systems such as stable-isotopes or trace elements should be investigated as alternative and/or complementary approaches to genetics for sourcing individuals collected at single wind farm sites. PMID:26824001

  19. Genetic diversity in migratory bats: Results from RADseq data for three tree bat species at an Ohio windfarm

    PubMed Central

    Carstens, Bryan C.; Gibbs, H. Lisle

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses can identify the scale at which wildlife species are impacted by human activities, and provide demographic information useful for management. Here, we use thousands of nuclear DNA genetic loci to assess whether genetic structure occurs within Lasiurus cinereus (Hoary Bat), L. borealis (Red Bat), and Lasionycteris noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat) bats found at a wind turbine site in Ohio, and to also estimate demographic parameters in each of these three groups. Our specific goals are to: 1) demonstrate the feasibility of isolating RADseq loci from these tree bat species, 2) test for genetic structure within each species, including any structure that may be associated with time (migration period), and 3) use coalescent-based modeling approaches to estimate genetically-effective population sizes and patterns of population size changes over evolutionary timescales. Thousands of loci were successfully genotyped for each species, demonstrating the value of RADseq for generating polymorphic loci for population genetic analyses in these bats. There was no evidence for genetic differentiation between groups of samples collected at different times throughout spring and fall migration, suggesting that individuals from each species found at the wind facility are from single panmictic populations. Estimates of present-day effective population sizes varied across species, but were consistently large, on the order of 105–106. All populations show evidence of expansions that date to the Pleistocene. These results, along with recent work also suggesting limited genetic structure in bats across North America, argue that additional biomarker systems such as stable-isotopes or trace elements should be investigated as alternative and/or complementary approaches to genetics for sourcing individuals collected at single wind farm sites. PMID:26824001

  20. Satellite Telemetry and Long-Range Bat Movements

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Craig S.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Breed, Andrew C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Olival, Kevin J.; de Jong, Carol; Daszak, Peter; Field, Hume E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the long-distance movement of bats has direct relevance to studies of population dynamics, ecology, disease emergence, and conservation. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed and trialed several collar and platform terminal transmitter (PTT) combinations on both free-living and captive fruit bats (Family Pteropodidae: Genus Pteropus). We examined transmitter weight, size, profile and comfort as key determinants of maximized transmitter activity. We then tested the importance of bat-related variables (species size/weight, roosting habitat and behavior) and environmental variables (day-length, rainfall pattern) in determining optimal collar/PTT configuration. We compared battery- and solar-powered PTT performance in various field situations, and found the latter more successful in maintaining voltage on species that roosted higher in the tree canopy, and at lower density, than those that roost more densely and lower in trees. Finally, we trialed transmitter accuracy, and found that actual distance errors and Argos location class error estimates were in broad agreement. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that no single collar or transmitter design is optimal for all bat species, and that species size/weight, species ecology and study objectives are key design considerations. Our study provides a strategy for collar and platform choice that will be applicable to a larger number of bat species as transmitter size and weight continue to decrease in the future. PMID:21358823

  1. Seasonal and reproductive effects on wound healing in the flight membranes of captive big brown bats

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos-Vasquez, Alejandra; Caldwell, John R.; Faure, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The flight membranes of bats serve a number of physiological functions important for survival. Although flight membrane injuries are commonly observed in wild-caught bats, in most cases the damage heals completely. Previous studies examining wound healing in the flight membranes of bats have not taken into consideration energy constraints that could influence healing times. Wound healing results in increased energy demands, therefore we hypothesized that wound healing times would be slower during periods of energy conservation and/or energy output. In this study we used an 8 mm diameter circular punch tool to biopsy the wing membranes of healthy adult female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from a captive research colony to test the hypothesis that healing times will vary with seasonal temperature changes between the summer and winter seasons, and with reproductive condition between lactating and non-reproductive females. As expected, membrane biopsies took significantly longer to heal during the winter when bats were hibernating compared to the summer when bats were active. Surprisingly, no difference in healing time was observed between lactating and non-reproductive females. The wings of most bats fully healed, although some individuals showed wound expansion demonstrating that impaired healing is occasionally observed in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:25527646

  2. Horseshoe bats make adaptive prey-selection decisions, informed by echo cues

    PubMed Central

    Koselj, Klemen; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Siemers, Björn M.

    2011-01-01

    Foragers base their prey-selection decisions on the information acquired by the sensory systems. In bats that use echolocation to find prey in darkness, it is not clear whether the specialized diet, as sometimes found by faecal analysis, is a result of active decision-making or rather of biased sensory information. Here, we tested whether greater horseshoe bats decide economically when to attack a particular prey item and when not. This species is known to recognize different insects based on their wing-beat pattern imprinted in the echoes. We built a simulation of the natural foraging process in the laboratory, where the bats scanned for prey from a perch and, upon reaching the decision to attack, intercepted the prey in flight. To fully control echo information available to the bats and assure its unambiguity, we implemented computer-controlled propellers that produced echoes resembling those from natural insects of differing profitability. The bats monitored prey arrivals to sample the supply of prey categories in the environment and to inform foraging decisions. The bats adjusted selectivity for the more profitable prey to its inter-arrival intervals as predicted by foraging theory (an economic strategy known to benefit fitness). Moreover, unlike in previously studied vertebrates, foraging performance of horseshoe bats was not limited by costly rejections of the profitable prey. This calls for further research into the evolutionary selection pressures that sharpened the species's decision-making capacity. PMID:21367788

  3. Ecosystem services provided by bats.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Thomas H; Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth; Bauer, Dana; Lobova, Tatyana; Fleming, Theodore H

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits obtained from the environment that increase human well-being. Economic valuation is conducted by measuring the human welfare gains or losses that result from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Bats have long been postulated to play important roles in arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, and pollination; however, only recently have these ecosystem services begun to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we review the available literature on the ecological and economic impact of ecosystem services provided by bats. We describe dietary preferences, foraging behaviors, adaptations, and phylogenetic histories of insectivorous, frugivorous, and nectarivorous bats worldwide in the context of their respective ecosystem services. For each trophic ensemble, we discuss the consequences of these ecological interactions on both natural and agricultural systems. Throughout this review, we highlight the research needed to fully determine the ecosystem services in question. Finally, we provide a comprehensive overview of economic valuation of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, few studies estimating the economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats have been conducted to date; however, we outline a framework that could be used in future studies to more fully address this question. Consumptive goods provided by bats, such as food and guano, are often exchanged in markets where the market price indicates an economic value. Nonmarket valuation methods can be used to estimate the economic value of nonconsumptive services, including inputs to agricultural production and recreational activities. Information on the ecological and economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats can be used to inform decisions regarding where and when to protect or restore bat populations and associated habitats, as well as to improve public perception of bats. PMID:21449963

  4. The physics of bat biosonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rolf

    2011-10-01

    Bats have evolved one of the most capable and at the same time parsimonious sensory systems found in nature. Using active and passive biosonar as a major - and often sufficient - far sense, different bat species are able to master a wide variety of sensory tasks under very dissimilar sets of constraints. Given the limited computational resources of the bat's brain, this performance is unlikely to be explained as the result of brute-force, black-box-style computations. Instead, the animals must rely heavily on in-built physics knowledge in order to ensure that all required information is encoded reliably into the acoustic signals received at the ear drum. To this end, bats can manipulate the emitted and received signals in the physical domain: By diffracting the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic waves with intricate baffle shapes (i.e., noseleaves and outer ears), the animals can generate selectivity filters that are joint functions of space and frequency. To achieve this, bats employ structural features such as resonance cavities and diffracting ridges. In addition, some bat species can dynamically adjust the shape of their selectivity filters through muscular actuation.

  5. The Basophil Activation Test Is Safe and Useful for Confirming Drug-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk Yeon; Kim, Joo Hee; Jang, Young Sook; Choi, Jeong Hee; Park, Sunghoon; Hwang, Yong Il; Jang, Seung Hun; Jung, Ki Suck

    2016-11-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) has been suggested as a complementary method for diagnosing drug allergies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of this test in patients with drug-induced anaphylaxis. In total, 19 patients, all of whom had a history of moderate to severe anaphylaxis, were enrolled. None of the causative drugs had available in vitro tests or reliable skin tests; these drugs included, among others, first and second-generation cephalosporins, H2 blockers, and muscle relaxants. The BAT yielded positive results in 57.9% of the cases, which was similar those results of skin prick and intradermal tests (42.1% and 57.9%, respectively). When basophils were double labelled with CD63 and CD203c, both of which are basophil activation markers, the positive rate was increased from 57.9% to 73.7%. Therefore, the results of this study confirm that the BAT is a quick, reliable, and safe diagnostic tool for patients with drug-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:27582406

  6. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

  7. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul. M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T. S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

  8. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  9. Bat auditory cortex – model for general mammalian auditory computation or special design solution for active time perception?

    PubMed

    Kössl, Manfred; Hechavarria, Julio; Voss, Cornelia; Schaefer, Markus; Vater, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Audition in bats serves passive orientation, alerting functions and communication as it does in other vertebrates. In addition, bats have evolved echolocation for orientation and prey detection and capture. This put a selective pressure on the auditory system in regard to echolocation-relevant temporal computation and frequency analysis. The present review attempts to evaluate in which respect the processing modules of bat auditory cortex (AC) are a model for typical mammalian AC function or are designed for echolocation-unique purposes. We conclude that, while cortical area arrangement and cortical frequency processing does not deviate greatly from that of other mammals, the echo delay time-sensitive dorsal cortex regions contain special designs for very powerful time perception. Different bat species have either a unique chronotopic cortex topography or a distributed salt-and-pepper representation of echo delay. The two designs seem to enable similar behavioural performance. PMID:25728173

  10. Lagos bat virus transmission in an Eidolon helvum bat colony, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Freuling, Conrad M; Binger, Tabea; Beer, Martin; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Schatz, Juliane; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Oppong, Samual K; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B). PMID:26191622

  11. Bat habitat research. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;

  12. Halloween Treat: Bat Facts and Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Information on bats is provided, focusing on their diversity and distribution, characteristics, food habits, activities, roosting and social habits, reproduction, number of young and size at birth, hibernation, mortality and longevity, and movements and navigation. Additional information related to public health/disease concerns and bat management…

  13. Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dominguez, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Holmes, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

  14. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  15. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  16. Automated proximity sensing in small vertebrates: design of miniaturized sensor nodes and first field tests in bats.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, Simon; Josic, Darija; Hierold, Martin; Koelpin, Alexander; Weigel, Robert; Hartmann, Markus; Page, Rachel; Mayer, Frieder

    2016-04-01

    Social evolution has led to a stunning diversity of complex social behavior, in particular in vertebrate taxa. Thorough documentation of social interactions is crucial to study the causes and consequences of sociality in gregarious animals. Wireless digital transceivers represent a promising tool to revolutionize data collection for the study of social interactions in terms of the degree of automation, data quantity, and quality. Unfortunately, devices for automated proximity sensing via direct communication among animal-borne sensors are usually heavy and do not allow for the investigation of small animal species, which represent the majority of avian and mammalian taxa. We present a lightweight animal-borne sensor node that is built from commercially available components and uses a sophisticated scheme for energy-efficient communication, with high sampling rates at relatively low power consumption. We demonstrate the basic functionality of the sensor node under laboratory conditions and its applicability for the study of social interactions among free-ranging animals. The first field tests were performed on two species of bats in temperate and tropical ecosystems. At <2 g, this sensor node is light enough to observe a broad spectrum of taxa including small vertebrates. Given our specifications, the system was especially sensitive to changes in distance within the short range (up to a distance of 4 m between tags). High spatial resolution at short distances enables the evaluation of interactions among individuals at a fine scale and the investigation of close contacts. This technology opens new avenues of research, allowing detailed investigation of events associated with social contact, such as mating behavior, pathogen transmission, social learning, and resource sharing. Social behavior that is not easily observed becomes observable, for example, in animals living in burrows or in nocturnal animals. A switch from traditional methods to the application of

  17. 49 CFR 40.213 - What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet... requirements must STTs and BATs meet? To be permitted to act as a BAT or STT in the DOT alcohol testing program...). (1) Qualification training must be in accordance with the DOT Model BAT or STT Course, as...

  18. 49 CFR 40.213 - What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet... requirements must STTs and BATs meet? To be permitted to act as a BAT or STT in the DOT alcohol testing program...). (1) Qualification training must be in accordance with the DOT Model BAT or STT Course, as...

  19. 49 CFR 40.213 - What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet... requirements must STTs and BATs meet? To be permitted to act as a BAT or STT in the DOT alcohol testing program...). (1) Qualification training must be in accordance with the DOT Model BAT or STT Course, as...

  20. 49 CFR 40.213 - What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet... requirements must STTs and BATs meet? To be permitted to act as a BAT or STT in the DOT alcohol testing program...). (1) Qualification training must be in accordance with the DOT Model BAT or STT Course, as...

  1. 49 CFR 40.213 - What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet... requirements must STTs and BATs meet? To be permitted to act as a BAT or STT in the DOT alcohol testing program...). (1) Qualification training must be in accordance with the DOT Model BAT or STT Course, as...

  2. TESTING TESTS ON ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI MICROVARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    De Diego, Jose A.

    2010-03-15

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using {chi}{sup 2} tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and {chi}{sup 2} prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  3. Evidence that the transport-related proteins BAT and 4F2hc are not specific for amino acids: induction of Na+-dependent uridine and pyruvate transport activity by recombinant BAT and 4F2hc expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yao, S Y; Muzyka, W R; Cass, C E; Cheeseman, C I; Young, J D

    1998-01-01

    Members of the BAT and 4F2hc gene family have one or, in the case of BAT, up to four transmembane domains and induce amino acid transport systems b(o,+) (BAT) and y+L (4F2hc) when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. System b(o,+) is a Na+-independent process with a broad tolerance for cationic and zwitterionic amino acids, whereas y+L exhibits Na+-independent transport of cationic amino acids (e.g., lysine) and Na+-dependent transport of zwitterionic amino acids (e.g., leucine). Mutations in the human BAT gene are associated with type I cystinuria, a genetic disease affecting the ability of intestinal and renal brush border membranes to transport cationic amino acids and cystine. An unresolved question is whether BAT and 4F2hc themselves have catalytic (i.e., transporting) activity or whether they operate as activators of other, as yet unidentified, transporter proteins. In this report, we have investigated the transport of representatives of four different classes of organic substrates in Xenopus oocytes following injection with rat BAT or 4F2hc RNA transcripts: leucine (a control amino acid substrate), uridine (a nucleoside), pyruvate (a monocarboxylate), and choline (an amine). Both recombinant proteins induced small, statistically significant Na+-dependent fluxes of uridine and pyruvate but had no effect on choline uptake. In contrast, control oocytes injected with transcripts for conventional nucleoside and cationic amino acid transporters (rat CNT1 and murine CAT1, respectively) showed no induction of transport of either leucine or pyruvate (CNT1) or uridine or pyruvate (CAT1). These findings support the idea that BAT and 4F2hc are transport activators and minimize the possibility that they have intrinsic transport capability. The transport-regulating functions of these proteins may extend to permeants other than amino acids. PMID:10353721

  4. The Swift BAT Survey Detects Two Optical Broad Line, X-Ray Heavily Obscured Active Galaxies: NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Trippe, Margaret

    2012-06-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is discovering interesting new objects while monitoring the sky in the 14-195 keV band. Here we present the X-ray properties and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for two unusual active galactic nucleus sources. Both NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212 are absorbed, Compton-thin, but heavily obscured (N H ~ 1023 cm-2), X-ray sources at redshifts <0.1. The SEDs reveal these galaxies to be very red, with high extinction in the optical and UV. A similar SED is seen for the extremely red objects (EROs) detected in the higher redshift universe. This suggests that these unusual BAT-detected sources are a low-redshift (z Lt 1) analog to EROs, which recent evidence suggests are a class of the elusive type II quasars. Studying the multi-wavelength properties of these sources may reveal the properties of their high-redshift counterparts.

  5. Dengue virus in bats from southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR-positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  6. Insectivorous Bats Digest Chitin in the Stomach Using Acidic Mammalian Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Sara; Roswag, Anna; Becker, Nina I.; Trenczek, Tina E.; Encarnação, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i) European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii) the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri) were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet. PMID:24019876

  7. Insectivorous bats digest chitin in the stomach using acidic mammalian chitinase.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Sara; Roswag, Anna; Becker, Nina I; Trenczek, Tina E; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i) European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii) the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri) were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet. PMID:24019876

  8. Are migratory behaviours of bats socially transmitted?

    PubMed

    Baerwald, E F; Barclay, R M R

    2016-04-01

    To migrate, animals rely on endogenous, genetically inherited programmes, or socially transmitted information about routes and behaviours, or a combination of the two. In long-lived animals with extended parental care, as in bats, migration tends to be socially transmitted rather than endogenous. For a young bat to learn migration via social transmission, they would need to follow an experienced individual, most likely one roosting nearby. Therefore, we predicted that bats travelling together originate from the same place. It is also likely that young bats would follow their mothers or other kin, so we predicted that bats travelling together are more closely related to each other than bats not travelling together. To test our predictions, we used microsatellite genotypes and stable isotope values of δ (13)C, δ (15)N and δ (2)H to analyse the relatedness and geographical origins of migrating hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus/Aeorestes cinereus (Baird et al. 2015 J. Mammal. 96, 1255-1274 (doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv135)); n = 133) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans; n = 87) killed at wind turbines over two consecutive autumn migrations. Contrary to our predictions, there was no evidence that related dyads of hoary bats or silver-haired bats were killed on the same night more frequently than expected by chance, or that the number of days between the fatalities of dyad members was influenced by relatedness or latitude of origin. Our data suggest that these bats do not socially transmit migration routes and behaviours among close kin. PMID:27152208

  9. Are migratory behaviours of bats socially transmitted?

    PubMed Central

    Baerwald, E. F.; Barclay, R. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    To migrate, animals rely on endogenous, genetically inherited programmes, or socially transmitted information about routes and behaviours, or a combination of the two. In long-lived animals with extended parental care, as in bats, migration tends to be socially transmitted rather than endogenous. For a young bat to learn migration via social transmission, they would need to follow an experienced individual, most likely one roosting nearby. Therefore, we predicted that bats travelling together originate from the same place. It is also likely that young bats would follow their mothers or other kin, so we predicted that bats travelling together are more closely related to each other than bats not travelling together. To test our predictions, we used microsatellite genotypes and stable isotope values of δ13C, δ15N and δ2H to analyse the relatedness and geographical origins of migrating hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus/Aeorestes cinereus (Baird et al. 2015 J. Mammal. 96, 1255–1274 (doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv135)); n = 133) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans; n = 87) killed at wind turbines over two consecutive autumn migrations. Contrary to our predictions, there was no evidence that related dyads of hoary bats or silver-haired bats were killed on the same night more frequently than expected by chance, or that the number of days between the fatalities of dyad members was influenced by relatedness or latitude of origin. Our data suggest that these bats do not socially transmit migration routes and behaviours among close kin. PMID:27152208

  10. Predation-risk effects of predator identity on the foraging behaviors of frugivorous bats.

    PubMed

    Breviglieri, C P B; Piccoli, G C O; Uieda, W; Romero, G Q

    2013-11-01

    Predators directly and indirectly affect the density and the behavior of prey. These effects may potentially cascade down to lower trophic levels. In this study, we tested the effects of predator calls (playbacks of bird vocalizations: Tyto alba, Speotyto cunicularia, and Vanellus chilensis), predator visual stimuli (stuffed birds) and interactions of visual and auditory cues, on the behavior of frugivore phyllostomid bats in the field. In addition, we tested if the effects of predation risk cascade down to other trophic levels by measuring rates of seed dispersal of the tree Muntingia calabura. Using video recording, we found that bats significantly decreased the foraging frequency on trees when a visual cue of T. alba was present. However, no stimuli of potential predatory birds, including vocalization of T. alba, affected bat foraging frequency. There was a change in bat behavior during 7 min, but then their frequency of activity gradually increased. Consequently, the presence of T. alba decreased by up to ten times the rate of seed removal. These results indicate that risk sensitivity of frugivorous phyllostomid bats depends on predator identity and presence. Among the predators used in this study, only T. alba is an effective bat predator in the Neotropics. Sound stimuli of T. alba seem not to be a cue of predation risk, possibly because their vocalizations are used only for intraspecific communication. This study emphasizes the importance of evaluating different predator stimuli on the behavior of vertebrates, as well as the effects of these stimuli on trait-mediated trophic cascades. PMID:23657559

  11. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  12. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Cottontail, Veronika M; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Oppong, Samuel; Adu Sarkodie, Yaw; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R N; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  13. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  14. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  15. Molecular detection of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome on Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) and two species of migratory bats in the southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Riley F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Willcox, Emma V; Parise, Katy L; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-04-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), is responsible for widespread mortality of hibernating bats across eastern North America. To document P. destructans exposure and infections on bats active during winter in the southeastern US, we collected epidermal swabs from bats captured during winters 2012-13 and 2013-14 in mist nets set outside of hibernacula in Tennessee. Epidermal swab samples were collected from eight Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), six eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), and three silver-hair bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Using real-time PCR methods, we identified DNA sequences of P. destructans from skin swabs of two Rafinesque's big-eared bats, two eastern red bats, and one silver-haired bat. This is the first detection of the WNS fungus on Rafinesque's big-eared bats and eastern red bats and the second record of the presence of the fungus on silver-haired bats. PMID:25647588

  16. Geographic Variation in the Acoustic Traits of Greater Horseshoe Bats: Testing the Importance of Drift and Ecological Selection in Evolutionary Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Keping; Luo, Li; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Wei, Xuewen; Jin, Longru; Jiang, Tinglei; Li, Guohong; Feng, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of intraspecific geographic variation of signaling systems provide insight into the microevolutionary processes driving phenotypic divergence. The acoustic calls of bats are sensitive to diverse evolutionary forces, but processes that shape call variation are largely unexplored. In China, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum displays a diverse call frequency and inhabits a heterogeneous landscape, presenting an excellent opportunity for this kind of research. We quantified geographic variation in resting frequency (RF) of echolocation calls, estimated genetic structure and phylogeny of R. ferrumequinum populations, and combined this with climatic factors to test three hypotheses to explain acoustic variation: genetic drift, cultural drift, and local adaptation. Our results demonstrated significant regional divergence in frequency and phylogeny among the bat populations in China's northeast (NE), central-east (CE) and southwest (SW) regions. The CE region had higher frequencies than the NE and SW regions. Drivers of RF divergence were estimated in the entire range and just the CE/NE region (since these two regions form a clade). In both cases, RF divergence was not correlated with mtDNA or nDNA genetic distance, but was significantly correlated with geographic distance and mean annual temperature, indicating cultural drift and ecological selection pressures are likely important in shaping RF divergence among different regions in China. PMID:23950926

  17. Bat Rabies in British Columbia 1971-1985

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity and inability to fly were the most common behaviors reported in rabid bats. PMID:17422945

  18. Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

  19. Bat and Superbat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Herbert R.

    1987-01-01

    The author considers the selection of a baseball bat from a mathematical perspective. The effectiveness of a bat-slider system is specifically analyzed. Results are presented graphically to show the effects of the mass of the slider on the swing time and on the batted ball velocity. (PK)

  20. Comparison of the basophil activation test versus the nasal provocation test in establishing eligibility for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leśniak, Małgorzata; Dyga, Wojciech; Rusinek, Barbara; Mazur, Marcel; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2016-08-25

    INTRODUCTION    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common atopic disease. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only effective treatment method for AR. In uncertain diagnostic cases, before establishing eligibility for SIT, nasal provocation tests (NPTs) should be performed. However, there are numerous contraindications to performing NPTs, and there is ongoing search for an alternative in vitro method. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine whether a specific in vitro provocation, that is, the basophil activation test (BAT), may replace a specific in vivo provocation, that is, the NPT, in establishing patient's eligibility for SIT. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study included 30 patients with AR caused by allergy to house dust mite or birch pollen, referred for SIT. The assessment of basophil activation by measuring CD63 antigen expression was performed using the Flow2 CAST test. Basophils were stimulated with allergen preparation (concentrations of 5000, 500, and 50 standardized biological units) used in NPTs. BAT results were expressed as stimulation index (SI) and basophil reactivity (BR). RESULTS    Allergen concentrations of 500 and 50 SBU proved to be appropriate for basophil stimulation. Median SI and BR were higher for positive NPT results than for negative NPT results (P <0.001). Sensitivity for SI and BR was in the range from 83% to 100%; specificity, from 78% to 89%; positive predictive value, from 75% to 87%; and negative predictive value, from 89% to 100%. We observed a high correlation of the analyzed parameters for the allergen concentrations of 500 and 50 SBU (range, 0.58-0.74; P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS    If there are contraindications to performing the NPT, BAT may be regarded as an alternative in establishing patients' eligibility for SIT. The optimal concentrations of allergen preparations are 500 and 50 SBU. Both SI and BR are good indicators of basophil activation. PMID:27578221

  1. Active SWIR laboratory testing methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Curtis M.; White, Steve; Rich, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Active Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) imaging presents unique challenges to laboratory testing. It is always important to have laboratory testing that will directly relate to field performance. This paper will present the modeling and corresponding laboratory testing that was developed for these types of systems. The paper will present the modeling that was used to derive the lab metric used for verification testing of the system and provide details into the design of the lab equipment that was necessary to ensure accurate lab testing. The Noise Limited Resolution (NLR) test, first developed for low light imaging systems in the 1960s, serves as the basic lab metric for the evaluation of the active SWIR system. This test serves well for a quick test (go-no go) and is used to evaluate this system during production testing. The test derivation will be described and shown how it relates to the modeling results. The test equipment developed by Santa Barbara InfraRed (SBIR) for this application allows for accurate uniform radiance levels from an integrating sphere for both 1.06um and 1.57um imaging applications. The source has the ability to directly mimic any laser system and can provide pulsed laser source radiation from 20 nanoseconds to 500 nanoseconds resulting in levels from 0.4 to 85 nJ/cm2/sr, peak radiance levels. The light source can be triggered to replicate a laser return at any range from 100m to 100,000m. Additionally, the source provides the ability to output Mid Wave IR (MWIR) illumination through the use of a small extended area IR source in the integrating sphere. This is useful for boresighting the active SWIR sensor with other sensors such as Forward Looking IR (FLIR).

  2. Seasonal pulses of Marburg virus circulation in juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus bats coincide with periods of increased risk of human infection.

    PubMed

    Amman, Brian R; Carroll, Serena A; Reed, Zachary D; Sealy, Tara K; Balinandi, Stephen; Swanepoel, Robert; Kemp, Alan; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Comer, James A; Campbell, Shelley; Cannon, Deborah L; Khristova, Marina L; Atimnedi, Patrick; Paddock, Christopher D; Crockett, Rebekah J Kent; Flietstra, Timothy D; Warfield, Kelly L; Unfer, Robert; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Rollin, Pierre E; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2012-01-01

    Marburg virus (family Filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. Described here is an ecologic investigation of Python Cave, Uganda, where an American and a Dutch tourist acquired Marburg virus infection in December 2007 and July 2008. More than 40,000 R. aegyptiacus were found in the cave and were the sole bat species present. Between August 2008 and November 2009, 1,622 bats were captured and tested for Marburg virus. Q-RT-PCR analysis of bat liver/spleen tissues indicated ~2.5% of the bats were actively infected, seven of which yielded Marburg virus isolates. Moreover, Q-RT-PCR-positive lung, kidney, colon and reproductive tissues were found, consistent with potential for oral, urine, fecal or sexual transmission. The combined data for R. aegyptiacus tested from Python Cave and Kitaka mine indicate low level horizontal transmission throughout the year. However, Q-RT-PCR data show distinct pulses of virus infection in older juvenile bats (~six months of age) that temporarily coincide with the peak twice-yearly birthing seasons. Retrospective analysis of historical human infections suspected to have been the result of discrete spillover events directly from nature found 83% (54/65) events occurred during these seasonal pulses in virus circulation, perhaps demonstrating periods of increased risk of human infection. The discovery of two tags at Python Cave from bats marked at Kitaka mine, together with the close genetic linkages evident between viruses detected in geographically distant locations, are consistent with R. aegyptiacus bats existing as a large meta-population with associated virus circulation over broad geographic ranges. These findings provide a

  3. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; Sheffield, Steven R.; Kilgo, John C.; Bunch, Mary S.

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  4. Cloud model bat algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi

    2014-01-01

    Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: "bats approach their prey." Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization. PMID:24967425

  5. North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Ducummon, S.L.

    1997-12-31

    Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

  6. Progressive pseudogenization: vitamin C synthesis and its loss in bats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Pan, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Yijian; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-02-01

    For the past 50 years, it was believed that all bats, like humans and guinea pigs, did not synthesize vitamin C (Vc) because they lacked activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO) in their livers. Humans and guinea pigs lack the activity due to pseudogenization of GULO in their genomes, but there is no genetic evidence to show whether such loss in bats is caused by pseudogenization. Unexpectedly, our successful molecular cloning in one frugivorous bat (Rousettus leschenaultii) and one insectivorous bat (Hipposideros armiger) ascertains that no pseudogenization occurs in these species. Furthermore, we find normal GULO protein expression using bat-specific anti-GULO polyclonal antibodies in bats, evaluated by Western blotting. Most surprisingly, GULO activity assays reveal that these two bat species have retained the ability to synthesize Vc, but at low levels compared with the mouse. It is known that bats in the genus Pteropus have lost GULO activity. We then found that functional constraints acting on the GULO of Pteropus vampyrus (which lost its function) are relaxed. These results imply that the ability to synthesize Vc in bats has not been lost completely in species as previously thought. We also suggest that the evolution of bat GULO genes can be a good model to study genetic processes associated with loss-of-function. PMID:21037206

  7. A bony connection signals laryngeal echolocation in bats.

    PubMed

    Veselka, Nina; McErlain, David D; Holdsworth, David W; Eger, Judith L; Chhem, Rethy K; Mason, Matthew J; Brain, Kirsty L; Faure, Paul A; Fenton, M Brock

    2010-02-18

    Echolocation is an active form of orientation in which animals emit sounds and then listen to reflected echoes of those sounds to form images of their surroundings in their brains. Although echolocation is usually associated with bats, it is not characteristic of all bats. Most echolocating bats produce signals in the larynx, but within one family of mainly non-echolocating species (Pteropodidae), a few species use echolocation sounds produced by tongue clicks. Here we demonstrate, using data obtained from micro-computed tomography scans of 26 species (n = 35 fluid-preserved bats), that proximal articulation of the stylohyal bone (part of the mammalian hyoid apparatus) with the tympanic bone always distinguishes laryngeally echolocating bats from all other bats (that is, non-echolocating pteropodids and those that echolocate with tongue clicks). In laryngeally echolocating bats, the proximal end of the stylohyal bone directly articulates with the tympanic bone and is often fused with it. Previous research on the morphology of the stylohyal bone in the oldest known fossil bat (Onychonycteris finneyi) suggested that it did not echolocate, but our findings suggest that O. finneyi may have used laryngeal echolocation because its stylohyal bones may have articulated with its tympanic bones. The present findings reopen basic questions about the timing and the origin of flight and echolocation in the early evolution of bats. Our data also provide an independent anatomical character by which to distinguish laryngeally echolocating bats from other bats. PMID:20098413

  8. Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everette, A.L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stone, L.A.; McCance, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Bats are significant components of mammalian diversity and in many areas are of management concern. However, little attention has been given to bats in urban or prairie landscapes. In 1997 and 1998, we determined species richness, relative abundance, roosting habits, and echolocation activity of bats at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA), the largest urban unit in the United States refuge system, located on the high plains near Denver, Colorado. An inventory using mist nets revealed 3 species foraging at the site: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Big brown bats comprised 86% of captures (n=176). This pattern was consistent with continental-scale predictions of bat species richness and evenness based on availability of potential roosts. Relative abundance based on captures was similar to that revealed by echolocation detector surveys, except that the latter revealed the likely presence of at least 2 additional species (Myotis spp. and red bats [Lasiurus borealis]). Echolocation activity was significantly greater (P=0.009) in areas with tree or water habitat edges than in open prairie, suggesting that maintaining such features is important for bats. Big brown bats commuted greater distances (9.20-18.8 km) from roosts in urban core areas to foraging sites on the refuge than typically reported for this species elsewhere, emphasizing the value of the site to these bats. Urban refuges can provide habitat of importance to bat populations, but may be characterized by abundant bats that roost in buildings if a variety of other kinds of roosting habitats are unavailable.

  9. Bat Distribution Size or Shape as Determinant of Viral Richness in African Bats

    PubMed Central

    Vallo, Peter; Dallo, Thierno D.; Ngoagouni, Carine; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian; Nakouné, Emmanuel R.; Leroy, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio) with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa. PMID:24959855

  10. Bat guilds, a concept to classify the highly diverse foraging and echolocation behaviors of microchiropteran bats

    PubMed Central

    Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning. PMID:23840190

  11. Bat guilds, a concept to classify the highly diverse foraging and echolocation behaviors of microchiropteran bats.

    PubMed

    Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning. PMID:23840190

  12. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    SciTech Connect

    Mirasgedis, S. Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P.; Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A.; Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K.; Mavrotas, G.

    2008-01-15

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM{sub 10} emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO{sub 2} emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector.

  13. Deconstructing the Essential Elements of Bat Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafti, Danesh; Viswanath, Kamal; Krishnamurthy, Nagendra

    2013-11-01

    There are over 1000 bat species worldwide with a wide range of wing morphologies. Bat wing motion is characterized by an active adaptive three-dimensional highly deformable wing surface which is distinctive in its complex kinematics facilitated by the skeletal and skin membrane manipulation, large deviations from the stroke plane, and large wing cambers. In this study we use measured wing kinematics of a fruit bat in a straight line climbing path to study the fluid dynamics and the forces generated by the wing using an Immersed Boundary Method. This is followed by a proper orthogonal decomposition to investigate the dimensional complexity as well as the key kinematic modes used by the bat during a representative flapping cycle. It is shown that the complex wing motion of the fruit bat can mostly be broken down into canonical descriptors of wing motion such as translation, rotation, out of stroke deviation, and cambering, which the bat uses with great efficacy to generate lift and thrust. Research supported through a grant from the Army Research Office (ARO). Bat wing kinemtaics was provided by Dr. Kenny Breuer, Brown University.

  14. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Rabies Rabies Homepage Share Compartir Learning about bats and rabies Most bats don t have rabies. ... is easily approached could very well be sick. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies ...

  15. Batting cage performance of wood and nonwood youth baseball bats.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Rainbow, Michael J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (P<.001), significantly slower for one nonwood model, and not different for six nonwood bats when compared with wood bats. Bat impact speed significantly (P<.05) decreased with increasing bat moment of inertia for the 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old groups, but not for the other age groups. Ball-bat coefficients of restitution (BBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length. PMID:25083683

  16. Active Matrix OLED Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, George

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits

  17. House bat management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenhall, Arthur Merwin

    1982-01-01

    The soundest long-term solution for the management of bats that enter buildings and cause a nuisance problem or present a public health hazard is by batproofing the structure. Chemical toxicants do not solve house bat problems and may create worse ones. This manual describes batproofing techniques that will provide effective and acceptable alternatives for dealing with house bat problems and hazards. Recent declines in bat populations and greater appreciation of the ecological importance of bats have identified the need for sound management strategies that will encourage bat conservation while protecting human health and solving nuisance problems. One of the best deterrents against house bats is to improve the energy efficiency of the structure since bats may enter holes through which heat is lost. Heat conservation methods used for batproofing will also be eligible for Federal residential energy tax credits. The manual should be useful to homeowners, public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, conservationists, and others interested or concerned about bat interactions with humans.

  18. Monitoring Sensitive Bat Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, Kari M.

    2014-01-15

    Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as “threatened” by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as “sensitive” and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a

  19. West nile virus antibodies in bats from New Jersey and New York.

    PubMed

    Pilipski, Jacob D; Pilipskl, Lucas M; Risley, Lance S

    2004-04-01

    Eighty-three serum samples were obtained from big brown (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown (Myotis lucifugus), and northern long-eared (Myotis septentriotalis) bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), from New Jersey and New York (USA) between July and October 2002. Samples were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus. One little brown bat and one northern long-eared bat tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies. No bats had antibodies to SLE virus. This was the first large-scale investigation of WNV infection in bats in New Jersey. Additional work is needed to determine the effects of WNV on bat populations. PMID:15362837

  20. Suzaku follow-up of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei detected in Swift/BAT survey: NGC 1106, UGC 03752, and NGC 2788A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Atsushi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Kawamuro, Taiki; Ricci, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    We present the broad-band (0.5-100 keV) spectra of three heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), NGC 1106, UGC 03752, and NGC 2788A, observed with Suzaku and the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). The targets are selected from the Swift/BAT 70-month catalog on the basis of their high hardness ratio between above and below 10 keV, and their X-ray spectra are reported here for the first time. We apply three models: a conventional model utilizing an analytic reflection code, and two Monte Carlo based torus models with a doughnut-like geometry (MYTorus: Murphy & Yaqoob, 2009, MNRAS, 397, 1549) and with a nearly spherical geometry (Ikeda torus: Ikeda et al., 2009, ApJ, 692, 608). The three models can successfully reproduce the spectra, and the Ikeda torus model gives a better description than the MYTorus model in all targets. We identify NGC 1106 and NGC 2788A as Compton-thick AGNs. We point out that the common presence of unabsorbed reflection components below 7.1 keV in obscured AGNs, as observed from UGC 03752, is evidence for clumpy tori. This implies that detailed studies utilizing clumpy torus models are required to reach correct interpretation of the X-ray spectra of AGNs.

  1. Suzaku follow-up of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei detected in Swift/BAT survey: NGC 1106, UGC 03752, and NGC 2788A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Atsushi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Kawamuro, Taiki; Ricci, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We present the broad-band (0.5-100 keV) spectra of three heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), NGC 1106, UGC 03752, and NGC 2788A, observed with Suzaku and the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). The targets are selected from the Swift/BAT 70-month catalog on the basis of their high hardness ratio between above and below 10 keV, and their X-ray spectra are reported here for the first time. We apply three models: a conventional model utilizing an analytic reflection code, and two Monte Carlo based torus models with a doughnut-like geometry (MYTorus: Murphy & Yaqoob, 2009, MNRAS, 397, 1549) and with a nearly spherical geometry (Ikeda torus: Ikeda et al., 2009, ApJ, 692, 608). The three models can successfully reproduce the spectra, and the Ikeda torus model gives a better description than the MYTorus model in all targets. We identify NGC 1106 and NGC 2788A as Compton-thick AGNs. We point out that the common presence of unabsorbed reflection components below 7.1 keV in obscured AGNs, as observed from UGC 03752, is evidence for clumpy tori. This implies that detailed studies utilizing clumpy torus models are required to reach correct interpretation of the X-ray spectra of AGNs.

  2. THE SWIFT BAT SURVEY DETECTS TWO OPTICAL BROAD LINE, X-RAY HEAVILY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALAXIES: NVSS 193013+341047 AND IRAS 05218-1212

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, J. Drew; Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Trippe, Margaret E-mail: lisa.winter@colorado.edu

    2012-06-20

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is discovering interesting new objects while monitoring the sky in the 14-195 keV band. Here we present the X-ray properties and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for two unusual active galactic nucleus sources. Both NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212 are absorbed, Compton-thin, but heavily obscured (N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}), X-ray sources at redshifts <0.1. The SEDs reveal these galaxies to be very red, with high extinction in the optical and UV. A similar SED is seen for the extremely red objects (EROs) detected in the higher redshift universe. This suggests that these unusual BAT-detected sources are a low-redshift (z << 1) analog to EROs, which recent evidence suggests are a class of the elusive type II quasars. Studying the multi-wavelength properties of these sources may reveal the properties of their high-redshift counterparts.

  3. Evaluation of the antigenicity of hydrolyzed cow's milk protein formulas using the mouse basophil activation test.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Takeshi; Nakazato, Yuki; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Takeda, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas are widely used for infants with cow's milk allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the mouse basophil activation test (BAT) in the evaluation of residual antigenicity in these formulas. Whole blood samples derived from β-lactoglobulin- or casein-immunized mice were incubated with one of the following formulas: conventional, partially hydrolyzed, or extensively hydrolyzed. Basophilic activation was analyzed by flow cytometry using an IgE-dependent activation marker CD200R1 and an IgG-dependent activation marker CD200R3. Systemic anaphylaxis was induced by i.v. injection of milk formula and results were compared. Conventional formula induced pronounced changes in CD200R1 and CD200R3 expression on basophils, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not elicit any changes in these markers. Similarly, challenge with conventional formula induced anaphylaxis, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not induce anaphylaxis. Although the partially hydrolyzed formula also induced basophilic activation and systemic anaphylaxis, the magnitude of these effects was smaller than that observed with the conventional formula. Compared to CD200R1, the observed trend in CD200R3 expression resembled the results obtained from systemic anaphylaxis test more closely. These findings show that mouse BAT, in particular using CD200R3, is highly useful for the evaluation of antigenicity of milk formulas. PMID:26626100

  4. Somatosensory Substrates of Flight Control in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kara L.; Chadha, Mohit; deSouza, Laura A.; Sterbing-D’Angelo, Susanne J.; Moss, Cynthia F.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections. PMID:25937277

  5. Long-Term Survival of an Urban Fruit Bat Seropositive for Ebola and Lagos Bat Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; Emmerich, Petra; Yu, Meng; Wang, Lin-Fa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

    2010-01-01

    Ebolaviruses (EBOV) (family Filoviridae) cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur. PMID:20694141

  6. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.E.; Berry, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  7. Alphacoronaviruses in New World bats: prevalence, persistence, phylogeny, and potential for interaction with humans.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M; O'Shea, Thomas J; Oko, Lauren M; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H; Berglund, Andrew D; Klavetter, Mead L; Bowen, Richard A; Holmes, Kathryn V; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted. PMID:21589915

  8. Alphacoronaviruses in new World bats: Prevalence, persistence, phylogeny, and potential for interaction with humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborne, C.; Cryan, P.M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Ndaluka, C.; Calisher, C.H.; Berglund, A.D.; Klavetter, M.L.; Bowen, R.A.; Holmes, K.V.; Dominguez, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  9. Alphacoronaviruses in New World Bats: Prevalence, Persistence, Phylogeny, and Potential for Interaction with Humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Oko, Lauren M.; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H.; Berglund, Andrew D.; Klavetter, Mead L.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  10. A mechanism for antiphonal echolocation by Free-tailed bats

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Jenna; Bohn, Kirsten M.; Tressler, Jedediah; Smotherman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Bats are highly social and spend much of their lives echolocating in the presence of other bats. To reduce the effects of acoustic interferences from other bats' echolocation calls, we hypothesized that bats might shift the timing of their pulse emissions to minimize temporal overlap with another bat's echolocation pulses. To test this hypothesis we investigated whether free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) echolocating in the lab would shift the timing of their own pulse emissions in response to regularly repeating artificial acoustic stimuli. A robust phase-locked temporal pattern in pulse emissions was displayed by every bat tested which included an initial suppressive phase lasting more than 60 ms after stimulus onset, during which the probability of emitting pulses was reduced by more than fifty percent, followed by a compensatory rebound phase, the timing and amplitude of which were dependent on the temporal pattern of the stimulus. The responses were non-adapting and were largely insensitive to broad changes in the acoustic properties of the stimulus. Randomly occurring noise-bursts also suppressed calling for up to 60 ms, but the time-course of the compensatory rebound phase was more rapid than when the bats were responding to regularly repeating patterns of noise bursts. These findings provide the first quantitative description of how external stimuli may cause echolocating bats to alter the timing of subsequent pulse emissions. PMID:20419063

  11. Boron-10 ABUNCL Active Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-07-09

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from testing of the active mode of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory using sources and fuel pins.

  12. Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2013-08-23

    Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

  13. Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

  14. Bats avoid radar installations: could electromagnetic fields deter bats from colliding with wind turbines?

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather radars were selected, each surrounded by heterogeneous habitat. Three sampling points matched for habitat type and structure, dominant vegetation species, altitude and surrounding land class were located at increasing distances from each station. A portable electromagnetic field meter measured the field strength of the radar at three distances from the source: in close proximity (<200 m) with a high electromagnetic field (EMF) strength >2 volts/metre, an intermediate point within line of sight of the radar (200-400 m) and with an EMF strength <2 v/m, and a control site out of sight of the radar (>400 m) and registering an EMF of zero v/m. At each radar station bat activity was recorded three times with three independent sampling points monitored on each occasion, resulting in a total of 90 samples, 30 of which were obtained within each field strength category. At these sampling points, bat activity was recorded using an automatic bat recording station, operated from sunset to sunrise. Bat activity was significantly reduced in habitats exposed to an EMF strength of greater than 2 v/m when compared to matched sites registering EMF levels of zero. The reduction in bat activity was not significantly different at lower levels of EMF strength within 400 m of the radar. We predict that the reduction in bat activity within habitats exposed to electromagnetic radiation may be a result of thermal induction and an increased risk of hyperthermia. PMID:17372629

  15. Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather radars were selected, each surrounded by heterogeneous habitat. Three sampling points matched for habitat type and structure, dominant vegetation species, altitude and surrounding land class were located at increasing distances from each station. A portable electromagnetic field meter measured the field strength of the radar at three distances from the source: in close proximity (<200 m) with a high electromagnetic field (EMF) strength >2 volts/metre, an intermediate point within line of sight of the radar (200–400 m) and with an EMF strength <2 v/m, and a control site out of sight of the radar (>400 m) and registering an EMF of zero v/m. At each radar station bat activity was recorded three times with three independent sampling points monitored on each occasion, resulting in a total of 90 samples, 30 of which were obtained within each field strength category. At these sampling points, bat activity was recorded using an automatic bat recording station, operated from sunset to sunrise. Bat activity was significantly reduced in habitats exposed to an EMF strength of greater than 2 v/m when compared to matched sites registering EMF levels of zero. The reduction in bat activity was not significantly different at lower levels of EMF strength within 400 m of the radar. We predict that the reduction in bat activity within habitats exposed to electromagnetic radiation may be a result of thermal induction and an increased risk of hyperthermia. PMID:17372629

  16. Single-locus species delimitation: a test of the mixed Yule-coalescent model, with an empirical application to Philippine round-leaf bats.

    PubMed

    Esselstyn, Jacob A; Evans, Ben J; Sedlock, Jodi L; Anwarali Khan, Faisal Ali; Heaney, Lawrence R

    2012-09-22

    Prospects for a comprehensive inventory of global biodiversity would be greatly improved by automating methods of species delimitation. The general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) was recently proposed as a potential means of increasing the rate of biodiversity exploration. We tested this method with simulated data and applied it to a group of poorly known bats (Hipposideros) from the Philippines. We then used echolocation call characteristics to evaluate the plausibility of species boundaries suggested by GMYC. In our simulations, GMYC performed relatively well (errors in estimated species diversity less than 25%) when the product of the haploid effective population size (N(e)) and speciation rate (SR; per lineage per million years) was less than or equal to 10(5), while interspecific variation in N(e) was twofold or less. However, at higher but also biologically relevant values of N(e) × SR and when N(e) varied tenfold among species, performance was very poor. GMYC analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences from Philippine Hipposideros suggest actual diversity may be approximately twice the current estimate, and available echolocation call data are mostly consistent with GMYC delimitations. In conclusion, we consider the GMYC model useful under some conditions, but additional information on N(e), SR and/or corroboration from independent character data are needed to allow meaningful interpretation of results. PMID:22764163

  17. Single-locus species delimitation: a test of the mixed Yule–coalescent model, with an empirical application to Philippine round-leaf bats

    PubMed Central

    Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Evans, Ben J.; Sedlock, Jodi L.; Anwarali Khan, Faisal Ali; Heaney, Lawrence R.

    2012-01-01

    Prospects for a comprehensive inventory of global biodiversity would be greatly improved by automating methods of species delimitation. The general mixed Yule–coalescent (GMYC) was recently proposed as a potential means of increasing the rate of biodiversity exploration. We tested this method with simulated data and applied it to a group of poorly known bats (Hipposideros) from the Philippines. We then used echolocation call characteristics to evaluate the plausibility of species boundaries suggested by GMYC. In our simulations, GMYC performed relatively well (errors in estimated species diversity less than 25%) when the product of the haploid effective population size (Ne) and speciation rate (SR; per lineage per million years) was less than or equal to 105, while interspecific variation in Ne was twofold or less. However, at higher but also biologically relevant values of Ne × SR and when Ne varied tenfold among species, performance was very poor. GMYC analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences from Philippine Hipposideros suggest actual diversity may be approximately twice the current estimate, and available echolocation call data are mostly consistent with GMYC delimitations. In conclusion, we consider the GMYC model useful under some conditions, but additional information on Ne, SR and/or corroboration from independent character data are needed to allow meaningful interpretation of results. PMID:22764163

  18. Commerson's leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni) is the likely reservoir of Shimoni bat virus.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Turmelle, Amy S; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Niezgoda, Michael; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-11-01

    In this study we attempted to identify whether Commerson's leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni) is the reservoir of Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV), which was isolated from a bat of this species in 2009. An alternative explanation is that the isolation of SHIBV from H. commersoni was a result of spill-over infection from other species, particularly from the Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), which frequently sympatrically roost with H. commersoni and are known as the reservoir of the phylogenetically related Lagos bat virus (LBV). To evaluate these hypotheses, 769 bats of at least 17 species were sampled from 18 locations across Kenya during 2009?2010. Serum samples were subjected to virus neutralization tests against SHIBV and LBV. A limited amount of cross-neutralization between LBV and SHIBV was detected. However, H. commersoni bats demonstrated greater seroprevalence to SHIBV than to LBV, and greater virus-neutralizing titers to SHIBV than to LBV, with a mean difference of 1.16 log(10) (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.94-1.40; p<0.001). The opposite pattern was observed for sera of R. aegyptiacus bats, with a mean titer difference of 1.06 log(10) (95% CI: 0.83-1.30; p<0.001). Moreover, the seroprevalence in H. commersoni to SHIBV in the cave where these bats sympatrically roosted with R. aegyptiacus (and where SHIBV was isolated in 2009) was similar to their seroprevalence to SHIBV in a distant cave where no R. aegyptiacus were present (18.9% and 25.0%, respectively). These findings suggest that H. commersoni is the host species of SHIBV. Additional surveillance is needed to better understand the ecology of this virus and the potential risks of infection to humans and other mammalian species. PMID:21867415

  19. Rabies virus infection of a flying fox bat, Pteropus policephalus in Chandigarh, Northern India.

    PubMed

    Pal, S R; Arora, B; Chhuttani, P N; Broor, S; Choudhury, S; Joshi, R M; Ray, S D

    1980-09-01

    The present communication reports for the first time in South East Asia an active infection of frugivorous flying fox bat (Pteropus poliocephalus) with a virus belonging to the Rhabdo virus group -- a bat virus. Negri body like structures were demonstrated by Seller's stain and direct immunofluorescence in the brain and salivary gland of the dead bat. The virus was isolated after intracerebral inoculation of homogenate of the bat brain, salivary gland or brown fat separately in new born mice. PMID:7210163

  20. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  1. The BatR/BatS Two-Component Regulatory System Controls the Adaptive Response of Bartonella henselae during Human Endothelial Cell Infection ▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Michaela; Tropel, David; Basler, Andrea; Toller, Isabella; Raddatz, Guenter; Engel, Philipp; Huser, Sonja; Schein, Hermine; Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Dehio, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the first comprehensive study of Bartonella henselae gene expression during infection of human endothelial cells. Expression of the main cluster of upregulated genes, comprising the VirB type IV secretion system and its secreted protein substrates, is shown to be under the positive control of the transcriptional regulator BatR. We demonstrate binding of BatR to the promoters of the virB operon and a substrate-encoding gene and provide biochemical evidence that BatR and BatS constitute a functional two-component regulatory system. Moreover, in contrast to the acid-inducible (pH 5.5) homologs ChvG/ChvI of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, BatR/BatS are optimally activated at the physiological pH of blood (pH 7.4). By conservation analysis of the BatR regulon, we show that BatR/BatS are uniquely adapted to upregulate a genus-specific virulence regulon during hemotropic infection in mammals. Thus, we propose that BatR/BatS two-component system homologs represent vertically inherited pH sensors that control the expression of horizontally transmitted gene sets critical for the diverse host-associated life styles of the alphaproteobacteria. PMID:20418395

  2. Optimizing passive acoustic sampling of bats in forests.

    PubMed

    Froidevaux, Jérémy S P; Zellweger, Florian; Bollmann, Kurt; Obrist, Martin K

    2014-12-01

    Passive acoustic methods are increasingly used in biodiversity research and monitoring programs because they are cost-effective and permit the collection of large datasets. However, the accuracy of the results depends on the bioacoustic characteristics of the focal taxa and their habitat use. In particular, this applies to bats which exhibit distinct activity patterns in three-dimensionally structured habitats such as forests. We assessed the performance of 21 acoustic sampling schemes with three temporal sampling patterns and seven sampling designs. Acoustic sampling was performed in 32 forest plots, each containing three microhabitats: forest ground, canopy, and forest gap. We compared bat activity, species richness, and sampling effort using species accumulation curves fitted with the clench equation. In addition, we estimated the sampling costs to undertake the best sampling schemes. We recorded a total of 145,433 echolocation call sequences of 16 bat species. Our results indicated that to generate the best outcome, it was necessary to sample all three microhabitats of a given forest location simultaneously throughout the entire night. Sampling only the forest gaps and the forest ground simultaneously was the second best choice and proved to be a viable alternative when the number of available detectors is limited. When assessing bat species richness at the 1-km(2) scale, the implementation of these sampling schemes at three to four forest locations yielded highest labor cost-benefit ratios but increasing equipment costs. Our study illustrates that multiple passive acoustic sampling schemes require testing based on the target taxa and habitat complexity and should be performed with reference to cost-benefit ratios. Choosing a standardized and replicated sampling scheme is particularly important to optimize the level of precision in inventories, especially when rare or elusive species are expected. PMID:25558363

  3. Distribution, foraging behavior, and capture results of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodhouse, T.J.; McCaffrey, M.F.; Wright, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) has been virtually unknown in Oregon despite the existence of potential habitat in many areas of the state. In 2002 and 2003 we searched for spotted bats along the John Day, Deschutes, and Crooked Rivers and at a remote dry canyon southeast of the city of Bend in central Oregon. The species was documented through the use of mist-nets, a bat detector, and recognition of audible spotted bat calls. Spotted bats were found at 11 locations in 6 Oregon counties. Nightly activity patterns of spotted bats were unpredictable. Spotted bats were found in 78% of search areas but on only 48% of survey nights. We observed spotted bats foraging above fields and low upland slopes adjacent to rivers and creeks and along the rims of cliffs. Estimated flying heights of spotted bats ranged from 3 m to 50 m aboveground. The species was difficult to capture and was captured only after considerable experimentation with methods and materials. Three spotted bats were captured toward the end of the project in 2003 and accounted for only 0.5% of all bats captured during the study. Although we attached radio transmitters to 2 spotted bats, we found no roost locations. We believe additional spotted bat surveys in Oregon are warranted, especially in higher-elevation habitats, but recommend that to increase their effectiveness, surveys accommodate the unique foraging behavior of the species.

  4. Bats: Swift Shadows in the Twilight. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Ann C.

    This curriculum guide is all about bats and provides information through the telling of stories about bats and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the physical…

  5. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Young, Cristin C. W.; Olival, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007–2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  6. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats.

    PubMed

    Young, Cristin C W; Olival, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007-2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  7. Suzaku View of the Swift/BAT Active Galactic Nuclei (I): Spectral Analysis of Six AGNs and Evidence for Two Types of Obscured Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eguchi, Satoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tueller, Jack

    2009-01-01

    We present a systematic spectral analysis with Suzaku of six AGNs detected in the Swift/BAT hard X-ray (15-200 keV) survey, Swift J0138.6-4001, J0255.2-0011, J0350.1-5019, J0505.7-2348, J0601.9-8636, and J1628.1-5145. This is considered to be a representative sample of new AGNs without X-ray spectral information before the BAT survey. We find that the 0.5-200 keV spectra of these sources can be uniformly fit with a base model consisting of heavily absorbed (log NH >23.5/sq cm) transmitted components, scattered lights, a reflection component, and an iron-K emission line. There are two distinct groups, three "new type" AGNs (including the two sources reported by Ueda et al. 2007) with an extremely small scattered fraction (f(sub scat) < 0:5%) and strong reflection component (R = omega/2pi > or equal to 0.8 where omega is the solid angle of the reflector), and three "classical type" ones with f(sub scat > 0.5% and R < or approx. 0.8. The spectral parameters suggest that the new type has an optically thick torus for Thomson scattering (N(sub H) approx. 10(exp 25)/sq cm) with a small opening angle theta approx. 20deg viewed in a rather face-on geometry, while the classical type has a thin torus (N(sub H) approx. 10(exp 23-24)/sq cm) with theta > or approx. 30deg. We infer that a significant number of new type AGNs with an edge-on view is missing in the current all-sky hard X-ray surveys. Subject headings: galaxies: active . gamma rays: observations . X-rays: galaxies . X-rays: general

  8. Vaccinating the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus against rabies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M F; Martorelli, L F A; Aires, C C; Barros, R F; Massad, E

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the previous work of indirect oral rabies immunization of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) maintained in captivity, which demonstrated the immunogenicity of the V-RG vaccine (Vaccinia-Rabies Glycoprotein) and indicated that although the results had been encouraging, a new method for concentrating the vaccine should be tested in order to avoid vaccine loss and increase the survival proportion of bats after rabies challenge. In this study, three groups of seven bats each were tested with vaccine concentrated by ultrafiltration through a cellulose membrane. The vaccine was homogenized in Vaseline paste and applied to the back of one vector bat, which was then reintroduced into its group. A dose of 10(5.0) MICLD(50) rabies virus was used by intramuscular route to challenge the bats postvaccination. The survival proportion in the three groups after the challenge was 71.4%, 71.4% and 100%. PMID:18761044

  9. Using sutures to attach miniature tracking tags to small bats for multimonth movement and behavioral studies

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Kevin T; Weller, Theodore J; Cryan, Paul M; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Determining the detailed movements of individual animals often requires them to carry tracking devices, but tracking broad-scale movement of small bats (<30 g) has been limited by transmitter technology and long-term attachment methods. This limitation inhibits our understanding of bat dispersal and migration, particularly in the context of emerging conservation issues such as fatalities at wind turbines and diseases. We tested a novel method of attaching lightweight global positioning system (GPS) tags and geolocating data loggers to small bats. We used monofilament, synthetic, absorbable sutures to secure GPS tags and data loggers to the skin of anesthetized big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Colorado and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) in California. GPS tags and data loggers were sutured to 17 bats in this study. Three tagged bats were recaptured 7 months after initial deployment, with tags still attached; none of these bats showed ill effects from the tag. No severe injuries were apparent upon recapture of 6 additional bats that carried tags up to 26 days after attachment; however, one of the bats exhibited skin chafing. Use of absorbable sutures to affix small tracking devices seems to be a safe, effective method for studying movements of bats over multiple months, although additional testing is warranted. This new attachment method has the potential to quickly advance our understanding of small bats, particularly as more sophisticated miniature tracking devices (e.g., satellite tags) become available. PMID:26306181

  10. Using sutures to attach miniature tracking tags to small bats for multimonth movement and behavioral studies.

    PubMed

    Castle, Kevin T; Weller, Theodore J; Cryan, Paul M; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    Determining the detailed movements of individual animals often requires them to carry tracking devices, but tracking broad-scale movement of small bats (<30 g) has been limited by transmitter technology and long-term attachment methods. This limitation inhibits our understanding of bat dispersal and migration, particularly in the context of emerging conservation issues such as fatalities at wind turbines and diseases. We tested a novel method of attaching lightweight global positioning system (GPS) tags and geolocating data loggers to small bats. We used monofilament, synthetic, absorbable sutures to secure GPS tags and data loggers to the skin of anesthetized big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Colorado and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) in California. GPS tags and data loggers were sutured to 17 bats in this study. Three tagged bats were recaptured 7 months after initial deployment, with tags still attached; none of these bats showed ill effects from the tag. No severe injuries were apparent upon recapture of 6 additional bats that carried tags up to 26 days after attachment; however, one of the bats exhibited skin chafing. Use of absorbable sutures to affix small tracking devices seems to be a safe, effective method for studying movements of bats over multiple months, although additional testing is warranted. This new attachment method has the potential to quickly advance our understanding of small bats, particularly as more sophisticated miniature tracking devices (e.g., satellite tags) become available. PMID:26306181

  11. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    PubMed

    Booker, Betty M; Friedrich, Tara; Mason, Mandy K; VanderMeer, Julia E; Zhao, Jingjing; Eckalbar, Walter L; Logan, Malcolm; Illing, Nicola; Pollard, Katherine S; Ahituv, Nadav

    2016-03-01

    The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs) that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing. PMID:27019019

  12. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Mandy K.; VanderMeer, Julia E.; Zhao, Jingjing; Eckalbar, Walter L.; Logan, Malcolm; Illing, Nicola; Pollard, Katherine S.; Ahituv, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs) that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing. PMID:27019019

  13. Experimental rabies infection in haematophagous bats Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, M. F.; Martorelli, L. F. A.; Aires, C. C.; Sallum, P. C.; Durigon, E. L.; Massad, E.

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the susceptibility and serum neutralizing antibody response of Desmodus rotundus to rabies virus, bats were inoculated with a virus isolated from a naturally infected haematophagous bat. Bats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Dilutions of rabies virus containing 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 MICLD50 (lethal dose 50% for mice inoculated by the intracerebral route) were administrated in the pectoral muscle. The presence of rabies virus was detected in brain and salivary glands by fluorescent antibody, mouse inoculation and RT-PCR. The observed mortality for each virus dose was 0, 20, 20 and 60% respectively. Serum neutralizing antibodies were tested for by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, and antibody titres greater than 0.5 IU/ml were found in 53% of bats 30 days after virus inoculation. Resistance to infection was seen in bats that developed low or no detectable antibody response as well as in bats with high titres. Among the 10 bats that died of rabies, eight showed signs of paralytic rabies and two bats showed no clinical signs. PMID:15962559

  14. Standardization Activities in TMF Test Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, M. J.; Castelli, M. G.; Bressers, J.; Oehmke, R. L. T.

    1996-01-01

    No standard test practice currently exists for strain-controlled thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) testing. This paper discusses recent activities which lay the foundation for standardization of TMF test methods. Specifically, the paper documents the results of two interlaboratory TMF test programs, identifies key TMF symposia and workshops, and discusses efforts toward drafting a TMF standard test practice.

  15. Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito

  16. Mosquito Consumption by Insectivorous Bats: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito

  17. The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Jones, Gareth; Cotton, James A.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity of the mammalian auditory system has been attributed to the evolution of mechanical amplification, in which sound waves are amplified by outer hair cells in the cochlea. This process is driven by the recently discovered protein prestin, encoded by the gene Prestin. Echolocating bats use ultrasound for orientation and hunting and possess the highest frequency hearing of all mammals. To test for the involvement of Prestin in the evolution of bat echolocation, we sequenced the coding region in echolocating and nonecholocating species. The resulting putative gene tree showed strong support for a monophyletic assemblage of echolocating species, conflicting with the species phylogeny in which echolocators are paraphyletic. We reject the possibilities that this conflict arises from either gene duplication and loss or relaxed selection in nonecholocating fruit bats. Instead, we hypothesize that the putative gene tree reflects convergence at stretches of functional importance. Convergence is supported by the recovery of the species tree from alignments of hydrophobic transmembrane domains, and the putative gene tree from the intra- and extracellular domains. We also found evidence that Prestin has undergone Darwinian selection associated with the evolution of specialized constant-frequency echolocation, which is characterized by sharp auditory tuning. Our study of a hearing gene in bats strongly implicates Prestin in the evolution of echolocation, and suggests independent evolution of high-frequency hearing in bats. These results highlight the potential problems of extracting phylogenetic signals from functional genes that may be prone to convergence. PMID:18776049

  18. Internal cave gating for protection of colonies of the endangered gray bat (Myotis grisescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, K.W.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Payton, M.E.; Puckette, William L.; Hensley, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Persistent human disturbance is a major cause for the decline in populations of many cave-dwelling bats and other sensitive cave-obligate organisms. Cave gating has been used to climinate human disturbance, but few studies have assessed directly the impact of such management activities on resident bats. In northeastern Oklahoma, USA, 25 entrances of caves inhabited by two endangered species and one endangered subspecies of bats are protected from human entry with internal gates. Because cave gates may impede ingress and egress of bats at caves, we evaluated the impacts of internal gates before and after their construction at six colonies of endangered gray bats (Myotis grisescens) from 1981 to 2001. No caves were abandoned by gray bats after the construction of internal gates; in fact, total numbers of gray bats using the six caves increased from 60,130 in 1981 to 70,640 in 2001. Two caves harbored more gray bats after gating, and three caves had no change in gray bat numbers after gating. We also compared initiations of emergences at three gated and three open-passage caves in June and July 1999-2000. No differences in timing of initiation of emergence were found between colonies in gated versus open-passage caves. Our results support the use of internal gates to protect and thereby enhance recovery of colonies of endangered gray bats. Additional research is encouraged to confirm that our observations on gray bats are generally applicable to other species of cave-dwelling bats.

  19. Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Straka, Tanja Maria; Lentini, Pia Eloise; Lumsden, Linda Faye; Wintle, Brendan Anthony; van der Ree, Rodney

    2016-07-01

    Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands

  20. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  1. Bats as 'special' reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Brook, Cara E; Dobson, Andrew P

    2015-03-01

    The ongoing West African Ebola epidemic highlights a recurring trend in the zoonotic emergence of virulent pathogens likely to come from bat reservoirs that has caused epidemiologists to ask 'Are bats special reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens?' We collate evidence from the past decade to delineate mitochondrial mechanisms of bat physiology that have evolved to mitigate oxidative stress incurred during metabolically costly activities such as flight. We further describe how such mechanisms might have generated pleiotropic effects responsible for tumor mitigation and pathogen control in bat hosts. These synergisms may enable 'special' tolerance of intracellular pathogens in bat hosts; paradoxically, this may leave them more susceptible to immunopathological morbidity when attempting to clear extracellular infections such as 'white-nose syndrome' (WNS). PMID:25572882

  2. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    PubMed

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival. PMID:27547321

  3. Fermi/LAT Observations of Swift/BAT Seyfert Galaxies: On the Contribution of Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei to the Extragalactic gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R(sub X,BAT) where radio-loud objects have logR(sub X,BAT) > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be approx.2x10(exp -11) photons/sq cm/s, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the gamma-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of < approx.3x10(exp 41) erg/s. In addition, we identified 120 new Fermi/LAT sources near the Swift/BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  4. FERMI/LAT OBSERVATIONS OF SWIFT/BAT SEYFERT GALAXIES: ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI TO THE EXTRAGALACTIC {gamma}-RAY BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.

    2011-12-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R{sub X,BAT} where radio-loud objects have log R{sub X,BAT} > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the {gamma}-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}. In addition, we identified 120 new Fermi/LAT sources near the Swift/BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  5. Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinobacteria closely associated with liquorice plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza inflate BAT. in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Zhao, Chong; Liao, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yanbing; Liu, Maoke; Ao, Xiaoling; Gu, Yunfu; Liao, Decong; Xu, Kaiwei; Yu, Xiumei; Xiang, Quanju; Huang, Chengyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoping; Penttinen, Petri

    2016-07-01

    A total of 218 actinobacteria strains were isolated from wild perennial liquorice plants Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza. inflate BAT. Based on morphological characteristics, 45 and 32 strains from G. inflate and G. glabra, respectively, were selected for further analyses. According to 16S rRNA sequence analysis, most of the strains belonged to genus Streptomyces and a few strains represented the rare actinobacteria Micromonospora, Rhodococcus and Tsukamurella. A total of 39 strains from G. inflate and 27 strains from G. glabra showed antimicrobial activity against at least one indicator organism. The range of the antimicrobial activity of the strains isolated from G. glabra and G. inflate was similar. A total of 34 strains from G. inflate and 29 strains from G. glabra carried at least one of the genes encoding polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and FADH2-dependent halogenase. In the type II polyketide synthase KSα gene phylogenetic analysis, the strains were divided into two major clades: one included known spore pigment production-linked KSα sequences and other sequences were linked to the production of different types of aromatic polyketide antibiotics. Based on the antimicrobial range, the isolates that carried different KSα types were not separated from each other or from the isolates that did not carry KSα. The incongruent phylogenies of 16S rRNA and KSα genes indicated that the KSα genes were possibly horizontally transferred. In all, the liquorice plants were a rich source of biocontrol agents that may produce novel bioactive compounds. PMID:27145982

  6. Bat Rabies, Texas, 1996–2000

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Bonny C.; Smith, Jean S.; Neill, Susan U.

    2004-01-01

    Bats submitted to the Texas Department of Health (1996–2000) were speciated and tested for rabies virus antigen by direct immunofluorescence microscopy. Antigenic analysis of rabies virus–positive specimens was performed with monoclonal antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the virus; atypical or unexpected results were confirmed by genetic analysis of nucleoprotein sequence. PMID:15200840

  7. Bat-associated leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Neelam A; Reddy, Pavani; Wayne, Diane B; Sabin, Bradley

    2010-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a globally prevalent disease that affects humans, causing systemic illness that may lead to multi-organ involvement. Clinical signs include sudden fever, general malaise, muscular pain, conjunctival suffusion, and jaundice. Disease is caused by pathogenic bacteria including over 200 serologic variants. Most serologic variants have primary reservoirs in wild mammals, which continually infect and colonize domesticated animals. The organism has been recovered from rats, swine, dogs, cattle, and other animals, notably bats. Most studies have focused on domestic animals as reservoir hosts; however, because of their abundance, spatial distribution, and interrelationship with domestic animals, bats are becoming an epidemiologically significant source of leptospires. We present a case of serologically confirmed leptospirosis after bat exposure to add to the growing literature of bats as a possible source of transmission. Recognition of the common presentation of leptospirosis and Weil's disease, and identification of animal vectors, including bats, allows for the selection of appropriate antibiotic management to aid in resolution of symptomotology. PMID:20012224

  8. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Sonia Vázquez; Berciano, José M.; Nicolás, Olga; López, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodríguez; Setién, Álvaro Aguilar; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus. PMID:23648051

  9. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  10. Suzaku Observations of Moderately Obscured (Compton-thin) Active Galactic Nuclei Selected by Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tazaki, Fumie; Ricci, Claudio; Terashima, Yuichi

    2016-07-01

    We report the results obtained by a systematic, broadband (0.5–150 keV) X-ray spectral analysis of moderately obscured (Compton-thin, 22≤slant {log}{N}{{H}}\\lt 24) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with Suzaku and Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). Our sample consists of 45 local AGNs at z\\lt 0.1 with {log}{L}14-195{keV}\\gt 42 detected in the Swift/BAT 70-month survey, whose Suzaku archival data are available as of 2015 December. All spectra are uniformly fit with a baseline model composed of an absorbed cutoff power-law component, reflected emission accompanied by a narrow fluorescent iron-Kα line from cold matter (torus), and scattered emission. The main results based on the above analysis are as follows. (1) The photon index is correlated with Eddington ratio, but not with luminosity or black hole mass. (2) The ratio of the luminosity of the iron-Kα line to the X-ray luminosity an indicator of the covering fraction of the torus, shows significant anticorrelation with luminosity. (3) The averaged reflection strength derived from stacked spectra above 14 keV is larger in less luminous ({log}{L}10-50{keV}≤slant 43.3, R={1.04}-0.19+0.17) or highly obscured ({log}{N}{{H}}\\gt 23, R={1.03}-0.17+0.15) AGNs than in more luminous ({log}{L}10-50{keV}\\gt 43.3, R={0.46}-0.09+0.08) or lightly obscured ({log}{N}{{H}}≤slant 23, R={0.59}-0.10+0.09) objects. (4) The ratio of the luminosity of the [{{O}} {{IV}}] 25.89 μm line to the X-ray luminosity is significantly smaller in AGNs with lower soft X-ray scattering fractions, suggesting that the former luminosity underestimates the intrinsic power of an AGN buried in a torus of small opening angle.

  11. Bats Use Geomagnetic Field: Behavior and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Tian, L.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that numerous animals can use the Earth's magnetic field for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation, nevertheless, how animals can respond to the magnetic field remain mostly ambiguous. The intensities of the global geomagnetic field varies between 23 and 66 μT, and the geomagnetic field intensity could drop to 10% during geomagnetic polarity reversals or geomagnetic excursions. Such dramatic changes of the geomagnetic field may pose a significant challenge for the evolution of magnetic compass in animals. For examples, it is vital whether the magnetic compass can still work in such very weak magnetic fields. Our previous experiment has demonstrated that a migratory bat (Nyctalus plancyi) uses a polarity compass for orientation during roosting when exposed to an artificial magnetic field (100 μT). Recently, we experimentally tested whether the N. plancyi can sense very weak magnetic fields that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Results showed: 1) the bats can sense the magnetic north in a field strength of present-day local geomagnetic field (51μT); 2) As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (10 μT), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. Notably, as the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field with intensity range from twice to 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This allows them to orient themselves across the entire range of present-day global geomagnetic field strengths and sense very weak magnetic fields. We propose that this high sensitivity might have evolved in bats as the geomagnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years since the origin of bats. The physiological mechanisms underlying

  12. Cave-dwelling bats do not avoid TMT and 2-PT - components of predator odour that induce fear in other small mammals.

    PubMed

    Driessens, Tess; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-07-15

    Recognition and avoidance of predators is fundamental for the survival of prey animals. Here we conducted the first study assessing chemosensory predator recognition in cave-dwelling bats. We used a Y-maze approach to test the reaction of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) to two synthetically derived components of predator odour (2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline, TMT, a component of fox faeces scent; and 2-propylthietane, 2-PT, a component of mustelid scent) and to the natural scent of the least weasel (Mustela nivalis). It is well documented that rodents and several other small mammals show strong and at least partly innate fear reactions when confronted with these odorants. By contrast, the bats did not show any avoidance or fear reaction, despite the fact that relatively high odorant concentrations were presented. Furthermore, they did not react differently towards predator scent and towards acrid but otherwise neutral odours (basil or goat). The number of entries into in the Y-maze arm with the odour source and the time spent in this arm as well as the bats' overall exploratory activity and several other behavioural variables were not affected by the odour treatments. Generally, the sense of smell is well developed in bats and plays an important role in bat behavioural ecology. It is thus somewhat surprising that the bats did not show any avoidance reaction to predator scent, even though direct contact with a mustelid or fox would result in death. We discuss ecological explanations that might have prevented bats from evolving olfactory predatory recognition and avoidance. PMID:20581275

  13. Delayed Response and Biosonar Perception Explain Movement Coordination in Trawling Bats

    PubMed Central

    Giuggioli, Luca; McKetterick, Thomas J.; Holderied, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Animal coordinated movement interactions are commonly explained by assuming unspecified social forces of attraction, repulsion and alignment with parameters drawn from observed movement data. Here we propose and test a biologically realistic and quantifiable biosonar movement interaction mechanism for echolocating bats based on spatial perceptual bias, i.e. actual sound field, a reaction delay, and observed motor constraints in speed and acceleration. We found that foraging pairs of bats flying over a water surface swapped leader-follower roles and performed chases or coordinated manoeuvres by copying the heading a nearby individual has had up to 500 ms earlier. Our proposed mechanism based on the interplay between sensory-motor constraints and delayed alignment was able to recreate the observed spatial actor-reactor patterns. Remarkably, when we varied model parameters (response delay, hearing threshold and echolocation directionality) beyond those observed in nature, the spatio-temporal interaction patterns created by the model only recreated the observed interactions, i.e. chases, and best matched the observed spatial patterns for just those response delays, hearing thresholds and echolocation directionalities found to be used by bats. This supports the validity of our sensory ecology approach of movement coordination, where interacting bats localise each other by active echolocation rather than eavesdropping. PMID:25811627

  14. Temporal Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 and Survival of Myotis myotis Bats in Natural Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Amengual, Blanca; Bourhy, Hervé; López-Roig, Marc; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Many emerging RNA viruses of public health concern have recently been detected in bats. However, the dynamics of these viruses in natural bat colonies is presently unknown. Consequently, prediction of the spread of these viruses and the establishment of appropriate control measures are hindered by a lack of information. To this aim, we collected epidemiological, virological and ecological data during a twelve-year longitudinal study in two colonies of insectivorous bats (Myotis myotis) located in Spain and infected by the most common bat lyssavirus found in Europe, the European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 (EBLV-1). This active survey demonstrates that cyclic lyssavirus infections occurred with periodic oscillations in the number of susceptible, immune and infected bats. Persistence of immunity for more than one year was detected in some individuals. These data were further used to feed models to analyze the temporal dynamics of EBLV-1 and the survival rate of bats. According to these models, the infection is characterized by a predicted low basic reproductive rate (R0 = 1.706) and a short infectious period (D = 5.1 days). In contrast to observations in most non-flying animals infected with rabies, the survival model shows no variation in mortality after EBLV-1 infection of M. myotis. These findings have considerable public health implications in terms of management of colonies where lyssavirus-positive bats have been recorded and confirm the potential risk of rabies transmission to humans. A greater understanding of the dynamics of lyssavirus in bat colonies also provides a model to study how bats contribute to the maintenance and transmission of other viruses of public health concern. PMID:17593965

  15. Do Bat Gantries and Underpasses Help Bats Cross Roads Safely?

    PubMed Central

    Berthinussen, Anna; Altringham, John

    2012-01-01

    Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation. PMID:22719941

  16. Do bat gantries and underpasses help bats cross roads safely?

    PubMed

    Berthinussen, Anna; Altringham, John

    2012-01-01

    Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation. PMID:22719941

  17. Dengue virus in Mexican bats

    PubMed Central

    AGUILAR-SETIÉN, Á.; ROMERO-ALMARAZ, M. L.; SÁNCHEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, C.; FIGUEROA, R.; JUÁREZ-PALMA, L. P.; GARCÍA-FLORES, M. M.; VÁZQUEZ-SALINAS, C.; SALAS-ROJAS, M.; HIDALGO-MARTÍNEZ, A. C.; PIERLÉ, S. AGUILAR; GARCÍA-ESTRADA, C.; RAMOS, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals belonging to five families, 12 genera, and 19 different species of bats from dengue endemic areas in the Gulf and Pacific coasts of Mexico were examined by ELISA, RT–PCR, and for the presence of dengue virus (DV) NS1 protein. Nine individuals from four species were seropositive by ELISA: three insectivorous, Myotis nigricans (four positives/12 examined), Pteronotus parnellii (3/19), and Natalus stramineus (1/4), and one frugivorous Artibeus jamaicensis (1/35) (12·86% seroprevalence in positive species). DV serotype 2 was detected by RT–PCR in four samples from three species (all from the Gulf coast – rainy season): two frugivorous, A. jamaicensis (2/9), and Carollia brevicauda (1/2), and one insectivorous, M. nigricans (1/11). The latter was simultaneously positive for NS1 protein. DV RT–PCR positive animals were all antibody seronegative. M. nigricans showed positive individuals for all three tests. This is the first evidence suggesting the presence of DV in bats from Mexico. PMID:18325131

  18. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from Colorado and New Mexico, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Richard A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Shankar, Vidya; Neubaum, Melissa A.; Neubaum, Daniel J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005. A subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus RNA in saliva. We sampled little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in Larimer County, Colorado; big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in Morgan County, Colorado; and big brown bats at five maternity roosts in Larimer County. We also sampled hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) captured while drinking or foraging over water in Bernalillo County, New Mexico and at various locations in Larimer County. Big brown bats, little brown bats, long-legged myotis (Myotis volans), long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis), and fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) were also sampled over water in Larimer County. All species except long-eared myotis included individuals with RVNA, with prevalences ranging from 7% in adult female silver-haired bats to 32% in adult female hoary bats. None of the bats had detectable rabies-virus RNA in oropharyngeal swabs, including 51 bats of 5 species that had RVNA in serum. Antibody-positive bats were present in nine of the 10 maternity colonies sampled. These data suggest that wild bats are commonly exposed to rabies virus and develop a humoral immune response suggesting some degree of viral replication, but many infections fail to progress to clinical disease.

  19. Hibernation in warm hibernacula by free-ranging Formosan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros terasensis, in subtropical Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Nan; Karasov, William H

    2011-01-01

    The subtropical Formosan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros terasensis (Hipposideridae), show little activity during winter. It has never been determined whether in winter they exhibit hibernation and multi-day periods of low body temperature. The objectives of this study were to understand the winter activity pattern of H. terasensis and to examine whether it enters hibernation during winter. We monitored the skin temperature (T (sk)) of nine free-ranging H. terasensis by attaching temperature-sensitive transmitters during the winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The results showed that H. terasensis entered hibernation from late December to early March. H. terasensis, however, differs from temperate hibernating bats in several ways: (1) it is capable of hibernation at roost temperature (T (r)) and T (sk) > 20°C; (2) hibernation at high T (r) and T (sk) does not lead to a relatively high arousal frequency; and (3) adults do not increase body mass in autumn prior to hibernation. To test the hypothesis that H. terasensis feeds frequently during the hibernation period to compensate for the high energetic demands of hibernating in warm hibernacula, we recorded the number and timing of bats that emerged from and entered into a hibernaculum, which contained more than 1,000 bats. From 30 December 2007 to 29 February 2008, an average of only 8.4 bats (<1%) per night (29 nights) emerged from the hibernaculum. Adult bats lost an average of 13-14% of body mass during an approximately 70-day hibernation period. We suggest that H. terasensis might have remarkably low torpid metabolic rates during hibernation. PMID:20714727

  20. Acoustic behavior of echolocating bats in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Cynthia; Ghose, Kaushik; Jensen, Marianne; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2001-05-01

    The echolocating bat controls the direction of its sonar beam, just as visually dominant animals control the movement of their eyes to foveate targets of interest. The sonar beam aim of the echolocating bat can therefore serve as an index of the animal's attention to objects in the environment. Until recently, spatial attention has not been studied in the context of echolocation, perhaps due to the difficulty in obtaining an objective measure. Here, we describe measurements of the bat's sonar beam aim, serving as an index of acoustic gaze and attention to objects, in tasks that require localization of obstacles and insect prey. Measurements of the bat's sonar beam aim are taken from microphone array recordings of vocal signals produced by a free-flying bat under experimentally controlled conditions. In some situations, the animal relies on spatial memory over reflected sounds, perhaps because its perceptual system cannot easily organize cascades of echoes from obstacles and prey. This highlights the complexity of the bat's orientation behavior, which can alternate between active sensing and spatial memory systems. The bat's use of spatial memory for orientation also will be addressed in this talk. [Work supported by NSF-IBN-0111973 and the Danish Research Council.

  1. Vision Impairs the Abilities of Bats to Avoid Colliding with Stationary Obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Orbach, Dara N.; Fenton, Brock

    2010-01-01

    Background Free-flying insectivorous bats occasionally collide with stationary objects they should easily detect by echolocation and avoid. Collisions often occur with lighted objects, suggesting ambient light may deleteriously affect obstacle avoidance capabilities. We tested the hypothesis that free-flying bats may orient by vision when they collide with some obstacles. We additionally tested whether acoustic distractions, such as “distress calls” of other bats, contributed to probabilities of collision. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the role of visual cues in the collisions of free-flying little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with stationary objects, we set up obstacles in an area of high bat traffic during swarming. We used combinations of light intensities and visually dissimilar obstacles to verify that bats orient by vision. In early August, bats collided more often in the light than the dark, and probabilities of collision varied with the visibility of obstacles. However, the probabilities of collisions altered in mid to late August, coincident with the start of behavioural, hormonal, and physiological changes occurring during swarming and mating. Distress calls did not distract bats and increase the incidence of collisions. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that visual cues are more important for free-flying bats than previously recognized, suggesting integration of multi-sensory modalities during orientation. Furthermore, our study highlights differences between responses of captive and wild bats, indicating a need for more field experiments. PMID:21085481

  2. Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities.

    PubMed

    Robinson Willmott, Julia; Forcey, Greg M; Hooton, Lauren A

    2015-11-01

    A scarcity of baseline data is a significant barrier to understanding and mitigating potential impacts of offshore development on birds and bats. Difficult and sometimes unpredictable conditions coupled with high expense make gathering such data a challenge. The Acoustic and Thermographic Offshore Monitoring (ATOM) system combines thermal imaging with acoustic and ultrasound sensors to continuously monitor bird and bat abundance, flight height, direction, and speed. ATOM's development and potential capabilities are discussed, and illustrated using onshore and offshore test data obtained over 16 months in the eastern USA. Offshore deployment demonstrated birds tending to fly into winds and activity declining sharply in winds >10 km h(-1). Passerines showed distinct seasonal changes in flight bearing and flew higher than non-passerines. ATOM data could be used to automatically shut down wind turbines to minimize collision mortality while simultaneously providing information for modeling activity in relation to weather and season. PMID:26508344

  3. The wake of hovering flight in bats.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Jonas; Hedenström, Anders; Winter, York; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-08-01

    Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this has until now never been studied. Here we trained nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, to hover at a feeder and using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in conjunction with high-speed kinematic analysis we show that hovering nectar-feeding bats produce a series of bilateral stacked vortex loops. Vortex visualizations suggest that the downstroke produces the majority of the weight support, but that the upstroke contributes positively to the lift production. However, the relative contributions from downstroke and upstroke could not be determined on the basis of the wake, because wake elements from down- and upstroke mix and interact. We also use a modified actuator disc model to estimate lift force, power and flap efficiency. Based on our quantitative wake-induced velocities, the model accounts for weight support well (108%). Estimates of aerodynamic efficiency suggest hovering flight is less efficient than forward flapping flight, while the overall energy conversion efficiency (mechanical power output/metabolic power) was estimated at 13%. PMID:26179990

  4. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  5. Mechanics of swinging a bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on the swing of a baseball bat are analyzed to extract the basic mechanics of the swing. The force acting on the bat is determined from the velocity of the center of mass, and the angular velocity of the bat provides additional information on the couple exerted by the two hands. The motion of the bat was calculated for other force-couple combinations to determine their effects on the swing of the bat. It was found that a couple is needed to start the swing, and a large opposing couple is required near the end of the swing to prevent the bat rotating through an excessive angle before it impacts with the ball.

  6. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

  7. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Hayman, David T S; Luis, Angela D; Peel, Alison J; Plowright, Raina K; Wood, James L N

    2014-05-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host-virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

  8. Bats and bell holes: The microclimatic impact of bat roosting, using a case study from Runaway Bay Caves, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2009-05-01

    The microclimatic effect of bats roosting in bell holes (blind vertical cylindrical cavities in cave roofs) in Runaway Bay Caves, Jamaica, was measured and the potential impact of their metabolism on dissolution modelled. Rock temperature measurements showed that bell holes with bats get significantly hotter than those without bats during bat roosting periods (by an average of 1.1 °C). The relationship is clearest for bell holes with more than about 300 g aggregate bat body mass and for bell holes that are moderately wide and deep, of W:D ratio between 0.8 and 1.6. Measurement of temperature decay after abandonment showed that rock temperature returns to normal each day during bat foraging periods. Metabolic activity from a typical population of 400 g bat (10 individuals) yields 41 g of CO 2, 417.6 kJ of heat, and 35.6 g of H 2O in each 18 hour roost period, and could produce a water film of ~ 0.44 mm, that is saturated with CO 2 at ~ 5%. The resultant rock dissolution is estimated at ~ 0.005 cm 3 CaCO 3 per day. The metabolic heat ensures that the focus of dissolution remains vertical regardless of geological controls. A typical bell hole 1 m deep may be formed in some 50,000 years by this mechanism alone. Addition of other erosional mechanisms, such as direct bacterial bio-erosion, or the formation of exfoliative organo-rock complexes, would accelerate the rate of formation. The hypothesis is developed that bell holes are initiated and formed by bat-mediated condensation corrosion and are governed by geographic distribution of clustering bats and their roosting behaviour.

  9. [Hemoparasites of bats in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Raharimanga, V; Ariey, F; Cardiff, S G; Goodman, S M; Tall, A; Rousset, D; Robert, V

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in wild malagasy bats. Among the 440 bats, belonging to 14 species sampled in 5 localities in different bio-climatic zones of the island, 93 (21%) showed at least 1 haemoparasite with, by order of frequency, Haemoproteidae (15.7% of 440 bats), microfilariae (7.0%) and Trypanosoma (0.7%). Among these 93 bats, 92 (99%) belonged to the family Vespertilionidae. Four bat species, all endemic to the Madagascar region (Madagascar and Comoros), were found to harbour parasites: Miniopterus manavi with Haemoproteidae (38% of 129 individuals), microfilariae (23%) and Trypanosoma (2%); Myotis goudoti with Haemoproteidae (24% of 68 individuals) and microfilariae (1%); Miniopterus gleni with Haemoproteidae (23% of 13 individuals); and Triaenops furculus with Haemoproteidae (4% of 28 individuals). The sex of bats was not linked to parasite prevalence. Within Miniopterus manavi, those individuals with greater weight also had a higher prevalence of microfilariae; and within the individuals harbouring microfilariae the greatest weights corresponded to the highest density of microfilariae. Ten bat species (with 202 individuals examined) were negative for any haemoparasite. This study is the first to provide evidence of haemoparasites in Malagasy bats; it provides interesting insights, especially concerning the parasite distribution per bat species and families, the pathogenicity of this type of parasitism and the parasite transmission by arthropod vectors. PMID:15678820

  10. Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming [corrected]. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

  11. Numerical and Functional Responses of Forest Bats to a Major Insect Pest in Pine Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances. We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

  12. Identification of Biocontrol Agents to Control the Fungal Pathogen, Geomyces destructans, in Bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, S.; Cheng, T.

    2013-12-01

    The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) causes the disease White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats and is estimated to have killed millions of bats since its emergence in North America in 2006. Gd is predicted to cause the local extinction of at least three bat species if rates of decline continue unabated. Given the devastating impacts of Gd to bat populations, identifying a viable method for controlling the pathogen is pertinent for conservation of affected bat species. Our work focuses on identifying naturally-occurring skin bacteria on bats that are antagonistic to Gd that could potentially be used as a biocontrol. We cultured bacteria from skin swabs taken from wild bats (Myotis lucifugus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis sodalis, Perimyotis subflavus). We conducted challenge experiments to identify bacterial strains that inhibited Gd growth. Bacteria that exhibited antifungal properties were identified using 16S and gyrB markers. Our methods identified several bacteria in the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex as potential biocontrol agents. Future work will continue to test the viability of these bacteria as biocontrol agents via experimental treatments with live captive bats. The failure of previous non-biocontrol methods highlights the importance of developing these bacteria as a biologically-friendly method for controlling Gd. A bat infected with Geomyces destructans. Photo by West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Bacterial culture from the swab of a bat's wings

  13. Improved Bat Algorithm Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. PMID:25165733

  14. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?

    PubMed

    Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

    2013-11-01

    Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based on previously published and unpublished data, validate previous published results with more precise relatedness estimates, and describe current evidence for and against alternative explanations for its evolutionary stability. Although correlational evidence indicates a role for both direct and indirect fitness benefits, unequivocally demonstrating reciprocity in vampire bats still requires testing if and how bats respond to non-reciprocation. PMID:24505498

  15. Improved bat algorithm applied to multilevel image thresholding.

    PubMed

    Alihodzic, Adis; Tuba, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. PMID:25165733

  16. High prevalence and diversity of viruses of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, family Herpesviridae, in fecal specimens from bats of different species in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-yan; Qiu, Min; Chen, Shao-wei; Xiao, Jian-peng; Ma, Li-zhen; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jun-hua; Zhang, Qiong-hua; Li, Xing; Chen, Zhong; Wu, Yi; Chen, Hui-fang; Jiang, Li-na; Xiong, Yi-quan; Ma, Shu-juan; Zhong, Xue-shan; Huo, Shu-ting; Ge, Jing; Cen, Shu-wen; Chen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the detection of herpesviruses (HVs) in bats. However, the prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of HVs in bats are still poorly understood. To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of bat HVs in southern China, 520 fecal samples from eight bat species were collected in four geographic regions of southern China. Of these samples, 73 (14.0 %) tested positive for HVs using nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high degree of molecular diversity of HVs in bats of different species from different geographic regions. Our study provides evidence for co-evolution of bats and HVs. PMID:26446885

  17. Geothermal reservoir characterization through active thermal testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Martin; Klepikova, Maria; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Fisch, Hansruedi; Loew, Simon; Amann, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Development and deployment of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) as renewable energy resources are part of the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050. To pioneer further EGS projects in Switzerland, a decameter-scale in-situ hydraulic stimulation and circulation (ISC) experiment has been launched at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS). The experiments are hosted in a low fracture density volume of the Grimsel granodiorite, similar to those expected at the potential enhanced geothermal system sites in the deep basement rocks of Northern Switzerland. One of the key goals of this multi-disciplinary experiment is to provide a pre- and post-stimulation characterization of the hydraulic and thermal properties of the stimulated fracture network with high resolution and to determine natural structures controlling the fluid flow and heat transport. Active thermal tests including thermal dilution tests and heat tracer tests allow for investigation of groundwater fluid flow and heat transport. Moreover, the spatial and temporal integrity of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) monitoring upgrades the potential and applicability of thermal tests in boreholes (e.g. Read et al., 2013). Here, we present active thermal test results and discuss the advantages and limitations of this method compared to classical approaches (hydraulic packer tests, solute tracer tests, flowing fluid electrical conductivity logging). The experimental tests were conducted in two boreholes intersected by a few low to moderately transmissive fault zones (fracture transmissivity of about 1E-9 m2/s - 1E-7 m2/s). Our preliminary results show that even in low-permeable environments active thermal testing may provide valuable insights into groundwater and heat transport pathways. Read T., O. Bour, V. Bense, T. Le Borgne, P. Goderniaux, M.V. Klepikova, R. Hochreutener, N. Lavenant, and V. Boschero (2013), Characterizing groundwater flow and heat transport in fractured rock using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

  18. Evaporative water loss is a plausible explanation for mortality of bats from white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Willis, Craig K R; Menzies, Allyson K; Boyles, Justin G; Wojciechowski, Michal S

    2011-09-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused alarming declines of North American bat populations in the 5 years since its discovery. Affected bats appear to starve during hibernation, possibly because of disruption of normal cycles of torpor and arousal. The importance of hydration state and evaporative water loss (EWL) for influencing the duration of torpor bouts in hibernating mammals recently led to "the dehydration hypothesis," that cutaneous infection of the wing membranes of bats with the fungus Geomyces destructans causes dehydration which in turn, increases arousal frequency during hibernation. This hypothesis predicts that uninfected individuals of species most susceptible to WNS, like little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), exhibit high rates of EWL compared to less susceptible species. We tested the feasibility of this prediction using data from the literature and new data quantifying EWL in Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri), a species that is, like other European bats, sympatric with G. destructans but does not appear to suffer significant mortality from WNS. We found that little brown bats exhibited significantly higher rates of normothermic EWL than did other bat species for which comparable EWL data are available. We also found that Natterer's bats exhibited significantly lower rates of EWL, in both wet and dry air, compared with values predicted for little brown bats exposed to identical relative humidity (RH). We used a population model to show that the increase in EWL required to cause the pattern of mortality observed for WNS-affected little brown bats was small, equivalent to a solitary bat hibernating exposed to RH of ∼95%, or clusters hibernating in ∼87% RH, as opposed to typical near-saturation conditions. Both of these results suggest the dehydration hypothesis is plausible and worth pursuing as a possible explanation for mortality of bats from WNS. PMID:21742778

  19. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    PubMed

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior. PMID:26445502

  20. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5–6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1–0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior. PMID:26445502

  1. Detection and Prevalence Patterns of Group I Coronaviruses in Bats, Northern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Ipsen, Anne; Seebens, Antje; Göttsche, Matthias; Panning, Marcus; Drexler, Jan Felix; Petersen, Nadine; Annan, Augustina; Grywna, Klaus; Müller, Marcel; Pfefferle, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    We tested 315 bats from 7 different bat species in northern Germany for coronaviruses by reverse transcription–PCR. The overall prevalence was 9.8%. There were 4 lineages of group I coronaviruses in association with 4 different species of verspertilionid bats (Myotis dasycneme, M. daubentonii, Pipistrellus nathusii, P. pygmaeus). The lineages formed a monophyletic clade of bat coronaviruses found in northern Germany. The clade of bat coronaviruses have a sister relationship with a clade of Chinese type I coronaviruses that were also associated with the Myotis genus (M. ricketti). Young age and ongoing lactation, but not sex or existing gravidity, correlated significantly with coronavirus detection. The virus is probably maintained on the population level by amplification and transmission in maternity colonies, rather than being maintained in individual bats. PMID:18400147

  2. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  3. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  4. Hibernation energetics of free-ranging little brown bats.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Kristin A; Willis, Craig K R

    2012-06-15

    Hibernation physiology and energy expenditure have been relatively well studied in large captive hibernators, especially rodents, but data from smaller, free-ranging hibernators are sparse. We examined variation in the hibernation patterns of free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) using temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters. First, we aimed to test the hypothesis that age, sex and body condition affect expression of torpor and energy expenditure during hibernation. Second, we examined skin temperature to assess whether qualitative differences in the thermal properties of the hibernacula of bats, compared with the burrows of hibernating rodents, might lead to different patterns of torpor and arousal for bats. We also evaluated the impact of carrying transmitters on body condition to help determine the potential impact of telemetry studies. We observed large variation in the duration of torpor bouts within and between individuals but detected no effect of age, sex or body condition on torpor expression or estimates of energy expenditure. We observed the use of shallow torpor in the midst of periodic arousals, which may represent a unique adaptation of bats for conservation of energy during the most costly phase of hibernation. There was no difference in the body condition of hibernating bats outfitted with transmitters compared with that of control bats captured from the same hibernaculum at the same time. This study provides new information on the energetics of hibernation in an under-represented taxon and baseline data important for understanding how white-nose syndrome, a new disease devastating populations of hibernating bats in North America, may alter the expression of hibernation in affected bats. PMID:22623203

  5. Bartonella spp. in bats, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-12-01

    We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in specific host bat species. All isolates from R. aegyptiacus, C. afra, and T. persicus bats clustered in separate monophyletic groups. In contrast, E. helvum and Miniopterus spp. bats harbored strains that clustered in several groups. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these agents are responsible for human illnesses in the region. PMID:21122216

  6. Forest structure affects trophic linkages: How silvicultural disturbance impacts bats and their insect prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, L.E.; Lacki, M.J.; Britzke, E.R.; Buehler, D.A.; Keyser, P.D.; Larkin, J.L.; Rodewald, A.D.; Wigley, T.B.; Wood, P.B.; Rieske, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate insectivores such as bats are a pervasive top-down force on prey populations in forest ecosystems. Conservation focusing on forest-dwelling bats requires understanding of community-level interactions between these predators and their insect prey. Our study assessed bat activity and insect occurrence (abundance and diversity) across a gradient of forest disturbance and structure (silvicultural treatments) in the Central Appalachian region of North America. We conducted acoustic surveys of bat echolocation concurrent with insect surveys using blacklight and malaise traps over 2 years. Predator activity, prey occurrence and prey biomass varied seasonally and across the region. The number of bat echolocation pulses was positively related with forest disturbance, whereas prey demonstrated varied trends. Lepidopteran abundance was negatively related with disturbance, while dipteran abundance and diversity was positively related with disturbance. Coleoptera were unaffected. Neither bat nor insect response variables differed between plot interiors and edges. Correlations between bat activity and vegetative structure reflected differences in foraging behavior among ensembles. Activity of myotine bats was correlated with variables describing sub-canopy vegetation, whereas activity of lasiurine bats was more closely correlated with canopy-level vegetation. Lepidopteran abundance was correlated with variables describing canopy and sub-canopy vegetation, whereas coleopteran and dipteran occurrence were more closely correlated with canopy-level vegetative structure. Our study demonstrates regional variation in bat activity and prey occurrence across a forested disturbance gradient. Land management and conservation efforts should consider the importance of vegetation structure and plant species richness to sustain forest-dwelling bats and their insect prey.

  7. Acoustic mirror effect increases prey detection distance in trawling bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemers, Björn M.; Baur, Eric; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2005-06-01

    Many different and phylogenetically distant species of bats forage for insects above water bodies and take insects from and close to the surface; the so-called ‘trawling behaviour’. Detection of surface-based prey by echolocation is facilitated by acoustically smooth backgrounds such as water surfaces that reflect sound impinging at an acute angle away from the bat and thereby render a prey object acoustically conspicuous. Previous measurements had shown that the echo amplitude of a target on a smooth surface is higher than that of the same target in mid-air, due to an acoustic mirror effect. In behavioural experiments with three pond bats (Myotis dasycneme), we tested the hypothesis that the maximum distances at which bats can detect prey are larger for prey on smooth surfaces than for the same prey in an airborne situation. We determined the moment of prey detection from a change in echolocation behaviour and measured the detection distance in 3D space from IR-video recordings using stereo-photogrammetry. The bats showed the predicted increase in detection distance for prey on smooth surfaces. The acoustic mirror effect therefore increases search efficiency and contributes to the acoustic advantages encountered by echolocating bats when foraging at low heights above smooth water surfaces. These acoustic advantages may have favoured the repeated evolution of trawling behaviour.

  8. Bats respond to polarity of a magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Pan, Yongxin; Parsons, Stuart; Walker, Michael; Zhang, Shuyi

    2007-01-01

    Bats have been shown to use information from the Earth's magnetic field during orientation. However, the mechanism underlying this ability remains unknown. In this study we investigated whether bats possess a polarity- or inclination-based compass that could be used in orientation. We monitored the hanging position of adult Nyctalus plancyi in the laboratory in the presence of an induced magnetic field of twice Earth-strength. When under the influence of a normally aligned induced field the bats showed a significant preference for hanging at the northern end of their roosting basket. When the vertical component of the field was reversed, the bats remained at the northern end of the basket. However, when the horizontal component of the field was reversed, the bats changed their positions and hung at the southern end of the basket. Based on these results, we conclude that N. plancyi, unlike all other non-mammalian vertebrates tested to date, uses a polarity-based compass during orientation in the roost, and that the same compass is also likely to underlie bats' long-distance navigation abilities. PMID:17848365

  9. Spatial expansions and travelling waves of rabies in vampire bats

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama, William; Streicker, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    A major obstacle to anticipating the cross-species transmission of zoonotic diseases and developing novel strategies for their control is the scarcity of data informing how these pathogens circulate within natural reservoir populations. Vampire bats are the primary reservoir of rabies in Latin America, where the disease remains among the most important viral zoonoses affecting humans and livestock. Unpredictable spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies within bat populations have precluded anticipation of outbreaks and undermined widespread bat culling programs. By analysing 1146 vampire bat-transmitted rabies (VBR) outbreaks in livestock across 12 years in Peru, we demonstrate that viral expansions into historically uninfected zones have doubled the recent burden of VBR. Viral expansions are geographically widespread, but severely constrained by high elevation peaks in the Andes mountains. Within Andean valleys, invasions form wavefronts that are advancing towards large, unvaccinated livestock populations that are heavily bitten by bats, which together will fuel high transmission and mortality. Using spatial models, we forecast the pathways of ongoing VBR epizootics across heterogeneous landscapes. These results directly inform vaccination strategies to mitigate impending viral emergence, reveal VBR as an emerging rather than an enzootic disease and create opportunities to test novel interventions to manage viruses in bat reservoirs.

  10. A BAT-Centric Approach to the Treatment of Diabetes: Turn on the Brain.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Cowley, Michael A; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2016-07-12

    The marked (18)F-flurodeoxyglucose uptake by brown adipose tissue (BAT) enabled its identification in human positron emission tomography imaging studies. In this Perspective, we discuss how glucose extraction by BAT and beige adipose tissue (BeAT) sufficiently impacts on glycemic control. We then present a unique overview of the central circuits modulated by gluco-regulatory hormones, temperature, and glucose itself, which converge on sympathetic preganglionic neurons and whose activation syphon circulating glucose into BAT/BeAT. Targeted stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system at specific nodes to selectively recruit BAT/BeAT may represent a safe and effective means of treating diabetes. PMID:27292605

  11. Energetic benefits of enhanced summer roosting habitat for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) recovering from white-nose syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Alana; Willis, Craig K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat modification can improve outcomes for imperilled wildlife. Insectivorous bats in North America face a range of conservation threats, including habitat loss and white-nose syndrome (WNS). Even healthy bats face energetic constraints during spring, but enhancement of roosting habitat could reduce energetic costs, increase survival and enhance recovery from WNS. We tested the potential of artificial heating of bat roosts as a management tool for threatened bat populations. We predicted that: (i) after hibernation, captive bats would be more likely to select a roost maintained at a temperature near their thermoneutral zone; (ii) bats recovering from WNS at the end of hibernation would show a stronger preference for heated roosts compared with healthy bats; and (iii) heated roosts would result in biologically significant energy savings. We housed two groups of bats (WNS-positive and control) in separate flight cages following hibernation. Over 7.5 weeks, we quantified the presence of individuals in heated vs. unheated bat houses within each cage. We then used a series of bioenergetic models to quantify thermoregulatory costs in each type of roost under a number of scenarios. Bats preferentially selected heated bat houses, but WNS-affected bats were much more likely to use the heated bat house compared with control animals. Our model predicted energy savings of up to 81.2% for bats in artificially heated roosts if roost temperature was allowed to cool at night to facilitate short bouts of torpor. Our results are consistent with research highlighting the importance of roost microclimate and suggest that protection and enhancement of high-quality, natural roosting environments should be a priority response to a range of threats, including WNS. Our findings also suggest the potential of artificially heated bat houses to help populations recover from WNS, but more work is needed before these might be implemented on a large scale. PMID:27293749

  12. Energetic benefits of enhanced summer roosting habitat for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) recovering from white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Alana; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-01-01

    Habitat modification can improve outcomes for imperilled wildlife. Insectivorous bats in North America face a range of conservation threats, including habitat loss and white-nose syndrome (WNS). Even healthy bats face energetic constraints during spring, but enhancement of roosting habitat could reduce energetic costs, increase survival and enhance recovery from WNS. We tested the potential of artificial heating of bat roosts as a management tool for threatened bat populations. We predicted that: (i) after hibernation, captive bats would be more likely to select a roost maintained at a temperature near their thermoneutral zone; (ii) bats recovering from WNS at the end of hibernation would show a stronger preference for heated roosts compared with healthy bats; and (iii) heated roosts would result in biologically significant energy savings. We housed two groups of bats (WNS-positive and control) in separate flight cages following hibernation. Over 7.5 weeks, we quantified the presence of individuals in heated vs. unheated bat houses within each cage. We then used a series of bioenergetic models to quantify thermoregulatory costs in each type of roost under a number of scenarios. Bats preferentially selected heated bat houses, but WNS-affected bats were much more likely to use the heated bat house compared with control animals. Our model predicted energy savings of up to 81.2% for bats in artificially heated roosts if roost temperature was allowed to cool at night to facilitate short bouts of torpor. Our results are consistent with research highlighting the importance of roost microclimate and suggest that protection and enhancement of high-quality, natural roosting environments should be a priority response to a range of threats, including WNS. Our findings also suggest the potential of artificially heated bat houses to help populations recover from WNS, but more work is needed before these might be implemented on a large scale. PMID:27293749

  13. Infestation and seasonal activity of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Maghreb mouse-eared bat, Myotis punicus Felten, 1977, in northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bendjeddou, Mohammed Lamine; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair S; BaniHani, Rihan

    2016-06-01

    Infestation of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 on Myotis punicus Felten, 1977 from two sites (Trios Tunnel and Sidi Trad cave) in northeastern Algeria was studied. An overall infestation of 41.4% for all stages was found among bats collected from both sites. By stage, a total of eight females, 70 nymphs, and 107 larvae were recovered from both populations. The number of females recovered per bat at Sidi Trad ranged from 0-1, for nymphs 0-2, and for larvae 0-2. While no female ticks were collected at Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs ranged from 0-2 and for larvae 0-2. At Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs was significantly higher during April and June but not for July and September. On the other hand, the number of larvae increased from July to November, while at Sidi Trad cave, female ticks were recovered during April and May and then disappeared until the end of the study period. Significant differences were noted during all the months when compared with all stages. Nymphs infested bats significantly during April and May, declined in June and July, and then became steady until October. Larvae peaked in July, with low frequency in April, and then fluctuated from August to November. PMID:27232132

  14. First confirmation of Pseudogymnoascus destructans in British bats and hibernacula.

    PubMed

    Barlow, A M; Worledge, L; Miller, H; Drees, K P; Wright, P; Foster, J T; Sobek, C; Borman, A M; Fraser, M

    2015-07-18

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal fungal infection of bats in North America caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. P. destructans has been confirmed in Continental Europe but not associated with mass mortality. Its presence in Great Britain was unknown. Opportunistic sampling of bats in GB began during the winter of 2009. Any dead bats or samples from live bats with visible fungal growths were submitted to the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency for culture. Active surveillance by targeted environmental sampling of hibernacula was carried out during the winter of 2012/2013. Six hibernacula were selected by their proximity to Continental Europe. Five samples, a combination of surface swabs or sediment samples, were collected. These were sent to the Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, for P. destructans PCR. Forty-eight incidents were investigated between March 2009 and July 2013. They consisted of 46 bat carcases and 31 other samples. A suspected P. destructans isolate was cultured from a live Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) sampled in February 2013. This isolate was confirmed by the Mycology Reference Laboratory, Bristol (Public Health England), as P. destructans. A variety of fungi were isolated from the rest but all were considered to be saprophytic or incidental. P. destructans was also confirmed by the Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics in five of the six sites surveyed. PMID:25968064

  15. Variability of feeding buzzes in little brown bats (Myotis lucifigus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Donald R.; Auger, Gregory J.

    2001-05-01

    When Myotis lucifigus are hunting actively in the early evening, search phase echolocation signals are easily detected by heterodyne bat detectors. Feeding or terminal buzzes are sometimes also detected, especially if the bat detector is tuned to 35 kHz. On other evenings when all conditions appeared comparable we detected no approach phase or buzz. Feeding bats and prey insects were observed and recorded with video and heterodyne and time expansion bat detectors during their early evening hunting at a small pond. Video was obtained with a Canon XL1 camcorder fitted with an ITT Pocketscope model 6010B light intensifier and near infra-red light from the side. Audio was captured with a Pettersson D-980 bat detector using both the heterodyne and the time expansion outputs. Signals were recorded on the left and right audio tracks of the camcorder. In addition to recording general insect feeding, bats were offered at times a small tethered fly-fishing lure with the hook removed. Microphone to lure and insect distance was 0.5 to 2.0 m. Observations have shown variability in the length, presence, and loudness of search, approach, and terminal phases. Examples of video records of insect catching will be shown.

  16. 76 FR 5418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... security (the ``short sale price test restriction'').\\7\\ In anticipation of the upcoming February 28, 2011... which the System \\8\\ will handle short ] sell orders when a short sale price test restriction is... routing when a short sale price test restriction is in effect, and modifying BATS rules related to...

  17. Conspecific disturbance contributes to altered hibernation patterns in bats with white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner, James M; Warnecke, Lisa; Wilcox, Alana; Baloun, Dylan; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Willis, Craig K R

    2015-03-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) affects both physiology and behaviour of hibernating bats. Infection with the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the first pathogen known to target torpid animals, causes an increase in arousal frequency during hibernation, and therefore premature depletion of energy stores. Infected bats also show a dramatic decrease in clustering behaviour over the winter. To investigate the interaction between disease progression and torpor expression we quantified physiological (i.e., timing of arousal, rewarming rate) and behavioural (i.e., arousal synchronisation, clustering) aspects of rewarming events over four months in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) experimentally inoculated with Pd. We tested two competing hypotheses: 1) Bats adjust arousal physiology adaptively to help compensate for an increase in energetically expensive arousals. This hypothesis predicts that infected bats should increase synchronisation of arousals with colony mates to benefit from social thermoregulation and/or that solitary bats will exhibit faster rewarming rates than clustered individuals because rewarming costs fall as rewarming rate increases. 2) As for the increase in arousal frequency, changes in arousal physiology and clustering behaviour are maladaptive consequences of infection. This hypothesis predicts no effect of infection or clustering behaviour on rewarming rate and that disturbance by normothermic bats contributes to the overall increase in arousal frequency. We found that arousals of infected bats became more synchronised than those of controls as hibernation progressed but the pattern was not consistent with social thermoregulation. When a bat rewarmed from torpor, it was often followed in sequence by up to seven other bats in an arousal "cascade". Moreover, rewarming rate did not differ between infected and uninfected bats, was not affected by clustering and did not change over time. Our results support

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Edward B; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Huso, Manuela M P; Szewczak, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21-51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  1. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage. PMID:26740572

  2. Autonomic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in health and disease: potential clinical applications for altering BAT thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tupone, Domenico; Madden, Christopher J.; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2014-01-01

    From mouse to man, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of thermogenesis contributing to the maintenance of the body temperature homeostasis during the challenge of low environmental temperature. In rodents, BAT thermogenesis also contributes to the febrile increase in core temperature during the immune response. BAT sympathetic nerve activity controlling BAT thermogenesis is regulated by CNS neural networks which respond reflexively to thermal afferent signals from cutaneous and body core thermoreceptors, as well as to alterations in the discharge of central neurons with intrinsic thermosensitivity. Superimposed on the core thermoregulatory circuit for the activation of BAT thermogenesis, is the permissive, modulatory influence of central neural networks controlling metabolic aspects of energy homeostasis. The recent confirmation of the presence of BAT in human and its function as an energy consuming organ have stimulated interest in the potential for the pharmacological activation of BAT to reduce adiposity in the obese. In contrast, the inhibition of BAT thermogenesis could facilitate the induction of therapeutic hypothermia for fever reduction or to improve outcomes in stroke or cardiac ischemia by reducing infarct size through a lowering of metabolic oxygen demand. This review summarizes the central circuits for the autonomic control of BAT thermogenesis and highlights the potential clinical relevance of the pharmacological inhibition or activation of BAT thermogenesis. PMID:24570653

  3. Effects of training with a dynamic moment of inertia bat on swing performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiang; Liu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Ying-Chieh; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 8-week dynamic moment of inertia (DMOI) bat training on swing velocity, batted-ball speed, hitting distance, muscle power, and grip force. The DMOI bat is characterized in that the bat could be swung more easily by reducing the moment of inertia at the initial stage of swing without decreasing the bat weight and has a faster swing velocity and lower muscle activity. Seventeen varsity baseball players were randomly assigned to the DMOI bat training group (n = 9) and the normal bat training group (n = 8). The training protocol was 7 swings each set, 5-8 sets each time, 3 times each week, and 8 weeks' training period. The results showed that the swing training with the DMOI bat for 8 weeks significantly increased swing velocity by about 6.20% (96.86 ± 8.48 vs. 102.82 ± 9.93 km·h(-1)), hitting distance by about 6.69% (80.06 ± 9.16 vs. 84.99 ± 7.26 m), muscle power of the right arm by about 12.04% (3.34 ± 0.41 vs. 3.74 ± 0.61 m), and muscle power of the left arm by about 8.23% (3.36 ± 0.46 vs. 3.61 ± 0.39 m) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the DMOI bat training group had a significantly better change percentage in swing velocity, hitting distance, and grip force of the left hand than did the normal bat training group (p < 0.05). The findings suggested that the swing training with the DMOI bat has a positive benefit on swing performance and that the DMOI bat could be used as a new training tool in baseball. PMID:21993041

  4. Membrane muscle function in the compliant wings of bats.

    PubMed

    Cheney, J A; Konow, N; Middleton, K M; Breuer, K S; Roberts, T J; Giblin, E L; Swartz, S M

    2014-06-01

    Unlike flapping birds and insects, bats possess membrane wings that are more similar to many gliding mammals. The vast majority of the wing is composed of a thin compliant skin membrane stretched between the limbs, hand, and body. Membrane wings are of particular interest because they may offer many advantages to micro air vehicles. One critical feature of membrane wings is that they camber passively in response to aerodynamic load, potentially allowing for simplified wing control. However, for maximum membrane wing performance, tuning of the membrane structure to aerodynamic conditions is necessary. Bats possess an array of muscles, the plagiopatagiales proprii, embedded within the wing membrane that could serve to tune membrane stiffness, or may have alternative functions. We recorded the electromyogram from the plagiopatagiales proprii muscles of Artibeus jamaicensis, the Jamaican fruit bat, in flight at two different speeds and found that these muscles were active during downstroke. For both low- and high-speed flight, muscle activity increased between late upstroke and early downstroke and decreased at late downstroke. Thus, the array of plagiopatagiales may provide a mechanism for bats to increase wing stiffness and thereby reduce passive membrane deformation. These muscles also activate in synchrony, presumably as a means to maximize force generation, because each muscle is small and, by estimation, weak. Small differences in activation timing were observed when comparing low- and high-speed flight, which may indicate that bats modulate membrane stiffness differently depending on flight speed. PMID:24855069

  5. CanTrilBat

    2010-08-24

    This application can determine the performance and chemical behavior of batteries in 1D when they are cycled. With CanTrilBat, we are developing predictive phenomenological models for battery systems to predict operating performance and rate limiting steps in the performance of battery models. Particular attention is paid to primary and secondary chemistry mechanisms, such as the thermal runaway mechanisms experienced in secondary lithium ion batteries or self-discharge reaction mechanism that all batteries experience to one extentmore » or another. The first application of this model has been for modeling the performance of thermal batteries. However, an implementation for secondary ion batteries is next. CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. A control volume formulation is used to track conserved quantities. An operator-split approach is used to calculate the chemistry, diffusion and electronic transport that occurs within cathode and anode particles, allowing for the reduction in code complexity.« less

  6. Characteristics and Risk Perceptions of Ghanaians Potentially Exposed to Bat-Borne Zoonoses through Bushmeat.

    PubMed

    Kamins, Alexandra O; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N; Restif, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Emerging zoonotic pathogens from wildlife pose increasing public health threats globally. Bats, in particular, host an array of zoonotic pathogens, yet there is little research on how bats and humans interact, how people perceive bats and their accompanying disease risk, or who is most at risk. Eidolon helvum, the largest and most abundant African fruit bat species, is widely hunted and eaten in Ghana and also carries potentially zoonotic pathogens. This combination raises concerns, as hunting and butchering bushmeat are common sources of zoonotic transmission. Through a combination of interviews with 577 Ghanaians across southern Ghana, we identified the characteristics of people involved in the bat-bushmeat trade and we explored their perceptions of risk. Bat hunting, selling and consumption are widely distributed across regional and ethnic lines, with hotspots in certain localities, while butchering is predominantly done by women and active hunters. Interviewees held little belief of disease risk from bats, saw no ecological value in fruit bats and associated the consumption of bats with specific tribes. These data can be used to inform disease and conservation management plans, drawing on social contexts and ensuring that local voices are heard within the larger global effort to study and mitigate outbreaks. PMID:25266774

  7. An examination of factors influencing the spatial distribution of foraging bats in pine stands in the southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Menzel, M.A. 2003. An examination of factors influencing the spatial distribution of foraging bats in pine stands in the Southeastern United States. Ph.D Dissertation. Davis College of Agriculture, Forestry and Consumer Sciences at West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia. 336 pp. The general objective of this dissertation was to determine the effect of changes in forest structure on bat activity patterns in southern pine stands. Four sub studies are included in the dissertation: (1) An examination of the homerange size, habitat use and diet of four reproductively active male Rafinesque's big eared bats (Corynorhimus rafinesquii); (2) An examination of the diet of 5 reproductively active male Rafinesque's big eared bats; (3) A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 vegetational community types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature plantations, and pine savannahs; (4) A summarization of information concerning the natural history of all bat species common in the SPR.

  8. Host specificity in bat ectoparasites: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Sampath S; Fernando, H Chandrika; Udagama-Randeniya, Preethi V

    2009-07-15

    We undertook a field study to determine patterns of specialisation of ectoparasites in cave-dwelling bats in Sri Lanka. The hypothesis tested was that strict host specificity (monoxeny) could evolve through the development of differential species preferences through association with the different host groups. Three species of cave-dwelling bats were chosen to represent a wide range of host-parasite associations (monoxeny to polyxeny), and both sympatric and allopatric roosting assemblages. Of the eight caves selected, six caves were "allopatric" roosts where two of each housed only one of the three host species examined: Rousettus leschenaulti (Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus rouxi and Hipposideros speoris (Rhinolophidae). The remaining two caves were "sympatric" roosts and housed all three host species. Thirty bats of each species were examined for ectoparasites in each cave, which resulted in a collection of nycteribiid and streblid flies, an ischnopsyllid bat flea, argasid and ixodid ticks, and mites belonging to three families. The host specificity of bat parasites showed a trend to monoxeny in which 70% of the 30 species reported were monoxenous. Odds ratios derived from chi(2)-tests revealed two levels of host preferences in less-specific parasites (i) the parasite was found on two host species under conditions of both host sympatry and host allopatry, with a preference for a single host in the case of host sympatry and (ii) the preference for a single host was very high, hence under conditions of host sympatry, it was confined to the preferred host only. However, under conditions of host allopatry, it utilized both hosts. There appears to be an increasing prevalence in host preferences of the parasites toward confinement to a single host species. The ecological isolation of the bat hosts and a long history of host-parasite co-existence could have contributed to an overall tendency of bat ectoparasites to become specialists, here reflected in the high percentage

  9. Gaia Payload Module Testing and Analysis Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soula, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    The Gaia objective is to produce a very accurate catalogue of 1 billion of sky objects in our galaxy and beyond. ASTRIUM’s extensive experience on silicon carbide (SiC) instruments has helped developing the latest-generation payload module. It integrates the most sensitive and stable telescopes ever made, mounted on a SiC torus structure supported by three bipods. This payload module has been tested in June 2011 by ASTRIUM at INTESPACE facilities in Toulouse. To conduct the sine qualification tests and support the data analyses in real-time, advanced tools have been used. Most of them have been developed in a previous ESA R&D project [1] “DYNamics: AssessMent and Improvement of TEst Data (DYNAMITED)” and implemented in a DynaWorks® environment. Mass Operator calculation, to evaluate the payload module interface loads from measured accelerations, or automatic correlation through a criterion based on FRF from tests or predictions, are part of these tools. Testing such a structure also revealed some piloting difficulties due to a quite low and varying damping of the structure and a strong coupling with the shaker. To take into account such phenomena in the correlation work, enhanced simulations have also been performed considering multi-points phased excitations. These analyses demonstrate the payload module qualification status and allow derivate a more representative model to be used in further coupled system activities.

  10. Dynamics of biosonar systems in Horseshoe bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R.

    2015-12-01

    Horseshoe bats have an active ultrasonic sonar system that allows the animals to navigate and hunt prey in structure-rich natural environments. The physical components of this biosonar system contain an unusual dynamics that could play a key role in achieving the animals' superior sensory performance. Horseshoe bat biosonar employs elaborate baffle shapes to diffract the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic wave packets; ultrasound is radiated from nostrils that are surrounded by noseleaves and received by large outer ears. Noseleaves and pinnae can be actuated while ultrasonic diffraction takes place. On the emission side, two noseleaf parts, the anterior leaf and the sella, have been shown to be in motion in synchrony with sound emission. On the reception side, the pinnae have been shown to change their shapes by up to 20% of their total length within ˜100 milliseconds. Due to these shape changes, diffraction of the incoming and outgoing waves is turned into a dynamic physical process. The dynamics of the diffraction process results in likewise dynamic device characteristics. If this additional dynamic dimension was found to enhance the encoding of sensory information substantially, horseshoe bat biosonar could be a model for the use of dynamic physical processes in sensing technology.

  11. European bat lyssavirus infection in Spanish bat populations.

    PubMed

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Amengual, Blanca; Abellán, Carlos; Bourhy, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    From 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in Spain. Specific anti-European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBL1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Tadarida teniotis, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. Positive results were also obtained by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on brain, blood pellet, lung, heart, tongue, and esophagus-larynx-pharynx of M. myotis, Myotis nattereri, R. ferrumequinum, and M. schreibersii. Determination of nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of EBL1 RNA in the different tissues. In one colony, the prevalence of seropositive bats over time corresponded to an asymmetrical curve, with a sudden initial increase peaking at 60% of the bats, followed by a gradual decline. Banded seropositive bats were recovered during several years, indicating that EBL1 infection in these bats was nonlethal. At least one of this species (M. schreibersii) is migratory and thus could be partially responsible for the dissemination of EBL1 on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:11971777

  12. European Bat Lyssavirus Infection in Spanish Bat Populations

    PubMed Central

    Amengual, Blanca; Abellán, Carlos; Bourhy, Hervé

    2002-01-01

    From 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in Spain. Specific anti-European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBL1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Tadarida teniotis, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. Positive results were also obtained by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on brain, blood pellet, lung, heart, tongue, and esophagus-larynx-pharynx of M. myotis, Myotis nattereri, R. ferrumequinum, and M. schreibersii. Determination of nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of EBL1 RNA in the different tissues. In one colony, the prevalence of seropositive bats over time corresponded to an asymmetrical curve, with a sudden initial increase peaking at 60% of the bats, followed by a gradual decline. Banded seropositive bats were recovered during several years, indicating that EBL1 infection in these bats was nonlethal. At least one of this species (M. schreibersii) is migratory and thus could be partially responsible for the dissemination of EBL1 on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:11971777

  13. Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments.

    PubMed

    Falk, Benjamin; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-12-15

    Echolocating bats use active sensing as they emit sounds and listen to the returning echoes to probe their environment for navigation, obstacle avoidance and pursuit of prey. The sensing behavior of bats includes the planning of 3D spatial trajectory paths, which are guided by echo information. In this study, we examined the relationship between active sonar sampling and flight motor output as bats changed environments from open space to an artificial forest in a laboratory flight room. Using high-speed video and audio recordings, we reconstructed and analyzed 3D flight trajectories, sonar beam aim and acoustic sonar emission patterns as the bats captured prey. We found that big brown bats adjusted their sonar call structure, temporal patterning and flight speed in response to environmental change. The sonar beam aim of the bats predicted the flight turn rate in both the open room and the forest. However, the relationship between sonar beam aim and turn rate changed in the forest during the final stage of prey pursuit, during which the bat made shallower turns. We found flight stereotypy developed over multiple days in the forest, but did not find evidence for a reduction in active sonar sampling with experience. The temporal patterning of sonar sound groups was related to path planning around obstacles in the forest. Together, these results contribute to our understanding of how bats coordinate echolocation and flight behavior to represent and navigate their environment. PMID:25394632

  14. Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Benjamin; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating bats use active sensing as they emit sounds and listen to the returning echoes to probe their environment for navigation, obstacle avoidance and pursuit of prey. The sensing behavior of bats includes the planning of 3D spatial trajectory paths, which are guided by echo information. In this study, we examined the relationship between active sonar sampling and flight motor output as bats changed environments from open space to an artificial forest in a laboratory flight room. Using high-speed video and audio recordings, we reconstructed and analyzed 3D flight trajectories, sonar beam aim and acoustic sonar emission patterns as the bats captured prey. We found that big brown bats adjusted their sonar call structure, temporal patterning and flight speed in response to environmental change. The sonar beam aim of the bats predicted the flight turn rate in both the open room and the forest. However, the relationship between sonar beam aim and turn rate changed in the forest during the final stage of prey pursuit, during which the bat made shallower turns. We found flight stereotypy developed over multiple days in the forest, but did not find evidence for a reduction in active sonar sampling with experience. The temporal patterning of sonar sound groups was related to path planning around obstacles in the forest. Together, these results contribute to our understanding of how bats coordinate echolocation and flight behavior to represent and navigate their environment. PMID:25394632

  15. Vaccination of vampire bats using recombinant vaccinia-rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Leon, Yolanda Campos; Tesoro, Emiliano Cruz; Kretschmer, Roberto; Brochier, Bernard; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2002-07-01

    Adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were vaccinated by intramuscular, scarification, oral, or aerosol routes (n = 8 in each group) using a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus. Sera were obtained before and 30 days after vaccination. All animals were then challenged intramuscularly with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Neutralizing antirabies antibodies were measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Seroconversion was observed with each of the routes employed, but some aerosol and orally vaccinated animals failed to seroconvert. The highest antibody titers were observed in animals vaccinated by intramuscular and scarification routes. All animals vaccinated by intramuscular, scarification, and oral routes survived the viral challenge, but one of eight vampire bats receiving aerosol vaccination succumbed to the challenge. Of 31 surviving vaccinated and challenged animals, nine lacked detectable antirabies antibodies by RFFIT (five orally and four aerosol immunized animals). In contrast, nine of 10 non-vaccinated control bats succumbed to viral challenge. The surviving control bat had antiviral antibodies 90 days after viral challenge. These results suggest that the recombinant vaccine is an adequate and safe immunogen for bats by all routes tested. PMID:12243138

  16. A case of korean ginseng-induced anaphylaxis confirmed by open oral challenge and basophil activation test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Young; Jin, Hyun Jung; Park, Jung-Won; Jung, Soon Kwang; Jang, Jeng-Yun; Park, Hae-Sim

    2012-03-01

    Two case reports discussing Korean ginseng-induced allergic reactions have been published; both were inhalation-induced respiratory allergies in occupational settings. In this report we discuss the first case of anaphylaxis that developed after an oral intake of ginseng, confirmed by an open oral challenge, a skin prick test (SPT), and a basophil activation test (BAT). A 44-year-old man experienced rhinorrhea and nasal stiffness, followed by respiratory difficulty with wheeze and abdominal pain 10 minutes after oral intake of fresh ginseng. He had suffered from episodes of allergic rhinitis during the spring season for several years. Upon presentation, a physical examination, chest radiograph, and routine laboratory tests were unremarkable. Total serum IgE level was 41 IU/mL. The SPT results showed strong positive responses to alder, birch pollens, and ginseng extracts (1:500 w/v). The methacholine bronchial challenge test revealed a positive result at PC20 of 5.83 mg/mL. The open oral challenge was performed using 50 g of fresh ginseng and showed immediate onset of facial flushing, cough, respiratory difficulty with wheeze, and abdominal pain combined with a significant decrease in FEV1 levels (54% from the baseline). Serum-specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies were not detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BAT showed a remarkable increase in the expression of CD203c and CD63 with the addition of ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner, while no changes were noted in the controls. In conclusion, oral intake of Korean ginseng could induce anaphylaxis, which is mediated by non-IgE-dependent direct activation of basophil/mast cells. PMID:22379608

  17. Development of echolocation calls in the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii.

    PubMed

    Vater, M; Kössl, M; Foeller, E; Coro, F; Mora, E; Russell, I J

    2003-10-01

    with age (mean 13.5 +/- 2 kHz). Values for induced calls slightly increased with age from 11 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 kHz. The emission rate of induced CF-FM signals increased with age from values of 2.5 +/- 2 to 17 +/- 5 pulses/s. Values for spontaneously emitted calls were 4.4 +/- 3 and 9 +/- 4.5 pulses/s, respectively. Doppler-shift compensation, as tested in the pendulum task, emerged during the 4th postnatal week in young bats that were capable of very brief active flights, but before the time of active foraging outside the cave. PMID:14534267

  18. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  19. Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Anthony, S J; Ojeda-Flores, R; Rico-Chávez, O; Navarrete-Macias, I; Zambrana-Torrelio, C M; Rostal, M K; Epstein, J H; Tipps, T; Liang, E; Sanchez-Leon, M; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J; Aguirre, A A; Ávila-Flores, R; Medellín, R A; Goldstein, T; Suzán, G; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W I

    2013-05-01

    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (β)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (α)-CoVs; four were β-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A β-CoV with 96.5 % amino acid identity to the β-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health. PMID:23364191

  20. Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Flores, R.; Rico-Chávez, O.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Zambrana-Torrelio, C. M.; Rostal, M. K.; Epstein, J. H.; Tipps, T.; Liang, E.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ávila-Flores, R.; Medellín, R. A.; Goldstein, T.; Suzán, G.; Daszak, P.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (β)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (α)-CoVs; four were β-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A β-CoV with 96.5 % amino acid identity to the β-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health. PMID:23364191

  1. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  2. Experimental Inoculation of Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) with Ebola Virus.

    PubMed

    Paweska, Janusz T; Storm, Nadia; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Markotter, Wanda; Kemp, Alan; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus

    2016-02-01

    Colonized Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), originating in South Africa, were inoculated subcutaneously with Ebola virus (EBOV). No overt signs of morbidity, mortality, or gross lesions were noted. Bats seroconverted by Day 10-16 post inoculation (p.i.), with the highest mean anti-EBOV IgG level on Day 28 p.i. EBOV RNA was detected in blood from one bat. In 16 other tissues tested, viral RNA distribution was limited and at very low levels. No seroconversion could be demonstrated in any of the control bats up to 28 days after in-contact exposure to subcutaneously-inoculated bats. The control bats were subsequently inoculated intraperitoneally, and intramuscularly with the same dose of EBOV. No mortality, morbidity or gross pathology was observed in these bats. Kinetics of immune response was similar to that in subcutaneously-inoculated bats. Viral RNA was more widely disseminated to multiple tissues and detectable in a higher proportion of individuals, but consistently at very low levels. Irrespective of the route of inoculation, no virus was isolated from tissues which tested positive for EBOV RNA. Viral RNA was not detected in oral, nasal, ocular, vaginal, penile and rectal swabs from any of the experimental groups. PMID:26805873

  3. Experimental Inoculation of Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) with Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Paweska, Janusz T.; Storm, Nadia; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Markotter, Wanda; Kemp, Alan; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus

    2016-01-01

    Colonized Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), originating in South Africa, were inoculated subcutaneously with Ebola virus (EBOV). No overt signs of morbidity, mortality, or gross lesions were noted. Bats seroconverted by Day 10–16 post inoculation (p.i.), with the highest mean anti-EBOV IgG level on Day 28 p.i. EBOV RNA was detected in blood from one bat. In 16 other tissues tested, viral RNA distribution was limited and at very low levels. No seroconversion could be demonstrated in any of the control bats up to 28 days after in-contact exposure to subcutaneously-inoculated bats. The control bats were subsequently inoculated intraperitoneally, and intramuscularly with the same dose of EBOV. No mortality, morbidity or gross pathology was observed in these bats. Kinetics of immune response was similar to that in subcutaneously-inoculated bats. Viral RNA was more widely disseminated to multiple tissues and detectable in a higher proportion of individuals, but consistently at very low levels. Irrespective of the route of inoculation, no virus was isolated from tissues which tested positive for EBOV RNA. Viral RNA was not detected in oral, nasal, ocular, vaginal, penile and rectal swabs from any of the experimental groups. PMID:26805873

  4. Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

  5. Evolutionary escalation: the bat-moth arms race.

    PubMed

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-06-01

    Echolocation in bats and high-frequency hearing in their insect prey make bats and insects an ideal system for studying the sensory ecology and neuroethology of predator-prey interactions. Here, we review the evolutionary history of bats and eared insects, focusing on the insect order Lepidoptera, and consider the evidence for antipredator adaptations and predator counter-adaptations. Ears evolved in a remarkable number of body locations across insects, with the original selection pressure for ears differing between groups. Although cause and effect are difficult to determine, correlations between hearing and life history strategies in moths provide evidence for how these two variables influence each other. We consider life history variables such as size, sex, circadian and seasonal activity patterns, geographic range and the composition of sympatric bat communities. We also review hypotheses on the neural basis for anti-predator behaviours (such as evasive flight and sound production) in moths. It is assumed that these prey adaptations would select for counter-adaptations in predatory bats. We suggest two levels of support for classifying bat traits as counter-adaptations: traits that allow bats to eat more eared prey than expected based on their availability in the environment provide a low level of support for counter-adaptations, whereas traits that have no other plausible explanation for their origination and maintenance than capturing defended prey constitute a high level of support. Specific predator counter-adaptations include calling at frequencies outside the sensitivity range of most eared prey, changing the pattern and frequency of echolocation calls during prey pursuit, and quiet, or 'stealth', echolocation. PMID:27252453

  6. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  7. SUZAKU VIEW OF THE SWIFT/BAT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. IV. NATURE OF TWO NARROW-LINE RADIO GALAXIES (3C 403 AND IC 5063)

    SciTech Connect

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2011-09-01

    We report the results of Suzaku broadband X-ray observations of the two narrow-line radio galaxies, 3C 403 and IC 5063. Combined with the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) spectra averaged for 58 months, we are able to accurately constrain their spectral properties over the 0.5-200 keV band. The spectra of both nuclei are well represented with an absorbed cutoff power law, an absorbed reflection component from cold matter with an iron-K emission line, and an unabsorbed soft component, which gives a firm upper limit for the scattered emission. The reflection strength normalized to the averaged BAT flux is R {identical_to} {Omega}/2{pi} {approx} 0.6 in both targets, implying that their tori have a sufficiently large solid angle to produce the reprocessed emission. A numerical torus model with an opening angle of {approx}50{sup 0} well reproduces the observed spectra. We discuss the possibility that the amount of the normal gas responsible for Thomson scattering is systematically smaller in radio galaxies compared with Seyfert galaxies.

  8. Human-Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa.

    PubMed

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human-bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011-2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human-bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse. PMID:26177344

  9. Human–Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human–bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011–2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human–bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse. PMID:26177344

  10. Auditory cortex of newborn bats is prewired for echolocation.

    PubMed

    Kössl, Manfred; Voss, Cornelia; Mora, Emanuel C; Macias, Silvio; Foeller, Elisabeth; Vater, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal computation of object distance from echo delay is an essential task that echolocating bats must master for spatial orientation and the capture of prey. In the dorsal auditory cortex of bats, neurons specifically respond to combinations of short frequency-modulated components of emitted call and delayed echo. These delay-tuned neurons are thought to serve in target range calculation. It is unknown whether neuronal correlates of active space perception are established by experience-dependent plasticity or by innate mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that in the first postnatal week, before onset of echolocation and flight, dorsal auditory cortex already contains functional circuits that calculate distance from the temporal separation of a simulated pulse and echo. This innate cortical implementation of a purely computational processing mechanism for sonar ranging should enhance survival of juvenile bats when they first engage in active echolocation behaviour and flight. PMID:22491321

  11. Hawaiian hoary bat occupancy at Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Pinzari, Corina; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) vocalizations were recorded using Anabat SD1 and Song Meter SM2Bat ultrasonic recorders at four monitoring stations in Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park on the island of Hawai‘i. We hypothesize that echolocation call events are more numerous during the reproductive season of this bat. Bat detectors recorded from 1700 to 0730 hrs on a total of 42 nights between October 2011 and September 2012. Peak activity occurred between 1800 and 2000 hrs, although in May a secondary peak occurred between 0100 and 0300 hrs. Detectability proportions (0 to 1.0) were calculated using the software program PRESENCE (v4.2) and reported for each seven day recording session which was repeated on a bimonthly schedule. Hawaiian hoary bats were present in four of the six bimonthly surveys: January, May, September, and October; however, no bat calls were detected in March or July. Detectability of bat calls was above 0.50 in January, May, and September. Foraging buzzes, indicating feeding activity, were recorded in all months that bats were present.

  12. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z<0.05), moderate luminosity AGN from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  13. BGD: A Database of Bat Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xuan; Mu, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD). BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/. PMID:26110276

  14. BGD: a database of bat genomes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xuan; Mu, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD). BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/. PMID:26110276

  15. Rabies surveillance in bats in Northwestern State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Daiene Karina Azevedo; Favaro, Ana Beatriz Botto de Barros da Cruz; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Picolo, Mileia Ricci; Hernandez, Janaína Camila Borges; Lot, Monique Serra; Albas, Avelino; Araújo, Danielle Bastos; André Pedro, Wagner; Queiroz, Luzia Helena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as Lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. Rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in Northwestern State of São Paulo since 1998. This study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 1,490 bat brain samples were sent to the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Rabies Laboratory in Araçatuba, and 125 serum samples from vampire bats that were captured in this geographical region were analyzed. Results Rabies virus was detected in the brains of 26 (2%) of 1,314 non-hematophagous bats using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). None of the 176 hematophagous bat samples were positive for rabies virus when a virus detection test was utilized. Out of 125 vampire bat serum samples, 9 (7%) had levels of rabies virus neutralization antibodies (RVNAs) that were higher than 0.5IU/mL; 65% (81/125) had titers between 0.10IU/mL and 0.5IU/mL; and 28% (35/125) were negative for RVNAs using the simplified fluorescent inhibition microtest (SFIMT) in BHK21 cells. The observed positivity rate (1.7%) was higher than the average positivity rate of 1.3% that was previously found in this region. Conclusions The high percentage of vampire bats with neutralizing antibodies suggests that recent rabies virus exposure has occurred, indicating the necessity of surveillance measures in nearby regions that are at risk to avoid diffusion of the rabies virus and possible rabies occurrences. PMID:25626649

  16. Recovery of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from natural infection with Geomyces destructans, white-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Valent, Mick; Kashmer, Jackie; Buckles, Elizabeth L.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David S.; Lollar, Amanda; Berndt, Douglas; Wheeler, Emily; White, C. LeAnn; Ballmann, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Geomyces destructans produces the white fungal growth on the muzzle and the tacky white discoloration on wings and ears that characterize white-nose syndrome (WNS) in cave-hibernating bats. To test the hypothesis that postemergent WNS-infected bats recover from infection with G. destructans, 30 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in May 2009 from a WNS-affected hibernation site in New Jersey. All bats were confirmed to be infected with G. destructans using a noninvasive fungal tape method to identify the conidia of G. destructans and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The bats were then held in captivity and given supportive care for 70 days. Of the 26 bats that survived and were humanely killed after 70 days, 25 showed significant improvement in the external appearance of wing membranes, had no microscopic evidence of infection by G. destructans, and had wing tissue samples that were negative for G. destructans by PCR. A subset of the bats was treated topically at the beginning of the rehabilitation study with a dilute vinegar solution, but treatment with vinegar provided no added advantage to recovery. Provision of supportive care to homeothermic bats was sufficient for full recovery from WNS. One bat at day 70 still had both gross pathology and microscopic evidence of WNS in wing membranes and was PCR-positive for G. destructans. Dense aggregates of neutrophils surrounded the hyphae that remained in the wing membrane of this bat.

  17. Roosting Ecology and the Evolution of Pelage Markings in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Dial, Thomas O.; Eiting, Thomas P.; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple lineages of bats have evolved striking facial and body pelage makings, including spots, stripes and countershading. Although researchers have hypothesized that these markings mainly evolved for crypsis, this idea has never been tested in a quantitative and comparative context. We present the first comparative study integrating data on roosting ecology (roost type and colony size) and pelage coloration patterns across bats, and explore the hypothesis that the evolution of bat pelage markings is associated with roosting ecologies that benefit from crypsis. We find that lineages that roost in the vegetation have evolved pelage markings, especially stripes and neck collars, which may function in crypsis through disruptive coloration and a type of countershading that might be unique to bats. We also demonstrate that lineages that live in larger colonies and are larger in size tend not to have pelage markings, possibly because of reduced predation pressures due to the predator dilution effect and a lower number of potential predators. Although social functions for pelage color patterns are also possible, our work provides strong support for the idea that roosting ecology has driven the evolution of pelage markings in bats. PMID:21991371

  18. Identification of Mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 in Italian bats.

    PubMed

    Lelli, D; Moreno, A; Lavazza, A; Bresaola, M; Canelli, E; Boniotti, M B; Cordioli, P

    2013-02-01

    Summary This study describes the isolation and molecular characterization of Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) in microbats. Faecal samples and dead individuals available from rehabilitation centres or collected from known roost sites were virologically tested. In total, 112 carcasses of bats found dead, and 44 faecal samples were analysed. Nineteen viral strains were isolated by in vitro cell culture from faecal and tissue samples of different bat species (Pipistrellus khulii, Tadarida teniotis, Rhinolophus hipposideros and Vespertilio murinus), and they were morphologically identified as reoviruses by negative staining electron microscopy observation. The definitive assignment of all isolates to MRV was confirmed by RT-PCR assays targeting the L1 gene. Through a multiplex RT-PCR assay targeting the S1 gene, we typed 15 of 19 isolates as MRV type 3. Partial L1 (416 bp) and complete S1 (1416 bp) sequences of the isolates were analysed and compared with those of reference strains obtained from GenBank, belonging to the three serotypes. Molecular analysis of the S1 gene revealed that the amino acid residues associated with neurotropism (198-204NLAIRLP, 249I, 350D and 419E) were highly conserved among the Italian bat strains. These results suggest that potentially neurotropic MRV type 3 strains are widespread among Italian bats. Furthermore, the identification of MRV type 3 in bat species such as Pipistrellus Khulii, which is common in urban areas and known for its close contact with humans, underlines the need for vigilance. PMID:22931153

  19. Detection of coronaviruses in bats of various species in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Davide; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Rosti, Enrica; Moreno, Ana; Boniotti, Maria B

    2013-11-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros), and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl's pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), and Savi's pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses. PMID:24184965

  20. Bats, bugs, and wind turbines---is there a connection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Courtenay Danielle

    Large numbers of migratory tree-bats are being killed at wind turbines worldwide and it remains unclear why this is happening. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that prey items for bats are abundant in the immediate vicinity of wind turbines. During the 2012 fall migratory season (July to October), we used light taps and malaise traps to sample the aerial invertebrate community at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC, in north-central Texas. Overall, we collected more invertebrates and a greater number of species earlier in the season compared to later in the season and the use of malaise traps significantly added to invertebrate diversity yielded by light traps. Invertebrate abundance and species richness did not differ between the base of turbines and 400 m away, but compilation of data from previous bat diet studies suggested that the area around wind turbines provided foraging resources for local bats. Further research is needed, however, to determine if bats are attracted to wind turbines as a foraging resource.

  1. Detection of Coronaviruses in Bats of Various Species in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Lelli, Davide; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Rosti, Enrica; Moreno, Ana; Boniotti, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros), and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), and Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses. PMID:24184965

  2. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, E

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  3. First record of Leishmania braziliensis presence detected in bats, Mato Grosso do Sul, southwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Julie Teresa; da Costa Lima Junior, Manoel Sebastião; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Cepa Matos, Maria de Fatima; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, has expanded beyond its natural range and is becoming increasingly urban. Using PCR and PCR-RFLP, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in two bats (Chiroptera) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, an endemic area. This is the first record of L. (V.) braziliensis in bats. It is also the first record of any Leishmania sp. in bats in the state. The animals testing positive were found in both a rural site and an urban site. These results indicate the need for further research into the viability of Leishmania in bats and could potentially have implications for public health in Mato Grosso do Sul, given the large populations of urban bats, their mobility, and their ability to roost at close proximity to humans within residences and other buildings. PMID:23886850

  4. Temporal variation in the organization of a Neotropical assemblage of leaf-nosed bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Mello, Marco Aurelio

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, I described the organization of a Neotropical bat assemblage, and tested whether this organization was variable in time. In an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeastern Brazil bats were captured monthly with mist nets over 4 years, and individuals were classified into guilds. I analyzed only leaf-nosed bats, and observed that guilds of fruit-eating bats dominated the assemblage. This pattern was repeated across months and years. However, among frugivores, canopy and understory guilds peaked during different months, but in both cases during the rainy season, while variation among habitat-opportunistic species was not explained by rainfall. The most reliable ecological service delivered by phyllostomid bats in the area is seed dispersal, although other services may be also important in particular seasons. My results suggest that the observed patterns of temporal species turnover are related to the abundance of preferred food items.

  5. Detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi in Brazilian bats.

    PubMed

    Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; de Almeida, Marilene Fernandes; de Oliveira Camargo, Maria Cecília Gibrail; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Silva, Miriam Martos Sodré; de Oliveira, Maria Lúcia; Sacramento, Débora

    2010-02-26

    Although bats are one of the most abundant mammals in the new world and are present in virtually all ecosystems, including urban and peri-urban environments, few studies have investigated the role of these animals in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniosis. Here, we report a study of 683 bats captured in São Paulo county (southeastern from Brazil), which were screened by serology, parasitologic methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for trypanosomatids. The indirect immunofluorescent antibody test demonstrated that 0.9% of bats react positively for leishmaniosis and PCR detected the presence of DNA of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in 18 bats and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi in 3 specimens. These results indicate that further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of bats in maintenance of the Leishmania life cycle, especially in areas where these diseases are endemic. PMID:19939568

  6. Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, K.; Nagendra, K.; Cotter, J.; Frauenthal, M.; Tafti, D. K.

    2014-02-01

    From flight data obtained on a fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a kinematic model for straight-line flapping motion is extracted and analyzed in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to gain insight into the complexity of bat flight. The intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the bat wings set it apart from other vertebrate flight. The extracted kinematic model is simulated for a range of Reynolds numbers, to observe the effect these phenomena have on the unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow produced by the flapping wings. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the oscillatory motion dominates the flow physics. From the obtained data, the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. The bat through varying the wing camber and the wing area modulates this force output. The power requirement for the kinematics is analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic performance.

  7. New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Suxiang; Zhu, Xueyong; Li, Yan; Shi, Mang; Zhang, Jing; Bourgeois, Melissa; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xianfeng; Recuenco, Sergio; Gomez, Jorge; Chen, Li-Mei; Johnson, Adam; Tao, Ying; Dreyfus, Cyrille; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Carney, Paul J.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Chang, Jessie; Guo, Zhu; Davis, Charles T.; Paulson, James C.; Stevens, James; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Wilson, Ian A.; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses. PMID:24130481

  8. Detection and Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Mammalian Orthoreovirus in Bats in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lelli, Davide; Moreno, Ana; Steyer, Andrej; Naglič, Tina; Chiapponi, Chiara; Prosperi, Alice; Faccin, Francesca; Sozzi, Enrica; Lavazza, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A renewed interest in mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) has emerged since new viruses related to bat MRV type 3, detected in Europe, were identified in humans and pigs with gastroenteritis. This study reports the isolation and characterization of a novel reassortant MRV from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros). The isolate, here designated BatMRV1-IT2011, was first identified by electron microscopy and confirmed using PCR and virus-neutralization tests. The full genome sequence was obtained by next-generation sequencing. Molecular and antigenic characterizations revealed that BatMRV1-IT2011 belonged to serotype 1, which had not previously been identified in bats. Phylogenetic and recombination detection program analyses suggested that BatMRV1-IT2011 was a reassortant strain containing an S1 genome segment similar to those of MRV T1/bovine/Maryland/Clone23/59 and C/bovine/Indiana/MRV00304/2014, while other segments were more similar to MRVs of different hosts, origins and serotypes. The presence of neutralizing antibodies against MRVs has also been investigated in animals (dogs, pigs, bovines and horses). Preliminary results suggested that MRVs are widespread in animals and that infections containing multiple serotypes, including MRVs of serotype 1 with an S1 gene similar to BatMRV1-IT2011, are common. This paper extends the current knowledge of MRVs and stresses the importance to continue and improve MRV surveillance in bats and other mammals through the development and standardization of specific diagnostic tools. PMID:26569289

  9. Seasonal shifts in the diet of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), Fort Collins, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, Ernest W.; O'Shea, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses suggest that the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) may be less of a beetle specialist (Coleoptera) in the western United States than previously thought, and that its diet might also vary with temperature. We tested the hypothesis that big brown bats might opportunistically prey on moths by analyzing insect fragments in guano pellets from 30 individual bats (27 females and 3 males) captured while foraging in Fort Collins, Colorado, during May, late July–early August, and late September 2002. We found that bats sampled 17–20 May (n = 12 bats) had a high (81–83%) percentage of volume of lepidopterans in guano, with the remainder (17–19% volume) dipterans and no coleopterans. From 28 May–9 August (n = 17 bats) coleopterans dominated (74–98% volume). On 20 September (n = 1 bat) lepidopterans were 99% of volume in guano. Migratory miller moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) were unusually abundant in Fort Collins in spring and autumn of 2002 and are known agricultural pests as larvae (army cutworms), suggesting that seasonal dietary flexibility in big brown bats has economic benefits.

  10. Taste preferences of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus).

    PubMed

    Thompson, R D; Elias, D J; Shumake, S A; Gaddis, S E

    1982-04-01

    Taste preference tests, with simultaneous presentation of treated and untreated food, were administered to 24 common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). The bats received brief exposures to four different stimuli representing sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes, each at four different concentrations. Despite a strong location bias, the bats significantly (P < 0.01) avoided the highest concentrations of the salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Consumption of the sweet stimulus at all concentrations was similar to that of the untreated standard. Vampires evidently can discriminate based on taste, although their ability is apparently poorly developed when compared with some euryphagous species such as the rat. Hence, taste is probably not a factor in host selection by the vampire. PMID:24415119

  11. Contributing factors for increased bat swing velocity.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; DeRenne, Coop; Spaniol, Frank J

    2009-07-01

    Bat swing velocity is an important characteristic of successful hitters in baseball and softball. The purpose of this literature review is threefold. First, before describing what components and training methods have been investigated to improve bat swing velocity, it is necessary to discuss the importance of bat swing velocity and batted-ball velocity. The second purpose is to discuss bat weight during on-deck circle warm-up, bat weight during resistance training, resistance training with an overload of force, performance of additional supplemental resistance exercises, the relationship between strength, power, lean body mass, and angular velocity and bat swing velocity, and the relationship between improvements in strength, power, lean body mass, and angular velocity and improvements in bat swing velocity. The third purpose of this review is to recommend some practical applications based on research results. PMID:19528868

  12. The evolution of echolocation in bats.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth; Teeling, Emma C

    2006-03-01

    Recent molecular phylogenies have changed our perspective on the evolution of echolocation in bats. These phylogenies suggest that certain bats with sophisticated echolocation (e.g. horseshoe bats) share a common ancestry with non-echolocating bats (e.g. Old World fruit bats). One interpretation of these trees presumes that laryngeal echolocation (calls produced in the larynx) probably evolved in the ancestor of all extant bats. Echolocation might have subsequently been lost in Old World fruit bats, only to evolve secondarily (by tongue clicking) in this family. Remarkable acoustic features such as Doppler shift compensation, whispering echolocation and nasal emission of sound each show multiple convergent origins in bats. The extensive adaptive radiation in echolocation call design is shaped largely by ecology, showing how perceptual challenges imposed by the environment can often override phylogenetic constraints. PMID:16701491

  13. Reduced free-radical production and extreme longevity in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) versus two non-flying mammals.

    PubMed

    Brunet-Rossinni, Anja K

    2004-01-01

    The extended longevity of bats, despite their high metabolic rate, may provide insight to patterns and mechanisms of aging. Here I test predictions of the free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging as an explanation for differences in lifespan between the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus (maximum lifespan potential MLSP=34 years), the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda (MLSP=2 years), and the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (MLSP=8 years) by comparing whole-organism oxygen consumption, hydrogen peroxide production, and superoxide dismutase activity in heart, kidney, and brain tissue. Mitochondria from M. lucifugus produced half to one-third the amount of hydrogen peroxide per unit of oxygen consumed compared to mitochondria from B. brevicauda and P. leucopus, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity did not differ among the three species. These results are similar to those found for birds, which like bats have high metabolic rates and extended longevities, and provide support for the free radical theory of aging as an at least partial explanation for the extreme longevity of bats. PMID:14706233

  14. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  15. Survey of bats on Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Washington, December 2011-April 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, Joan C.; Manning, Tom; Barnett, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    done, and none have been done during winter. Refuge biologists are lacking even the most basic information, such as species presence, and location and status of hibernacula. In order to assess vulnerability and develop a strategy for management of WNS, refuge managers need to know where bats are hibernating, and which species are using each hibernaculum. The goal of this project was to provide information on the status of wintering bats to refuge biologists and managers in order to support decision-making that might minimize the threat of WNS in western bat populations. We conducted surveys of bat activity in winter and early spring as an initial step toward identifying bat species that may be over-wintering and locating potential hibernacula on these refuges. Our specific objectives were to identify bat species using the refuges, to identify areas of resident bat activity in autumn, winter, and early spring using acoustic bat detectors, and to try new methods for quick surveys of bat activity.

  16. Individual recognition between mother and infant bats (Myotis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D.; Shaughnessy, A.; Gould, E.

    1972-01-01

    The recognition process and the basis for that recognition, in brown bats, between mother and infant are analyzed. Two parameters, ultrasonic communication and olfactory stimuli, are investigated. The test animals were not allowed any visual contact. It was concluded that individual recognition between mother and infant occurred. However, it could not be determined if the recognition was based on ultrasonic signals or olfactory stimuli.

  17. Undiscovered Bat Hosts of Filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Han, Barbara A; Schmidt, John Paul; Alexander, Laura W; Bowden, Sarah E; Hayman, David T S; Drake, John M

    2016-07-01

    Ebola and other filoviruses pose significant public health and conservation threats by causing high mortality in primates, including humans. Preventing future outbreaks of ebolavirus depends on identifying wildlife reservoirs, but extraordinarily high biodiversity of potential hosts in temporally dynamic environments of equatorial Africa contributes to sporadic, unpredictable outbreaks that have hampered efforts to identify wild reservoirs for nearly 40 years. Using a machine learning algorithm, generalized boosted regression, we characterize potential filovirus-positive bat species with estimated 87% accuracy. Our model produces two specific outputs with immediate utility for guiding filovirus surveillance in the wild. First, we report a profile of intrinsic traits that discriminates hosts from non-hosts, providing a biological caricature of a filovirus-positive bat species. This profile emphasizes traits describing adult and neonate body sizes and rates of reproductive fitness, as well as species' geographic range overlap with regions of high mammalian diversity. Second, we identify several bat species ranked most likely to be filovirus-positive on the basis of intrinsic trait similarity with known filovirus-positive bats. New bat species predicted to be positive for filoviruses are widely distributed outside of equatorial Africa, with a majority of species overlapping in Southeast Asia. Taken together, these results spotlight several potential host species and geographical regions as high-probability targets for future filovirus surveillance. PMID:27414412

  18. Undiscovered Bat Hosts of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, John Paul; Alexander, Laura W.; Bowden, Sarah E.; Hayman, David T. S.; Drake, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola and other filoviruses pose significant public health and conservation threats by causing high mortality in primates, including humans. Preventing future outbreaks of ebolavirus depends on identifying wildlife reservoirs, but extraordinarily high biodiversity of potential hosts in temporally dynamic environments of equatorial Africa contributes to sporadic, unpredictable outbreaks that have hampered efforts to identify wild reservoirs for nearly 40 years. Using a machine learning algorithm, generalized boosted regression, we characterize potential filovirus-positive bat species with estimated 87% accuracy. Our model produces two specific outputs with immediate utility for guiding filovirus surveillance in the wild. First, we report a profile of intrinsic traits that discriminates hosts from non-hosts, providing a biological caricature of a filovirus-positive bat species. This profile emphasizes traits describing adult and neonate body sizes and rates of reproductive fitness, as well as species’ geographic range overlap with regions of high mammalian diversity. Second, we identify several bat species ranked most likely to be filovirus-positive on the basis of intrinsic trait similarity with known filovirus-positive bats. New bat species predicted to be positive for filoviruses are widely distributed outside of equatorial Africa, with a majority of species overlapping in Southeast Asia. Taken together, these results spotlight several potential host species and geographical regions as high-probability targets for future filovirus surveillance. PMID:27414412

  19. The effect of local land use and loss of forests on bats and nocturnal insects.

    PubMed

    Treitler, Julia T; Heim, Olga; Tschapka, Marco; Jung, Kirsten

    2016-07-01

    Land-use intensification at local and landscape level poses a serious threat to biodiversity and affects species interactions and ecosystem function. It is thus important to understand how interrelated taxa respond to land-use intensification and to consider the importance of different spatial scales. We investigated whether and how local land-use intensity and landscape features affect the predator-prey interaction of bats and insects. Bats and nocturnal insects were assessed on 50 grassland sites in the Schorfheide-Chorin. We analyzed the effect of local land use and distance to forested areas as a proxy for site accessibility on bats and insects and their biological interaction measured in bat's feeding activity. Insect abundance increased with higher land-use intensity, while size and diversity of insects decreased. In contrast, bat activity, diversity, and species composition were determined by the distance to forested areas and only slightly by land-use intensity. Feeding attempts of bats increased with higher insect abundance and diversity but decreased with insect size and distance to forested areas. Finally, our results revealed that near forested areas, the number of feeding attempts was much lower on grassland sites with high, compared to those with low land-use intensity. In contrast, far from forests, the feeding attempts did not differ significantly between intensively and extensively managed grassland sites. We conclude that the two interrelated taxa, bats and insects, respond to land-use intensification on very different scales. While insects respond to local land use, bats are rather influenced by surrounding landscape matrix. Hereby, proximity to forests reveals to be a prerequisite for higher bat species diversity and a higher rate of feeding attempts within the area. However, proximity to forest is not sufficient to compensate local high land-use intensity. Thus, local land-use intensification in combination with a loss of forest remnants

  20. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

    PubMed

    Marinkelle, C J

    1996-07-01

    Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

  1. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase 1 Gene (Pck1) Displays Parallel Evolution between Old World and New World Fruit Bats

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2015-01-01

    Bats are an ideal mammalian group for exploring adaptations to fasting due to their large variety of diets and because fasting is a regular part of their life cycle. Mammals fed on a carbohydrate-rich diet experience a rapid decrease in blood glucose levels during a fast, thus, the development of mechanisms to resist the consequences of regular fasts, experienced on a daily basis, must have been crucial in the evolution of frugivorous bats. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PEPCK1, encoded by the Pck1 gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis and is largely responsible for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis during fasting in fruit-eating bats. To test whether Pck1 has experienced adaptive evolution in frugivorous bats, we obtained Pck1 coding sequence from 20 species of bats, including five Old World fruit bats (OWFBs) (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (NWFBs) (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses of these sequences revealed that Pck1 was under purifying selection in both Old World and New World fruit bats with no evidence of positive selection detected in either ancestral branch leading to fruit bats. Interestingly, however, six specific amino acid substitutions were detected on the ancestral lineage of OWFBs. In addition, we found considerable evidence for parallel evolution, at the amino acid level, between the PEPCK1 sequences of Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Test for parallel evolution showed that four parallel substitutions (Q276R, R503H, I558V and Q593R) were driven by natural selection. Our study provides evidence that Pck1 underwent parallel evolution between Old World and New World fruit bats, two lineages of mammals that feed on a carbohydrate-rich diet and experience regular periods of fasting as part of their life cycle. PMID:25807515

  2. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 gene (Pck1) displays parallel evolution between Old World and New World fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Yin, Qiuyuan; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2015-01-01

    Bats are an ideal mammalian group for exploring adaptations to fasting due to their large variety of diets and because fasting is a regular part of their life cycle. Mammals fed on a carbohydrate-rich diet experience a rapid decrease in blood glucose levels during a fast, thus, the development of mechanisms to resist the consequences of regular fasts, experienced on a daily basis, must have been crucial in the evolution of frugivorous bats. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PEPCK1, encoded by the Pck1 gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis and is largely responsible for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis during fasting in fruit-eating bats. To test whether Pck1 has experienced adaptive evolution in frugivorous bats, we obtained Pck1 coding sequence from 20 species of bats, including five Old World fruit bats (OWFBs) (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (NWFBs) (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses of these sequences revealed that Pck1 was under purifying selection in both Old World and New World fruit bats with no evidence of positive selection detected in either ancestral branch leading to fruit bats. Interestingly, however, six specific amino acid substitutions were detected on the ancestral lineage of OWFBs. In addition, we found considerable evidence for parallel evolution, at the amino acid level, between the PEPCK1 sequences of Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Test for parallel evolution showed that four parallel substitutions (Q276R, R503H, I558V and Q593R) were driven by natural selection. Our study provides evidence that Pck1 underwent parallel evolution between Old World and New World fruit bats, two lineages of mammals that feed on a carbohydrate-rich diet and experience regular periods of fasting as part of their life cycle. PMID:25807515

  3. Influenza A Virus Polymerase Is a Site for Adaptive Changes during Experimental Evolution in Bat Cells

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Daniel S.; Yú, Shuǐqìng; Caì, Yíngyún; Dinis, Jorge M.; Müller, Marcel A.; Jordan, Ingo; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recent identification of highly divergent influenza A viruses in bats revealed a new, geographically dispersed viral reservoir. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of host-restricted viral tropism and the potential for transmission of viruses between humans and bats, we exposed a panel of cell lines from bats of diverse species to a prototypical human-origin influenza A virus. All of the tested bat cell lines were susceptible to influenza A virus infection. Experimental evolution of human and avian-like viruses in bat cells resulted in efficient replication and created highly cytopathic variants. Deep sequencing of adapted human influenza A virus revealed a mutation in the PA polymerase subunit not previously described, M285K. Recombinant virus with the PA M285K mutation completely phenocopied the adapted virus. Adaptation of an avian virus-like virus resulted in the canonical PB2 E627K mutation that is required for efficient replication in other mammals. None of the adaptive mutations occurred in the gene for viral hemagglutinin, a gene that frequently acquires changes to recognize host-specific variations in sialic acid receptors. We showed that human influenza A virus uses canonical sialic acid receptors to infect bat cells, even though bat influenza A viruses do not appear to use these receptors for virus entry. Our results demonstrate that bats are unique hosts that select for both a novel mutation and a well-known adaptive mutation in the viral polymerase to support replication. IMPORTANCE Bats constitute well-known reservoirs for viruses that may be transferred into human populations, sometimes with fatal consequences. Influenza A viruses have recently been identified in bats, dramatically expanding the known host range of this virus. Here we investigated the replication of human influenza A virus in bat cell lines and the barriers that the virus faces in this new host. Human influenza A and B viruses infected cells from geographically and

  4. Testing activities at the National Battery Test Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornstra, F.; Deluca, W. H.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    The National Battery Test Laboratory (NBTL) is an Argonne National Laboratory facility for testing, evaluating, and studying advanced electric storage batteries. The facility tests batteries developed under Department of Energy programs and from private industry. These include batteries intended for future electric vehicle (EV) propulsion, electric utility load leveling (LL), and solar energy storage. Since becoming operational, the NBTL has evaluated well over 1400 cells (generally in the form of three- to six-cell modules, but up to 140-cell batteries) of various technologies. Performance characterization assessments are conducted under a series of charge/discharge cycles with constant current, constant power, peak power, and computer simulated dynamic load profile conditions. Flexible charging algorithms are provided to accommodate the specific needs of each battery under test. Special studies are conducted to explore and optimize charge procedures, to investigate the impact of unique load demands on battery performance, and to analyze the thermal management requirements of battery systems.

  5. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  6. Lagos bat virus in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C; Urazova, Olga Y; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2008-04-01

    During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

  7. Barriers and benefits: implications of artificial night-lighting for the distribution of common bats in Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Fiona; Roche, Niamh; Aughney, Tina; Jones, Nicholas; Day, Julie; Baker, James; Langton, Steve

    2015-05-01

    Artificial lighting is a particular problem for animals active at night. Approximately 69% of mammal species are nocturnal, and one-third of these are bats. Due to their extensive movements-both on a nightly basis to exploit ephemeral food supplies, and during migration between roosts-bats have an unusually high probability of encountering artificial light in the landscape. This paper reviews the impacts of lighting on bats and their prey, exploring the direct and indirect consequences of lighting intensity and spectral composition. In addition, new data from large-scale surveys involving more than 265 000 bat calls at more than 600 locations in two countries are presented, showing that prevalent street-lighting types are not generally linked with increased activity of common and widespread bat species. Such bats, which are important to ecosystem function, are generally considered 'light-attracted' and likely to benefit from the insect congregations that form at lights. Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) may be an exception, being more frequent in lit than dark transects. For common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), lighting is negatively associated with their distribution on a landscape scale, but there may be local increases in habitats with good tree cover. Research is now needed on the impacts of sky glow and glare for bat navigation, and to explore the implications of lighting for habitat matrix permeability. PMID:25780236

  8. Barriers and benefits: implications of artificial night-lighting for the distribution of common bats in Britain and Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Fiona; Roche, Niamh; Aughney, Tina; Jones, Nicholas; Day, Julie; Baker, James; Langton, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting is a particular problem for animals active at night. Approximately 69% of mammal species are nocturnal, and one-third of these are bats. Due to their extensive movements—both on a nightly basis to exploit ephemeral food supplies, and during migration between roosts—bats have an unusually high probability of encountering artificial light in the landscape. This paper reviews the impacts of lighting on bats and their prey, exploring the direct and indirect consequences of lighting intensity and spectral composition. In addition, new data from large-scale surveys involving more than 265 000 bat calls at more than 600 locations in two countries are presented, showing that prevalent street-lighting types are not generally linked with increased activity of common and widespread bat species. Such bats, which are important to ecosystem function, are generally considered ‘light-attracted’ and likely to benefit from the insect congregations that form at lights. Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) may be an exception, being more frequent in lit than dark transects. For common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), lighting is negatively associated with their distribution on a landscape scale, but there may be local increases in habitats with good tree cover. Research is now needed on the impacts of sky glow and glare for bat navigation, and to explore the implications of lighting for habitat matrix permeability. PMID:25780236

  9. The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

    2005-12-01

    We studied the efficiency and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, a purported moth specialist that takes surface-bound prey (gleaning) and airborne prey (aerial hawking), and the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, an eared species unpalatable to bats that possesses conspicuous colouration and sound-producing organs (tymbals). This is the first study to investigate the interaction of tiger moths and wild-caught bats under conditions mimicking those found in nature and to demand the use of both aerial hawking and gleaning strategies by bats. Further, it is the first to report spectrograms of the sounds produced by tiger moths while under aerial attack by echolocating bats. During both aerial hawking and gleaning trials, all muted C. tenera and perched intact C. tenera were attacked by M. septentrionalis, indicating that M. septentrionalis did not discriminate C. tenera from palatable moths based on potential echoic and/or non-auditory cues. Intact C. tenera were attacked significantly less often than muted C. tenera during aerial hawking attacks: tymbal clicks were therefore an effective deterrent in an aerial hawking context. During gleaning attacks, intact and muted C. tenera were always attacked and suffered similar mortality rates, suggesting that while handling prey this bat uses primarily chemical signals. Our results also show that C. tenera temporally matches the onset of click production to the ;approach phase' echolocation calls produced by aerial hawking attacking bats and that clicks themselves influence the echolocation behaviour of attacking bats. In the context of past research, these findings support the hypotheses that the clicks of arctiid moths are both an active defence (through echolocation disruption) and a reliable indicator of chemical defence against aerial-hawking bats. We suggest these signals are specialized for an aerial context. PMID

  10. Evaluation of the Cell Population of the Seminiferous Epithelium and Spermatic Indexes of the Bat Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Danielle B.; Barros, Mirlaine S.; Paula, Tarcízio A. R.; Freitas, Mariella B. D.; Gomes, Marcos L. M.; Matta, Sérgio L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of information about patterns of spermatogenesis in bats, this study aimed to provide information on the testicular activity of the bat Sturnira lilium along the annual seasons. Thus, a series of morphometrical and stereological analyses were made using the testes of adult S. lilium in order to achieve a better understanding of the sperm production dynamics. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed in testicular fragments of animals captured during dry and rainy seasons. The testes followed the pattern of organization described for other mammals, and there were no morphological differences between organs collected either in dry or in rainy seasons. Each tubular cross-section in stage 1 was made of 0.5 type-A spermatogonia, 4.4 primary spermatocytes in preleptotene/leptotene, 3.7 in zygotene, 11.9 in pachytene, 35.6 round spermatids and 8.5 Sertoli cells. The mitotic and meiotic indexes were 15.4 and 2.9 cells, respectively, while the spermatogenesis yield was 68.7 cells. The testicular sperm reserves was 37.61×106 cells, and daily sperm production per gram of testis averaged 209.68×106 cells, both highest averages occurring in the rainy season. S. lilium male bats have a continuous reproductive pattern, high spermatogenesis yield and low support capacity by the Sertoli cells. PMID:25003782

  11. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hang; McComas, Katherine A.; Buttke, Danielle E.; Roh, Sungjong; Wild, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521) in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health. PMID:27224252

  12. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hang; McComas, Katherine A; Buttke, Danielle E; Roh, Sungjong; Wild, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521) in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health. PMID:27224252

  13. Serological Evidence of Lyssaviruses among Bats on Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands.

    PubMed

    Mélade, Julien; McCulloch, Stewart; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Lagadec, Erwan; Turpin, Magali; Pascalis, Hervé; Goodman, Steven M; Markotter, Wanda; Dellagi, Koussay

    2016-01-01

    We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II, respectively. A total of 97 and 42 sera were able to neutralise DUVV and LBV, respectively. No serum neutralised both DUVV and LBV but most DUVV-seropositive bats (n = 32/220) also neutralised European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) but not Rabies lyssavirus (RABV), the prototypic lyssavirus of phylogroup I. These results highlight that lyssaviruses belonging to phylogroups I and II circulate in regional bat populations and that the putative phylogroup I lyssavirus is antigenically closer to DUVV and EBLV-1 than to RABV. Variation between bat species, roost sites and bioclimatic regions were observed. All brain samples tested by RT-PCR specific for lyssavirus RNA were negative. PMID:27501458

  14. Serological Evidence of Lyssaviruses among Bats on Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Mélade, Julien; McCulloch, Stewart; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Lagadec, Erwan; Turpin, Magali; Pascalis, Hervé; Goodman, Steven M.; Markotter, Wanda; Dellagi, Koussay

    2016-01-01

    We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II, respectively. A total of 97 and 42 sera were able to neutralise DUVV and LBV, respectively. No serum neutralised both DUVV and LBV but most DUVV-seropositive bats (n = 32/220) also neutralised European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) but not Rabies lyssavirus (RABV), the prototypic lyssavirus of phylogroup I. These results highlight that lyssaviruses belonging to phylogroups I and II circulate in regional bat populations and that the putative phylogroup I lyssavirus is antigenically closer to DUVV and EBLV-1 than to RABV. Variation between bat species, roost sites and bioclimatic regions were observed. All brain samples tested by RT-PCR specific for lyssavirus RNA were negative. PMID:27501458

  15. The aerodynamic cost of head morphology in bats: maybe not as bad as it seems.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Razak, Norizham Abdul; Verstraelen, Edouard; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. Moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. Both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamlined character of a bat's morphology. It is generally assumed that by compromising the streamlined charactered of the geometry, the head morphology generates substantial drag, thereby reducing flight efficiency. In contrast, it has also been suggested that the pinnae of bats generate lift forces counteracting the detrimental effect of the increased drag. However, very little data exist on the aerodynamic properties of bat pinnae and noseleaves. In this work, the aerodynamic forces generated by the heads of seven species of bats, including noseleaved bats, are measured by testing detailed 3D models in a wind tunnel. Models of Myotis daubentonii, Macrophyllum macrophyllum, Micronycteris microtis, Eptesicus fuscus, Rhinolophus formosae, Rhinolophus rouxi and Phyllostomus discolor are tested. The results confirm that non-streamlined facial morphologies yield considerable drag forces but also generate substantial lift. The net effect is a slight increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, there is no evidence of high aerodynamic costs associated with the morphology of bat heads. PMID:25739038

  16. A Novel Quantum-Behaved Bat Algorithm with Mean Best Position Directed for Numerical Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenyong; Liu, Zijuan; Duan, Qingyan; Cao, Long

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel quantum-behaved bat algorithm with the direction of mean best position (QMBA). In QMBA, the position of each bat is mainly updated by the current optimal solution in the early stage of searching and in the late search it also depends on the mean best position which can enhance the convergence speed of the algorithm. During the process of searching, quantum behavior of bats is introduced which is beneficial to jump out of local optimal solution and make the quantum-behaved bats not easily fall into local optimal solution, and it has better ability to adapt complex environment. Meanwhile, QMBA makes good use of statistical information of best position which bats had experienced to generate better quality solutions. This approach not only inherits the characteristic of quick convergence, simplicity, and easy implementation of original bat algorithm, but also increases the diversity of population and improves the accuracy of solution. Twenty-four benchmark test functions are tested and compared with other variant bat algorithms for numerical optimization the simulation results show that this approach is simple and efficient and can achieve a more accurate solution. PMID:27293424

  17. A Novel Quantum-Behaved Bat Algorithm with Mean Best Position Directed for Numerical Optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Binglian; Zhu, Wenyong; Liu, Zijuan; Duan, Qingyan; Cao, Long

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel quantum-behaved bat algorithm with the direction of mean best position (QMBA). In QMBA, the position of each bat is mainly updated by the current optimal solution in the early stage of searching and in the late search it also depends on the mean best position which can enhance the convergence speed of the algorithm. During the process of searching, quantum behavior of bats is introduced which is beneficial to jump out of local optimal solution and make the quantum-behaved bats not easily fall into local optimal solution, and it has better ability to adapt complex environment. Meanwhile, QMBA makes good use of statistical information of best position which bats had experienced to generate better quality solutions. This approach not only inherits the characteristic of quick convergence, simplicity, and easy implementation of original bat algorithm, but also increases the diversity of population and improves the accuracy of solution. Twenty-four benchmark test functions are tested and compared with other variant bat algorithms for numerical optimization the simulation results show that this approach is simple and efficient and can achieve a more accurate solution. PMID:27293424

  18. Effect of grip strength and grip strengthening exercises on instantaneous bat velocity of collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shawn S; Lyons, Brian C; Mayo, Jerry J

    2004-05-01

    Bat velocity is considered to be an important factor for successful hitting. The relationship between grip strength and bat velocity has not been conclusively established. The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship of grip strength to bat velocity and to ascertain whether the performance of resistance training exercises designed to specifically target the forearms and grip would significantly alter bat velocity. The subjects for this study were 23 male members (mean +/- SD, age = 19.7 +/- 1.3 years, height = 182.5 +/- 5.9 cm, weight = 85.4 +/- 15.5 kg, experience = 14.4 +/- 1.7 years) of a varsity baseball team at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II school. The Jamar hand dynamometer was used to test grip strength, and the SETPRO Rookie was used to measure instantaneous bat velocity at the point of contact with the ball. Subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. For 6 weeks, both groups participated in their usual baseball practice sessions, but the experimental group also performed extra forearm and grip strengthening exercises, whereas the control group did not. Pretest and posttest correlations between grip strength and bat velocity revealed no significant relationship between grip strength and bat velocity (pretest r = 0.054, p = 0.807; posttest r = 0.315, p = 0.145). A dependent t-test performed on all subjects revealed that a significant (p = 0.001) increase in bat velocity did occur over the course of the study. A covariate analysis, employing pretest bat velocity as the covariate, revealed no significant difference (p = 0.795) in posttest bat velocity scores between the experimental and control groups. Thus, increases in bat velocity occurred, but the differences were similar for both the experimental and control groups. The findings of this study suggest that grip strength and bat velocity are not significantly related, and that the allocation of time and energy for added training

  19. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  20. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  1. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed “whispering” can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive) effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat's view of its acoustic scene. PMID:23630501

  2. Bat Rabies in Alberta 1979-1982

    PubMed Central

    Rosatte, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78. PMID:17422507

  3. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as swing weight.2-3 A number of recent field studies4-7 have confirmed that the speed with which a player can swing a baseball or softball bat depends more on the bat's moment of inertia than on its mass. In this paper we investigate the moment of inertia (swing weight) of a variety of baseball and softball bats.

  4. Establishment of cell line from embryonic tissue of Pipistrellus ceylonicus bat species from India & its susceptibility to different viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Lakra, Rajen J.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Tyagi, Preeti; Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Shete, Anita M.; Singh, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Pipistrellus ceylonicus bat species is widely distributed in South Asia, with additional populations recorded in China and Southeast Asia. Bats are the natural reservoir hosts for a number of emerging zoonotic diseases. Attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in various terrestrial mammalian cell lines have sometimes been unsuccessful. The bat cell lines are useful in isolation and propagation of many of the viruses harboured by bats. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help such investigations and to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. In this study we made an attempt to develop a cell line from P. ceylonicus bats. Methods: An effort was made to establish cell line from embryo of P. ceylonicus species of bat after seeding to Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10 per cent foetal bovine serum; a primary cell line was established and designated as NIV-BtEPC. Mitochondrial DNA profile analysis was done using cyt-b and ND-1 gene sequences from the cell line. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbour-joining algorithm for cyt-b and ND-1 genes with 1000-bootstrap replicates. Results: NIV-BtEPC cell line was susceptible to Chandipura (CHPV) and novel adenovirus (BtAdv-RLM) isolated from Rousettus leschenaulti from India but did not support multiplication of a number of Bunyaviruses, Alphaviruses and Flavivirus. This might be useful for isolation of a range of viruses and investigation of unknown aetiological agents. Interpretation & conclusions: In this study, a new bat cell line was developed from P. ceylonicus. This cell line was successfully tested for the susceptibility to Chandipura and BtAdv-RLM virus isolated from bats. The approach developed and optimised in this study may be applicable to the other species of bats and this established cell line can be used to facilitate virus isolation and basic research into virus-host interaction. PMID:24056599

  5. Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed.

    PubMed

    Reyes, G F Cisco; Dickin, D Clark; Dolny, Dennis G; Crusat, Nolan J K

    2010-12-01

    The purposes for this study were to investigate effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure and exercise order on bat speed and to examine relationship between muscular strength and bat speed. All participants were recreationally trained men (n = 16; 22 ± 2 years; 181.4 ± 7.4 cm; 84.7 ± 9 kg), with previous baseball experience and were tested for 1 repetitive maximum (1RM) strength in squat and bench press. Subjects then participated in 4 randomized sessions on separate days, each consisting of 3 sets of 5 bat swings. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements related to bat swing) with or without WBV exposure were performed after sets 1 and 2. Trials were as follows: no-exercise Control (CTRL), upper body followed by lower body exercises without WBV (Arm-Leg NOVIB), upper body followed by lower body exercises with WBV (Arm-Leg VIB), and lower body followed by upper body exercises with WBV (Leg-Arm VIB). Bat speed was recorded during each swing and averaged across sets. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences across sets and trials. Linear regressions analyzed relationship between strength and bat speed. A significant relationship existed between bat speed and lower body strength (r = 0.406, p = 0.008) but not for upper body strength. The exercise order of Arm-Leg VIB significantly increased bat speed by 2.6% (p = 0.02). Performing identical order of exercises without vibration (Arm-Leg NOVIB) significantly decreased bat speed by 2% (p = 0.039). It was concluded that adding vibration exposure to total-body exercises can provide acute enhancements in bat speed. Additionally, leg strength was shown to influence bat speed suggesting that increasing leg strength may enhance bat speed. PMID:21088545

  6. Modeling perspectives on echolocation strategies inspired by bats flying in groups.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Abaid, Nicole

    2015-12-21

    Bats navigating with echolocation - which is a type of active sensing achieved by interpreting echoes resulting from self-generated ultrasonic pulses - exhibit unique behaviors during group flight. While bats may benefit from eavesdropping on their peers׳ echolocation, they also potentially suffer from confusion between their own and peers׳ pulses, caused by an effect called frequency jamming. This hardship of group flight is supported by experimental observations of bats simplifying their sound-scape by shifting their pulse frequencies or suppressing echolocation altogether. Here, we investigate eavesdropping and varying pulse emission rate from a modeling perspective to understand these behaviors׳ potential benefits and detriments. We define an agent-based model of echolocating bats avoiding collisions in a three-dimensional tunnel. Through simulation, we show that bats with reasonably accurate eavesdropping can reduce collisions compared to those neglecting information from peers. In large populations, bats minimize frequency jamming by decreasing pulse emission rate, while collision risk increases; conversely, increasing pulse emission rate minimizes collisions by allowing more sensing information generated per bat. These strategies offer benefits for both biological and engineered systems, since frequency jamming is a concern in systems using active sensing. PMID:26386143

  7. Comparative aerodynamic performance of flapping flight in two bat species using time-resolved wake visualization.

    PubMed

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2011-10-01

    Bats are unique among extant actively flying animals in having very flexible wings, controlled by multi-jointed fingers. This gives the potential for fine-tuned active control to optimize aerodynamic performance throughout the wingbeat and thus a more efficient flight. But how bat wing performance scales with size, morphology and ecology is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid wake data of two species of bats flying freely across a range of flight speeds using stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry in a wind tunnel. From these data, we construct an average wake for each bat species and speed combination, which is used to estimate the flight forces throughout the wingbeat and resulting flight performance properties such as lift-to-drag ratio (L/D). The results show that the wake dynamics and flight performance of both bat species are similar, as was expected since both species operate at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) and Strouhal numbers (St). However, maximum L/D is achieved at a significant higher flight speed for the larger, highly mobile and migratory bat species than for the smaller non-migratory species. Although the flight performance of these bats may depend on a range of morphological and ecological factors, the differences in optimal flight speeds between the species could at least partly be explained by differences in their movement ecology. PMID:21367776

  8. Orthene? toxicity to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, coordination loss, and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Rattner, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 24-h LD50 of Orhene (active ingredient acephate, acetylphosphoramidothioic acid o,s-dimethyl ester, CAS 30560-19-1) to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) was high (> 1,500 mg acephate/kg) and at least several times greater than the LD50 for mice (Mus musculus) (720 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after dosing, all surviving mice appeared behaviorally normal, but 9 of 30 surviving bats could not right themselves when placed on their backs. When dead and incapacitated bats were combined to calculate an ED50 (median effective dose), the resultant estimate (687 mg/kg) did not differ (p > 0.05) from the LD50 for mice. Serum cholinesterase (ChE) activity in control bats was 3.2 times greater than in mice. The relationship between the naturally high level of ChE and the relative tolerance of bats to organophosphorus insecticides is unexplained. Toxicity of Orthene was clearly less than that reported elsewhere for methyl parathion (phosphorothioic acid o,o-dimethyl o-[4-nitrophenyl] ester, CAS 298-00-0). This finding may be useful in selection of a chemical for agricultural use, but conclusions about the safety of Orthene to this bat species, or to others, must remain tentative until confirmed by studies under field conditions. Because bats are long-lived with low reproductive rates and slow recruitment, any additional mortality in the wild could be critical to population survival.

  9. Comparative aerodynamic performance of flapping flight in two bat species using time-resolved wake visualization

    PubMed Central

    Muijres, Florian T.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Bats are unique among extant actively flying animals in having very flexible wings, controlled by multi-jointed fingers. This gives the potential for fine-tuned active control to optimize aerodynamic performance throughout the wingbeat and thus a more efficient flight. But how bat wing performance scales with size, morphology and ecology is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid wake data of two species of bats flying freely across a range of flight speeds using stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry in a wind tunnel. From these data, we construct an average wake for each bat species and speed combination, which is used to estimate the flight forces throughout the wingbeat and resulting flight performance properties such as lift-to-drag ratio (L/D). The results show that the wake dynamics and flight performance of both bat species are similar, as was expected since both species operate at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) and Strouhal numbers (St). However, maximum L/D is achieved at a significant higher flight speed for the larger, highly mobile and migratory bat species than for the smaller non-migratory species. Although the flight performance of these bats may depend on a range of morphological and ecological factors, the differences in optimal flight speeds between the species could at least partly be explained by differences in their movement ecology. PMID:21367776

  10. Role of the autonomic nervous system in activation of human brown adipose tissue: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bahler, L; Molenaars, R J; Verberne, H J; Holleman, F

    2015-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is able to convert calories into heat rather than storing them. Therefore, activated BAT could be a potential target in the battle against obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the role of the autonomic nervous system in the activation of human BAT. Although the number of studies focusing on BAT in humans is limited, involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in BAT activation is evident. Metabolic BAT activity can be visualized with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, whereas sympathetic activation of BAT can be visualized with nuclear-medicine techniques using different radiopharmaceuticals. Also, interruption of the sympathetic nerves leading to BAT activation diminishes sympathetic stimulation, resulting in reduced metabolic BAT activity. Furthermore, both β- and α-adrenoceptors might be important in the stimulation process of BAT, as pretreatment with propranolol or α-adrenoceptor blockade also diminishes BAT activity. In contrast, high catecholamine levels are known to activate and recruit BAT. There are several interventional studies in which BAT was successfully inhibited, whereas only one interventional study aiming to activate BAT resulted in the intended outcome. Most studies have focused on the SNS for activating BAT, although the parasympathetic nervous system might also be a target of interest. To better define the possible role of BAT in strategies to combat the obesity epidemic, it seems likely that future studies focusing on both histology and imaging are essential for identifying the factors and receptors critical for activation of human BAT. PMID:26404650

  11. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan financing test of section 141(c). The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Private activity bond tests. 1.141-2 Section...

  12. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan financing test of section 141(c). The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Private activity bond tests. 1.141-2 Section...

  13. Glucocorticoids Acutely Increase Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Humans, Revealing Species-Specific Differences in UCP-1 Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ramage, Lynne E; Akyol, Murat; Fletcher, Alison M; Forsythe, John; Nixon, Mark; Carter, Roderick N; van Beek, Edwin J R; Morton, Nicholas M; Walker, Brian R; Stimson, Roland H

    2016-07-12

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans presents a new therapeutic target for metabolic disease; however, little is known about the regulation of human BAT. Chronic glucocorticoid excess causes obesity in humans, and glucocorticoids suppress BAT activation in rodents. We tested whether glucocorticoids regulate BAT activity in humans. In vivo, the glucocorticoid prednisolone acutely increased (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake by BAT (measured using PET/CT) in lean healthy men during mild cold exposure (16°C-17°C). In addition, prednisolone increased supraclavicular skin temperature (measured using infrared thermography) and energy expenditure during cold, but not warm, exposure in lean subjects. In vitro, glucocorticoids increased isoprenaline-stimulated respiration and UCP-1 in human primary brown adipocytes, but substantially decreased isoprenaline-stimulated respiration and UCP-1 in primary murine brown and beige adipocytes. The highly species-specific regulation of BAT function by glucocorticoids may have important implications for the translation of novel treatments to activate BAT to improve metabolic health. PMID:27411014

  14. Assessing bat detectability and occupancy with multiple automated echolocation detectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P.M.; Miles, A.C.; Todd, C.M.; Bonaccorso, F.J.; Weller, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Occupancy analysis and its ability to account for differential detection probabilities is important for studies in which detecting echolocation calls is used as a measure of bat occurrence and activity. We examined the feasibility of remotely acquiring bat encounter histories to estimate detection probability and occupancy. We used echolocation detectors coupled to digital recorders operating at a series of proximate sites on consecutive nights in 2 trial surveys for the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus). Our results confirmed that the technique is readily amenable for use in occupancy analysis. We also conducted a simulation exercise to assess the effects of sampling effort on parameter estimation. The results indicated that the precision and bias of parameter estimation were often more influenced by the number of sites sampled than number of visits. Acceptable accuracy often was not attained until at least 15 sites or 15 visits were used to estimate detection probability and occupancy. The method has significant potential for use in monitoring trends in bat activity and in comparative studies of habitat use. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  15. BAT3 negatively regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling through TRAF6.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeojin; Lee, In Young; Yun, Hee Jae; Lee, Woo Sang; Kang, Seongman; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Lee, Ji Eun; Choi, Eui-Ju

    2016-09-16

    TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) plays a critical role in NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, both of which mediate macrophage activation in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In this study, we investigated whether HLA-B associated transcript-3 (BAT3) regulates LPS-induced macrophage activation. BAT3 physically interacted with TRAF6 in macrophages, and this interaction was enhanced in the cells after LPS treatment. Furthermore, BAT3 inhibited the homo-oligomerization of TRAF6 as well as the interaction between TRAF6 and its downstream kinase transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), thereby suppressing TRAF6-mediated signaling events. Intriguingly, TRAF6 mediated ubiquitination of BAT3 and this ubiquitination was crucial for its inhibitory effect on TRAF6-mediated signaling. Depletion of BAT3 by RNA interference resulted in enhancement of LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling with increasing expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that BAT3 functions as the negative regulator of LPS-induced macrophage activation. PMID:27501752

  16. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis: Molossidae, Chiroptera) at high altitude: Links to migratory insect populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Existing information on the activity of bats in the aerosphere is restricted almost exclusively to altitudes that are within a few tens of meters above the ground. We report a total of 50.2 hrs of ultrasonic recordings made using radiomicrophone bat detectors suspended from free-floating helium bal...

  17. White-nose syndrome in bats: U.S. Geological Survey updates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogall, Gail Moede; Verant, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats since it first appeared in New York in 2007 and has spread at an alarming rate from the northeastern to the central United States and Canada. The disease is named for the white fungus Geomyces destructans that infects the skin of the muzzle, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), the USGS Fort Collins Science Center, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other partners continue to play a primary role in WNS research. Studies conducted at the NWHC led to the discovery (Blehert and others, 2009), characterization, and naming (Gargas and others, 2009) of the cold-loving fungus G. destructans and to the development of standardized criteria for diagnosing the disease (Meteyer and others, 2009). Additionally, scientists at the NWHC have pioneered laboratory techniques for studying the effects of the fungus on hibernating bats (Lorch and others, 2011). To determine if bats are affected by white-nose syndrome, scientists look for a characteristic microscopic pattern of skin erosion caused by G. destructans (Meteyer and others, 2009). Field signs of WNS can include visible white fungal growth on the bat's muzzle, wings, or both, but these signs alone are not a reliable disease indicator - laboratory examination and testing are required for disease confirmation. Infected bats also arouse from hibernation more frequently than uninfected bats (Warnecke and others, 2012) and often display abnormal behaviors in their hibernation sites, such as congregating at or near cave openings and daytime flights during winter. These abnormal behaviors may contribute to the bat's accelerated consumption of stored fat reserves, causing emaciation, a characteristic documented in some of the bats that die with WNS. During hibernation, bats likely have lowered immunity (Bouma and others, 2010), which may facilitate the ability

  18. Summary and Analysis of the U.S. Government Bat Banding Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the U.S. Government Bat Banding Program (BBP) from 1932 to 1972. More than 2 million bands were issued during the program, of which approximately 1.5 million bands were applied to 36 bat species by scientists in many locations in North America including the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Central America. Throughout the BBP, banders noticed numerous and deleterious effects on bats, leading to a moratorium on bat banding by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and a resolution to cease banding by the American Society of Mammalogists in 1973. One of the main points of the memorandum written to justify the moratorium was to conduct a 'detailed evaluation of the files of the bat-banding program.' However, a critical and detailed evaluation of the BBP was never completed. In an effort to satisfy this need, I compiled a detailed history of the BBP by examining the files and conducting a literature review on bat banding activities during the program. I also provided a case study in managing data and applying current mark-recapture theory to estimate survival using the information from a series of bat bands issued to Clyde M. Senger during the BBP. The majority of bands applied by Senger were to Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii), a species of special concern for many states within its geographic range. I developed a database management system for the bat banding records and then analyzed and modeled survival of hibernating Townsend's big-eared bats at three main locations in Washington State using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open models and the modeling capabilities of Program MARK. This analysis of a select dataset in the BBP files provided relatively precise estimates of survival for wintering Townsend's big-eared bats. However, this dataset is unique due to its well-maintained and complete state and because there were high recapture rates over the course of banding; it is doubtful that other unpublished datasets of the same quality exist

  19. Polarized skylight does not calibrate the compass system of a migratory bat.

    PubMed

    Lindecke, Oliver; Voigt, Christian C; Pētersons, Gunārs; Holland, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    In a recent study, Greif et al. (Greif et al. Nat Commun 5, 4488. (doi:10.1038/ncomms5488)) demonstrated a functional role of polarized light for a bat species confronted with a homing task. These non-migratory bats appeared to calibrate their magnetic compass by using polarized skylight at dusk, yet it is unknown if migratory bats also use these cues for calibration. During autumn migration, we equipped Nathusius' bats, Pipistrellus nathusii, with radio transmitters and tested if experimental animals exposed during dusk to a 90° rotated band of polarized light would head in a different direction compared with control animals. After release, bats of both groups continued their journey in the same direction. This observation argues against the use of a polarization-calibrated magnetic compass by this migratory bat and questions that the ability of using polarized light for navigation is a consistent feature in bats. This finding matches with observations in some passerine birds that used polarized light for calibration of their magnetic compass before but not during migration. PMID:26382077

  20. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M C; Aron, J; Santos-Burgoa, C; Uieda, W; Ruiz-Velazco, S

    2001-01-01

    Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants). Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036). Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067). Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk. PMID:11784915

  1. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:20004487

  2. Polarized skylight does not calibrate the compass system of a migratory bat

    PubMed Central

    Lindecke, Oliver; Voigt, Christian C.; Pētersons, Gunārs; Holland, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent study, Greif et al. (Greif et al. Nat Commun 5, 4488. (doi:10.1038/ncomms5488)) demonstrated a functional role of polarized light for a bat species confronted with a homing task. These non-migratory bats appeared to calibrate their magnetic compass by using polarized skylight at dusk, yet it is unknown if migratory bats also use these cues for calibration. During autumn migration, we equipped Nathusius' bats, Pipistrellus nathusii, with radio transmitters and tested if experimental animals exposed during dusk to a 90° rotated band of polarized light would head in a different direction compared with control animals. After release, bats of both groups continued their journey in the same direction. This observation argues against the use of a polarization-calibrated magnetic compass by this migratory bat and questions that the ability of using polarized light for navigation is a consistent feature in bats. This finding matches with observations in some passerine birds that used polarized light for calibration of their magnetic compass before but not during migration. PMID:26382077

  3. Odour cues influence predation risk at artificial bat roosts in urban bushland.

    PubMed

    Threlfall, Caragh; Law, Bradley; Banks, Peter B

    2013-06-23

    Odours that accumulate from roosting can attract predators and increase predation risk. Consequently, selection should favour strategies that allow prey to evade detection by predators, including changing roosts. Insectivorous bats that roost in tree hollows regularly switch roosts and roost in different sized groups, strategies that would alter the accumulation of roost odours and are hypothesized to reduce predation risk. We experimentally manipulated the amount and refresh rate of roosting odour cues at 90 artificial bat roosts in Sydney, Australia, to test the hypothesis that odours increase predator visitation. Predators visited roosts with bat faeces significantly more often than untreated control roosts. Roosts with small amounts of faeces mimicking sites used by solitary bats had the greatest rate of visitation. This suggests that bats roosting alone, rather than in groups, have a greater likelihood of disturbance or predation. Roost switching probably decreases the predictability of finding occupied roosts; however, we show that all roosts (those currently or recently occupied) were visited by predators, suggesting generalist urban predators readily investigate potential roosts. This is the first demonstration that bat odours are attractive to predators that use olfactory cues, showing that bats are at risk of predation in visually cryptic roosts. PMID:23637390

  4. Serological Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Five Species of Bats in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zi-Guo; Luo, Sheng-Jun; Dubey, Jitender P.; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Yan-Ping; He, Yong; He, Xian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals and humans with a worldwide distribution. Bats are reservoirs for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as henipaviruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). However, little is known of T. gondii infection in bats. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in bats in China. A total of 217 serum samples from 5 species of bats were collected between April, 2010, and August, 2011, from 4 provinces in China. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1:25 or higher). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26.5% (18/68) Megaderma lyra, 13.6% (12/88) Rousettus leschenaulti, 13.6% (3/22) Cynopterus sphinx, 20% (4/20) Vespertilio superaus, and 15.8% (3/19) Pipistrellus javanicus. Antibody titers ranged from 1:25 to 1:400, with titers of 1:200 detected in 4 of the 5 bat species. The present study suggests the likely occurrence of T. gondii infection in bats in China, and these bats are new putative hosts for T. gondii, which may pose a threat to human health. PMID:23473226

  5. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in five species of bats in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zi-Guo; Luo, Sheng-Jun; Dubey, Jitender P; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Yan-Ping; He, Yong; He, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals and humans with a worldwide distribution. Bats are reservoirs for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as henipaviruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). However, little is known of T. gondii infection in bats. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in bats in China. A total of 217 serum samples from 5 species of bats were collected between April, 2010, and August, 2011, from 4 provinces in China. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1:25 or higher). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26.5% (18/68) Megaderma lyra, 13.6% (12/88) Rousettus leschenaulti, 13.6% (3/22) Cynopterus sphinx, 20% (4/20) Vespertilio superaus, and 15.8% (3/19) Pipistrellus javanicus. Antibody titers ranged from 1:25 to 1:400, with titers of 1:200 detected in 4 of the 5 bat species. The present study suggests the likely occurrence of T. gondii infection in bats in China, and these bats are new putative hosts for T. gondii, which may pose a threat to human health. PMID:23473226

  6. First detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in Brazilian bats captured strictly in urban areas.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernanda Müller; Costa, Luis Henrique Camargo; de Barros, Thainá Landim; Ito, Pier Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda; Colombo, Fábio Antonio; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Pedro, Wagner André; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2015-10-01

    Leishmania spp. is a protozoan that maintains its life cycle in domestic and wild animals and it may include bats, a population that has increased in urban environments. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. in bats captured strictly in urban areas that are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. The spleen and skin samples of 488 bats from 21 endemic cities in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil, were tested for the presence of Leishmania kDNA using real-time PCR. Differentiation from Trypanosoma spp. was achieved by amplifying a DNA fragment of the ribosomal RNA gene. The presence of Leishmania spp. kDNA was verified in 23.9% of bats and Trypanosoma spp. DNA was identified in 3.9%. Leishmania species differentiation revealed the presence of Leishmania amazonensis in 78.3% of the bats; L. infantum in 17.4%, and 1 sample (4.3%) showed a mix pattern of L. infantum and L. amazonensis. We also detected, for the first time, L. infantum and L. amazonensis DNA in Desmodus rotundus, the hematophagous bat. The presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in bats strictly from urban areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil indicates that these wild and abundant animals are capable of harboring Leishmania spp. in this new scenario. Due to their longevity, high dispersion capacity and adaptability to synanthropic environments, they may play a role in the maintenance of the life cycle of Leishmania parasites. PMID:26209107

  7. Auditory brainstem responses of Japanese house bats (Pipistrellus abramus) after exposure to broadband ultrasonic noise.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Boku, Shokei; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi; Simmons, James A

    2015-10-01

    Echolocating bats forage and navigate within an intense soundscape containing their own sonar sounds as well as sounds from other bats. To determine how the bat's auditory system copes with these high noise levels, auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were measured in the Japanese house bat, Pipistrellus abramus, before and after exposure to ultrasonic noise (30 min duration). Noise spectral content (10-80 kHz) and level (90 dB sound pressure level) are within the ranges these bats experience in their natural environment. ABR thresholds to test frequencies of 20, 40, and 80 kHz did not vary significantly between pre-exposure and post-exposure times of 0 and 30 min. Amplitudes and latencies of the P3 wave at suprathreshold were not significantly affected by noise exposure. These data show that the bat's hearing is not compromised when exposed to background sounds similar in wideband frequency content and sound level to what the animal encounters naturally. These results provide a baseline for examining how the bat's auditory system deals with other intense sounds, such as those emitted by anthropogenic sources or those producing temporary threshold shifts in other mammals. PMID:26520325

  8. Suzaku View of the Swift/BAT Active Galactic Nuclei. V. Torus Structure of Two Luminous Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei (3C 206 and PKS 0707-35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We present the results from broadband X-ray spectral analysis of 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35 with Suzaku and Swift/BAT, two of the most luminous unobscured and obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with hard X-ray luminosities of 10(sup 45.5) erg per second and 10(sup 44.9) erg per second (14-195 keV), respectively. Based on the radio core luminosity, we estimate that the X-ray spectrum of 3C 206 contains a significant (60% in the 14-195 keV band) contribution from the jet, while it is negligible in PKS 0707-35.We can successfully model the spectra with the jet component (for 3C 206), the transmitted emission, and two reflection components from the torus and the accretion disk. The reflection strengths from the torus are found to be R(sub torus)(=Omega/2pi) = 0.29 +/- 0.18 and 0.41 +/- 0.18 for 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35, respectively, which are smaller than those in typical Seyfert galaxies. Utilizing the torus model by Ikeda et al., we quantify the relation between the half-opening angle of a torus (theta(sub oa)) and the equivalent width of an iron-K line. The observed equivalent width of 3C 206, less than 71 eV, constrains the column density in the equatorial plane to N(sup eq)(sub H) lesst han 10(sup 23) per square centimeter, or the half-opening angle to theta(sub oa) greater than 80 deg. if N(sup eq)(sub H) = 10(sup 24) per square centimeter is assumed. That of PKS 0707-35, 72 +/- 36 eV, is consistent with N(sup eq)(sub H) 10(sup 23) per square centimeter. Our results suggest that the tori in luminous radio-loud AGNs are only poorly developed. The trend is similar to that seen in radio-quiet AGNs, implying that the torus structure is not different between AGNs with jets and without jets.

  9. SUZAKU VIEW OF THE SWIFT/BAT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. V. TORUS STRUCTURE OF TWO LUMINOUS RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI (3C 206 AND PKS 0707-35)

    SciTech Connect

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco

    2013-07-20

    We present the results from broadband X-ray spectral analysis of 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35 with Suzaku and Swift/BAT, two of the most luminous unobscured and obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with hard X-ray luminosities of 10{sup 45.5} erg s{sup -1} and 10{sup 44.9} erg s{sup -1} (14-195 keV), respectively. Based on the radio core luminosity, we estimate that the X-ray spectrum of 3C 206 contains a significant ({approx}60% in the 14-195 keV band) contribution from the jet, while it is negligible in PKS 0707-35. We can successfully model the spectra with the jet component (for 3C 206), the transmitted emission, and two reflection components from the torus and the accretion disk. The reflection strengths from the torus are found to be R{sub torus}({identical_to} {Omega}/2{pi}) = 0.29 {+-} 0.18 and 0.41 {+-} 0.18 for 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35, respectively, which are smaller than those in typical Seyfert galaxies. Utilizing the torus model by Ikeda et al., we quantify the relation between the half-opening angle of a torus ({theta}{sub oa}) and the equivalent width of an iron-K line. The observed equivalent width of 3C 206, < 71 eV, constrains the column density in the equatorial plane to N{sub H}{sup eq} <10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}, or the half-opening angle to {theta}{sub oa} > 80 Degree-Sign if N{sub H}{sup eq} =10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} is assumed. That of PKS 0707-35, 72 {+-} 36 eV, is consistent with N{sub H}{sup eq} {approx}10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. Our results suggest that the tori in luminous radio-loud AGNs are only poorly developed. The trend is similar to that seen in radio-quiet AGNs, implying that the torus structure is not different between AGNs with jets and without jets.

  10. The origins and diversity of bat songs.

    PubMed

    Smotherman, Michael; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Smarsh, Grace; Bohn, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Singing plays an important role in the social lives of several disparate bat species, but just how significant the behavior may be among bats generally is unknown. Recent discoveries suggest singing by bats might be surprisingly more diverse and widespread than anticipated, but if true then two questions must be addressed: firstly why has singing been so rarely documented among bats, and secondly do bats sing for the same reasons as songbirds? We address the first question by reviewing how sampling bias and technical constraints may have produced a myopic view of bat social communication. To address the second question, we review evidence from 50 years of batsong literature supporting the supposition that bat singing is linked to the same constellation of ecological variables that favored birdsong, including territoriality, polygyny, metabolic constraints, migratory behaviors and especially powered flight. We propose that bats sing like birds because they fly like birds; flight is energetically expensive and singing reduces time spent flying. Factoring in the singular importance of acoustic communication for echolocating bats, it seems likely that singing may prove to be relatively common among certain groups of bats once it becomes clear when and where to look for it. PMID:27350360

  11. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. In this talk, we describe the BAT instrument response as determined to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies. We will also discuss the public data analysis tools developed to calculate the BAT response to sources at different energies and locations in the FOV. The level of accuracy required for the BAT instrument response used for the hard x-ray survey is significantly higher because this response must be used in the iterative clean algorithm for finding fainter sources. Because the bright sources add a lot of coding noise to the BAT sky image, fainter sources can be seen only after the counts due to the bright sources are removed. The better we know the BAT response, the lower the noise in the cleaned spectrum and thus the more sensitive the survey. Since the BAT detector plane consists of 32768 individual, 4 mm square CZT gamma-ray detectors, the most accurate BAT response would include 32768 individual detector response functions to separate mask modulation effects from differences in detector efficiencies! We describe OUT continuing work to improve the accuracy of the BAT instrument response and will present the current results of Monte Carlo simulations as well as BAT ground calibration data.

  12. Roost selection by Formosan leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros armiger terasensis).

    PubMed

    Ho, Ying-Yi; Lee, Ling-Ling

    2003-08-01

    Patterns of roost use by Formosan leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros armiger terasensis) were studied from November 1998 to April 2000. Structural characteristics, microclimates, and disturbance levels of 17 roosts used by H. a. terasensis and 15 roosts either used by other bat species (2) or not occupied by any bat species were compared. Roosts used by these bats were significantly larger in size and had greater areas covered by water compared to unused roosts. Entrances of active roosts were more likely to be east-west oriented. Hibernacula had lower entrances and ceilings than did roosts used only in summer. Higher temperatures were recorded in non-breeding roosts than in breeding roosts, but temperature gradients in these two types of roosts did not differ. In winter, hibernacula were warmer, and the temperature fluctuated less than in non-hibernacula. The relative humidities in summer roosts and hibernacula were nearly 100%. Disturbance levels were significantly higher in non-breeding roosts than in breeding roosts, and in non-hibernacula than in hibernacula. These results suggest that the Formosan leaf-nosed bats are selective of their roosts, but the pattern of their roost selection differs from those reported for bats of temperate regions. The reasons for such differences may be related to differences in body size, behavior, and reproductive strategy of the Formosan leaf-nosed bats living in a subtropical climate in Taiwan. PMID:12951409

  13. Subtropical mouse-tailed bats use geothermally heated caves for winter hibernation.

    PubMed

    Levin, Eran; Plotnik, Brit; Amichai, Eran; Braulke, Luzie J; Landau, Shmulik; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2015-04-01

    We report that two species of mouse-tailed bats (Rhinopoma microphyllum and R. cystops) hibernate for five months during winter in geothermally heated caves with stable high temperature (20°C). While hibernating, these bats do not feed or drink, even on warm nights when other bat species are active. We used thermo-sensitive transmitters to measure the bats' skin temperature in the natural hibernacula and open flow respirometry to measure torpid metabolic rate at different ambient temperatures (Ta, 16-35°C) and evaporative water loss (EWL) in the laboratory. Bats average skin temperature at the natural hibernacula was 21.7 ± 0.8°C, and no arousals were recorded. Both species reached the lowest metabolic rates around natural hibernacula temperatures (20°C, average of 0.14 ± 0.01 and 0.16 ± 0.04 ml O2 g(-1) h(-1) for R. microphyllum and R. cystops, respectively) and aroused from torpor when Ta fell below 16°C. During torpor the bats performed long apnoeas (14 ± 1.6 and 16 ± 1.5 min, respectively) and had a very low EWL. We hypothesize that the particular diet of these bats is an adaptation to hibernation at high temperatures and that caves featuring high temperature and humidity during winter enable these species to survive this season on the northern edge of their world distribution. PMID:25740890

  14. Summer Roost Tree Selection by Eastern Red, Seminole, and Evening Bats in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Ozier, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotraction of six eastern red bats, six seminole bats and twenty-four evening bats to 55, 61, and 65 day roosts during 1996 to 1997 in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. For each species, testing was done for differences between used roost trees and randomly located trees. Also tested for differences between habitat characteristics surrounding roost trees and randomly located trees. Eastern Red and Seminole bats generally roosted in canopies of hardwood and pine while clinging to foilage and small branches. Evening bats roosted in cavities or under exfoliating bark in pines and dead snags. Forest management strategies named within the study should be beneficial for providing roosts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

  15. Energy availability influences microclimate selection of hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Justin G; Dunbar, Miranda B; Storm, Jonathan J; Brack, Virgil

    2007-12-01

    Many species hibernate to conserve energy during periods of low food and water availability. It has long been assumed that the optimal hibernation strategy involves long, deep bouts of torpor that minimize energy expenditure. However, hibernation has ecological (e.g. decreased predator avoidance) and physiological (e.g. sleep deprivation) costs that must be balanced with energy savings; therefore, individuals possessing sufficient energy reserves may reduce their use of deep torpor. We tested the hypothesis that energy (fat) availability influences temperature selection of two fat-storing bat species during hibernation. We predicted that individuals with small energy reserves would select colder temperatures for hibernation in order to minimize energy expenditure, while individuals with larger energy reserves would choose warmer temperatures to minimize the costs of hibernation. Results from our field experiment indicate that little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) hibernating in warm microclimates were significantly heavier than individuals hibernating in cooler microclimates. To determine if energy availability was mediating this relationship, we limited fatty acid availability with mercaptoacetate (MA) and quantified its effect on torpid metabolic rate (TMR) and thermal preference of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Administration of MA caused a 43% drop in TMR at 10 degrees C and caused bats to choose significantly colder temperatures for hibernation. Our results suggest that fat-storing bats minimize torpor expression using both physiological and behavioral mechanisms. PMID:18055623

  16. A Potential Role for Bat Tail Membranes in Flight Control

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, James D.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Codd, Jonathan R.; Nudds, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control. PMID:21479137

  17. Evidence of cryptic individual specialization in an opportunistic insectivorous bat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat use and feeding behaviors of cryptic animals are often poorly understood. Analyses of stable isotope ratios in animal body tissues can help reveal an individual's location and resource use during tissue growth. We investigated variation in stable isotope ratios of 4 elements (H, C, N, and S) in the hair of a sedentary species of insectivorous bat (Eptesicus fuscus) inhabiting a chemically complex urban landscape. Our objective was to quantify population-level isotopic variation and test for evidence of resource specialization by individuals. Bats were sampled over 3 annual molt cycles at maternity roosts in buildings and variance components analysis was used to test whether intraindividual isotopic variation among molts differed from interindividual variation, after controlling for year and roost-group effects. Consistent with prior evidence that E. fuscus is opportunistic in its habitat use and foraging at the population level, we observed wide population-level variation for all isotopes. This variation likely reflects the chemical complexity of the urban landscape studied. However, isotopic variation among years within marked individuals was lower than variation among marked individuals within year for all isotopes, and carbon signatures indicated resource specialization by roost groups and individuals. This is the 1st study to examine variation in stable isotope ratios of individual wild bats over multiple years. Although our results suggest this population tends toward opportunistic habitat use or prey selection, or both, during molt periods, results also indicate that individuals and groups of bats composing the population might be habitat or dietary specialists—a novel finding for insectivorous bats.

  18. Goldstone field test activities: Target search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J.

    1986-01-01

    In March of this year prototype SETI equipment was installed at DSS13, the 26 meter research and development antenna at NASA's Goldstone complex of satellite tracking dishes. The SETI equipment will remain at this site at least through the end of the summer so that the hardware and software developed for signal detection and recognition can be fully tested in a dynamic observatory environment. The field tests are expected to help understand which strategies for observing and which signal recognition algorithms perform best in the presence of strong man-made interfering signals (RFI) and natural astronomical sources.

  19. Experimental evidence for group hunting via eavesdropping in echolocating bats

    PubMed Central

    Dechmann, Dina K.N.; Heucke, Silke L.; Giuggioli, Luca; Safi, Kamran; Voigt, Christian C.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Group foraging has been suggested as an important factor for the evolution of sociality. However, visual cues are predominantly used to gain information about group members' foraging success in diurnally foraging animals such as birds, where group foraging has been studied most intensively. By contrast, nocturnal animals, such as bats, would have to rely on other cues or signals to coordinate foraging. We investigated the role of echolocation calls as inadvertently produced cues for social foraging in the insectivorous bat Noctilio albiventris. Females of this species live in small groups, forage over water bodies for swarming insects and have an extremely short daily activity period. We predicted and confirmed that (i) free-ranging bats are attracted by playbacks of echolocation calls produced during prey capture, and that (ii) bats of the same social unit forage together to benefit from passive information transfer via the change in group members' echolocation calls upon finding prey. Network analysis of high-resolution automated radio telemetry confirmed that group members flew within the predicted maximum hearing distance 94±6 per cent of the time. Thus, echolocation calls also serve as intraspecific communication cues. Sociality appears to allow for more effective group foraging strategies via eavesdropping on acoustical cues of group members in nocturnal mammals. PMID:19419986

  20. Adaptive functional diversification of lysozyme in insectivorous bats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; He, Guimei; Xu, Huihui; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-11-01

    The role of gene duplication in generating new genes and novel functions is well recognized and is exemplified by the digestion-related protein lysozyme. In ruminants, duplicated chicken-type lysozymes facilitate the degradation of symbiotic bacteria in the foregut. Chicken-type lysozyme has also been reported to show chitinase-like activity, yet no study has examined the molecular evolution of lysozymes in species that specialize on eating insects. Insectivorous bats number over 900 species, and lysozyme expression in the mouths of some of these species is associated with the ingestion of insect cuticle, suggesting a chitinase role. Here, we show that chicken-type lysozyme has undergone multiple duplication events in a major family of insect-eating bats (Vespertilionidae) and that new duplicates have undergone molecular adaptation. Examination of duplicates from two insectivorous bats-Pipistrellus abramus and Scotophilus kuhlii-indicated that the new copy was highly expressed in the tongue, whereas the other one was less tissue-specific. Functional assays applied to pipistrelle lysozymes confirmed that, of the two copies, the tongue duplicate was more efficient at breaking down glycol chitin, a chitin derivative. These results suggest that the evolution of lysozymes in vespertilionid bats has likely been driven in part by natural selection for insectivory. PMID:25135943

  1. First isolation of a rabid bat infected with European bat lyssavirus in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Servat, A; Herr, J; Picard-Meyer, E; Schley, L; Harbusch, C; Michaux, C; Pir, J; Robardet, E; Engel, E; Cliquet, F

    2015-02-01

    Rabid bats are regularly reported in Europe, especially in countries that have implemented a bat surveillance network. In May 2013, bat rabies was evidenced for the first time in Luxembourg (southern city of Differdange). The rabies virus, an EBLV-1b strain, was diagnosed in a serotine bat that bit a 29-year-old male person while he was asleep. The man received rapidly a post-exposure RABV treatment and was put under strict medical supervision. PMID:24373212

  2. Effects of hierarchical roost removal on northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W Mark; Britzke, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Forest roosting bats use a variety of ephemeral roosts such as snags and declining live trees. Although conservation of summer maternity habitat is considered critical for forest-roosting bats, bat response to roost loss still is poorly understood. To address this, we monitored 3 northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies on Fort Knox Military Reservation, Kentucky, USA, before and after targeted roost removal during the dormant season when bats were hibernating in caves. We used 2 treatments: removal of a single highly used (primary) roost and removal of 24% of less used (secondary) roosts, and an un-manipulated control. Neither treatment altered the number of roosts used by individual bats, but secondary roost removal doubled the distances moved between sequentially used roosts. However, overall space use by and location of colonies was similar pre- and post-treatment. Patterns of roost use before and after removal treatments also were similar but bats maintained closer social connections after our treatments. Roost height, diameter at breast height, percent canopy openness, and roost species composition were similar pre- and post-treatment. We detected differences in the distribution of roosts among decay stages and crown classes pre- and post-roost removal, but this may have been a result of temperature differences between treatment years. Our results suggest that loss of a primary roost or ≤ 20% of secondary roosts in the dormant season may not cause northern long-eared bats to abandon roosting areas or substantially alter some roosting behaviors in the following active season when tree-roosts are used. Critically, tolerance limits to roost loss may be dependent upon local forest conditions, and continued research on this topic will be necessary for conservation of the northern long-eared bat across its range. PMID:25611060

  3. Effects of Hierarchical Roost Removal on Northern Long-Eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis) Maternity Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest roosting bats use a variety of ephemeral roosts such as snags and declining live trees. Although conservation of summer maternity habitat is considered critical for forest-roosting bats, bat response to roost loss still is poorly understood. To address this, we monitored 3 northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies on Fort Knox Military Reservation, Kentucky, USA, before and after targeted roost removal during the dormant season when bats were hibernating in caves. We used 2 treatments: removal of a single highly used (primary) roost and removal of 24% of less used (secondary) roosts, and an un-manipulated control. Neither treatment altered the number of roosts used by individual bats, but secondary roost removal doubled the distances moved between sequentially used roosts. However, overall space use by and location of colonies was similar pre- and post-treatment. Patterns of roost use before and after removal treatments also were similar but bats maintained closer social connections after our treatments. Roost height, diameter at breast height, percent canopy openness, and roost species composition were similar pre- and post-treatment. We detected differences in the distribution of roosts among decay stages and crown classes pre- and post-roost removal, but this may have been a result of temperature differences between treatment years. Our results suggest that loss of a primary roost or ≤ 20% of secondary roosts in the dormant season may not cause northern long-eared bats to abandon roosting areas or substantially alter some roosting behaviors in the following active season when tree-roosts are used. Critically, tolerance limits to roost loss may be dependent upon local forest conditions, and continued research on this topic will be necessary for conservation of the northern long-eared bat across its range. PMID:25611060

  4. Effects of hierarchical roost removal on northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander Silvis; Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest roosting bats use a variety of ephemeral roosts such as snags and declining live trees. Although conservation of summer maternity habitat is considered critical for forest-roosting bats, bat response to roost loss still is poorly understood. To address this, we monitored 3 northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies on Fort Knox Military Reservation, Kentucky, USA, before and after targeted roost removal during the dormant season when bats were hibernating in caves. We used 2 treatments: removal of a single highly used (primary) roost and removal of 24% of less used (secondary) roosts, and an un-manipulated control. Neither treatment altered the number of roosts used by individual bats, but secondary roost removal doubled the distances moved between sequentially used roosts. However, overall space use by and location of colonies was similar pre- and post-treatment. Patterns of roost use before and after removal treatments also were similar but bats maintained closer social connections after our treatments. Roost height, diameter at breast height, percent canopy openness, and roost species composition were similar pre- and post-treatment. We detected differences in the distribution of roosts among decay stages and crown classes pre- and post-roost removal, but this may have been a result of temperature differences between treatment years. Our results suggest that loss of a primary roost or ≤ 20% of secondary roosts in the dormant season may not cause northern long-eared bats to abandon roosting areas or substantially alter some roosting behaviors in the following active season when tree-roosts are used. Critically, tolerance limits to roost loss may be dependent upon local forest conditions, and continued research on this topic will be necessary for conservation of the northern long-eared bat across its range.

  5. [Isolation and characterization of rotavirus from bat].

    PubMed

    Xia, Le-Le; He, Biao; Hu, Ting-Song; Zhang, Wen-Dong; Wang, Yi-Yin; Xu, Lin; Li, Nan; Qiu, Wei; Yu, Jing; Fan, Quan-Shui; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Tu, Chang-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Bats are considered as important animal reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses to humans. The viral metagenomic analysis was performed to study gut and lung tissues of 30 insectivorous bats collected in Yunnan Province and 26 reads were noted to group A rotavirus (RVA). Further RT-PCR screening on bat samples and in vitro viral isolation on cell cultures confirmed the presence of a novel RVA, named as RVA/Bat-tc/MYAS33/2013/G3P[10], in one of 30 Stoliczka's trident bats. The VP7 gene of this strain MYAS33 was closely related to that of an equine RVA strain from Argentina and the nucleotide sequence similarity was 93%, while its VP4 gene was a rare P[10] type and obtained the maximum sequence identity (94.8%) with that of a human strain from Thailand. The present study highlights the potential role of bats as reservoirs for RVAs. PMID:24520769

  6. Characterizing the performance of baseball bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    The characterization of the performance of baseball bats is presented from a physics point of view. The goal is to define a set of laboratory measurements that can be used to predict performance in the field. The concept of a model-independent collision efficiency, which relates the post-collision ball speed to the initial ball and bat speeds, is introduced and its properties are investigated. It is shown to provide a convenient link between laboratory and field measurements. Other performance metrics are presented, related to the collision efficiency, and evaluated according to their predictive power. Using a computational model, it is shown that bat performance depends on the interplay of the elasticity of the ball-bat collision, the inertial properties of the ball and bat, and the bat swing speed. It is argued that any method of determining performance needs to take all of these factors into account. A new method is proposed and compared with commonly used existing methods.

  7. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. An Overview of Follow-On Testing Activities of the A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James E.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC) A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Project is presented. The original scope of the SDT Project, conducted from April 2007 to January 2008, collected data to support mitigation of risk associated with design and procurement activities of the A-3 Test Stand Project, an effort to construct a simulated altitude test facility at SSC in support of NASA's Constellation Program. Follow-on tests were conducted from May 2008 through August 2009, utilizing the SDT test setup as a testbed for additional risk mitigation activities. Included are descriptions of the Subscale Diffuser (SD) test article, the test facility configuration, and test approaches.

  9. BatTool: an R package with GUI for assessing the effect of White-nose syndrome and other take events on Myotis spp. of bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myotis species of bats such as the Indiana Bat and Little Brown Bat are facing population declines because of White-nose syndrome (WNS). These species also face threats from anthropogenic activities such as wind energy development. Population models may be used to provide insights into threats facing these species. We developed a population model, BatTool, as an R package to help decision makers and natural resource managers examine factors influencing the dynamics of these species. The R package includes two components: 1) a deterministic and stochastic model that are accessible from the command line and 2) a graphical user interface (GUI). Results: BatTool is an R package allowing natural resource managers and decision makers to understand Myotis spp. population dynamics. Through the use of a GUI, the model allows users to understand how WNS and other take events may affect the population. The results are saved both graphically and as data files. Additionally, R-savvy users may access the population functions through the command line and reuse the code as part of future research. This R package could also be used as part of a population dynamics or wildlife management course. Conclusions: BatTool provides access to a Myotis spp. population model. This tool can help natural resource managers and decision makers with the Endangered Species Act deliberations for these species and with issuing take permits as part of regulatory decision making. The tool is available online as part of this publication.

  10. BatTool: an R package with GUI for assessing the effect of White-nose syndrome and other take events on Myotis spp. of bats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Myotis species of bats such as the Indiana Bat and Little Brown Bat are facing population declines because of White-nose syndrome (WNS). These species also face threats from anthropogenic activities such as wind energy development. Population models may be used to provide insights into threats facing these species. We developed a population model, BatTool, as an R package to help decision makers and natural resource managers examine factors influencing the dynamics of these species. The R package includes two components: 1) a deterministic and stochastic model that are accessible from the command line and 2) a graphical user interface (GUI). Results BatTool is an R package allowing natural resource managers and decision makers to understand Myotis spp. population dynamics. Through the use of a GUI, the model allows users to understand how WNS and other take events may affect the population. The results are saved both graphically and as data files. Additionally, R-savvy users may access the population functions through the command line and reuse the code as part of future research. This R package could also be used as part of a population dynamics or wildlife management course. Conclusions BatTool provides access to a Myotis spp. population model. This tool can help natural resource managers and decision makers with the Endangered Species Act deliberations for these species and with issuing take permits as part of regulatory decision making. The tool is available online as part of this publication. PMID:24955110

  11. What you need is what you eat? Prey selection by the bat Myotis daubentonii.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Eero J; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Roslin, Tomas; Laine, Veronika N; Vasko, Ville; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Norrdahl, Kai; Lilley, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators are selective when faced with abundant prey, but become less picky when prey gets sparse. Insectivorous bats in temperate regions are faced with the challenge of building up fat reserves vital for hibernation during a period of decreasing arthropod abundances. According to optimal foraging theory, prehibernating bats should adopt a less selective feeding behavior--yet empirical studies have revealed many apparently generalized species to be composed of specialist individuals. Targeting the diet of the bat Myotis daubentonii, we used a combination of molecular techniques to test for seasonal changes in prey selectivity and individual-level variation in prey preferences. DNA metabarcoding was used to characterize both the prey contents of bat droppings and the insect community available as prey. To test for dietary differences among M. daubentonii individuals, we used ten microsatellite loci to assign droppings to individual bats. The comparison between consumed and available prey revealed a preference for certain prey items regardless of availability. Nonbiting midges (Chironomidae) remained the most highly consumed prey at all times, despite a significant increase in the availability of black flies (Simuliidae) towards the end of the season. The bats sampled showed no evidence of individual specialization in dietary preferences. Overall, our approach offers little support for optimal foraging theory. Thus, it shows how novel combinations of genetic markers can be used to test general theory, targeting patterns at both the level of prey communities and individual predators. PMID:26841188

  12. Range discrimination by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using altered model echoes: implications for signal processing.

    PubMed

    Masters, W M; Raver, K A

    2000-01-01

    The sonar emissions of two big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were modeled to create a "normal" echolocation signal for each bat which was then used as an artificial echo to synthesize a phantom target. The bat's task was to indicate which of two phantom targets (presented singly) was the "near" target and which the "far" target. Threshold range discrimination at a nominal target distance of 80 cm was about 0.6 cm for both bats. The normal signal was then modified to change the relative energy in each harmonic, the signal duration, the curvature of the frequency sweep, the absolute frequency, the phase of the second and third harmonics relative to the first, or the Doppler shift of the signal. To determine which modifications affected ranging performance, the altered models were used in tests of range discrimination that were interleaved on a day-to-day basis with tests using the normal model. Of the 12 modifications tested, only those changing the curvature of the frequency sweep affected performance. This result appears not to be predicted by current models of echo processing in FM bats. Eptesicus may be able to compensate for certain types of distortions of a returning echo, an ability possibly related to Doppler tolerance or to the characteristics of the natural variation in a bat's emissions. PMID:10641671

  13. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  14. Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Ruiz-Villamor, Eduardo; Avellón, Ana; Vera, Manuel; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the presence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in southern Spain, we studied 19 colonies of serotine bats (Eptesicus isabellinus), its main reservoir, during 1998–2003. Viral genome and antibodies were detected in healthy bats, which suggests subclinical infection. The different temporal patterns of circulation found in each colony indicate independent endemic circulation. PMID:18680651

  15. Hepatozoon parasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) in bats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, C Miguel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Perkins, Susan L

    2013-08-01

    We provide the first evidence of Hepatozoon parasites infecting bats. We sequenced a short fragment of the 18S rRNA gene (~600 base pairs) of Hepatozoon parasites from 3 Hipposideros cervinus bats from Borneo. Phylogenies inferred by model-based methods place these Hepatozoon within a clade formed by parasites of reptiles, rodents, and marsupials. We discuss the scenario that bats might be common hosts of Hepatozoon. PMID:23240742

  16. Antiviral immune responses of bats: a review.

    PubMed

    Baker, M L; Schountz, T; Wang, L-F

    2013-02-01

    Despite being the second most species-rich and abundant group of mammals, bats are also among the least studied, with a particular paucity of information in the area of bat immunology. Although bats have a long history of association with rabies, the emergence and re-emergence of a number of viruses from bats that impact human and animal health has resulted in a resurgence of interest in bat immunology. Understanding how bats coexist with viruses in the absence of disease is essential if we are to begin to develop therapeutics to target viruses in humans and susceptible livestock and companion animals. Here, we review the current status of knowledge in the field of bat antiviral immunology including both adaptive and innate mechanisms of immune defence and highlight the need for further investigations in this area. Because data in this field are so limited, our discussion is based on both scientific discoveries and theoretical predictions. It is hoped that by provoking original, speculative or even controversial ideas or theories, this review may stimulate further research in this important field. Efforts to understand the immune systems of bats have been greatly facilitated in recent years by the availability of partial genome sequences from two species of bats, a megabat, Pteropus vampyrus, and a microbat, Myotis lucifugus, allowing the rapid identification of immune genes. Although bats appear to share most features of the immune system with other mammals, several studies have reported qualitative and quantitative differences in the immune responses of bats. These observations warrant further investigation to determine whether such differences are associated with the asymptomatic nature of viral infections in bats. PMID:23302292

  17. Stress-induced activation of brown adipose tissue prevents obesity in conditions of low adaptive thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Razzoli, Maria; Frontini, Andrea; Gurney, Allison; Mondini, Eleonora; Cubuk, Cankut; Katz, Liora S.; Cero, Cheryl; Bolan, Patrick J.; Dopazo, Joaquin; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Cinti, Saverio; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Stress-associated conditions such as psychoemotional reactivity and depression have been paradoxically linked to either weight gain or weight loss. This bi-directional effect of stress is not understood at the functional level. Here we tested the hypothesis that pre-stress level of adaptive thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue (BAT) functions explain the vulnerability or resilience to stress-induced obesity. Methods We used wt and triple β1,β2,β3−Adrenergic Receptors knockout (β-less) mice exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress (CSS) at either room temperature (22 °C) or murine thermoneutrality (30 °C). A combined behavioral, physiological, molecular, and immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to determine stress-induced modulation of energy balance and BAT structure and function. Immortalized brown adipocytes were used for in vitro assays. Results Departing from our initial observation that βARs are dispensable for cold-induced BAT browning, we demonstrated that under physiological conditions promoting low adaptive thermogenesis and BAT activity (e.g. thermoneutrality or genetic deletion of the βARs), exposure to CSS acted as a stimulus for BAT activation and thermogenesis, resulting in resistance to diet-induced obesity despite the presence of hyperphagia. Conversely, in wt mice acclimatized to room temperature, and therefore characterized by sustained BAT function, exposure to CSS increased vulnerability to obesity. Exposure to CSS enhanced the sympathetic innervation of BAT in wt acclimatized to thermoneutrality and in β-less mice. Despite increased sympathetic innervation suggesting adrenergic-mediated browning, norepinephrine did not promote browning in βARs knockout brown adipocytes, which led us to identify an alternative sympathetic/brown adipocytes purinergic pathway in the