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Sample records for activator inhibitor-1 levels

  1. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

  2. Circadian Variation of Plasminogen-Activator-Inhibitor-1 Levels in Children with Meningococcal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Boeddha, Navin P.; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Cnossen, Marjon H.; Hazelzet, Jan A.; Emonts, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether the circadian variation of plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, with high morning levels, is associated with poor outcome of children with meningococcal sepsis presenting in the morning hours. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data. Setting Single center study at Erasmus MC-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects 184 patients aged 3 weeks to 18 years with meningococcal sepsis. In 36 of these children, PAI-1 levels at admission to the PICU were measured in plasma by ELISA. Interventions None. Measurements and main results Circadian variation was studied by dividing one day in blocks of 6 hours. Patients admitted between 6:00 am and 12:00 am had increased illness severity scores and higher PAI-1 levels (n = 9, median 6912 ng/mL, IQR 5808–15600) compared to patients admitted at night (P = 0.019, n = 9, median 3546 ng/mL, IQR 1668–6118) or in the afternoon (P = 0.007, n = 7, median 4224 ng/mL, IQR 1804–5790). In 184 patients, analysis of circadian variation in relation to outcome showed more deaths, amputations and need for skin grafts in patients admitted to the PICU between 6:00 am and 12:00 am than patients admitted during the rest of the day (P = 0.009). Conclusions Circadian variation of PAI-1 levels is present in children with meningococcal sepsis and is associated with illness severity, with a peak level in the morning. Whether circadian variation is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in meningococcal sepsis needs to be explored in future studies. PMID:27893784

  3. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Sunelle A.; Loots, Du Toit; Rijken, Dingeman C.

    2017-01-01

    Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g), platelet-containing (352 g) and platelet-rich plasma (200 g) were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin) showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly through release of

  4. Association of Protein S Deficiency with Thrombosis in a Kindred with Increased Levels of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-15

    family with assay. Clin Chim Acts. 1983;127:279-88. hereditary thrombophilia . Blood. 1989;73:479-83. 22. Griffn JH, Gruber A, Fernandez JA. Reevaluation of...SMe E. Elevated plasminogen 25 Boiseol C, David H. Quantitative determination of serum triglycer- activator inhibitor (PAl), a cause of thrombophilia ...A study in 203 ides by the use of enzymes. Cliii Chem. 1973;19:476-82. patients with familial or sporadic venous thrombophilia . Thromb 26. Remnilgton

  5. Effects of a diet containing Brazilian propolis on lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkura, Naoki; Oishi, Katsutaka; Kihara-Negishi, Fumiko; Atsumi, Gen-ichi; Tatefuji, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brazilian propolis has many biological activities including the ability to help prevent thrombotic diseases, but this particular effect has not been proven. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, increase under inflammatory conditions such as infection, obesity and atherosclerosis and such elevated levels predispose individuals to a risk of developing thrombotic diseases. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effects of a diet containing Brazilian propolis on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in plasma PAI-1 levels. Materials and Methods: Mice were fed with a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) Brazilian propolis for 8 weeks. Thereafter, the mice were subcutaneously injected with saline containing 0.015 mg/kg of LPS and sacrificed 4 h later. Results: Orally administered Brazilian propolis significantly suppressed the LPS-induced increase in PAI-1 antigen and its activity in mouse plasma. Conclusion: This study indicated that Brazilian propolis contains natural products that can decrease thrombotic tendencies in mice. PMID:27757277

  6. Admission levels of C-reactive protein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction with and without cardiogenic shock or heart failure on admission.

    PubMed

    Akkus, Mehmet Necdet; Polat, Gurbuz; Yurtdas, Mustafa; Akcay, Burak; Ercetin, Neslihan; Cicek, Dilek; Doven, Oben; Sucu, Nehir

    2009-01-01

    Scarce data exist on the relationship of C-reactive protein (CRP) or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) to the occurrence of heart failure (HF) or cardiogenic shock (CS) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and on the relationship between these biomarkers and mortality in CS patients. Thus, we compared high-sensitivity CRP and PAI-1 antigen plasma levels on admission among 3 age- and gender-matched AMI patients groups (consisting of 60 patients with CS, 60 with HF, and 60 without HF on admission), after determining that PAI-1 levels did not vary significantly diurnally in these groups by comparing the data among subgroups which were divided according to admission time within the groups. For CS patients, we also conducted regression analyses to examine the relations of these biomarkers to mortality. CRP levels both in CS (P < 0.001) and HF (P < 0.05) patients were significantly higher compared to those without HF, PAI-1 levels in CS patients were significantly higher compared to both those with (P < 0.05) and without HF (P > 0.01), and CRP and PAI-1 were independent predictors of in-hospital (Odds ratio [OR] = 6.12, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] = 1.47-25.54 and OR = 5.92, 95%CI = 1.31-26.77, respectively) and 1-year mortality (OR = 5.53, 95%CI = 1.21-25.17 and OR = 5.48, 95%CI = 1.09-27.52, respectively) in CS patients. In conclusion, at admission, CRP is associated with the occurrence of CS and HF and PAI-1 is associated with the occurrence of CS after AMI, and they are of prognostic value in CS complicating AMI.

  7. Periodicity in the levels of serum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is a robust prognostic factor for embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy in ongoing IVF cycles

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bindu N.; Nath, Nirmalendu; Chimote, Natachandra

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been inversely correlated to proteolytic extracellular-matrix degradation exerted by urokinase-type (u-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activators (t-PA). Any pathological disturbance in PAI-1 levels may lead to several pregnancy complications. AIMS: To assess the influence of periodicity in serum PAI-1 levels on embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study of 120 IVF cycles at private infertility centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Endometrial response (ER) assessment by measuring Endometrial thickness (cm) and echopattern (grade). Serum PAI-1(ng/ml) measurement by ELISA method on day of hCG, day of ET and days 7 and 14 of ET. Main outcome measure was clinical pregnancy. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student “t” test, ANOVA, Post-test for linear trend, Pearson Correlation. RESULTS: PAI-1 levels declined from dhCG to dET (318.8 ± 36.1 to 176.1 ± 28.4) whereas they increased steadily from dET to d7 to d14ET (176.1 ± 28.4 to 285.2 ± 30.4 to 353.5 ± 150.4; P = 0.0004) in pregnant group (n = 31). Conversely, dhCG to dET levels increased in both nonpregnant (n = 75; 173.8 ± 18.3 to 280.8 ± 26.1) and biochemical pregnancy BCP (n = 14; 172.7 ± 31.1 to 216 ± 30.1) groups. The rising pattern from dET to d7 to d14ET was not observed in non-pregnant and BCP groups. ER thickness and grade shared significant correlation with serum PAI-1 on dET (Pearson r: ER = 0.28, Grade = 0.29) and d7ET (Pearson r: ER = 0.40, Grade = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Periodicity in serum PAI-1 levels offers a robust prognostic factor for predicting clinical pregnancy outcome. The dhCG to dET PAI-1 transition is a decisive factor for either transferring embryos in same/ongoing cycle or cryopreserving them and postponing ET to subsequent natural cycle. PMID:25395746

  8. [Diabetic nephropathy and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in urine samples].

    PubMed

    Torii, Kunio; Kimura, Hideki; Li, Xuan; Okada, Toshiharu; Imura, Toshio; Oida, Koji; Miyamori, Isamu; Furusaki, Fumio; Ono, Tomoko; Yoshida, Haruyoshi

    2004-06-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) may contribute to renal fibrosis because of its involvement in matrix (ECM) accumulation through inhibition of plasmin-dependent ECM degradation. The aim of this study is to determine urinary PAI-1 concentrations and its intrarenal localization in patients with various renal diseases and to identify inducers for PAI-1 expression in human cultured proximal renal tubular cells (HRCs). Urinary PAI-1 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with overt diabetic nephropathy (DN, n=36) than in proliferative glomerulonephritis (PGN, n=8), nephrotic syndrome (NS, n=10) and healthy controls (n=12). Urinary PAI-1 concentrations (ng/gCr) were directly correlated with urinary N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG) levels (r=0.58, p<0.05). As for intrarenal localization of PAI-1 antigen, strong stainings for PAI-1 were observed in proximal tubular cells of renal biopsy samples from patients with DN, while no stainings for PAI-1 were found in renal tissues of PGN or NS. Immunoblot analysis revealed the presence of PAI-1 protein in whole cell lyzates from HRCs grown to semiconfluency. Exposure of growth-arrested HRCs with hypoxia (1% O2) or TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) for 24 hours increased the secretion rate of PAI-1 protein by about 2.0-fold, while 24-hour treatment with high glucose (450 mg/dl) did not increase PAI-1 secretion at all, compared with that of the control cells under normal glucose (100 mg/dl) and normoxia (18% O2). These findings suggest that PAI-1 expression is upregulated especially in the proximal renal tubular cells of DN, which may be explained partially by hypoxia and inflammatory cytokines but not high glucose.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome parameters in Malaysian subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamodi, Zaid H; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Ismail, Ikram S; Ahmed, Khaled A; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2012-05-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat insertion/deletion polymorphisms might be genetic determinations of increased or decreased of their plasma activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome parameters in normal Malaysian subjects and to assess the impact of these polymorphisms on their plasma activities and antigens. The genetic polymorphisms were genotyped in 130 normal subjects. In addition, the plasma activities and antigens of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator as well as levels of insulin, glucose, and lipid profile at fasting state were investigated. The subjects with homozygous 4G/4G showed association with an increased triglyceride (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.03). In addition, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism modulates plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and antigen and tissue plasminogen activator activity (p = 0.002, 0.014, 0.003) respectively. These results showed that, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome parameters, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator activities in Malaysian subjects, and may serve to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Malaysian subjects.

  10. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in acute hyperoxic mouse lung injury.

    PubMed Central

    Barazzone, C; Belin, D; Piguet, P F; Vassalli, J D; Sappino, A P

    1996-01-01

    Hyperoxia-induced lung disease is associated with prominent intraalveolar fibrin deposition. Fibrin turnover is tightly regulated by the concerted action of proteases and antiproteases, and inhibition of plasmin-mediated proteolysis could account for fibrin accumulation in lung alveoli. We show here that lungs of mice exposed to hyperoxia overproduce plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and that PAI-1 upregulation impairs fibrinolytic activity in the alveolar compartment. To explore whether increased PAI-1 production is a causal or only a correlative event for impaired intraalveolar fibrinolysis and the development of hyaline membrane disease, we studied mice genetically deficient in PAI-1. We found that these mice fail to develop intraalveolar fibrin deposits in response to hyperoxia and that they are more resistant to the lethal effects of hyperoxic stress. These observations provide clear and novel evidence for the pathogenic contribution of PAI-1 in the development of hyaline membrane disease. They identify PAI-1 as a major deleterious mediator of hyperoxic lung injury. PMID:8981909

  11. The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene -844 A/G and -675 4G/5G promoter polymorphism significantly influences plasma PAI-1 levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sun; Huiya, Zhang; Bo, Liu; Wei, Wei; Yongmei, Guan

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene, along with increased PAI-1 levels, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We investigated a possible influence of the promoter polymorphism (-844 A/G and -675 4G/5G) in the PAI-1 gene on plasma PAI-1 levels in 126 PCOS patients and 97 healthy controls. Levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin, and PAI-1 were measured, and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), LH/FSH ratio, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G gene polymorphisms were also performed. Total testosterone, fasting insulin, and PAI-1 levels; BMI, LH/FSH, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in PCOS patients than controls (P < 0.05). The odds ratio of 4G/4G genotype, 4G allele, and the combination genotype of 4G/4G and -844 A/A were 2.49 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-4.44), 2.1 (95% CI, 1.43-3.08), and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.41-5.98), respectively, (P < 0.001). In the PCOS group, the PAI-1 level of the A/A was significantly higher than that of the A/G or G/G genotype, similarly was 4G/4G genotype compared with 4G/5G or 5G/5G genotype. The plasma PAI-1 levels of the combination of the PAI-1 -844 A/A and -675 4G/4G or 4G/5G genotypes, or the coadunation of 4G/4G and -844 non-G/G (A/A + A/G) genotypes were significantly high in PCOS women compared with controls. A trend to a positive interaction between PAI-1 -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G gene polymorphism may elevate plasma PAI-1 levels and hypofibrinolysis, which is probably an important hereditary risk factor in PCOS.

  12. Circadian fluctuations in circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are independent of feeding cycles in mice.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Ohkura, Naoki; Yasumoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Saori

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the involvement of the day-night feeding cycle in the circadian regulation of circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations, mice were fed with a diet for eight hours during either daytime (DF) or nighttime (NF) for one week. The reversed feeding cycle did not affect the circadian phases of plasma PAI-1 levels as well as the nocturnal wheel-running activity, although the phase of Pai-1 mRNA expression was significantly advanced for 8.6 hours in the livers of DF, compared with NF mice. The day-night feeding cycle is not a critical Zeitgeber for circadian rhythm of circulating PAI-1.

  13. Characterization of the Annonaceous acetogenin, annonacinone, a natural product inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    Pautus, Stéphane; Alami, Mouad; Adam, Fréderic; Bernadat, Guillaume; Lawrence, Daniel A.; De Carvalho, Allan; Ferry, Gilles; Rupin, Alain; Hamze, Abdallah; Champy, Pierre; Bonneau, Natacha; Gloanec, Philippe; Peglion, Jean-Louis; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Bianchini, Elsa P.; Borgel, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of the tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators. High levels of PAI-1 are correlated with an increased risk of thrombotic events and several other pathologies. Despite several compounds with in vitro activity being developed, none of them are currently in clinical use. In this study, we evaluated a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, annonacinone, a natural product from the Annonaceous acetogenins group. Annonacinone was identified in a chromogenic screening assay and was more potent than tiplaxtinin. Annonacinone showed high potency ex vivo on thromboelastography and was able to potentiate the thrombolytic effect of tPA in vivo in a murine model. SDS-PAGE showed that annonacinone inhibited formation of PAI-1/tPA complex via enhancement of the substrate pathway. Mutagenesis and molecular dynamics allowed us to identify annonacinone binding site close to helix D and E and β-sheets 2A. PMID:27876785

  14. Characterization of the Annonaceous acetogenin, annonacinone, a natural product inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautus, Stéphane; Alami, Mouad; Adam, Fréderic; Bernadat, Guillaume; Lawrence, Daniel A.; de Carvalho, Allan; Ferry, Gilles; Rupin, Alain; Hamze, Abdallah; Champy, Pierre; Bonneau, Natacha; Gloanec, Philippe; Peglion, Jean-Louis; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Bianchini, Elsa P.; Borgel, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main inhibitor of the tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators. High levels of PAI-1 are correlated with an increased risk of thrombotic events and several other pathologies. Despite several compounds with in vitro activity being developed, none of them are currently in clinical use. In this study, we evaluated a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, annonacinone, a natural product from the Annonaceous acetogenins group. Annonacinone was identified in a chromogenic screening assay and was more potent than tiplaxtinin. Annonacinone showed high potency ex vivo on thromboelastography and was able to potentiate the thrombolytic effect of tPA in vivo in a murine model. SDS-PAGE showed that annonacinone inhibited formation of PAI-1/tPA complex via enhancement of the substrate pathway. Mutagenesis and molecular dynamics allowed us to identify annonacinone binding site close to helix D and E and β-sheets 2A.

  15. [Development and optimization of the methods for determining activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in plasma].

    PubMed

    Roka-Moĭia, Ia M; Zhernosiekov, D D; Kondratiuk, A S; Hrynenko, T V

    2013-01-01

    The activity and content of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are important indicators of pathological processes, because its content in plasma increases at acute myocardium infarction, tumor, diabetes mellitus, etc. The present work is dedicated to the development and optimization of the methods of PAI-1 activity definition, which can be used in clinical practice. We have proposed the modification of the method COATEST PAI with the usage of chromogenic substrate S2251. According to our modification, the cyanogen bromide fragments of human fibrinogen have been changed into bovine desAB-fibrin. We have also developed the method with the usage of fibrin films. In this method fibrin is used as a stimulator of activation reaction and as a substrate at the same time. Using fibrin, the native substrate of plasmin, we provide high specificity of the reaction and exclude the cross-reaction with other plasma enzymes.

  16. Link between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and cardiovascular risk in chronic hepatitis C after viral clearance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Ling; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Pao, Li-Heng; Huang, Hsin-Chih; Chiu, Cheng-Tang

    2017-02-13

    The pathophysiological implications of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in HCV infection remain obscure. This prospective study evaluated 669 HCV patients, of whom 536 had completed a course of anti-HCV therapy and had pre-, peri- and post-therapy measurements of various profiles, including PAI-1 levels. Multivariate analysis demonstrated, before anti-HCV-therapy, platelet count and PAI-1-rs1799889 genotype were associated with PAI-1 levels. Among patients with a sustained virological response (SVR, n = 445), platelet count was associated with PAI-1 level at 24 weeks post-therapy. GEE analysis showed that PAI-1-rs-1799889 and interferon-λ3-rs12979860 genotypes affected PAI-1 levels early and late in therapy, respectively. At 24 weeks post-therapy, higher lipid, brain natriuretic peptide, homocysteine and PAI-1 levels and PAI-1 activity were noted only in SVR patients compared with pre-therapy levels. Within 24 weeks post-therapy, 2.2% of the SVR (mean age: 57.8 yr; 8 smoking males; the 2 females had pre-therapy hypercholesteremia or cardiovascular family history of disease) and 0% of the non-SVR patients experienced a new cardiovascular event. Platelet counts consistently correlated with PAI-1 levels regardless of HCV infection. PAI-1-rs-1799889 and interferon-λ3-rs12979860 genotypes mainly affected PAI-1 levels longitudinally. Within 24 weeks post-anti-HCV therapy, the SVR patients showed increasing PAI-1 levels with accelerating cardiovascular risk, especially the vulnerable cases.

  17. Link between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and cardiovascular risk in chronic hepatitis C after viral clearance

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Ling; Lin, Yu-sheng; Pao, Li-Heng; Huang, Hsin-Chih; Chiu, Cheng-Tang

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiological implications of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in HCV infection remain obscure. This prospective study evaluated 669 HCV patients, of whom 536 had completed a course of anti-HCV therapy and had pre-, peri- and post-therapy measurements of various profiles, including PAI-1 levels. Multivariate analysis demonstrated, before anti-HCV-therapy, platelet count and PAI-1-rs1799889 genotype were associated with PAI-1 levels. Among patients with a sustained virological response (SVR, n = 445), platelet count was associated with PAI-1 level at 24 weeks post-therapy. GEE analysis showed that PAI-1-rs-1799889 and interferon-λ3-rs12979860 genotypes affected PAI-1 levels early and late in therapy, respectively. At 24 weeks post-therapy, higher lipid, brain natriuretic peptide, homocysteine and PAI-1 levels and PAI-1 activity were noted only in SVR patients compared with pre-therapy levels. Within 24 weeks post-therapy, 2.2% of the SVR (mean age: 57.8 yr; 8 smoking males; the 2 females had pre-therapy hypercholesteremia or cardiovascular family history of disease) and 0% of the non-SVR patients experienced a new cardiovascular event. Platelet counts consistently correlated with PAI-1 levels regardless of HCV infection. PAI-1-rs-1799889 and interferon-λ3-rs12979860 genotypes mainly affected PAI-1 levels longitudinally. Within 24 weeks post-anti-HCV therapy, the SVR patients showed increasing PAI-1 levels with accelerating cardiovascular risk, especially the vulnerable cases. PMID:28211910

  18. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in depression: Results from Animal and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haitang; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Suzhen; Lu, Na; Yue, Yingying; Liang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Zhijun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a stress-related factor, and serum PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Herein, we analysed PAI-1 protein levels in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of rodents exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress or treated with escitalopram. In addition, we examined PAI-1 concentrations in serum obtained from 17 drug-free depressed patients before and after escitalopram treatment. We found that PAI-1 expression was increased in area 1 of the cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 and dentate gyrus in stressed rats. A downregulation of PAI-1 following chronic escitalopram treatment was also found. PAI-1 levels were higher in the CSF and serum in stressed rats than in controls, although the difference did not reach statistical significance in the serum. Escitalopram treatment significantly decreased PAI-1 levels in the serum, but not in the CSF. MDD patients had significantly greater serum PAI-1 concentrations than controls. Our results suggest that PAI-1 is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:27456456

  19. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in glucocorticoid-induced diabetes and osteopenia in mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yukinori; Kawao, Naoyuki; Yano, Masato; Okada, Kiyotaka; Okumoto, Katsumi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Long-term use of glucocorticoids (GCs) causes numerous adverse effects, including glucose/lipid abnormalities, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The pathogenic mechanism, however, is not completely understood. In this study, we used plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)-deficient mice to explore the role of PAI-1 in GC-induced glucose/lipid abnormalities, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Corticosterone markedly increased the levels of circulating PAI-1 and the PAI-1 mRNA level in the white adipose tissue of wild-type mice. PAI-1 deficiency significantly reduced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance but not hyperlipidemia induced by GC. An in vitro experiment revealed that active PAI-1 treatment inhibits insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and glucose uptake in HepG2 hepatocytes. However, this was not observed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes, indicating that PAI-1 suppressed insulin signaling in hepatocytes. PAI-1 deficiency attenuated the GC-induced bone loss presumably via inhibition of apoptosis of osteoblasts. Moreover, the PAI-1 deficiency also protected from GC-induced muscle loss. In conclusion, the current study indicated that PAI-1 is involved in GC-induced glucose metabolism abnormality, osteopenia, and muscle wasting in mice. PAI-1 may be a novel therapeutic target to mitigate the adverse effects of GC.

  20. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik; Holz, Olaf; Magnussen, Helgo; Olejnicka, Beata; Welte, Tobias; Rabe, Klaus F; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV) and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed triglyceride and hs-CRP levels to be the best predictors of PAI-1 within COPD. GOLD Stages II and III remained independently associated with higher PAI-1 levels in a final regression analysis. Conclusion The data from the present study showed that the serum levels of PAI-1 are higher in patients with COPD and that moderate-to-severe airflow limitation, hypertriglyceridemia, and systemic inflammation are independent predictors of an elevated PAI-1 level. PAI-1 may be a potential biomarker candidate for COPD-specific and extra-pulmonary manifestations. PMID:28356730

  1. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Involved in Impaired Bone Repair Associated with Diabetes in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Li; Kawao, Naoyuki; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Yano, Masato; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that fracture healing is impaired in diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the impaired bone repair process by using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic female wild-type (PAI-1+/+) and PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1−/−) mice. Bone repair and the number of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive cells at the site of a femoral bone damage were comparable in PAI-1+/+ and PAI-1−/− mice without STZ treatment. Although the bone repair process was delayed by STZ treatment in PAI-1+/+ mice, this delayed bone repair was blunted in PAI-1−/− mice. The reduction in the number of ALP-positive cells at the site of bone damage induced by STZ treatment was attenuated in PAI-1−/− mice compared to PAI-1+/+ mice. On the other hand, PAI-1 deficiency increased the levels of ALP and type I collagen mRNA in female mice with or without STZ treatment, and the levels of Osterix and osteocalcin mRNA, suppressed by diabetic state in PAI-1+/+ mice, were partially protected in PAI-1−/− mice. PAI-1 deficiency did not affect formation of the cartilage matrix and the levels of types II and X collagen and aggrecan mRNA suppressed by STZ treatment, although PAI-1 deficiency increased the expression of chondrogenic markers in mice without STZ treatment. The present study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the impaired bone repair process induced by the diabetic state in part through a decrease in the number of ALP-positive cells. PMID:24651693

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is involved in impaired bone repair associated with diabetes in female mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Li; Kawao, Naoyuki; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Yano, Masato; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that fracture healing is impaired in diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the impaired bone repair process by using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic female wild-type (PAI-1+/+) and PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1-/-) mice. Bone repair and the number of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive cells at the site of a femoral bone damage were comparable in PAI-1+/+ and PAI-1-/- mice without STZ treatment. Although the bone repair process was delayed by STZ treatment in PAI-1+/+ mice, this delayed bone repair was blunted in PAI-1-/- mice. The reduction in the number of ALP-positive cells at the site of bone damage induced by STZ treatment was attenuated in PAI-1-/- mice compared to PAI-1+/+ mice. On the other hand, PAI-1 deficiency increased the levels of ALP and type I collagen mRNA in female mice with or without STZ treatment, and the levels of Osterix and osteocalcin mRNA, suppressed by diabetic state in PAI-1+/+ mice, were partially protected in PAI-1-/- mice. PAI-1 deficiency did not affect formation of the cartilage matrix and the levels of types II and X collagen and aggrecan mRNA suppressed by STZ treatment, although PAI-1 deficiency increased the expression of chondrogenic markers in mice without STZ treatment. The present study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the impaired bone repair process induced by the diabetic state in part through a decrease in the number of ALP-positive cells.

  3. Angiotensinogen and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Gene Polymorphism in Relation to Renovascular Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Kadriye Altok Onal, Baran; Gonen, Sevim; Arinsoy, Turgay; Erten, Yasemin; Ilgit, Erhan; Soylemezoglu, Oguz; Derici, Ulver; Guz, Galip; Bali, Musa; Sindel, Sukru

    2006-02-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (4G/5G) polymorphisims in relation to the occurrence of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) and recurrent stenosis. In this study, 30 patients were enrolled after angiographic demonstration of ARAS; 100 healthy subjects for AGT polymorphism and 80 healthy subjects for PAI-1 polymorphism were considered the control group. The patients were followed for a mean 46.1 {+-} 9.2 months. The patients had significantly higher frequencies of the MT genotype and the T allele than control group ({chi}{sup 2} = 18.2, p < 0.001 and {chi}{sup 2} = 11.5 p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the PAI-1 genotype and allele findings when the data for all patients were compared with that for the controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 2.45, p = 0.29 and {chi}{sup 2} = 0.019, p = 0.89). There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele findings for the patients with and without restenosis (p > 0.05). The C-reactive protein (CRP) level was higher in the patients with restenosis than in the patients without restenosis (7.694 {+-} 0.39 mg/L and 1.56 {+-} 1.08 mg/L) (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that the M235T MT genotype and T allele might be associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. The CRP level might be an independent predictor for recurrent stenosis.

  4. Evaluation of Prognostic Values of Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Yunus; Ozturk, Baris; Tutuncu, Emin Ediz; Sencan, Irfan; Cicek Senturk, Gonul; Altay, Fatma Aybala

    2015-01-01

    Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread disease in Turkey, and was responsible for many deaths in endemic regions during the last decade. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood yet. Objectives: In this study we aimed to determine the levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as predictors of prognosis in CCHF. Patients and Methods: Patients who were diagnosed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgM positivity in the reference laboratory were included in this study. Tissue Plasminogen activator and PAI-1 levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a commercial kit (human t-PA ELISA and human PAL-1 ELISA; BioVendor research and diagnostic products, BioVendor-Laboratorni medicina a.s., Brno, Czech Republic). Results: A total of 46 patients participated in this study. The significant differences between recovering patients and the patients who died, regarding Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombocyte and fibrinogen levels, were consistent with many clinical studies in the literature. The fatal cases were found to have higher tPA and PAI-1 levels in contrast to the patients who completely recovered. Conclusions: We think that these findings may help the progress of understanding of CCHF pathogenesis. PMID:26587219

  5. Recombinant Human Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes Cementogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hexiu; Choung, Han-Wool; Lim, Ki-Taek; Jin, Bin; Jin, Chengbiao; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Choung, Pill-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    The periodontium, consisting of gingiva, periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and alveolar bone, is necessary for the maintenance of tooth function. Specifically, the regenerative abilities of cementum with inserted PDL are important for the prevention of tooth loss. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which are located in the connective tissue PDL between the cementum and alveolar bone, are an attractive candidate for hard tissue formation. We investigated the effects of recombinant human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (rhPAI-1) on cementogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Untreated and rhPAI-1-treated hPDLSCs mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) and dentin matrix were transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of immunocompromised mice to assess their capacity for hard tissue formation at 8 and 10 weeks posttransplantation. rhPAI-1 accelerated mineral nodule formation and increased the mRNA expression of cementoblast-associated markers in hPDLSCs. We also observed that rhPAI-1 upregulated the levels of osterix (OSX) and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) through Smad2/3 and p38 pathways, whereas specific inhibitors of Smad3 and p38 inhibited the enhancement of mineralization of hPDLSCs by rhPAI-1. Furthermore, transplantation of hPDLSCs with rhPAI-1 showed a great ability to promote cementogenic differentiation. Notably, rhPAI-1 induced hPDLSCs to regenerate cementum-like tissue with PDL fibers inserted into newly formed cementum-like tissue. These results suggest that rhPAI-1 may play a key role in cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. rhPAI-1 with hPDLSCs may be a good candidate for future clinical applications in periodontal tissue regeneration and possibly in tooth root bioengineering.

  6. Saturated fatty acid intake can influence increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Masquio, D C L; de Piano, A; Campos, R M S; Sanches, P L; Corgosinho, F C; Carnier, J; Oyama, L M; do Nascimento, C M P O; de Mello, M T; Tufik, S; Dâmaso, A R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if saturated fatty acid intake adjusted by tertiles can influence metabolic, inflammation, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in obese adolescents. Body mass, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition of 108 obese adolescents were obtained. Fasting glucose, insulin, PAI-1, and CRP were determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity by Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Dietetic intake was estimated by a 3-day dietary record, and volunteers were divided according to consumption of saturated fatty acids: tertile 1 [Low Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (Low-SFA): ≤12.14 g], tertile 2 [Moderate Saturated Fatty Intake (Moderate SFA intake): 12.15-20.48 g], and tertile 3 [High Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (High-SFA Intake); >20.48 g]. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 7.0 software and the significance level was set at p<0.05. The most important finding in the present study is that Moderate and High-SFA intakes presented significantly higher values of PAI-1 than Low-SFA Intake. PAI-1 was positively associated with saturated fatty intake, waist circumference, mean blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. SFA intake was predictor of PAI-1 independent of body fat, HOMA-IR and total-cholesterol. In addition, PAI-1 was an independent predictor of blood pressure. HOMA-IR and QUICKI presented significantly higher and lower, respectively, in High-SFA compared to Moderate-SFA intake. High-SFA influenced cardiovascular disease risks, since it increased PAI-1 and insulin resistance, and decreased insulin sensibility, leading to vicious cycle among food ingestion, pro-thrombotic state, and cardiovascular risks in obese adolescents.

  7. Recombinant Human Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes Cementogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hexiu; Choung, Han-Wool; Lim, Ki-Taek; Jin, Bin; Jin, Chengbiao; Chung, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The periodontium, consisting of gingiva, periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and alveolar bone, is necessary for the maintenance of tooth function. Specifically, the regenerative abilities of cementum with inserted PDL are important for the prevention of tooth loss. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which are located in the connective tissue PDL between the cementum and alveolar bone, are an attractive candidate for hard tissue formation. We investigated the effects of recombinant human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (rhPAI-1) on cementogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Untreated and rhPAI-1-treated hPDLSCs mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) and dentin matrix were transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of immunocompromised mice to assess their capacity for hard tissue formation at 8 and 10 weeks posttransplantation. rhPAI-1 accelerated mineral nodule formation and increased the mRNA expression of cementoblast-associated markers in hPDLSCs. We also observed that rhPAI-1 upregulated the levels of osterix (OSX) and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) through Smad2/3 and p38 pathways, whereas specific inhibitors of Smad3 and p38 inhibited the enhancement of mineralization of hPDLSCs by rhPAI-1. Furthermore, transplantation of hPDLSCs with rhPAI-1 showed a great ability to promote cementogenic differentiation. Notably, rhPAI-1 induced hPDLSCs to regenerate cementum-like tissue with PDL fibers inserted into newly formed cementum-like tissue. These results suggest that rhPAI-1 may play a key role in cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs. rhPAI-1 with hPDLSCs may be a good candidate for future clinical applications in periodontal tissue regeneration and possibly in tooth root bioengineering. PMID:25808697

  8. Influence of ACE I/D Polymorphism on Circulating Levels of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1, D-Dimer, Ultrasensitive C-Reactive Protein and Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Sara Santos; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Sabino, Adriano de Paula; Evangelista, Fernanda Cristina Gontijo; Gomes, Karina Braga; Dusse, Luci Maria SantAna; Rios, Danyelle Romana Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases are associated with coagulation disorders, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D polymorphism) has also be linked to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to compare plasma levels of ultrassensible C-reactive protein (usCRP), PAI-1, D-dimer and TGF-β1 in patients undergoing HD with different ACE I/D polymorphisms. Methods The study was performed in 138 patients at ESRD under hemodialysis therapy for more than six months. The patients were divided into three groups according to the genotype. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood cells (leukocytes). ACE I/D polymorphism was investigated by single polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma levels of D-dimer, PAI-1 and TGF-β1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the determination of plasma levels of usCRP was performed by immunonephelometry. Data were analyzed by the software SigmaStat 2.03. Results Clinical characteristics were similar in patients with these three ACE I/D polymorphisms, except for interdialytic weight gain. I allele could be associated with higher interdialytic weight gain (P = 0.017). Patients genotyped as DD and as ID had significantly higher levels of PAI-1 than those with II genotype. Other laboratory parameters did not significantly differ among the three subgroups (P = 0.033). Despite not reaching statistical significance, plasma levels of usCRP were higher in patients carrying the D allele. Conclusion ACE I/D polymorphisms could be associated with changes in the regulation of sodium, fibrinolytic system, and possibly, inflammation. Our data showed that high levels of PAI-1 are detected when D allele is present, whereas greater interdialytic gain is associated with the presence of I allele. However, further studies with different experimental designs are necessary to elucidate the

  9. Fiber intake and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in type 2 diabetes: Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Trial findings at baseline and 1 year

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is elevated in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and may contribute, independently of traditional factors, to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Fiber intake may decrease PAI-1 levels. We examined the associations of fiber intake and its changes wit...

  10. Therapeutic administration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 prevents hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dianer; Nemkul, Niza; Shereen, Ahmed; Jone, Alice; Dunn, R Scott; Lawrence, Daniel A; Lindquist, Diana; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2009-07-08

    Disruption of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important mechanism of cerebrovascular diseases, including neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Although both tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) can produce BBB damage, their relationship in neonatal cerebral HI is unclear. Here we use a rodent model to test whether the plasminogen activator (PA) system is critical for MMP-9 activation and HI-induced brain injury in newborns. To test this hypothesis, we examined the therapeutic effect of intracerebroventricular injection of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in rat pups subjected to unilateral carotid artery occlusion and systemic hypoxia. We found that the injection of PAI-1 greatly reduced the activity of both tPA and urokinase-type plasminogen activator after HI. It also blocked HI-induced MMP-9 activation and BBB permeability at 24 h of recovery. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging and histological analysis showed the PAI-1 treatment reduced brain edema, axonal degeneration, and cortical cell death at 24-48 h of recovery. Finally, the PAI-1 therapy provided a dose-dependent decrease of brain tissue loss at 7 d of recovery, with the therapeutic window at 4 h after the HI insult. Together, these results suggest that the brain PA system plays a pivotal role in neonatal cerebral HI and may be a promising therapeutic target in infants suffering hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  11. Active Inhibitor-1 Maintains Protein Hyper-Phosphorylation in Aging Hearts and Halts Remodeling in Failing Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Kobra; Anjak, Ahmad; Cai, Wenfeng; Jiang, Min; Nicolaou, Persoulla; Pylar, George; Karakikes, Ioannis; Rapti, Kleopatra; Rubinstein, Jack; Hajjar, Roger J.; Kranias, Evangelia G.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling and depressed contractility are key characteristics in heart failure. Defects in sarcoplasmic reticulum function are characterized by decreased SERCA2a Ca-transport that is partially attributable to dephosphorylation of its regulator phospholamban by increased protein phosphatase 1 activity. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 through activation of its endogenous inhibitor-1 has been shown to enhance cardiac Ca-handling and contractility as well as protect from pathological stress remodeling in young mice. In this study, we assessed the long-term effects of inducible expression of constitutively active inhibitor-1 in the adult heart and followed function and remodeling through the aging process, up to 20 months. Mice with inhibitor-1 had normal survival and similar function to WTs. There was no overt remodeling as evidenced by measures of left ventricular end-systolic and diastolic diameters and posterior wall dimensions, heart weight to tibia length ratio, and histology. Higher phosphorylation of phospholamban at both Ser16 and Thr17 was maintained in aged hearts with active inhibitor-1, potentially offsetting the effects of elevated Ser2815-phosphorylation in ryanodine receptor, as there were no increases in arrhythmias under stress conditions in 20-month old mice. Furthermore, long-term expression of active inhibitor-1 via recombinant adeno-associated virus type 9 gene transfer in rats with pressure-overload induced heart failure improved function and prevented remodeling, associated with increased phosphorylation of phospholamban at Ser16 and Thr17. Thus, chronic inhibition of protein phosphatase 1, through increases in active inhibitor-1, does not accelerate age-related cardiomyopathy and gene transfer of this molecule in vivo improves function and halts remodeling in the long term. PMID:24312496

  12. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene-deficient mice. II. Effects on hemostasis, thrombosis, and thrombolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Carmeliet, P; Stassen, J M; Schoonjans, L; Ream, B; van den Oord, J J; De Mol, M; Mulligan, R C; Collen, D

    1993-01-01

    The effects of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene inactivation on hemostasis, thrombosis and thrombolysis were studied in homozygous PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1-/-) mice, generated by homologous recombination in D3 embryonic stem cells. Diluted (10-fold) whole blood clots from PAI-1-/- and from PAI-1 wild type (PAI-1+/+) mice underwent limited but significantly different (P < 0.001) spontaneous lysis within 3 h (6 +/- 1 vs 3 +/- 1%, respectively). A 25-microliters 125I-fibrin-labeled normal murine plasma clot, injected into a jugular vein, was lysed for 47 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 87 +/- 7% within 8 h in PAI-1+/+, heterozygous PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1+/-), and PAI-1-/- mice, respectively (P = 0.002 for PAI-1+/+ vs PAI-1-/- mice). Corresponding values after pretreatment with 0.5 mg/kg endotoxin in PAI-1+/+ and PAI-1-/- mice, were 35 +/- 5 and 91 +/- 3% within 4 h, respectively (P < 0.001). 11 out of 26 PAI-1+/+ but only 1 out of 25 PAI-1-/- mice developed venous thrombosis (P = 0.004) within 6 d after injection of 10 or 50 micrograms endotoxin in the footpad. Spontaneous bleeding or delayed rebleeding could not be documented in PAI-1-/- mice after partial amputation of the tail or of the caecum. Thus, disruption of the PAI-1 gene in mice appears to induce a mild hyperfibrinolytic state and a greater resistance to venous thrombosis but not to impair hemostasis. Images PMID:8254029

  13. Is plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 a physiological bottleneck bridging major depressive disorder and cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Savoy, C; Van Lieshout, R J; Steiner, M

    2016-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is estimated to affect one in twenty people worldwide. MDD is highly comorbid with cardiovascular disease (CVD), itself one of the single largest causes of mortality worldwide. A number of pathological changes observed in MDD are believed to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, although no single mechanism has been identified. There are also no biological markers capable of predicting the future risk of developing heart disease in depressed individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a prothrombotic plasma protein secreted by endothelial tissue and has long been implicated in CVD. An expanding body of literature has recently implicated it in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder as well. In this study, we review candidate pathways implicating MDD in CVD and consider how PAI-1 might act as a mediator by which MDD induces CVD development: chiefly through sleep disruption, adiposity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) metabolism, systemic inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation. As both MDD and CVD are more prevalent in women than in men, and incidence of either condition is dramatically increased during reproductive milestones, we also explore hormonal and sex-specific associations between MDD, PAI-1 and CVD. Of special interest is the role PAI-1 plays in perinatal depression and in cardiovascular complications of pregnancy. Finally, we propose a theoretical model whereby PAI-1 might serve as a useful biomarker for CVD risk in those with depression, and as a potential target for future treatments.

  14. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of potent, novel, small molecule inhibitors of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    PubMed

    Folkes, Adrian; Brown, S David; Canne, Lynne E; Chan, Jocelyn; Engelhardt, Erin; Epshteyn, Sergey; Faint, Richard; Golec, Julian; Hanel, Art; Kearney, Patrick; Leahy, James W; Mac, Morrison; Matthews, David; Prisbylla, Michael P; Sanderson, Jason; Simon, Reyna J; Tesfai, Zerom; Vicker, Nigel; Wang, Shouming; Webb, Robert R; Charlton, Peter

    2002-04-08

    We have synthesized and evaluated a series of tetramic acid-based and hydroxyquinolinone-based inhibitors of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). These studies resulted in the identification of several compounds which showed excellent potency against PAI-1. The design, synthesis and SAR of these compounds are described.

  15. High-fat diet enhances and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency attenuates bone loss in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1-/-) on bone structure in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) by 22% and 21%, trabecular number (Tb.N) by 8% and 4% and bone mineral de...

  16. Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

  17. Plasma Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Associated with End-Stage Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in the Northern Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ze-Long; Chen, Song

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify predictors of end-stage proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in a cohort of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from the Northern Chinese Han population. Methods. We investigated characteristics of 153 consecutive diabetic patients with end-stage PDR (62 males, 91 females), 123 consecutive PDR patients without end-stage PDR (48 males, 75 females), and 151 normal subjects (63 males, 88 females). Only one eye of each patient or healthy subject was included in this study. Univariate logistic regression models and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the predictors of end-stage PDR. Results. In univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, duration of diabetes, family history of T2DM, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were significently associated with end-stage PDR. After multivariate analysis, family history of T2DM, plasma PAI-1 levels, smoking, and duration of diabetes were four positive predictors associated with end-stage PDR. Conclusions. Higher plasma levels of PAI-1 were associated with end-stage PDR in the Northern Chinese Han population with T2DM. PMID:23304115

  18. A Mechanism for Assembly of Complexes of Vitronectin and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 from Sedimmentation Velocity Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Kenneth H.; Schar, Christine R.; Blouse, Grant E.; Shore, Joseph D.; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Schuck, Peter; Peterson, Cynthia B.

    2005-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and vitronectin are cofactors involved in pathological conditions such as injury, inflammation, and cancer, during which local levels of PAI-1 are increased and the active serpin forms complexes with vitronectin. These complexes become deposited into surrounding tissue matrices, where they regulate cell adhesion and peri-cellular proteolysis. The mechanism for their co-localization has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that PAI-1-vitronectin complexes form in a stepwise and concentration-dependent fashion via 1:1 and 2:1 intermediates, with the 2:1 complex serving a key role in assembly of higher order complexes. To test this hypothesis, sedimentation velocity experiments in the analytical ultracentrifuge were performed to identify different PAI-1-vitronectin complexes. Analysis of sedimentation data invoked a novel multisignal method to discern the stoichiometry of the two proteins in the higher-order complexes formed (Balbo, A., Minor, K. H., Velikovsky, C. A., Mariuzza, R. A., Peterson, C. B., and Schuck, P. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102, 81—86). Our results demonstrate that PAI-1 and vitronectin assemble into higher order forms via a pathway that is triggered upon saturation of the two PAI-1-binding sites of vitronectin to form the 2:1 complex. This 2:1 PAI-1-vitronectin complex, with a sedimentation coefficient of 6.5 S, is the key intermediate for the assembly of higher order complexes. PMID:15905170

  19. The Role of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator and Plasmin Activator Inhibitor-1 on Vein Wall Remodeling in Experimental Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Joe F.; Sood, Vikram; Elfline, Megan A.; Luke, Cathy E.; Dewyer, Nicholas A.; Diaz, Jose A.; Myers, Dan D.; Wakefield, Thomas; Henke, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution instigates an inflammatory response, resulting in vessel wall damage and scarring. Urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are integral components of the fibrinolytic system, essential for VT resolution. This study determined the vein wall response when exposed to increased and decreased plasmin activity. Methods A mouse inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation model in uPA −/− or PAI-1 −/− and their genetic wild types (B6/SvEv and C57/BL6, respectively) was used to create stasis thrombi, with tissue harvest at either 8 or 21d. Tissue analysis included gene expression of vascular smooth muscle cells (alpha SMA [αSMA], SM22) and endothelial marker (CD31), by real time PCR, ELISA, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and 9 activity by zymography and vein wall collagen by picrosirius red histological analysis. A P < .05 was considered significant. RESULTS Thrombi were significantly larger in both 8d and 21d uPA −/− as compared to WT, and were significantly smaller in both 8 and 21d PAI-1 −/− as compared to WT. Correspondingly, 8d plasmin levels were reduced in half in uPA −/− and increased 3 fold in PAI-1 −/− when compared to respective WT thrombi (P < .05, N = 5 – 6). The endothelial marker CD31 was elevated 2 fold in PAI-1 −/− mice at 8d, but reduced 2.5 fold at 21d in uPA −/− as compared with WT (P = .02, N = 5 – 6), suggesting less endothelial preservation. Vein wall VSMC gene expression showed that 8d and 21d PAI-1 −/− mice had 2.3 and 3.8 fold more SM22 and 1.8 and 2.3 fold more αSMA expression than respective WT (P < .05, N = 5 – 7), as well as 1.8 fold increased αSMA (+) cells (N = 3 – 5, P ≤ .05). No significant difference in MMP2 or 9 activity was found in the PAI-1 −/− mice compared with WT, while 5.4 fold more MMP9 was present in 21d WT than 21d uPA −/− (P = .03, N = 5). Lastly, collagen was ~2 fold

  20. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene 4G/5G alleles frequency distribution in the Lebanese population.

    PubMed

    Shammaa, Dina M R; Sabbagh, Amira S; Taher, Ali T; Zaatari, Ghazi S; Mahfouz, Rami A R

    2008-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis. Increased plasma PAI-1 levels play an essential role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular risk and other diseases associated with thrombosis. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 promoter region has been extensively studied in different populations. We studied 160 healthy unrelated Lebanese individuals using a reverse hybridization PCR assay to detect the 5G/5G, 4G/5G and, 4G/4G genotypes of the PAI-1 gene and the frequencies of the 4G and 5G alleles. We found that 4G/5G genotype was the most prevalent (45.6%) followed by 5G/5G (36.9%) and 4G/4G (17.5%). The frequencies of the 4G and 5G alleles were calculated to be 0.403 and 0.597, respectively. Compared to other ethnic communities, the Lebanese population was found to harbour a relatively high prevalence of the rare 4G allele. This, in turn, may predispose this population to develop cardiovascular diseases and other thrombotic clinical conditions. This study aids to enhance our understanding of the genetic features of the Lebanese population.

  1. Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene Polymorphisms with Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures (OVCFs) in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Oh; Han, Soo Hong; Lee, Yeon Ho; Ahn, Tae Keun; Lim, Jae Joon; Chung, Young Sun; Shin, Dong Eun; Lee, Woo Sik; Han, In Bo; Kim, Nam Keun

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are strongly associated with mortality and morbidity, both in developing and developed countries. Menopause accelerates bone loss due to estrogen deficiency and age-related linear bone loss. We investigated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). In this case-control study, 355 postmenopausal women were genotyped for the presence of PAI-1 gene polymorphisms −844A > G, −675 4G > 5G, 43G > A, 9785A > G, and 11053T > G. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 were analyzed by the polymerization chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay, and their association with disease status and folate and homocysteine levels was determined in 158 OVCF patients and 197 control subjects. The PAI-1 −675 5G5G (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.302; p = 0.017) and 43GA + AA (AOR, 2.087; p = 0.042) genotype frequencies showed significant association with the increased prevalence of OVCFs in postmenopausal women. In addition, we performed gene–environment interaction studies and demonstrated an association between PAI-1 gene polymorphisms and OVCF prevalence. Our novel finding is the identification of several PAI-1 genetic variants that increase susceptibility to OVCF. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in PAI-1 may contribute to OVCF, and that they can be developed as biomarkers for evaluating OVCF risk. PMID:27941685

  2. Oxidative modification enhances lipoprotein(a)-induced overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, S; Man, R Y; Angel, A; Shen, G X

    1997-01-03

    Elevated levels of plasma lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] have been considered as a strong risk factor for premature cardiovascular diseases. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activators (PA). Increases in PAI-1 levels with or without a reduction in PA levels have been frequently found in coronary artery disease patients. The present paper examined the effects of oxidized Lp(a) on the production of PAI-1 in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Lp(a) and Lp(a)-free, low density lipoprotein (LDL) were prepared using lysine-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Incubations with 10(-8) M levels of native Lp(a) moderately increased the levels of biologically active PAI-1 in post-culture medium of HUVEC compared to that with equimolar concentrations of native Lp(a)-free LDL. The release of PAI-1 induced by Lp(a) was enhanced by oxidative modification with copper ion. The stimulation of oxidized Lp(a) on PAI-1 production reached plateau in EC treated with 10-20 nM oxidized Lp(a) modified by microM CuSO4. Treatment with 0.2 micrograms/ml of actinomycin D significantly reduced native and oxidized Lp(a)-induced PAI-1 overproduction in EC. Increases in the steady state levels of PAI-1 mRNA were detected in native or oxidized Lp(a)-treated EC. The effect of Lp(a)-free oxidized LDL on PAI-1 production was significantly weaker than the equimolar amount of oxidized Lp(a) but stronger than that of native LDL. Treatments with oxidized Lp(a) increased cell-associated PAI-1 to a similar extent as that in native Lp(a)-treated EC. The results of the present paper demonstrate that oxidative modification enhances Lp(a)-induced PAI-1 production in vascular endothelial cells at RNA transcription level, which suggests that oxidization potentially amplifies the anti-fibrinolytic and thrombotic effect of Lp(a).

  3. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Involved in Streptozotocin-Induced Bone Loss in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yukinori; Kawao, Naoyuki; Okada, Kiyotaka; Yano, Masato; Okumoto, Katsumi; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In diabetic patients, the risk of fracture is high because of impaired bone formation. However, the details of the mechanisms in the development of diabetic osteoporosis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis by using PAI-1–deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis showed that PAI-1 deficiency protected against streptozotocin-induced bone loss in female mice but not in male mice. PAI-1 deficiency blunted the changes in the levels of Runx2, osterix, and alkaline phosphatase in tibia as well as serum osteocalcin levels suppressed by the diabetic state in female mice only. Furthermore, the osteoclast levels in tibia, suppressed in diabetes, were also blunted by PAI-1 deficiency in female mice. Streptozotocin markedly elevated the levels of PAI-1 mRNA in liver in female mice only. In vitro study demonstrated that treatment with active PAI-1 suppressed the levels of osteogenic genes and mineralization in primary osteoblasts from female mouse calvaria. In conclusion, the current study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis in females. The expression of PAI-1 in the liver and the sensitivity of bone cells to PAI-1 may be an underlying mechanism. PMID:23715621

  4. Regulatory role of microRNA-30b and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIUQIN; GAO, YONG; MENG, ZHAOYUN; ZHANG, CUI; QI, QINDE

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in drug-induced early cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanism concerning microRNA (miR)-30b. A mouse model of cognitive impairment was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (2 mg/kg body weight) for 13 days. Behavioral performance was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The mRNA expression levels of PAI-1 and miR-30b were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The protein expression levels of PAI-1 in the hippocampus and blood were determined using western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The MWM test demonstrated that, on days 3 and 4, the escape latency was significantly elevated in the model mice in comparison with control group (P<0.05). In addition, the length of swimming path was significantly increased (P<0.05), while the number of times of crossing the platform location was significantly reduced in the model mouse group (P<0.05) in comparison with the control group. qPCR demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of PAI-1 in the model mice was significantly elevated in the hippocampus and blood in comparison with the control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the protein expression levels of PAI-1 were significantly elevated in the hippocampus and blood in the model group, in comparison with the control group (P<0.05). Notably, the levels of miR-30b in the hippocampus and blood were significantly decreased in the model mice in comparison with the control group (P<0.01). To conclude, the expression levels of PAI-1 were significantly elevated in mice with scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which may be associated with the downregulation of miR-30b. The findings from the present study suggest that miR-30b may be involved in the regulation of PAI-1, which would contribute to the pathogenesis of cognitive

  5. Successful arthroscopic treatment of pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee in a patient with congenital deficiency of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and recurrent haemarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Matsui, H; Takahashi, Y; Matsunaga, T; Tanaka-Horie, T; Minowa, H; Sugimoto, M; Tsukino, R; Mii, Y; Giddings, J; Yoshioka, A

    2001-01-01

    We report the arthroscopic treatment of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in a 13-year-old Japanese boy with congenital partial deficiency of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). He was admitted to our hospital with recurrent haemarthrosis of his right knee. Characteristic abnormalities of fibrinolysis included shortened euglobulin lysis time, low PAI-1 activity and low PAI-1 antigen levels. In addition, levels of "active PAI" in the plasma, which is a measure of total PAI bound to exogenous plasminogen activator, were very low. These parameters remained low after venous occlusion. The diagnosis of PVNS was established by synovial membrane biopsy, and arthroscopic synovectomy was performed with adjuvant administration of intravenous tranexamic acid. Subsequent bleeding episodes have been well controlled by oral administration of tranexamic acid on demand.

  6. Overexpression of SERBP1 (Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein) in human breast cancer is correlated with favourable prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) overexpression is an important prognostic and predictive biomarker in human breast cancer. SERBP1, a protein that is supposed to regulate the stability of PAI-1 mRNA, may play a role in gynaecological cancers as well, since upregulation of SERBP1 was described in ovarian cancer recently. This is the first study to present a systematic characterisation of SERBP1 expression in human breast cancer and normal breast tissue at both the mRNA and the protein level. Methods Using semiquantitative realtime PCR we analysed SERBP1 expression in different normal human tissues (n = 25), and in matched pairs of normal (n = 7) and cancerous breast tissues (n = 7). SERBP1 protein expression was analysed in two independent cohorts on tissue microarrays (TMAs), an initial evaluation set, consisting of 193 breast carcinomas and 48 normal breast tissues, and a second large validation set, consisting of 605 breast carcinomas. In addition, a collection of benign (n = 2) and malignant (n = 6) mammary cell lines as well as breast carcinoma lysates (n = 16) were investigated for SERBP1 expression by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, applying non-radioisotopic in situ hybridisation a subset of normal (n = 10) and cancerous (n = 10) breast tissue specimens from the initial TMA were analysed for SERBP1 mRNA expression. Results SERBP1 is not differentially expressed in breast carcinoma compared to normal breast tissue, both at the RNA and protein level. However, recurrence-free survival analysis showed a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between abundant SERBP1 expression in breast carcinoma and favourable prognosis. Interestingly, overall survival analysis also displayed a tendency (P = 0.09) towards favourable prognosis when SERBP1 was overexpressed in breast cancer. Conclusions The RNA-binding protein SERBP1 is abundantly expressed in human breast cancer and may represent a novel breast tumour

  7. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Induces the Expression of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1) in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Copin, C.; Derudas, B.; Marx, N.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of the blood coagulation cascade after interaction with the activated factor VII (FVIIa). Moreover, the TF/FVIIa complex also activates intracellular signalling pathways leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines. The TF/FVIIa complex is inhibited by the tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that, together with PPARα and PPARβ/δ, controls macrophage functions. However, whether PPARγ activation modulates the expression of TFP1-1 in human macrophages is not known. Here we report that PPARγ activation increases the expression of TFPI-1 in human macrophages in vitro as well as in vivo in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The induction of TFPI-1 expression by PPARγ ligands, an effect shared by the activation of PPARα and PPARβ/δ, occurs also in proinflammatory M1 and in anti-inflammatory M2 polarized macrophages. As a functional consequence, treatment with PPARγ ligands significantly reduces the inflammatory response induced by FVIIa, as measured by variations in the IL-8, MMP-2, and MCP-1 expression. These data identify a novel role for PPARγ in the control of TF the pathway. PMID:28115923

  8. PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 (PAI-1): A KEY FACTOR LINKING FIBRINOLYSIS AND AGE-RELATED SUBCLINICAL AND CLINICAL CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Cesari, Matteo; Pahor, Marco; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2010-01-01

    The close relationship existing between aging and thrombosis has growingly been studied in this last decade. The age-related development of a pro-thrombotic imbalance in the fibrinolysis homeostasis has been hypothesized at the basis of this increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk. Fibrinolysis is the resulting of the interactions among multiple plasminogen activators and inhibitors constituing the enzymatic cascade, and ultimately leading to the degradation of fibrin. The plasminogen activator system plays a key role in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the superfamily of serine-protease inhibitors (or serpins), and the principal inhibitor of both the tissue-type and the urinary-type plasminogen activator, the two plasminogen activators able to activate plasminogen. In this review, current evidence describing the central role played by PAI-1 in a number of age-related subclinical (i.e., inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance) and clinical (i.e., obesity, comorbidities, Werner syndrome) conditions is presented. Despite some controversial and unclear issues, PAI-1 represents an extremely promising marker which may become a biological parameter to be growingly considered in the prognostic evaluation, in the disease monitoring, and as treatment target of age-related conditions in the next future. PMID:20626406

  9. The role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in gastric mucosal protection

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Susan; Steele, Islay; Lyons, Suzanne; Moore, Andrew R.; Murugesan, Senthil V.; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Dimaline, Rod; Pritchard, D. Mark; Varro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Gastric mucosal health is maintained in response to potentially damaging luminal factors. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) disrupt protective mechanisms leading to bleeding and ulceration. The plasminogen activator system has been implicated in fibrinolysis following gastric ulceration, and an inhibitor of this system, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, is expressed in gastric epithelial cells. In Helicobacter pylori-negative patients with normal gastric histology taking aspirin or NSAIDs, we found elevated gastric PAI-1 mRNA abundance compared with controls; the increase in patients on aspirin was independent of whether they were also taking proton pump inhibitors. In the same patients, aspirin tended to lower urokinase plasminogen activator mRNA. Immunohistochemistry indicated PAI-1 localization to epithelial cells. In a model system using MKN45 or AGS-GR cells transfected with a PAI-1 promoter-luciferase reporter construct, we found no evidence for upregulation of PAI-1 expression by indomethacin, and, in fact, cyclooxygenase products such as PGE2 and PGI2 weakly stimulated expression. Increased gastric PAI-1 mRNA was also found in mice following gavage with ethanol or indomethacin, but plasma PAI-1 was unaffected. In PAI-1−/− mice, gastric hemorrhagic lesions in response to ethanol or indomethacin were increased compared with C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice in which PAI-1 is overexpressed in parietal cells, there were decreased lesions in response to ethanol and indomethacin. Thus, PAI-1 expression is increased in gastric epithelial cells in response to mucosal irritants such as aspirin and NSAIDs probably via an indirect mechanism, and PAI-1 acts as a local autoregulator to minimize mucosal damage. PMID:23494120

  10. The tissue-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 complex promotes neurovascular injury in brain trauma: evidence from mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Sashindranath, Maithili; Sales, Eunice; Daglas, Maria; Freeman, Roxann; Samson, Andre L; Cops, Elisa J; Beckham, Simone; Galle, Adam; McLean, Catriona; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Madani, Rime; Vassalli, Jean-Dominique; Su, Enming J; Lawrence, Daniel A; Medcalf, Robert L

    2012-11-01

    The neurovascular unit provides a dynamic interface between the circulation and central nervous system. Disruption of neurovascular integrity occurs in numerous brain pathologies including neurotrauma and ischaemic stroke. Tissue plasminogen activator is a serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin, a protease that dissolves blood clots. Besides its role in fibrinolysis, tissue plasminogen activator is abundantly expressed in the brain where it mediates extracellular proteolysis. However, proteolytically active tissue plasminogen activator also promotes neurovascular disruption after ischaemic stroke; the molecular mechanisms of this process are still unclear. Tissue plasminogen activator is naturally inhibited by serine protease inhibitors (serpins): plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, neuroserpin or protease nexin-1 that results in the formation of serpin:protease complexes. Proteases and serpin:protease complexes are cleared through high-affinity binding to low-density lipoprotein receptors, but their binding to these receptors can also transmit extracellular signals across the plasma membrane. The matrix metalloproteinases are the second major proteolytic system in the mammalian brain, and like tissue plasminogen activators are pivotal to neurological function but can also degrade structures of the neurovascular unit after injury. Herein, we show that tissue plasminogen activator potentiates neurovascular damage in a dose-dependent manner in a mouse model of neurotrauma. Surprisingly, inhibition of activity following administration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 significantly increased cerebrovascular permeability. This led to our finding that formation of complexes between tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the brain parenchyma facilitates post-traumatic cerebrovascular damage. We demonstrate that following trauma, the complex binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors, triggering the induction of matrix

  11. Mechanistic characterization and crystal structure of a small molecule inactivator bound to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shih-Hon; Reinke, Ashley A.; Sanders, Karen L.; Emal, Cory D.; Whisstock, James C.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Lawrence, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family. Excessive PAI-1 activity is associated with human disease, making it an attractive pharmaceutical target. However, like other serpins, PAI-1 has a labile structure, making it a difficult target for the development of small molecule inhibitors, and to date, there are no US Food and Drug Administration–approved small molecule inactivators of any serpins. Here we describe the mechanistic and structural characterization of a high affinity inactivator of PAI-1. This molecule binds to PAI-1 reversibly and acts through an allosteric mechanism that inhibits PAI-1 binding to proteases and to its cofactor vitronectin. The binding site is identified by X-ray crystallography and mutagenesis as a pocket at the interface of β-sheets B and C and α-helix H. A similar pocket is present on other serpins, suggesting that this site could be a common target in this structurally conserved protein family. PMID:24297881

  12. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: Mechanisms of its synergistic regulation by growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaoling

    2010-01-01

    My research is on the synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β. The mechanism of synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β are addressed. Methods are described for effective identification of RNA accessible sites for antisense oligodexoxynucleotides (ODNs) and siRNA. In this study effective AS-ODN sequences for both Lcn2 and Bcl2 were identified by in vitro tiled microarray studies. Our results suggest that hybridization of ODN arrays to a target mRNA under physiological conditions might be used as a rapid and reliable in vitro method to accurately identify targets on mRNA molecules for effective antisense and potential siRNA activity in vivo.

  13. Gastrin stimulates expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nørsett, Kristin G; Steele, Islay; Duval, Cedric; Sammut, Stephen J; Murugesan, Senthil V M; Kenny, Susan; Rainbow, Lucille; Dimaline, Rod; Dockray, Graham J; Pritchard, D Mark; Varro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is associated with cancer progression, fibrosis and thrombosis. It is expressed in the stomach but the mechanisms controlling its expression there, and its biological role, are uncertain. We sought to define the role of gastrin in regulating PAI-1 expression and to determine the relevance for gastrin-stimulated cell migration and invasion. In gastric biopsies from subjects with elevated plasma gastrin, the abundances of PAI-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and uPA receptor (uPAR) mRNAs measured by quantitative PCR were increased compared with subjects with plasma concentrations in the reference range. In patients with hypergastrinemia due to autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis, there was increased abundance of PAI-1, uPA, and uPAR mRNAs that was reduced by octreotide or antrectomy. Immunohistochemistry revealed localization of PAI-1 to parietal cells and enterochromaffin-like cells in micronodular neuroendocrine tumors in hypergastrinemic subjects. Transcriptional mechanisms were studied by using a PAI-1-luciferase promoter-reporter construct transfected into AGS-G(R) cells. There was time- and concentration-dependent increase of PAI-1-luciferase expression in response to gastrin that was reversed by inhibitors of the PKC and MAPK pathways. In Boyden chamber assays, recombinant PAI-1 inhibited gastrin-stimulated AGS-G(R) cell migration and invasion, and small interfering RNA treatment increased responses to gastrin. We conclude that elevated plasma gastrin concentrations are associated with increased expression of gastric PAI-1, which may act to restrain gastrin-stimulated cell migration and invasion.

  14. CXCL12-mediated induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human CXCR4 positive astroglioma cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Wook; Olman, Mitchell; Benveniste, Etty Nadia

    2009-04-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant and common brain tumor. To promote their growth, these glioma cells secrete a variety of soluble factors including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which functions as an inhibitor of plasminogen activators. We report here with the basis of microarray gene expression analysis that CXCR4 expressing glioma cells are capable of expressing PAI-1 mRNA and protein upon CXCL12 stimulation. Pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) 1/2, abrogated CXCL12-induced PAI-1 expression. Pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Galpha(i) proteins, also had inhibitory effects, indicating that the activation of Galpha(i) and ERK MAPK are required for this response. Interestingly, CXCL12 showed additive effects with another PAI-1 inducers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and/or tumor growth factor (TGF)-beta1, in increasing PAI-1 expression. These results indicate that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in glioma cells may be another mechanism for these cells to express PAI-1, which may be involved in angiogenesis and tumor invasion in brain tumors.

  15. Statins suppress glucose-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by regulating RhoA and nuclear factor-κB activities in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Yao, Ning-Hua; Qian, Juan; Yang, Xiang-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible proinflammatory signaling pathways involved in statin inhibition of glucose-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs). Primary rat CMECs were grown in the presence of 5.7 or 23 mmol/L glucose. PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by realtime polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. A pull-down assay was performed to determine RhoA activity. IκBα protein expression was measured by Western blotting, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and its transcription activity was determined by a dual luciferase reporter gene assay. PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were both increased with high glucose concentrations, but they were significantly suppressed by simvastatin and atorvastatin treatment (P < 0.01) and the effects were reversed by mevalonate (100 μmol/L) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (10 μmol/L) but not farnesyl pyrophosphate (10 μmol/L). Such effects were similar to those of a RhoA inhibitor, C3 exoenzyme (5 μg/mL), inhibitors of RhoA kinase (ROCK), Y-27632 (10 μmol/L) and hydroxyfasudil (10 μmol/L) and an NF-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 (5 μmol/L). High glucose-induced RhoA and NF-κB activations in CMECs were both significantly inhibited by statins (P < 0.01). Simvastatin and atorvastatin equally suppress high glucose-induced PAI-1 expression. These effects of statins may occur partly by regulating the RhoA/ROCK-NF-κB pathway. The multifunctional roles of statins may be particularly beneficial for patients with metabolic syndrome.

  16. The omptins of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica cleave the reactive center loop of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    PubMed

    Haiko, Johanna; Laakkonen, Liisa; Juuti, Katri; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Korhonen, Timo K

    2010-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) and a key molecule that regulates fibrinolysis by inactivating human plasminogen activators. Here we show that two important human pathogens, the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis and the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, inactivate PAI-1 by cleaving the R346-M347 bait peptide bond in the reactive center loop. No cleavage of PAI-1 was detected with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, an oral/fecal pathogen from which Y. pestis has evolved, or with Escherichia coli. The cleavage and inactivation of PAI-1 were mediated by the outer membrane proteases plasminogen activator Pla of Y. pestis and PgtE protease of S. enterica, which belong to the omptin family of transmembrane endopeptidases identified in Gram-negative bacteria. Cleavage of PAI-1 was also detected with the omptins Epo of Erwinia pyrifoliae and Kop of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which both belong to the same omptin subfamily as Pla and PgtE, whereas no cleavage of PAI-1 was detected with omptins of Shigella flexneri or E. coli or the Yersinia chromosomal omptins, which belong to other omptin subfamilies. The results reveal a novel serpinolytic mechanism by which enterobacterial species expressing omptins of the Pla subfamily bypass normal control of host proteolysis.

  17. Insulin continues to induce plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene expression in insulin-resistant mice and adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Samad, F.; Pandey, M.; Bell, P. A.; Loskutoff, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the association between insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk is well established, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The antifibrinolytic molecule plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a cardiovascular risk factor that is consistently elevated in insulin-resistant states such as obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The strong positive correlation between this elevated PAI-1 and the degree of hyperinsulinemia not only implicates insulin itself in this increase, but also suggests that PAI-1 is regulated by a pathway that does not become insulin resistant. The data in this report supports this hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We show that insulin stimulates PAI-1 gene expression in metabolically insulin-resistant ob/ob mice and in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, we provide evidence that glucose transport and PAI-1 gene expression are mediated by different insulin signaling pathways. These observations suggest that the compensatory hyperinsulinemia that is frequently associated with insulin-resistant states, directly contribute to the elevated PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a potential mechanism for the abnormal increases in cardiovascular risk genes in obesity, NIDDM, and polycystic ovary disease. PMID:11055587

  18. Challenging delivery of VLHL NS plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by osmotic pumps in diabetic mouse: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jankun, Jerzy

    2012-10-01

    ALZET(®) osmotic pumps are implantable devices used in animals for the continuous infusion of drugs or proteins at controlled rates from 1 day to 4 weeks. Pumps have been used successfully in a number of studies on the effects of controlled delivery of a wide range of experimental agents, independent of their properties. In the present study, use of these pumps was made in mice with diabetic nephropathy. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mediates diabetic nephropathy, which is characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the kidney. Disproportionate PAI-1 inactivates tissue plasminogen activator, which is one of the proteolytic enzymes in a cascade responsible for ECM remodeling in the kidney. The decrease of PAI-1 in the kidney has been shown to arrest the progression of nephropathy in experimental animals. This was achieved using inactive PAI-1R which increased the clearance of wild-type PAI-1 in order to protect net proteolytic activity and ECM clearance. However, this protein has a brief half-life in vivo, therefore, high and frequent doses are required. Thus, VLHL NS PAI-1 protein with a long half-life of over 700 h (Gln197Cys, Gly355Cys) inactivated by single point mutation (Arg369Ala) was used. Following the sacrifice of animals the tips of the flow moderators of the osmotic pumps in the treated animals were found to be clogged. In addition, from each pump from the treatment group, but not controls, we collected 50-150 μl of clear liquid containing VLHL NS PAI-1, cellular and serum proteins suggesting early pump sealing by cellular material. In conclusion, despite encouraging results obtained for the PAI-1R protein, the method of VLHL PAI-1 delivery should be ameliorated.

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated, but not essential, in the development of bleomycin-induced murine scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, M; Yamamoto, T; Nishioka, K

    2005-01-01

    Accumulative data have demonstrated that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in the extracellular matrix metabolism; however, the involvement of PAI-1 in scleroderma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of PAI-1 in bleomycin-induced murine scleroderma. 100 µg of bleomycin was injected subcutaneously to the back skin of C3H/HeJ mice on alternate day for 4 weeks. Histopathological findings revealed that PAI-1 was positive in macrophage-like cells and fibroblastic cells in the dermis, in parallel with the induction of dermal sclerosis. PAI-1 mRNA expression in the whole skin was up-regulated at 1 and 4 weeks. The production of active PAI-1 protein in the lesional skin was significantly increased 3 and 4 weeks after bleomycin treatment. Next, we examined whether dermal sclerosis is induced by bleomycin in PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1–/–) mice. 10 µg of bleomycin was subcutaneously injected to PAI-1–/– and wild type (WT) mice 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed that dermal sclerosis was similarly induced even in PAI-1–/– as well as WT mice. Dermal thickness and collagen contents in the skin were significantly increased by bleomycin injection in both PAI-1–/– and WT mice, and the rate of increase was similar. These data suggest that PAI-1 plays an important role, possibly via TGF-β pathway activation. However, the fact that PAI-1 deficiency did not ameliorate skin sclerosis suggest that PAI-1 is not the essential factor in the development of bleomycin-induced scleroderma, and more complex biochemical effects other than PA/plasmin system are greatly suspected. PMID:15730388

  20. Evaluation of Fibrinolytic Inhibitors: Alpha-2-Antiplasmin and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Kiciński, Paweł; Przybylska-Kuć, Sylwia; Dybała, Andrzej; Myśliński, Wojciech; Pastryk, Jolanta; Tomaszewski, Tomasz; Mosiewicz, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) induces thrombophilia and reduces fibrinolysis. Alpha-2-antiplasmin (a-2-AP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are major inhibitors of the fibrinolytic system. Increased concentrations of these factors are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess plasma a-2-AP and PAI-1 in patients with OSA and evaluate correlations with the polysomnographic record and selected risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The study group comprised 45 patients with OSA, and the control group consisted of 19 patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria of OSA. Plasma a-2-AP and PAI-1 concentrations were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the study group, the median value of plasma a-2-AP was higher than that of the control group (157.34 vs. 11.89 pg/ml, respectively, P<0.0001). A-2-AP concentration increased proportionally to the severity of OSA. The concentration of a-2-AP was positively correlated with the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), apnoea index (AI), respiratory disturbances time (RDT), and desaturaion index (DI), and negatively correlated with mean and minimal oxygen saturation (SpO2 mean, SpO2 min, respectively). The median value of PAI-1 was higher in the study group than the control group (12.55 vs. 5.40 ng/ml, respectively, P = 0.006) and increased along with OSA severity. PAI-1 concentration was positively correlated with AHI, AI, RDT, DI, and body mass index (BMI) and negatively correlated with SpO2 mean and SpO2 min. Higher plasma concentrations of a-2-AP and PAI-1 in patients with OSA indicated that these patients had increased prothrombotic activity. OSA increases the risk of cardiovascular complications as it enhances prothrombotic activity. PMID:27861608

  1. Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition and Genetic Deficiency of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrahmani, Rym; Francois, Agnes; Buard, Valerie; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Crandall, David L.; Milliat, Fabien

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate effects of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) genetic deficiency and pharmacological PAI-1 inhibition with PAI-039 in a mouse model of radiation-induced enteropathy. Methods and Materials: Wild-type (Wt) and PAI-1{sup -/-} knockout mice received a single dose of 19 Gy to an exteriorized localized intestinal segment. Sham and irradiated Wt mice were treated orally with 1 mg/g of PAI-039. Histological modifications were quantified using a radiation injury score. Moreover, intestinal gene expression was monitored by real-time PCR. Results: At 3 days after irradiation, PAI-039 abolished the radiation-induced increase in the plasma active form of PAI-1 and limited the radiation-induced gene expression of transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1), CTGF, PAI-1, and COL1A2. Moreover, PAI-039 conferred temporary protection against early lethality. PAI-039 treatment limited the radiation-induced increase of CTGF and PAI-1 at 2 weeks after irradiation but had no effect at 6 weeks. Radiation injuries were less severe in PAI-1{sup -/-} mice than in Wt mice, and despite the beneficial effect, 3 days after irradiation, PAI-039 had no effects on microscopic radiation injuries compared to untreated Wt mice. Conclusions: A genetic deficiency of PAI-1 is associated with amelioration of late radiation enteropathy. Pharmacological inhibition of PAI-1 by PAI-039 positively impacts the early, acute phase increase in plasma PAI-1 and the associated radiation-induced gene expression of inflammatory/extracellular matrix proteins. Since PAI-039 has been shown to inhibit the active form of PAI-1, as opposed to the complete loss of PAI-1 in the knockout animals, these data suggest that a PAI-1 inhibitor could be beneficial in treating radiation-induced tissue injury in acute settings where PAI-1 is elevated.

  2. Impact of the 4G/5G polymorphism in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene on primary nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuezhong; Wang, Chao; Tu, Haitao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the four guanosines (4G)/five guanosines (5G) polymorphism in the gene coding for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) affects the clinical features of primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS). A cohort of 200 biopsy-diagnosed PNS patients was studied, with 40 healthy subjects as controls. The PAI-1 gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Associations between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and clinical features and pathological types of PNS were analyzed. The results indicated that the PAI-1 genotype distribution is significantly different between patients with PNS and healthy controls, with significantly higher numbers of the 4G/4G genotype and lower numbers of the 5G5G genotype detected in PNS patients compared to controls (both P<0.05). The frequency of the 4G allele was also significantly higher in PNS patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.01). Among the different pathological types of PNS, IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and membranous nephropathy (MN) were associated with significantly increased frequencies of the 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes, as well as of the 4G allele. The increased 4G frequency was also detected in patients with minimal change disease (MCD). Significantly increased international normalized ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were observed in 4G/4G compared to 5G/5G PNS subjects. The response to steroids was not significantly different among the three genotypes. In conclusion, the 4G allele of the PAI-1 gene appears to be associated with PNS, especially in MN and IgAN patients. These findings suggest that specific targeting may be required for the treatment of PNS patients with the 4G/4G genotype.

  3. Effects of Lewis lung carcinoma on trabecular microstructural changes in wild-type and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficient mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone is a major target organ of metastasis. The present study investigated the effects of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) on trabecular microstructural changes, using tomographic analysis, in distal femur and lumbar 4 vertebra from LLC-bearing wild-type and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) defi...

  4. PULMONARY LOCALIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 (PAI-1) IN HEALTHY OR HYPERTENSIVE RATS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY LOCALIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 (PAI-1) IN HEALTHY OR HYPERTENSIVE RATS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM). GS Backus1, R Vincent2, UP Kodavanti2, 1Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill; 2NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park,...

  5. Effects of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficient and wild-type mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in PAI-1 deficient (PAI-1-/-) and wildtype mice (C57BL/6J background) fed the AIN93G diet or that diet modified with 45% calories from fat. The high-fat diet i...

  6. Substrate behavior of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is not associated with a lack of insertion of the reactive site loop.

    PubMed

    Gils, A; Knockaert, I; Declerck, P J

    1996-06-11

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a unique member of the serpin superfamily. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substitution, with a proline, at positions P5, P7, P14, P15, or P16, on the conformational flexibility and functional properties of PAI-1. These mutants (PAI-1-P5, IIe-->Pro at P5; PAI-1-P7, Ala-->Pro at P7; PAI-1-P14, Thr-->Pro at P14; PAI-1-P15, Gly-->Pro at P15; PAI-1-P16, Ser-->Pro at P16) were purified and fully characterized. WtPAI-1 had a specific activity of 68 +/- 10% (mean +/- SD, n = 6) whereas PAI-1-P5, PAI-1-P7, and PAI-1-P16 had specific activities of 34 +/- 9.3%, 42 +/- 10%, and 36 +/- 11%, respectively. PAI-1-P14 and PAI-1-P15 did not exhibit significant inhibitory activity. Conformational analysis revealed that wtPAI-1 preparations contained 12 +/- 2.0% substrate, whereas PAI-1-P5, PAI-1-P7, and PAI-1-P16 were characterized with a significantly (p < 0.001) increased substrate behavior (i.e., 43 +/- 6.1%, 42 +/- 1.5% and 22 +/- 1.7%, respectively). The inactive variants PAI-1-P14 and PAI-1-P15 behaved exclusively as substrates toward various serine proteinases. Heat denaturation studies revealed that cleavage of any noninhibitory substrate form of PAI-1 resulted in an insertion of the NH2-terminal side of the reactive site loop. Incubation with plasmin showed the presence of a unique plasmin cleavage site (Lys191-Ser192) exclusively present in all latent forms studied. We conclude that (a) the entire P5 to P16 region in PAI-1 plays an important role in the functional and conformational properties of PAI-1; (b) the substrate behavior of serpins is not associated with a lack of insertion of the reactive site loop; (c) the identification of a plasmin cleavage site in latent PAI-1 may provide new insights in the mechanisms for the inactivation of storage pools of PAI-1.

  7. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and vitamin D receptor expression with the risk of keloid disease in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhen-Hua; Ji, Jian-Feng; Yang, Jun; Xiang, Tie; Zhou, Chang-Kai; Pan, Xuan-Liang; Yao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Keloid disease (KD) is a benign fibroproliferative scarring condition of unknown etiopathogenesis. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been shown to play important roles in the progression of tissue fibrosis; therefore, both these genes are potential susceptibility genes for KD. We aimed to determine whether the gene expression levels of PAI-1 and VDR are altered in Chinese KD patients. We measured the expression of PAI and VDR in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in 236 patients with keloid and 219 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that PAI-1 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher in patients with KD than in control individuals (p < 0.0001), while VDR expression was significantly lower in KD patients than in control individuals (p < 0.0001). High levels of PAI-1 and low levels of VDR expression were significantly associated with an increased risk for KD. PAI-1 and VDR might play important roles in keloid development. Gene expression levels of PAI-1 and VDR may, therefore, be used as potential markers for the prediction of keloid development after scarring.

  8. Wood Bark Smoke Induces Lung and Pleural Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 and Stabilizes Its mRNA in Porcine Lung Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    in situ. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by Western blotting. Induction of PAI-1 was determined at the...As measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, this defect in fibrinolysis is mainly attributable to overexpression of plasminogen activator...monitoring Pigs were monitored for 48 h. The following variables were measured : number of smoke breaths received, volume of smoke received, peak carboxy

  9. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxyde synthase increases capillary formation via Rac1-dependent induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    PubMed

    Petry, Andreas; BelAiba, Rachida S; Weitnauer, Michae; Görlach, Agnes

    2012-11-01

    Disruption of endothelial homeostasis results in endothelial dysfunction, characterised by a dysbalance between nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels often accompanied by a prothrombotic and proproliferative state. The serine protease thrombin not only is instrumental in formation of the fibrin clot, but also exerts direct effects on the vessel wall by activating proliferative and angiogenic responses. In endothelial cells, thrombin can induce NO as well as ROS levels. However, the relative contribution of these reactive species to the angiogenic response towards thrombin is not completely clear. Since plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a direct target of the proangiogenic transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), exerts prothrombotic and proangiogenic activities we investigated the role of ROS and NO in the regulation of HIF-1α, PAI-1 and capillary formation in response to thrombin. Thrombin enhanced the formation of NO as well as ROS generation involving the GTPase Rac1 in endothelial cells. Rac1-dependent ROS formation promoted induction of HIF-1α, PAI-1 and capillary formation by thrombin, while NO reduced ROS bioavailability and subsequently limited induction of HIF-1α, PAI-1 and the angiogenic response. Importantly, thrombin activation of Rac1 was diminished by NO, but enhanced by ROS. Thus, our findings show that capillary formation induced by thrombin via Rac1-dependent activation of HIF-1 and PAI-1 is limited by the concomitant release of NO which reduced ROS bioavailability. Rac1 activity is sensitive to ROS and NO, thereby playing an essential role in fine tuning the endothelial response to thrombin.

  10. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and retinopathy risk in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mounting evidence has suggested that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a candidate for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Studies have reported that insertion/deletion polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene may influence the risk of this disease. To comprehensively address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were retrieved in a systematic manner and analyzed using Review Manager and STATA Statistical Software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Results Nine studies with 1, 217 cases and 1, 459 controls were included. Allelic and genotypic comparisons between cases and controls were evaluated. Overall analysis suggests a marginal association of the 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.26; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.04 to 1.64; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.52). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found an association among the Caucasian population (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.30; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.74; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.77). When stratified by the average duration of diabetes, patients with diabetes histories longer than 10 years have an elevated susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy than those with shorter histories (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.08 to 2.00). We also detected a higher risk in hospital-based studies (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G+4G/5G: OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.57). Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene potentially increased the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and showed a discrepancy in different ethnicities. A higher susceptibility in patients with longer duration of diabetes (more than 10

  11. Regulatory role of NADPH oxidase in glycated LDL-induced upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and heat shock factor-1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Le, Khuong; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Shen, Garry X

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the predominant cause of death in diabetic patients. Fibroblasts are one of the major types of cells in the heart or vascular wall. Increased levels of glycated low-density lipoprotein (glyLDL) were detected in diabetic patients. Previous studies in our group demonstrated that oxidized LDL increased the amounts of NADPH oxidase (NOX), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) in fibroblasts. This study examined the expression of NOX, PAI-1, and HSF1 in glyLDL-treated wild-type or HSF1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and in leptin receptor-knockout (db/db) diabetic mice. Treatment with physiologically relevant levels of glyLDL increased superoxide and H2O2 release and the levels of NOX4 and p22phox (an essential component of multiple NOX complexes) in wild-type or HSF1-deficient MEFs. The levels of HSF1 and PAI-1 were increased by glyLDL in wild-type MEFs, but not in HSF1-deficient MEFs. Diphenyleneiodonium (a nonspecific NOX inhibitor) or small interfering RNA for p22phox prevented glyLDL-induced increases in the levels of NOX4, HSF1, or PAI-1 in MEFs. The amounts of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 were elevated in hearts of db/db diabetic mice compared to wild-type mice. The results suggest that glyLDL increased the abundance of NOX4 or p22phox via an HSF1-independent pathway, but that of PAI-1 via an HSF1-dependent manner. NOX4 plays a crucial role in glyLDL-induced expression of HSF1 and PAI-1 in mouse fibroblasts. Increased expression of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 was detected in cardiovascular tissue of diabetic mice.

  12. Influence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1) 4G/5G polymorphism on circulating SERPINE-1 antigen expression in HCC associated with viral infection.

    PubMed

    Divella, Rosa; Mazzocca, Antonio; Gadaleta, Cosimo; Simone, Giovanni; Paradiso, Angelo; Quaranta, Michele; Daniele, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is heavily influenced by chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection. Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1) have been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with viral infection. The gene encoding SERPINE1 is highly polymorphic and the frequently associated 4/5 guanosine (4G/5G) polymorphism in the gene promoter may influence its expression. Here, we investigated the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism in patients with HCC, the influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma SERPINE1 levels and its association with viral infection. A total of 75 patients with HCC were enrolled: 32 (42.6%) were HBV(+)/HCV(+), 11 (14.6%) were only HCV(+), and 32 (42.6%) were negative for both viruses. A control group of healthy donors was also enrolled (n=50). SERPINE1 plasma concentrations were determined by ELISA and the detection of the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was performed by an allele-specific PCR analysis. We found that the frequency of both the 4G/4G genotype (p=0.02) and the 4G allele (p=0.006) were significantly higher in patients with HCC compared to the control group, and particularly higher in patients with HCC co-infected with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than in those with no viral infection. We also found that patients with the 4G/4G genotype had significantly higher plasma SERPINE1 protein levels when compared with patients with the 4G/5G or 5G/5G genotype (p<0.001). Differences in frequency of 4G allele and genetic variability of 4G/5G SERPINE1 polymorphism with a higher level of SERPINE1 protein in patients with HCC with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than those without infection, suggest the presence of two distinct pathogenic mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis, depending on the etiology.

  13. The solution structure of the MANEC-type domain from hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 reveals an unexpected PAN/apple domain-type fold.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zebin; Nowakowski, Michal; Spronk, Chris; Petersen, Steen V; Andreasen, Peter A; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Mulder, Frans A A; Jensen, Jan K

    2015-03-01

    A decade ago, motif at N-terminus with eight-cysteines (MANEC) was defined as a new protein domain family. This domain is found exclusively at the N-terminus of >400 multi-domain type-1 transmembrane proteins from animals. Despite the large number of MANEC-containing proteins, only one has been characterized at the protein level: hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1). HAI-1 is an essential protein, as knockout mice die in utero due to placental defects. HAI-1 is an inhibitor of matriptase, hepsin and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator, all serine proteases with important roles in epithelial development, cell growth and homoeostasis. Dysregulation of these proteases has been causatively implicated in pathological conditions such as skin diseases and cancer. Detailed functional understanding of HAI-1 and other MANEC-containing proteins is hampered by the lack of structural information on MANEC. Although many MANEC sequences exist, sequence-based database searches fail to predict structural homology. In the present paper, we present the NMR solution structure of the MANEC domain from HAI-1, the first three-dimensional (3D) structure from the MANEC domain family. Unexpectedly, MANEC is a new subclass of the PAN/apple domain family, with its own unifying features, such as two additional disulfide bonds, two extended loop regions and additional α-helical elements. As shown for other PAN/apple domain-containing proteins, we propose a similar active role of the MANEC domain in intramolecular and intermolecular interactions. The structure provides a tool for the further elucidation of HAI-1 function as well as a reference for the study of other MANEC-containing proteins.

  14. Reduced carriership of 4G allele of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism in very young survivors of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rallidis, Loukianos S; Gialeraki, Argyri; Merkouri, Efrosyni; Liakos, George; Dagres, Nikolaos; Sionis, Dimitrios; Travlou, Anthi; Lekakis, John; Kremastinos, Dimitrios T

    2010-05-01

    There are limited and controversial data regarding the impact of 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene in the pathogenesis of premature myocardial infarction (MI). We explored whether 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene is associated with the development of MI levels (32.2 +/- 25 vs. 22.2 +/- 11.3 ng/ml, P = 0.006) but lower lipoprotein(a) levels (10.1 [2.1-29.9] vs. 15.3 [8.2-57.1] mg/dl, P = 0.03) compared to 5G/5G homozygotes. Our data indicate that the 4G allele of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is less frequent among survivors of MI at very young age compared with matched controls.

  15. The association between the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and extension of postsurgical calf vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Filippo; Meli, Francesco; Raimondi, Francesco; Montalto, Salvatore; Cospite, Valentina; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of a plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promoter polymorphism 4G/5G could significantly influence the proximal extension of vein thrombosis in spite of anticoagulant treatment in patients with calf vein thrombosis (CVT) following orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery. We studied 168 patients with CVT, who had undergone orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery, subdivided as follows: first, 50 patients with thrombosis progression; second, 118 patients without thrombosis progression. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was evaluated in all patients and in 70 healthy matched controls. We also studied PAI-1 activity in plasma. The presence of 4G/5G genotype was significantly increased in the group of patients with the extension of thrombotic lesions and was associated with an increase in CVT extension risk (odds ratio adjusted for sex 2.692; 95% confidence interval 1.302-4.702). Moreover, we observed a significant increase of PAI-1 plasma activity in patients with extension of thrombotic lesion vs. patients without extension (P=0.0001). Patients with 4G/5G genotype in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor - 1 gene present a higher risk of extension of thrombotic lesions.

  16. Remodeling of the Vessel Wall after Copper-Induced Injury Is Highly Attenuated in Mice with a Total Deficiency of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    Ploplis, Victoria A.; Cornelissen, Ivo; Sandoval-Cooper, Mayra J.; Weeks, Lisa; Noria, Francisco A.; Castellino, Francis J.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical studies have indicated that high plasma levels of fibrinogen, or decreased fibrinolytic potential, are conducive to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Other investigations have shown that insoluble fibrin promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation by affecting smooth muscle cell proliferation, collagen deposition, and cholesterol accumulation. To directly assess the physiological impact of an imbalanced fibrinolytic system on both early and late stages of this disease, mice deficient for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1−/−) were used in a model of vascular injury/repair, and the resulting phenotype compared to that of wild-type (WT) mice. A copper-induced arterial injury was found to generate a lesion with characteristics similar to many of the clinical features of atherosclerosis. Fibrin deposition in the injured arterial wall at early (7 days) and late (21 days) times after copper cuff placement was prevalent in WT mice, but was greatly diminished in PAI-1−/− mice. A multilayered neointima with enhanced collagen deposition was evident at day 21 in WT mice. In contrast, only diffuse fibrin was identified in the adventitial compartments of arteries from PAI-1−/− mice, with no evidence of a neointima. Neovascularization was observed in the adventitia and was more extensive in WT arteries, relative to PAI-1−/− arteries. Additionally, enhanced PAI-1 expression and fat deposition were seen only in the arterial walls of WT mice. The results of this study emphasize the involvement of the fibrinolytic system in vascular repair processes after injury and indicate that alterations in the fibrinolytic balance in the vessel wall have a profound effect on the development and progression of vascular lesion formation. PMID:11141484

  17. Conformational Lability in Serine Protease Active Sites: Structures of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator (HGFA) Alone and with the Inhibitory Domain from HGFA Inhibitor-1B

    SciTech Connect

    Shia, Steven; Stamos, Jennifer; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Fan, Bin; Wu, Judy; Corpuz, Raquel T.; Santell, Lydia; Lazarus, Robert A.; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2010-07-20

    Hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) is a serine protease that converts hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) into its active form. When activated HGF binds its cognate receptor Met, cellular signals lead to cell growth, differentiation, and migration, activities which promote tissue regeneration in liver, kidney and skin. Intervention in the conversion of HGF to its active form has the potential to provide therapeutic benefit where HGF/Met activity is associated with tumorigenesis. To help identify ways to moderate HGF/Met effects, we have determined the molecular structure of the protease domain of HGFA. The structure we determined, at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution, with no pseudo-substrate or inhibitor bound is characterized by an unconventional conformation of key residues in the enzyme active site. In order to find whether this apparently non-enzymatically competent arrangement would persist in the presence of a strongly-interacting inhibitor, we also have determined, at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution, the X-ray structure of HGFA complexed with the first Kunitz domain (KD1) from the physiological inhibitor hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 1B (HAI-1B). In this complex we observe a rearranged substrate binding cleft that closely mirrors the cleft of other serine proteases, suggesting an extreme conformational dynamism. We also characterize the inhibition of 16 serine proteases by KD1, finding that the previously reported enzyme specificity of the intact extracellular region of HAI-1B resides in KD1 alone. We find that HGFA, matriptase, hepsin, plasma kallikrein and trypsin are potently inhibited, and use the complex structure to rationalize the structural basis of these results.

  18. Hypoxia dysregulates the production of adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 independent of reactive oxygen species in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Baoying; Lam, Karen S.L.; Wang Yu; Wu Donghai; Lam, Michael C.; Shen Jiangang; Wong Laiching; Hoo, Ruby L.C.; Zhang Jialiang; Xu Aimin . E-mail: amxu@hkucc.hku.hk

    2006-03-10

    Low plasma levels of adiponectin (hypoadiponectinemia) and elevated circulating concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 are causally associated with obesity-related insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism that mediates the aberrant production of these two adipokines in obesity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on production of adiponectin and PAI-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative PCR and immunoassays showed that ambient hypoxia markedly suppressed adiponectin mRNA expression and its protein secretion, and increased PAI-1 production in mature adipocytes. Dimethyloxallyl glycine, a stabilizer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), mimicked the hypoxia-mediated modulations of these two adipokines. Hypoxia caused a modest elevation of ROS in adipocytes. However, ablation of intracellular ROS by antioxidants failed to alleviate hypoxia-induced aberrant production of adiponectin and PAI-1. On the other hand, the antioxidants could reverse hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced dysregulation of adiponectin and PAI-1 production. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP{alpha}), but had no effect on HIF-1{alpha}, whereas hypoxia stabilized HIF-1{alpha} and decreased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, but not PPAR{gamma}. Taken together, these data suggest that hypoxia and ROS decrease adiponectin production and augment PAI-1 expression in adipocytes via distinct signaling pathways. These effects may contribute to hypoadiponectinemia and elevated PAI-1 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism at the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene modulates plasma Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 concentrations in response to dietary fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, P; Adarraga-Cansino, M D; Fernández de la Puebla, R A; Blanco-Molina, A; Delgado-Lista, J; Marín, C; Ordovás, J M; López-Miranda, J; Pérez-Jiménez, F

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) -675 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with the response of functional plasma PAI-1 concentrations to changes in the amount and quality of dietary fat in healthy subjects. PAI-1 is the major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, and a lower level of fibrinolytic activity could be implicated in an increased risk of IHD. Fifty-nine healthy Spanish volunteers (ten 4G/4G homozygotes, twenty-eight heterozygotes 4G/5G and twenty-one 5G/5G homozygotes) consumed three diets for periods of 4 weeks each: a SFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 20 % SFA), followed by a carbohydrate-rich diet (30 % fat, 55 % carbohydrate) and a MUFA-rich diet (38 % fat, 22 % MUFA) according to a randomized crossover design. At the end of each dietary period plasma lipid and functional plasma PAI-1 concentrations were determined. Subjects carrying the 4G allele (4G/4G and 4G/5G) showed a significant decrease in PAI-1 concentrations after the MUFA diet, compared with the SFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets (genotype x diet interaction: P = 0.028). 5G/5G homozygotes had the lowest plasma PAI-1 concentrations compared with 4G/4G and 4G/5G subjects (genotype: P = 0.002), without any changes as a result of the amount and the quality of the dietary fat. In summary, no differences in plasma PAI-1 concentration response were found after changes in dietary fat intake in 5G/5G homozygotes, although these subjects displayed the lowest concentrations of PAI-1. On the other hand, carriers of the 4G allele are more likely to hyper-respond to the presence of MUFA in the diet because of a greater decrease in PAI-1 concentrations.

  20. Distortion of the catalytic domain of tissue-type plasminogen activator by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 coincides with the formation of stable serpin-proteinase complexes.

    PubMed

    Perron, Michel J; Blouse, Grant E; Shore, Joseph D

    2003-11-28

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a typical member of the serpin family that kinetically traps its target proteinase as a covalent complex by distortion of the proteinase domain. Incorporation of the fluorescently silent 4-fluorotryptophan analog into PAI-1 permitted us to observe changes in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of two-chain tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and the proteinase domain of tPA during the inhibition reaction. We demonstrated three distinct conformational changes of the proteinase that occur during complex formation and distortion. A conformational change occurred during the initial formation of the non-covalent Michaelis complex followed by a large conformational change associated with the distortion of the proteinase catalytic domain that occurs concurrently with the formation of stable proteinase-inhibitor complexes. Following distortion, a very slow structural change occurs that may be involved in the stabilization or regulation of the trapped complex. Furthermore, by comparing the inhibition rates of two-chain tPA and the proteinase domain of tPA by PAI-1, we demonstrate that the accessory domains of tPA play a prominent role in the initial formation of the non-covalent Michaelis complex.

  1. Nucleophosmin Interacts with PIN2/TERF1-interacting Telomerase Inhibitor 1 (PinX1) and Attenuates the PinX1 Inhibition on Telomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Derek Hang-Cheong; Ho, Sai-Tim; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Jin, Rui; Wang, Ya-Nan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Jun-Jian; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase activation and telomere maintenance are critical for cellular immortalization and transformation. PIN2/TERF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) is a telomerase regulator and the aberrant expression of PinX1 causes telomere shortening. Identifying PinX1-interacting proteins is important for understanding telomere maintenance. We found that PinX1 directly interacts with nucleophosmin (NPM), a protein that has been shown to positively correlate with telomerase activity. We further showed that PinX1 acts as a linker in the association between NPM and hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Additionally, the recruitment of NPM by PinX1 to the telomerase complex could partially attenuate the PinX1-mediated inhibition on telomerase activity. Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism that regulates telomerase activation through the interaction between NPM, PinX1 and the telomerase complex. PMID:28255170

  2. Pentoxifylline Regulates Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression and Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation in Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Chang-Hwan; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a serious late complication of radiotherapy. In vitro studies have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX) has suppressing effects in extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts, while the antifibrotic action of PTX alone using clinical dose is yet unexplored. Materials and Methods. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histopathological analysis to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of PTX in a rat model of RILF. Results. Micro-CT findings showed that lung density, volume loss, and mediastinal shift are significantly increased at 16 weeks after irradiation. Simultaneously, histological analysis demonstrated thickening of alveolar walls, destruction of alveolar structures, and excessive collagen deposition in the irradiated lung. PTX treatment effectively attenuated the fibrotic changes based on both micro-CT and histopathological analyses. Western analysis also revealed increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor- (PAI-) 1 and fibronectin (FN) and PTX treatment reduced expression of PAI-1 and FN by restoring protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation but not TGF-β/Smad in both irradiated lung tissues and epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of PTX on radiation-induced lung fibrosis and its effect on modulation of PKA and PAI-1 expression as possible antifibrotic mechanisms. PMID:28337441

  3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism in Turkish children with asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Ozlem Yilmaz; Ataç, F Belgin; Ogus, Ersin; Ozbek, Namik

    2009-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) has an essential role in tissue remodeling after inflammation. Recent literature revealed only one study evaluating PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism in children with asthma and none in children with allergic rhinitis. We aimed to investigate distribution of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in a group of Turkish children with asthma and allergic rhinitis and compare these findings with those obtained in normal peers. Patients with physician-diagnosed asthma (n = 106) and allergic rhinitis (n = 99) and 83 healthy peers were included in this study. We evaluated PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism genotype as well as the possible association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and pulmonary function tests, serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count, and skin-prick test positivity in our study. The prevalence of the 4G allele significantly exceeded the values found in the controls both in patients with asthma (p = 0.001) and in patients with allergic rhinitis (p = 0.002). Interestingly, comparison of asthmatic patients revealed that mean baseline percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were significantly higher in patients who bear 5G/5G genotype than in those who have 4G/4G or 4G/5G genotypes. No statistically significant relationship were found between PAI-1 polymorphism and total serum IgE levels, total eosinophil count, or selected skin test responses to aeroallergens. Our study suggests that Turkish children with asthma or allergic rhinitis have a higher prevalence of PAI-1 4G allele compared with their healthy peers.

  4. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mitigates brain injury in a rat model of infection-sensitized neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dianer; Sun, Yu-Yo; Nemkul, Niza; Baumann, Jessica M; Shereen, Ahmed; Dunn, R Scott; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Lawrence, Daniel A; Lindquist, Diana M; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2013-05-01

    Intrauterine infection exacerbates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and impairs the development of cerebral cortex. Here we used low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pre-exposure followed by unilateral cerebral HI insult in 7-day-old rats to study the pathogenic mechanisms. We found that LPS pre-exposure blocked the HI-induced proteolytic activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), but significantly enhanced NF-κB signaling, microglia activation, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in newborn brains. Remarkably, these pathogenic responses were all blocked by intracerebroventricular injection of a stable-mutant form of plasminogen activator protein-1 called CPAI. Similarly, LPS pre-exposure amplified, while CPAI therapy mitigated HI-induced blood-brain-barrier damage and the brain tissue loss with a therapeutic window at 4 h after the LPS/HI insult. The CPAI also blocks microglia activation following a brain injection of LPS, which requires the contribution by tPA, but not the urinary-type plasminogen activator (uPA), as shown by experiments in tPA-null and uPA-null mice. These results implicate the nonproteolytic tPA activity in LPS/HI-induced brain damage and microglia activation. Finally, the CPAI treatment protects near-normal motor and white matter development despite neonatal LPS/HI insult. Together, because CPAI blocks both proteolytic and nonproteolytic tPA neurotoxicity, it is a promising therapeutics of neonatal HI injury either with or without infection.

  5. Design, synthesis and biological activity of novel non-peptidyl endothelin converting enzyme inhibitors, 1-phenyl-tetrazole-formazan analogues.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuto; Hasegawa, Hirohiko; Umekawa, Kayo; Ueki, Yasuyuki; Ohashi, Naohito; Kanaoka, Masaharu

    2002-05-06

    A novel non-peptidyl endothelin converting enzyme inhibitor was obtained through a pharmacophore analysis of known inhibitors and three-dimensional structure database search. Analogues of the new inhibitor were designed using the structure-activity relationship of known inhibitors and synthesized. In anesthetized rats, intraperitoneal administration of the analogues suppressed the pressor responses induced by big endothelin-1.

  6. Inhibitory effects of C-type natriuretic peptide on the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts, and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    LI, ZHI-QIANG; LIU, YING-LONG; LI, GANG; LI, BIN; LIU, YANG; LI, XIAO-FENG; LIU, AI-JUN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on the function of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). Western blotting was used to investigate the expression of myofibroblast marker proteins: α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), extra domain-A fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III, and the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Immunofluorescence was used to examine the morphological changes; a transwell assay was used to analyze migration, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were employed to determine the mRNA expression and protein secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The results demonstrated that CNP significantly reduced the protein expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III, and suppressed the migratory ability of CFs. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression of MCP-1 and PAI-1 was inhibited under the CNP treatment; and this effect was mediated by the inhibition of the ERK1/2 activity. In conclusion, CNP inhibited cardiac fibroblast differentiation and migration, and reduced the secretion of MCP-1 and PAI-1, which demonstrates novel mechanisms to explain the antifibrotic effect of CNP. PMID:25352084

  7. Human circadian system causes a morning peak in prothrombotic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) independent of the sleep/wake cycle.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Frank A J L; Shea, Steven A

    2014-01-23

    Serious adverse cardiovascular events peak in the morning, possibly related to increased thrombosis in critical vessels. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which inhibits fibrinolysis, is a key circulating prothrombotic factor that rises in the morning in humans. We tested whether this morning peak in PAI-1 is caused by the internal circadian system or by behaviors that typically occur in the morning, such as altered posture and physical activity. Twelve healthy adults underwent a 2-week protocol that enabled the distinction of endogenous circadian effects from behavioral and environmental effects. The results demonstrated a robust circadian rhythm in circulating PAI-1 with a peak corresponding to ∼6:30 am. This rhythm in PAI-1 was 8-times larger than changes in PAI-1 induced by standardized behavioral stressors, including head-up tilt and 15-minute cycle exercise. If this large endogenous morning peak in PAI-1 persists in vulnerable individuals, it could help explain the morning peak in adverse cardiovascular events.

  8. Phospholemman-dependent regulation of the cardiac Na/K-ATPase activity is modulated by inhibitor-1 sensitive type-1 phosphatase.

    PubMed

    El-Armouche, Ali; Wittköpper, Katrin; Fuller, William; Howie, Jacqueline; Shattock, Michael J; Pavlovic, Davor

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac Na/K-ATPase (NKA) is regulated by its accessory protein phospholemman (PLM). Whereas kinase-induced PLM phosphorylation has been shown to mediate NKA stimulation, the role of endogenous phosphatases is presently unknown. We investigated the role of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) on PLM phosphorylation and NKA activity in rat cardiomyocytes and failing human hearts. Incubation of rat cardiomyocytes with the chemical PP-1/PP-2A inhibitor okadaic acid or the specific PP-1-inhibitor peptide (I-1ct) identified PLM phosphorylation at Ser-68 as the main substrate for PP-1. Moreover, myocytes adenovirally overexpressing PP-1 inhibitor-1 protein (I-1,Ad-I-1/eGFP) showed a 70% increase in PLM Ser-68 phosphorylation and 65% increase in NKA current, compared with enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-infected controls (Ad-eGFP), using Western blotting and voltage clamping, respectively. Notably, in left ventricular myocardium from patients with heart failure, PLM Ser-68 phosphorylation was ≈ 50% lower (n=7) than in nonfailing controls (n=7). We provide the first physiological and biochemical evidence that PLM phosphorylation and cardiac Na/K-ATPase activity are negatively regulated by PP-1 and that this regulatory mechanism could be counteracted by I-1. This novel mechanism is markedly perturbed in failing hearts favoring PLM dephosphorylation and NKA deactivation and thus may contribute to maladaptive hypertrophy and arrhythmogenesis via chronically higher intracellular Na and Ca concentrations.

  9. Association Between Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1-675 4G/5G Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Essa, Enas S; El Wahsh, Rabab A

    2016-12-01

    Molecular pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still being investigated to discover relationships with disease pathogenesis. Evidence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) overexpression in the sputum and the blood of COPD patients is growing. We aimed to investigate the potential relation between PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G insertion/deletion polymorphism and COPD development. In a case-control study, we genotyped 117 COPD patients and 160 control subjects for PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. All subjects were male smokers. In the co-dominant model, there was a significant difference in the distribution of 5G/5G, 4G/5G and 4G/4G genotypes between COPD patients and controls (p = 0.002). In the recessive model, carriers of 4G/4G genotype were significantly higher in COPD patients than controls (p = 0.01). Carriers of 4G/4G genotype were at higher risk to develop COPD than those carrying 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotypes (crude odds ratio (OR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-3.73, adjusted OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.22-3.99). In conclusion, PAI-1 4G/5G genetic variations are associated with COPD development in males.

  10. Effect of ascorbate on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and release from platelets and endothelial cells in an in-vitro model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Swarbreck, Scott B; Secor, Dan; Ellis, Christopher G; Sharpe, Michael D; Wilson, John X; Tyml, Karel

    2015-06-01

    The microcirculation during sepsis fails due to capillary plugging involving microthrombosis. We demonstrated that intravenous injection of ascorbate reduces this plugging, but the mechanism of this beneficial effect remains unclear. We hypothesize that ascorbate inhibits the release of the antifibrinolytic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) from endothelial cells and platelets during sepsis. Microvascular endothelial cells and platelets were isolated from mice. Cells were cultured and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), or thrombin (agents of sepsis), with/without ascorbate for 1-24 h. PAI-1 mRNA was determined by quantitative PCR. PAI-1 protein release into the culture medium was measured by ELISA. In platelets, PAI-1 release was measured after LPS, TNFα, or thrombin stimulation, with/without ascorbate. In endothelial cells, LPS and TNFα increased PAI-1 mRNA after 6-24 h, but no increase in PAI-1 release was observed; ascorbate did not affect these responses. In platelets, thrombin, but not LPS or TNFα, increased PAI-1 release; ascorbate inhibited this increase at low extracellular pH. In unstimulated endothelial cells and platelets, PAI-1 is released into the extracellular space. Thrombin increases this release from platelets; ascorbate inhibits it pH-dependently. The data suggest that ascorbate promotes fibrinolysis in the microvasculature under acidotic conditions in sepsis.

  11. The tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 of Sciaenops ocellatus possesses antimicrobial activity and is involved in the immune response against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Sun, Li

    2011-03-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 (TFPI-1) is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor that regulates the activation of tissue factor-induced coagulation. In teleosts, TFPI-1-like sequences have been found to exist in two species (Danio rerio and Cyprinus carpio); however, the potential function of fish TFPI-1 has not been investigated. In this study, we identified and analyzed a TFPI-1 homologue, SoTFPI-1, from red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). The deduced amino acid sequence of SoTFPI-1 is 284 residues in length and contains three Kunitz domains, an acidic N-terminus, and a basic C-terminus. SoTFPI-1 shares 49.5% and 46.9% overall sequence identities with the TFPI-1 of D. rerio and C. carpio, respectively. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that constitutive SoTFPI-1 expression occurred, in increasing order, in kidney, brain, liver, gill, blood, spleen, muscle, and heart. Bacterial infection and lipopolysaccharide exposure upregulated SoTFPI-1 expression in kidney in time-dependent manners. Recombinant SoTFPI-1 (rSoTFPI-1) purified from Escherichia coli exhibits not only serine protease inhibitor activity but also bactericidal activity in a manner that is independent of any host factors. A synthetic peptide, TO17, corresponding to the C-terminal basic region of SoTFPI-1 also possesses antibacterial effect that is more potent than that of the full-length rSoTFPI-1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that (i) SoTFPI-1 is a biologically active serine protease inhibitor endowed with bactericidal property; (ii) provide the first indication that teleost TFPI-1 is likely to be involved in anti-microbial infection and thus is linked to innate immune defense.

  12. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 controls bone marrow-derived cells therapeutic effect through MMP9 signaling: role in physiological and pathological wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Teni G; Squiban, Claire; Roque, Telma; Lugo-Martinez, Haydee; Hneino, Mohamad; Buard, Valerie; Gourmelon, Patrick; Benderitter, Marc; Milliat, Fabien; Tamarat, Radia

    2012-07-01

    We assessed the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in wound healing process and in the bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC)-related effects on physiological and pathological wound healing. A full thickness excision wound was created by removal of the skin on the midback of irradiated and nonirradiated animals. Angiogenesis and re-epithelialization were markedly increased in PAI-1-/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) animals. We revealed high MMP activity in tissue of PAI-1-/- animals. Of interest, the wound healing process was reduced in PAI-1-/-:MMP9-/- animals compared to PAI-1-/- mice, suggesting a key role of MMP9 in beneficial effect of PAI-1 deficiency on wound closure. To unravel the role of PAI-1 in BMMNC relative effects, mice were treated with or without local injection of BMMNC isolated from WT, PAI-1-/-, and PAI-1-/-: MMP9-/- animals for 14 days (10(6) cells, n = 6 per group). In WT nonirradiated mice, transplantation of BMMNC isolated from PAI-1-/- animals enhanced wound formation when compared with WT BMMNC. BMMNC differentiation into cells with endothelial phenotype was enhanced by PAI-1 deficiency. These effects were abrogated in PAI-1-/-:MMP9-/- and MMP9-/- BMMNC. In addition, using chimeric mice, we demonstrated that PAI-1 deficiency environment increased the BMMNC-GFP recruitment to the wound site, whereas this effect was abrogated when using PAI-1-/-:MMP9-/- BMMNC. PAI-1 deficiency, at least through MMP9 upregulation, enhanced wound healing and BMMNC therapeutic potential in irradiated and nonirradiated animals.

  13. Transgenic Over-expression of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Results in Age-dependent and Gender-specific Increases in Bone Strength and Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, S.M.; Carleton, S.M.; Carson, W.L.; Eren, M.; Phillips, C.L.; Vaughan, D.E.

    2014-01-01

    The plasminogen activation system (PAS) and its principal inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor- 1 (PAI-1), are recognized modulators of matrix. In addition, the PAS has previously been implicated in the regulation of bone homeostasis. Our objective was to study the influence of active PAI-1 on geometric, biomechanical, and mineral characteristics of bone using transgenic mice that over-expresses a variant of human PAI-1 that exhibits enhanced functional stability. Femora were isolated from male and female, wildtype (WT) and transgenic (PAI-1.stab) mice at 16 and 32 weeks of age (n=10). Femora were imaged via DEXA for BMD and µCT for cortical mid-slice geometry. Torsional testing was employed for biomechanical properties. Mineral composition was analyzed via instrumental neutron activation analysis. Female femora were further analyzed for trabecular bone histomorphometry (n=11). Whole animal DEXA scans were performed on PAI-1.stab females and additional transgenic lines in which the functional domains of the PAI-1 protein were specifically disrupted. Thirty-two week female PAI-1.stab femora exhibited decreased mid-slice diameters and reduced polar moment of area compared to WT, while maintaining similar cortical bone width. Greater biomechanical strength and stiffness was demonstrated by 32 week PAI-1.stab female femora in addition to a 52% increase in BMD. PAI-1.stab trabecular bone architecture was comparable to WT. Osteoid area was decreased in PAI-1.stab mice while mineral apposition rate increased by 78% over WT. Transgenic mice expressing a reactive-site mutant form of PAI-1 showed an increase in BMD similar to PAI-1.stab, whereas transgenic mice expressing a PAI-1 with reduced affinity for vitronectin were comparable to WT. Over-expression of PAI-1 resulted in increased mineralization and biomechanical properties of mouse femora in an age-dependent and gender-specific manner. Changes in mineral preceded increases in strength/stiffness and deterred

  14. Transgenic over-expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 results in age-dependent and gender-specific increases in bone strength and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, S M; Carleton, S M; Carson, W L; Eren, M; Phillips, C L; Vaughan, D E

    2007-12-01

    The plasminogen activation system (PAS) and its principal inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are recognized modulators of matrix. In addition, the PAS has previously been implicated in the regulation of bone homeostasis. Our objective was to study the influence of active PAI-1 on geometric, biomechanical, and mineral characteristics of bone using transgenic mice that over-express a variant of human PAI-1 that exhibits enhanced functional stability. Femora were isolated from male and female, wildtype (WT) and transgenic (PAI-1.stab) mice at 16 and 32 weeks of age (n=10). Femora were imaged via DEXA for BMD and muCT for cortical mid-slice geometry. Torsional testing was employed for biomechanical properties. Mineral composition was analyzed via instrumental neutron activation analysis. Female femora were further analyzed for trabecular bone histomorphometry (n=11). Whole animal DEXA scans were performed on PAI-1.stab females and additional transgenic lines in which the functional domains of the PAI-1 protein were specifically disrupted. Thirty-two week female PAI-1.stab femora exhibited decreased mid-slice diameters and reduced polar moment of area compared to WT, while maintaining similar cortical bone width. Greater biomechanical strength and stiffness were demonstrated by 32 week PAI-1.stab female femora in addition to a 52% increase in BMD. PAI-1.stab trabecular bone architecture was comparable to WT. Osteoid area was decreased in PAI-1.stab mice while mineral apposition rate increased by 78% over WT. Transgenic mice expressing a reactive-site mutant form of PAI-1 showed an increase in BMD similar to PAI-1.stab, whereas transgenic mice expressing a PAI-1 with reduced affinity for vitronectin were comparable to WT. Over-expression of PAI-1 resulted in increased mineralization and biomechanical properties of mouse femora in an age-dependent and gender-specific manner. Changes in mineral preceded increases in strength/stiffness and deterred normal

  15. Impact of the -675 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene on childhood IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Han, Su-Ryun; Kim, Cheon-Jong; Lee, Byung-Cheol

    2012-04-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an important regulator of the fibrinolytic pathway and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. The -675 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter is associated with altered PAI-1 transcription, suggesting that this polymorphism may be a candidate risk factor for diseases characterized by ECM accumulation, such as immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MesPGN). We genotyped childhood patients with biopsy-confirmed IgAN (n=111) and MesPGN (n=47), and healthy control subjects (n=230) for the -675 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The distribution of the 4G/4G (27.9%), 4G/5G (45.1%) and 5G/5G (27.0%) genotypes in IgAN patients was significantly different from the healthy controls (32.2, 54.3 and 13.5%, respectively) (p=0.0092). There was no significant difference in the genotype distributions of the 4G/5G polymorphism between MesPGN patients and the healthy controls. Regarding the impact of the polymorphism on IgAN, the 4G/4G genotype was markedly increased in patients with proteinuria (≥1,000 mg/day) and/or hypertension when compared to patients without proteinuria and hypertension (OR=5.23, 95% CI 1.34-20.38, P=0.0183). These findings indicate that the PAI-1 gene polymorphism may affect the susceptibility of childhood IgAN.

  16. Expression of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1), Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 7 (PAQPR7), and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 RNA-Binding Protein (PAIRBP1) in Glioma Spheroids In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hlavaty, Juraj; Ertl, Reinhard; Miller, Ingrid; Gabriel, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Some effects of progesterone on glioma cells can be explained through the slow, genomic mediated response via nuclear receptors; the other effects suggest potential role of a fast, nongenomic action mediated by membrane-associated progesterone receptors. Methods. The effects of progesterone treatment on the expression levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (PAIRBP1), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7) on both mRNA and protein levels were investigated in spheroids derived from human glioma cell lines U-87 MG and LN-229. Results. The only significant alteration at the transcript level was the decrease in PGRMC1 mRNA observed in LN-229 spheroids treated with 30 ng/mL of progesterone. No visible alterations at the protein levels were observed using immunohistochemical analysis. Stimulation of U-87 MG spheroids resulted in an increase of PGRMC1 but a decrease of PAIRBP1 protein. Double immunofluorescent detection of PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1 identified the two proteins to be partially colocalized in the cells. Western blot analysis revealed the expected bands for PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1, whereas two bands were detected for PAQR7. Conclusion. The progesterone action is supposed to be mediated via membrane-associated progesterone receptors as the nuclear progesterone receptor was absent in tested spheroids. PMID:27340667

  17. Expression of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1), Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 7 (PAQPR7), and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 RNA-Binding Protein (PAIRBP1) in Glioma Spheroids In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hlavaty, Juraj; Ertl, Reinhard; Miller, Ingrid; Gabriel, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Some effects of progesterone on glioma cells can be explained through the slow, genomic mediated response via nuclear receptors; the other effects suggest potential role of a fast, nongenomic action mediated by membrane-associated progesterone receptors. Methods. The effects of progesterone treatment on the expression levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA-binding protein (PAIRBP1), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7) on both mRNA and protein levels were investigated in spheroids derived from human glioma cell lines U-87 MG and LN-229. Results. The only significant alteration at the transcript level was the decrease in PGRMC1 mRNA observed in LN-229 spheroids treated with 30 ng/mL of progesterone. No visible alterations at the protein levels were observed using immunohistochemical analysis. Stimulation of U-87 MG spheroids resulted in an increase of PGRMC1 but a decrease of PAIRBP1 protein. Double immunofluorescent detection of PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1 identified the two proteins to be partially colocalized in the cells. Western blot analysis revealed the expected bands for PGRMC1 and PAIRBP1, whereas two bands were detected for PAQR7. Conclusion. The progesterone action is supposed to be mediated via membrane-associated progesterone receptors as the nuclear progesterone receptor was absent in tested spheroids.

  18. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the association between the PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and PCOS using: (1) allele contrast (2) homozygote contrast, (3) recessive, and (4) dominant models. For meta-analysis, nine studies of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with 2384 subjects (PCOS, 1615; controls, 769) and eight studies of the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism with 1270 study subjects were included. Meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G allele (OR=0.949, 95% CI=0.671-1.343, p=0.767). Stratification by ethnicity, however, indicated a significant association between the PAI-1 4G allele and PCOS in Turkish and Asian populations (OR=0.776, 95% CI=0.602-0.999, p=0.049; OR=1.749, 95% CI=1.297-2.359, p=2.5×10(-5) respectively). In addition, meta-analysis indicated an association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G4G+4G5G genotype in Europeans (OR=1.406, 95% CI=1.025-1.928, p=0.035). However, meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677T allele (OR=0.998, 95% CI=0.762-1.307, p=0.989), including Europeans (OR=0.806, 95% CI=0.610-1.063, p=0.126). Meta-analysis showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism using homozygote contrast, and recessive and dominant models. In conclusion, meta-analysis suggests the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to PCOS in European, Turkish, and Asian populations, but the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to PCOS in Europeans.

  19. Role of Genetic Polymorphism of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Prognosis of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai Yuan; Ji, Xiang Wu; Zhang, Ai Juan; Guan, Li Xue; Huang, Jing; Wang, Jing Xian

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was to investigate the effects of multiple genetic polymorphisms and conventional risk factors in the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods One hundred and fifty five patients with CAD were prospectively recruited, they were subgrouped as single vessel disease (SVD) and multiple vessel disease (MVD). All patients were detected I/D polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene, and G894→T mutation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene. The patients were followed up for 10-65 months, mean 35 months. End points were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including angina, myocardial infarction, and cardiac sudden death. Results During the follow-up period, MACE developed in 81 patients, 73 patients with angina, seven with myocardial infarction, and one with cardiac sudden death. CAD patients with MVD were more probable of developing MACE during follow-up. Distribution of PAI-1 gene polymorphism was significantly different between SVD and MVD patients, p < 0.001. The frequency of DD genotype of ACE and 4G/4G genotype of PAI-1 in patients with MACE were significantly higher than those in patients without MACE, p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively. Incidence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in patients with MACE than in patients without MACE, P = 0.03. Cox regression analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (HR 2.36, 95% CI 1.33-4.46, p = 0.003), 4G/4G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene (HR 3.45, 95% CI 1.71-6.56, p = 0.009), and D/D polymorphism of ACE gene (HR 2.99, 95% CI 1.84-5.76, p = 0.005), were independent predictors of the MACE. Conclusions Our results showed that the conventional risk factors and genetic polymorphisms have significant influence on prognosis of CAD patients. CAD patients with diabetes mellitus, DD genotype of ACE, and 4G/4G genotype of PAI-1 suggested poor prognosis.

  20. Involvement of miR-30c and miR-301a in immediate induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by placenta growth factor in human pulmonary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nitin; Tahara, Stanley M.; Malik, Punam; Kalra, Vijay K.

    2010-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis. Previously, we reported placenta growth factor (PlGF) mediated transcriptional upregulation of PAI-1 mRNAexpression via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and activator protein-1 in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVEC); which resulted in elevated PAI-1 in humans with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Herein, we identified the role of post-transcriptional mechanism(s) of PlGF-mediated accumulation of PAI-1 mRNA in HPMVEC by examining the role of microRNAs in PlGF-induced PAI-1 mRNA stability. Our results show reduced expression of miR-30c and miR-301a, but not of miR-99a in response to PlGF, which have evolutionarily conserved binding sites in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of PAI-1 mRNA. Transfection of anti-miR-30c or anti-miR-301a oligonucleotides resulted in increased PAI-1 mRNA levels, which were further increased with PlGF stimulation. Conversely, overexpression of pre-miR-30c or pre-miR-301a resulted in attenuation of PlGF-induced PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels. Luciferase reporter assays using wild-type and mutant 3′UTR constructs confirmed that PAI-1-3′UTR is indeed a direct target of miR-30c and miR-301a. Finally, plasma levels of miR-30c and miR-301a were significantly downregulated in patients with SCA, compared to normal controls. These data provide a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of PlGF-inducedPAI-1elevation. PMID:21175428

  1. A Phytochemical-rich Multivitamin-multimineral Supplement Is Bioavailable and Reduces Serum Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein, Myeloperoxidase, and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in a Four-week Pilot trial of Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Anuradha; Lamb, Joseph J.; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Darland, Gary; Konda, Veera R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A multivitamin-multimineral supplement combined with a diverse blend of bioactive phytochemicals may provide additional antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory property for overall health. This convenient feature may be useful for individuals who want to increase their intake of phytochemicals. Methods: We conducted a pilot study in 15 healthy individuals (8 women and 7 men, mean age 41.7±14.9 years, mean body mass index 28.0±5.6) to investigate the effects of this novel formulation on biomarkers associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. After a 2-week diet that limited intake of fruits and vegetables to 2 servings/day, participants continued with the same restricted diet but began consuming 2 tablets of the study product for the subsequent 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples collected at Week 2 and Week 6 were analyzed and compared using paired t-tests for levels of carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), F2-isoprostane, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and myeloperoxidase. Noninvasive peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT) was also measured. Results: After 4 weeks of supplementation, plasma levels of carotenoids, folate, and vitamin B12, but not homocysteine, were significantly increased (P<.05). Serum levels of oxLDL, PAI-1 and myeloperoxidase were significantly reduced (P<.05), but F2-isoprostane, hs-CRP, and EndoPAT measures were unchanged compared with baseline. The study product was well tolerated. Conclusions: This nutritional supplement is bioavailable as indicated by the significant increase in plasma carotenoids, vitamin B12, and folate levels and may provide health benefits by significantly reducing serum levels of oxLDL, myeloperoxidase, and PAI-1 in healthy individuals. PMID:24808980

  2. In vitro evidence that KLK14 regulates the components of the HGF/Met axis, pro-HGF and HGF-activator inhibitor 1A and 1B.

    PubMed

    Reid, Janet C; Bennett, Nigel C; Stephens, Carson R; Carroll, Melanie L; Magdolen, Viktor; Clements, Judith A; Hooper, John D

    2016-12-01

    Kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) 14 is a serine protease linked to several pathologies including prostate cancer. We show that KLK14 has biphasic effects in vitro on activating and inhibiting components of the prostate cancer associated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/Met system. At 5-10 nm, KLK14 converts pro-HGF to the two-chain heterodimer required for Met activation, while higher concentrations degrade the HGF α-chain. HGF activator-inhibitor (HAI)-1A and HAI-1B, which inhibit pro-HGF activators, are degraded by KLK14 when protease:inhibitor stoichiometry is 1:1 or the protease is in excess. When inhibitors are in excess, KLK14 generates HAI-1A and HAI-1B fragments known to inhibit pro-HGF activating serine proteases. These in vitro data suggest that increased KLK14 activity could contribute at multiple levels to HGF/Met-mediated processes in prostate and other cancers.

  3. Circulating Concentrations of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, and Soluble Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1 in Overweight/Obese Men and Women Consuming Fructose- or Glucose-Sweetened Beverages for 10 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Chad L.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Schwarz, Jean Marc; Graham, James L.; Hatcher, Bonnie; Griffen, Steven C.; Bremer, Andrew A.; Berglund, Lars; McGahan, John P.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on circulating levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of 10 wk of dietary fructose or glucose consumption on plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, C-reactive protein, and IL-6. Design and Setting: This was a parallel-arm study with two inpatient phases (2 wk baseline, final 2 wk intervention), conducted in a clinical research facility, and an outpatient phase (8 wk) during which subjects resided at home. Participants: Participants were older (40–72 yr), overweight/obese (body mass index = 25–35 kg/m2) men (n = 16) and women (n = 15). Interventions: Participants consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 wk. Blood samples were collected at baseline and during the 10th week of intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Fasting concentrations of MCP-1 (P = 0.009), PAI-1 (P = 0.002), and E-selectin (P = 0.048) as well as postprandial concentrations of PAI-1 (P < 0.0001) increased in subjects consuming fructose but not in those consuming glucose. Fasting levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were not changed in either group. Conclusions: Consumption of fructose for 10 wk leads to increases of MCP-1, PAI-1, and E-selectin. These findings suggest the possibility that fructose may contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome via effects on proinflammatory and prothrombotic mediators. PMID:21956423

  4. Dosing time-dependent effect of raloxifene on plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Otoda, Toshiki; Ookami, Hitoshi; Nagai, Yukihiro; Inano, Akihiro; Takamura, Toshinari; Ushijima, Kentarou; Hosohata, Keiko; Matsushita, Eiki; Saito, Tetsuo; Kaneko, Shuichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2013-03-01

    Raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator commonly used for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis, affects the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems and consequently increases the risk of venous thromboembolism. Because both the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems exhibit circadian rhythms, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dosing time of raloxifene on markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, as well as on markers of bone metabolism. Thirty-nine post-menopausal patients with osteoporosis were randomly allocated to two groups: one received 60 mg raloxifene once daily in the morning, whereas the other received 60 mg raloxifene once daily in the evening, for 12 months. In both groups, the activity of coagulation Factors IX and XII was increased significantly after 12 months treatment compared with baseline. The activity of coagulation Factors II and V and levels of markers of bone metabolism (i.e. bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) decreased in both groups. The changes in these markers did not differ between the two groups. In contrast, the plasma concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 increased in the group receiving the morning dose (mean change 40.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.4, 72.5), but not in the groups receiving the evening dose (mean change -0.3%; 95% CI -31.5, 30.9); these percentage changes differed significantly (P < 0.05). Because an elevated concentration of PAI-1 is known to be associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism, the findings of the present study suggest that the dosing time of raloxifene influences its safety. Further larger-scale studies are needed to determine the clinical usefulness of chronotherapy with raloxifene.

  5. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Deficiency Augments Visceral Mesothelial Organization, Intrapleural Coagulation, and Lung Restriction in Mice with Carbon Black/Bleomycin–Induced Pleural Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, Ann; Alvarez, Alexia; Owens, Shuzi; Koenig, Kathleen; Quaid, Brandon; Komissarov, Andrey A.; Florova, Galina; Kothari, Hema; Pendurthi, Usha; Mohan Rao, L. Vijaya; Idell, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Local derangements of fibrin turnover and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pleural injury. However, their role in the control of pleural organization has been unclear. We found that a C57Bl/6j mouse model of carbon black/bleomycin (CBB) injury demonstrates pleural organization resulting in pleural rind formation (14 d). In transgenic mice overexpressing human PAI-1, intrapleural fibrin deposition was increased, but visceral pleural thickness, lung volumes, and compliance were comparable to wild type. CBB injury in PAI-1−/− mice significantly increased visceral pleural thickness (P < 0.001), elastance (P < 0.05), and total lung resistance (P < 0.05), while decreasing lung compliance (P < 0.01) and lung volumes (P < 0.05). Collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, and tissue factor were increased in the thickened visceral pleura of PAI-1−/− mice. Colocalization of α-smooth muscle actin and calretinin within pleural mesothelial cells was increased in CBB-injured PAI-1−/− mice. Thrombin, factor Xa, plasmin, and urokinase induced mesothelial–mesenchymal transition, tissue factor expression, and activity in primary human pleural mesothelial cells. In PAI-1−/− mice, D-dimer and thrombin–antithrombin complex concentrations were increased in pleural lavage fluids. The results demonstrate that PAI-1 regulates CBB-induced pleural injury severity via unrestricted fibrinolysis and cross-talk with coagulation proteases. Whereas overexpression of PAI-1 augments intrapleural fibrin deposition, PAI-1 deficiency promotes profibrogenic alterations of the mesothelium that exacerbate pleural organization and lung restriction. PMID:24024554

  6. Myocardial infarction occurs with a similar 24 h pattern in the 4G/5G versions of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    PubMed

    Bergheanu, Sandrin C; Pons, Douwe; Jukema, J Wouter; van der Hoeven, Bas L; Liem, Su-San; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Rosendaal, Frits R; le Cessie, Saskia; Schalij, Martin J; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2009-05-01

    PAI-1 expression is regulated by a 4G/5G promoter polymorphism. The 4G allele is associated with greater circadian variation of PAI-1 levels. We hypothesized that the 24 h variation of cardiac risk is more pronounced among persons with the 4G4G genotype than among ones with 4G5G and 5G5G genotypes. We assessed the time of onset of symptoms in 623 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) enrolled in the MISSION! Study between February 1, 2004, and October 29, 2006. All of the patients were genotyped for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. We quantified the amplitude of the 24 h variation of AMI with a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. A morning peak, between 06:00-11:59 h (n = 197; 32% of all cases), in the onset of symptoms of AMI was observed. The group composed of patients with the 4G4G genotype did not have a more pronounced morning peak than the groups composed of other genotypes; the 24 h variation was 38% (95% confidence interval 12-70%) in the group of 4G4G patients and 34% (14-58%) and 56% (20-100%) in the 4G5G and 5G5G groups of patients, respectively. Our findings show that 24 h variation of cardiac risk is not more pronounced among the 4G4G genotype of PAI-1.

  7. Exploring the Active Site of Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase with 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrobenz[h]isoquinoline Inhibitors1

    PubMed Central

    Grunewald, Gary L.; Seim, Mitchell R.; Regier, Rachel C.; Criscione, Kevin R.

    2007-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrobenz[h]isoquinoline (THBQ, 11) is a potent, inhibitor of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). Docking studies indicated that the enhanced PNMT inhibitory potency of 11 (hPNMT Ki = 0.49 μM) versus 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (5, hPNMT Ki = 5.8 μM) was likely due to hydrophobic interactions with Val53, Met258, Val272, and Val269 in the PNMT active site. These studies also suggested that the addition of substituents to the 7-position of 11 that are capable of forming hydrogen bonds to the enzyme could lead to compounds (14–18) having enhanced PNMT inhibitory potency. However, these compounds are in fact less potent at PNMT than 11. Furthermore, 7-bromo-THBQ (19, hPNMT Ki = 0.22 μM), which has a lipophilic 7-substituent that cannot hydrogen bond to the enzyme, is twice as potent at PNMT than 11. This once again illustrates the limitations of docking studies for lead optimization. PMID:17126018

  8. Specificity of binding of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein to different conformational states of the clade E serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and proteinase nexin-1.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jan K; Dolmer, Klavs; Gettins, Peter G W

    2009-07-03

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is the principal clearance receptor for serpins and serpin-proteinase complexes. The ligand binding regions of LRP consist of clusters of cysteine-rich approximately 40-residue complement-like repeats (CR), with cluster II being the principal ligand-binding region. To better understand the specificity of binding at different sites within the cluster and the ability of LRP to discriminate in vivo between uncomplexed and proteinase-complexed serpins, we have systematically examined the affinities of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and proteinase nexin-1 (PN-1) in their native, cleaved, and proteinase-complexed states to (CR)(2) and (CR)(3) fragments of LRP cluster II. A consistent blue shift of the CR domain tryptophan fluorescence suggested a common mode of serpin binding, involving lysines on the serpin engaging the acidic region around the calcium binding site of the CR domain. High affinity binding of non-proteinase-complexed PAI-1 and PN-1 occurred to all fragments containing three CR domains (3-59 nm) and most that contain only two CR domains, although binding energies to different (CR)(3) fragments differed by up to 18% for PAI-1 and 9% for PN-1. No detectable difference in affinity was seen between native and cleaved serpin. However, the presence of proteinase in complex with the serpin enhanced affinity modestly and presumably nonspecifically. This may be sufficient to give preferential binding of such complexes in vivo at the relevant physiological concentrations.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is an independent diagnostic marker as well as severity predictor of hepatic veno-occlusive disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in adults conditioned with busulphan and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Shin; Seol, Miee; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Weechang; Kim, Seung Taik; Kim, Woo-Kun; Lee, Jung-Shin

    2002-09-01

    We attempted to identify the diagnostic markers and severity predictors of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) in 115 adult patients who were uniformly conditioned with busulphan and cyclophosphamide and who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A diagnosis of VOD was made according to clinical criteria. Severity of VOD was classified as mild, moderate or severe. Various haemostatic parameters were determined at five time points (d -7, 0, 7, 14 and 21). Using clinical and haemostatic parameters, we developed multivariate models to identify diagnostic markers as well as severity predictors of VOD. Of the 115 patients included in the study, 50 (43.5%) developed VOD. Twenty-nine had mild VOD, 13 moderate and 8 severe. Multiple logistic regression models showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen (P = 0.029), percentage change of body weight (P = 0.001) and bilirubin (P < 0.001) were independent marker variables for the occurrence of VOD, and PAI-1 antigen (P = 0.030) and bilirubin (P = 0.049) were independent marker variables for the occurrence of severe VOD. Our study suggests that PAI-1 antigen can be used as a diagnostic marker as well as a severity predictor of VOD after allogeneic BMT.

  10. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and P-selectin levels in urgent hypertension: effect of single dose captopril and nifedipine on fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Tiryaki, Ozlem; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Usalan, Celalettin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we primarily aimed to identify the acute effects of hypertension on fibrinolytic function in previously untreated urgent hypertensive patients and to evaluate the influence of two commonly used, short-acting, anti-hypertensive agents, captopril and nifedipine, in these patients. Patient groups were selected homogeneously, i.e., only previously untreated patients amidst an urgent hypertensive episode and having no co-morbid disease were included-and randomly assigned to receive either captopril or nifedipine for immediate management. These two treatment groups were matched for age, gender, and mean arterial blood pressure. Study results demonstrated that lowering blood pressure with either agent improved fibrinolytic function; however, in those patients given captopril, this beneficial effect was more prominent, providing evidence supporting the preferential use of short-acting, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in this setting.

  11. Combination of thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and protein C activity for early identification of severe coagulopathy in initial phase of sepsis: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Current criteria for early diagnosis of coagulopathy in sepsis are limited. We postulated that coagulopathy is already complicated with sepsis in the initial phase, and severe coagulopathy or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) becomes overt after progressive consumption of platelet and coagulation factors. To determine early diagnostic markers for severe coagulopathy, we evaluated plasma biomarkers for association with subsequent development of overt DIC in patients with sepsis. Methods A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted in an adult ICU at a university hospital. Plasma samples were obtained from patients with sepsis at ICU admission. Fourteen biomarkers including global markers (platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and fibrin degradation product (FDP)); markers of thrombin generation (thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and soluble fibrin); markers of anticoagulants (protein C (PC) and antithrombin); markers of fibrinolysis (plasminogen, α2-plasmin inhibitor (PI), plasmin-α2-PI complex, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1); and a marker of endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin) were assayed. Patients who had overt DIC at baseline were excluded, and the remaining patients were followed for development of overt DIC in 5 days, and for mortality in 28 days. Results A total of 77 patients were enrolled, and 37 developed overt DIC within the following 5 days. Most patients demonstrated hemostatic abnormalities at baseline with 98.7% TAT, 97.4% FDP and 88.3% PC. Most hemostatic biomarkers at baseline were significantly associated with subsequent development of overt DIC. Notably, TAT, PAI-1 and PC discriminated well between patients with and without developing overt DIC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.86); 0.87 (0.78 to 0.92); 0.85 (0.76 to 0.91), respectively), and using the three

  12. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  13. Circulating concentrations of monocyte chemoattranctant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, & soluble leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 in overweight/obese men/women consuming fructose-or glucose-sweetened beverages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from animal studies suggest that consumption of large amounts of fructose can promote inflammation and impair fibrinolysis. Data describing the effects of fructose consumption on levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic markers in humans are unavailable. The objective of this study was ...

  14. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  15. 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and -308 A/G tumor necrosis factor-α promoter gene polymorphisms in Argentinean lupus patients: focus on lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Sebastián Andrés; Aranda, Federico; Allievi, Alberto; Orden, Alberto Omar; Perés Wingeyer, Silvia; Trobo, Rosana; Alvarez, Analía; Eimon, Alicia; Barreira, Juan Carlos; Schneeberger, Emilce; Dal Pra, Fernando; Sarano, Judith; Hofman, Julio; Chamorro, Julián; de Larrañaga, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between the 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and -308 A/G tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) polymorphisms and the clinical and biochemical features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in an Argentinean patient cohort. A total of 402 patients were studied, including 179 SLE patients and 223 healthy individuals. PCR-RLFP was used to determine the genotypes of the 4G/5G PAI-1 and -308 A/G TNF-α polymorphisms. SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) (n = 86) were compared with patients without LN (n = 93). Additionally, LN patients were divided into proliferative LN and non-proliferative LN groups according to the results of the renal biopsies. No significant differences were noted in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies of these TNF-α and PAI-1 polymorphisms between SLE patients and controls. There were higher numbers of criteria for SLE, more lupus flares and higher damage scores in LN patients, but there were similar frequencies of anti-phospholipid antibody (APA) positivity and anti-phospholipid syndrome. No significant difference was noted for any studied variable between the proliferative LN and non-proliferative LN groups except for the presence of APA. We found no significant differences in the TNF-α and PAI-1 genotype distributions or allele frequencies between groups. We found that the -308 A/G TNF-α and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to SLE in an Argentinean population. We also did not find any association between the presence of any specific allele or genotype and the development of LN in SLE patients. Finally, no association was noted between either of the two polymorphisms and the severity of renal disease.

  16. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  17. [Subliminal perception and the levels of activation].

    PubMed

    Borgeat, F; Chabot, R; Chaloult, L

    1981-06-01

    The influence of the auditory subliminal messages on the level of activation has been evaluated through a double-blind study. Twenty consenting subjects were alternately submitted to activating and deactivating subliminal messages. Activation changes were estimated through the variations in the scores at the Mood Adjective Check List. Five out of this test's six factors concerned by the content of the subliminal messages responded differently according to the nature of these messages; four factors did so to a statistically significant degree. These results tend to indicate that auditory subliminal perceptions can influence the level of activation. The authors raise several questions, especially stressing that the parameters regulating subliminal response and susceptibility remain largely undefined and in need of systematic investigation.

  18. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5 h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29 mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65 mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administ

  19. Neck Muscle Activation Levels During Frontal Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    right and left upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid . Amplitude and frequency components of the signals were evaluated to determine the amount of...Gx acceleration levels. The trapezius produced more force than the sternocleidomastoid . Activity of both muscle groups was synchronized, by their...dynamic environment. The role of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) during long-duration head and neck loading situations has been

  20. Auxin influx inhibitors 1-NOA, 2-NOA, and CHPAA interfere with membrane dynamics in tobacco cells

    PubMed Central

    Laňková, Martina; Smith, Richard S.; Pešek, Bedřich; Kubeš, Martin; Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára

    2010-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is transported through the plant body either via vascular pathways or from cell to cell by specialized polar transport machinery. This machinery consists of a balanced system of passive diffusion combined with the activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers. Synthetic auxins that differ in the mechanisms of their transport across the plasma membrane together with polar auxin transport inhibitors have been used in many studies on particular auxin carriers and their role in plant development. However, the exact mechanism of action of auxin efflux and influx inhibitors has not been fully elucidated. In this report, the mechanism of action of the auxin influx inhibitors (1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA), and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA)) is examined by direct measurements of auxin accumulation, cellular phenotypic analysis, as well as by localization studies of Arabidopsis thaliana L. auxin carriers heterologously expressed in Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Bright Yellow cell suspensions. The mode of action of 1-NOA, 2-NOA, and CHPAA has been shown to be linked with the dynamics of the plasma membrane. The most potent inhibitor, 1-NOA, blocked the activities of both auxin influx and efflux carriers, whereas 2-NOA and CHPAA at the same concentration preferentially inhibited auxin influx. The results suggest that these, previously unknown, activities of putative auxin influx inhibitors regulate overall auxin transport across the plasma membrane depending on the dynamics of particular membrane vesicles. PMID:20595238

  1. Auxin influx inhibitors 1-NOA, 2-NOA, and CHPAA interfere with membrane dynamics in tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Lanková, Martina; Smith, Richard S; Pesek, Bedrich; Kubes, Martin; Zazímalová, Eva; Petrásek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára

    2010-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin is transported through the plant body either via vascular pathways or from cell to cell by specialized polar transport machinery. This machinery consists of a balanced system of passive diffusion combined with the activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers. Synthetic auxins that differ in the mechanisms of their transport across the plasma membrane together with polar auxin transport inhibitors have been used in many studies on particular auxin carriers and their role in plant development. However, the exact mechanism of action of auxin efflux and influx inhibitors has not been fully elucidated. In this report, the mechanism of action of the auxin influx inhibitors (1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA), and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA)) is examined by direct measurements of auxin accumulation, cellular phenotypic analysis, as well as by localization studies of Arabidopsis thaliana L. auxin carriers heterologously expressed in Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Bright Yellow cell suspensions. The mode of action of 1-NOA, 2-NOA, and CHPAA has been shown to be linked with the dynamics of the plasma membrane. The most potent inhibitor, 1-NOA, blocked the activities of both auxin influx and efflux carriers, whereas 2-NOA and CHPAA at the same concentration preferentially inhibited auxin influx. The results suggest that these, previously unknown, activities of putative auxin influx inhibitors regulate overall auxin transport across the plasma membrane depending on the dynamics of particular membrane vesicles.

  2. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  3. Human Development Program: Level V Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 5. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential Human…

  4. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  5. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  6. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  7. Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 protects against mutant huntingtin-induced abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2015-12-20

    The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of the mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in striatal neurons that stably express mutant Htt (STHDhQ111/Q111) and wild-type (WT) Htt (STHDhQ7/Q7). Using gene expression analysis, biochemical methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy methods, we studied (i) mitochondrial and synaptic activities by measuring mRNA and the protein levels of mitochondrial and synaptic genes, (ii) mitochondrial function and (iii) ultra-structural changes in mutant Htt neurons relative to WT Htt neurons. We also studied these parameters in Mdivil-treated and untreated WT and mutant Htt neurons. Increased expressions of mitochondrial fission genes, decreased expression of fusion genes and synaptic genes were found in the mutant Htt neurons relative to the WT Htt neurons. Electron microscopy of the mutant Htt neurons revealed a significantly increased number of mitochondria, indicating that mutant Htt fragments mitochondria. Biochemical analysis revealed defective mitochondrial functioning. In the Mdivil-treated mutant Htt neurons, fission genes were down-regulated, and fusion genes were up-regulated, suggesting that Mdivil decreases fission activity. Synaptic genes were up-regulated, and mitochondrial function was normal in the Mdivi1-treated mutant Htt neurons. Immunoblotting findings of mitochondrial and synaptic proteins agreed with mRNA findings. The TEM studies revealed that increased numbers of structurally intact mitochondria were present in Mdivi1-treated mutant Htt neurons. Increased synaptic and mitochondrial fusion genes and decreased fission genes were found in the Mdivi1-treated WT Htt neurons, indicating that Mdivi1 beneficially affects healthy neurons. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mdivi1 is protective against mutant Htt-induced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in HD neurons and that Mdivi1 may be a promising molecule for the treatment of HD patients.

  8. The IRE1/bZIP60 pathway and Bax inhibitor 1 suppress systemic accumulation of potyviruses and potexviruses in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inositol requiring enzyme (IRE1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor and when activated it splices the bZIP60 mRNA producing a truncated transcription factor that upregulates expression of genes involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR). Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1) is another ER stre...

  9. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  10. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1a (p21) Modulates Response to Cocaine and Motivated Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scholpa, Natalie E; Briggs, Sherri B; Wagner, John J; Cummings, Brian S

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the functional role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1a (Cdkn1a or p21) in cocaine-induced responses using a knockout mouse model. Acute locomotor activity after cocaine administration (15 mg/kg, i.p.) was decreased in p21(-/-) mice, whereas cocaine-induced place preference was enhanced. Interestingly, κ-opioid-induced place aversion was also significantly enhanced. Concentration-dependent analysis of locomotor activity in response to cocaine demonstrated a rightward shift in the p21(-/-) mice. Pretreatment with a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist did not alter the enhancement of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in p21(-/-) mice, indicating a lack of involvement of serotonergic signaling in this response. Cocaine exposure increased p21 expression exclusively in the ventral sector of the hippocampus of rodents after either contingent or noncontingent drug administration. Increased p21 expression was accompanied by increased histone acetylation of the p21 promoter region in rats. Finally, increased neurogenesis in the dorsal hippocampus of p21(-/-) mice was also observed. These results show that functional loss of p21 altered the acute locomotor response to cocaine and the conditioned responses to either rewarding or aversive stimuli. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a previously unreported involvement of p21 in modulating responses to cocaine and in motivated behaviors.

  11. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1a (p21) Modulates Response to Cocaine and Motivated Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Scholpa, Natalie E.; Briggs, Sherri B.; Wagner, John J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the functional role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1a (Cdkn1a or p21) in cocaine-induced responses using a knockout mouse model. Acute locomotor activity after cocaine administration (15 mg/kg, i.p.) was decreased in p21−/− mice, whereas cocaine-induced place preference was enhanced. Interestingly, κ-opioid–induced place aversion was also significantly enhanced. Concentration-dependent analysis of locomotor activity in response to cocaine demonstrated a rightward shift in the p21−/− mice. Pretreatment with a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist did not alter the enhancement of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in p21−/− mice, indicating a lack of involvement of serotonergic signaling in this response. Cocaine exposure increased p21 expression exclusively in the ventral sector of the hippocampus of rodents after either contingent or noncontingent drug administration. Increased p21 expression was accompanied by increased histone acetylation of the p21 promoter region in rats. Finally, increased neurogenesis in the dorsal hippocampus of p21−/− mice was also observed. These results show that functional loss of p21 altered the acute locomotor response to cocaine and the conditioned responses to either rewarding or aversive stimuli. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a previously unreported involvement of p21 in modulating responses to cocaine and in motivated behaviors. PMID:26791604

  12. Arabidopsis Bax Inhibitor-1 inhibits cell death induced by pokeweed antiviral protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Tumer, Nilgun E.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an active form of programmed cell death (PCD) that plays critical roles in the development, differentiation and resistance to pathogens in multicellular organisms. Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are able to induce apoptotic cell death in mammalian cells. In this study, using yeast as a model system, we showed that yeast cells expressing pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a single-chain ribosome-inactivating protein, exhibit apoptotic-like features, such as nuclear fragmentation and ROS production. We studied the interaction between PAP and AtBI-1 (Arabidopsis thaliana Bax Inhibitor-1), a plant anti-apoptotic protein, which inhibits Bax induced cell death. Cells expressing PAP and AtBI-1 were able to survive on galactose media compared to PAP alone, indicating a reduction in the cytotoxicity of PAP in yeast. However, PAP was able to depurinate the ribosomes and to inhibit total translation in the presence of AtBI-1. A C-terminally deleted AtBI-1 was able to reduce the cytotoxicity of PAP. Since anti-apoptotic proteins form heterodimers to inhibit the biological activity of their partners, we used a co-immunoprecipitation assay to examine the binding of AtBI-1 to PAP. Both full length and C-terminal deleted AtBI-1 were capable of binding to PAP. These findings indicate that PAP induces cell death in yeast and AtBI-1 inhibits cell death induced by PAP without affecting ribosome depurination and translation inhibition. PMID:28357275

  13. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  14. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  15. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  16. Bax inhibitor 1, a modulator of calcium homeostasis, confers affective resilience.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Joshua G; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Austin, Daniel R; Zarate, Carlos; Chuang, De-Maw; Chen, Guang; Reed, John C; Manji, Husseini K

    2011-07-27

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical site for intracellular calcium storage as well as protein synthesis, folding, and trafficking. Disruption of these processes is gaining support for contributing to heritable vulnerability of certain diseases. Here, we investigated Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that primarily resides in the ER and associates with B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-XL, as an affective resiliency factor through its modulation of calcium homeostasis. We found that transgenic (TG) mice with BI-1 reinforced expression, via the neuronal specific enolase promoter, showed protection against the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm, an animal model to test stress coping. TG mice were also protected against anhedonia following both serotonin and catecholamine depletion as measured in two different models, the female urine sniffing test and the saccharine preference test. In addition, we used primary mouse cortical cultures to explore the ability of BI-1 to influence calcium homeostasis under basal conditions and also following challenge with thapsigargin (THPS), an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) that disrupts calcium homeostasis. TG neurons showed decreased basal cytosolic calcium levels and decreased Ca(2+) cytosolic accumulation following challenge with THPS as compared to WT neuronal cultures. Together, these data suggest that BI-1, through its actions on calcium homeostasis, may confer affective resiliency in multiple animal models of depression and anhedonia.

  17. Bax Inhibitor-1 regulates hepatic lipid accumulation via ApoB secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa Young; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Park, Byung-Hyun; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han Jung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1) on ApoB aggregation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. After 1 week on a HFD, triglycerides and cholesterol accumulated more in the liver and were not effectively secreted into the plasma, whereas after 8 weeks, lipids were highly accumulated in both the liver and plasma, with a greater effect in BI-1 KO mice compared with BI-1 WT mice. ApoB, a lipid transfer protein, was accumulated to a greater extent in the livers of HFD-BI-1 KO mice compared with HFD-BI-1 WT mice. Excessive post-translational oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), intra-ER ROS accumulation and folding capacitance alteration were also observed in HFD-BI-1 KO mice. Higher levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were consistently observed in KO mice compared with the WT mice. Adenovirus-mediated hepatic expression of BI-1 in the BI-1 KO mice rescued the above phenotypes. Our results suggest that BI-1-mediated enhancement of ApoB secretion regulates hepatic lipid accumulation, likely through regulation of ER stress and ROS accumulation. PMID:27297735

  18. Bax inhibitor 1, a modulator of calcium homeostasis, confers affective resilience

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Joshua G.; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Austin, Daniel R.; Zarate, Carlos; Chuang, De-Maw; Chen, Guang; Reed, John C.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2011-01-01

    The endoplamic reticulum (ER) is a critical site for intracellular calcium storage as well as protein synthesis, folding, and trafficking. Disruption of these processes is gaining support for contributing to heritable vulnerability of certain diseases. Here, we investigated Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that primarily resides in the ER and associates with B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-XL, as an affective resiliency factor through its modulation of calcium homeostasis. We found that transgenic (TG) mice with BI-1 reinforced expression, via the neuronal specific enolase promoter, showed protection against the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm, an animal model to test stress coping. TG mice were also protected against anhedonia following both serotonin and catecholamine depletion as measured in two different models, the female urine sniffing test and the saccharine preference test. In addition, we used primary mouse cortical cultures to explore the ability of BI-1 to influence calcium homeostasis under basal conditions and also following challenge with thapsigargin (THPS), an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) that disrupts calcium homeostasis. TG neurons showed decreased basal cytosolic calcium levels and decreased Ca2+ cytosolic accumulation following challenge with THPS as compared to WT neuronal cultures. Together, these data suggest that BI-1, through its actions on calcium homeostasis, may confer affective resiliency in multiple animal models of depression and anhedonia. PMID:21718971

  19. Erythrocyte aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, A.; Balakrishna, N.; Ayyagari, Radha; Padma, M.; Viswanath, K.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness. However, the relationship between hyperglycemia-induced activation of polyol pathway in retina and DR is still uncertain. We investigated the relationship between ALR2 levels and human DR by measuring ALR2 activity and its product, sorbitol, in erythrocytes. Methods We enrolled 362 type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D) with and without DR and 66 normal subjects in this clinical case-control study. Clinical evaluation of DR in T2D patients was done by fundus examination. ALR2 activity and sorbitol levels along with glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in erythrocytes were determined. Results T2D patients with DR showed significantly higher specific activity of ALR2 as compared to T2D patients without DR. Elevated levels of sorbitol in T2D patients with DR, as compared to T2D patients without DR, corroborated the increased ALR2 activity in erythrocytes of DR patients. However, the increased ALR2 activity was not significantly associated with diabetes duration, age, and HbA1C in both the DR group and total T2D subjects. Conclusions Levels of ALR2 activity as well as sorbitol in erythrocytes may have value as a quantitative trait to be included among other markers to establish a risk profile for development of DR. PMID:18385795

  20. BAX inhibitor-1 silencing suppresses white spot syndrome virus replication in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Qiang; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Weng, Yu-Ding; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2013-07-01

    BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1) was originally described as an anti-apoptotic protein in both animal and plant cells. BI-1 overexpression suppresses ER stress-induced apoptosis in animal cells. Inhibition of BI-1 activity could induce the cell death in mammals and plants. However, the function of BI-1 in crustacean immunity was unclear. In this paper, the full-length cDNA of a BI-1 protein in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (PcBI-1) was cloned and its expression profiles in normal and infected crayfish were analyzed. The results showed that PcBI-1 was expressed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestines of the crayfish and was upregulated after challenged with Vibrio anguillarum and with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To determine the function of PcBI-1 in the innate immunity of the crayfish, the RNA interference against PcBI-1 was performed and the results indicated the hemocyte programmed cell death rate was increased significantly and WSSV replication was declined after PcBI-1 knocked down. Altogether, PcBI-1 plays an anti-apoptotic role, wherein high PcBI-1 expression suppresses programmed cell death, which is beneficial for WSSW replication in crayfish.

  1. Localization of DARPP-32 and inhibitor-1 in area 9 of Macaca mulatta prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Glausier, Jill R.; Maddox, Marcelia; Hemmings, Hugh C.; Nairn, Angus C.; Greengard, Paul; Muly, E. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The actions of dopamine D1 family receptors (D1R) depend upon a signal transduction cascade that modulates the phosphorylation state of important effector proteins, such as glutamate receptors and ion channels. This is accomplished both through activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and the inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Inhibition of PP1 occurs through PKA-mediated phosphorylation of DARPP-32 or the related protein inhibitor-1 (I-1), and the availability of DARPP-32 is essential to the functional outcome of D1R activation in the basal ganglia. While D1R activation is critical for prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, especially working memory, the functional role played by DARPP-32 or I-1 is less clear. In order to examine this more thoroughly, we have utilized immunoelectron microscopy to quantitatively determine the localization of DARPP-32 and I-1 in the neuropil of the rhesus monkey PFC. Both were distributed widely in the different components of the neuropil, but were enriched in dendritic shafts. I-1 label was more frequently identified in axon terminals than was DARPP-32, and DARPP-32 label was more frequently identified in glia than was I-1. We also quantified the extent to which these proteins were found in dendritic spines. DARPP-32 and I-1 were present in small subpopulations of dendritic spines, (4.4 and 7.7% and respectively), which were substantially smaller than observed for D1R in our previous studies (20%). Double-label experiments did not find evidence for colocalization of D1R and DARPP-32 or I-1 in spines or terminals. Thus, at the least, not all prefrontal spines which contain D1R also contain I-1 or DARPP-32, suggesting important differences in D1R signaling in the PFC compared to the striatum. PMID:20156529

  2. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  3. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The purpose of…

  4. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  5. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  6. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  7. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  8. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  9. Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valderi Abreu; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Decimo, Juliana Pereira; de Souza, William Cordeiro; Monteiro, Anna Louise Stellfeld; Lahard, Ian; França, Suzana Nesi; Leite, Neiva

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D=45 and CON=109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2 max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4.65; p<0.05). The VO2max had correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = 0.63; p = 0.0001) and an inverse correlation with sedentary activities (r = -0.46; p = 0.006). In the T1D the levels of HbA1c had an inverse correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = -0.34; p = 0.041) and correlation with the BMI z-score (r = 0.43; p = 0.017). Only 37,8% of the participants in the T1D reached the adequate amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, in the CON 81,7% reached the WHO's recommendation.

  10. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  11. Wheat BAX inhibitor-1 contributes to wheat resistance to Puccinia striiformis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is proposed to be a cell death suppressor conserved in both animals and plants. The ability of BI-1 genes to inhibit programmed cell death (PCD) has been well studied in animals, but the physiological importance of BI-1 in plant-microbe interactions remains unclear. This study...

  12. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, P L; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Colditz, G A; Gortmaker, S L; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study undertook to examine relationships between nonsedentary activity level, time spent watching television (TV)/videocassette recorder (VCR), and risk of overweight among men. METHODS. Men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were mailed surveys. Cross-sectional analyses examined the prevalence and odds of being overweight, prospective analyses determined cumulative incidence rates and relative risks of becoming overweight over 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS. Cross-sectionally, odds of being overweight were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45%; 55%) lower for men in the highest quintile of nonsedentary activity level when compared with men in the lowest quintile. Among men watching 41 or more hours of TV/VCR per week, the odds of being overweight were 406 (95% CI = 2.67, 6.17) times greater than those for men watching no more than 1 hour per week. Prospectively, higher levels is of nonsedentary activity and lower levels of TV/VCR viewing were independently associated with lower relative risks for becoming overweight between survey years. CONCLUSIONS. Both a lack of nonsedentary activity and time spent watching TV/VCR contribute to the development of overweight in men. Sedentary and nonsedentary activities represent separate domains, each with independent risks for overweight. PMID:8561237

  13. Play equipment, physical activity opportunities, and children's activity levels at childcare.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave H H; Jansen, Maria W J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment) and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level) multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex) with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls). Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  14. Daily ambulatory activity levels in idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Frank M; Mackman, Chad A; Pav, Breckon; Shulman, Lisa M; Garvan, Cyndi; Macko, Richard F; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) may have decreased physical activity due to motor deficits. We recently validated the reliability of step activity monitors (SAMs) to accurately count steps in PD, and we wished to use them to evaluate the impact of disease severity on home activity levels in PD. Twenty-six subjects with PD (Hoehn and Yahr disease stage 2-4) were recruited to participate in a study of activity levels over 48 hours. Ability to achieve 95% device accuracy was an entry requirement. A Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) evaluation was performed on all subjects, subjects were monitored for 48 hours, and total number of steps per day and maximum steps taken per hour were calculated. Out of 26 subjects, 25 met entry requirements. We calculated the number of steps taken per day, as well as maximal activity levels, and correlated these with UPDRS total score, the activity of daily living subscale, and the UPDRS motor function subscale off and on medication (all p < 0.01). Transition from Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 to stage 3 was associated with a decline in functional mobility (p < 0.005). A microprocessor-linked SAM accurately counted steps in subjects with PD. The number of steps taken correlated highly with disease severity. SAMs may be useful outcome measures in PD.

  15. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the self-reported physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Design and Setting: We used the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity and also asked for demographic information, including employment setting, years of experience, education level, and position. Subjects: The questionnaire was sent to 1200 randomly selected ATCs in the Mid-America Athletic Trainers' Association; the return rate was 53%. Measurements: We used means, standard deviations, and ranges to describe the age, total fitness index, work, and leisure and sport indexes of men and women subjects. Independent t tests were used to compare the mean total activity index between men and women within this study and with previous studies. We examined differences in activity indexes by employment setting, position, and age with one-way analysis of variance and Fisher pairwise comparison tests. Two-way χ2 analysis was used to determine the relationship between activity level and employment setting and position. Statistical significance was set at P = .05 for all analyses. Results: Certified athletic trainers who work in a clinical setting had the highest mean total activity score at 9.1 points. Clinic ATCs scored significantly higher than high school ATCs and college ATCs. When compared by position, there were no significant differences among the mean total activity indexes; however, the mean work index of program directors was significantly lower than all other positions and the mean work index of high school and clinic ATCs was significantly higher than all other employment settings. Conclusions: Female ATCs scored significantly higher in total activity levels on the Baecke Questionnaire than their male counterparts. This is in contrast to the general population, investigated by other authors, in which men scored significantly higher than women on the same scale. Additionally, we compared the total activity levels by age

  16. Cascading Activation across Levels of Representation in Children's Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in adult psycholinguistics has demonstrated that activation of semantic representations begins long before phonological processing is complete. This incremental propagation of information across multiple levels of analysis is a hallmark of adult language processing but how does this ability develop? In two experiments, we elicit…

  17. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  18. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  19. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  20. Genetic Influences on Mechanically-Assessed Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Rogers, Hannah; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Activity level is an important component of children's temperament, as well as being part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet it is poorly understood, due partly to limitations on parent and teacher ratings, which are typically used as measurements of these…

  1. Anterior cingulate activity and level of cognitive conflict: explicit comparisons.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2006-12-01

    The role of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in attention is a matter of debate. One hypothesis suggests that its role is to monitor response-level conflict, but explicit evidence is somewhat lacking. In this study, the activation of ACC was compared in (a) color and number standard Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference shared modality (response-level conflict) and (b) color and number matching Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference did not share modality (non-response-level conflict). In the congruent conditions, there was no effect of task type. In the interference conditions, anterior cingulate activity in the matching tasks was less than that in the standard tasks. These results support the hypothesis that ACC specifically mediates generalized modality-independent selection processes invoked by response competition.

  2. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  3. Cancer in Utah Mormon women by church activity level.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Lyon, J L

    1982-08-01

    In light of low cancer rates by the Mormon Church, this study classifies female Mormon cancer patients in Utah according to measures of adherence to Church doctrines. The distribution by Church activity level is compared for each site to a group of other cancer sites felt to represent the overall activity level distribution of Utah Mormon women. Mormon women classified as having the strongest adherence to Church doctrines had lung cancer rates during 1966-1970 much lower than did women with the weakest adherence. The relationship was not as strong, however, as that seen in Mormon men when classified by lay priesthood office. Cancer of the uterine cervix also showed lower rates in the more active groups, but this finding was not statistically significant. Cancers of the breast and ovary did not show consistent associations with Church activity level, nor did most of the gastrointestinal cancers. These data suggest that some of the differences in cancer incidence between Mormons and non-Mormons may not be explained by adherence to specific Church doctrines.

  4. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  5. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  6. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  7. Transgenic cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 confer resistance to storage pests, bruchid beetles.

    PubMed

    Solleti, Siva Kumar; Bakshi, Souvika; Purkayastha, Jubilee; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2008-12-01

    Cowpea is one of the important grain legumes. Storage pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis cause severe damage to the cowpea seeds during storage. We employ a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated cowpea transformation method for introduction of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI-1) gene into a commercially important Indian cowpea cultivar, Pusa Komal and generated fertile transgenic plants. The use of constitutive expression of additional vir genes in resident pSB1 vector in Agrobacterium strain LBA4404, thiol compounds during cocultivation and a geneticin based selection system resulted in twofold increase in stable transformation frequency. Expression of alphaAI-1 gene under bean phytohemagglutinin promoter results in accumulation of alphaAI-1 in transgenic seeds. The transgenic protein was active as an inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase in vitro. Transgenic cowpeas expressing alphaAI-1 strongly inhibited the development of C. maculatus and C. chinensis in insect bioassays.

  8. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  9. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  10. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  11. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  12. Age, gender, and level of activity as moderators of personal incentives to physical activity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Shulamith; Netz, Yael

    2007-05-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study with Israeli adults examining their personal incentives for physical activity (e.g., appearance, weight management). The participants formed a sample of 379 physically active Israelis, aged 20-89 years, divided into 3 age groups and 3 levels of activity. The authors found a similar profile for men and women for most incentives, with men scoring more highly than did women on only competition and fitness. Participants in the highest level of activity attributed greater importance to all incentives than did those in the other levels, and older adults attributed less importance to all incentives except for health benefits. The findings are relevant for planning activities intended to encourage adults to engage in more physical activity.

  13. Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 Is a Valuable Marker for the Prediction of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Tumor Metastasis in Patients with Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wufeng

    2017-01-01

    Activation of blood coagulation contributes to cancer progression. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1) is the main inhibitor of extrinsic coagulation pathway. The aim of this study is to assess the predicting significance of TFPI-1 for thrombotic complication and metastasis in lung cancer patients. Total of 188 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were included in this study. Plasma TFPI-1, D-dimer (D-D), antithrombin (AT), Fibrinogen (Fbg), and coagulating factor VIII activity (FVIII:C) were measured. In NSCLC patients, significantly decreased TFPI-1 and AT and increased D-D, Fbg, and FVIII:C levels were observed, and there was a significant correlation between TFPI-1 and other hemostatic parameters (P < 0.001, resp.). NSCLC patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or metastasis had significantly lower TFPI-1 levels than those without DVT or metastasis (P < 0.01, resp.). Multivariate regression revealed that TFPI-1 acted as a predictor for DVT or tumor metastasis in NSCLC patients [OR: 4.15 or 3.28, P < 0.05, resp.]. The area under ROC curve of TFPI-1 was 0.905 (95% CI, 0.842~0.967) or 0.828 (95% CI, 0.742~0.915) for predicting DVT or metastasis (P < 0.001, resp.). The optimal point of TFPI-1 was 57.7 or 54.3 ng/mL for predicting DVT or metastasis, respectively. Combination of TFPI-1 and D-D measurements can improve the predicting power for DVT or metastasis in NSCLC patients. Our findings suggested that TFPI-1 was a valuable predictor of DVT and tumor metastasis in NSCLC patients. PMID:28246607

  14. Electrocortical activity distinguishes between uphill and level walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J Cortney; Lukos, Jamie R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if electrocortical activity is different between walking on an incline compared with level surface. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 0% and 15% grades for 30 min while we recorded electroencephalography (EEG). We used independent component (IC) analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent sources and then computed dipole estimations for each IC. We clustered cortical source ICs and analyzed event-related spectral perturbations synchronized to gait events. Theta power fluctuated across the gait cycle for both conditions, but was greater during incline walking in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor and posterior parietal clusters. We found greater gamma power during level walking in the left sensorimotor and anterior cingulate clusters. We also found distinct alpha and beta fluctuations, depending on the phase of the gait cycle for the left and right sensorimotor cortices, indicating cortical lateralization for both walking conditions. We validated the results by isolating movement artifact. We found that the frequency activation patterns of the artifact were different than the actual EEG data, providing evidence that the differences between walking conditions were cortically driven rather than a residual artifact of the experiment. These findings suggest that the locomotor pattern adjustments necessary to walk on an incline compared with level surface may require supraspinal input, especially from the left sensorimotor cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal areas. These results are a promising step toward the use of EEG as a feed-forward control signal for ambulatory brain-computer interface technologies.

  15. Clinical application of asparaginase activity levels following treatment with pegaspargase.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Archie; Asselin, Barbara L; Koontz, Susannah E; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-06-01

    Asparaginase, an enzyme used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and related forms of nonHodgkin lymphoma, depletes asparagine, which leads to lymphoblast cell death. Unlike most chemotherapeutic agents, asparaginase is a foreign protein that can result in clinical allergy and/or silent hypersensitivity with production of neutralizing antibodies that inactivate asparaginase. In North America, asparaginase activity levels can now be obtained via a commercially available assay, for therapeutic drug monitoring and investigation of potential allergic reactions. Herein, we provide recommendations and a corresponding algorithm for the clinical application of this assay after treatment with pegaspargase to evaluate suspected hypersensitivity reactions and/or silent inactivation.

  16. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  17. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  18. Role of Polo-like kinase in the degradation of early mitotic inhibitor 1, a regulator of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Yakir; Boulaire, Jérôme; Pagano, Michele; Hershko, Avram

    2004-01-01

    Early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) inhibits the activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that targets mitotic regulators for degradation in exit from mitosis. Levels of Emi1 oscillate in the cell cycle: it accumulates in the S phase and is rapidly degraded in prometaphase. The degradation of Emi1 in early mitosis is necessary for the activation of APC/C in late mitosis. Previous studies have shown that Emi1 is targeted for degradation in mitosis by a Skp1–Cullin1 F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex that contains the F-box protein β-TrCP. As with other substrates of SCFβ-TrCP, the phosphorylation of Emi1 on a DSGxxS sequence is required for this process. However, the protein kinase(s) involved has not been identified. We find that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a protein kinase that accumulates in mitosis, markedly stimulates the ligation of Emi1 to ubiquitin by purified SCFβ-TrCP. Cdk1-cyclin B, another major mitotic protein kinase, has no influence on this process by itself but stimulates the action of Plk1 at low, physiological concentrations. Plk1 phosphorylates serine residues in the DSGxxS sequence of Emi1, as suggested by the reduced phosphorylation of a derivative in which the two serines were mutated to nonphosphorylatable amino acids. Transfection with an small interfering RNA duplex directed against Plk1 caused the accumulation of Emi1 in mitotically arrested HeLa cells. It is suggested that phosphorylation of Emi1 by Plk1 is involved in its degradation in mitosis. PMID:15148369

  19. Plantar pressures during level walking compared with other ambulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, S; Lundquist, K; Cornwall, M W; McPoil, T G

    1994-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of plantar pressures during level walking in comparison to other activities. These activities included climbing up stairs, going down stairs, a simple pivot while walking, and a crossover pivot while walking in normal individuals. Twelve volunteers, six men and six women, mean age 28 years, served as subjects. Data were collected on the dominant foot with an EMED-SF pressure sensor platform as each subject walked barefoot and did each of the five activities. Maximum plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure-time integral (PTI) was found in the metatarsal and heel regions. The results of repeated-measures analysis of variance tests showed that the five experimental conditions were statistically different for both MPP and PTI in the metatarsal and heel regions. Post hoc analysis indicated that MPP and PTI were decreased during the going down stairs condition in the heel and increased during the crossover pivot while walking and pivot while walking conditions for the metatarsal region.

  20. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  1. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  2. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  3. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  4. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  5. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3- (1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Yang, Jun; Sun, Guo-Ying; Liu, Tian; Duan, Jia-Xi; Zhou, Hui-Fang; Lee, Kin Sing; Hammock, Bruce D; Fang, Xiang; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Guan, Cha-Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the metabolites of arachidonic acid derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases, are mainly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to their corresponding diols. EETs but not their diols, have anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of sEH might provide protective effects against inflammatory fibrosis. We test the effects of a selected sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in mice. A mouse model of PF was established by intratracheal injection of bleomycin and TPPU was administered for 21 days after bleomycin injection. We found TPPU treatment improved the body weight loss and survival rate of bleomycin-stimulated mice. Histological examination showed that TPPU treatment alleviated bleomycin-induced inflammation and maintained the alveolar structure of the pulmonary tissues. TPPU also decreased the bleomycin-induced deposition of collagen and the expression of procollagen I mRNA in lung tissues of mice. TPPU decreased the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels in the serum of bleomycin-stimulated mice. Furthermore, TPPU inhibited the proliferation and collagen synthesis of mouse fibroblasts and partially reversed TGF-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin expression. Our results indicate that the inhibition of sEH attenuates bleomycin-induced inflammation and collagen deposition and therefore prevents bleomycin-induced PF in a mouse model.

  7. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  8. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  9. Are self-reported physical activity levels associated with perceived desirability of activity-friendly communities?

    PubMed

    Librett, John J; Yore, Michelle M; Schmid, Thomas L; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-09-01

    People living in activity-friendly communities (AFCs) are more active but the self-selection influence is unknown. From 4856 respondents we explored mediating variables with expressed desire to live in AFCs. Association with desire to live in AFCs included ages 18-24 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.9), African American (OR=1.9) or Hispanic (OR=1.5), and believing AFCs would support activity-based transportation (OR=2.4). Regular physical activity (PA) was marginally associated with desire to live in AFCs (OR=1.3). These findings suggest that PA may be a significant factor in communities of this style. Strategies for social marketing along with changes to the built environment to increase PA levels are discussed.

  10. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donny, William F.

    The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education was assessed in 1980, based on data for 48,162 graduates, or 54.3 percent of the graduates at all degree levels. Attention was directed to the proportions of graduates in each degree field and level: (1) employed in their fields of preparation, (2)…

  11. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Survey data indicated that those who worked in clinical versus school settings had the highest mean total activity score. Females scored significantly higher than males. The mean total index activity of the over-36-years-old group was…

  12. Chill activation of compatible solute transporters in Corynebacterium glutamicum at the level of transport activity.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Nuran; Krämer, Reinhard; Morbach, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum harbors four osmoregulated secondary uptake systems for compatible solutes, BetP, EctP, LcoP, and ProP. When reconstituted in proteoliposomes, BetP was shown to sense hyperosmotic conditions via the increase in luminal K(+) and to respond by instant activation. To study further putative ways of stimulus perception and signal transduction, we have investigated the responses of EctP, LcoP, and BetP, all belonging to the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family, to chill stress at the level of activity. When fully activated by hyperosmotic stress, they showed the expected increase of activity at increasing temperature. In the absence of osmotic stress, EctP was not activated by chill and LcoP to only a very low extent, whereas BetP was significantly stimulated at low temperature. BetP was maximally activated at 10 degrees C, reaching the same transport rate as that observed under hyperosmotic conditions at this temperature. A role of cytoplasmic K(+) in chill-dependent activation of BetP was ruled out, since (i) the cytoplasmic K(+) concentration did not change significantly at lower temperatures and (ii) a mutant BetP lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids, which was previously shown to have lost the ability to be activated by luminal K(+), was fully competent in chill sensing. When heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, BetP did not respond to chill stress. This may indicate that the membrane in which BetP is inserted plays an important role in chill activation and thus in signal transduction by BetP, different from the previously established K(+)-mediated process.

  13. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  14. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donny, William F.

    The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education in 1979 was examined, based on data for 44,875 graduates or 50.6 percent of all higher education graduates. Research was designed to determine what proportion of graduates in each degree field and degree level were employed in their fields of…

  15. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  16. Cooperative autoinhibition and multi-level activation mechanisms of calcineurin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Jue; Ma, Lei; Lu, Chang; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN), a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit A and an essential regulatory subunit B, plays critical functions in various cellular processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and T cell activation. It is the target of the most widely used immunosuppressants for transplantation, tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporin A. However, the structure of a large part of the CNA regulatory region remains to be determined, and there has been considerable debate concerning the regulation of CN activity. Here, we report the crystal structure of full-length CN (β isoform), which revealed a novel autoinhibitory segment (AIS) in addition to the well-known autoinhibitory domain (AID). The AIS nestles in a hydrophobic intersubunit groove, which overlaps the recognition site for substrates and immunosuppressant-immunophilin complexes. Indeed, disruption of this AIS interaction results in partial stimulation of CN activity. More importantly, our biochemical studies demonstrate that calmodulin does not remove AID from the active site, but only regulates the orientation of AID with respect to the catalytic core, causing incomplete activation of CN. Our findings challenge the current model for CN activation, and provide a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of CN activity regulation. PMID:26794871

  17. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  18. In vitro metabolism of the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1-cyclohexyl-3-dodecyl-urea.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takaho; Morisseau, Christophe; Newman, John W; Hammock, Bruce D

    2003-07-01

    The metabolism of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor, 1-cyclohexyl-3-dodecyl-urea (CDU), was studied in rat and human hepatic microsomes. The microsomal metabolism of CDU enhanced sEH inhibition potency of the reaction mixture and resulted in the formation of several metabolites. During the course of this study, a sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analytical method was developed to investigate simultaneously the production of these metabolites. In both rat and human hepatic microsomes, CDU was ultimately transformed into the corresponding omega-carboxylate; however, the rodent tissue appeared to perform this transformation more rapidly. After a 60-min incubation in rat hepatic microsomes, the percentage of residual CDU, the omega-carboxylate, and the intermediary omega-hydroxyl were about 20%, 20%, and 50%, respectively. Carbon monoxide inhibited the metabolism of CDU by rat hepatic microsomes, suggesting that the initial step is catalyzed by cytochrome P450. Further metabolism was enhanced by the addition of NAD, suggesting that dehydrogenases are associated with intermediate metabolic steps. Regardless, the ultimate product of microsomal metabolism, 12-(3-cyclohexyl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid, is also an excellent sEH inhibitor with several hundred-fold higher solubility, supporting the hypothesis that CDU has prodrug characteristics. These findings will facilitate the rational design and optimization of sEH inhibitors with better physical properties and improved metabolic stability.

  19. Characterization of BAX inhibitor-1 as a novel leukemia-associated antigen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S M; König, T; Bringmann, A; Held, S; von Schwarzenberg, K; Heine, A; Holderried, T A W; Stevanovic, S; Grünebach, F; Brossart, P

    2009-10-01

    Using dendritic cells (DCs) electroporated with whole RNA isolated from blasts of a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we were able to generate leukemia-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) capable of recognizing the leucemic cells. To identify T-cell epitopes mediating lysis of malignant cells, peptides were eluted from the patient's blasts and analyzed by mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based peptide sequencing. Using this approach, an HLA-A24-binding peptide derived from Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), a regulator of apoptosis pathways, was identified as an epitope recognized by the generated CTLs. To further characterize this novel antigenic peptide, CTLs were induced using DCs electroporated with RNA coding for BI-1 or pulsed with the cognate peptide. These CTLs generated from healthy donors in vitro efficiently lysed the patient's blasts as well as other HLA-matched leukemic cells. In conclusion, we identified a BI-1 peptide as a novel immunogenic tumor-associated antigen (TAA) in AML. In vitro induction of BI-1-specific CTLs by RNA transfection or pulsing of DCs with the synthetically generated peptide was a feasible and highly effective method to generate leukemia-specific CTLs. As BI-1 is (over-) expressed in a broad variety of malignancies, it may represent an interesting novel TAA in the context of cancer vaccines.

  20. Expression of Arabidopsis Bax Inhibitor-1 in transgenic sugarcane confers drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Daniel Alves; Melotto-Passarin, Danila Montewka; Barbosa, Mariana de Almeida; Santos, Flavio Dos; Gomez, Sergio Gregorio Perez; Massola Júnior, Nelson Sidnei; Lam, Eric; Carrer, Helaine

    2016-09-01

    The sustainability of global crop production is critically dependent on improving tolerance of crop plants to various types of environmental stress. Thus, identification of genes that confer stress tolerance in crops has become a top priority especially in view of expected changes in global climatic patterns. Drought stress is one of the abiotic stresses that can result in dramatic loss of crop productivity. In this work, we show that transgenic expression of a highly conserved cell death suppressor, Bax Inhibitor-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtBI-1), can confer increased tolerance of sugarcane plants to long-term (>20 days) water stress conditions. This robust trait is correlated with an increased tolerance of the transgenic sugarcane plants, especially in the roots, to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by the protein glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. Our findings suggest that suppression of ER stress in C4 grasses, which include important crops such as sorghum and maize, can be an effective means of conferring improved tolerance to long-term water deficit. This result could potentially lead to improved resilience and yield of major crops in the world.

  1. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  2. Mid-level Features Improve Recognition of Interactive Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-14

    Recognizing action as clouds of space-time interest points. In CVPR, 2009. [5] W. Brendel, A. Fern , and S. Todorovic. Probabilistic event logic for interval...context. In CVPR, 2009. [27] R. Messing, C. Pal, and H. Kautz. Activity recognition using the velocity histories of tracked keypoints. In ICCV, 2009

  3. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  4. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  5. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  6. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  7. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  8. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certify to the Secretary that the arrangements to establish responsibility for services pursuant to... transition of students with disabilities to postsecondary activities; (vii) To assist LEAs in meeting... State Medicaid program under Title XIX of the Social Security Act. (9) Funds reserved under paragraph...

  9. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  10. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  11. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  12. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  13. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. "Wildlife" and "fish" were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies.

  14. Salivary Platelet Activating Factor Levels in Periodontal Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    multifarious and is activated through multiple mediators. The inflammatory process can be subdivided into acute and chronic inflammation. Stedman’s Medical...Just recently, inflammed human gingival tissues were analyzed and found to contain PAF (Noguchi, et al, 1989). Thus, multiple components of the...17.9% release of peroxidase, 20.6% release of P-glucuronidase, 22.4% release of alkaline phosphatase and 28.8% release of aryl sulfatase . At higher

  15. Continuum Level Results from Particle Simulations of Active Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmotte, Blaise; Climent, Eric; Plouraboue, Franck; Keaveny, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Accurately simulating active suspensions on the lab scale is a technical challenge. It requires considering large numbers of interacting swimmers with well described hydrodynamics in order to obtain representative and reliable statistics of suspension properties. We have developed a computationally scalable model based on an extension of the Force Coupling Method (FCM) to active particles. This tool can handle the many-body hydrodynamic interactions between O (105) swimmers while also accounting for finite-size effects, steady or time-dependent strokes, or variable swimmer aspect ratio. Results from our simulations of steady-stroke microswimmer suspensions coincide with those given by continuum models, but, in certain cases, we observe collective dynamics that these models do not predict. We provide robust statistics of resulting distributions and accurately characterize the growth rates of these instabilities. In addition, we explore the effect of the time-dependent stroke on the suspension properties, comparing with those from the steady-stroke simulations. Authors acknowledge the ANR project Motimo for funding and the Calmip computing centre for technical support.

  16. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  17. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, P<0.01] but not among control women (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials.

  18. Purification of barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) from beer and their impact on beer foam stability.

    PubMed

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ogushi, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Foam stability is a key factor of beer quality for consumers and brewers. Recent beer proteome analyses have suggested that barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) derived from barley are important for beer foam stability. In this study, BDAI-1 and ALP were purified from a Japanese commercial beer sample using salt precipitation and column chromatography. The purification level was verified using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and database searches. Purified BDAI-1 and ALP were added to a beer sample to compare the foam stability to that of a control beer sample. As a result, beer foam stability was significantly improved by BDAI-1 but not by ALP, thereby suggesting that BDAI-1 affects beer foam stability whereas ALP does not.

  19. Active beam shaping in multi-levels amplification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tianzhuo; Fan, Zhongwei; Qiu, Jisi; Tang, Xiongxin; Lin, Weiran; Zhang, Hongbo

    2016-09-01

    Using Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator (LC-SLM) as a beam shaping device to improve beam quality in high-gain amplification system is reported. 1.6 nJ injected small-size signal Gaussian beam can be amplified to 5 J by 4 stages amplification, and finally output beam is a 50mm×50mm square spot with flat-top intensity distribution. In the amplification system we designed, LC-SLM is placed after the second level of amplifier, where the signal laser energy is about 20mJ, and beam size is 10mm×10mm. The structure of Fourier image transfer is also implemented in this amplifications system to be capable of maintaining high-quality image transmission in the amplification process. The LC-SLM as an object, is imaged by beam expand lenses and spatial filters lenses in the amplifications system to get good quality of imaging. By catching output spot and making a feed-back, transmission efficiency of each pixel on LC-SLM is modulated, high energy density area can be decreased to realize flat-top intensity distribution. A spot modulation function is defined as, using the maximum grey value on spot area divided by the average grey value of the image after background correction. By this, amplified laser obtains the spot modulation of 1.24 on central 90% area of the spot. Furthermore, un-uniform distribution on the full spot, soften effects of spot edge, and output beam shape can also be optimized by the LC-SLM shaping scheme in the amplification system.

  20. Physical activity level and related factors in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    van Eck, Mirjam; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Beckerman, Heleen; van den Hoven, Petronella A M; Voorman, Jeanine M; Becher, Jules G

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity level of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate the associated factors. The physical activity level was measured by means of a questionnaire filled in by the parents of 72 adolescents with CP (12-16 years of age) and expressed in METs. Older age, female gender, and hip dysplasia were significantly associated with a lower level of physical activity. Eighty-nine percent were not physically active enough according to the Dutch norm. Physical activity needs to be promoted, especially among older adolescents with CP (age 14-16 years), girls, and adolescents with hip dysplasia.

  1. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  3. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  4. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  5. Differences in Physical Activity Levels between Urban and Rural School Children in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…

  6. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  7. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  8. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity and pollination levels in commercial tomato greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Morandin, L A; Laverty, T M; Kevan, P G

    2001-04-01

    Commercial greenhouse studies were conducted to assess levels of pollination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) flowers in relation to bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony activity and colony densities. For the assessment of pollination levels of tomato flowers, five categories were defined based on bruising levels caused by bumble bee pollination. Colony activity was measured as bee trips per ha/d using electric powered photodiode monitors inserted into the hive entrance. Levels of pollination were positively correlated with bee activity levels, up to a mean of approximately 400 pollen grains per stigma per day, after which greater activity did not result in further increases in daily pollination levels. Densities of colonies in the commercial greenhouses studied ranged from 7.6 to 19.8 colonies per hectare with a mean of 11.6 +/- 0.9. We found that an average activity of 2,000 bee trips per hectare per day was more than adequate to ensure sufficient pollination, and that this level of activity could be achieved with 7-15 colonies per hectare, depending on greenhouse conditions. Greenhouses requiring >15 colonies per hectare to achieve this level of pollination may be able to increase bee activity through alteration of greenhouse conditions. Across 50-m rows of tomato plants, levels of pollination decreased with increasing distance from bee colonies, suggesting that colonies should be evenly distributed throughout the greenhouses.

  9. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  10. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  11. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  12. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  13. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  14. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  15. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  16. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  17. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  18. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  19. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  20. Physical Activity Trajectories and Multi-Level Factors among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Kathleen R.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Wu, Tong Tong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls is well-documented, there are girls whose physical activity does not follow this pattern. This study examined the relationships between physical activity trajectories and personal, psychosocial and environmental factors among adolescent girls. Methods Participants were from the University of Maryland field site of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Of 730 girls measured in 8th grade, 589 were re-measured in 11th grade. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelererometers; participants were categorized as active maintainers (n=31), inactive maintainers (n=410), adopters (n=64), or relapsers (n=56). Height and weight were measured, personal and psychosocial information was collected from surveys, and distance from home to school and parks was assessed from Geographical Information Systems. Multivariable logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Variables at individual, social, and environmental levels predicted active maintainers and inactive maintainers, while only individual-level variables predicted adoption. None predicted relapse. Higher (favorable) scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend and family physical activity support, frequency of physical activity with friends, and shorter distance from home to a park predicted active maintainers. Overweight/obese status, earlier age at menses, and lower scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend physical activity support, and frequency of physical activity with friends, and further distance from home to school predicted inactive maintainers. High physical self-concept and not being overweight/obese predicted adopters. Conclusion Multi-level factors appear to predict behavior maintenance rather than actual change. Implications and Contribution Although physical activity declines among girls during adolescence, some maintain and others increase their physical activity. Our

  1. Activity level classification algorithm using SHIMMER™ wearable sensors for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Emma; Tierney, Marie; Scanaill, Cliodhna Ni; Bourke, Ala; Kennedy, Norelee; Nelson, John

    2011-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) it is believed that symptoms associated with the progression of the disease result in a reduction in the physical activity level of the patient. One of the key flaws of the research surrounding this hypothesis to date is the use of non-validated physical activity outcomes measures. In this study, an algorithm to estimate physical activity levels in patients as they perform a simulated protocol of typical activities of daily living using SHIMMER kinematic sensors, incorporating tri-axial gyroscopes and accelerometers, is proposed. The results are validated against simultaneously recorded energy expenditure data and the defined activity protocol and demonstrate that SHIMMER can be used to accurately estimate physical activity levels in RA populations.

  2. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  3. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  4. Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

    2000-03-01

    The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths.

  5. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program’s standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. PMID:27942116

  6. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  7. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  8. Effects of physical activity and training programs on plasma homocysteine levels: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Alexandre de Souza; da Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the liver that, when present in high concentrations, is thought to contribute to plaque formation and, consequently, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, daily physical activity and training programs may contribute to controlling atherosclerosis. Given that physical exercise induces changes in protein and amino acid metabolism, it is important to understand whether homocysteine levels are also affected by exercise and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, regarding the possible characteristics of different training programs (intensity, duration, repetition, volume), it becomes prudent to determine which types of exercise reduce homocysteine levels. To these ends, a systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of daily physical activity and different training programs on homocysteine levels. EndNote(®) was used to locate articles on the PubMed database from 2002 to 2013 with the keyword combinations "physical activity and homocysteine", "training and homocysteine", and/or "exercise and homocysteine". After 34 studies were identified, correlative and comparative studies of homocysteine levels revealed lower levels in patients engaged in greater quantities of daily physical activity. Regarding the acute effects of exercise, all studies reported increased homocysteine levels. Concerning intervention studies with training programs, aerobic training programs used different methods and analyses that complicate making any conclusion, though resistance training programs induced decreased homocysteine levels. In conclusion, this review suggests that greater daily physical activity is associated with lower homocysteine levels and that exercise programs could positively affect homocysteine control.

  9. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  10. Juvenile subsistence effort, activity levels, and growth patterns. Middle childhood among Pumé foragers.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D

    2011-09-01

    Attention has been given to cross-cultural differences in adolescent growth, but far less is known about developmental variability during juvenility (ages 3-10). Previous research among the Pumé, a group of South American foragers, found that girls achieve a greater proportion of their adult stature during juvenility compared with normative growth expectations. To explain rapid juvenile growth, in this paper we consider girls' activity levels and energy expended in subsistence effort. Results show that Pumé girls spend far less time in subsistence tasks in proportion to their body size compared with adults, and they have lower physical activity levels compared with many juveniles cross-culturally. Low activity levels help to explain where the extra energy comes from to support rapid growth in a challenging environment. We suggest that activity levels are important to account for the variation of resource and labor transfers in mediating energy availability.

  11. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is associated with a higher level of monocyte activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Berta; Guardo, Alberto C; Leal, Lorna; Leon, Agathe; Lucero, Constanza; Alvarez-Martinez, Míriam J; Martinez, Miguel J; Vila, Jordi; Martínez-Rebollar, María; González-Cordón, Ana; Gatell, Josep M; Plana, Montserrat; García, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Monotherapy with protease-inhibitors (MPI) may be an alternative to cART for HIV treatment. We assessed the impact of this strategy on immune activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing patients on successful MPI (n=40) with patients on cART (n=20). Activation, senescence, exhaustion and differentiation stage in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets, markers of monocyte activation, microbial translocation, inflammation, coagulation and low-level viremia were assessed. Results CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte subset parameters were not significantly different between both groups. Conversely, as compared with triple cART, MPI patients showed a higher proportion of activated monocytes (CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells, p=0.031), soluble markers of monocyte activation (sCD14 p=0.004, sCD163 p=0.002), microbial translocation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein; LBP p=0.07), inflammation (IL-6 p=0.04) and low-level viremia (p=0.035). In a multivariate model, a higher level of CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells and sCD14, and presence of very low-level viremia were independently associated with MPI. Monocyte activation was independently associated with markers of inflammation (IL-6, p=0.006), microbial translocation (LBP, p=0.01) and low-level viremia (p=0.01). Conclusions Patients on MPI showed a higher level of monocyte activation than patients on standard therapy. Microbial translocation and low-level viremia were associated with the high level of monocyte activation observed in patients on MPI. The long-term clinical consequences of these findings should be assessed. PMID:25280865

  12. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  13. Changes in levels of plasminogen activator activity in normal and germ-cell-depleted testes during development.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, M; Smith, F E; Fritz, I B

    1982-05-01

    Levels of plasminogen activator activity were determined in testes obtained from normal and irradiated rats in various ages. During normal development, plasminogen activator activity per g testis increased rapidly between 40 and 60 days of age, but a comparable rise did not occur in germ-cell depleted testes of irradiated rats. Levels of enzyme in various populations of testicular cells were highest in Sertoli (varying between 1800 and 6300 units/mg protein in cell maintained under different culture conditions), and lowest in peritubular myoid cells (about 1 unit/mg protein), with intermediate levels in germinal cells (ranging between 147 and 560 units/Mg protein in residual bodies, spermatocytes and spermatids). No protease inhibitor could be detected in germ-cell extracts. The addition to the medium in which Sertoli cells were in culture of particles which can be phagocytosed (autoclaved E. coli) resulted in an increased formation of plasminogen activator activity by Sertoli cells. A synergistic enhancement of enzyme production resulted following the addition of submaximal quantities of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and autoclaved bacteria to sertoli cells in culture. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the presence of advanced germinal cells during gonadal development may stimulate the synthesis of plasminogen activator by Sertoli cells, mediated in part by the phagocytosis of residual bodies by sertoli cells which occurs prior to spermiation.

  14. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  15. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  16. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  17. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  18. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  19. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  20. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  1. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  2. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  3. Applying Active Learning at the Graduate Level: Merger Issues at Newco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Bruce K.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that active learning can benefit students in public relations and integrated communication courses at the graduate level. Describes how three active learning approaches--research and field work, student accountabilities for learning, and student reflection and reflexive exercises--were used in a graduate class project to help a Fortune 50…

  4. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  5. Activity Level, Organization, and Social-Emotional Behaviors in Post-Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlec, Mary Beth; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Compared activity and behaviors of 36- to 82-month-olds adopted from Romanian orphanages and with varying lengths of institutionalization (more than 6 months or less than 2 months) with those of age- and gender-matched American-born control groups. Found that each Romanian group exhibited more problems in activity level, organization, and…

  6. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  7. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  8. Children's Activity Levels and Lesson Context during Third-Grade Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In this study, researchers observed third graders' physical activity levels and associated variables in physical education classes in four Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health centers nationwide. Results found significant differences among centers for physical activity and lesson context variables. During free play, boys were more…

  9. Understanding dog owners' increased levels of physical activity: results from RESIDE.

    PubMed

    Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna; Bull, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of dog ownership on physical activity, independent of demographic, intrapersonal, and perceived environmental factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 1813 adults. Although only 23% of the dog owners walked their dogs 5 or more times per week, the adjusted odds of achieving sufficient physical activity and walking were 57% to 77% higher among dog owners compared with those not owning dogs (P< .05). Dog ownership was independently associated with physical activity and walking. Actively encouraging more dog walking may increase community physical activity levels.

  10. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  11. Copper (II) Adsorption by Activated Carbons from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this paper is...

  12. Metal Ion Adsorption by Activated Carbons Made from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this presenta...

  13. [On mechanism of functional changes in the organism of teenagers at different levels of locomotor activity].

    PubMed

    Mindubaeva, F A; Shukurov, F A; Salikhova, Y Y; Niyazova, Y I; Ramazanov, A K

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functional condition of 15-16 teenagers while in normal daily locomotor activity and in the mode of regular moderate physical activity was performed. The features of cerebral circulation and myocardium functional condition of teenagers are studied depending on initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system and locomotor activity level in the process of continuous step physical activity on tredmil. The condition of regulatory mechanisms, providing adaptation of teenagers in the conditions of modern school was studied. Research results showed, that elasticity of cerebrum arterial vessels, veins tone, venous outflow for teenagers not having regular physical activity, considerably mionectic. More adequate reaction of coronary blood flow in the process of physical activity is educed for the trained teenagers with the balanced autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. This group showed a higher level and regulation quality of organism reserve possibilities.

  14. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  15. Commercial/Industrial Activities Program: The Effect of Program Implementation at the Command Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    R,177 468 COMMERCIAL /INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM THE EFFECT OF 1/1 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION AT THE COMMAND LEVEL(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL...OLUTION 1ESI Chs,; o NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California rMl , MA. 0 3 1987 ,, THESIS V E COMMERCIAL /INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM: THE...block number) ED GROUP SUB-GROUP Commercial Activities; L Effective Implementation 9 ,BS’RAC’ (Continue on reverie if necessary ard ident, fy by block

  16. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  17. THE EFFECT OF GAMBLING ACTIVITIES ON HAPPINESS LEVELS OF NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Nastally, Becky L; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results indicated that all residents exhibited a higher percentage of happiness levels while engaged in simulated gambling activities compared with baseline. Follow-up assessment took place 10 min and 30 min following the intervention; no lasting effects were observed. PMID:21358915

  18. Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Budulgan, Mahmut; Dilek, Banu; Dağ, Şevin Buluttekin; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Yıldız, İsmail; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Çevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A total of 60 subjects (30 controls and 30 patients) were included. The inflammatory markers and leptin levels were evaluated and body mass index (BMI) was measured for both groups. The assessment of the skin involvement was performed based on the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Disease activity was evaluated according to the Valentini scleroderma disease activity index. There was a significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of BMI (p < 0.05); however there was no difference with regards to age and gender (p > 0.05). Valentini scores and mRSS were determined to be significantly higher in active patients (n = 14) than in inactive patients (n = 16) (p < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between groups in terms of leptin levels (p > 0.05). However, leptin levels were significantly lower in active patients than in inactive patients (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between serum leptin and BMI (p < 0.05), and leptin and serum C3 levels (p < 0.05); no relationship was detected between leptin and other parameters. Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc. Further studies, including larger series, should be carried out to clarify this relationship.

  19. Regulation of the Action of Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 on the Anaphase-promoting Complex/Cyclosome by Cyclin-dependent Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Yakir; Bar-On, Ortal; Ganoth, Dvora; Hershko, Avram

    2011-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation is characterized by alternating activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). During S-phase APC/C is inhibited by early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) to allow the accumulation of cyclins A and B and to prevent re-replication. Emi1 is degraded at prophase by a Plk1-dependent pathway. Recent studies in which the degradation pathway of Emi1 was disrupted have shown that APC/C is activated at mitotic entry despite stabilization of Emi1. These results suggested the possibility of additional mechanisms other than degradation of Emi1, which release APC/C from inhibition by Emi1 upon entry into mitosis. In this study we report one such mechanism, by which the ability of Emi1 to inhibit APC/C is negatively regulated by CDKs. We show that in Plk1-inhibited cells Emi1 is stabilized and phosphorylated, that Emi1 is phosphorylated by CDKs in mitotic but not S-phase cell extracts, and that Emi1 phosphorylation by mitotic cell extracts or purified CDKs markedly reduces the ability of Emi1 to bind and to inhibit APC/C. Finally, we show that the addition of extracts from S-phase cells to extracts from mitotic cells protects Emi1 from CDK-mediated inactivation. PMID:21454540

  20. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J

    1979-01-01

    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase.

  1. Sources and magnitude of variability in pedometer-determined physical activity levels of youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Yeun; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in habitual physical activity of children, and the minimum number of days required for estimating children’s habitual physical activity levels using pedometers. A total of 31 children wore two pedometers during five weekdays and four weekend days. A two random facet completely crossed design was conducted with two-way analysis of variances across weekdays, weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined. Moderate/high generalizability coefficients were estimated across all days. Primary sources of variability were variance components of the person and person by day interaction. Minimum numbers of days required for estimating habitual physical activity levels using a pedometer were five during weekdays. However, estimating habitual physical activity levels during weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined was impractical. PMID:26730388

  2. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  3. Activity and circadian rhythm influence synaptic Shank3 protein levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Tasnuva; Chhabra, Resham; Vilella, Antonietta; Boeckers, Tobias M; Zoli, Michele; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-09-01

    Various recent studies revealed that the proteins of the Shank family act as major scaffold organizing elements in the post-synaptic density of excitatory synapses and that their expression level is able to influence synapse formation, maturation and ultimately brain plasticity. An imbalance in Shank3 protein levels has been associated with a variety of neuropsychological and neurodegenerative disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Given that sleep disorders and low melatonin levels are frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders, and that circadian rhythms may be able to modulate Shank3 signaling and thereby synaptic function, here, we performed in vivo studies on CBA mice using protein biochemistry to investigate the synaptic expression levels of Shank3α during the day in different brain regions. Our results show that synaptic Shank3 protein concentrations exhibit minor oscillations during the day in hippocampal and striatal brain regions that correlate with changes in serum melatonin levels. Furthermore, as circadian rhythms are tightly connected to activity levels in mice, we increased physical activity using running wheels. The expression of Shank3α increases rapidly by induced activity in thalamus and cortex, but decreases in striatum, superimposing the circadian rhythms of different brain regions. We conclude that synaptic Shank3 proteins build highly dynamic platforms that are modulated by the light:dark cycles but even more so driven by activity. Using wild-type CBA mice, we show that Shank3 is a highly dynamic and activity-regulated protein at synapses. In the hippocampus, changes in synaptic Shank3 levels are influenced by circadian rhythm/melatonin concentration, while running activity increases and decreases levels of Shank3 in the cortex and striatum respectively.

  4. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH) start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients. Methods In 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis. Results Sodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case. Conclusion Despite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations. PMID:28256112

  5. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  6. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  7. Syzygium cumini inhibits adenosine deaminase activity and reduces glucose levels in hyperglycemic patients.

    PubMed

    Bopp, A; De Bona, K S; Bellé, L P; Moresco, R N; Moretto, M B

    2009-08-01

    Syzigium cumini (L.) Skeels from the Myrtaceae family is among the most common medicinal plants used to treat diabetes in Brazil. Leaves, fruits, and barks of S. cumini have been used for their hypoglycemic activity. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an important enzyme that plays a relevant role in purine and DNA metabolism, immune responses, and peptidase activity. ADA is suggested to be an important enzyme for modulating the bioactivity of insulin, but its clinical significance in diabetes mellitus (DM) has not yet been proven. In this study, we examined the effect of aqueous leaf extracts of S. cumini (L.) (ASC) on ADA activity of hyperglycemic subjects and the activity of total ADA, and its isoenzymes in serum and erythrocytes. The present study indicates that: (i) the ADA activity in hyperglycemic serum was higher than normoglycemic serum and ADA activity was higher when the blood glucose level was more elevated; (ii) ASC (60-1000 microg/mL) in vitro caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of total ADA activity and a decrease in the blood glucose level in serum; (iii) ADA1 and 2 were reduced both in erythrocytes and in hyperglycemic serum. These results suggest that the decrease of ADA activity provoked by ASC may contribute to control adenosine levels and the antioxidant defense system of red cells and could be related to the complex ADA/DPP-IV-CD26 and the properties of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors which serve as important regulators of blood glucose.

  8. Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?

    PubMed

    Daley, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.

  9. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  10. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  11. Moderate levels of activation lead to forgetting in the think/no-think paradigm.

    PubMed

    Detre, Greg J; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J; Norman, Kenneth A

    2013-10-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test.

  12. Moderate Levels of Activation Lead to Forgetting In the Think/No-Think Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Detre, Greg J.; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test. PMID:23499722

  13. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  14. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lanner, Johanna T

    2016-12-01

    Reduced oxygen (O2) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O2 levels to promote muscle regeneration. Severe hypoxia (≤1% O2) appears detrimental for myogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas a 3-6% O2 level could promote myogenesis. Hypoxia impairs the regenerative capacity of injured muscles. Although it remains to be explored, hypoxia may contribute to the muscle damage observed in patients with pathologies associated with hypoxia (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Hypoxia affects satellite cell activity and myogenesis through mechanisms dependent and independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Finally, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and transplantation of hypoxia-conditioned myoblasts are beneficial procedures to enhance muscle regeneration in animals. These therapies may be clinically relevant to treatment of patients with severe muscle damage.-Chaillou, T. Lanner, J. T. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity.

  15. Motility, ATP levels and metabolic enzyme activity of sperm from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Burness, Gary; Moyes, Christopher D; Montgomerie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Male bluegill displays one of two life history tactics. Some males (termed "parentals") delay reproduction until ca. 7 years of age, at which time they build nests and actively courts females. Others mature precociously (sneakers) and obtain fertilizations by cuckolding parental males. In the current study, we studied the relations among sperm motility, ATP levels, and metabolic enzyme activity in parental and sneaker bluegill. In both reproductive tactics, sperm swimming speed and ATP levels declined in parallel over the first 60 s of motility. Although sneaker sperm initially had higher ATP levels than parental sperm, by approximately 30 s postactivation, no differences existed between tactics. No differences were noted between tactics in swimming speed, percent motility, or the activities of key metabolic enzymes, although sperm from parentals had a higher ratio of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) to citrate synthase (CS). In both tactics, with increasing CPK and CS activity, sperm ATP levels increased at 20 s postactivation, suggesting that capacities for phosphocreatine hydrolysis and aerobic metabolism may influence interindividual variation in rates of ATP depletion. Nonetheless, there was no relation between sperm ATP levels and either swimming speed or percent of sperm that were motile. This suggests that interindividual variation in ATP levels may not be the primary determinant of variation in sperm swimming performance in bluegill.

  16. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Kayla; Cusack, Brian; Armagost, Fawn; O'Brien, Timothy; Keiser, Carl N; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2013-09-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., "behavioral types") may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator-prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator-prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator-prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator-prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants.

  17. Effect of Cognitive Activity Level on Duration of Post-Concussion Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naomi J.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Gostine, David; Collins, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who presented to a Sports Concussion Clinic within 3 weeks of injury between October 2009 and July 2011. At each visit, patients completed a scale that recorded their average level of cognitive activity since the previous visit. The product of cognitive activity level and days between visits (cognitive activity-days) was calculated and divided into quartiles. Kaplan-Meier Product Limit method was used to generate curves of symptom duration based on cognitive activity level. To adjust for other possible predictors of concussion recovery, we constructed a Cox proportional hazard model with cognitive activity-days as the main predictor. RESULTS: Of the 335 patients included in the study, 62% were male, 19% reported a loss of consciousness, and 37% reported experiencing amnesia at the time of injury. The mean age of participants was 15 years (range, 8–23) and the mean number of previous concussions was 0.76; 39% of athletes had sustained a previous concussion. The mean Post-Concussion Symptom Scale score at the initial visit was 30 (SD, 26). The overall mean duration of symptoms was 43 days (SD, 53). Of all variables assessed, only total symptom burden at initial visit and cognitive activity level were independently associated with duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive activity is associated with longer recovery from concussion. This study supports the use of cognitive rest and adds to the current consensus opinion. PMID:24394679

  18. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  19. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year.

  20. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  1. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Hunter J.; Nelson, Aimee J.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  2. Sensitivity of Tonoplast-Bound Adenosine-Triphosphatase from Hevea to Inhibitors 1

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Bernard

    1983-01-01

    The tonoplast-bound H+-translocating ATPase from Hevea latex was found to be insensitive to vanadate, diethylstilbestrol, and octylguanidine, which are specific inhibitors of the plasma membrane ATPase. The inhibitors of the mitochondrial ATPase, oligomycin and azide, and also rotenone and antimycin A, were all without effect. In contrast, trimethyltin chloride strongly inhibited the activity of Hevea tonoplast ATPase. Among the different carbodiimides tested, which strongly inhibit the Hevea tonoplast ATPase, N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was the most inhibitory. N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline was also an efficient inhibitor. This unique inhibitor sensitivity of the Hevea tonoplast H+-translocating ATPase suggests that this enzyme differs in its mode of operation from all other known H+-translocating ATPases. PMID:16663354

  3. A system for measuring thermal activation energy levels in silicon by thermally stimulated capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrum, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.

  4. LRE2, an active human L1 element, has low level transcriptional activity and extremely low reverse transcriptase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.E.; Dombroski, B.A.; Sassaman, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we found a 2 kb insertion containing a rearranged L1 element plus a unique sequence component (USC) within exon 48 of the dystrophin gene of a patient with muscular dystrophy. We used the USC to clone the precursor of this insertion, the second known {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} human L1 element. The locus LRE2 (L1 Retrotransposable Element 2) has an allele derived from the patient which matches the insertion sequence exactly. LRE2 has a perfect 13-15 bp target site duplication, 2 open reading frames (ORFs), and an unusual 21 bp truncation of the 5{prime} end in a region known to be important for L1 transcription. The truncated LRE2 promoter has about 20% of the transcriptional activity of a previously studied L1 promoter after transfection into NTera2D1 cells of a construct in which the L1 promoter drives the expression of a lacZ gene. In addition, the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by LRE2 is active in an in vivo pseudogene assay in yeast and an in vitro assay. However, in both assays the RT of LRE2 is 1-5% as active as that of LRE1. These data demonstrate that multiple {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} L1 elements exist in the human genome, and that active elements can have highly variable rates of transcription and reverse transcriptase activity. That the RT of LRE2 has extremely low activity suggests the possibility that retrotransposition of an L1 element may in some cases involve an RT encoded by another L1 element.

  5. Engineered protease inhibitors based on sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1) provide insights into the role of sequence and conformation in Laskowski mechanism inhibition.

    PubMed

    de Veer, Simon J; Swedberg, Joakim E; Akcan, Muharrem; Rosengren, K Johan; Brattsand, Maria; Craik, David J; Harris, Jonathan M

    2015-07-15

    Laskowski inhibitors regulate serine proteases by an intriguing mode of action that involves deceiving the protease into synthesizing a peptide bond. Studies exploring naturally occurring Laskowski inhibitors have uncovered several structural features that convey the inhibitor's resistance to hydrolysis and exceptional binding affinity. However, in the context of Laskowski inhibitor engineering, the way that various modifications intended to fine-tune an inhibitor's potency and selectivity impact on its association and dissociation rates remains unclear. This information is important as Laskowski inhibitors are becoming increasingly used as design templates to develop new protease inhibitors for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, we used the cyclic peptide, sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1), as a model system to explore how the inhibitor's sequence and structure relate to its binding kinetics and function. Using enzyme assays, MD simulations and NMR spectroscopy to study SFTI variants with diverse sequence and backbone modifications, we show that the geometry of the binding loop mainly influences the inhibitor's potency by modulating the association rate, such that variants lacking a favourable conformation show dramatic losses in activity. Additionally, we show that the inhibitor's sequence (including both the binding loop and its scaffolding) influences its potency and selectivity by modulating both the association and the dissociation rates. These findings provide new insights into protease inhibitor function and design that we apply by engineering novel inhibitors for classical serine proteases, trypsin and chymotrypsin and two kallikrein-related peptidases (KLK5 and KLK14) that are implicated in various cancers and skin diseases.

  6. The promoter of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 4 drives developmentally targeted transgene expression mainly in adult cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Young; Ahn, Kyu Youn; Lee, Seon Min; Koh, Jeong Tae; Chun, Byeong Jo; Bae, Choon Sang; Lee, Kee Sook; Kim, Kyung Keun

    2004-05-21

    Restricting transgene expression to specific cell types and maintaining long-term expression are major goals for gene therapy. Previously, we cloned brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 4 (BAI1-AP4), a novel brain-specific protein that interacts with BAI1, and found that it was developmentally upregulated in the adult brain. In this report, we isolated 5 kb of the 5' upstream sequence of the mouse BAI1-AP4 gene and analyzed its promoter activity. Functional analyses demonstrated that an Sp1 site was the enhancer, and the region containing the transcription initiation site and an AP2-binding site was the basal promoter. We examined the ability of the BAI1-AP4 promoter to drive adult brain-specific expression by using it to drive lacZ expression in transgenic (TG) mice. Northern blot analyses showed a unique pattern of beta-galactosidase expression in TG brain, peaking at 1 month after birth, like endogenous BAI1-AP4. Histological analyses demonstrated the same localization and developmental expression of beta-galactosidase and BAI1-AP4 in most neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate that TG mice carrying the BAI1-AP4 promoter could be a valuable model system for region-specific brain diseases.

  7. Organism activity levels predict marine invertebrate survival during ancient global change extinctions.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Multistressor global change, the combined influence of ocean warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, poses a serious threat to marine organisms. Experimental studies imply that organisms with higher levels of activity should be more resilient, but testing this prediction and understanding organism vulnerability at a global scale, over evolutionary timescales, and in natural ecosystems remain challenging. The fossil record, which contains multiple extinctions triggered by multistressor global change, is ideally suited for testing hypotheses at broad geographic, taxonomic, and temporal scales. Here, I assess the importance of activity level for survival of well-skeletonized benthic marine invertebrates over a 100-million-year-long interval (Permian to Jurassic periods) containing four global change extinctions, including the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions. More active organisms, based on a semiquantitative score incorporating feeding and motility, were significantly more likely to survive during three of the four extinction events (Guadalupian, end-Permian, and end-Triassic). In contrast, activity was not an important control on survival during nonextinction intervals. Both the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions also triggered abrupt shifts to increased dominance by more active organisms. Although mean activity gradually returned toward pre-extinction values, the net result was a permanent ratcheting of ecosystem-wide activity to higher levels. Selectivity patterns during ancient global change extinctions confirm the hypothesis that higher activity, a proxy for respiratory physiology, is a fundamental control on survival, although the roles of specific physiological traits (such as extracellular pCO2 or aerobic scope) cannot be distinguished. Modern marine ecosystems are dominated by more active organisms, in part because of selectivity ratcheting during these ancient extinctions, so on average may be less vulnerable to global change

  8. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lana, Raquel de Carvalho; de Araujo, Lysandra Nogueira; Cardoso, Francisco; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP), the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  9. [Restoration of secretory activity of digestive glands in conditions of acute hyperkinesis at persons with different levels of motor activity].

    PubMed

    Griaznykh, A V

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics' features of restoration reactions of the secretory function of gastric glands have been studied at patients with differences in the level and specificity of daily physical activity. The dependence between the level and characteristics of daily physical activity and reactivity of the secretory apparatus of the gastric glands in the recovery period after the muscle load has been established. The high reactivity of the secretory activity of digestive glands is typical for individuals with high level of daily physical activity. The differences of the functional stability of the secretion's mechanisms of various components of gastric juice under the influence of physical exercise and in recovery have been revealed. The greatest stability of the secretory mechanisms of digestive glands has been discovered at athletes practicing with the development of endurance--at skiers. Heterochronous reducing reactions of gastric and pancreatic secretion after physical stress have been defined. The reduction of secretion's mechanisms of gastric juice ingredients and the electrolyte and acid composition of digestive juices isn't simultaneous: the first order is for ferment's secretion. The inverse relationship between the content of digestive enzymes pepsinogen-1 and -2 in blood's serum and the concentration of proteolytic enzymes in the gastric content has been found at persons with various degrees of adaptation to the muscular tension.

  10. The plasmapause revisited. [Explorer 45 observation at various magnetic activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical investigation is conducted concerning the plasmapause behavior observed from Explorer 45 during various levels of magnetic activity. Aspects of data handling are reported and the implications of a constant density level for a plasmapause definition are discussed. The average local time dependence of the gradient saturation events and the sharp saturation events detected on Explorer 45 is shown with the aid of graphs. Other graphs show the results of the statistical processing operations. The significance of the obtained data is discussed.

  11. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  12. Effect of recreational physical activity on insulin levels in Mexican/Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Macias-Cervantes, Maciste H; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco J

    2009-10-01

    The effect of increased recreational physical activity in children on insulin levels has not yet been studied. We carried out a randomized controlled trial in 76 children 6-9 years old, 32 of them increased their physical activity and 30 maintained the same level. In the intervention group, after a week of baseline, recreational activity three times/week was programmed for 12 weeks. We compared insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and body mass index in both groups. Thereafter, we compared groups of normal weight, overweight, and with obesity in the experimental group. The group of recreational activity increased their median daily steps (15,329 to 19,910) and decreased insulin (p < 0.001) and HOMA index (4.36 vs. 2.39, p < 0.001). The diminution of insulin levels was more significant in the overweight group (p < 0.007). In conclusion, in our group, children who increased physical activity during 12 weeks decrease insulin levels and insulin resistance without change in other metabolic and anthropometric variables.

  13. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  14. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhou, Zhongliang; An, Chuanguang; Ma, Qiang

    2008-02-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ—PCR) methods. The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns. Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage. However, chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage. The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively. The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae. The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level. The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity, but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  15. A biochemical logic gate using an enzyme and its inhibitor. 1. The inhibitor as switching element.

    PubMed

    Sivan, S; Lotan, N

    1999-01-01

    Molecular-scale logic systems will allow for further miniaturization of information processing assemblies and contribute to a better understanding of brain function. Of much interest are the pertinent biological systems, some of the basic components of which are biomolecular switching elements and enzyme-based logic gates. In this series of accounts, results of investigations are presented on the implementation of an enzyme/inhibitor logic gate operating under the rules of Boolean algebra. In this report (part 1 of the series), consideration is given to the experimental conditions-particularly the irradiation mode-that affect the performance of proflavine as inhibitor of alpha-chymotrypsin. Also, assessments are made on the reversibility of the process involved and the long-term stability of the system. Moreover, using a theoretical conformational analysis of proflavine and its reduction products, detailed features were established regarding their three-dimensional structure, partial charge distribution, and hydrophobicity. Accordingly, an understanding was reached as to the factors affecting the interaction between these compounds and the enzyme. In part 2 of this series, the actual implementation of an AND logic gate will be presented. This gate involves proflavine and a chemically derivatized alpha-chymotrypsin, and its operation relies on the conclusions reached in this report regarding the optimal mode for controlling the inhibitory activity of proflavine.

  16. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  17. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  18. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  19. Genistein upregulates LDLR levels via JNK-mediated activation of SREBP-2

    PubMed Central

    Kartawijaya, Medicia; Han, Hye Won; Kim, Yunhye; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Genistein has been proved in vitro and in vivo to lower LDLR level. It is also widely consumed and implicated for its anti-atherogenic effects. However, the molecular mechanism by which genistein lowers the LDL level is still unknown. Objective To understand the anti-atherogenic molecular mechanism of action, genistein was investigated for its impact on the expression of LDLR, the receptor for LDL cholesterol, and related signaling pathways in a human hepatoma cell line. Design HepG2 cell was used for the experiments. Genistein with different concentrations was diluted in media and was incubated for 24 h or more as indicated. Protein levels were measured by western blotting, and mRNA expression was detected by RT-qPCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (CHIP) assay was used to determine protein binding levels, and luciferase assay was used to measure promoter activity. Result Genistein increased the mRNA and protein levels of LDLR in a time-dependent manner. Genistein increased the transcriptional activity of the LDLR promoter containing the reporter gene (pLDLR-luc, −805 to +50). But the sterol regulatory element deletion mutant construct failed to be activated by genistein. Genistein increased the nuclear fraction of SREBP-2 and the DNA-binding activity of SREBP-2 to LDLR promoter, as assessed by CHIP. The genistein-phosphorylated JNK inhibitor (SP600126) abolished the genistein-stimulated levels of LDLR and the nuclear SREBP-2. The addition of cholesterol up to 5 µg/mL for 24 h did not affect the effect of genistein on LDLR protein expression. Even the addition of 40 µM genistein increased the cholesterol uptake by more than 10% in the human hepatoma cell line. Conclusion Our data support the idea that genistein may have anti-atherogenic effects by activating JNK signals and SREBP-2 processing, which is followed by the upregulation of LDLR. PMID:27211318

  20. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  1. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  2. High-resolution genetic mapping of mammalian motor activity levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Kas, M J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, J G; de Krom, M; van Gassen, K L I; van Lith, H A; Olivier, B; Oppelaar, H; Hendriks, J; de Wit, M; Groot Koerkamp, M J A; Holstege, F C P; van Oost, B A; de Graan, P N E

    2009-02-01

    The generation of motor activity levels is under tight neural control to execute essential behaviors, such as movement toward food or for social interaction. To identify novel neurobiological mechanisms underlying motor activity levels, we studied a panel of chromosome substitution (CS) strains derived from mice with high (C57BL/6J strain) or low motor activity levels (A/J strain) using automated home cage behavioral registration. In this study, we genetically mapped the expression of baseline motor activity levels (horizontal distance moved) to mouse chromosome 1. Further genetic mapping of this trait revealed an 8.3-Mb quantitative trait locus (QTL) interval. This locus is distinct from the QTL interval for open-field anxiety-related motor behavior on this chromosome. By data mining, an existing phenotypic and genotypic data set of 2445 genetically heterogeneous mice (http://gscan.well.ox.ac.uk/), we confirmed linkage to the peak marker at 79 970 253 bp and refined the QTL to a 312-kb interval containing a single gene (A830043J08Rik). Sequence analysis showed a nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region of the Riken gene. Genome-wide microarray gene expression profiling in brains of discordant F(2) individuals from CS strain 1 showed a significant upregulation of Epha4 in low-active F(2) individuals. Inclusion of a genetic marker for Epha4 confirmed that this gene is located outside of the QTL interval. Both Epha4 and A830043J08Rik are expressed in brain motor circuits, and similar to Epha4 mutants, we found linkage between reduced motor neurons number and A/J chromosome 1. Our findings provide a novel QTL and a potential downstream target underlying motor circuitry development and the expression of physical activity levels.

  3. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  4. Physical Activity Level and Symptom Duration Are Not Associated After Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Howell, David R.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; Quinn, Bridget; Taylor, J. Andrew; Tan, Can Ozan; Meehan, William P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical rest after a concussion has been described as a key component in the management of the injury. Evidence supporting this recommendation, however, is limited. Purpose To examine the association between physical activity and symptom duration in a cohort of patients after a concussion. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods This study included 364 patients who were diagnosed with a concussion, were seen by a physician within 3 weeks of injury, and completed a questionnaire at the initial clinic visit. The questionnaire assessed the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) score, previous number of concussions, presence of the loss of consciousness or amnesia at the time of injury, and prior treatment for headaches. During each follow-up clinic visit, physical activity level was self-reported. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to determine the association between symptom duration, initial clinic visit responses, and self-reported physical activity level after the injury. Results Study participants ranged in age from 8 to 27 years (mean age, 15.0 years) and had sustained a mean of 0.8 prior concussions; 222 patients (61%) were male. On initial examination, the mean PCSS score was 34.7. The mean symptom duration was 48.9 days after the injury. Among the variables included in the model, initial PCSS score and female sex were independently associated with symptom duration, while physical activity level after the injury was not. For participants aged between 13 and 18 years, however, higher levels of physical activity after the injury were associated with a shorter symptom duration. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that physical activity after the injury may not be universally detrimental to the recovery of concussion symptoms. PMID:26838933

  5. Reduced Activity-Dependent Protein Levels in a Mouse Model of the Fragile X Premutation

    PubMed Central

    von Leden, Ramona E.; Curley, Lindsey C.; Greenberg, Gian D.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation. PMID:24462720

  6. Reduced activity-dependent protein levels in a mouse model of the fragile X premutation.

    PubMed

    von Leden, Ramona E; Curley, Lindsey C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hunsaker, Michael R; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation.

  7. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  8. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-09-18

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  9. Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Xie, Ming; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Kai-Ge; Li, Ya-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free κ and λ light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free κ and λ light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p < 0.05). Further, the AUC values in patients with active RA were 0.871 for free κ light chain and 0.781 for free λ light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum κ light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum λ light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, high serum levels of free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free κ and λ light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.

  10. [Potential of pharmacological modulation of level and activity incretins on diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Chepljaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes data on the main approaches used for the search of biologically active compounds modulating the level and physiological activity of incretins. Currently two groups of drugs are used in clinical practice: they either replenish the deficit of incretins (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists) or inhibit the degradation processes (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors). In addition, new groups of substances are actively searched. These include non-peptide agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors, agonists/antagonists of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, the hybrid polypeptides based on glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon.

  11. Physical activity level and quality of life in long term lung cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Liu, Heshan; Patten, Christi A.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Cheville, Andrea L; Yang, Ping; Clark, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is associated with a multitude of challenges, and lung cancer survivors report significantly lower quality of life (QOL) than other cancer survivors. Methods This study aimed to examine the relationship between physical activity level and QOL in a large sample of long term lung cancer survivors (N = 1937). Average age at diagnosis was 65 years, 92% were Caucasian, and 51% male. Surveys were completed at lung cancer diagnosis and then average 4.2 years post-diagnosis. Results Most survivors reported having a sedentary lifestyle at both timepoints. However, 256 survivors reported a change in physical activity level from diagnosis to follow-up. Decreased physical activity (n = 140) was associated with decreased overall, mental, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual QOL (all ps < .001) and decreased symptom control as seen in reported pain, dry coughing, coughing with phlegm, shortness of breath, and level of fatigue (all ps < .05). In contrast, increased physical activity (n = 116) was associated with improved QOL (all ps < .05), and improved symptom control as seen in frequency and severity of pain (p < .01). For all participants, those engaging in regular physical activity (30 min or more per day, at least five days per week) reported significantly higher QOL scores (all ps < .001), and better symptom control than more sedentary survivors. Conclusions Results indicate a significant association between change in physical activity and QOL and symptom control for long term lung cancer survivors, and research exploring interventions designed to improve activity level for lung cancer survivors is further warranted. PMID:22681871

  12. Physical Activity Level and Medial Temporal Health in Youth at Ultra High-Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Gupta, Tina; Orr, Joseph M.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R.; Smith, Ashley K.; Robustelli, Briana L.; Leopold, Daniel R.; Millman, Zachary B.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate to vigorous activity levels can affect quality of life, cognition, and brain structure in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, physical activity has not been systematically studied during the period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis. Given reports of exercise-based neurogenesis in schizophrenia, understanding naturalistic physical activity levels in the prodrome may provide valuable information for early intervention efforts. The present study examined 29 ultra high-risk (UHR) and 27 matched controls to determine relationships between physical activity level, brain structure (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus), and symptoms. Participants were assessed with actigraphy for a 5-day period, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and structured clinical interviews. UHR participants showed a greater percentage of time in sedentary behavior while healthy controls spent more time engaged in light to vigorous activity. There was a strong trend to suggest the UHR group showed less total physical activity. The UHR group exhibited smaller medial temporal volumes when compared to healthy controls. Total level of physical activity in the UHR group was moderately correlated with smaller parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (right: r=.44, left: r=.55) and with occupational functioning (r=−.36; of negative symptom domain), but not positive symptomatology. Results suggest that inactivity is associated with medial temporal lobe health. Future studies are needed to determine if symptoms are driving inactivity, which in turn may be affecting the health of the parahippocampal structure and progression of illness. Although causality cannot be determined from the present design, these findings hold important implications for etiological conceptions and suggest promise for an experimental trial. PMID:24364613

  13. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  14. Higher and lower active circulating VWF levels: different facets of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Casonato, Alessandra; Pontara, Elena; Morpurgo, Margherita; Sartorello, Francesca; De Groot, Philip G; Cattini, Maria G; Daidone, Viviana; De Marco, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Most circulating von Willebrand factor (VWF) is normally inactive and incapable of binding platelets, but numerous disorders may modify the proportion of active VWF. We explored active VWF levels in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) whose VWF had a higher affinity for platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib, but different susceptibilities to ADAMTS13 and multimer patterns (9 patients lacking large multimers, 10 with a normal pattern); 12 patients with VWF C2362F and R1819_C1948delinsS mutations, which make VWF resistant to ADAMTS13 were also studied. Type 2B patients with abnormal or normal multimers had significantly more active VWF (3·33 ± 1·6 and 3·74 ± 0·74, respectively; normal 0·99 ± 0·23). The type of VWF mutation influenced VWF activation: V1316M was associated with the highest levels in patients with abnormal multimers, and R1341W in those with normal multimers. Pregnancy induced gradually rising active VWF levels and declining platelet counts in one type 2B VWD patient without large multimers. Active VWF levels dropped significantly in patients homozygous for the C2362F mutation or heterozygous for R1819_C1948delinsS mutations (0·2 ± 0·03 and 0·23 ± 0·1, respectively), and less in cases heterozygous for the VWF C2362F mutation (0·55 ± 0·17). We demonstrate that VWF may be more or less activated, with or without any direct involvement of the A1 domain, and regardless of ADAMTS13.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide diminishes the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in activated mast cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) is a Korean traditional type of salt and has been reported to have therapeutic effects on allergic inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) aggravates inflammation in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions, such as allergic rhinitis (AR). To confirm an active compound of BS, we investigated the effect of sulfur, a compound of BS, on the levels of TSLP in a human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and a mouse model of AR using hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH). We treated NaSH or BS in HMC-1 cells and activated the HMC-1 cells with phorbol myristate acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). ELISA for the production measurement of TSLP, PCR for the mRNA expression measurement of TSLP, and western blot analysis for the expression measurement of upstream mediators were performed. Mice were treated with NaSH and sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). The levels of TSLP were measured in serum and nasal mucosa tissue in an OVA-induced AR mouse model. NaSH or BS diminished the production and mRNA expression of TSLP as well as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS diminished the level of intracellular calcium in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS reduced the expression and activity of caspase-1 in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. And NaSH or BS inhibited the expression of receptor interacting protein-2 and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. The translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm were diminished by NaSH or BS in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, NaSH inhibited the production of TSLP, IL-6, and IL-8 in TNF-α-activated HMC-1 cells. Finally, the administration of NaSH showed a decrease in number of rubs on mice with OVA-induced AR. And the levels of immunoglobulin E and TSLP in the serum and the level of TSLP in the

  16. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  17. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an neurotransmitter found in several plant species on antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. The effects of dopamine on SOD, CAT and POD activities, as well as H2O2, O2•−, melanin contents and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12 h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. Significant increases in melanin content were observed. The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation decreased at all concentrations of dopamine tested. The SOD activity increased significantly under the action of dopamine, while CT activity was inhibited and POD activity was unaffected. The results suggest a close relationship between a possible antioxidant activity of dopamine and melanin and activation of SOD, reducing the levels of ROS and damage on membranes of soybean roots. PMID:25482756

  18. Physical activity levels of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Liu, Chin-Wen; Chung, I Chiao; Hsu, Po-Jen

    2014-11-16

    To compare physical activity levels in adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess. Forty adolescents diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (inclusive classrooms, n=20; self-contained classrooms, n=20) and 40 age-matched typically developing peers (general classrooms) participated. All participants wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for 5 consecutive weekdays during school hours. Three groups of adolescents were similarly active during physical education; however, adolescents with intellectual disabilities in self-contained classrooms were less active during recess than did the other two groups. In addition, they spent less percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess than did the typically developing adolescents. An inclusive, structured, and supportive environment promotes physical activity engagement in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  19. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  20. No Easy Answers: Helping Children with Attention and Activity Level Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Eddowes, E. Anne; Kuby, Patricia

    Recent developments have increased the need for both theoretical and practical dialogues concerning children's attention and activity levels. This book explores the complex issues and concerns in helping children with attention deficit disorder. The book is organized in three major sections. The first section describes current issues about…

  1. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  2. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  3. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  4. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  5. Associations between Adolescents' Situational Motivation and Objectively-Determined Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents' situational motivation to their physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels…

  6. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  7. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  8. Effects of an Aerobic Activity Program on the Cholesterol Levels of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the effects of a 15-week aerobic activity program on high school students' cholesterol levels. Analysis of control and participating students indicated that there were significant reductions in total cholesterol in the training group. There were no significant differences between groups in high density lipoprotein…

  9. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  10. Living in a Global Age. A Simulation Activity for Upper Elementary and Secondary Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    Designed to introduce concepts in international trade and global economics to upper elementary and secondary level students, this simulation activity engages students in the group task of assembling flashlights. A variety of topics can be explored, such as energy shortages, international crises, relationships between rich and poor nations, foreign…

  11. Sources of Continuity and Change in Activity Level in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    Actigraphs and parent and observer ratings were used to explore genetic influences on continuity and change in activity level (AL) in early childhood. Over 300 pairs of twins wore actigraphs for a 48-hr period in the home and laboratory at ages 2 and 3. AL was genetically influenced at both ages with little evidence of differential heritability…

  12. Pyrazinoic acid decreases the proton motive force, respiratory ATP synthesis activity, and cellular ATP levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Haagsma, Anna C; Pham, Hoang; Maaskant, Janneke J; Mol, Selena; Lill, Holger; Bald, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the first-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, decreased the proton motive force and respiratory ATP synthesis rates in subcellular mycobacterial membrane assays. Pyrazinoic acid also significantly lowered cellular ATP levels in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These results indicate that the predominant mechanism of killing by this drug may operate by depletion of cellular ATP reserves.

  13. Genetic Influences on Activity Level in Early Childhood: Do Situations Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.; Zapfe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Although genetic influences on individual differences in activity level (AL) are well documented, few studies have considered the etiology of AL from a contextual perspective. In the present study, cross-situational and context-specific genetic effects on individual differences in AL at age 2 were examined. The AL of 312 twin pairs (144…

  14. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: is there an association with disease activity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), to determine the prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency [25(OH)D=19 ng/ml] and insufficiency [25(OH)D 20-29 ng/ml], and to determine factors associated with ...

  15. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL.

  16. Effects of Varying Team Sizes on Physical Activity Levels of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Cluphf, David; Russell, Jared; Lecheminant, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine physical activity levels among various team sizes for basketball and soccer in a C/UIPAP setting. Twenty-eight university physical education majors participated in the study. Participants engaged in three-on-three and five-on-five basketball and five-on-five and 11-on-11 soccer games. All games…

  17. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  18. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  19. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  20. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  1. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  2. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  3. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AQUATIC MESOCOSM TROPIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic mesocosms were dosed with an environmentally relevant concentration of 17-a-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to study the significance of trophic status (N, P levels) on the attenuation and bioavailability of synthetic estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Estrogenic activity was asse...

  4. Supported and unsupported breast displacement in three dimensions across treadmill activity levels.

    PubMed

    Scurr, Joanna C; White, Jennifer L; Hedger, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate sports bras are crucial to limit potential breast pain and ptosis. In an attempt to optimize breast support during exercise, manufacturers now produce activity level-specific sports bras. However, until breast movement across activity levels is understood, the criterion for such apparel is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify multi-planar breast displacement across treadmill activity levels and breast support conditions. Twenty-one D cup participants had markers attached to their nipples and trunk to calculate relative 3D breast displacement. Supported and unsupported mediolateral, anterioposterior, vertical, and resultant breast displacement was assessed during treadmill walking up to maximum running. Unsupported resultant breast displacement increased from 4.2 ± 1.0 cm during walking to 15.2 ± 4.2 cm during running. There was no change in breast displacement amplitude or direction as running speed increased above 10 km · h⁻¹, with vertical breast displacement then accounting for ∼50% of overall displacement. While breast support was effective in reducing the amplitude of breast displacement during walking and running, the direction was unaffected. In conclusion, instead of activity level-specific breast support, future research should identify multi-planar breast kinematics during various sporting modalities. This might lead to production of a sports-specific bra to reduce the negative consequences of breast movement.

  5. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  6. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  7. The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining…

  8. [Effect of change in activity level of catecholaminergic systems on motor, respiratory, and cardiac activities in rat embryos].

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, O P; Vdovichenko, N D; Kuznetsov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Parameters of motor, respiratory and cardiac activities were studied in rat embryos (E17-20) after changes in activity level of catecholaminergic systems. To produce conditions for excessive level of catecholamines, the animal were administered individually with preparation of L-DOPA at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. Also studied was action of L-DOPA after blockade of D1-(antagonist - SCH-23390, 0.1 mg/kg), D2-(antagonist - sulpiride, 50 mg/kg) dopaminic, and beta2-(antagonist - propranolol, 1 mg/kg) adrenergic receptors. It was found out in E17-18 that the DOPA administration regardless of dose, while in E19-20 dose-dependently produces continuous generalized activity. Between E18 and E19, ontogenetically new is the appearance in 92 % of embryos of stereotypical head movements (circular movements, lateral and dorso-ventral flexions) following in the nearsecond rhythm. Injection of DOPA to rat embryos increased 2-6 times the number of respiratory movements by the gasping type in E17-20 and decreased the amount of episodes of continuous rhythmical respiration in E19-20. No significant heart rate changes were observed after introduction of DOPA to E17-20. There was noted a tendency for a weak acceleration of the heart rate. The changes in activities of the motor and respiratory systems due to a rise of catecholamine level are not connected with activation of the dopamine system, as they are not reduced by blockade of dopamine receptors.

  9. [The psychophysiological condition of first year students with different levels of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Akhmedova, O O; Ovezgel'dyeva, G O; Grigor'ian, A G

    2011-01-01

    The psychophysiological condition of (male) first year students who participate in sport or don't participate in sport during studies was studied. R. M. Bayevsky's method was used to establish the level of stress on regulatory mechanisms. The functional level of the nervous system, stability of neural responses, and the level of functional abilities of the developed functional system were evaluated using the variation chronoreflexometric method. It was established that an improvement of mental capacity indicators (increase of memory capacity, reduction of the amount of mistakes made, growth of the level of functional abilities and reduction of the latency period of the visual-motor response) was accompanied by a growth of stress on the body's regulatory systems which was more pronounced with regard to those test participants whose level of physical activity was low. This fact is proof that physical activity reduces the body's "adaptation price" to the changing conditions of the environment. The optimal realisation of a person's adaptive systemic reactions is provided for by the dynamic interaction of the functional systems, which form a complex correlation in the body's somatovegetative, motor and psychoemotional spheres of activity.

  10. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain.

  11. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  12. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Nadhia H. C.; Ferrari, Raquel A. M.; Silva, Daniela F. T.; Nunes, Fabio D.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Fernandes, Kristianne P. S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA) of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ) (activation) for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2). Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT) assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days) in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle. PMID:25076002

  13. Changes in breath trihalomethane levels resulting from household water-use activities.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sydney M; Brinkman, Marielle C; Ashley, David L; Blount, Benjamin C; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C

    2006-04-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities

  14. Symptom Assessment in Knee Osteoarthritis Needs to Account for Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Grace H.; McAlindon, Timothy E.; Hawker, Gillian A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Song, Jing; Eaton, Charles B.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Nevitt, Michael C.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain is not always correlated with radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) severity possibly because people modify activities to manage symptoms. Measures of symptoms that consider pain in the context of activity level may therefore provide greater discrimination than pain alone. Our objective was to compare discrimination of a measure of pain alone with combined measures of pain relative to physical activity across radiographic OA levels. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of the Osteoarthritis Initiative accelerometer substudy, including those with and without knee OA. Two composite pain and activity knee symptom (PAKS) scores were calculated as Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale plus one divided by physical activity measures (step and activity counts). Symptom score discrimination across Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grades were evaluated using histograms and quantile regression. Results 1806 participants, mean age 65.1 (9.1) years, mean BMI 28.4 (4.8) kg/m2, and 55.6% female, were included. WOMAC, but not PAKS scores, exhibited a floor effect. Adjusted median WOMAC by KL grades 0 – 4 were 0, 0, 1, 1, and 3 respectively. Median PAKS1 and PAKS2 were 24.9, 26.0, 32.4, 46.1, 97.9, and 7.2, 7.2, 9.2, 12.9, 23.8, respectively. PAKS scores had more statistically significant comparisons between KL grades compared with WOMAC. Conclusions Symptom assessments incorporating pain and physical activity did not exhibit a floor effect and were better able to discriminate radiographic severity than pain alone, particularly in milder disease. Pain in the context of physical activity level should be used to assess knee OA symptoms. PMID:26407008

  15. Parental Influences and the Relationship to their Children’s Physical Activity Levels

    PubMed Central

    CHIARLITTI, NATHAN A.; KOLEN, ANGELA M.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging in a physically active lifestyle relates positively to current health and reduces chances of chronic diseases in the future. Given escalating health care costs, it is paramount to reduce illnesses associated with a lack of physical activity and thus critical to identify factors that influence physical activity - especially in children, with the opportunity for a lifetime impact. One of these influencing factors may be parents/guardians. The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between children’s physical activity levels and parental factors including parental physical activity, support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and self-reported participation. Data was collected from 15 child-parent pairs with children ranging in age from 7 to 10 years. Daily physical activity levels were determined from pedometer data using a Piezo SC-Step Pedometer. Number of steps and moderate and vigorous physical activity were extracted from the pedometers and levels of support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and participation were quantified from parents’ self-reported responses to a questionnaire created for this study. Pearson Product correlation analyses were carried out between: the children’s and parent steps (r = −0.069; p = 0.597); children’s steps and parent’s self-reported encouragement/support (r = 0.045, p = 0.563); children’s steps and parents’ self-reported restrictiveness (r = −.0254, p = 0.820); and children’s steps and parents’ self-reported participation (r = −0.002, p = 0.503). The lack of significant relationships among these variables implies that more complex interactions occur between children and their parents regarding physical activity with children’s participation influenced by other factors. PMID:28344735

  16. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.

  17. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  18. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Lee, Tet Woo; Christie, David L.; Birch, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM) but not high (50 μM) concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and receptor-associated protein (RAP), a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs. PMID:26500501

  19. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  20. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  1. Shifts in microbial community in response to dissolved oxygen levels in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Trilok Chandra; Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Kapley, Atya

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the degradative efficiency of activated biomass collected from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) under three different dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, 1, 2 and 4mgl(-1). The change in bacterial diversity with reference to DO levels was also analyzed. Results demonstrate that degradative efficiency was the highest, when the reactor was maintained at 4mgl(-1) DO, but amplicon library analysis showed a greater diversity of bacteria in the reactor maintained at 2mgl(-1) DO. Bacteria belonging to the order Desulfuromonadales, Entomoplasmatales, Pasteurellales, Thermales and Chloroflexales have only been detected in this reactor. Ammonia and nitrate levels in all three reactors indicated efficient nitrification process. Results of this study offer new insights into understanding the performance of activated biomass vis-à-vis microbial diversity and degradative efficiency with reference to DO. This information would be useful in improving the efficiency of any wastewater treatment plant.

  2. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors.

    PubMed

    Cass, Amy I

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.

  3. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  4. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  5. Locally constrained active contour: a region-based level set for ovarian cancer metastasis segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfei; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of ovarian cancer metastases is clinically useful to evaluate tumor growth and determine follow-up treatment. We present a region-based level set algorithm with localization constraints to segment ovarian cancer metastases. Our approach is established on a representative region-based level set, Chan-Vese model, in which an active contour is driven by region competition. To reduce over-segmentation, we constrain the level set propagation within a narrow image band by embedding a dynamic localization function. The metastasis intensity prior is also estimated from image regions within the level set initialization. The localization function and intensity prior force the level set to stop at the desired metastasis boundaries. Our approach was validated on 19 ovarian cancer metastases with radiologist-labeled ground-truth on contrast-enhanced CT scans from 15 patients. The comparison between our algorithm and geodesic active contour indicated that the volume overlap was 75+/-10% vs. 56+/-6%, the Dice coefficient was 83+/-8% vs. 63+/-8%, and the average surface distance was 2.2+/-0.6mm vs. 4.4+/-0.9mm. Experimental results demonstrated that our algorithm outperformed traditional level set algorithms.

  6. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Manuela Ferreira; de Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório; dos Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; de Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Methods An epidemiological, cross-section study with quantitative design, carried out at the regional level. The sample comprised 6,234 students aged 14 to 19 years, selected using random cluster sampling. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results A total of 74.5% of adolescents lived in urban areas. After adjustment, rural residents spent less time watching television (odds ratio – OR: 0.45; 95% confidence interval – 95%CI: 0.39-0.52), using a computer and/or playing video games (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.22-0.42), or sitting down (OR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.54-0.80); chose passive leisure less often (OR: 0.83; 95%IC: 0.72-0.95) and were less likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 0.88; 95%IC: 0.78-0.99) when compared to urban residents, regardless of sex or age. The fact that adolescents living in rural areas who did not work were more likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 2.07-3.24) emphasized the significant role of occupation in physical activity levels in this group. Conclusion Adolescents living in rural areas were less exposed to the sedentary behaviors, chose more active leisure, and had higher levels of physical activity. Place of residence and occupation may play a major role in youth lifestyle. PMID:28076591

  7. Effects of Chronic Active Cannabis Use on Visuomotor Integration, in Relation to Brain Activation and Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    King, G.R.; Ernst, T.; Deng, W.; Stenger, A.; Gonzales, R.M.K; Nakama, H.; Chang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. 30 cannabis users (16 men and 14 women, 18 to 45 years old) and 30 non-drug user controls (16 men and 14 women, 19 to 44 years old) were evaluated with neuropsychological tests designed to assess motor behavior and functional MRI (fMRI), using a 3 Tesla scanner, during a visually paced finger-sequencing task, cued by a flashing checkerboard (at 2 or 4 Hz). Salivary cortisol was measured to assess HPA function. Male, but not female, cannabis users had significantly slower performance on psychomotor speed tests. As a group, cannabis users had greater activation in BA 6 than controls, while controls had greater activation in the visual area BA 17 than cannabis users. Cannabis users also had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls (p = 0.002). Chronic active cannabis use is associated with slower and less efficient psychomotor function, especially in the male users, as indicated by a shift from regions involved with automated visually guided responses to more executive or attentional control areas. These brain activities may be attenuated by the higher cortisol levels in the cannabis users which in turn may lead to less efficient visual-motor function. PMID:22159107

  8. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Sæther, Stig A.; Aspvik, Nils P.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level. Key points It is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth. With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ total physical activity (PA) load. These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. PMID:25435792

  9. Anesthetic Isoflurane Increases Phosphorylated Tau Levels Mediated by Caspase Activation and Aβ Generation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanlin; Wu, Xu; Xu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2012-01-01

    Anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to promote Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathogenesis by inducing caspase activation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ). Phosphorylation of tau protein is another important feature of AD neuropathogenesis. However, the effects of isoflurane on phosphorylated tau levels remain largely to be determined. We therefore set out to determine whether isoflurane can increase phosphorylated tau levels. 5 to 8 month-old wild-type and AD transgenic mice [B6.Cg-Tg (APPswe, PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J] were treated with 1.4% isoflurane for two hours. The mice brain tissues were harvested at six, 12 and 24 hours after the anesthesia. For the in vitro studies, primary neurons from wild-type and the AD transgenic mice were exposed to 2% isoflurane for six hours, and were harvested at the end of anesthesia. The harvested brain tissues and neurons were subjected to Western blot analysis by which the levels of phosphorylated tau protein at Serine 262 (Tau-PS262) were determined. Here we show that the isoflurane anesthesia increased Tau-PS262 levels in brain tissues and primary neurons from the wild-type and AD transgenic mice. Moreover, the isoflurane anesthesia may induce a greater increase in Tau-PS262 levels in primary neurons and brain tissues from the AD transgenic mice. Finally, caspase activation inhibitor Z-VAD and Aβ generation inhibitor L-685,458 attenuated the isoflurane-induced increases in Tau-PS262 levels. In conclusion, clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia increases phosphorylated tau levels, which may result from the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and Aβ generation. These findings will promote more studies to determine the effects of anesthetics on tau phosphorylation. PMID:22745746

  10. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  11. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease.

  12. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U.; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion

    2015-01-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  13. Factors influencing physical activity level among secondary school adolescents in Petaling District, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Aniza, I; Fairuz, M R

    2009-09-01

    Physical activity is the first line approach and one of the main factors in preventing chronic diseases. Currently there is the increasing percentage of sedentary life style or lack of exercise among adolescents. The main objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of inactivity and the factors influencing physical activity in adolescents. A cross sectional study was carried out among secondary school students aged 14 and 16 in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 519 respondents participated in this study. Their physical activity level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The active group was classified as those having levels of equal or more than 600 met-min per week while less than 600 met-min per week was considered inactive. Response rate in this study was 95.4%. The prevalence of inactive in adolescents was 20.8%. Female adolescents, non-working mother, time constraint, exercise only when having ample time and stretching before exercise are predictor factors for being inactive among adolescents. Steps need to be taken to persistently ensure that the physical activity among adolescents be increased continuously.

  14. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    PubMed Central

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in

  15. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels reflect organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Enocsson, Helena; Wetterö, Jonas; Skogh, Thomas; Sjöwall, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Assessments of disease activity and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain challenging because of the lack of reliable biomarkers and disease heterogeneity. Ongoing inflammation can be difficult to distinguish from permanent organ damage caused by previous flare-ups or medication side effects. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has emerged as a potential marker of inflammation and disease severity, and an outcome predictor in several disparate conditions. This study was done to evaluate suPAR as a marker of disease activity and organ damage in SLE. Sera from 100 healthy donors and 198 patients with SLE fulfilling the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or the Fries criteria were analyzed for suPAR by enzyme immunoassay. Eighteen patients with varying degree of disease activity were monitored longitudinally. Disease activity was assessed by the SLE disease activity index 2000 and the physician's global assessment. Organ damage was evaluated by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). Compared with healthy control subjects, serum suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients with SLE. No association was recorded regarding suPAR levels and SLE disease activity in cross-sectional or consecutive samples. However, a strong association was observed between suPAR and SDI (P < 0.0005). Considering distinct SDI domains, renal, neuropsychiatric, ocular, skin, and peripheral vascular damage had a significant effect on suPAR levels. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between serum suPAR and irreversible organ damage in SLE. Further studies are warranted to evaluate suPAR and other biomarkers as predictors of evolving organ damage.

  16. Decadal variability of European sea level extremes in relation to the solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Asensio, Adrián.; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Calafat, Francisco Mir

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the relationship between decadal changes in solar activity and sea level extremes along the European coasts and derived from tide gauge data. Autumn sea level extremes vary with the 11 year solar cycle at Venice as suggested by previous studies, but a similar link is also found at Trieste. In addition, a solar signal in winter sea level extremes is also found at Venice, Trieste, Marseille, Ceuta, Brest, and Newlyn. The influence of the solar cycle is also evident in the sea level extremes derived from a barotropic model with spatial patterns that are consistent with the correlations obtained at the tide gauges. This agreement indicates that the link to the solar cycle is through modulation of the atmospheric forcing. The only atmospheric regional pattern that showed variability at the 11 year period was the East Atlantic pattern.

  17. Superoxide dismutase activity and gene expression levels in Saudi women with recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    GHNEIM, HAZEM K.; AL-SHEIKH, YAZEED A.; ALSHEBLY, MASHAEL M.; ABOUL-SOUD, MOURAD A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and SOD2, as well as the levels of the oxidant superoxide anion (SOA) and the micronutrients zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), were assayed in plasma, whole blood and placental tissue of non-pregnant (NP), healthy pregnant (HP) women and recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients. The results showed that SOD1 and SOD2 activities and the levels of Zn, Cu and Mn in plasma and whole blood of HP women were slightly, but significantly lower, and even more significantly decreased in RM patients compared to those observed in NP women (P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). Additionally, whereas plasma SOD1 and SOD2 activities and Zn, Cu and Mn levels were significantly lower in RM patients, those of whole blood and placental tissue were significantly lower when compared to HP women (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Concurrently, there were consistent increases of equal magnitude and statistical significance in SOA levels in all the assayed samples as identified by a comparison between the subjects. The findings thus supported oxidative metabolism and excessive reactive oxygen species generation. The resultant oxidative stress, identified in whole blood and placental tissues of RM patients, may have been a primary cause of RM. Dietary supplementation of Zn, Cu and Mn may be beneficial to these patients pre- and post-conception. PMID:26821085

  18. Chronic lamotrigine treatment increases rat hippocampal GABA shunt activity and elevates cerebral taurine levels.

    PubMed

    Hassel, B; Taubøll, E; Gjerstad, L

    2001-02-01

    The mechanism of action of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine has previously been investigated only in acute experiments and is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-dependent sodium channels. However, lamotrigine is effective against more forms of epilepsies than other antiepileptic drugs that also inhibit sodium channels. We investigated whether chronic lamotrigine treatment may affect cerebral amino acid levels. Rats received lamotrigine, 10 mg/kg/day, for 90 days. The hippocampal level of GABA increased 25%, and the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and succinic semialdehyde/GABA transaminase increased 12 and 21% (p< 0.05), respectively, indicating increased GABA turnover. The uptake of GABA and glutamate into proteoliposomes remained unaltered. The level of taurine increased 27% in the hippocampus and 16% in the frontal and parietal cortices. The activities of hexokinase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, remained at control values. Serum lamotrigine was 41.7+/-1.5 microM (mean+/-S.E.M.), which is within the range seen in epileptic patients. Acute experiments with 5, 20 or 100 mg lamotrigine/kg, caused no changes in brain amino acid levels. The results suggest that chronic lamotrigine treatment increases GABAergic activity in the hippocampus. The cerebral increase in taurine, which has neuromodulatory properties, may contribute to the antiepileptic effect of lamotrigine.

  19. Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

  20. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    PubMed

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  1. Decreased glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in untreated and treated schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Monia; Mechri, Anwar; Othman, Leila Ben; Fendri, Chiraz; Gaha, Lotfi; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2009-10-01

    There is substantial evidence found in the literature that supports the fact that the presence of oxidative stress may play an important role in the physiopathology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of impairments in the glutathione levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in patients suffering from schizophrenia. However, most of these studies were performed on treated patients. The present study evaluated treated schizophrenic patients (n=52) along with neuroleptic-free or untreated schizophrenic patients (n=36) and healthy controls (n=46). The blood glutathione levels: total glutathione (GSHt), reduced glutathione (GSHr), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were measured. The psychopathology of the patients was assessed through the Clinical Global Impressions-severity (CGI-severity). The tests revealed that in comparison with the healthy controls, the schizophrenic patients showed significantly lower levels of GSHr, SOD, and CAT. Among the schizophrenic patients, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were recorded to be significantly lower in untreated patients than in the treated ones. In addition, the levels of both GSHt and GSHr were found to be inversely correlated with the obtained CGI-severity score. These results evidently suggest that a decrease in the glutathione levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is not related to neuroleptic treatment and could be considered as a biological indicator of the degree of severity of the symptoms of schizophrenia.

  2. Increased soluble GPVI levels in cirrhosis: evidence for early in vivo platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Egan, Karl; Dillon, Audrey; Dunne, Eimear; Kevane, Barry; Galvin, Zita; Maguire, Patricia; Kenny, Dermot; Stewart, Stephen; Ainle, Fionnuala Ni

    2017-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a consequence of prolonged liver injury and is characterised by extensive tissue fibrosis: the deposition of collagen-rich extracellular matrix. The haemostatic balance is disordered in cirrhosis and coagulation activation appears to promote fibrosis. In spite of recent studies demonstrating a role for anticoagulant therapy in preventing cirrhosis progression, there has not been a change in clinical practice, suggesting that physicians are reluctant to anticoagulate patients with cirrhosis due to bleeding risks. Platelets play an important role in facilitating coagulation. Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is a platelet-specific collagen receptor that is shed from the platelet surface in a metalloproteinase-dependent manner in response to GPVI ligation and coagulation activation. Our aim was to use soluble GPVI levels to determine whether there was evidence for collagen and coagulation-induced platelet activation in early, well-compensated cirrhosis. Plasma soluble GPVI levels were quantified in 46 patients with mixed aetiology cirrhosis and 55 healthy controls using an immunoassay. In the cirrhosis group, soluble GPVI levels were significantly increased (5.8 ± 4.4 ng/ml, n = 46) compared to healthy controls (3.3 ± 3.4 ng/ml, n = 55, p < 0.05). This increase in soluble GPVI levels was still evident when levels were adjusted for platelet count (Healthy controls; 0.015 ± 0.018 ng/10(6) platelets/ml vs. cirrhosis; 0.048 ± 0.04 ng/10(6) platelets/ml, p < 0.0001). This study provides evidence for early platelet activation in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. This may have translational implications for prognosis, treatment, and risk stratification.

  3. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  4. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

  5. At High Levels, Constitutively Activated STAT3 Induces Apoptosis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Rozovski, Uri; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Ji Yuan; Grgurevic, Srdana; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Martinez, Matthew; Verstovsek, Srdan; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-05-15

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the increment in PBLs is slower than the expected increment calculated from the cells' proliferation rate, suggesting that cellular proliferation and apoptosis are concurrent. Exploring this phenomenon, we found overexpression of caspase-3, higher cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase levels (p < 0.007), and a higher apoptosis rate in cells from patients with high counts compared with cells from patients with low counts. Although we previously found that STAT3 protects CLL cells from apoptosis, STAT3 levels were significantly higher in cells from patients with high counts than in cells from patients with low counts. Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 did not protect the cells. Rather, it upregulated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. Remarkably, putative STAT3 binding sites were identified in the caspase-3 promoter, and a luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an EMSA revealed that STAT3 activated caspase-3 However, caspase-3 levels increased only when STAT3 levels were sufficiently high. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and EMSA, we found that STAT3 binds with low affinity to the caspase-3 promoter, suggesting that at high levels, STAT3 activates proapoptotic mechanisms and induces apoptosis in CLL cells.

  6. Variation in cyclic nucleotide levels and lysosomal enzyme activities in the irradiated rat

    SciTech Connect

    Trocha, P.J.; Catravas, G.N.

    1980-09-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats causes not only a release of hydrolases from the lysosomes but also fluctuations in the cyclic nucleotide levels in spleen and liver tissues. Significant increases in lysosomal enzyme activities were further observed in spleen following radiation treatment. At 3 to 6 hr after rats were exposed to ..gamma.. radiation, transient increases in both cGMP and cAMP levels were accompanied with the release of ..beta..-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase enzymes from lysosomes in liver and spleen tissues. A second transitory release and activation of lysosomal hydrolases and an increase in cAMP levels occurred between 2 and 5 days after irradiation in spleen but not in liver. On Days 7 and 8, there was a third release of lysosomal hydrolases and a slight increase in the spleen cAMP concentration before they returned to near-control values. Cyclic GMP levels in the spleen decreased on the third day after irradiation, remained suppressed until Day 9, and then increased to levels higher than normal physiological values. The liver cGMP concentration remained unchanged between 9 hr and 11 days after irradiation.

  7. Modeling and optimization of actively Q-switched Nd-doped quasi-three-level laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Renpeng; Yu, Xin; Li, Xudong; Chen, Deying; Gao, Jing

    2013-09-01

    The energy transfer upconversion and the ground state absorption are considered in solving the rate equations for an active Q-switched quasi-three-level laser. The dependence of output pulse characters on the laser parameters is investigated by solving the rate equations. The influence of the energy transfer upconversion on the pulsed laser performance is illustrated and discussed. By this model, the optimal parameters could be achieved for arbitrary quasi-three-level Q-switched lasers. An acousto-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG 946 nm laser is constructed and the reliability of the theoretical model is demonstrated.

  8. Relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rates in teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Terblanche, A.P.S.; Ozkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Butler, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    A study was designed to explore the relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rate (HR) as measured by a portable heart rate monitor. Twenty-two teenagers (8 boys, 14 girls, median age of 16) from Watertown High School, Massachusetts participated in this pilot study which involved continuous monitoring of HR during normal daily activities and simultaneous completion of a time-activity diary. There were 31 successful monitoring sessions ranging from 1.9 to 17 hours with a median monitoring time of 12.6 hours. Four unsuccessful monitoring sessions were experienced due to equipment failure. Apart from participant cooperation, the single most important factor affecting the feasibility of continuous heart rate monitoring was found to be equipment design. Th overall average heart rate observed was 88.4 bpm (SD = 24.3). An individual's correlation coefficient for perceived activity level (documented in half-hour intervals) and heart rate (averaged over the half-hour intervals) varied from 0.24 to 0.89. More than half of the correlation coefficients were below 0.40. There was a significant difference between average heart rate for time spent indoors (90 bpm) versus outdoors (103 bpm) even after correcting for sleeping time. It is concluded that continuous HR monitoring with simultaneous completion of a time/activity dairy is feasible and is a promising source of information for studies on exposure to air pollutants.

  9. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers’ Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members). Study Design A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers. Methods The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community).Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities (“healthy lifestyle,” “outreach to family,” “outreach to community”) and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high) among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers’ outreach activities. Results Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%). Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the

  10. Increased levels of peroxisomal active oxygen-related enzymes in copper-tolerant pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, J.M.; Gomez, M.; Yanez, J.; Del Rio, L.A.

    1987-10-01

    The effect in vivo of high nutrient levels of copper (240 micromolar) on the activity of different metalloenzymes containing Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn, distributed in chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria, was studied in leaves of two varieties of Pisum sativum L. plants with different sensitivity to copper. The metalloenzymes studied were: cytochrome c oxidase, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase I (Cu,Zn-SOD I), for mitochondria; catalase and Mn-SOD, for peroxisomes; and isozyme Cu,Zn-SOD II for chloroplasts. The activity of mitochondrial SOD isozymes (Mn-SOD and Cu,Zn-SOD I) was very similar in Cu-tolerant and Cu-sensitive plants, whereas cytochrome c oxidase was lower in Cu-sensitive plants. Chloroplastid Cu,Zn-SOD activity was the same in the two plant varieties. In contrast, the peroxisomal Mn-SOD activity was considerably higher in Cu-tolerant than in Cu-sensitive plants, and the activity of catalase was also increased in peroxisomes of Cu-tolerant plants. The higher activities of these peroxisomal active oxygen-related enzymes in Cu-tolerant plants suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen intermediates (O/sub 2//sup -/, OH) in the mechanism of Cu lethality, and also imply a function for peroxisomal Mn-SOD in the molecular mechanisms of plant tolerance to Cu in Pisum sativum L.

  11. Low level laser therapy modulates viability, alkaline phosphatase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities of osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávia Amadeu de; Matos, Adriana Arruda; Matsuda, Sandra Satiko; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Bagnato, Vanderley Salvador; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Damante, Carla Andreotti; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso de; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila

    2017-04-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to stimulate bone cell metabolism but their impact on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity is little explored. This study evaluated the influence of LLLT at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, on MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and MMP-2 and -9 activities. To accomplish this, MC3T3-E1 cells were irradiated with a punctual application of either red (660nm; InGaAIP active medium) or infrared (780nm; GaAlAs active medium) lasers both at a potency of 20mW, energy dose of 0.08 or 0.16J, and energy density of 1.9J/cm(2) or 3.8J/cm(2), respectively. The control group received no irradiation. Cellular viability, ALP and MMP-2 and -9 activities were assessed by MTT assay, enzymatic activity and zymography, respectively, at 24, 48 and 72h. The treatment of cells with both red and infrared lasers significantly increased the cellular viability compared to the non-irradiated control group at 24 and 48h. The ALP activity was also up modulated in infrared groups at 24 and 72h, depending on the energy densities. In addition, the irradiation with red laser at the energy density of 1.9J/cm(2) promoted an enhancement of MMP-2 activity at 48 and 72h. However, no differences were observed for the MMP-9 activity. In conclusion, when used at these specific parameters, LLL modulates both preosteoblast viability and differentiation highlighted by the increased ALP and MMP-2 activities induced by irradiation.

  12. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  13. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Liu, Zhiwei; Schlosser, Christopher; Spanogle, Terri L; Chandrasekaran, Appavu; McDaniel, Katherine L

    2016-12-15

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administered dose, the differences based on internal concentrations were less, with γ-cyhalothrin being 1.3- to 1.6-fold more potent than λ-cyhalothrin. These potency differences are consistent with the purity of the λ-isomer (approximately 43%) compared to the enriched isomer γ-cyhalothrin (approximately 98%). Thus, administered dose as well as differences in cyhalothrin isomers is a good predictor of behavioral effects.

  14. Non-carrier-mediated uptake of the mannosidase I inhibitor 1-deoxymannojirimycin by K562 erythroleukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neefjes, J.J.; Lindhout, J.; Broxterman, H.J.; van der Marel, G.A.; van Boom, J.H.; Ploegh, H.L.

    1989-06-15

    A /sup 3/H label was introduced at the C-1 position of the mannosidase I inhibitor 1-deoxymannojirimycin (dMM) by catalytic hydrogenolysis of benzyl-2,3-O-isopropylidene-5-N-benzyl-6-O-benzyl-alpha-D-mannofurano side with /sup 3/H/sub 2/. 1-(/sup 3/H)dMM as well as its precursor 1-(/sup 3/H)2,3-O-isopropylidene-dMM had identical Rf as the nonradioactive compounds on TLC. Furthermore, alpha 1-antitrypsin secreted by HepG2 cells was modified indistinguishably by treatment of the cells with dMM and 1-(/sup 3/H)dMM. Thus, 1-(/sup 3/H)dMM had chemical and biological properties identical with authentic dMM. Uptake of (/sup 14/C)mannose by K562 cells could be inhibited by glucose but not by the mannose analogue dMM. Thus, dMM does not enter the cell through hexose transporter(s). Uptake of 1-(/sup 3/H)dMM by K562 cells could not be inhibited by increasing concentrations of nonradioactive dMM (from 1-32,000 microM), showing transport of dMM into cells through nonfacilitated diffusion. Furthermore, uptake of 1-(/sup 3/H)dMM by K562 cells was observed at 0/degree/C.

  15. Threshold level of NF-kB activation in small bowel ischemic preconditioning procedure.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, A; Rácz, B; Gasz, B; Kalmár-Nagy, K; Horváth, O P; Röth, E

    2006-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), which is obtained by exposure to brief periods of vascular occlusion, improves organ tolerance to prolonged ischemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the threshold level of NF-kB activation in small intestine during an IPC procedure. Various intestinal IPC were performed on 20 Wistar rats in seven groups: group I (GI, nonpreconditioned); group II (GII, 1-minute ischemia and 1-minute reperfusion); group III (GIII, two cycles of 1-minute ischemia and 1-minute reperfusion); group IV (GIV, 2-minutes ischemia and 2-minutes reperfusion); group V (GV, two cycles of 2-minute ischemia and 2-minute reperfusion); group VI (GVI, 5-minute ischemia and 10-minute reperfusion); group VII (GVII, two cycles of 5-minute ischemia and 10-minute reperfusion). Bowel biopsies were collected after laparotomy (control) as well as at 30, 60, and 120 minutes following IPC. We determined the cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kB by a chemiluminescence-based ELISA method. Our results showed low, constant NF-kB levels in GI. In the preconditioned groups (GII-GVII), NF-kB was significantly elevated at 30 minutes following IPC (P < .05 vs control). After 1 hour, NF-kB activity decreased to the control level. However, 2 hours after IPC both forms of NF-kB were elevated significantly again, which was independent of the number of IPC cycles (P < .05 vs control). Our experiments revealed that one cycle of 1-minute ischemia and 1-minute reperfusion is a critical threshold level for NF-kB activation during small bowel IPC. Longer and more IPC cycles did not result in further elevation of NF-kB activation.

  16. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  17. Levels of gingival tissue platelet activating factor after conventional and regenerative periodontal surgery.

    PubMed

    Keles, Gonca Cayir; Cetinkaya, Burcu Ozkan; Ayas, Bulent; Isildak, Ibrahim; Diraman, Emine; Koprulu, Hulya; Acikgoz, Gokhan

    2007-12-01

    The hypothesis, a relationship between gingival tissue platelet activating factor (PAF) levels and healing after periodontal surgery, was tested by measuring PAF levels in gingival tissues collected from sites that had undergone flap surgery and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) or flap surgery alone. Using a split-mouth design, 20 intrabony defects were randomly assigned to treatment with flap surgery and GTR (group 1) or with flap surgery alone (group 2). Gingival tissue samples were obtained at surgery (baseline) and at 6-month follow-up evaluation visit. One half of each sample was used for analysis of PAF levels by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the other half of the sample was used for histomorphometric analysis that included measurements of number and diameter of blood vessels. PAF levels and diameter of blood vessels were significantly decreased (p < 0.01), and the number of blood vessels was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in both groups after 6 months compared to the baseline values. Postoperative number of blood vessels were significantly higher in group 1 (p < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in postoperative PAF levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). Based on the reported results, it is suggested that a decrease in gingival PAF levels might be found after conventional and regenerative periodontal surgery.

  18. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanbin; Pollock, Norman; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger Susanne; Gutin, Bernard; Lan, Ling; Chen, Tai C; Keeton, Daniel; Petty, Karen; Holick, Michael F; Zhu, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: 33°N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity. Methods Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured. Results The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75nmol/L) and deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively. Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season (winter, 35.9±2.5 vs 77.4±2.7 nmol/L; spring, 46.4±3.5 vs 101.3±3.5 nmol/L; summer, 50.7±4.0 vs 104.3±4.0 nmol/L; autumn, 54.4± 4.0 vs 96.8±2.7 nmol/L). With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including BMI percentile (P=.02), waist circumference (P<.01), total fat mass (P<.01), percentage of body fat (P <.01), visceral adipose tissue (P <.015), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P<.039). There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P <.01) and cardiovascular fitness (P =.025). Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID:20439594

  19. Effects of copper supplementation on erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.T.; DiSilvestro, R.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are reported to possess lower than normal levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The contribution of copper status to these low values has not been examined. To address this issue, blood samples were obtained from 10 RA patients before and after 28 days of daily oral copper supplementation (2 mg/day). All patients were receiving gold therapy. Each RA subject, before supplementation, displayed lower erythrocyte SOD values than any of 25 age matched controls. The mean value for the RA subjects was about 40% lower than the control mean, whether expressed as units per ml packed cells or per mg hemoglobin. Erythrocyte SOD activity levels were increased in all subjects by the 4 week copper supplementation, with 7 of the patients showing at least a 22% increase. Presupplement SOD activities showed no correlation with serum C-reactive protein contents, an indicator of acute phase response. Serum levels of the copper containing acute phase protein ceruloplasmin, showed variable responses to copper supplementation. The studies described here are currently being extended to include RA subjects not being treated with gold and to include supplemented controls.

  20. Associations between students' situational interest, mastery experiences, and physical activity levels in an interactive dance game.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of previous experiences on students' situational interest and physical activity (PA) levels, as well as the relationships between situational interest and PA levels in Dance Dance Revolution (DDR). A total of 135 seventh through ninth graders participated in DDR unit for two weeks, and reported their previous DDR experiences. Students' PA levels were measured by ActiGraph accelerometers for three classes with percentages of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as the outcome variable. They also responded to the Situational Interest Scale (including novelty, challenge, attention demand, exploration intention, and instant enjoyment) at the end of each class. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) yielded a significant main effect for experience. Follow-up tests revealed that students with DDR experiences scored significantly higher than those without experiences at following dimensions: challenge; exploration intention; instant enjoyment; and attention demand. Regression analysis yielded that novelty emerged as the only significant predictor for MVPA. The findings suggested that four dimensions of situational interest differed between students with and without previous experiences. Novelty emerged as the only predictor for MVPA, suggesting that students would have higher PA when they feel the activity provides new information.

  1. A Relationship Between Microbial Activity in Soils and Phosphate Levels in Tributaries to Lake Champlain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, R.; Lee, S.; Lane, T.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Champlain is a large natural freshwater lake. It forms the western boundary of Vermont and drains over half of the state. It is bordered by the state of New York on its western side and drains to the north into Quebec, Canada. Lake Champlain is the source of fresh drinking water for over quarter of a million people and provides for the livelihoods and recreational opportunities of many well beyond its borders. The health of this lake is important. During the summer month's algae blooms plague the lake. These unsightly growths, which affect other aquatic organisms, are the result of excess phosphate flowing into the lake from many sources. Examining whether there is a relationship between microbial activity in the soils bordering tributaries to Lake Champlain and phosphate levels in those tributaries sheds insight into the origins and paths by which phosphate moves into Lake Champlain. Understanding the how phosphate moves into the water system may assist in mitigation efforts.Total Phosphate levels and Total Suspended Solids were measured in second and third order streams in the Lake Champlain Basin over a three-year period. In addition microbial activity was measured within the toe, bank and upland riparian zone areas of these streams during the summer months. In general in areas showing greater microbial activity in the soil(s) there were increased levels of phosphate in the streams.

  2. Decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3 levels and activity contribute to Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nogales, Marta; Hernández, Félix; Miguez, Andrés; Alberch, Jordi; Ginés, Silvia; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Lucas, José J

    2015-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy particularly in striatum leading to personality changes, chorea and dementia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase in the crossroad of many signaling pathways that is highly pleiotropic as it phosphorylates more than hundred substrates including structural, metabolic, and signaling proteins. Increased GSK-3 activity is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and GSK-3 inhibitors have been postulated as therapeutic agents for neurodegeneration. Regarding HD, GSK-3 inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in cell and invertebrate animal models but no evident efficacy in mouse models. Intriguingly, those studies were performed without interrogating GSK-3 level and activity in HD brain. Here we aim to explore the level and also the enzymatic activity of GSK-3 in the striatum and other less affected brain regions of HD patients and of the R6/1 mouse model to then elucidate the possible contribution of its alteration to HD pathogenesis by genetic manipulation in mice. We report a dramatic decrease in GSK-3 levels and activity in striatum and cortex of HD patients with similar results in the mouse model. Correction of the GSK-3 deficit in HD mice, by combining with transgenic mice with conditional GSK-3 expression, resulted in amelioration of their brain atrophy and behavioral motor and learning deficits. Thus, our results demonstrate that decreased brain GSK-3 contributes to HD neurological phenotype and open new therapeutic opportunities based on increasing GSK-3 activity or attenuating the harmful consequences of its decrease.

  3. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Inácio CM; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. Methods: All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Results: Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Conclusions: Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. PMID:25361583

  4. Delayed onset of electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis relative to the vastus lateralis may be related to physical activity levels in females with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Ferreira, Amanda Schenatto; Ferrari, Deisi; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to examine group differences in muscle activation onset of the vastus medialis (VM) in relation to the vastus lateralis (VL) and pain level during stair ascent in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) who maintain high and moderate levels of physical activity; to determine the association between physical activity level and muscle activation onset. Forty-three females with PFP and thirty-eight pain-free females were recruited and divided into four groups based on their level of physical activity: females with PFP (n=26) and pain-free females (n=26) who practiced a moderate level of physical activity and females with PFP (n=17) and pain-free females (n=12) who practiced an intense amount of physical activity. Participants were asked to ascend a seven-step staircase and the VM and VL activation onset was determined. Females with PFP who practiced high level of physical activity demonstrated delayed onset of VM (4.06ms) compared to healthy females (-14.4ms). Conversely, females with PFP who practiced moderate level of physical activity did not present VM delay (-2.48ms) in comparison to healthy females (-9.89ms). Furthermore, physical activity significantly correlated to the muscle activation onset difference (p=0.005; R=0.60). These findings may explain why controversial results regarding VM and VL muscle activation onset have been found.

  5. Plasma levels of M-CSF are increased in ANCA-associated vasculitides with active nephritis.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Blasi, Miriam; Sciorati, Clara; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are characterized by small vessel injury and in some cases granulomatous lesions and glomerular inflammation. The pathogenic bases of these clinical phenotypes are incompletely understood, but evidence from patients with AAV and other inflammatory diseases suggest a role for monocyte/macrophages in the perpetuation of tissue injury. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a promoter of monocyte recruitment and macrophage proliferation, involved in mesangial cell proliferation and experimental nephritis development. Serum concentrations of M-CSF mark and herald the onset of lupus nephritis. Plasma samples from 29 patients with AAV (18 granulomatosis with polyangiitis, GPA, 6 eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, EGPA, and 5 microscopic polyangiitis, MPA) and from 10 healthy controls were collected together with clinical data. Patients with AAV had higher levels of M-CSF when compared to controls. M-CSF levels correlated positively with the BVAS, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while haemoglobin correlated inversely with M-CSF. Patients with active renal disease had significantly higher levels of M-CSF when compared to the other subgroups. M-CSF levels did not differ between ANCA subserotypes and were not associated with the involvement of other organs. In conclusion, M-CSF is higher in patients with AAV and active nephritis and could contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. In addition, M-CSF could behave as a useful marker of renal involvement in AAV.

  6. Relationship of Species-Specific Filament Levels to Filamentous Bulking in Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jiangying; Lou, Inchio; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the relationship between activated-sludge bulking and levels of specific filamentous bacteria, we developed a statistics-based quantification method for estimating the biomass levels of specific filaments using 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. The results of quantitative FISH for the filament Sphaerotilus natans were similar to the results of quantitative membrane hybridization in a sample from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Laboratory-scale reactors were operated under different flow conditions to develop bulking and nonbulking sludge and were bioaugmented with S. natans cells to stimulate bulking. Instead of S. natans, the filament Eikelboom type 1851 became dominant in the reactors. Levels of type 1851 filaments extending out of the flocs correlated strongly with the sludge volume index, and extended filament lengths of approximately 6 × 108 μm ml−1 resulted in bulking in laboratory-scale and full-scale activated-sludge samples. Quantitative FISH showed that high levels of filaments occurred inside the flocs in nonbulking sludge, supporting the “substrate diffusion limitation” hypothesis for bulking. The approach will allow the monitoring of incremental improvements in bulking control methods and the delineation of the operational conditions that lead to bulking due to specific filaments. PMID:15066840

  7. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of antizyme inhibitor 1 in the ovarian follicles of the Sichuan white goose.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong; Jiang, Dongmei; Kang, Bo; Bai, Lin; He, Hui; Chen, Ziyu; Yi, Zhixin

    2015-08-15

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (Azin1) plays critical roles in various cellular pathways, including ornithine decarboxylase regulation, polyamine anabolism and uptake and cell proliferation. However, the molecular characteristics of the AZIN1 gene and its expression profile in goose tissues and ovarian follicles have not been reported. In this study, the AZIN1 cDNA of the Sichuan white goose (Anser cygnoides) was cloned, and analyzed for its phylogenetic and physiochemical properties. The expression profile of AZIN1 mRNA in geese tissues and ovarian follicles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the open reading frame of the AZIN1 cDNA is 1,353 bp in length, encoding a 450 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 50 kDa. Out of all tissues examined, AZIN1 expression was highest in the adrenal gland and lowest in breast muscle. There was also a high expression of AZIN1 in the cerebellum and isthmus of oviduct. With follicular development, AZIN1 gene expression gradually increased, and its expression in F1 was significantly higher than in F5 (P<0.05). AZIN1 expression was also significantly higher in the POF1 than in the other follicles (P<0.05), and there was a low mRNA expression of AZIN1 in atretic follicles. The results of AZIN1 expression profiling in ovarian follicles suggest that AZIN1 may play an important role in the progression of follicular development, potentially through regulating polyamine levels.

  8. Laterality of brain activity during motor imagery is modulated by the provision of source level neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Boe, Shaun; Gionfriddo, Alicia; Kraeutner, Sarah; Tremblay, Antoine; Little, Graham; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI) may be effective as an adjunct to physical practice for motor skill acquisition. For example, MI is emerging as an effective treatment in stroke neurorehabilitation. As in physical practice, the repetitive activation of neural pathways during MI can drive short- and long-term brain changes that underlie functional recovery. However, the lack of feedback about MI performance may be a factor limiting its effectiveness. The provision of feedback about MI-related brain activity may overcome this limitation by providing the opportunity for individuals to monitor their own performance of this endogenous process. We completed a controlled study to isolate neurofeedback as the factor driving changes in MI-related brain activity across repeated sessions. Eighteen healthy participants took part in 3 sessions comprised of both actual and imagined performance of a button press task. During MI, participants in the neurofeedback group received source level feedback based on activity from the left and right sensorimotor cortex obtained using magnetoencephalography. Participants in the control group received no neurofeedback. MI-related brain activity increased in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the imagined movement across sessions in the neurofeedback group, but not in controls. Task performance improved across sessions but did not differ between groups. Our results indicate that the provision of neurofeedback during MI allows healthy individuals to modulate regional brain activity. This finding has the potential to improve the effectiveness of MI as a tool in neurorehabilitation.

  9. Activation of vagus nerve by semapimod alters substance P levels and decreases breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Erin, Nuray; Duymuş, Ozlem; Oztürk, Saffet; Demir, Necdet

    2012-11-10

    Chronic inflammation is involved in initiation as well as in progression of cancer. Semapimod, a tetravalent guanylhydrazon and formerly known as CNI-1493, inhibits the release of inflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages and this effect is partly mediated by the vagus nerve. Our previous findings demonstrated that inactivation of vagus nerve activity as well sensory neurons enhanced visceral metastasis of 4THM breast carcinoma. Hence semapimod by activating vagus nerve may inhibit breast cancer metastasis. Here, effects of semapimod on breast cancer metastasis, the role of vagal sensory neurons on this effect and changes in mediators of the neuroimmune connection, such as substance P (SP) as well as neprilysin-like activity, were examined. Vagotomy was performed on half of the control animals that were treated with semapimod following orthotopic injection of 4THM breast carcinoma cells. Semapimod decreased lung and liver metastases in control but not in vagotomized animals with an associated increased SP levels in sensory nerve endings. Semapimod also increased neprilysin-like activity in lung tissue of control animals but not in tumor-bearing animals. This is the first report demonstrating that semapimod enhances vagal sensory nerve activity and may have anti-tumoral effects under in-vivo conditions. Further studies, however, are required to elucidate the conditions and the mechanisms involved in anti-tumoral effects of semapimod.

  10. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  11. Flexibility in metabolic rate and activity level determines individual variation in overwinter performance.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-11-01

    Energy stores are essential for the overwinter survival of many temperate and polar animals, but individuals within a species often differ in how quickly they deplete their reserves. These disparities in overwinter performance may be explained by differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility in response to food scarcity. However, little is known about whether individuals exhibit correlated or independent changes in these traits, and how these phenotypic changes collectively affect their winter energy use. We examined individual flexibility in both standard metabolic rate and activity level in response to food scarcity and their combined consequences for depletion of lipid stores among overwintering brown trout (Salmo trutta). Metabolism and activity tended to decrease, yet individuals exhibited striking differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility. The rate of lipid depletion was negatively related to decreases in both metabolic and activity rates, with the smallest lipid loss over the simulated winter period occurring in individuals that had the greatest reductions in metabolism and/or activity. However, changes in metabolism and activity were negatively correlated; those individuals that decreased their SMR to a greater extent tended to increase their activity rates, and vice versa, suggesting among-individual variation in strategies for coping with food scarcity.

  12. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  13. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  14. Dueling Volcanoes: How Activity Levels At Kilauea Influence Eruptions At Mauna Loa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusdell, F.

    2011-12-01

    Loa inflates its flank is not buttressed on the southeast. Consequently, asymmetrical spreading occurs resulting in dilation of the shallow magma storage centers, which ultimately culminates in decreased magma pressure and therefore lessened ability to erupt. Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate, there is growing geologic evidence for inverse activity levels at both volcanoes. This hypothesis is readily testable and can have profound implications on how we monitor shield volcanoes, which impacts our ability to forecast eruptions, conduct hazard assessments, and risk analysis.

  15. Iso standardization of theoretical activity evaluation method for low and intermediate level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Makoto Kashiwagi; Garamszeghy, Mike; Lantes, Bertrand; Bonne, Sebastien; Pillette-Cousin, Lucien; Leganes, Jose Luis; Volmert, Ben; James, David W.

    2013-07-01

    Disposal of low-and intermediate-level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants is being planned or carried out in many countries. The radioactivity concentrations and/or total quantities of long-lived, difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63, Nb-94, α emitting nuclides etc., are often restricted by the safety case for a final repository as determined by each country's safety regulations, and these concentrations or amounts are required to be known and declared. With respect to waste contaminated by contact with process water, the Scaling Factor method (SF method), which is empirically based on sampling and analysis data, has been applied as an important method for determining concentrations of DTM nuclides. This method was standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published in 2007 as ISO21238 'Scaling factor method to determine the radioactivity of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants' [1]. However, for activated metal waste with comparatively high concentrations of radioactivity, such as may be found in reactor control rods and internal structures, direct sampling and radiochemical analysis methods to evaluate the DTM nuclides are limited by access to the material and potentially high personnel radiation exposure. In this case, theoretical calculation methods in combination with empirical methods based on remote radiation surveys need to be used to best advantage for determining the disposal inventory of DTM nuclides while minimizing exposure to radiation workers. Pursuant to this objective a standard for the theoretical evaluation of the radioactivity concentration of DTM nuclides in activated waste, is in process through ISO TC85/SC5 (ISO Technical Committee 85: Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection; Subcommittee 5: Nuclear fuel cycle). The project team for this ISO standard was formed in 2011 and is composed of

  16. Impact of Network Activity Levels on the Performance of Passive Network Service Dependency Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Arthur-Durett, Kristine M.

    2015-11-02

    Network services often do not operate alone, but instead, depend on other services distributed throughout a network to correctly function. If a service fails, is disrupted, or degraded, it is likely to impair other services. The web of dependencies can be surprisingly complex---especially within a large enterprise network---and evolve with time. Acquiring, maintaining, and understanding dependency knowledge is critical for many network management and cyber defense activities. While automation can improve situation awareness for network operators and cyber practitioners, poor detection accuracy reduces their confidence and can complicate their roles. In this paper we rigorously study the effects of network activity levels on the detection accuracy of passive network-based service dependency discovery methods. The accuracy of all except for one method was inversely proportional to network activity levels. Our proposed cross correlation method was particularly robust to the influence of network activity. The proposed experimental treatment will further advance a more scientific evaluation of methods and provide the ability to determine their operational boundaries.

  17. Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Nidhi; Fox, Patrick F; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2009-08-01

    The coagulant retained in cheese curd is a major contributor to proteolysis during ripening. The objective of this study was to quantify residual coagulant in 9 cheese varieties by measuring its activity on a synthetic heptapeptide (Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-[NO2-Phe]-Arg-Leu) assayed using reversed-phase HPLC. The level of residual coagulant activity was highest in Camembert cheese, probably due to its low pH at whey drainage and the high moisture content of the cheese, followed in order by Feta=Port du Salut=Cheddar>Gouda>Emmental=Parmigiano Reggiano=low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella=Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. The high cooking temperature (50-54 degrees C) used during the manufacture of Emmental and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses and the cooking and stretching step in hot water during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese may be the reasons for the lowest residual coagulant activity in these cheeses. The level of residual coagulant activity was higher in Feta cheese made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration than in conventional Feta.

  18. How the Venus flytrap actively snaps: hydrodynamic measurements at the cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, Mathieu; Forterre, Yoel; GEP Team

    2012-11-01

    Although they lack muscle, plants have evolved a remarkable range of mechanisms to create rapid motion, from the rapid folding of sensitive plants to seed dispersal. Of these spectacular examples that have long fascinated scientists, the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap, whose leaves snap together in a fraction of second to capture insects, has long been a paradigm for study. Recently, we have shown that this motion involves a snap-buckling instability due to the shell-like geometry of the leaves of the trap. However, the origin of the movement that allows the plant to cross the instability threshold and actively bend remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate this active motion using a micro-fluidic pressure probe that gives direct hydraulic and mechanical measurements at the cellular level (osmotic pressure, cell membrane permeability, cell wall elasticity). Our results challenge the role of osmotically-driven water flows usually put forward to explain Venus flytrap's active closure.

  19. On the local Hurst exponent of geomagnetic field fluctuations: Spatial distribution for different geomagnetic activity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelis, Paola De; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    This study attempts to characterize the spatial distribution of the scaling features of the short time scale magnetic field fluctuations obtained from 45 ground-based geomagnetic observatories distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate the changes of the scaling properties of the geomagnetic field fluctuations by evaluating the local Hurst exponent and reconstruct maps of this index as a function of the geomagnetic activity level. These maps permit us to localize the different latitudinal structures responsible for disturbances and related to the ionospheric current systems. We find that the geomagnetic field fluctuations associated with the different ionospheric current systems have different scaling features, which can be evidenced by the local Hurst exponent. We also find that in general, the local Hurst exponent for quiet magnetospheric periods is higher than that for more active periods suggesting that the dynamical processes that are activated during disturbed times are responsible for changes in the nature of the geomagnetic field fluctuations.

  20. Transplantation tolerance correlates with high levels of T- and B-lymphocyte activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira, A; Coutinho, A; Carnaud, C; Jacquemart, F; Forni, L

    1989-01-01

    Mice tolerized (treated to make them tolerant) at birth to transplantation antigens by injection of semiallogeneic cells contain very high numbers of activated T and B lymphocytes in their spleen. Lymphoid hyperactivity correlates with the tolerant state: it is present only in animals accepting skin allografts. Tolerized mice that reject the allogeneic skin graft have approximately the same numbers of total and activated lymphocytes as normal mice. The high level of lymphocyte activation in tolerant mice persists for up to 1 year of age, although it declines with age, and is markedly increased by a secondary allograft. The magnitudes of both primary and secondary tolerant responses are significantly higher than the immunological response of a normal mouse rejecting the same type of allograft. These observations contradict concepts of clonal deletion or anergy as the basis of neonatally induced transplantation tolerance and may contribute additional approaches to experimentation and control of transplantation reactions. PMID:2783487

  1. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee. PMID:20565807

  2. Level of Physical Activity and In-Hospital Course of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Juliana de Goes; Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Barreto Filho, José Augusto Soares; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Oliveira, Norma Alves; Faro, Gustavo Baptista de Almeida; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. A sedentary lifestyle, present in 85% of the Brazilian population, is considered a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. However, the correlation of a sedentary lifestyle with cardiovascular events (CVE) during hospitalization for ACS is not well established. Objective To evaluate the association between physical activity level, assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), with in-hospital prognosis in patients with ACS. Methods Observational, cross-sectional, and analytical study with 215 subjects with a diagnosis of ACS consecutively admitted to a referral hospital for cardiac patients between July 2009 and February 2011. All volunteers answered the short version of the IPAQ and were observed for the occurrence of CVE during hospitalization with a standardized assessment conducted by the researcher and corroborated by data from medical records. Results The patients were admitted with diagnoses of unstable angina (34.4%), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without ST elevation (41.4%), and AMI with ST elevation (24.2%). According to the level of physical activity, the patients were classified as non-active (56.3%) and active (43.7%). A CVE occurred in 35.3% of the cohort. The occurrence of in-hospital complications was associated with the length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15) and physical inactivity (OR = 2.54), and was independent of age, systolic blood pressure, and prior congestive heart failure. Conclusion A physically active lifestyle reduces the risk of CVE during hospitalization in patients with ACS. PMID:26690692

  3. Community level predictors of physical activity among women in the preconception period.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B; DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Thompson, Erika; Bleck, Jennifer; Merrell, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Although physical activity is a key behavior targeted during the preconception period given its significant impact on pregnancy/birth outcomes and psychological well-being, few women meet national guidelines. While intrapersonal factors influencing physical activity among this population have been studied, community factors remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine community level predictors of physical activity among preconception women. Data from Add Health were limited to women (Wave III; age 18-28; n = 7,596) and excluded respondents who were pregnant, physically disabled, and missing data. The outcome variable was ≥5 instances of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 1 week. Community predictor variables included neighborhood-level structural and social determinants (e.g., socio-demographic composition; landscape diversity; urbanization; access to resources; crime; vehicle availability). Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds of engaging in ≥5 instances of MVPA. Few women (26 %) reported ≥5 instances of MVPA in 1 week. Adjusted multilevel analysis revealed women in the preconception period were more likely to report high MVPA when living in communities with larger population densities (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.02-1.77) and median household income greater than $50,000 (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.06-1.66). Additionally, a significant inverse trend was found between high MVPA and proportion of the community without a high school diploma. Findings suggest that neighborhood composition may have an impact on preconception physical activity status. Implications include increased efforts targeting community conditions for facilitating physical activity; ultimately, improving health among women and subsequent offspring.

  4. Relation between self-reported physical activity level, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Minder, Camille Michael; Shaya, Gabriel E; Michos, Erin D; Keenan, Tanya E; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Carvalho, Jose A M; Conceição, Raquel D; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael J

    2014-02-15

    Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with improved cardiovascular health and reduced all-cause mortality. The relation between self-reported physical activity, objective physical fitness, and the association of each with cardiometabolic risk has not been fully described. We studied 2,800 healthy Brazilian subjects referred for an employer-sponsored health screening. Physical activity level was determined as "low," "moderate," or "high" with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Fitness was measured as METs achieved on a maximal, symptom-limited, treadmill stress test. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, we calculated age, gender, and smoking-adjusted correlation coefficients among IPAQ-SF, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Mean age of study participants was 43 ± 9 years; 81% were men, and 43% were highly active. Mean METs achieved was 12 ± 2. IPAQ-SF category and fitness were moderately correlated (r = 0.377). Compared with IPAQ-SF category, fitness was better correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors including anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, dyslipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis (all p <0.01). Among these, anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis had the largest discrepancies in correlation, whereas lipid factors had the least discrepant correlation. When IPAQ-SF and fitness were discordant, poor fitness drove associations with elevated cardiometabolic risk. In conclusion, self-reported physical activity level and directly measured fitness are moderately correlated, and the latter is more strongly associated with a protective cardiovascular risk profile.

  5. The level of cholinergic nucleus basalis activation controls the specificity of auditory associative memory.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Norman M; Miasnikov, Alexandre A; Chen, Jemmy C

    2006-11-01

    Learning involves not only the establishment of memory per se, but also the specific details of its contents. In classical conditioning, the former concerns whether an association was learned while the latter discloses what was learned. The neural bases of associativity have been studied extensively while neural mechanisms of memory specificity have been neglected. Stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NBs) paired with a preceding tone induces CS-specific associative memory. As different levels of acetylcholine may be released naturally during different learning situations, we asked whether the level of activation of the cholinergic neuromodulatory system can control the degree of detail that is encoded and retrieved. Adult male rats were tested pre- and post-training for behavioral responses (interruption of ongoing respiration) to tones of various frequencies (1-15 kHz, 70 dB, 2 s). Training consisted of 200 trials/day of tone (8.0 kHz, 70 dB, 2 s) either paired or unpaired with NBs (CS-NBs = 1.8 s) at moderate (65.7+/-9.0 microA, one day) or weak (46.7+/-12.1 microA, three training days) levels of stimulation, under conditions of controlled behavioral state (pre-trial stable respiration rate). Post-training (24 h) responses to tones revealed that moderate activation induced both associative and CS-specific behavioral memory, whereas weak activation produced associative memory lacking frequency specificity. The degree of memory specificity 24 h after training was positively correlated with the magnitude of CS-elicited increase in gamma activity within the EEG during training, but only in the moderate NBs group. Thus, a low level of acetylcholine released by the nucleus basalis during learning is sufficient to induce associativity whereas a higher level of release enables the storage of greater experiential detail. gamma waves, which are thought to reflect the coordinated activity of cortical cells, appear to index the encoding of CS detail. The findings

  6. Physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in a group of male myocardial infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-May, K; Bird, S; MacIntyre, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in 31 male myocardial infarction patients (median age 62, range 53–77 years). Methods: Patients recorded daily physical activity over 16 weeks in a diary. Diaries were analysed for total general physical activity (TGPA), leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and "active for life" exercise classes (AFL). Pre- and post-observation period (OP) subjects underwent a 10 m shuttle walking test (SWT) to determine changes in aerobic fitness. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) determined exercise intensity. Estimated gross energy expenditure (EEE) was determined by a regression equation between RPE and Vo2 (l min–1) during SWT. A total of 97% of subjects were on lipid lowering medication. Results: There were no correlations between Vo2 (l min–1) and body mass, therefore kcal min–1 indicated activity intensity. There were no significant changes in physical activity patterns or in aerobic fitness. Estimated total LTPA (median 1376, range 128–3380 kcal week–1) was less than that recommended to improve aerobic fitness and/or slow progression of coronary artery disease. Sixteen subjects attended a median of 29 (range 1–46) AFL during LTPA; one way ANOVA showed these subjects worked at greater EEE (AFL, n = 16, 6.6 (standard deviation 1.4) v no-AFL, n = 15, 5.1 (1.8) EEE kcal min–1, p = 0.017). Conclusion: Physical activity was stable, but patients' EEE appeared insufficient to improve aerobic fitness or slow progression of coronary artery disease. It was suggested that the promotion of LTPA and the availability of AFL classes should be reconsidered. PMID:15728680

  7. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  8. High levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C further increase platelet activation in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, L W; Luo, X P; Ni, H C; Shi, H M; Liu, L; Wen, Z C; Gu, X Y; Qiao, J; Li, J

    2015-02-01

    High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) enhance platelet activation, whereas high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) exert a cardioprotective effect. However, the effects on platelet activation of high levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C (HLC) have not yet been reported. We aimed to evaluate the platelet activation marker of HLC patients and investigate the antiplatelet effect of atorvastatin on this population. Forty-eight patients with high levels of LDL-C were enrolled. Among these, 23 had HLC and the other 25 had high levels of LDL-C combined with normal levels of HDL-C (HNC). A total of 35 normocholesterolemic (NOMC) volunteers were included as controls. Whole blood flow cytometry and platelet aggregation measurements were performed on all participants to detect the following platelet activation markers: CD62p (P-selectin), PAC-1 (GPIIb/IIIa), and maximal platelet aggregation (MPAG). A daily dose of 20 mg atorvastatin was administered to patients with high levels of LDL-C, and the above assessments were obtained at baseline and after 1 and 2 months of treatment. The expression of platelets CD62p and PAC-1 was increased in HNC patients compared to NOMC volunteers (P<0.01 and P<0.05). Furthermore, the surface expression of platelets CD62p and PAC-1 was greater among HLC patients than among HNC patients (P<0.01 and P<0.05). Although the expression of CD62p and PAC-1 decreased significantly after atorvastatin treatment, it remained higher in the HLC group than in the HNC group (P<0.05 and P=0.116). The reduction of HDL-C further increased platelet activation in patients with high levels of LDL-C. Platelet activation remained higher among HLC patients regardless of atorvastatin treatment.

  9. Adenosine deaminase activity level as a tool for diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Khow-Ean, Nathapol; Booraphun, Suchart; Aekphachaisawat, Noppadol; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2013-07-04

    The yield for using a pleural fluid culture to diagnose tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is low. Adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) has been shown to have good diagnostic value for TPE. The ADA cutoff point for the diagnosis of TPE is unclear. We attempted to determine the ADA level cutoff point for diagnosing of TPE in Thailand, where tuberculosis is endemic. We reviewed the medical records of patients with newly diagnosed pleural effusion aged >15 years who had a pleural fluid ADAlevel and who underwent a pleural biopsy. The study period was from March 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011. The diagnoses of TPE and malignant pleural effusion (MPE) were based on pathological findings. The diagnostic cutoff level for using ADA to diagnose TPE was determined. Forty-eight patients met study criteria. Of those, 18 patients (37.5%) were diagnosed with TPE. The mean ADA level was significantly higher among patients in the TPE group than in the MPE group (38.2 vs 14.8 U/l, p < 0.001). The cutoff level of 17.5 U/l gave sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of 88.9%, 73.3%, 3.33, and 0.15, respectively. An ADA level >17.5 U/l had good diagnostic values among TPE patients in our study.

  10. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase tissue-specific activities: evidence for baseline levels in mammalian tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.; Griffin, G.D.; Walsh, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The tissue-specific activities of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase benzo(a)pyrene (AHH(BaP)) in human, mouse, rat, and hamster tissues have been reviewed. Three categories of AHH activities are defined: baseline values from tissues that have been protected from adventitious exposures to AHH inducers; background levels from tissues where there have been no overt measures to protect against exposure; and induced levels resulting from overt exposure to chemical inducers. Evidence that the baseline category exists is derived from the observations that an upper limit of AHH tissue-specific activity of about 1.5 nmol/h x g tissue occurs in human placenta, human foreskin, lymphocyte, and epitheliod and fibroblastoid cell lines; mouse lung and liver; rat fetal liver, and noninducible rat cell lines from lung, liver, embryo kidney, and adrenals; and hamster kidney. The collected values for nonexposed tissues range from 0.02 nmol/h x g to values less than 1.5 nmol/h x g. The most consistent observation of this type was from human placental material from nonsmoking mothers. Animals raised under standard laboratory conditions without special dietary precautions show background AHH activities that range from 2 nmol/h x g to 200 nmol/h x g in portal of entry tissues such as liver, lung, and intestines. Almost all tissue samples showed induced AHH levels of up to 500 nmol/h x g when those tissues were overtly exposed to substances containing chemical inducers of AHH. Measurements of placental AHH from smoking mothers showed that more than 95% of those samples had AHH values exceeding 2.5 nmol/h x g.

  11. Visual–Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual–somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals’ RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation. PMID:26152050

  12. Activation of the cold-receptor TRPM8 by low levels of menthol in tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Meike; Tkachenko, Anna; Ackermann, Katja; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2017-04-05

    Activation of the cold-receptor TRPM8 by menthol or other tobacco additives can suppress natural defense reactions such as coughing that usually would become effective as involuntary resistance against the inhalation of fumes. In Europe menthol is only regulated as flavor, but can be used as additive as long as no characteristic mint-like aroma will become noticeable in the end-product tobacco. The question needs to be addressed of whether such comparatively minor contents would be sufficient to trigger a measurable activation of TRPM8. In this study, we have analyzed both the contents of menthol and other natural TRPM8 agonists in tobacco products and developed a bioassay to determine the minimum concentrations of selected agonists to activate the TRPM8 receptor in cultured cells. The data confirm menthol as strongest natural agonist investigated. Based on these experiments and previously published data, we have estimated both the minimum menthol concentrations in cigarette smoke and in tobacco that are expected to trigger measurable physiological effects. According to our assessments, TRPM8 activation is likely to occur when cigarettes contain more than 50 micrograms of menthol. Importantly, menthol contents in cigarettes far below the typical levels that require declaration as "mentholated" would be sufficient to activate sensory receptors.

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6-25%, P < 0.001-P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  14. Low Levels of Physical Activity Increase Metabolic Responsiveness to Cold in a Rat (Rattus fuscipes)

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Glanville, Elsa J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity modulates expression of metabolic genes and may therefore be a prerequisite for metabolic responses to environmental stimuli. However, the extent to which exercise interacts with environmental conditions to modulate metabolism is unresolved. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that even low levels of physical activity are beneficial by improving metabolic responsiveness to temperatures below the thermal neutral zone, thereby increasing the capacity for substrate oxidation and energy expenditure. Methodology/Principal Findings We used wild rats (Rattus fuscipes) to avoid potential effects of breeding on physiological phenotypes. Exercise acclimation (for 30 min/day on 5 days/week for 30 days at 60% of maximal performance) at 22°C increased mRNA concentrations of PGC1α, PPARδ, and NRF-1 in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to sedentary animals. Lowering ambient temperature to 12°C caused further increases in relative expression of NRF-1 in skeletal muscle, and of PPARδ of brown adipose tissue. Surprisingly, relative expression of UCP1 increased only when both exercise and cold stimuli were present. Importantly, in sedentary animals cold acclimation (12°C) alone did not change any of the above variables. Similarly, cold alone did not increase maximum capacity for substrate oxidation in mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase activities) of either muscle or brown adipose tissue. Animals that exercised regularly had higher exercise induced metabolic rates in colder environments than sedentary rats, and temperature induced metabolic scope was greater in exercised rats. Conclusions/Significance Physical activity is a necessary prerequisite for the expression of transcriptional regulators that influence a broad range of physiological functions from energy metabolism to cardiovascular function and nutrient uptake. A sedentary lifestyle leads to decreased daily energy expenditure because of a lack of direct use

  15. Brain Injury Alters Ectonucleotidase Activities and Adenine Nucleotide Levels in Rat Serum

    PubMed Central

    Laketa, Danijela; Savić, Jasmina; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Lavrnja, Irena; Vasić, Vesna; Stojiljković, Mirjana; Nedeljković, Nadežda

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cortical stab injury (CSI) induces changes in the activity, expression and cellular distribution of specific ectonucleotidases at the injury site. Also, several experimentally induced neuropathologies are associated with changes in soluble ectonucleotidase activities in the plasma and serum, whilst various insults to the brain alter purine compounds levels in cerebrospinal fluid, but also in serum, indicating that insults to the brain may induce alterations in nucleotides release and rate of their hydrolysis in the vascular system. Since adenine nucleotides and adenosine regulate diverse cellular functions in the vascular system, including vascular tone, platelet aggregation and inflammatory responses of lymphocytes and macrophages, alterations of ectonucleotidase activities in the vascular system may be relevant for the clinical outcome of the primary insult. Methods We explored ectonucleotidase activities using specific enzyme assays and determined adenine nucleotides concentrations by the UPLC method in the rat serum after cortical stab injury. Results At 4-h post-injury, ATP and AMP hydrolysis increased by about 60% and 40%, respectively, while phosphodiesterase activity remained unchanged. Also, at 4-h post-injury a marked decrease in ATP concentration and more than 2-fold increase in AMP concentration were recorded. Conclusions CSI induces rapid up-regulation of nucleotide catabolizing soluble ectonucleotidases in rat serum, which leads to the observed shift in serum nucleotide levels. The results obtained imply that ectonucleotidases and adenine nucleotides participate in the communication between the brain and the vascular system in physiological and pathological conditions and thereby may be involved in the development of various human neuropathologies.

  16. Histidine tag fusion increases expression levels of active recombinant amelogenin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Johan; Andersson, Christer; Reseland, Janne E; Lyngstadaas, Petter; Bülow, Leif

    2006-07-01

    Amelogenin is a dental enamel matrix protein involved in formation of dental enamel. In this study, we have expressed two different recombinant murine amelogenins in Escherichia coli: the untagged rM179, and the histidine tagged rp(H)M180, identical to rM179 except that it carries the additional N-terminal sequence MRGSHHHHHHGS. The effects of the histidine tag on expression levels, and on growth properties of the amelogenin expressing cells were studied. Purification of a crude protein extract containing rp(H)M180 was also carried out using IMAC and reverse-phase HPLC. The results of this study showed clearly that both growth properties and amelogenin expression levels were improved for E. coli cells expressing the histidine tagged amelogenin rp(H)M180, compared to cells expressing the untagged amelogenin rM179. The positive effect of the histidine tag on amelogenin expression is proposed to be due to the hydrophilic nature of the histidine tag, generating a more hydrophilic amelogenin, which is more compatible with the host cell. Human osteoblasts treated with the purified rp(H)M180 showed increased levels of secreted osteocalcin, compared to untreated cells. This response was similar to cells treated with enamel matrix derivate, mainly composed by amelogenin, suggesting that the recombinant protein is biologically active. Thus, the histidine tag favors expression and purification of biologically active recombinant amelogenin.

  17. Diversity in sound pressure levels and estimated active space of resident killer whale vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patrick J O

    2006-05-01

    Signal source intensity and detection range, which integrates source intensity with propagation loss, background noise and receiver hearing abilities, are important characteristics of communication signals. Apparent source levels were calculated for 819 pulsed calls and 24 whistles produced by free-ranging resident killer whales by triangulating the angles-of-arrival of sounds on two beamforming arrays towed in series. Levels in the 1-20 kHz band ranged from 131 to 168 dB re 1 microPa at 1 m, with differences in the means of different sound classes (whistles: 140.2+/-4.1 dB; variable calls: 146.6+/-6.6 dB; stereotyped calls: 152.6+/-5.9 dB), and among stereotyped call types. Repertoire diversity carried through to estimates of active space, with "long-range" stereotyped calls all containing overlapping, independently-modulated high-frequency components (mean estimated active space of 10-16 km in sea state zero) and "short-range" sounds (5-9 km) included all stereotyped calls without a high-frequency component, whistles, and variable calls. Short-range sounds are reported to be more common during social and resting behaviors, while long-range stereotyped calls predominate in dispersed travel and foraging behaviors. These results suggest that variability in sound pressure levels may reflect diverse social and ecological functions of the acoustic repertoire of killer whales.

  18. Memory based active contour algorithm using pixel-level classified images for colon crypt segmentation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Assaf; Rivlin, Ehud; Shimshoni, Ilan; Sabo, Edmond

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel method for detection and segmentation of crypts in colon biopsies. Most of the approaches proposed in the literature try to segment the crypts using only the biopsy image without understanding the meaning of each pixel. The proposed method differs in that we segment the crypts using an automatically generated pixel-level classification image of the original biopsy image and handle the artifacts due to the sectioning process and variance in color, shape and size of the crypts. The biopsy image pixels are classified to nuclei, immune system, lumen, cytoplasm, stroma and goblet cells. The crypts are then segmented using a novel active contour approach, where the external force is determined by the semantics of each pixel and the model of the crypt. The active contour is applied for every lumen candidate detected using the pixel-level classification. Finally, a false positive crypt elimination process is performed to remove segmentation errors. This is done by measuring their adherence to the crypt model using the pixel level classification results. The method was tested on 54 biopsy images containing 4944 healthy and 2236 cancerous crypts, resulting in 87% detection of the crypts with 9% of false positive segments (segments that do not represent a crypt). The segmentation accuracy of the true positive segments is 96%.

  19. Locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalization and oxytocin levels in infant CD38 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Kato, Ichiro; Takasawa, Shin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2008-12-19

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone involved in reproduction, plays a critical role in social behavior in a wide range of mammalian species from rodents to humans. The role of CD38 in regulating OT secretion for social behavior has been demonstrated in adult mice, but has not been examined in pups or during development. Separation from the dam induces stress in 7-day-old mouse pups. During such isolation, locomotor activity was higher in CD38 knockout (CD38(-/-)) pups than in wild-type (CD38(+/+)) or heterozygous (CD38(+/-)) controls. The number of ultrasonic vocalizations was lower in CD38(-/-) pups than in CD38(+/+) pups. However, the difference between the two genotypes was less severe than that in OT knockout or OT receptor knockout mice. To explain this, we measured plasma OT levels. The level was not lower in CD38(-/-) pups during the period 1-3 weeks after birth, but was significantly reduced after weaning (>3 weeks). ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in the hypothalamus and pituitary were markedly lower from 1 week after birth in CD38(-/-) mice and were consistently lower thereafter to the adult stage (2 months old). These results showed that the reduced severity of behavioral abnormalities in CD38(-/-) pups was due to partial compensation by the high level of plasma OT.

  20. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011). Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00). Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00). Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear. PMID:22546283

  1. Fetal heart rate and motor activity associations with maternal organochlorine levels: results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, Janet A; Davis, Meghan F; Costigan, Kathleen A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines (OCs) and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 OCs, including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development.

  2. Serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins and paraoxonase activity in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Demir, B; Demir, S; Atamer, Y; Guven, S; Atamer, A; Kocyigit, Y; Hekimoglu, A; Toprak, G

    2011-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and the oxidation of lipoproteins were investigated in 35 women with pre-eclampsia and in 35 healthy control women with normal pregnancies. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]), and PON1 activity were assessed. There were no significant between-group differences in subject age, gestational age at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, BMI, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and ApoB levels. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum Lp(a) were significantly higher in subjects with pre-eclampsia than in controls. Mean serum HDL, ApoA1 and PON1 activity were significantly lower in subjects with pre-eclampsia compared with controls. In conclusion, lipids and oxidized lipoproteins may play important roles in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  3. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  4. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  5. Fetal heart rate and motor activity associations with maternal organochlorine levels: Results of an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Davis, Meghan F.; Costigan, Kathleen A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 organochlorines (OCs), including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development. PMID:23591698

  6. Playing outdoor and practising sport: A study of physical activity levels in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula; Santos, Maria Paula

    2017-03-01

    In outdoor activities, it seems reasonable that the longer children spend in spontaneous physical activity (PA), the higher the probability of being active. Indeed, the time spent outdoor has been identified as a variable consistently associated with the children's PA. Outdoor playing, such as the organized sports practice, appears associated with healthier lifestyle standards. All the recommendations mention the importance of increasing daily PA practice in children and teenagers, but few studies highlight the relationship between outdoor play and the recommended PA levels. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between the frequency of outdoor play, the frequency of the organized sports practice, and the compliance of the recommendations for PA practice in children in the inner city area of Porto. The sample of this study is composed of 422 individuals (mean age of 11.6 years). Two hundred and twenty-five of them were girls and 197 were boys from the sixth grade (elementary schools located in the inner city area of Porto). PA was objectively evaluated using accelerometers. Participants reported frequency of participation in different PA contexts, such as sports practice and outdoor play. The results show a predictor effect of participating in sports three or more times per week on compliance of PA guidelines. In conclusion, organized sports practice seems more effective than outdoor play to reach the recommended levels of PA in children.

  7. Distinguishing body mass and activity level from the lower limb: can entheses diagnose obesity?

    PubMed

    Godde, Kanya; Taylor, Rebecca Wilson

    2013-03-10

    The ability to estimate body size from the skeleton has broad applications, but is especially important to the forensic community when identifying unknown skeletal remains. This research investigates the utility of using entheses/muscle skeletal markers of the lower limb to estimate body size and to classify individuals into average, obese, and active categories, while using a biomechanical approach to interpret the results. Eighteen muscle attachment sites of the lower limb, known to be involved in the sit-to-stand transition, were scored for robusticity and stress in 105 white males (aged 31-81 years) from the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. Both logistic regression and log linear models were applied to the data to (1) test the utility of entheses as an indicator of body weight and activity level, and (2) to generate classification percentages that speak to the accuracy of the method. Thirteen robusticity scores differed significantly between the groups, but classification percentages were only slightly greater than chance. However, clear differences could be seen between the average and obese and the average and active groups. Stress scores showed no value in discriminating between groups. These results were interpreted in relation to biomechanical forces at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. Even though robusticity alone is not able to classify individuals well, its significance may show greater value when incorporated into a model that has multiple skeletal indicators. Further research needs to evaluate a larger sample and incorporate several lines of evidence to improve classification rates.

  8. Insulin Signaling Regulates Fatty Acid Catabolism at the Level of CoA Activation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojun; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Ruskeepää, Anna-Liisa; Aye, Cho Cho; Carson, Brian P.; Mora, Silvia; Orešič, Matej; Teleman, Aurelio A.

    2012-01-01

    The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic pathways is still lacking. Accepted knowledge suggests the key regulated step in triglyceride (TAG) catabolism is the release of fatty acids from TAG via the action of lipases. We show here that an additional, important regulated step is the activation of fatty acids for beta-oxidation via Acyl Co-A synthetases (ACS). We identify pudgy as an ACS that is transcriptionally regulated by direct FOXO action in Drosophila. Increasing or reducing pudgy expression in vivo causes a decrease or increase in organismal TAG levels respectively, indicating that pudgy expression levels are important for proper lipid homeostasis. We show that multiple ACSs are also transcriptionally regulated by insulin signaling in mammalian cells. In sum, we identify fatty acid activation onto CoA as an important, regulated step in triglyceride catabolism, and we identify a mechanistic link through which insulin regulates lipid homeostasis. PMID:22275878

  9. Fatigue, anxiety and depression levels, activities of daily living of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Karakurt, Papatya; Ünsal, Ayla

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the fatigue, anxiety and depression levels, activities of daily living of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 255). It was found that there was significant difference between Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F) point averages and gender, education levels, marital status and economical status of patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the participants in this study, 36.5% had an anxiety disorder whereas 69.0% exhibited depression. In the study, it was determined that 85.5% of those were independent in their Katz's Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and 49.4% of those were independent in their Lawton and Brody's Index of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). This study has shown that VAS-F, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, ADL and IADL instruments that measure the various aspects of health-related quality of living can contribute considerably to a more diversified understanding of the patients' situation with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  10. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  11. [Polymorphism of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 1 gene is associated with liver cirrhosis in Chinese hepatitis B patients].

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Jun; Guo, Jin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Hong; Wang, Jian; Friedman, Scott L; Sninsky, John J; Wang, Ji-Yao

    2011-03-01

    A cirrhosis risk score (CRS) comprised of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes that predicts the risk of cirrhosis in Caucasian hepatitis C has been reported. The present study was to evaluate the association of 11 separate but related SNPs and the CRS with cirrhosis risk in Chinese hepatitis B patients. A total of 563 Chinese subjects with persistent HBV infection (349 with evident liver cirrhosis and 214 without cirrhosis clinically or pathologically) were studied. The candidate SNPs were detected with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method. The allele frequency and genotype distribution of each polymorphism as well as the CRS value within the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis subjects were compared. The rs2679757 polymorphism of the antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) gene was associated with the risk of cirrhosis (x2 = 6.79, P = 0.03, odds ratio for GG+AG versus AA = 1.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.35). A gene variant (rs886277) in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M, member 5 gene (TRPM5) was associated with liver cirrhosis, but did not reach statistical significance (x2 = 5.77, P = 0.06). Two SNPs (rs4986791, rs62522600) are not polymorphic in Chinese. Genotype frequencies of other SNPs were not different between the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups. The overall CRS values were not different between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups (median value 0.57 versus 0.62, Z = -1.05, P = 0.29). SNP rs2679757 in the AZIN1 gene is associated with the risk of HBV-related liver cirrhosis in Chinese. The CRS for Caucasian population has limited applicability for predicting liver cirrhosis in Chinese hepatitis B patients. SNPs associated with cirrhosis prognosis in hepatitis B patients and liver diseases with other etiologies warrant further clinical validation.

  12. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error

    PubMed Central

    Safavynia, Seyed A.

    2013-01-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  13. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  14. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Population Levels of Physical Activity be Increased? Global Evidence and Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Michael; Perez, Lilian G.; Goenka, Shifalika; Brownson, Ross C.; Bauman, Adrian; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease and has become a global public health priority. We review the evidence on physical activity (PA) interventions, actions, and strategies that have the greatest potential to increase PA at the population level. Using the socio-ecological framework to conceptualize PA interventions, we show that PA can be targeted at multiple levels of influence and by multiple sectors outside the health system. Examples of promoting PA on a national scale are presented from Finland, Canada, Brazil, and Colombia. A strong policy framework, consistent investment in public health programs, multi-sectoral support and actions, and good surveillance characterize each of these success stories. Increasing PA globally will depend on successfully applying and adapting these lessons around the world taking into account country, culture, and context. PMID:25304047

  16. Active contour segmentation using level set function with enhanced image from prior intensity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunhee; Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Deukhee; Park, Sehyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new active contour segmentation model using a level set function that can correctly capture both the strong and the weak boundaries of a target enclosed by bright and dark regions at the same time. We introduce an enhanced image obtained from prior information about the intensity of the target. The enhanced image emphasizes the regions where pixels have intensities close to the prior intensity. This enables a desirable segmentation of an image having a partially low contrast with the target surrounded by regions that are brighter or darker than the target. We define an edge indicator function on an original image, and local and regularization forces on an enhanced image. An edge indicator function and two forces are incorporated in order to identify the strong and weak boundaries, respectively. We established an evolution equation of contours in the level set formulation and experimented with several medical images to show the performance of the proposed method.

  17. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Oden, C P; Schweitzer, J S; McDowell, G M

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min.

  18. Firefighters' exposure biomonitoring: Impact of firefighting activities on levels of urinary monohydroxyl metabolites.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Alves, Maria José; Fernandes, Adília; Teixeira, João Paulo; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-11-01

    The concentrations of six urinary monohydroxyl metabolites (OH-PAHs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 1-hydroxyacenaphthene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHPy), and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, were assessed in the post-shift urine of wildland firefighters involved in fire combat activities at six Portuguese fire corporations, and compared with those of non-exposed subjects. Overall, median levels of urinary individual and total OH-PAHs (ΣOH-PAHs) suggest an increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during firefighting activities with ΣOH-PAH levels in exposed firefighters 1.7-35 times higher than in non-exposed ones. Urinary 1-hydroxynaphthalene and/or 1-hydroxyacenapthene were the predominant compounds, representing 63-98% of ΣOH-PAHs, followed by 2-hydroxyfluorene (1-17%), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-13%), and 1OHPy (0.3-10%). A similar profile was observed when gender discrimination was considered. Participation in fire combat activities promoted an increase of the distribution percentage of 1-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxyacenaphthene, while contributions of 1-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1OHPy decreased. The detected urinary 1OHPy concentrations (1.73×10(-2) to 0.152μmol/mol creatinine in exposed subjects versus 1.21×10(-2) to 5.44×10(-2)μmol/mol creatinine in non-exposed individuals) were lower than the benchmark level (0.5μmol/mol creatinine) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. This compound, considered the biomarker of exposure to PAHs, was the less abundant one from the six analyzed biomarkers. Thus the inclusion of other metabolites, in addition to 1OHPy, in future studies is suggested to better estimate firefighters' occupational exposure to PAHs. Moreover, strong to moderate Spearman correlations were observed between individual compounds and ΣOH-PAHs corroborating the prevalence of an emission source.

  19. The Voltage Activation of Cortical KCNQ Channels Depends on Global PIP2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang S.; Duignan, Kevin M.; Hawryluk, Joanna M.; Soh, Heun; Tzingounis, Anastasios V.

    2016-01-01

    The slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) is a calcium-activated potassium conductance with critical roles in multiple physiological processes. Pharmacological and genetic data suggest that KCNQ channels partly mediate the sAHP. However, these channels are not typically open within the observed voltage range of the sAHP. Recent work has shown that the sAHP is gated by increased PIP2 levels, which are generated downstream of calcium binding by neuronal calcium sensors such as hippocalcin. Here, we examined whether changes in PIP2 levels could shift the voltage-activation range of KCNQ channels. In HEK293T cells, expression of the PIP5 kinase PIPKIγ90, which increases global PIP2 levels, shifted the KCNQ voltage activation to within the operating range of the sAHP. Further, the sensitivity of this effect on KCNQ3 channels appeared to be higher than that on KCNQ2. Therefore, we predict that KCNQ3 plays an essential role in maintaining the sAHP under low PIP2 conditions. In support of this notion, we find that sAHP inhibition by muscarinic receptors that increase phosphoinositide turnover in neurons is enhanced in Kcnq3-knockout mice. Likewise, the presence of KCNQ3 is essential for maintaining the sAHP when hippocalcin is ablated, a condition that likely impairs PIP2 generation. Together, our results establish the relationship between PIP2 and the voltage dependence of cortical KCNQ channels (KCNQ2/3, KCNQ3/5, and KCNQ5), and suggest a possible mechanism for the involvement of KCNQ channels in the sAHP. PMID:26958886

  20. Levels of muscle activation in strength and conditioning exercises and dynamometer hiking in junior sailors.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Angus F; Wee, Wing K; Xie, Wei; Oh, Paul W; Lim, Julian J H; Tan, Kelvin W W

    2012-04-01

    Although strength and conditioning exercises have been prescribed to enhance performance and prevent injury in sailors, little is known about these exercises in comparison to the demands placed on the sailor's musculature while hiking maximally. Because of the difficulty in collecting hiking-related data on water, a 3-minute maximal hiking test (HM180) has been previously developed for use in the laboratory setting. There were 2 aims of this study. The first aim was to determine whether discriminative validity could be shown for the HM180 test in a group of junior sailors of differing ability level and gender. The second aim was to determine whether differences in muscle activation existed between selected strength and conditioning exercises and the HM180 test. Twenty-nine adolescent boy and girl sailors aged between 14 and 16 years from the Singaporean National Byte Class training squad (n = 12) and the Singapore High Participation Group (n = 17) were recruited for this study. The average levels of normalized muscle activation in selected lower limb and trunk muscles in 4 selected strength and conditioning exercises (leg extension, back squat, and back extension exercises, a 30-second hiking hold) and a maximal 3-minute hiking test (the HM180 test) were quantified. Discriminative validity of the HM180 test was shown, and it was confirmed that the strength and conditioning exercises provide an overload stimulus for the HM180 test. Further, similar levels of muscle activation were found for the vastus lateralis in the leg extension and back squat exercises, and the superficial lumbar multifidus in the back extension and back squat exercises. This study has the potential to inform the design of strength and conditioning programs for junior sailors.

  1. Neural networks to simulate regional ground water levels affected by human activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaoyuan; Kang, Shaozhong; Huo, Zailin; Chen, Shaojun; Mao, Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    In arid regions, human activities like agriculture and industry often require large ground water extractions. Under these circumstances, appropriate ground water management policies are essential for preventing aquifer overdraft, and thereby protecting critical ecologic and economic objectives. Identification of such policies requires accurate simulation capability of the ground water system in response to hydrological, meteorological, and human factors. In this research, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were developed and applied to investigate the effects of these factors on ground water levels in the Minqin oasis, located in the lower reach of Shiyang River Basin, in Northwest China. Using data spanning 1980 through 1997, two ANNs were developed to model and simulate dynamic ground water levels for the two subregions of Xinhe and Xiqu. The ANN models achieved high predictive accuracy, validating to 0.37 m or less mean absolute error. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with the models demonstrating that agricultural ground water extraction for irrigation is the predominant factor responsible for declining ground water levels exacerbated by a reduction in regional surface water inflows. ANN simulations indicate that it is necessary to reduce the size of the irrigation area to mitigate ground water level declines in the oasis. Unlike previous research, this study demonstrates that ANN modeling can capture important temporally and spatially distributed human factors like agricultural practices and water extraction patterns on a regional basin (or subbasin) scale, providing both high-accuracy prediction capability and enhanced understanding of the critical factors influencing regional ground water conditions.

  2. The Tellurium compound, AS101, increases SIRT1 level and activity and prevents type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Halperin-Sheinfeld, Meital; Gertler, Asaf; Okun, Eitan; Sredni, Benjamin; Cohen, Haim Y

    2012-06-01

    The histone deacetylase, SIRT1, plays a major role in glucose regulation and lipid metabolism. Ammonium Trichloro (dioxoethylene-o,o') Tellurate, AS101, is a potent in vitro and in vivo immunomodulator, with several potential therapeutic applications. AS101 administration resulted in upregulation of SIRT1 protein expression and activity. These effects were associated with decreased levels of serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and of insulin. The properties of AS101 prompted us to investigate its potential therapeutic role in rats with type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was induced by a high fat diet combined with a low dose of Streptozotocin (STZ). Treatment with AS101 before manifestation of hyperglycemia, resulted in increased insulin sensitivity, and decreased blood glucose levels, and prevented symptoms of diabetes including defective glucose clearance, fatty liver, and abnormal distribution of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Treatment after disease emergence resulted in partial restoration of normal glucose homeostasis. Diabetic rats showed a reduction in liver SIRT1 levels. In both treatment regimens the reduction in SIRT1 levels in the liver were blocked by AS101 consumption. Together, these findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of AS101 for treating T2D, and for reversing impaired fat and glucose metabolism.

  3. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely.

  4. Assessing the Macro-Level Correlates of Malware Infections Using a Routine Activities Framework.

    PubMed

    Holt, Thomas J; Burruss, George W; Bossler, Adam M

    2016-12-01

    The ability to gain unauthorized access to computer systems to engage in espionage and data theft poses a massive threat to individuals worldwide. There has been minimal focus, however, on the role of malicious software, or malware, which can automate this process. This study examined the macro-correlates of malware infection at the national level by using an open repository of known malware infections and utilizing a routine activities framework. Negative inflated binomial models for counts indicated that nations with greater technological infrastructure, more political freedoms, and with less organized crime financial impact were more likely to report malware infections. The number of Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) in a nation was not significantly related with reported malware infection. The implications of the study for the understanding of malware infection, routine activity theory, and target-hardening strategies are discussed.

  5. Effects of portable computing devices on posture, muscle activation levels and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Werth, Abigail; Babski-Reeves, Kari

    2014-11-01

    Very little research exists on ergonomic exposures when using portable computing devices. This study quantified muscle activity (forearm and neck), posture (wrist, forearm and neck), and performance (gross typing speed and error rates) differences across three portable computing devices (laptop, netbook, and slate computer) and two work settings (desk and computer) during data entry tasks. Twelve participants completed test sessions on a single computer using a test-rest-test protocol (30min of work at one work setting, 15min of rest, 30min of work at the other work setting). The slate computer resulted in significantly more non-neutral wrist, elbow and neck postures, particularly when working on the sofa. Performance on the slate computer was four times less than that of the other computers, though lower muscle activity levels were also found. Potential or injury or illness may be elevated when working on smaller, portable computers in non-traditional work settings.

  6. Low body mass index, physical work capacity and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1994-11-01

    In a normal population the distribution of body mass index (BMI) is such that a certain proportion of the population is likely to be at low values without necessarily being malnourished. However, although they may have low BMIs without being malnourished, they could certainly be physiologically and physically disadvantaged. An attempt is made to dissect out the probability of work capacity and physical activity being influenced by changes occurring in the human body with diminishing BMI. The conclusion reached is therefore that before physical activity is affected, the BMI would probably have to be 17 or less, although it is possible that work capacity might be reduced before this level is reached. In any case, work requiring the use of the body mass - such as carrying loads, digging or shovelling earth or coal, pulling or cycling a rickshaw, stone splitting etc.- would impose a greater stress on people of low BMI.

  7. Community Health Workers promoting physical activity: Targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, Jessica; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Burke, Kari Herzog; Elder, John P.; Montañez, Jacqueline; Arredondo, Elva M.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Community Health Workers (CHWs) as health educators and health promoters among Latino populations is widely recognized. The Affordable Care Act created important opportunities to increase the role of CHWs in preventive health. This article describes the implementation of CHW-led, culturally specific, faith-based program to increase physical activity (PA) among churchgoing Latinas. The current study augments previous research by describing the recruitment, selection, training, and evaluation of CHWs for a PA intervention targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model. PMID:26280587

  8. Immunoglobulin levels, opsonic activity and phagocytic power in Egyptian thalassemic children.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, A S; Fattah, S A; Maged, Z; Sabry, F; Mohamed, H A

    1983-01-01

    Serum IgG, IgM and IgA were determined in 25 patients with homozygous beta thalassemia and 7 with the trait. The levels were increased in homozygous patients and increased further after splenectomy. Serum opsonic activity against Salmonella typhi and staphylococci was impaired in homozygous patients. Splenectomy caused more impairment against salmonella only. Similarly, phagocytic power against both organisms was lower in beta thalassemia. Further decrease against salmonella occurred after splenectomy. Patients with thalassemia trait did not differ from normal controls.

  9. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) Product Specification Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassy, Joe; Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas; Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project.

  10. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    PubMed Central

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and o