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Sample records for activator inhibitor-2 pai-2

  1. Plasminogen mRNA induction in the mouse brain after kainate excitation: codistribution with plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Ronit; Abramovitz, Rene; Miskin, Ruth

    2002-08-15

    Plasminogen (Plg), which can be converted to the active protease plasmin by plasminogen activators, has been previously implicated in brain plasticity and in toxicity inflicted in hippocampal pyramidal neurons by kainate. Here we have localized Plg. mRNA through in situ hybridization in brain cryosections derived from normal adult mice or after kainate injection (i.p.). The results indicated that Plg mRNA was undetectable in the normal brain, but after kainate injection it was induced in neuronal cells in multiple, but specific areas, including layers II-III of the neocortex; the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and the piriform cortex; the caudate/putamen and accumbens nucleus shell; throughout the amygdaloid complex; and in the CAI/CA3 subfields of the hippocampus. Interestingly, this distribution pattern coincided with what we have recently described for the plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) mRNA, however differing from that of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA, as also shown here. These results suggest that enhanced Plg gene expression could be involved in events associated with olfactory, striatal, and limbic structures. Furthermore, because PAI-2 is thought to intracellularly counteract cytotoxic events, our results raise the possibility that PAI-2 can act in the brain as an intracellular neuroprotector against potential plasmin-mediated toxicity.

  2. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) with proteasome within endothelial cells activated with inflammatory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S

    2011-12-16

    Quiescent endothelial cells contain low concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2). However, its synthesis can be rapidly stimulated by a variety of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we provide evidence that PAI-2 interacts with proteasome and affects its activity in endothelial cells. To ensure that the PAI-2·proteasome complex is formed in vivo, both proteins were coimmunoprecipitated from endothelial cells and identified with specific antibodies. The specificity of this interaction was evidenced after (a) transfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-2 and coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins with anti-PAI-2 antibodies and (b) silencing of the PAI-2 gene using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). Subsequently, cellular distribution of the PAI-2·proteasome complexes was established by immunogold staining and electron microscopy analyses. As judged by confocal microscopy, both proteins appeared in a diffuse cytosolic pattern, but they also could be found in a dense perinuclear and nuclear location. PAI-2 was not polyubiquitinated, suggesting that it bound to proteasome not as the substrate but rather as its inhibitor. Consistently, increased PAI-2 expression (a) abrogated degradation of degron analyzed after cotransfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-2 and pd2EGFP-N1, (b) prevented degradation of p53, as evidenced both by confocal microscopy and Western immunoblotting, and (c) inhibited proteasome cleavage of specific fluorogenic substrate. This suggests that PAI-2, in endothelial cells induced with inflammatory stimuli, can inhibit proteasome and thus tilt the balance favoring proapoptotic signaling.

  3. Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 2 (PAI-2) with Proteasome within Endothelial Cells Activated with Inflammatory Stimuli*

    PubMed Central

    Boncela, Joanna; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2011-01-01

    Quiescent endothelial cells contain low concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2). However, its synthesis can be rapidly stimulated by a variety of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we provide evidence that PAI-2 interacts with proteasome and affects its activity in endothelial cells. To ensure that the PAI-2·proteasome complex is formed in vivo, both proteins were coimmunoprecipitated from endothelial cells and identified with specific antibodies. The specificity of this interaction was evidenced after (a) transfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-2 and coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins with anti-PAI-2 antibodies and (b) silencing of the PAI-2 gene using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). Subsequently, cellular distribution of the PAI-2·proteasome complexes was established by immunogold staining and electron microscopy analyses. As judged by confocal microscopy, both proteins appeared in a diffuse cytosolic pattern, but they also could be found in a dense perinuclear and nuclear location. PAI-2 was not polyubiquitinated, suggesting that it bound to proteasome not as the substrate but rather as its inhibitor. Consistently, increased PAI-2 expression (a) abrogated degradation of degron analyzed after cotransfection of HeLa cells with pCMV-PAI-2 and pd2EGFP-N1, (b) prevented degradation of p53, as evidenced both by confocal microscopy and Western immunoblotting, and (c) inhibited proteasome cleavage of specific fluorogenic substrate. This suggests that PAI-2, in endothelial cells induced with inflammatory stimuli, can inhibit proteasome and thus tilt the balance favoring proapoptotic signaling. PMID:21976669

  4. The sGC activator inhibits the proliferation and migration, promotes the apoptosis of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via the up regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuai; Zou, Lihui; Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhai, Zhenguo; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chen

    2015-03-15

    Background: Different types of pulmonary hypertension (PH) share the same process of pulmonary vascular remodeling, the molecular mechanism of which is not entirely clarified by far. The abnormal biological behaviors of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an important role in this process. Objectives: We investigated the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) by the sGC activator, and explored the effect of PAI-2 on PASMCs proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Methods: After the transfection with PAI-2 overexpression vector and specific siRNAs or treatment with BAY 41-2272 (an activator of sGC), the mRNA and protein levels of PAI-2 in cultured human PASMCs were detected, and the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of PASMCs were investigated. Results: BAY 41-2272 up regulated the endogenous PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. In PAI-2 overexpression group, the proliferation and migration of PASMCs were inhibited significantly, and the apoptosis of PASMCs was increased. In contrast, PAI-2 knockdown with siRNA increased PASMCs proliferation and migration, inhibited the apoptosis. Conclusions: PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration and promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. Therefore, sGC activator might alleviate or reverse vascular remodeling in PH through the up-regulation of PAI-2. - Highlights: • sGC activator BAY41-2272 up regulated PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. • PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration of human PASMCs. • PAI-2 overexpression promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. • sGC activator might alleviate the vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.

  5. Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: Another potential mechanism of immune-suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Rossiello, Maria R.; Rotunno, Crescenzia; Coluccia, Addolorata; Carratu, Maria R.; Di Santo, Angelomaria; Evangelista, Virgilio; Semeraro, Nicola; Colucci, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 deg. C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with > 85% inhibition at 1 {mu}g/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 {mu}g/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1{beta} (83%) or TNF-{alpha} (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity.

  6. Data in support of a central role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 polymorphism in recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in the setting of high HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein using Bayesian network modeling.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, James P; Salzman, Peter; Ryan, Dan; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech; Sparks, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    Data is presented that was utilized as the basis for Bayesian network modeling of influence pathways focusing on the central role of a polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) on recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in patients with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker of inflammation, "Influences on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2 Polymorphism-Associated Recurrent Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with High HDL Cholesterol and Inflammation" (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]). The data consist of occurrence of recurrent coronary events in 166 post myocardial infarction patients along with 1. clinical data on gender, race, age, and body mass index; 2. blood level data on 17 biomarkers; and 3. genotype data on 53 presumptive CVD-related single nucleotide polymorphisms. Additionally, a flow diagram of the Bayesian modeling procedure is presented along with Bayesian network subgraphs (root nodes to outcome events) utilized as the data from which PAI-2 associated influence pathways were derived (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]).

  7. Targets for dioxin: Genes for plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 and interleukin-1. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, T.R.; Guzman, K.; Dold, K.M. ); Greenlee, W.F. )

    1991-10-18

    Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD), a widespread environmental contaminant, may elicit its effects by altering gene expression in susceptible cells. Five TCDD-responsive complementary DNA clones were isolated from a human keratinocyte cell line. One of these clones encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, a factor that influences growth and differentiation by regulating proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. Another encodes the cytokine interleukin-1{beta}. Thus, TCDD alters the expression of growth regulator genes and has effects similar to those of other tumor-promoting agents that affect both inflammation and differentiation.

  8. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, M.G.; Reimann, E.M.; Thysseril, T.J.; Schlender, K.K.

    1986-05-01

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting /sup 32/P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated /sup 32/P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor.

  9. FDP D-dimer induces the secretion of interleukin-1, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 in a human promonocytic leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, M; Morishita, Y; Takahashi, I; Ogura, M; Takamatsu, J; Saito, H

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effect of fibrinogen degradation products D, E, and D-dimer on a human promonocytic leukemia cell line, NOMO-1. After exposure to a 10(-5)-mol/L fragment D or D-dimer, the cells displayed macrophage-like characteristics, such as adherence to plastic surfaces, and showed approximately a twofold increase in response to the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. The secretion of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) into the medium was markedly stimulated by a 10(-5)-mol/L fragment D, E, and D-dimer, whereas a significant increase in IL-1 beta secretion was observed only in D-dimer-stimulated cells. In addition, D-dimer induced a rapid increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator on day 1 (0.52 +/- 0.02 ng/mL v 0.07 +/- 0.01 ng/mL in the control culture) and a slow increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 on day 5 (3.9 +/- 1.6 ng/mL v 1.2 +/- 0.2 ng/mL in the control culture). An increase in tissue factor (TF) was also demonstrated on the cell surface of NOMO-1 cells exposed to fragment D or D-dimer by indirect immunofluorescence using an anti-TF monoclonal antibody. Scatchard plot analysis showed that fragment D and D-dimer bound to the NOMO-1 cells with a kd of 3.3 nmol/L and 2.7 nmol/L, respectively. These results suggest that fragment D-dimer specifically stimulates cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage to secrete key substances that regulate blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. PMID:1845845

  10. The gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate protects against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Xie, Yuchao; Farhood, Anwar; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-12-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US. Although many aspects of the mechanism are known, recent publications suggest that gap junctions composed of connexin32 function as critical intercellular communication channels which transfer cytotoxic mediators into neighboring hepatocytes and aggravate liver injury. However, these studies did not consider off-target effects of reagents used in these experiments, especially the gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate (2-APB). In order to assess the mechanisms of protection of 2-APB in vivo, male C56Bl/6 mice were treated with 400 mg/kg APAP to cause extensive liver injury. This injury was prevented when animals were co-treated with 20 mg/kg 2-APB and was attenuated when 2-APB was administered 1.5 h after APAP. However, the protection was completely lost when 2-APB was given 4–6 h after APAP. Measurement of protein adducts and c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation indicated that 2-APB reduced both protein binding and JNK activation, which correlated with hepatoprotection. Although some of the protection was due to the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in vitro experiments clearly demonstrated that 2-APB directly inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. In addition, JNK activation induced by phorone and tert-butylhydroperoxide in vivo was inhibited by 2-APB. The effects against APAP toxicity in vivo were reproduced in primary cultured hepatocytes without use of DMSO and in the absence of functional gap junctions. We conclude that the protective effect of 2-APB was caused by inhibition of metabolic activation of APAP and inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway and not by blocking connexin32-based gap junctions. - Highlights: • 2-APB protected against APAP-induced liver injury in mice in vivo and in vitro • 2-APB protected by inhibiting APAP metabolic activation and JNK signaling pathway • DMSO inhibited APAP metabolic activation as the solvent of 2-APB

  11. Protein Phosphatase-1 Inhibitor-2 Is a Novel Memory Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongtian; Hou, Hailong; Pahng, Amanda; Gu, Hua; Nairn, Angus C.; Tang, Ya-Ping; Colombo, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation, a fundamental regulatory mechanism required for many biological processes including memory formation, is coordinated by the opposing actions of protein kinases and phosphatases. Type I protein phosphatase (PP1), in particular, has been shown to constrain learning and memory formation. However, how PP1 might be regulated in memory is still not clear. Our previous work has elucidated that PP1 inhibitor-2 (I-2) is an endogenous regulator of PP1 in hippocampal and cortical neurons (Hou et al., 2013). Contrary to expectation, our studies of contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition in I-2 heterozygous mice suggest that I-2 is a memory suppressor. In addition, lentiviral knock-down of I-2 in the rat dorsal hippocampus facilitated memory for tasks dependent on the hippocampus. Our data indicate that I-2 suppresses memory formation, probably via negatively regulating the phosphorylation of cAMP/calcium response element-binding protein (CREB) at serine 133 and CREB-mediated gene expression in dorsal hippocampus. Surprisingly, the data from both biochemical and behavioral studies suggest that I-2, despite its assumed action as a PP1 inhibitor, is a positive regulator of PP1 function in memory formation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We found that inhibitor-2 acts as a memory suppressor through its positive functional influence on type I protein phosphatase (PP1), likely resulting in negative regulation of cAMP/calcium response element-binding protein (CREB) and CREB-activated gene expression. Our studies thus provide an interesting example of a molecule with an in vivo function that is opposite to its in vitro function. PP1 plays critical roles in many essential physiological functions such as cell mitosis and glucose metabolism in addition to its known role in memory formation. PP1 pharmacological inhibitors would thus not be able to serve as good therapeutic reagents because of its many targets. However, identification of PP1 inhibitor

  12. Synthesis, chiral high performance liquid chromatographic resolution and enantiospecific activity of a potent new geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor, 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Charles E; Kashemirov, Boris A; Błazewska, Katarzyna M; Mallard-Favier, Isabelle; Stewart, Charlotte A; Rojas, Javier; Lundy, Mark W; Ebetino, Frank H; Baron, Rudi A; Dunford, James E; Kirsten, Marie L; Seabra, Miguel C; Bala, Joy L; Marma, Mong S; Rogers, Michael J; Coxon, Fraser P

    2010-05-13

    3-(3-Pyridyl)-2-hydroxy-2-phosphonopropanoic acid (3-PEHPC, 1) is a phosphonocarboxylate (PC) analogue of 2-(3-pyridyl)-1-hydroxyethylidenebis(phosphonic acid) (risedronic acid, 2), an osteoporosis drug that decreases bone resorption by inhibiting farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) in osteoclasts, preventing protein prenylation. 1 has lower bone affinity than 2 and weakly inhibits Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT), selectively preventing prenylation of Rab GTPases. We report here the synthesis and biological studies of 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid (3-IPEHPC, 3), the PC analogue of minodronic acid 4. Like 1, 3 selectively inhibited Rab11 vs. Rap 1A prenylation in J774 cells, and decreased cell viability, but was 33-60x more active in these assays. After resolving 3 by chiral HPLC (>98% ee), we found that (+)-3-E1 was much more potent than (-)-3-E2 in an isolated RGGT inhibition assay, approximately 17x more potent (LED 3 microM) than (-)-3-E2 in inhibiting Rab prenylation in J774 cells and >26x more active in the cell viability assay. The enantiomers of 1 exhibited a 4-fold or smaller potency difference in the RGGT and prenylation inhibition assays.

  13. Relationship between cathepsin D, urokinase, and plasminogen activator inhibitors in malignant vs benign breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Foucré, D.; Bouchet, C.; Hacène, K.; Pourreau-Schneider, N.; Gentile, A.; Martin, P. M.; Desplaces, A.; Oglobine, J.

    1991-01-01

    The concentrations of cathepsin D (Cath D), urokinase (uPA) and two plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2) were analysed in the cytosols of 130 human mammary tumours (43 benign tumours and 87 primary and unilateral breast carcinomas). uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 levels were measured by antigenic immunoassays and Cath D by immunoradiometric assay. The median levels of the four parameters were significantly higher in the malignant tumours than in the benign ones. Cath D and uPA increases were 4-fold and 5-fold respectively. PAI-1 and PAI-2 increases were much more important, 74-fold and 29-fold respectively. In malignant tumours, median levels of Cath D and uPA did not vary according to classical prognostic factors (histologic grade, presence or absence of axillary lymph nodes, steroid receptors, UICC stage, tumour size, age, and menopausal status). However, PAI-1 decreased in ER+ and PR+ tumours and PAI-2 increased in menopausal women's tumours. When Cath D, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 levels in malignant tumours were compared, positive correlations were found for all combinations. The implication of plasminogen activator inhibitors in the phenomenon was surprising and merits further investigation using tools other than global antigen measurements in tumours. PMID:1931618

  14. Anaerobic microbial community response to methanogenic inhibitors 2-bromoethanesulfonate and propynoic acid.

    PubMed

    Webster, Tara M; Smith, Adam L; Reddy, Raghav R; Pinto, Ameet J; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2016-08-01

    Methanogenic inhibitors are often used to study methanogenesis in complex microbial communities or inhibit methanogens in the gastrointestinal tract of livestock. However, the resulting structural and functional changes in archaeal and bacterial communities are poorly understood. We characterized microbial community structure and activity in mesocosms seeded with cow dung and municipal wastewater treatment plant anaerobic digester sludge after exposure to two methanogenic inhibitors, 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and propynoic acid (PA). Methane production was reduced by 89% (0.5 mmol/L BES), 100% (10 mmol/LBES), 24% (0.1 mmol/LPA), and 95% (10 mmol/LPA). Using modified primers targeting the methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene, changes in mcrA gene expression were found to correspond with changes in methane production and the relative activity of methanogens. Methanogenic activity was determined by the relative abundance of methanogen 16S rRNA cDNA as a percentage of the total community 16S rRNA cDNA. Overall, methanogenic activity was lower when mesocosms were exposed to higher concentrations of both inhibitors, and aceticlastic methanogens were inhibited to a greater extent than hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Syntrophic bacterial activity, measured by 16S rRNA cDNA, was also reduced following exposure to both inhibitors, but the overall structure of the active bacterial community was not significantly affected. PMID:26987552

  15. The protein phosphatase-1/inhibitor-2 complex differentially regulates GSK3 dephosphorylation and increases sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 levels

    SciTech Connect

    King, Taj D.; Gandy, Johanna C.; Bijur, Gautam N. . E-mail: gautam@uab.edu

    2006-11-01

    The ubiquitously expressed protein glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is constitutively active, however its activity is markedly diminished following phosphorylation of Ser21 of GSK3{alpha} and Ser9 of GSK3{beta}. Although several kinases are known to phosphorylate Ser21/9 of GSK3, for example Akt, relatively much less is known about the mechanisms that cause the dephosphorylation of GSK3 at Ser21/9. In the present study KCl-induced plasma membrane depolarization of SH-SY5Y cells, which increases intracellular calcium concentrations caused a transient decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473, and GSK3 at Ser21/9. Overexpression of the selective protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, inhibitor-2, increased basal GSK3 phosphorylation at Ser21/9 and significantly blocked the KCl-induced dephosphorylation of GSK3{beta}, but not GSK3{alpha}. The phosphorylation of Akt was not affected by the overexpression of inhibitor-2. GSK3 activity is known to affect sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) levels. Overexpression of inhibitor-2 or treatment of cells with the GSK3 inhibitors lithium and SB216763 increased the levels of SERCA2. These results indicate that the protein phosphatase-1/inhibitor-2 complex differentially regulates GSK3 dephosphorylation induced by KCl and that GSK3 activity regulates SERCA2 levels.

  16. [Xinfeng capsule improves hypercoagulative state by inhibiting miR-155/NF-κB signaling pathway in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Liu, Jian; Wan, Lei; Zhu, Fubing; Tan, Bing; Zhang, Pingheng

    2016-08-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Xinfeng capsule (XFC) on miR-155, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathway, and indexes related to hypercoagulative state in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and investigate the possible mechanism. Methods Fifty-six cases in active AS were randomly divided into XFC group and sulfasalazine (SASP) group. All cases in the XFC group took three capsules three times daily for twelve consecutive weeks. The ones in the SASP group took four tablets two times daily for twelve consecutive weeks. The expression of miR-155 was detected by real-time PCR. The mRNA expressions of nuclear factor κB activator 1(Act1), NF-κB inhibitor-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor of kappa-B kinase beta (IKKβ), NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 were tested by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Meanwhile, the protein expressions of NF-κB P65 and NF-κB P50 were determined by Western blotting. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, thromboxane B2 (TXB2), 6-ketone-prostaglandin F1 (6-keto-PGF1), platelet granular membrane protein 140 (GMP140), platelet activation factor (PAF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) were determined by ELISA. Clinical efficacy was evaluated in the two groups. Results Compared with the SASP group, 50% Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI50) was significantly higher in the XFC group. Compared with the SASP group after treatment, platelet (PLT), fibrinogen (FBG) and D-D dimer (D-D), TXB2, GMP140, PAF, PAI-2, IL-17, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), visual analog scale (VAS), BASDAI, BASFI, and BAS-G were reduced more obviously in the XFC group after treatment; meanwhile, 6-keto-PGF1, IL-4, and IL-10 significantly increased. Compared with the SASP group after treatment, the expressions of IKKβ mRNA, IκBα mRNA, NF-κB p65 mRNA, NF-κB p50 mRNA, NF-κB P65 protein, NF-κB P50 protein, and miR-155 were lower in the XFC group after

  17. Identification and analysis of the tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 of Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Zhi-zhong; Sun, Li

    2011-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI-2) is a structural homologue of TFPI, a potent inhibitor of tissue factor (TF)-mediated coagulation. Although TFPI-2 has been identified at sequence level in several fish species, no study on piscine TFPI-2 has been documented. In this report, we identified and analyzed a TFPI-2 homologue, SoTFPI2, from red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. The open reading frame of SoTFPI2 is 681 bp, which encodes a 226-residue protein that shares 59.2-82.3% overall sequence identities with known fish TFPI-2. SoTFPI2 possesses three tandem Kunitz domains and is negatively charged at the N-terminus and positively charged at the C-terminus. Expression of SoTFPI2 was detected, in increasing order, in spleen, muscle, gill, brain, liver, kidney, blood, and heart. Bacterial challenge and lipopolysaccharide treatment significantly upregulated SoTFPI2 expression in kidney in time-dependent manners. Recombinant SoTFPI2 purified from Escherichia coli inhibits the proteolytic activity of trypsin and exhibits bactericidal effect on a fish pathogen. Take together, these results indicate that SoTFPI2 is a biologically active serine protease inhibitor with antibacterial property and is likely to play a role in anti-bacterial infection. PMID:20970505

  18. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  19. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, Kristiina; Maekitie, Laura T.; Baeck, Nils; Andersson, Leif C.

    2010-07-01

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and 2 (AZIN2) are proteins that activate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. Both AZINs release ODC from its inactive complex with antizyme (AZ), leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC. The ubiquitously expressed AZIN1 is involved in cell proliferation and transformation whereas the role of the recently found AZIN2 in cellular functions is unknown. Here we report the intracellular localization of AZIN2 and present novel evidence indicating that it acts as a regulator of vesicle trafficking. We used immunostaining to demonstrate that both endogenous and FLAG-tagged AZIN2 localize to post-Golgi vesicles of the secretory pathway. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that the vesicles associate mainly with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). RNAi-mediated knockdown of AZIN2 or depletion of cellular polyamines caused selective fragmentation of the TGN and retarded the exocytotic release of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Exogenous addition of polyamines normalized the morphological changes and reversed the inhibition of protein secretion. Our findings demonstrate that AZIN2 regulates the transport of secretory vesicles by locally activating ODC and polyamine biosynthesis.

  20. Expression of ODC Antizyme Inhibitor 2 (AZIN2) in Human Secretory Cells and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Rasila, Tiina; Lehtonen, Alexandra; Kanerva, Kristiina; Mäkitie, Laura T; Haglund, Caj; Andersson, Leif C

    2016-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antizyme inhibitor 2 (AZIN2), originally called ODCp, is a regulator of polyamine synthesis that we originally identified and cloned. High expression of ODCp mRNA was found in brain and testis. We reported that AZIN2 is involved in regulation of cellular vesicle transport and / or secretion, but the ultimate physiological role(s) of AZIN2 is still poorly understood. In this study we used a peptide antibody (K3) to human AZIN2 and by immunohistochemistry mapped its expression in various normal tissues. We found high expression in the nervous system, in type 2 pneumocytes in the lung, in megakaryocytes, in gastric parietal cells co-localized with H,K-ATPase beta subunit, in selected enteroendocrine cells, in acinar cells of sweat glands, in podocytes, in macula densa cells and epithelium of collecting ducts in the kidney. The high expression of AZIN2 in various cells with secretory or vesicle transport activity indicates that the polyamine metabolism regulated by AZIN2 is more significantly involved in these events than previously appreciated. PMID:26963840

  1. Minimal and inducible regulation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Konduri, Santhi D; Osman, Francis Ali; Rao, Chilukuri N; Srinivas, Harish; Yanamandra, Niranjan; Tasiou, Anastasia; Dinh, Dzung H; Olivero, William C; Gujrati, Meena; Foster, Donald C; Kisiel, Walter; Kouraklis, Gregory; Rao, Jasti S

    2002-01-31

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), a serine protease inhibitor abundant in the extra cellular matrix, is highly expressed in non-invasive cells but undetectable levels in highly invasive human glioma cells. The mechanisms responsible for its transcriptional regulation are not well elucidated. In this study, we made several deletion constructs from a 3.6 kb genomic fragment from Hs683 cells containing the 5'-flanking region of the TFPI-2 gene, transiently transfected with these constructs into non-invasive (Hs683) and highly invasive (SNB19) human glioma cells, and assessed their expression by using a luciferase reporter gene. Three constructs showed high promoter activity (pTF5, -670 to +1; pTF6, -312 to +1; pTF2, -1511 to +1). Another construct, pTF8 (-81 to +1), showed no activity. PTF9, a variant of pTF5 in which a further 231 bp fragment (-312 to -81) was deleted, from the [-670 to +1] pTF5 region, also showed no promoter activity. Hence, (-312 to -81) this region is essential for the transcription of TFPI-2 in glioma cells. Sequencing of this promoter region revealed that it has a high G+C content, contains potential SP1 and AP1 binding motifs, and lacks canonical TATA and CAAT boxes immediately upstream of the major transcriptional initiation site, although CAAT boxes were found about -3000 bp upstream of the transcription start site. We also found a strong repressor in the region between -927 to -1181, upstream of the major transcriptional initiation site, followed by positive elements or enhancers between -1511 to -1181. These positive elements masked the silencer effect. Finally TFPI-2 was induced in Hs683 cells transfected with the pTF6 construct (-312 to +1) and stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). We conclude that the -312 to +1 region is critical for the minimal and inducible regulation of TFPI-2 in non-invasive (Hs683) and highly invasive (SNB19) human glioma cell lines.

  2. Abnormal expression of plasminogen activator inhibitors in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Estellés, A.; Grancha, S.; Gilabert, J.; Thinnes, T.; Chirivella, M.; España, F.; Aznar, J.; Loskutoff, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We previously reported significantly elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in plasma and placenta from pregnant women with severe pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia is a frequent problem in molar pregnancies. As increases in PAI-1 may contribute to the placental alterations that occur in pre-eclampsia, we have begun to investigate changes in PAI-1 as well as PAI-2 and several other components of the fibrinolytic system in patients with trophoblastic disease. Significant increases in plasma PAI-1 and decreases in plasma PAI-2 levels were observed in molar pregnancies when compared with the levels in normal pregnant women of similar gestational age. PAI-1 antigen levels also were increased, and PAI-2 levels were decreased in placenta from women with molar pregnancies compared with placenta obtained by spontaneous abortion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positive and specific staining of PAI-1 in trophoblastic epithelium in molar pregnancies and relatively weak staining of PAI-2. No association between the distribution of PAI-1 and vitronectin was found, and no specific signal for tissue type PA, urokinase type PA, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or interleukin-1 was detected. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in PAI-1 but not PAI-2 mRNAs in placenta from molar pregnancies in comparison with placenta from abortions. These results demonstrate increased PAI-1 protein and mRNA in trophoblastic disease and suggest that localized elevated levels of PAI-1 may contribute to the hemostatic problems associated with this disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8863672

  3. Expression of Antizyme Inhibitor 2 in Mast Cells and Role of Polyamines as Selective Regulators of Serotonin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Kanerva, Kristiina; Lappalainen, Jani; Mäkitie, Laura T.; Virolainen, Susanna; Kovanen, Petri T.; Andersson, Leif C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Upon IgE-mediated activation, mast cells (MC) exocytose their cytoplasmic secretory granules and release a variety of bioactive substances that trigger inflammatory responses. Polyamines mediate numerous cellular and physiological functions. We report here that MCs express antizyme inhibitor 2 (AZIN2), an activator of polyamine biosynthesis, previously reported to be exclusively expressed in the brain and testis. We have investigated the intracellular localization of AZIN2 both in resting and activated MCs. In addition, we have examined the functional role of polyamines, downstream effectors of AZIN2, as potential regulators of MC activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunostainings show that AZIN2 is expressed in primary and neoplastic human and rodent MCs. We demonstrate that AZIN2 localizes in the Vamp-8 positive, serotonin-containing subset of MC granules, but not in tryptase-containing granules, as revealed by double immunofluorescence stainings. Furthermore, activation of MCs induces rapid upregulation of AZIN2 expression and its redistribution, suggesting a role for AZIN2 in secretory granule exocytosis. We also demonstrate that release of serotonin from activated MCs is polyamine-dependent whereas release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase is not, indicating a granule subtype-specific function for polyamines. Conclusions/Significance The study reports for the first time the expression of AZIN2 outside the brain and testis, and demonstrates the intracellular localization of endogenous AZIN2 in MCs. The granule subtype-specific expression and its induction after MC activation suggest a role for AZIN2 as a local, in situ regulator of polyamine biosynthesis in association with serotonin-containing granules of MCs. Furthermore, our data indicates a novel function for polyamines as selective regulators of serotonin release from MCs. PMID:19718454

  4. Identification of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 as an interaction partner of glutaminase interacting protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zencir, Sevil; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Dobson, Melanie J.; Banerjee, Monimoy; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2) is a new partner protein for GIP. {yields} BAI2 interaction with GIP was revealed by yeast two-hybrid assay. {yields} Binding of BAI2 to GIP was characterized by NMR, CD and fluorescence. {yields} BAI2 and GIP binding was mediated through the C-terminus of BAI2. -- Abstract: The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80-100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signaling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interacts with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, {beta}-Catenin, FAS, HTLV-1 Tax, HPV16 E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.

  5. Plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Sharon, R; Abramovitz, R; Miskin, R

    2001-08-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) specifically inhibits plasminogen activators, extracellular fibrinolytic serine proteases that are also implicated in brain plasticity and toxicity. Primarily localized intracellularly, PAI-2 is thought to also counteract apoptosis mediated by a currently undefined intracellular protease. Here we localized PAI-2 mRNA through in situ hybridization in brain cryosections derived from normal adult mice or after kainate excitation. We found that in the normal brain PAI-2 mRNA was confined to an area within the accumbens nucleus shell. After kainate was injected (i.p.), PAI-2 mRNA was substantially and rapidly (within 2 h) induced in neuron-like cells primarily in layers II-III of the neocortex; the cingulate, piriform, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices; the olfactory bulb, nucleus and tubercle; in the accumbens nucleus, shell and core; throughout the caudate putamen and the amygdaloid complex; in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus, and in the parasubiculum. These findings suggest that PAI-2 could play a role in the accumbens nucleus as well as in activity-related events associated with olfactory, striatal, and limbic structures.

  6. Impact of oilseed rape expressing the insecticidal serine protease inhibitor, mustard trypsin inhibitor-2 on the beneficial predator Pterostichus madidus.

    PubMed

    Ferry, N; Jouanin, L; Ceci, L R; Mulligan, E A; Emami, K; Gatehouse, J A; Gatehouse, A M R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Insect-resistant transgenic plants have been suggested to have deleterious effects on beneficial predators feeding on crop pests, through transmission of the transgene product by the pest to the predator. To test this hypothesis, effects of oilseed rape expressing the serine protease inhibitor, mustard trypsin inhibitor -2 (MTI-2), on the predatory ground beetle Pterostichus madidus were investigated, using diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella as the intermediary pest species. As expected, oilseed rape expressing MTI-2 had a deleterious effect on the development and survival of the pest. However, incomplete pest mortality resulted in survivors being available to predators at the next trophic level, and inhibition studies confirmed the presence of biologically active transgene product in pest larvae. Characterization of proteolytic digestive enzymes of P. madidus demonstrated that adults utilize serine proteases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities; the former activity was completely inhibited by MTI-2 in vitro. When P. madidus consumed prey reared on MTI-2 expressing plants over the reproductive period in their life cycle, no significant effects upon survival were observed as a result of exposure to the inhibitor. However, there was a short-term significant inhibition of weight gain in female beetles fed unlimited prey containing MTI-2, with a concomitant reduction of prey consumption. Biochemical analyses showed that the inhibitory effects of MTI-2 delivered via prey on gut proteolysis in the carabid decreased with time of exposure, possibly resulting from up-regulation of inhibitor-insensitive proteases. Of ecological significance, consumption of MTI-2 dosed prey had no detrimental effects on reproductive fitness of adult P. madidus.

  7. Characterization of the transition state of protein unfolding by use of molecular dynamics: chymotrypsin inhibitor 2.

    PubMed Central

    Li, A; Daggett, V

    1994-01-01

    Temperature-induced unfolding of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 in water was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The major transition state of unfolding was identified on the basis of structural and conformational changes in the protein during the unfolding reaction. The native tertiary contacts in the hydrophobic core were considerably disrupted in the transition state, whereas the secondary structure was partially intact. The extent of structural change of the protein around a particular residue was represented quantitatively by the ratio of the number of contacts the residue makes in the transition state relative to the native state, phi MD, which allows quantitative comparison with the experimentally determined phi F values. For the region of the unfolding trajectory that is identified as the transition state, the phi MD and phi F values are in good agreement, suggesting that the transition state identified in the unfolding simulation corresponds to that probed with protein engineering methods. Although speculative, the transition state identified in the simulation is consistent with available experimental data and provides an in-depth view of what the transition state of unfolding may look like. Images PMID:7937969

  8. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2: a novel gene involved in zebrafish central nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lina; Zhou, Wenhao; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Shanshan; Li, Weihua; Li, Huawei; Mao, Zuohua; Ma, Duan

    2013-09-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (Tfpi-2) is an important serine protease inhibitor in the extracellular matrix (ECM), but its precise physiological significance remains unknown. This work is part of a series of studies intended to investigate functional roles of Tfpi-2 and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. First, we cloned and identified zebrafish Tfpi-2 (zTfpi-2) as an evolutionarily conserved protein essential for zebrafish development. We also demonstrated that ztfpi-2 is mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of zebrafish, and embryonic depletion of ztfpi-2 caused severe CNS defects. In addition, changes of neural markers, including pax2a, egr2b, huC, ngn1, gfap and olig2, confirmed the presence of developmental abnormalities in the relevant regions of ztfpi-2 morphants. Using microarray analysis, we found that members of the Notch pathway, especially her4 and mib, which mediate lateral inhibition in CNS development, were also downregulated. Intriguingly, both her4 and mib were able to partially rescue the ztfpi-2 morphant phenotype. Furthermore, Morpholino knockdown of ztfpi-2 resulted in upregulation of neuronal markers while downregulation of glial markers, providing evidence that the Notch pathway is probably involved in ztfpi-2-mediated CNS development.

  9. High Temperature Unfolding and Low Temperature Refolding Pathway of Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malau, N. D.; Sumaryada, T.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism that explains the unfolding/refolding process of the protein is still a major problem that has not been fully understood. In this paper we present our study on the unfolding and refolding pathway of Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 (CI2) protein through a molecular dynamics simulation technique. The high temperature unfolding simulation were performed at 500 K for 35 ns. While the low temperature refolding simulation performed at 200 K for 35 ns. The unfolding and refolding pathway of protein were analysed by looking at the dynamics of root mean squared deviation (RMSD) and secondary structure profiles. The signatures of unfolding were observed from significant increase of RMSD within the time span of 10 ns to 35 ns. For the refolding process, the initial structure was prepared from the structure of unfolding protein at t=15 ns and T=500 K. Analysis have shown that some of the secondary structures of CI2 protein that have been damaged at high temperature can be refolded back to its initial structure at low temperature simulation. Our results suggest that most of α-helix structure of CI2 protein can be refolded back to its initial state, while only half beta-sheet structure can be reformed.

  10. Trypsinogen 4 boosts tumor endothelial cells migration through proteolysis of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2.

    PubMed

    Ghilardi, Carmen; Silini, Antonietta; Figini, Sara; Anastasia, Alessia; Lupi, Monica; Fruscio, Robert; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Bani, Maria Rosa

    2015-09-29

    Proteases contribute to cancer in many ways, including tumor vascularization and metastasis, and their pharmacological inhibition is a potential anticancer strategy. We report that human endothelial cells (EC) express the trypsinogen 4 isoform of the serine protease 3 (PRSS3), and lack both PRSS2 and PRSS1. Trypsinogen 4 expression was upregulated by the combined action of VEGF-A, FGF-2 and EGF, angiogenic factors representative of the tumor microenvironment. Suppression of trypsinogen 4 expression by siRNA inhibited the angiogenic milieu-induced migration of EC from cancer specimens (tumor-EC), but did not affect EC from normal tissues. We identified tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), a matrix associated inhibitor of cell motility, as the functional target of trypsinogen 4, which cleaved TFPI-2 and removed it from the matrix put down by tumor-EC. Silencing tumor-EC for trypsinogen 4 accumulated TFPI2 in the matrix. Showing that angiogenic factors stimulate trypsinogen 4 expression, which hydrolyses TFPI-2 favoring a pro-migratory situation, our study suggests a new pathway linking tumor microenvironment signals to endothelial cell migration, which is essential for angiogenesis and blood vessel remodeling. Abolishing trypsinogen 4 functions might be an exploitable strategy as anticancer, particularly anti-vascular, therapy. PMID:26318044

  11. Molecular Investigations of the Structure and Function of the Protein Phosphatase 1-Spinophilin-Inhibitor 2 Heterotrimeric Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dancheck, B.; Allaire, M.; Ragusa, M.J.; Nairn, A.C.; Page, R.; Peti, W.

    2011-01-06

    Regulation of the major Ser/Thr phosphatase protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is controlled by a diverse array of targeting and inhibitor proteins. Though many PP1 regulatory proteins share at least one PP1 binding motif, usually the RVxF motif, it was recently discovered that certain pairs of targeting and inhibitor proteins bind PP1 simultaneously to form PP1 heterotrimeric complexes. To date, structural information for these heterotrimeric complexes and, in turn, how they direct PP1 activity is entirely lacking. Using a combination of NMR spectroscopy, biochemistry, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we show that major structural rearrangements in both spinophilin (targeting) and inhibitor 2 (I-2, inhibitor) are essential for the formation of the heterotrimeric PP1-spinophilin-I-2 (PSI) complex. The RVxF motif of I-2 is released from PP1 during the formation of PSI, making the less prevalent SILK motif of I-2 essential for complex stability. The release of the I-2 RVxF motif allows for enhanced flexibility of both I-2 and spinophilin in the heterotrimeric complex. In addition, we used inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy to show that PP1 contains two metals in both heterodimeric complexes (PP1-spinophilin and PP1-I-2) and PSI, demonstrating that PSI retains the biochemical characteristics of the PP1-I-2 holoenzyme. Finally, we combined the NMR and biochemical data with SAXS and molecular dynamics simulations to generate a structural model of the full heterotrimeric PSI complex. Collectively, these data reveal the molecular events that enable PP1 heterotrimeric complexes to exploit both the targeting and inhibitory features of the PP1-regulatory proteins to form multifunctional PP1 holoenzymes.

  12. Effect of ethanol concentrations on temperature driven structural changes of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanta, Dayanidhi; Jana, Madhurima

    2016-04-01

    A series of atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a small enzymatic protein Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 (CI2) in water-ethanol mixed solutions were carried out to explore the underlying mechanism of ethanol driven conformational changes of the protein. Efforts have been made to probe the influence of ethanol concentrations ranging from 0% to 75% (v/v) at ambient condition (300 K (T1)) and at elevated temperatures (375 K (T2) and 450 K (T3)) to investigate the temperature induced conformational changes of the protein further. Our study showed that the effect of varying ethanol concentrations on protein's structure is almost insignificant at T1 and T2 temperatures whereas at T3 temperature, partial unfolding of CI2 in 10% ethanol solution followed by full unfolding of the protein at ethanol concentrations above 25% occurs. However, interestingly, at T3 temperature CI2's native structure was found to be retained in pure water (0% ethanol solution) indicating that the cosolvent ethanol do play an important role in thermal denaturation of CI2. Such observations were quantified in the light of root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) and radius of gyration. Although higher RMSD values of β-sheet over α-helix indicate complete destruction of the β-structure of CI2 at high ethanol concentrations, the associated time scale showed that the faster melting of α-helix happens over β-sheet. Around 60%-80% of initial native contacts of the protein were found broken with the separation of hydrophobic core consisting eleven residues at ethanol concentrations greater than 25%. This leads protein to expand with the increase in solvent accessible surface area. The interactions between protein and solvent molecules showed that protein's solvation shell preferred to accommodate ethanol molecules as compared to water thereby excluded water molecules from CI2's surface. Further, concentration dependent differential self-aggregation behavior of ethanol is likely to regulate the

  13. Differential proteomic analysis of lymphocytes treated with mycophenolic acid reveals caspase 3-induced cleavage of rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2.

    PubMed

    Heller, Tanja; Asif, Abdul R; Petrova, Darinka Todorova; Doncheva, Yuliana; Wieland, E; Oellerich, Michael; Shipkova, Maria; Armstrong, Victor William

    2009-04-01

    The antiproliferative immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an uncompetitive inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides. The latter are not only required for synthesis of DNA and RNA but also are essential for the regulation of numerous cellular signaling pathways modulated by guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins). We undertook an analysis of the influence of MPA on protein expression in a T-lymphoblast cell line (CCRF-CEM), which displays concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation by MPA to obtain insight into the influence of MPA on the cellular proteome. Cells were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin and incubated in the presence or absence of MPA. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and densitometric imaging revealed 11 differentially expressed protein spots (P < 0.05) on MPA treatment, 6 with increased and 5 with decreased abundance. After in-gel tryptic digestion, proteins were identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteins displaying increased abundance after MPA treatment included splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, and deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Endoplasmin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member A, and cofilin 1 showed decreased abundance after MPA treatment. Three separate spots (1 decreased and 2 increased abundance) were identified as Rho guanosine diphosphate dissociation inhibitor 2 (Rho GDI 2) proteins. Western blotting with a monoclonal antibody directed against the Rho GDI 2 site cleaved by caspase 3 demonstrated 1 spot with increased abundance to be the caspase 3-cleaved product of Rho GDI 2 lacking the first 19 amino acids. Rho GDI 2 plays a central regulatory role in the activation of Rho guanosine triphosphatases that function as molecular switches in cell signaling

  14. Chronic Oral Administration of the Arginase Inhibitor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic Acid (ABH) Improves Erectile Function in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Robert; Hannan, Johanna L.; Liu, Xiaopu; Kutlu, Omer; Burnett, Arthur L.; Champion, Hunter C.; Kim, Jae Hyung; Steppan, Jochen; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2014-01-01

    Arginase expression and activity have been noted to be heightened in conditions associated with erectile dysfunction, including aging. Previously, arginase inhibition by chronic administration of the arginase inhibitor 2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction in aged rats. The objective of this study was to assess whether chronic oral ABH administration affects cavernosal erectile function. Rats were divided into 4 groups: young control, young treated with arginase inhibitor, aged control, and aged treated with arginase inhibitor. Arginase activity was measured and presented as a proportion of young untreated rats. In vivo erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation were measured in all cohorts. The cavernous nerve was stimulated with a graded electrical stimulus, and the intracavernosal/ mean arterial pressure ratios and total intracavernosal pressure were recorded. Arginase activity was elevated in the aged rats compared with young controls; however, arginase activity was significantly decreased in aged rats treated with ABH. With the addition of ABH, erectile responses improved in the aged rats (P < .05). Oral inhibition of arginase with ABH results in improved erectile function in aged rats, resulting in erectile hemodynamics similar to young rats. This represents the first documentation of systemic arginase inhibition positively affecting corporal cavernosal function. PMID:22492840

  15. Structural investigation of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: 2-Aryl-substituted benzimidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2009-11-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most destructive epidemics in history. Inhibitors of HIV enzymes are the main targets to develop drugs against that disease. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of HIV-1 (NNRTIs) are potentially effective and nontoxic. Structural studies provide information necessary to design more active compounds. The crystal structures of four NNRTI derivatives of 2-aryl-substituted N-benzyl-benzimidazole are presented here. Analysis of the geometrical parameters shows that the structures of the investigated inhibitors are rigid. The important geometrical parameter is the dihedral angle between the planes of the π-electron systems of the benzymidazole and benzyl moieties. The values of these dihedral angles are in a narrow range for all investigated inhibitors. There is no significant difference between the structure of the free inhibitor and the inhibitor in the complex with RT HIV-1. X-ray structures of the investigated inhibitors are a good basis for modeling enzyme-inhibitor interactions in rational drug design.

  16. Leucocyte expression of genes implicated in the plasminogen activation cascade is modulated by yoghurt peptides.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Georgios; Politis, Ioannis

    2016-08-01

    The urokinase-plasminogen activator (u-PA), its receptor (u-PAR) and the inhibitors of u-PA (PAI-1 and PAI-2) provide a multi-molecular system in leucocytes that exerts pleiotropic functions influencing the development of inflammatory and immune responses. The objective of the present study was to examine the ability of water soluble extracts (WSE) obtained from traditional Greek yoghurt made from bovine or ovine milk to modulate the expression of u-PA, u-PAR, PAI-1 and PAI-2 in ovine monocytes and neutrophils. WSE were obtained from 8 commercial traditional type Greek yoghurts made from ovine or bovine milk. WSE upregulated the expression of all 4 u-PA related genes in monocytes but the upregulation was much higher in the PAI-1 (10-fold) than in u-PA and u-PAR (3-4 fold) thus, shifting the system towards inhibition. In line with this observation, WSE reduced total and membrane-bound u-PA activity in monocytes. In neutrophils, WSE caused small (50-60%) but significant (P < 0·05) reductions in expression of u-PAR and PAI-2 but had no effect on expression of u-PA, PAI-1 and on total cell-associated and membrane-bound u-PA activity. WSE from yoghurts made from bovine or ovine milk were essentially equally effective in affecting the u-PA system except for the u-PAR gene in ovine neutrophils that was affected (reduced) by the ovine and not the bovine WSE. In conclusion, peptides present in WSE modulated the expression of u-PA related genes but the effect was much more prominent in monocytes than in neutrophils. PMID:27600972

  17. Regulatory elements involved in constitutive and phorbol ester-inducible expression of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, E; Medcalf, R L; Bergonzelli, G E; Kruithof, E K

    1991-01-01

    Gene transcription rates and mRNA levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) are markedly induced by the tumor promoting agent phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. To identify promoter elements required for basal-, and phorbol ester-inducible expression, deletion mutants of the PAI-1 promoter fused to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene, were transiently expressed in HT1080 cells. Constitutive CAT activity was expressed from constructs containing more than 215 bp of promoter sequence, whereas deletion to position -91 bp abolished CAT gene expression. Treatment of transfected cells with PMA resulted in a three- to ten-fold increase in CAT expression from all constructs except from the construct shortened to position -91. DNAse1 protection analysis of the promoter region between -215 and the transcription initiation site revealed numerous protected regions, including two AP1-like binding sites (AP1a and AP1b) and one CRE-like element. Site-directed mutagenesis of the AP1a site or of the CRE-like site resulted in the loss of basal CAT activity and abolished the PMA effect, whereas mutagenesis of AP1b only partially inhibited basal and PMA-mediated expression. Our results suggest that the PAI-2 promoter contains at least two elements required for basal gene transcription and PMA-mediated induction. Images PMID:1650454

  18. Crystal structure of the cysteine protease inhibitor 2 from Entamoeba histolytica: Functional convergence of a common protein fold

    SciTech Connect

    Casados-Vázquez, Luz E.; Lara-González, Samuel; Brieb, Luis G.

    2012-04-18

    Cysteine proteases (CP) are key pathogenesis and virulence determinants of protozoan parasites. Entamoeba histolytica contains at least 50 cysteine proteases; however, only three (EhCP1, EhCP2 and EhCP5) are responsible for approximately 90% of the cysteine protease activity in this parasite. CPs are expressed as inactive zymogens. Because the processed proteases are potentially cytotoxic, protozoan parasites have developed mechanisms to regulate their activity. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases (ICP) of the chagasin-like inhibitor family (MEROPS family I42) were recently identified in bacteria and protozoan parasites. E. histolytica contains two ICP-encoding genes of the chagasin-like inhibitor family. EhICP1 localizes to the cytosol, whereas EhICP2 is targeted to phagosomes. Herein, we report two crystal structures of EhICP2. The overall structure of EhICP2 consists of eight {beta}-strands and closely resembles the immunoglobulin fold. A comparison between the two crystal forms of EhICP2 indicates that the conserved BC, DE and FG loops form a flexible wedge that may block the active site of CPs. The positively charged surface of the wedge-forming loops in EhICP2 contrasts with the neutral surface of the wedge-forming loops in chagasin. We postulate that the flexibility and positive charge observed in the DE and FG loops of EhICP2 may be important to facilitate the initial binding of this inhibitor to the battery of CPs present in E. histolytica.

  19. Effects of alterd Gravity and Phosphorilation inhibitor 2.4-Dinitrophenole on Mitochondria Ultrastructural Organization in Chlorella Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A.

    The results of the experiments with two species of a green alga ?hlorella in spaceflight conditions and under altered gravity testified that the regular rearrangements has been revealed first of all in the cell mitochondriome. Such reorganizations were observed at auto- and geterotrophic regimes of the culture growth in the experiments of average duration (9-18 days) and also in long-term experiments (30 days - 4.5 months) (Popova, 1999). The mitochondria rearrangements become apparent at intensification of the cell proliferation, which results in increasing a relative volume of the mitohondria per cell (up to 5.3 % in microgravity compared to the control - 2.1 %). Moreover, the size of these organelles and their cristae increased in the experimental cells. The indicated mitochondria changes were accompanied by intensifying the electron density of a matrix and often by well-ordered topography of the cristae. Taking into account that the main set of the enzymes catalyzing the oxidative phosphorylation and conduction of the electrons are localized in the cristae membranes, the considerable growth of the mitochondria size and the cristae areas testified probably about a high functional activity of these organelles. Our investigations were carried out with the purpose to check the functional state of mitochondria under altered gravity (using slow horizontal clinorotator) and under influence of the inhibitory agent, separating an oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. The ultrastructural peculiarities of the mitochondria as the energetic organelles were studied under the different 2,4- dinitrophenole concentrations and during the different terms of clinoritation at the logarithmic and stationary phases of Chlorella culture growth. The various characters of the mitochondria rearrangements and their relative volumes per cell were revealed under 2,4-dinitrophenole influence compared to the different terms of microgravity and altered gravity influences. The obtained

  20. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part I: Fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Krysta R; Schroeder, Anthony L; Ankley, Gerald T; Blackwell, Brett R; Blanksma, Chad; Degitz, Sigmund J; Flynn, Kevin M; Jensen, Kathleen M; Johnson, Rodney D; Kahl, Michael D; Knapen, Dries; Kosian, Patricia A; Milsk, Rebecca Y; Randolph, Eric C; Saari, Travis; Stinckens, Evelyn; Vergauwen, Lucia; Villeneuve, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, a hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity to impaired swim bladder inflation was investigated in two experiments in which fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). Continuous exposure to 1mg MBT/L for up to 22 days had no effect on inflation of the posterior chamber of the swim bladder, which typically inflates around 6 days post fertilization (dpf), a period during which maternally-derived thyroid hormone is presumed to be present. In contrast, inflation of the anterior swim bladder, which occurs around 14dpf, was impacted. Specifically, at 14dpf, approximately 50% of fish exposed to 1mg MBT/L did not have an inflated anterior swim bladder. In fish exposed to MBT through 21 or 22dpf, the anterior swim bladder was able to inflate, but the ratio of the anterior/posterior chamber length was significantly reduced compared to controls. Both abundance of thyroid peroxidase mRNA and thyroid follicle histology suggest that fathead minnows mounted a compensatory response to the presumed inhibition of TPO activity by MBT. Time-course characterization showed that fish exposed to MBT for at least 4 days prior to normal anterior swim bladder inflation had significant reductions in anterior swim bladder size, relative to the posterior chamber, compared to controls. These results, along with similar results observed in zebrafish (see part II, this issue) are consistent with the hypothesis that thyroid hormone signaling plays a significant role in mediating anterior swim bladder inflation and development in cyprinids, and that role can be disrupted by exposure to thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors. Nonetheless, possible thyroid-independent actions of MBT on anterior swim bladder inflation cannot be ruled out based on the present results. Overall, although anterior swim bladder inflation has not been directly linked to survival as posterior swim bladder inflation

  1. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part I: Fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Krysta R; Schroeder, Anthony L; Ankley, Gerald T; Blackwell, Brett R; Blanksma, Chad; Degitz, Sigmund J; Flynn, Kevin M; Jensen, Kathleen M; Johnson, Rodney D; Kahl, Michael D; Knapen, Dries; Kosian, Patricia A; Milsk, Rebecca Y; Randolph, Eric C; Saari, Travis; Stinckens, Evelyn; Vergauwen, Lucia; Villeneuve, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, a hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity to impaired swim bladder inflation was investigated in two experiments in which fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). Continuous exposure to 1mg MBT/L for up to 22 days had no effect on inflation of the posterior chamber of the swim bladder, which typically inflates around 6 days post fertilization (dpf), a period during which maternally-derived thyroid hormone is presumed to be present. In contrast, inflation of the anterior swim bladder, which occurs around 14dpf, was impacted. Specifically, at 14dpf, approximately 50% of fish exposed to 1mg MBT/L did not have an inflated anterior swim bladder. In fish exposed to MBT through 21 or 22dpf, the anterior swim bladder was able to inflate, but the ratio of the anterior/posterior chamber length was significantly reduced compared to controls. Both abundance of thyroid peroxidase mRNA and thyroid follicle histology suggest that fathead minnows mounted a compensatory response to the presumed inhibition of TPO activity by MBT. Time-course characterization showed that fish exposed to MBT for at least 4 days prior to normal anterior swim bladder inflation had significant reductions in anterior swim bladder size, relative to the posterior chamber, compared to controls. These results, along with similar results observed in zebrafish (see part II, this issue) are consistent with the hypothesis that thyroid hormone signaling plays a significant role in mediating anterior swim bladder inflation and development in cyprinids, and that role can be disrupted by exposure to thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors. Nonetheless, possible thyroid-independent actions of MBT on anterior swim bladder inflation cannot be ruled out based on the present results. Overall, although anterior swim bladder inflation has not been directly linked to survival as posterior swim bladder inflation

  2. Structural analysis of a holoenzyme complex of mouse dihydrofolate reductase with NADPH and a ternary complex with the potent and selective inhibitor 2, 4-diamino-6-(2′-hydroxydibenz[b, f]azepin-5-yl)methylpteridine

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Rosowsky, Andre

    2008-09-01

    The structures of mouse DHFR holo enzyme and a ternary complex with NADPH and a potent inhibitor are described. It has been shown that 2, 4-diamino-6-arylmethylpteridines and 2, 4-diamino-5-arylmethylpyrimidines containing an O-carboxylalkyloxy group in the aryl moiety are potent and selective inhibitors of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from opportunistic pathogens such as Pneumocystis carinii, the causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to understand the structure–activity profile observed for a series of substituted dibenz[b, f]azepine antifolates, the crystal structures of mouse DHFR (mDHFR; a mammalian homologue) holo and ternary complexes with NADPH and the inhibitor 2, 4-diamino-6-(2′-hydroxydibenz[b, f]azepin-5-yl)methylpteridine were determined to 1.9 and 1.4 Å resolution, respectively. Structural data for the ternary complex with the potent O-(3-carboxypropyl) inhibitor PT684 revealed no electron density for the O-carboxylalkyloxy side chain. The side chain was either cleaved or completely disordered. The electron density fitted the less potent hydroxyl compound PT684a. Additionally, cocrystallization of mDHFR with NADPH and the less potent 2′-(4-carboxybenzyl) inhibitor PT682 showed no electron density for the inhibitor and resulted in the first report of a holoenzyme complex despite several attempts at crystallization of a ternary complex. Modeling data of PT682 in the active site of mDHFR and P. carinii DHFR (pcDHFR) indicate that binding would require ligand-induced conformational changes to the enzyme for the inhibitor to fit into the active site or that the inhibitor side chain would have to adopt an alternative binding mode to that observed for other carboxyalkyloxy inhibitors. These data also show that the mDHFR complexes have a decreased active-site volume as reflected in the relative shift of helix C (residues 59–64) by 0.6 Å compared with pcDHFR ternary complexes. These data are consistent with the

  3. Structural Analysis of a Holoenzyme Complex of Mouse Dihydrofolate Reductase With NADPH And a Ternary Complex With the Potent And Selective Inhibitor 2,4-Diamino-6-(2'-Hydroxydibenz[b,F]azepin-5-YI)

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, V.; Pace, J.; Rosowsky, A.

    2009-05-12

    It has been shown that 2,4-diamino-6-arylmethylpteridines and 2,4-diamino-5-arylmethylpyrimidines containing an O-carboxylalkyloxy group in the aryl moiety are potent and selective inhibitors of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from opportunistic pathogens such as Pneumocystis carinii, the causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to understand the structure-activity profile observed for a series of substituted dibenz[b,f]azepine antifolates, the crystal structures of mouse DHFR (mDHFR; a mammalian homologue) holo and ternary complexes with NADPH and the inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-(2{prime}-hydroxydibenz[b,f]azepin-5-yl)methylpteridine were determined to 1.9 and 1.4 A resolution, respectively. Structural data for the ternary complex with the potent O-(3-carboxypropyl) inhibitor PT684 revealed no electron density for the O-carboxylalkyloxy side chain. The side chain was either cleaved or completely disordered. The electron density fitted the less potent hydroxyl compound PT684a. Additionally, cocrystallization of mDHFR with NADPH and the less potent 2{prime}-(4-carboxybenzyl) inhibitor PT682 showed no electron density for the inhibitor and resulted in the first report of a holoenzyme complex despite several attempts at crystallization of a ternary complex. Modeling data of PT682 in the active site of mDHFR and P. carinii DHFR (pcDHFR) indicate that binding would require ligand-induced conformational changes to the enzyme for the inhibitor to fit into the active site or that the inhibitor side chain would have to adopt an alternative binding mode to that observed for other carboxyalkyloxy inhibitors. These data also show that the mDHFR complexes have a decreased active-site volume as reflected in the relative shift of helix C (residues 59-64) by 0.6 A compared with pcDHFR ternary complexes. These data are consistent with the greater inhibitory potency against pcDHFR.

  4. Structural analysis of human dihydrofolate reductase as a binary complex with the potent and selective inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-{2'-O-(3-carboxypropyl)oxydibenz[b,f]-azepin-5-yl}methylpteridine reveals an unusual binding mode.

    PubMed

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nowak, Jessica

    2011-10-01

    In order to understand the structure-activity profile observed for a series of substituted dibenz[b,f]azepine antifolates, the crystal structure of the binary complex of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) with the potent and selective inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-{2'-O-(3-carboxypropyl)oxydibenz[b,f]-azepin-5-yl}methylpteridine (PT684) was determined to 1.8 Å resolution. These data revealed that the carboxylate side chain of PT684 occupies two alternate positions, neither of which interacts with the conserved Arg70 in the active-site pocket, which in turn hydrogen bonds to water. These observations are in contrast to those reported for the ternary complex of mouse DHFR (mDHFR) with NADPH [Cody et al. (2008), Acta Cryst. D64, 977-984], in which the 3-carboxypropyl side chain of PT684 was hydrolyzed to its hydroxyl derivative, PT684a. The crystallization conditions differed for the human and mouse DHFR crystals (100 mM K2HPO4 pH 6.9, 30% ammonium sulfate for hDHFR; 15 mM Tris pH 8.3, 75 mM sodium cacodylate, PEG 4K for mDHFR). Additionally, the side chains of Phe31 and Gln35 in the hDHFR complex have a single conformation, whereas in the mDHFR complex they occupied two alternative conformations. These data show that the hDHFR complex has a decreased active-site volume compared with the mDHFR complex, as reflected in a relative shift of helix C (residues 59-64) of 1.2 Å, and a shift of 1.5 Å compared with the ternary complex of Pneumocystis carinii DHFR (pcDHFR) with the parent dibenz[b,f]azepine PT653. These data suggest that the greater inhibitory potency of PT684 against pcDHFR is consistent with the larger active-site volume of pcDHFR and the predicted interactions of the carboxylate side chain with Arg75.

  5. Overexpression of a set of genes, including WISP-1, common to pulmonary metastases of both mouse D122 Lewis lung carcinoma and B16-F10.9 melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Margalit, O; Eisenbach, L; Amariglio, N; Kaminski, N; Harmelin, A; Pfeffer, R; Shohat, M; Rechavi, G; Berger, R

    2003-07-21

    Despite advances in the management of solid tumours, the development of metastases continues to be the most significant problem and cause of death for cancer patients. To define genetic determinants of pulmonary metastases, we have applied oligonucleotide microarrays to established murine models of highly metastatic D122 Lewis lung carcinoma and B16-F10.9 melanoma cell lines. These models are characterised by primary subcutaneous growth in C57BL/6J mice, a period of minimal residual disease and spontaneous pulmonary metastases. Microarray analysis defined seven genes, namely - arginase, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2), surfactant protein C (SP-C), uteroglobin (UG) and wnt-1-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1), which were consistently elevated in pulmonary metastases compared to the primary tumour of both D122 and B16-F10.9 models. Previous studies demonstrated that two of these seven genes, IL-1 alpha and PAI-2, are involved in the metastatic process. The results obtained by the microarrays were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR, for three chosen genes - PAI-2, WISP-1 and UG. Our approach aimed to identify genes essential for the metastatic process in general and for pulmonary metastases specifically. Further research should address the precise role of these genes in the metastasising process to the lungs and test if they could be used as targets for future therapies.

  6. Determination of three-dimensional structures of proteins by simulated annealing with interproton distance restraints. Application to crambin, potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor and barley serine proteinase inhibitor 2.

    PubMed

    Nilges, M; Gronenborn, A M; Brünger, A T; Clore, G M

    1988-04-01

    An automated method, based on the principle of simulated annealing, is presented for determining the three-dimensional structures of proteins on the basis of short (less than 5 A) interproton distance data derived from nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) measurements. The method makes use of Newton's equations of motion to increase temporarily the temperature of the system in order to search for the global minimum region of a target function comprising purely geometric restraints. These consist of interproton distances supplemented by bond lengths, bond angles, planes and soft van der Waals repulsion terms. The latter replace the dihedral, van der Waals, electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding potentials of the empirical energy function used in molecular dynamics simulations. The method presented involves the implementation of a number of innovations over our previous restrained molecular dynamics approach [Clore, G.M., Brünger, A.T., Karplus, M. and Gronenborn, A.M. (1986) J. Mol. Biol., 191, 523-551]. These include the development of a new effective potential for the interproton distance restraints whose functional form is dependent on the magnitude of the difference between calculated and target values, and the design and implementation of robust and fully automatic protocol. The method is tested on three systems: the model system crambin (46 residues) using X-ray structure derived interproton distance restraints, and potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (CPI; 39 residues) and barley serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (BSPI-2; 64 residues) using experimentally derived interproton distance restraints. Calculations were carried out starting from the extended strands which had atomic r.m.s. differences of 57, 38 and 33 A with respect to the crystal structures of BSPI-2, crambin and CPI respectively. Unbiased sampling of the conformational space consistent with the restraints was achieved by varying the random number seed used to assign the initial velocities. This ensures

  7. Isolation of a high malic and low acetic acid-producing sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain screened from respiratory inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Shingo; Kiyoshi, Keiji; Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kadokura, Toshimori; Nakazato, Atsumi; Nakayama, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    We isolated 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant sake yeast strains by UV mutagenesis. Among the DNP-resistant mutants, we focused on strains exhibiting high malic acid and low acetic acid production. The improved organic acid composition is unlikely to be under the control of enzyme activities related to malic and acetic acid synthesis pathways. Instead, low mitochondrial activity was observed in DNP-resistant mutants, indicating that the excess pyruvic acid generated during glycolysis is not metabolized in the mitochondria but converted to malic acid in the cytosol. In addition, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio of the DNP-resistant strains was higher than that of the parental strain K901. These results suggest that the increased NADH/NAD(+) ratio together with the low mitochondrial activity alter the organic acid composition because malic acid synthesis requires NADH, while acetic acid uses NAD(+).

  8. Vaccination with a genetically modified Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 reduces adult parasite numbers and affects the fertility of female worms following a subcutaneous challenge of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with B. malayi infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Wei, Junfei; Ward, Danielle; Abraham, David; Lustigman, Sara; Zhan, Bin; Klei, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    Vaccination of Mongolian gerbils with Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 in which the amino acid Asn66 was mutated to Lys66 (Bm-CPI-2M) resulted in reduced parasite numbers of 48.6% and 48.0% at 42 and 90 days p.i. with B. malayi L3s. Fertility of female worms was also affected at 90 days p.i. In vitro killing of L3s observed in the presence of gerbil peritoneal exudate cells and anti-Bm-CPI-2M sera suggests antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity as a putative protective mechanism. These observations suggest that Bm-CPI-2M is a promising prophylactic and anti-fecundity vaccine candidate.

  9. Interaction of (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate dioxygenase with the specific inhibitor 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione.

    PubMed

    Kavana, Michael; Moran, Graham R

    2003-09-01

    (4-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is a non-heme Fe(II) enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisate as part of the tyrosine catabolism pathway. Inhibition of HPPD by the triketone 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) is used to treat type I tyrosinemia, a rare but fatal defect in tyrosine catabolism. Although triketones have been used for many years as HPPD inhibitors for both medical and herbicidal purposes, the mechanism of inhibition is not well understood. The following work provides mechanistic insight into NTBC binding. The tautomeric population of NTBC in aqueous solution is dominated by a single enol as determined by NMR spectroscopy. NTBC preferentially binds to the complex of HPPD and FeII [HPPD.Fe(II)] as evidenced by a visible absorbance feature centered at 450 nm. The binding of NTBC to HPPD.Fe(II) was observed using a rapid mixing method and was shown to occur in two phases and comprise three steps. A hyperbolic dependence of the first observable process with NTBC concentration indicates a pre-equilibrium binding step followed by a limiting rate (K(1) = 1.25 +/- 0.08 mM, k(2) = 8.2 +/- 0.2 s(-1)), while the second phase (k(3) = 0.76 +/- 0.02 s(-1)) had no dependence on NTBC concentration. Neither K(1),k(2), nor k(3) was influenced by pH in the range of 6.0-8.0. Isotope effects on both k(2) and k(3) were observed when D(2)O is used as the solvent (for k(2), k(h)/k(d) = 1.3; for k(3), k(h)/k(d) = 3.2). It is therefore proposed that the bidentate association of NTBC with the active site metal ion (k(2)) precedes the Lewis acid-assisted conversion of the bound enol to the enolate (k(3)). Although the native enzyme without substrate reacts with molecular oxygen to form the oxidized holoenzyme, the HPPD.Fe(II).NTBC complex does not. When the complex is exposed to atmospheric oxygen, the absorbance feature associated with NTBC binding does not diminish over the course of 2

  10. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  11. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The material presented is designed to help students explore geometric patterns involving Fibonnaci numbers and the golden ratio, and to aid in review of basic geometry skills. Worksheet masters intended for duplication are provided. Suggestions are made of possible classroom extensions to the initial activities. (MP)

  12. Modulation of urokinase plasminogen activator system by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Madunić, Josip; Antica, Mariastefania; Cvjetko, Petra; Požgaj, Lidija; Matulić, Maja

    2016-08-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system is a complex regulator of extracellular proteolysis which is involved in various physiological and pathological processes. The major components of this system are the serine protease uPA, two inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2, and the receptor uPAR. It has been previously shown by several groups that the uPA system has an important role in cancer progression and therefore its possible prognostic and therapeutic value has been evaluated. The aim of this study is to tackle the role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in the induction of uPA activity in a glioblastoma cell line, A1235. This cell line is sensitive to alkylation damage and is a model for drug treatment. The components of the uPA system and the level of DNA damage were analyzed after alkylation agent treatment in combination with poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition. Here we show that the increase in uPA activity results from the net balance change between uPA and its inhibitor at mRNA level. Further, PARP-1 inhibition exerts its influence on uPA activity through DNA damage increase. Involvement of several signaling pathways, as well as cell specific regulation influencing the uPA system are discussed.

  13. Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A 16, tumour protein 53 and epidermal growth factor receptor in salivary gland carcinomas is not associated with oncogenic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Senft, Ellen; Lemound, Juliana; Stucki-Koch, Angelika; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Kreipe, Hans; Hussein, Kais

    2015-03-01

    It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can cause squamous cell neoplasms at several sites, such as cervix uteri carcinoma and oral squamous carcinoma. There is little information on the expression of HPV and its predictive markers in tumours of the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. We therefore assessed oral salivary gland neoplasms to identify associations between HPV and infection-related epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A/p16) and tumour protein p53 (TP53). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from oral salivary gland carcinomas (n=51) and benign tumours (n=26) were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for several HPV species, including high-risk types 16 and 18. Evaluation of EGFR, CDKN2A, TP53 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was performed by immunohistochemistry. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was evaluated by EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridisation. We demonstrated that salivary gland tumours are not associated with HPV infection. The expression of EGFR, CDKN2A and TP53 may be associated with tumour pathology but is not induced by HPV. CMV and EBV were not detectable. In contrast to oral squamous cell carcinomas, HPV, CMV and EBV infections are not associated with malignant or benign neoplastic lesions of the salivary glands.

  14. Involvement of urokinase-type plasminogen activator system in cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mekkawy, Ahmed H; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Morris, David L

    2014-09-01

    Currently, there are several studies supporting the role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system in cancer. The association of uPA to its receptor triggers the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin. This process is regulated by the uPA inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). Plasmin promotes degradation of basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM) components as well as activation of ECM latent matrix metalloproteases. Degradation and remodeling of the surrounding tissues is crucial in the early steps of tumor progression by facilitating expansion of the tumor mass, release of tumor growth factors, activation of cytokines as well as induction of tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Hence, many tumors showed a correlation between uPA system component levels and tumor aggressiveness and survival. Therefore, this review summarizes the structure of the uPA system, its contribution to cancer progression, and the clinical relevance of uPA family members in cancer diagnosis. In addition, the review evaluates the significance of uPA system in the development of cancer-targeted therapies.

  15. Metals in the active site of native protein phosphatase-1.

    PubMed

    Heroes, Ewald; Rip, Jens; Beullens, Monique; Van Meervelt, Luc; De Gendt, Stefan; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a major protein Ser/Thr phosphatase in eukaryotic cells. Its activity depends on two metal ions in the catalytic site, which were identified as manganese in the bacterially expressed phosphatase. However, the identity of the metal ions in native PP1 is unknown. In this study, total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to detect iron and zinc in PP1 that was purified from rabbit skeletal muscle. Metal exchange experiments confirmed that the distinct substrate specificity of recombinant and native PP1 is determined by the nature of their associated metals. We also found that the iron level associated with native PP1 is decreased by incubation with inhibitor-2, consistent with a function of inhibitor-2 as a PP1 chaperone. PMID:25890482

  16. Manganese superoxide dismutase is required to maintain osteoclast differentiation and function under static force

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Zhang, Liqiang; Konermann, Anna; Zhou, Hong; Jin, Fang; Liu, Wenjia

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Increased activity of OCs not only contributes to pathological bone resorption, such as osteoporosis and periodontitis, but also is responsible for physiological conditions like orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). However, the detailed mechanism by which orthodontic force promotes the formation of OCs is still poorly understood. In this study, we confirmed that static force promoted the differentiation of human cord monocytes (HMNCs) into OCs depending on loading time and magnitude. Protein expression profiles among HMNCs, HMNCs subjected to static force and mature OCs were established via 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Total respective protein spot numbers of 549 ± 13, 612 ± 19 and 634 ± 16 were detected in each of the gels by image analysis. The five proteins identified were plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2, Spot 1), peroxiredoxin-6 (PRD-6, Spot 3), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2, Spot 6), Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (Rho-GDI2, Spot 11) and L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (L-LDH, Spot 15). More importantly, we revealed that SOD2 was required to maintain monocyte differentiation into functional OCs and may become a potential target for regulating the efficiency of OTM in the future. PMID:25619900

  17. Chiral resolution and pharmacological characterization of the enantiomers of the Hsp90 inhibitor 2-amino-7-[4-fluoro-2-(3-pyridyl)phenyl]-4-methyl-7,8-dihydro-6H-quinazolin-5-one oxime.

    PubMed

    Amici, Raffaella; Bigogno, Chiara; Boggio, Roberto; Colombo, Andrea; Courtney, Stephen M; Dal Zuffo, Roberto; Dondio, Giulio; Fusar, Fulvia; Gagliardi, Stefania; Minucci, Saverio; Molteni, Marco; Montalbetti, Christian A G N; Mortoni, Annalisa; Varasi, Mario; Vultaggio, Stefania; Mercurio, Ciro

    2014-07-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone involved in the stabilization of key oncogenic signaling proteins, and therefore, inhibition of Hsp90 represents a new strategy in cancer therapy. 2-Amino-7-[4-fluoro-2-(3-pyridyl)phenyl]-4-methyl-7,8-dihydro-6H-quinazolin-5-one oxime is a racemic Hsp90 inhibitor that targets the N-terminal adenosine triphosphatase site. We developed a method to resolve the enantiomers and evaluated their inhibitory activity on Hsp90 and the consequent antitumor effects. The (S) stereoisomer emerged as a potent Hsp90 inhibitor in biochemical and cellular assays. In addition, this enantiomer exhibited high oral bioavailability in mice and excellent antitumor activity in two different human cancer xenograft models.

  18. Heat Shock Protein 70 Inhibitors. 2. 2,5′-Thiodipyrimidines, 5-(Phenylthio)pyrimidines, 2-(Pyridin-3-ylthio)pyrimidines, and 3-(Phenylthio)pyridines as Reversible Binders to an Allosteric Site on Heat Shock Protein 70

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and development of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) inhibitors is currently a hot topic in cancer. In the preceding paper in this issue (10.1021/jm401551n), we have described structure–activity relationship studies in the first Hsp70 inhibitor class rationally designed to bind to a novel allosteric pocket located in the N-terminal domain of the protein. These ligands contained an acrylamide to take advantage of an active cysteine embedded in the allosteric pocket and acted as covalent protein modifiers upon binding. Here, we perform chemical modifications around the irreversible inhibitor scaffold to demonstrate that covalent modification is not a requirement for activity within this class of compounds. The study identifies derivative 27c, which mimics the biological effects of the irreversible inhibitors at comparable concentrations. Collectively, the back-to-back manuscripts describe the first pharmacophores that favorably and selectively interact with a never explored pocket in Hsp70 and provide a novel blueprint for a cancer-oriented development of Hsp70-directed ligands. PMID:24548239

  19. Synthetic Studies on Centromere-Associated Protein-E (CENP-E) Inhibitors: 2. Application of Electrostatic Potential Map (EPM) and Structure-Based Modeling to Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Derivatives as Anti-Tumor Agents.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Takaharu; Okaniwa, Masanori; Banno, Hiroshi; Kakei, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Akihiro; Iwai, Kenichi; Ohori, Momoko; Mori, Kouji; Gotou, Mika; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Yokota, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu

    2015-10-22

    To develop centromere-associated protein-E (CENP-E) inhibitors for use as anticancer therapeutics, we designed novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, utilizing previously discovered 5-bromo derivative 1a. By site-directed mutagenesis analysis, we confirmed the ligand binding site. A docking model revealed the structurally important molecular features for effective interaction with CENP-E and could explain the superiority of the inhibitor (S)-isomer in CENP-E inhibition vs the (R)-isomer based on the ligand conformation in the L5 loop region. Additionally, electrostatic potential map (EPM) analysis was employed as a ligand-based approach to optimize functional groups on the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine scaffold. These efforts led to the identification of the 5-methoxy imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivative (+)-(S)-12, which showed potent CENP-E inhibition (IC50: 3.6 nM), cellular phosphorylated histone H3 (p-HH3) elevation (EC50: 180 nM), and growth inhibition (GI50: 130 nM) in HeLa cells. Furthermore, (+)-(S)-12 demonstrated antitumor activity (T/C: 40%, at 75 mg/kg) in a human colorectal cancer Colo205 xenograft model in mice.

  20. Stimulation of protein phosphatase activity by insulin and growth factors in 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.P.; McNall, S.J.; Krebs, E.G.; Fischer, E.H. )

    1988-09-01

    Incubation of Swiss mouse 3T3-D1 cells with physiological concentrations of insulin resulted in a rapid and transient activation of protein phosphatase activity as measure by using ({sup 32}P)phosphorylase {alpha} as substrate. Activation reached a maximum level (140% of control value) within 5 min of addition and returned to control levels within 20 min. The effect of insulin was dose-dependent with half-maximal activation occurring at {approx}5 nM insulin. This activity could be completely inhibited by addition of the heat-stable protein inhibitor 2, which suggests the presence of an activated type-1 phosphatase. Similar effects on phosphatase activity were seen when epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor were tested. These results suggest that some of the intracellular effects caused by insulin and growth factors are mediated through the activation of a protein phosphatase.

  1. Active efflux and diffusion are involved in transport of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell-to-cell signals.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J P; Van Delden, C; Iglewski, B H

    1999-02-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria communicate by N-acyl homoserine lactone signals called autoinducers (AIs). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell-to-cell signaling controls expression of extracellular virulence factors, the type II secretion apparatus, a stationary-phase sigma factor (sigmas), and biofilm differentiation. The fact that a similar signal, N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone, freely diffuses through Vibrio fischeri and Escherichia coli cells has led to the assumption that all AIs are freely diffusible. In this work, transport of the two P. aeruginosa AIs, N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) (formerly called PAI-1) and N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) (formerly called PAI-2), was studied by using tritium-labeled signals. When [3H]C4-HSL was added to cell suspensions of P. aeruginosa, the cellular concentration reached a steady state in less than 30 s and was nearly equal to the external concentration, as expected for a freely diffusible compound. In contrast, [3H]3OC12-HSL required about 5 min to reach a steady state, and the cellular concentration was 3 times higher than the external level. Addition of inhibitors of the cytoplasmic membrane proton gradient, such as azide, led to a strong increase in cellular accumulation of [3H]3OC12-HSL, suggesting the involvement of active efflux. A defined mutant lacking the mexA-mexB-oprM-encoded active-efflux pump accumulated [3H]3OC12-HSL to levels similar to those in the azide-treated wild-type cells. Efflux experiments confirmed these observations. Our results show that in contrast to the case for C4-HSL, P. aeruginosa cells are not freely permeable to 3OC12-HSL. Instead, the mexA-mexB-oprM-encoded efflux pump is involved in active efflux of 3OC12-HSL. Apparently the length and/or degree of substitution of the N-acyl side chain determines whether an AI is freely diffusible or is subject to active efflux by P. aeruginosa.

  2. Role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors 1alpha and 2alpha in the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in a human trophoblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Meade, E S; Ma, Y Y; Guller, S

    2007-10-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAIs) play critical roles in regulating hemostatic and invasive functions of trophoblasts through suppression of plasmin-dependent fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix degradation. The expression of PAI-1 is increased under hypoxic conditions, although the mechanism remains incompletely understood. In the current study we used HTR-8/SVneo cells, a first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line, and siRNA technology to examine the role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs)-1alpha and -2alpha in the regulation of PAI-1 expression. Using serum-containing and serum-free media culture media it was initially noted that levels of PAI-1, but not PAI-2 protein, were markedly induced by hypoxic (2-3% oxygen) treatment. Under hypoxic conditions, Western blotting revealed that the presence of siRNAs to HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha suppressed expression of their respective proteins, whereas treatment with non-targeting and cyclophilin B siRNAs did not. Importantly, incubation with siRNA to HIF-1alpha or HIF-2alpha alone reduced PAI-1 protein levels to a similar extent, with the combined treatment inducing a more profound effect. The presence of HIF siRNAs reduced levels of PAI-1 mRNA as measured by quantitative real-time PCR, indicating that HIF-1alpha and HIF-2 alpha regulate PAI-1 expression at a transcriptional level. These results indicate that both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha play important and similar roles in hypoxia-mediated stimulation of PAI-1 expression in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Our findings provide insight into the physiological regulation of trophoblast PAI-1 expression in early pregnancy when placental oxygen levels are low, as well as a mechanism for over-expression of placental PAI-1 noted in pregnancies with preeclampsia.

  3. Structure-activity relationship study of selective excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) inhibitor 2-amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-(naphthalen-1-yl)-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (UCPH-101) and absolute configurational assignment using infrared and vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy in combination with ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tri H V; Shim, Irene; Bohr, Henrik; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Birgitte; Jensen, Anders A; Bunch, Lennart

    2012-06-14

    The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play essential roles in regulating the synaptic concentration of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the mammalian central nervous system. To date, five subtypes have been identified, named EAAT1-5 in humans, and GLAST, GLT-1, EAAC1, EAAT4, and EAAT5 in rodents, respectively. In this paper, we present the design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of seven 7-N-substituted analogues of UCPH-101/102. Analogue 9 inhibited EAAT1 in the micromolar range (IC(50) value 20 μM), whereas analogues 8 and 10 were inactive (IC(50) values >100 μM). The diastereomeric pairs 11a/11b and 12a/12b were separated by HPLC and the absolute configuration assigned by VCD technique in combination with ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations. Analogues 11a (RS-isomer) and 12b (RR-isomer) inhibited EAAT1 (IC(50) values 5.5 and 3.8 μM, respectively), whereas analogues 11b (SS-isomer) and 12a (SR-isomer) failed to inhibit EAAT1 uptake (IC(50) values >300 μM). PMID:22594609

  4. Depressed phosphatidic acid-induced contractile activity of failing cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tappia, Paramjit S; Maddaford, Thane G; Hurtado, Cecilia; Panagia, Vincenzo; Pierce, Grant N

    2003-01-10

    The effects of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known inotropic agent, on Ca(2+) transients and contractile activity of cardiomyocytes in congestive heart failure (CHF) due to myocardial infarction were examined. In control cells, PA induced a significant increase (25%) in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenylcarbonate, blocked the positive inotropic action induced by PA, indicating that PA induces an increase in contractile activity and Ca(2+) transients through stimulation of PLC. Conversely, in failing cardiomyocytes there was a loss of PA-induced increase in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. PA did not alter resting cell length. Both diastolic and systolic [Ca(2+)] were significantly elevated in the failing cardiomyocytes. In vitro assessment of the cardiac sarcolemmal (SL) PLC activity revealed that the impaired failing cardiomyocyte response to PA was associated with a diminished stimulation of SL PLC activity by PA. Our results identify an important defect in the PA-PLC signaling pathway in failing cardiomyocytes, which may have significant implications for the depressed contractile function during CHF.

  5. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  6. Cellular Activity of New Small Molecule Protein Arginine Deiminase 3 (PAD3) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Haya; Khan, Hasan A; Tjin, Caroline C; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-09-01

    The protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational deimination of arginine side chains. Multiple PAD isozymes have been characterized, and abnormal PAD activity has been associated with several human disease states. PAD3 has been characterized as a modulator of cell growth via apoptosis inducing factor and has been implicated in the neurodegenerative response to spinal cord injury. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of conformationally constrained versions of the potent and selective PAD3 inhibitor 2. The cell activity of representative inhibitors in this series was also demonstrated for the first time by rescue of thapsigargin-induced cell death in PAD3-expressing HEK293T cells. PMID:27660689

  7. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Interacting Kinase (MNK) 1 and 2 and BCR-ABL1 Inhibitors Targeting Chronic Myeloid Leukemic Cells.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Joseph; Nacro, Kassoum; Poh, Zhi Ying; Guo, Samantha; Jeyaraj, Duraiswamy A; Wong, Yun Xuan; Ho, Melvyn; Yang, Hai Yan; Joy, Joma Kanikadu; Kwek, Zekui Perlyn; Liu, Boping; Wee, John Liang Kuan; Ong, Esther H Q; Choong, Meng Ling; Poulsen, Anders; Lee, May Ann; Pendharkar, Vishal; Ding, Li Jun; Manoharan, Vithya; Chew, Yun Shan; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Lim, Sharon; Ong, S Tiong; Hill, Jeffrey; Keller, Thomas H

    2016-04-14

    Clinically used BCR-ABL1 inhibitors for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia do not eliminate leukemic stem cells (LSC). It has been shown that MNK1 and 2 inhibitors prevent phosphorylation of eIF4E and eliminate the self-renewal capacity of LSCs. Herein, we describe the identification of novel dual MNK1 and 2 and BCR-ABL1 inhibitors, starting from the known kinase inhibitor 2. Initial structure-activity relationship studies resulted in compound 27 with loss of BCR-ABL1 inhibition. Further modification led to orally bioavailable dual MNK1 and 2 and BCR-ABL1 inhibitors 53 and 54, which are efficacious in a mouse xenograft model and also reduce the level of phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E in the tumor tissues. Kinase selectivity of these compounds is also presented. PMID:27011159

  8. Relationship between the enzymatic browning and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity of cut lettuce, and the prevention of browning by inhibitors of polyphenol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hisaminato, H; Murata, M; Homma, S

    2001-05-01

    Cut lettuce stored at 4 degrees C gradually turned brown on the cut section after several days of storage. Three factors for enzymatic browning, the polyphenol content, polyphenol oxidase activity, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, were examined during the cold storage of cut lettuce. A relationship between the browning and PAL activity was apparent. We tried to prevent this browning by using the two enzyme inhibitors, 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and glyphosate, an inhibitor of the shikimate pathway. AIP and glyphosate significantly inhibited the browning of cut lettuce. The polyphenol content and PAL activity were both reduced by the treatment with AIP. These results show that regulating the biosynthesis of polyphenols is essential to prevent the browning of cut lettuce.

  9. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  10. Anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of a novel selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344).

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Seon; Rhee, Sang Dal; Kang, Nam Sook; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee Youn; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Kang, Seung Kyu; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Ahn, Jin Hee; Kim, Ki Young

    2011-04-15

    The selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have considerable potential for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344), as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor; we also investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cortisone-induced 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model system and C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice. KR-66344 concentration-dependently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in human liver microsome, mouse C2C12 myotube and human SW982 cells. In the C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice study, the administration of KR-66344 (200mg/kg/d, orally for 5 days) improved the glucose intolerance as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test, in which the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose concentration was significantly reduced by 27% compared with the vehicle treated group. Further, KR-66344 suppressed adipocyte differentiation on cortisone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells is associated with the suppression of the cortisone-induced mRNA levels of FABP4, G3PD, PPARγ2 and Glut4, and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity. Our results additionally demonstrate evidence showing that KR-66344 improved glycemic control and inhibited adipogenesis via 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity. Taken together, these results may provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of KR-66344, as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, in obesity and type 2 diabetes patients with metabolic syndrome.

  11. Chlorogenic acid protects MSCs against oxidative stress by altering FOXO family genes and activating intrinsic pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyong; Bian, Hetao; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Ye; Dai, Jianghua; He, Wenfeng; Liao, Xingen; Liu, Rongrong; Luo, Jun

    2012-01-15

    Chlorogenic acid as an antioxidant exists widely in edible and medicinal plants, and can protect cell against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. However, its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that Chlorogenic acid suppressed reactive oxygen species increase by activation of Akt phosphorylation,and increased FOXO family genes and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression in MSCs culturing under oxidative stress. In addition, PI-3Kinase Inhibitor (2-(4-Morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, LY294002) could suppress the Chlorogenic acid-induced: (1) the cellular protective role, (2) the increase of the FOXO family genes expression, (3) increased expression of Bcl-2. These results suggested that Chlorogenic acid protected MSCs against apoptosis via PI3K/AKT signal and FOXO family genes.

  12. Discovery of Pyrrolopyridine−Pyridone Based Inhibitors of Met Kinase: Synthesis, X-ray Crystallographic Analysis, and Biological Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyoung Soon; Zhang, Liping; Schmidt, Robert; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Wei, Donna; Williams, David K.; Lombardo, Louis J.; Trainor, George L.; Xie, Dianlin; Zhang, Yaquan; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S.; Tokarski, John S.; Darienzo, Celia; Kamath, Amrita; Marathe, Punit; Zhang, Yueping; Lippy, Jonathan; Jeyaseelan, Sr., Robert; Wautlet, Barri; Henley, Benjamin; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Manne, Veeraswamy; Hunt, John T.; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M.

    2008-10-02

    Conformationally constrained 2-pyridone analogue 2 is a potent Met kinase inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.8 nM. Further SAR of the 2-pyridone based inhibitors of Met kinase led to potent 4-pyridone and pyridine N-oxide inhibitors such as 3 and 4. The X-ray crystallographic data of the inhibitor 2 bound to the ATP binding site of Met kinase protein provided insight into the binding modes of these inhibitors, and the SAR of this series of analogues was rationalized. Many of these analogues showed potent antiproliferative activities against the Met dependent GTL-16 gastric carcinoma cell line. Compound 2 also inhibited Flt-3 and VEGFR-2 kinases with IC{sub 50} values of 4 and 27 nM, respectively. It possesses a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in mice and demonstrates significant in vivo antitumor activity in the GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma xenograft model.

  13. Active turbulence in active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.

  14. Activity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Larry C.; Weiner, Michael J.

    This twenty-four item scale assesses students' actual and desired political-social activism in terms of physical participation, communication activities, and information-gathering activities. About ten minutes are required to complete the instrument. The scale is divided into two subscales. The first twelve items (ACT-A) question respondents on…

  15. Proteasome Activators

    PubMed Central

    Stadtmueller, Beth M.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Proteasomes degrade a multitude of protein substrates in the cytosol and nucleus, and thereby are essential for many aspects of cellular function. Because the proteolytic sites are sequestered in a closed barrel-shaped structure, activators are required to facilitate substrate access. Structural and biochemical studies of two activator families, 11S and Blm10, have provided insights to proteasome activation mechanisms, although the biological functions of these factors remain obscure. Recent advances have improved our understanding of the third activator family, including the 19S activator, which targets polyubiquitylated proteins for degradation. PMID:21211719

  16. Activation of STING requires palmitoylation at the Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Kojiro; Konno, Hiroyasu; Akiba, Tatsuya; Uemura, Takefumi; Waguri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barber, Glen N.; Arai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is essential for the type I interferon response against DNA pathogens. In response to the presence of DNA and/or cyclic dinucleotides, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear compartments. However, the role of this subcellular translocation remains poorly defined. Here we show that palmitoylation of STING at the Golgi is essential for activation of STING. Treatment with palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) suppresses palmitoylation of STING and abolishes the type I interferon response. Mutation of two membrane-proximal Cys residues (Cys88/91) suppresses palmitoylation, and this STING mutant cannot induce STING-dependent host defense genes. STING variants that constitutively induce the type I interferon response were found in patients with autoimmune diseases. The response elicited by these STING variants is effectively inhibited by 2-BP or an introduction of Cys88/91Ser mutation. Our results may lead to new treatments for cytosolic DNA-triggered autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27324217

  17. Activation of STING requires palmitoylation at the Golgi.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kojiro; Konno, Hiroyasu; Akiba, Tatsuya; Uemura, Takefumi; Waguri, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Barber, Glen N; Arai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is essential for the type I interferon response against DNA pathogens. In response to the presence of DNA and/or cyclic dinucleotides, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear compartments. However, the role of this subcellular translocation remains poorly defined. Here we show that palmitoylation of STING at the Golgi is essential for activation of STING. Treatment with palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) suppresses palmitoylation of STING and abolishes the type I interferon response. Mutation of two membrane-proximal Cys residues (Cys88/91) suppresses palmitoylation, and this STING mutant cannot induce STING-dependent host defense genes. STING variants that constitutively induce the type I interferon response were found in patients with autoimmune diseases. The response elicited by these STING variants is effectively inhibited by 2-BP or an introduction of Cys88/91Ser mutation. Our results may lead to new treatments for cytosolic DNA-triggered autoinflammatory diseases. PMID:27324217

  18. Active ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelani, L.; Costanzo, A.; Di Leonardo, R.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze self-propelling organisms, or active particles, in a periodic asymmetric potential. Unlike standard ratchet effect for Brownian particles requiring external forcing, in the case of active particles asymmetric potential alone produces a net drift speed (active ratchet effect). By using theoretical models and numerical simulations we demonstrate the emergence of the rectification process in the presence of an asymmetric piecewise periodic potential. The broken spatial symmetry (external potential) and time symmetry (active particles) are sufficient ingredients to sustain unidirectional transport. Our findings open the way to new mechanisms to move in directional manner motile organisms by using external periodic static fields.

  19. Discovery of Potent Carbonic Anhydrase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: 2-Aminoindan β-Lactam Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Genç, Hayriye; Kalin, Ramazan; Köksal, Zeynep; Sadeghian, Nastaran; Kocyigit, Umit M.; Zengin, Mustafa; Gülçin, İlhami; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactams are pharmacologically important compounds because of their various biological uses, including antibiotic and so on. β-Lactams were synthesized from benzylidene-inden derivatives and acetoxyacetyl chloride. The inhibitory effect of these compounds was examined for human carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I, and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results reveal that β-lactams are inhibitors of hCA I, II and AChE. The Ki values of β-lactams (2a–k) were 0.44–6.29 nM against hCA I, 0.93–8.34 nM against hCA II, and 0.25–1.13 nM against AChE. Our findings indicate that β-lactams (2a–k) inhibit both carbonic anhydrases (CA) isoenzymes and AChE at low nanomolar concentrations. PMID:27775608

  20. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  1. Faculty Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Blending scholarship and activism, whether domestic or international, takes some real work. Two scholar-activists reflect on why and how activism can be more than academic labor in this feature of the "Academe" journal. This feature includes the following brief reflections on political work, both local and global that demonstrates how on campus…

  2. Catalyst activator

    DOEpatents

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  3. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  4. Protein phosphatases 1 and 2A promote Raf-1 activation by regulating 14-3-3 interactions.

    PubMed

    Jaumot, M; Hancock, J F

    2001-07-01

    Raf-1 activation is a complex process which involves plasma membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, protein-protein and lipid-protein interactions. We now show that PP1 and PP2A serine-threonine phosphatases also have a positive role in Ras dependent Raf-1 activation. General serine-threonine phosphatase inhibitors such sodium fluoride, or ss-glycerophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate, or specific PP1 and PP2A inhibitors including microcystin-LR, protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor I(1) or protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 all abrogate H-Ras and K-Ras dependent Raf-1 activation in vitro. A critical Raf-1 target residue for PP1 and PP2A is S259. Serine phosphatase inhibitors block the dephosphorylation of S259, which accompanies Raf-1 activation, and Ras dependent activation of mutant Raf259A is relatively resistant to serine phosphatase inhibitors. Sucrose gradient analysis demonstrates that serine phosphatase inhibition increases the total amount of 14-3-3 and Raf-1 associated with the plasma membrane and significantly alters the distribution of 14-3-3 and Raf-1 across different plasma membrane microdomains. These observations suggest that dephosphorylation of S259 is a critical early step in Ras dependent Raf-1 activation which facilitates 14-3-3 displacement. Inhibition of PP1 and PP2A therefore causes plasma membrane accumulation of Raf-1/14-3-3 complexes which cannot be activated.

  5. Activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 16 chapters on the application of activation analysis in the fields of life sciences, biological materials, coal and its effluents, environmental samples, archaeology, material science, and forensics. Each chapter is processed separately for the data base.

  6. Integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion is important for development, immune responses, hemostasis and wound healing. Integrins also function as signal transducing receptors that can control intracellular pathways that regulate cell survival, proliferation, and cell fate. Conversely, cells can modulate the affinity of integrins for their ligands a process operationally defined as integrin activation. Analysis of activation of integrins has now provided a detailed molecular understanding of this unique form of “inside-out” signal transduction and revealed new paradigms of how transmembrane domains (TMD) can transmit long range allosteric changes in transmembrane proteins. Here, we will review how talin and mediates integrin activation and how the integrin TMD can transmit these inside out signals. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(12): 655-659] PMID:25388208

  7. Active Cytokinins

    PubMed Central

    Mornet, René; Theiler, Jane B.; Leonard, Nelson J.; Schmitz, Ruth Y.; Moore, F. Hardy; Skoog, Folke

    1979-01-01

    Four series of azidopurines have been synthesized and tested for cytokinin activity in the tobacco callus bioassay: 2- and 8-azido-N6-benzyladenines, -N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenines, and -zeatins, and N6-(2- and 4-azidobenzyl)adenines. The compounds having 2-azido substitution on the adenine ring are as active as the corresponding parent compounds, while those with 8-azido substitution are about 10 or more times as active. The 8-azidozeatin, which is the most active cytokinin observed, exhibited higher than minimal detectable activity at 1.2 × 10−5 micromolar, the lowest concentration tested. The shape of the growth curve indicates that even a concentration as low as 5 × 10−6 micromolar would probably be effective. By comparison, the lowest active concentration ever reported for zeatin has been 5 × 10−5 micromolar, representing a sensitivity rarely attained. All of the azido compounds have been submitted to photolysis in aqueous ethanol, and the photoproducts have been detected and identified by low and high resolution mass spectrometry. They are rationalized as products of abstraction and insertion reactions of the intermediate nitrenes. The potential of the major released products as cytokinins was also assessed by bioassay. 2-Azido-N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine competed with [14C]kinetin for the cytokinin-binding protein isolated from wheat germ. When the azido compound was photolysed in the presence of this protein, its attachment effectively blocked the binding of [14C]kinetin. PMID:16661017

  8. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  9. Components of the increased circulating proteolytic activity in pediatric burn patients.

    PubMed

    Neely, A N; Warden, G D; Rieman, M; Friedberg, D L; Holder, I A

    1992-12-01

    Total proteolytic activity (PA) is increased in the circulation of pediatric burn patients. The extent of the increase correlates with the percent total body surface area (TBSA) burned and is associated with increased susceptibility to fatal infection. To determine the source or sources of this PA, three factors were evaluated: (1) levels of proteinase inhibitors--antithrombin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor; (2) levels of proteinase--neutrophil elastase; and (3) activation of circulating proteolytic cascade systems as indicated by changes in levels of system components--plasminogen and prekallikrein. All assays measured functional levels of the proteins. Normal levels were determined in 25 consecutive well children who were seeing their pediatrician for checkups (14 boys, 11 girls, ranging in age from 10 months to 17 years). Twenty-five consecutive burn victims admitted to the Shriners Burns Institute, Cincinnati Unit (19 boys, six girls, aged 10 months to 17 years), with a mean full-thickness burn of 43.2% TBSA (range, 6%-87%) were studied in the first week postburn. Antithrombin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, and prekallikrein levels decreased (p < 0.001) postburn, whereas elastase increased (p < 0.001). We conclude that, in pediatric burn patients, decreased proteinase inhibitors, increased proteinase, and activation of circulating proteinase cascades all contribute to elevated total circulating PA postburn.

  10. Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  11. Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Frances R.

    This pamphlet suggests activities that may be used in the elementary school classroom. Chapter I lists various short plays that children can easily perform which encourage their imagination. Chapter II details a few quiet classroom games such as "I Saw,""Corral the Wild Horse,""Who Has Gone from the Room," and "Six-Man-Football Checkers." A number…

  12. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Tom, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)

  13. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  14. Get Active

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifting small weights – you can even use bottled water or cans of food as weights Watch these videos for muscle strengthening exercises to do at home or at the gym. If you do muscle-strengthening activities with weights, check out the do’s and don’ ...

  15. Activated Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Glucokinase activators.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Kevin J; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Stevens, Benjamin D

    2012-07-01

    In this review we highlight recently disclosed progress in the field of small-molecule activators of the human glucokinase enzyme. Several of the reported chemotypes possess structural features that diverge from known leads; some of these modifications appear to be specifically designed to modulate tissue selectivity or discrete parameters of enzyme function (e.g., S0.5 v Vmax). This review will inform the reader of the extent of continued effort being directed toward discovery of a first-in-class drug for Type II diabetes mellitus that functions through this target. Patents were selected from those published in December 2009 up to November 2011; foreign filings were translated where possible to understand the claims and biological techniques utilized to characterize the reported glucokinase activators. Overall, there appears to be a recent trend leading to reduced patent filings for small-molecule glucokinase activators. There are many possible explanations for this trend; however, it is likely that the field has reached maturity and that the downturn of new disclosures represents the transition of many of these programs to the clinic.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulates the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 through activation of NF-kappaB and pp38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Su, Ih-Jen; Lei, Huan-Yao; Wang, Hui-Ching; Lin, Wan-Chi; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Huang, Wenya; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Ching-Chow; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2004-11-01

    Expression of mutant proteins or viral infection may interfere with proper protein folding activity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Several pathways that maintain cellular homeostasis were activated in response to these ER disturbances. Here we investigated which of these ER stress-activated pathways induce COX-2 and potentially oncogenesis. Tunicamycin and brefeldin A, two ER stress inducers, increased the expression of COX-2 in ML-1 or MCF-7 cells. Nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and activation of pp38 MAPK were observed during ER stress. IkappaBalpha kinase inhibitor Bay 11-7082 or IkappaBalpha kinase dominant negative mutant significantly inhibited the induction of COX-2. pp38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or eIF2alpha phosphorylation inhibitor 2-aminopurine attenuated the nuclear NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and COX-2 induction. Expression of mutant hepatitis B virus (HBV) large surface proteins, inducers of ER stress, enhanced the expression of COX-2 in ML-1 and HuH-7 cells. Transgenic mice showed higher expression of COX-2 protein in liver and kidney tissue expressing mutant HBV large surface protein in vivo. Similarly, increased expression of COX-2 mRNA was observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue expressing mutant HBV large surface proteins. In ML-1 cells expressing mutant HBV large surface protein, anchorage-independent growth was enhanced, and the enhancement was abolished by the addition of specific COX-2 inhibitors. Thus, ER stress due either to expression of viral surface proteins or drugs can stimulate the expression of COX-2 through the NF-kappaB and pp38 kinase pathways. Our results provide important insights into cellular carcinogenesis associated with latent endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  18. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  19. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  20. Attenuation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphatase activity in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Belandia, B; Brautigan, D; Martín-Pérez, J

    1994-01-01

    In chicken embryo fibroblasts, phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 increases during G1 but returns to basal level by mitosis. In contrast, in Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-transformed fibroblasts, S6 remains highly phosphorylated throughout mitosis. This study investigated the mechanism by which RSV alters the pattern of S6 phosphorylation. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that phosphate turnover in S6 is rapid in normal cells and in cells infected with an RSV transformation-defective virus. In contrast, phosphate turnover in S6 is severely reduced in cells infected with temperature-sensitive RSV at a temperature permissive for transformation, indicating a diminished S6 phosphatase activity. Fractionation of cell lysates by DEAE chromatography showed an almost threefold lower S6 phosphatase activity in RSV-transformed versus normal cells. The S6 phosphatase was sensitive to inhibitor 2 and specifically recognized by an antibody to type 1 phosphatase (PP1). The S6 phosphatase activity recovered by immunoprecipitation of PP1 was threefold lower in transformed cells, but the steady-state level of expression and the rate of synthesis of PP1 were not altered by oncogenic transformation. Together, the results show that transformation by RSV reduced the S6-PP1 activity. Images PMID:8264587

  1. Active tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This study is part of a series of Studies in Geophysics that have been undertaken for the Geophysics Research Forum by the Geophysics Study Committee. One purpose of each study is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such assessments is an evaluation of the adequacy of current geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of current research programs as a source of information required for those decisions. The study addresses our current scientific understanding of active tectonics --- particularly the patterns and rates of ongoing tectonic processes. Many of these processes cannot be described reasonably using the limited instrumental or historical records; however, most can be described adequately for practical purposes using the geologic record of the past 500,000 years. A program of fundamental research focusing especially on Quaternary tectonic geology and geomorphology, paleoseismology, neotectonics, and geodesy is recommended to better understand ongoing, active tectonic processes. This volume contains 16 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Database.

  2. DAVIC activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    DAVIC (Digital Audio Visual Council) is the defacto standardization organization established in Mar. 1994, based on international consensus for digital audio visual services. After completion of MPEG2 standardization, the broadcasting industry, the communication industry, the computer industry, and consumer electronics industry have started development of concrete services and products. Especially the interactive digital audio visual services, such as Video On Demand (VOD) or Near Video On Demand (NVOD), have become hot topics all over the world. Such interactive digital audio visual services are combined technologies of multi-media coding, digital transmission and computer networking. Therefore more than 150 organizations from all industry sectors have participated in DAVIC and are contributing from their own industrial contexts. DAVIC's basic policy is to use the available technologies specified by the other standards bodies as much as possible. So DAVIC's standardization activities have close relationship with ISO IEC/JTC1/SC29, ITU-T SG 9, ATM-Forum, IETF, IMA, DVB, etc. DAVIC is trying to specify Applications, Reference Models, Security, Usage Information Control, and the interfaces and protocols among the Content Provider, the Server, the core network, the access network, and the Set Top Unit. DAVIC's first goal is to specify DAVIC1.0 based on CFP1 (Call for Proposal) and CFP2 by Dec. 1995, and the next direction is under preparation for further progress based on CFP3 and CFP4.

  3. The enterovirus protease inhibitor rupintrivir exerts cross-genotypic anti-norovirus activity and clears cells from the norovirus replicon.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Pereira, J; Nascimento, M S J; Ma, Q; Hilgenfeld, R; Neyts, J; Jochmans, D

    2014-08-01

    Potent and safe inhibitors of norovirus replication are needed for the treatment and prophylaxis of norovirus infections. We here report that the in vitro anti-norovirus activity of the protease inhibitor rupintrivir is extended to murine noroviruses and that rupintrivir clears human cells from their Norwalk replicon after only two passages of antiviral pressure. In addition, we demonstrate that rupintrivir inhibits the human norovirus (genogroup II [GII]) protease and further explain the inhibitory effect of the molecule by means of molecular modeling on the basis of the crystal structure of the Norwalk virus protease. The combination of rupintrivir with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors 2'-C-methylcytidine and favipiravir (T-705) resulted in a merely additive antiviral effect. The fact that rupintrivir is active against noroviruses belonging to genogroup I (Norwalk virus), genogroup V (murine norovirus), and the recombinant 3C-like protease of a GII norovirus suggests that the drug exerts cross-genotypic anti-norovirus activity and will thus most likely be effective against the clinically relevant human norovirus strains. The design of antiviral molecules targeting the norovirus protease could be a valuable approach for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of norovirus infections.

  4. Site-directed mutagenesis and high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of the active site of porphobilinogen deaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.I.; Roessner, C.A.; Stolowich, N.J.; Karuso, P.; Williams, H.J.; Grant, S.K.; Gonzalez, M.D.; Hoshino, T. )

    1988-10-18

    The active site of porphobilinogen (PBG){sup 1} deaminase from Escherichia coli has been found to contain an unusual dipyrromethane derived from four molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) covalently linked to Cys-242, one of the two cysteine residues conserved in E. coli and human deaminase. By use of a hemA{sup {minus}} strain of E. coli the enzyme was enriched from (5-{sup 13}C)ALA and examined by {sup 1}H-detected multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy, which revealed all of the salient features of a dipyrromethane composed of two PBG units linked heat to tail and terminating in a CH{sub 2}-S bond to a cysteine residue. Site-specific mutagenesis of Cys-99 and Cys-242, respectively, has shown that substitution of Ser for Cys-99 does not affect the enzymatic activity, whereas substitution of Ser for Cys-242 removes essentially all of the catalytic activity as measured by the conversion of the substrate PBG to uro'gen I. The NMR spectrum of the covalent complex of deaminase with the suicide inhibitor 2-bromo-(2,11-{sup 13}C{sub 2})PBG reveals that the aminomethyl terminus of the inhibitor reacts with the enzyme's cofactor at the {alpha}-free pyrrole. NMR spectroscopy of the ES{sub 2} complex confirmed a PBG-derived head-to-tail dipyrromethane attached to the {alpha}-free pyrrole position of the enzyme. A mechanistic rationale for deaminase is presented.

  5. Imaging Sites of Inhibition of Proteolysis in Pathomimetic Human Breast Cancer Cultures by Light-Activated Ruthenium Compound

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Suelem D.; Sharma, Rajgopal; White, Jessica K.; Aggarwal, Neha; Chalasani, Anita; Sameni, Mansoureh; Moin, Kamiar; Vieira, Paulo C.; Turro, Claudia; Kodanko, Jeremy J.; Sloane, Bonnie F.

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine protease cathepsin B has been causally linked to progression and metastasis of breast cancers. We demonstrate inhibition by a dipeptidyl nitrile inhibitor (compound 1) of cathepsin B activity and also of pericellular degradation of dye-quenched collagen IV by living breast cancer cells. To image, localize and quantify collagen IV degradation in real-time we used 3D pathomimetic breast cancer models designed to mimic the in vivo microenvironment of breast cancers. We further report the synthesis and characterization of a caged version of compound 1, [Ru(bpy)2(1)2](BF4)2 (compound 2), which can be photoactivated with visible light. Upon light activation, compound 2, like compound 1, inhibited cathepsin B activity and pericellular collagen IV degradation by the 3D pathomimetic models of living breast cancer cells, without causing toxicity. We suggest that caged inhibitor 2 is a prototype for cathepsin B inhibitors that can control both the site and timing of inhibition in cancer. PMID:26562785

  6. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, T; Foldspang, A; Vestergaard, E; Ingemann-Hansen, T

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension.

  7. IASS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  8. Antiviral Activity of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Inhibiting Intracellular Calcium Overload.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su-Hua; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chen, Chao-Jung; Liu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Ching-Ying; Ping, Chia-Fong; Lin, Yu-Fong; Huang, An-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has five genotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V). JEV genotype I circulates widely in some Asian countries. However, current JEV vaccines based on genotype III strains show low neutralizing capacities against genotype I variants. In addition, JE has no specific treatment, except a few supportive treatments. Compound CW-33, an intermediate synthesized derivative of furoquinolines, was investigated for its antiviral activities against JEV in this study. CW-33 exhibited the less cytotoxicity to Syrian baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and human medulloblastoma (TE761) cells. CW-33 dose-dependently reduced the cytopathic effect and apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. Supernatant virus yield assay pinpointed CW-33 as having potential anti-JEV activity with IC50 values ranging from 12.7 to 38.5 μM. Time-of-addition assay with CW-33 indicated that simultaneous and post-treatment had no plaque reduction activity, but continuous and simultaneous treatments proved to have highly effective antiviral activity, with IC50 values of 32.7 and 48.5 μM, respectively. CW-33 significantly moderated JEV-triggered Ca(2+) overload, which correlated with the recovery of mitochondria membrane potential as well as the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals in treated infected cells. Phosphopeptide profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed that CW-33 upregulated proteins from the enzyme modulator category, such as protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2), Rho GTPase-activating protein 35, ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT2, and putative 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 2. These enzyme modulators identified were associated with the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals. Meanwhile, I-2 treatment substantially inhibited the apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. The results demonstrated that CW-33 exhibited a significant potential in the development of anti-JEV agents. PMID:27563890

  9. Antiviral Activity of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Japanese Encephalitis Virus through Inhibiting Intracellular Calcium Overload

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Su-Hua; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chen, Chao-Jung; Liu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Ching-Ying; Ping, Chia-Fong; Lin, Yu-Fong; Huang, An-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has five genotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V). JEV genotype I circulates widely in some Asian countries. However, current JEV vaccines based on genotype III strains show low neutralizing capacities against genotype I variants. In addition, JE has no specific treatment, except a few supportive treatments. Compound CW-33, an intermediate synthesized derivative of furoquinolines, was investigated for its antiviral activities against JEV in this study. CW-33 exhibited the less cytotoxicity to Syrian baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and human medulloblastoma (TE761) cells. CW-33 dose-dependently reduced the cytopathic effect and apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. Supernatant virus yield assay pinpointed CW-33 as having potential anti-JEV activity with IC50 values ranging from 12.7 to 38.5 μM. Time-of-addition assay with CW-33 indicated that simultaneous and post-treatment had no plaque reduction activity, but continuous and simultaneous treatments proved to have highly effective antiviral activity, with IC50 values of 32.7 and 48.5 μM, respectively. CW-33 significantly moderated JEV-triggered Ca2+ overload, which correlated with the recovery of mitochondria membrane potential as well as the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals in treated infected cells. Phosphopeptide profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed that CW-33 upregulated proteins from the enzyme modulator category, such as protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2), Rho GTPase-activating protein 35, ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT2, and putative 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 2. These enzyme modulators identified were associated with the activation of Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT1 signals. Meanwhile, I-2 treatment substantially inhibited the apoptosis of JEV-infected cells. The results demonstrated that CW-33 exhibited a significant potential in the development of anti-JEV agents. PMID:27563890

  10. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  11. Protease inhibitor from insect silk-activities of derivatives expressed in vitro and in transgenic potato.

    PubMed

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Kludkiewicz, Barbara; Navrátil, Oldřich; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Horáčková, Vendulka; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Vinokurov, Konstantin S; Sehnal, František

    2013-09-01

    Several recombinant derivatives of serine protease inhibitor called silk protease inhibitor 2 (SPI2), which is a silk component in Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera, Insecta), were prepared in the expression vector Pichia pastoris. Both the native and the recombinant protease inhibitors were highly active against subtilisin and proteinase K. The synthetic SPI2 gene with Ala codon in the P1 position was fused with mGFP-5 to facilitate detection of the transgene and its protein product. A construct of the fusion gene with plant regulatory elements (promoter 35S and terminator OCS) was inserted into the binary vector pRD400. The final construct was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens that was then used for genetic transformation of the potato variety Velox. The transgene expression was monitored with the aid of ELISA employing polyclonal antibody against natural SPI2. In vitro tests showed increased resistance to the late blight Phytophthora infestans in several transformed lines. No effect was seen on the growth, mortality, life span or reproduction of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Insecta) caterpillars, while feeding on transformed potato plants expressing the fusion protein, indicating that the transformed potatoes may be harmless to non-target organisms.

  12. Phospholipase C-η1 is activated by intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and enhances GPCRs/PLC/Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Kwon, Ohman; Seo, Jeong Kon; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipase C-η1 (PLC-η1) is the most recently identified PLC isotype and is primarily expressed in nerve tissue. However, its functional role is unclear. In the present study, we report for the first time that PLC-η1 acts as a signal amplifier in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated PLC and Ca(2+) signaling. Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endogenous PLC-η1 reduced lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-, bradykinin (BK)-, and PACAP-induced PLC activity in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A (N2A) cells, indicating that PLC-η1 participates in GPCR-mediated PLC activation. Interestingly, ionomycin-induced PLC activity was significantly decreased by PLC-η1, but not PLC-η2, knockdown. In addition, we found that intracellular Ca(2+) source is enough for PLC-η1 activation. Furthermore, the IP(3) receptor inhibitor, 2-APB, inhibited LPA-induced PLC activity in control N2A cells, whereas this effect was not observed in PLC-η1 knockdown N2A cells, suggesting a pivotal role of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in PLC-η1 activation. Finally, we found that LPA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expression of the downstream target gene, krox-24, were significantly decreased by PLC-η1 knockdown, and these knockdown effects were abolished by 2-APB. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PLC-η1 is activated via intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization from the ER, and therefore amplifies GPCR-mediated signaling.

  13. Procyanidin C1 Causes Vasorelaxation Through Activation of the Endothelial NO/cGMP Pathway in Thoracic Aortic Rings

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yang, Mi-So; Song, Du-Sup; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of procyanidin C1 (Pro C1) for modulating vascular tone. Pro C1 induced a potent vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-constricted endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings, but had no effect on denuded thoracic aortic rings. Moreover, Pro C1 caused a significant increase in nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation and Pro C1-induced NO production were significantly decreased in the presence of a nonspecific potassium channel blocker (tetraethylammonium chloride [TEA]), an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine [L-NMMA]), and a store-operated calcium entry inhibitor (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate [2-APB]). Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation was also completely abolished by an inhibitor of soluble guanyl cyclase, which suggests that the Pro C1 effects observed involved cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production. Interestingly, Pro C1 significantly enhanced basal cGMP levels. Taken together, these results indicate that Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation is associated with the activation of the calcium-dependent NO/cGMP pathway, involving potassium channel activation. Thus, Pro C1 may represent a novel and potentially therapeutically relevant compound for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24971771

  14. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fitness. Your fitness routine should include aerobic and strength-training activities, and may also include stretching activities. Aerobic ... Examples include walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, and tennis. Strength-training activities These activities increase the strength and endurance ...

  15. Activation of asparaginyl endopeptidase leads to Tau hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Tung, Yunn Chyn; Liu, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-06-14

    Neurofibrillary pathology of abnormally hyperphosphorylated Tau is a key lesion of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, and its density in the brain directly correlates with dementia. The phosphorylation of Tau is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A, which in turn is regulated by inhibitor 2, I2(PP2A). In acidic conditions such as generated by brain ischemia and hypoxia, especially in association with hyperglycemia as in diabetes, I2(PP2A) is cleaved by asparaginyl endopeptidase at Asn-175 into the N-terminal fragment (I2NTF) and the C-terminal fragment (I2CTF). Both I2NTF and I2CTF are known to bind to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and inhibit its activity. Here we show that the level of activated asparaginyl endopeptidase is significantly increased, and this enzyme and I2(PP2A) translocate, respectively, from neuronal lysosomes and nucleus to the cytoplasm where they interact and are associated with hyperphosphorylated Tau in Alzheimer disease brain. Asparaginyl endopeptidase from Alzheimer disease brain could cleave GST-I2(PP2A), except when I2(PP2A) was mutated at the cleavage site Asn-175 to Gln. Finally, an induction of acidosis by treatment with kainic acid or pH 6.0 medium activated asparaginyl endopeptidase and consequently produced the cleavage of I2(PP2A), inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, and hyperphosphorylation of Tau, and the knockdown of asparaginyl endopeptidase with siRNA abolished this pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggest the involvement of brain acidosis in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, and asparaginyl endopeptidase-I2(PP2A)-protein phosphatase 2A-Tau hyperphosphorylation pathway as a therapeutic target.

  16. [Adapting physical activities for an active retirement].

    PubMed

    Renaudie, François

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of doing adapted physical exercise for elderly people have been proven. For more than thirty years, the French Federation for an Active Retirement has been striving to help people age well by proposing multiple activities to remain in good health after the age of 50. Doctors, activity leaders and federal instructors are attentive to each individual's capacities. PMID:27449307

  17. Pyripyropenes, fungal sesquiterpenes conjugated with alpha-pyrone and pyridine moieties, exhibits anti-angiogenic activity against human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Asami; Arai, Masayoshi; Fujita, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2009-07-01

    In the course of our search for anti-angiogenic substances, pyripyropenes A (1), B (2), and D (3) were re-discovered as selective anti-proliferative substances against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from a marine-derived fungus of Aspergillus sp. Pyripyropenes showed potent anti-proliferative activity against HUVECs with IC(50) values of the range of 0.1-1.8 muM, which were cytostatic at 0.05 to 20 muM. The selective index was more than 55-fold in comparison with those of several tumor cell lines. Compound 1 inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced migration and tubular formation of HUVECs, while 1 showed no effect on the VEGF-induced phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38, and Akt. Pyripyropenes were originally isolated as an inhibitor of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT-2). While, the expression level of ACATs between HUVECs and other tumor cell lines did not correspond to the selective index of the anti-proliferative activity of compound 1. Moreover, ACATs inhibitor, 2,2-dimethyl-N-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)dodecanamide (CI-976), showed growth inhibitory activity with only poor selectivity (2.4-fold) between HUVECs and human epidermoid carcinoma KB3-1 cells. PMID:19571395

  18. Learning as Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Integrates contemporary theories of learning into a theory of learning as activity. Explains ecological psychology, changes in understanding of learning, activity systems and activity theory (including the integration of consciousness and activity), and activity structure; and discusses learning as a cognitive and social process. (LRW)

  19. Signaling from the Human Melanocortin 1 Receptor to ERK1 and ERK2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Involves Transactivation of cKIT

    PubMed Central

    Herraiz, Cecilia; Journé, Fabrice; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Ghanem, Ghanem; Jiménez-Cervantes, Celia; García-Borrón, José C.

    2011-01-01

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a Gs protein-coupled receptor expressed in melanocytes, is a major determinant of skin pigmentation, phototype and cancer risk. Upon stimulation by αMSH, MC1R triggers the cAMP and ERK1/ERK2 MAPK pathways. In mouse melanocytes, ERK activation by αMSH binding to Mc1r depends on cAMP, and melanocytes are considered a paradigm for cAMP-dependent ERK activation. However, human MC1R variants associated with red hair, fair skin [red hair color (RHC) phenotype], and increased skin cancer risk display reduced cAMP signaling but activate ERKs as efficiently as wild type in heterologous cells, suggesting independent signaling to ERKs and cAMP in human melanocytes. We show that MC1R signaling activated the ERK pathway in normal human melanocytes and melanoma cells expressing physiological levels of endogenous RHC variants. ERK activation was comparable for wild-type and mutant MC1R and was independent on cAMP because it was neither triggered by stimulation of cAMP synthesis with forskolin nor blocked by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine. Stimulation of MC1R with αMSH did not lead to protein kinase C activation and ERK activation was unaffected by protein kinase C inhibitors. Conversely, pharmacological interference, small interfering RNA studies, expression profiles, and functional reconstitution experiments showed that αMSH-induced ERK activation resulted from Src tyrosine kinase-mediated transactivation of the stem cell factor receptor, a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for proliferation, differentiation, and survival of melanocyte precursors, thus demonstrating a functional link between the stem cell factor receptor and MC1R. Moreover, this transactivation phenomenon is unique because it is unaffected by natural mutations impairing canonical MC1R signaling through the cAMP pathway. PMID:21084381

  20. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  1. Facts about Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  2. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part II: Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stinckens, Evelyn; Vergauwen, Lucia; Schroeder, Anthony L; Maho, Walid; Blackwell, Brett R; Witters, Hilda; Blust, Ronny; Ankley, Gerald T; Covaci, Adrian; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Knapen, Dries

    2016-04-01

    Disruption of the thyroid hormone (TH) system, an important mode of action, can lead to ecologically relevant adverse outcomes, especially during embryonic development. The present study characterizes the effects of disruption of TH synthesis on swim bladder inflation during zebrafish early-life stages using 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a thyroid peroxidase (TPO) inhibitor. Zebrafish were exposed to different MBT concentrations until 120/168h post fertilization (hpf) and 32days post fertilization (dpf), in two sets of experiments, to investigate the effects of TPO inhibition on posterior and anterior swim bladder inflation respectively, as well as whole body thyroid hormone concentrations (triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4)). At 120hpf, MBT did not directly impair posterior chamber inflation or size, while anterior chamber inflation and size was impaired at 32dpf. As previously shown in amphibians and mammals, we confirmed that MBT inhibits TPO in fish. Whole-body T4 decreased after MBT exposure at both time points, while T3 levels were unaltered. There was a significant relationship between T4 levels and the anterior chamber surface at 32dpf. The absence of effects on posterior chamber inflation can possibly be explained by maternal transfer of T4 into the eggs. These maternally derived THs are depleted at 32dpf and cannot offset TPO inhibition, resulting in impaired anterior chamber inflation. Therefore, we hypothesize that TPO inhibition only inhibits swim bladder inflation during late development, after depletion of maternally derived T4. In a previous study, we showed that iodothyronine deiodinase (ID) knockdown impaired posterior chamber inflation during early development. Our findings, in parallel with similar effects observed in fathead minnow (see part I, this issue) suggest that thyroid disruption impacts swim bladder inflation, and imply an important distinction among specific subtypes of TH disrupting chemicals. However, the existence of another - yet unknown - mode of action of MBT impacting swim bladder inflation cannot be excluded. These results can be helpful for delineating adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) linking TPO inhibition, ID inhibition and other TH related molecular initiating events, to impaired swim bladder inflation in fish during early life stages. Such AOPs can support the use of in vitro enzyme inhibition assays for predicting reduced survival due to impaired posterior and anterior chamber inflation. PMID:26818709

  3. The glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose enhances the efficacy of etoposide in ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Seema; Mathur, Rohit; Dwarakanath, B S

    2005-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glucose analogue and inhibitor of glycolytic ATP production significantly enhances the cytotoxic effects of anticancer agents like topoisomerase inhibitors (etoposide and camptothecin) and a radiomimetic drug (bleomycin) in established human tumor cell lines. Therefore, combination of 2-DG and DNA damage causing cytotoxic agents could be very useful in enhancing local tumor control. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the therapeutic effects of etoposide and 2-DG in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) bearing mice, grown as solid tumor as well as in the ascites form. Cell growth, cell cycle perturbations (flow cytometry), cytogenetic damage (micronuclei assay) and apoptosis (DNA content, morphological changes) were studied as parameters of cellular response, while delay in tumor growth and cure rate (tumor free survival) were evaluated as parameters of systemic response. Body weight and general condition as well as the damage to bone marrow and spleen was monitored to evaluate normal tissue toxicity. Intraperitoneal administration of etoposide (30 mg/Kg b. wt.) resulted in significant tumor growth delay and cure (approximately 11%) only in subcutaneous tumors leading to local tumor control. When etoposide was combined with 2-DG (2 g/Kg b. wt.; i.v./i.p.; 4 h after etoposide injection), these effects were further enhanced resulting in a cure rate of approximately 22% in case of subcutaneous tumors and 20% in ascites bearing mice. Analysis of cells obtained from ascitic fluid as well as solid tumors during follow up clearly showed that etoposide induced cell death was mainly due to apoptosis, which was enhanced further by 2-DG. Although, there was a significant level of toxicity revealed by reduced animal survival, decrease in body weight and damage to sensitive organ status like spleen and bone marrow at 60 mg/Kg b. wt. of etoposide, it was not significant at 30 mg/Kg b.wt. 2-DG, however, did not enhance the etoposide toxicity at both the doses. These results indicate that the administration of 2-DG can improve the local control of tumors without increasing normal tissue toxicity, thereby enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of topoisomerase inhibitor based anticancer drugs like etoposide.

  4. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole Part I: Fathead minnow

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of adverse outcome pathways linking specific chemical-induced pathway perturbations to adverse outcomes relevant to regulatory decision-making has potential to support the development of alternatives to traditional whole organism toxicity tests, such as the fish early...

  5. Bioanalytical method for evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the GCP-II inhibitor 2-phosphonomethyl pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA).

    PubMed

    Rais, Rana; Rojas, Camilo; Wozniak, Krystyna; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Ming; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Rudek, Michelle A; Slusher, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    2-Phosphonomethyl pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase-II, an enzyme which catabolizes the abundant neuropeptide N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) to N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate. 2-PMPA demonstrates robust efficacy in numerous animal models of neurological disease, however its pharmacokinetics has not yet been fully described. 2-PMPA is a highly polar compound with multiple negative charges causing significant challenges for analysis in biological matrices. Here we report a derivatization method for the acidic groups that involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile followed by reaction with N-tert-butyldimethysilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). The silylated analyte with transitions (683→551.4) and the internal standard (669→537.2) were monitored by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization mode. The method was subsequently used to evaluate 2-PMPA pharmacokinetics in rats. Intraperitoneal administration of 100mg/kg 2-PMPA resulted in maximum concentration in plasma of 275μg/mL at 0.25h. The half-life, area under the curve, apparent clearance, and volume of distribution were 0.64h, 210μg×h/mL, 7.93mL/min/kg, and 0.44L/kg, respectively. The tissue/plasma ratios in brain, sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion were 0.018, 0.120 and 0.142, respectively. In summary, a sensitive analytical method for 2-PMPA is reported that can be employed for similarly charged molecules.

  6. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole - Part II: zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of the thyroid hormone (TH) system is increasingly being recognized as an important mode of action that can lead to ecologically relevant adverse outcomes, especially during embryonic development. The present study was designed to further characterize the effects of di...

  7. Antizyme inhibitor 2 hypomorphic mice. New patterns of expression in pancreas and adrenal glands suggest a role in secretory processes.

    PubMed

    López-Garcia, Carlos; Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lambertos, Ana; López-Contreras, Andrés J; Cremades, Asunción; Peñafiel, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular levels of polyamines, polycations implicated in proliferation, differentiation and cell survival, are regulated by controlling their biosynthesis, catabolism and transport. Antizymes and antizyme inhibitors are key regulatory proteins of polyamine levels by affecting ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme, and polyamine uptake. We recently described the molecular function of a novel antizyme inhibitor (AZIN2). However, the physiological function of AZIN2 in mammals is mostly unknown. To gain insight on the tissue expression profile of AZIN2 and to find its possible physiological role, we have generated, transgenic mice with severe Azin2 hypomorphism. This mouse model expresses transgenic bacterial β-D-galactosidase as a reporter gene, under the control of the Azin2 endogenous promoter, what allows a very sensitive and specific detection of the expression of the gene in the different tissues of transgenic mice. The biochemical and histochemical analyses of β-D-galactosidase together with the quantification of Azin2 mRNA levels, corroborated that AZIN2 is mainly expressed in testis and brain, and showed for the first time that AZIN2 is also expressed in the adrenal glands and pancreas. In these tissues, AZIN2 was not expressed in all type of cells, but rather in specific type of cells. Thus, AZIN2 was mainly found in the haploid germinal cells of the testis and in different brain regions such as hippocampus and cerebellum, particularly in specific type of neurons. In the adrenal glands and pancreas, the expression was restricted to the adrenal medulla and to the Langerhans islets, respectively. Interestingly, plasma insulin levels were significantly reduced in the transgenic mice. These results support the idea that AZIN2 may have a role in the modulation of reproductory and secretory functions and that this mouse model might be an interesting tool for the progress of our understanding on the role of AZIN2 and polyamines in specific mammalian cells.

  8. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part II: Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stinckens, Evelyn; Vergauwen, Lucia; Schroeder, Anthony L; Maho, Walid; Blackwell, Brett R; Witters, Hilda; Blust, Ronny; Ankley, Gerald T; Covaci, Adrian; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Knapen, Dries

    2016-04-01

    Disruption of the thyroid hormone (TH) system, an important mode of action, can lead to ecologically relevant adverse outcomes, especially during embryonic development. The present study characterizes the effects of disruption of TH synthesis on swim bladder inflation during zebrafish early-life stages using 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a thyroid peroxidase (TPO) inhibitor. Zebrafish were exposed to different MBT concentrations until 120/168h post fertilization (hpf) and 32days post fertilization (dpf), in two sets of experiments, to investigate the effects of TPO inhibition on posterior and anterior swim bladder inflation respectively, as well as whole body thyroid hormone concentrations (triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4)). At 120hpf, MBT did not directly impair posterior chamber inflation or size, while anterior chamber inflation and size was impaired at 32dpf. As previously shown in amphibians and mammals, we confirmed that MBT inhibits TPO in fish. Whole-body T4 decreased after MBT exposure at both time points, while T3 levels were unaltered. There was a significant relationship between T4 levels and the anterior chamber surface at 32dpf. The absence of effects on posterior chamber inflation can possibly be explained by maternal transfer of T4 into the eggs. These maternally derived THs are depleted at 32dpf and cannot offset TPO inhibition, resulting in impaired anterior chamber inflation. Therefore, we hypothesize that TPO inhibition only inhibits swim bladder inflation during late development, after depletion of maternally derived T4. In a previous study, we showed that iodothyronine deiodinase (ID) knockdown impaired posterior chamber inflation during early development. Our findings, in parallel with similar effects observed in fathead minnow (see part I, this issue) suggest that thyroid disruption impacts swim bladder inflation, and imply an important distinction among specific subtypes of TH disrupting chemicals. However, the existence of another - yet unknown - mode of action of MBT impacting swim bladder inflation cannot be excluded. These results can be helpful for delineating adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) linking TPO inhibition, ID inhibition and other TH related molecular initiating events, to impaired swim bladder inflation in fish during early life stages. Such AOPs can support the use of in vitro enzyme inhibition assays for predicting reduced survival due to impaired posterior and anterior chamber inflation.

  9. Malignant transformation in a defined genetic background: proteome changes displayed by 2D-PAGE

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer arises from normal cells through the stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations. Cancer development can be studied by direct genetic manipulation within experimental models of tumorigenesis. Thereby, confusion by the genetic heterogeneity of patients can be circumvented. Moreover, identification of the critical changes that convert a pre-malignant cell into a metastatic, therapy resistant tumor cell, however, is one necessary step to develop effective and selective anti-cancer drugs. Thus, for the current study a cell culture model for malignant transformation was used: Primary human fibroblasts of the BJ strain were sequentially transduced with retroviral vectors encoding the genes for hTERT (cell line BJ-T), simian virus 40 early region (SV40 ER, cell line BJ-TE) and H-Ras V12 (cell line BJ-TER). Results The stepwise malignant transformation of human fibroblasts was analyzed on the protein level by differential proteome analysis. We observed 39 regulated protein spots and therein identified 67 different proteins. The strongest change of spot patterns was detected due to integration of SV40 ER. Among the proteins being significantly regulated during the malignant transformation process well known proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as well as the chaperones mitochondrial heat shock protein 75 kDa (TRAP-1) and heat shock protein HSP90 were identified. Moreover, we find out, that TRAP-1 is already up-regulated by means of SV40 ER expression instead of H-Ras V12. Furthermore Peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6), Annexin A2 (p36), Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2) and Keratin type II cytoskeletal 7 (CK-7) were identified to be regulated. For some protein candidates we confirmed our 2D-PAGE results by Western Blot. Conclusion These findings give further hints for intriguing interactions between the p16-RB pathway, the mitochondrial chaperone network and the cytoskeleton. In summary, using a cell culture model for malignant transformation analyzed

  10. Maturation promoting factor destabilization facilitates postovulatory aging-mediated abortive spontaneous egg activation in rat.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shilpa; Koch, Biplob; Chaube, Shail K

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether destabilization of maturation promoting factor (MPF) leads to postovulatory aging-mediated abortive spontaneous egg activation (SEA). If so, we wished to determine whether changes in Wee-1 as well as Emi2 levels are associated with MPF destabilization during postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rats eggs aged in vivo. For this purpose, sexually immature female rats were given a single injection (20 IU IM) of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin for 48 h followed by single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (20 IU). Ovulated eggs were collected after 14, 17, 19 and 21 h post-hCG surge to induce postovulatory aging in vivo. The morphological changes, Wee1, phosphorylation status of cyclin dependent kinase 1(Cdk1), early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), cyclin B1, mitotic arrest deficient protein (MAD2) levels and Cdk1 activity were analyzed. The increased Wee 1 level triggered phosphorylation of Thr-14/Tyr-15 and dephosphorylation of Thr-161 residues of Cdk1. The decrease of Emi2 level was associated with increased APC/C level and decreased cyclin B1 level. Changes in phosphorylation status of Cdk1 and reduced cyclin B1 level resulted in destabilization of MPF. The destabilized MPF finally led to postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rat eggs. It was concluded that the increase of Wee 1 but decrease of Emi2 level triggers MPF destabilization and thereby postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rat eggs. PMID:26991553

  11. Enzyme activities in activated sludge flocs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang-Hui; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2007-12-01

    This study quantified the activities of enzymes in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and in pellets. Seven commonly adopted extraction schemes were utilized to extract from aerobic flocs the contained EPS, which were further categorized into loosely bound (LB) and tightly bound (TB) fractions. Ultrasonication effectively extracted the EPS from sludge flocs. Enzyme assay tests showed that the protease activity was localized mainly on the pellets, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase activities were largely bound with LB-EPS, and few protease, alpha-amylase, or alpha-glucosidase activities were associated with the TB-EPS fraction. There exists no correlation between the biochemical compositions of EPS and the distribution of enzyme activities in the sludge matrix. The 44-65% of alpha-amylase and 59-100% of alpha-glucosidase activities noted with the LB-EPS indicate heterogeneous hydrolysis patterns in the sludge flocs with proteins and carbohydrates.

  12. Natural Killer cell-dependent and non-dependent anti-viral activity of 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin against HIV

    PubMed Central

    Asmal, Mohammed; Letvin, Norman L.; Geiben-Lynn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    2-cys peroxiredoxins (Prx), a group of anti-oxidative enzyme proteins, act directly on virally-infected cells to inhibit HIV-1 replication, and indirectly through destruction of HIV infected cells by stimulation of Natural Killer (NK) cell-mediated immune responses. We assayed for antibody-dependent NK cell mediated viral inhibition (ADCVI) using plasma from SIV-infected rhesus macaques. We found that Prx-1 strongly increased ADCVI in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting augmentation of NK cell killing. We also investigated the effect of Prx-1 on NK cell-independent HIV-1 and HIV-2 inhibition. We found that primary HIV isolates were potently inhibited at nM concentrations, regardless of viral clade, receptor usage or anti-retroviral drug resistance. During NK cell independent inhibition, we found that Prx-1 reversed the HIV-1 induced gene expression of Heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha (cystolic), class A member 2, (HSP90), a protein of the stress pathway. Prx-1 highly activated Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B), a gene of the TGF-β pathway, and Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 2 (Birc-2), an anti-apoptotic gene of the NF-κB pathway. We identified gene-expression networks highly dependent on the NFκB and ERK1/2 pathways. Our findings demonstrate that Prx-1 inhibits HIV replication through NK cell-dependent and NK cell-independent mechanisms. PMID:24244928

  13. N-terminal cleavage of proTGFα occurs at the cell surface by a TACE-independent activity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    ProTGFα (transforming growth factor α precursor) maturation and conversion into soluble TGFα is a complex process that involves three proteolytic steps. One, that occurs co-translationally, eliminates the signal sequence. Another, occurring at the juxtamembrane domain, solubilizes TGFα. A third cleavage removes the N-terminal extension of proTGFα. This latter step has been poorly studied, mainly because of the rapid kinetics of this cleavage. In the present study, we have designed a strategy to analyse several aspects regarding this N-terminal cleavage. In vivo treatment with the hydroxamate-based metalloprotease inhibitors BB3103 or TAPI-2 (tumour necrosis factor-α protease inhibitor 2) reversibly induced accumulation of forms of proTGFα that included the N-terminal extension. N-terminal shedding was rapid, and occurred at the cell surface. However, the machinery responsible for the N-terminal cleavage was inactive in other cellular sites, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Experiments of proTGFα expression and maturation in cells deficient in TACE (tumour-necrosis-factor-α-converting enzyme) activity indicated that this protease was dispensable for N-terminal processing of proTGFα in vivo, but was required for regulated cleavage at the C-terminus. These findings indicate that TACE is not involved in N-terminal processing of proTGFα, and suggest differences in the machineries that control the cleavage at both ends of TGFα within its precursor. PMID:15777285

  14. Active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  15. Home Activities for Fours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    These home learning activity guides have been developed for parents to use with their 4-year-old children. Most of the activities require only household items that are often thrown away and can be recycled for learning activities. Some require no materials at all. The guides frequently begin with a discussion of home activities; progress through…

  16. [Positive Activities Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This packet contains four pamphlets that are part of a campaign to encourage adults to provide and promote positive activities for youth and to serve as role models for young people. "Positive Activities: A Campaign for Youth" includes information on what positive activities are, how to get involved in helping to provide positive activities for…

  17. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  18. Involvement of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 during Postovulatory Aging-Mediated Abortive Spontaneous Egg Activation in Rat Eggs Cultured In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shilpa; Koch, Biplob; Chaube, Shail K

    2016-04-01

    Freshly ovulated rat eggs do not remain arrested at metaphase II (MII) and undergo exit from MII arrest with initiation of extrusion of the second polar body (PBII), a characteristic feature of abortive spontaneous egg activation (SEA). The biochemical and molecular changes during postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA remain poorly understood. We investigated the morphological, cellular, and molecular changes during postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in eggs cultured in vitro. Our results suggest that postovulatory egg aging in vitro induced initiation of PBII extrusion in a time-dependent manner. Postovulatory aging increased Wee1 kinase and Thr-14/Tyr-15 phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) levels, whereas Thr-161 phosphorylated Cdk1 and cyclin B1 levels were significantly decreased in eggs cultured in vitro. The early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2) level was significantly reduced, but anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and mitotic arrest deficient protein (MAD2) levels were increased initially and then reduced during a later period of in vitro culture. These results suggest that an increased Wee1 kinase level modulated the specific phosphorylation status of Cdk1, increased Cdk1 activity, and decreased the cyclin B1 level. Furthermore, the decreased Emi2 level was associated with an increased level of APC/C and decreased level of cyclin B1, which resulted in maturation promoting factor (MPF) destabilization and finally led to postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rat eggs cultured in vitro. PMID:26982431

  19. Juxtaglomerular cell CaSR stimulation decreases renin release via activation of the PLC/IP(3) pathway and the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Capisano, M Cecilia; Reddy, Mahendranath; Mendez, Mariela; Garvin, Jeffrey L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2013-02-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-coupled protein expressed in renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. Its activation stimulates calcium-mediated decreases in cAMP content and inhibits renin release. The postreceptor pathway for the CaSR in JG cells is unknown. In parathyroids, CaSR acts through G(q) and/or G(i). Activation of G(q) stimulates phospholipase C (PLC), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), releasing calcium from intracellular stores. G(i) stimulation inhibits cAMP formation. In afferent arterioles, the ryanodine receptor (RyR) enhances release of stored calcium. We hypothesized JG cell CaSR activation inhibits renin via the PLC/IP(3) and also RyR activation, increasing intracellular calcium, suppressing cAMP formation, and inhibiting renin release. Renin release from primary cultures of isolated mouse JG cells (n = 10) was measured. The CaSR agonist cinacalcet decreased renin release 56 ± 7% of control (P < 0.001), while the PLC inhibitor U73122 reversed cinacalcet inhibition of renin (104 ± 11% of control). The IP(3) inhibitor 2-APB also reversed inhibition of renin from 56 ± 6 to 104 ± 11% of control (P < 0.001). JG cells were positively labeled for RyR, and blocking RyR reversed CaSR-mediated inhibition of renin from 61 ± 8 to 118 ± 22% of control (P < 0.01). Combining inhibition of IP(3) and RyR was not additive. G(i) inhibition with pertussis toxin plus cinacalcet did not reverse renin inhibition (65 ± 12 to 41 ± 8% of control, P < 0.001). We conclude stimulating JG cell CaSR activates G(q), initiating the PLC/IP(3) pathway, activating RyR, increasing intracellular calcium, and resulting in calcium-mediated renin inhibition.

  20. Virucidal activity of an activated sludge supernatant.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Y; Schwartzbrod, L

    1993-09-01

    The virucidal activity of the activated sludge aqueous phase was studied from the time of initial inoculation with a poliovirus type 1 suspension and for durations of three and nine days. The mixtures were incubated in presence of a nutritive medium at 26 degrees C and samples were drawn at regular intervals of time for viral titration. The activated sludge supernatant (ASS) caused an important decrease of the titer of the poliovirus type 1 suspension especially after nine days of incubation. There was an average reduction of the viral titer of 79% after three days and 97% after nine days. When incubating the ASS with a nutritive medium before inoculating it, the viral decrease was much greater than when incubating without nutritive medium. When sterilizing the ASS before incubation and then inoculating it, no significant virucidal activity was observed (0% to 6%). Furthermore, when the ASS was subjected to a sterilization by filtration after incubation and was then inoculated, there existed a lower but not negligible viral inactivation (53% to 64%). The virucidal activity potentiality of the ASS is therefore due to microorganisms acting both directly as a support for viral particles adsorption and indirectly via the synthesis of substances with virucidal activity. When freezing and thawing the incubated ASS, and then sterilizing it by filtration before inoculation, the viral decrease reached 87% to 94%. This proves that the virucidal substances are only partly excreted by the microorganisms.

  1. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  2. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  3. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Health Professionals Tools and Resources Promotional Materials Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ... Training For Health Professionals Tools & Resources Promotional ... Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ...

  4. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  5. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  6. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS ... Data Web Services Latest Detected Fire Activity Other MODIS Products Frequently Asked Questions About Active Fire Maps ...

  7. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  8. Green Schools Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacramento Tree Foundation, CA.

    This collection of interdisciplinary hands-on activities covers a variety of topics related to trees and conservation. Twenty-four activities integrate the subjects of social studies, fine arts, science, language arts, math, geography, and music. Although activity instructions are not consistent they usually contain details on objectives and…

  9. Activity Sheets. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Power Company, Educational Services Dept., Charlotte, NC.

    This document consists of energy vocabulary activities, three games, worksheets, laboratory activities/exercises, and an introductory classroom exercise designed to introduce energy concepts to students. Vocabulary activities focus on coal and energy consumption. The three games (with instructions) focus on various aspects of energy and energy…

  10. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Provides on-task activities to fill in unexpected extra moments in elementary classes. The activities require little preparation and take 5-15 minutes to complete. There are activities for math, language arts, social science, science, critical thinking, and computer. An outer space board game is also included. (SM)

  11. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  12. Active Learning Crosses Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Diane K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the benefits of intergenerational programs, highlighting a child care program that offers age-appropriate and mutually beneficial activities for children and elders within a nearby retirement community. The program has adopted High/Scope's active learning approach to planning and implementing activities that involve both generations. The…

  13. Activity Theory and Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  14. Highlights of 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of NASA's 1981 activities are presented, including the results of the two flights of the space shuttle Columbia and the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn. Accomplishments in the areas of space transportation operations; space science; aeronautical, energy, and space research and development; as well as space tracking, international activities, and 1981 launch activities are discussed.

  15. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  16. FL Activities & Festivals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY.

    A collection of student, class, and school foreign language activities suggests a variety of projects and describes three specific school efforts. The suggested activities include: (1) individual student efforts such as writing to pen-pals; (2) group activities such as a foreign language auction or sing-along; (3) group projects for the school…

  17. Technology Learning Activities I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…

  18. Woodsy Owl Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide offers teachers and after-school group leaders 12 fun and engaging activities. Activities feature lessons on trees, water, wind, the earth, food, and waste. The activities are designed to help children aged 5-8 become more aware of the natural environment and fundamental conservation principles. Titles of children's books are embedded…

  19. Tea enhances insulin activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A; Polansky, Marilyn M

    2002-11-20

    The most widely known health benefits of tea relate to the polyphenols as the principal active ingredients in protection against oxidative damage and in antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic activities, but polyphenols in tea may also increase insulin activity. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin-enhancing properties of tea and its components. Tea, as normally consumed, was shown to increase insulin activity >15-fold in vitro in an epididymal fat cell assay. Black, green, and oolong teas but not herbal teas, which are not teas in the traditional sense because they do not contain leaves of Camellia senensis, were all shown to increase insulin activity. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of tea extracts utilizing a Waters SymmetryPrep C18 column showed that the majority of the insulin-potentiating activity for green and oolong teas was due to epigallocatechin gallate. For black tea, the activity was present in several regions of the chromatogram corresponding to, in addition to epigallocatechin gallate, tannins, theaflavins, and other undefined compounds. Several known compounds found in tea were shown to enhance insulin with the greatest activity due to epigallocatechin gallate followed by epicatechin gallate, tannins, and theaflavins. Caffeine, catechin, and epicatechin displayed insignificant insulin-enhancing activities. Addition of lemon to the tea did not affect the insulin-potentiating activity. Addition of 5 g of 2% milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity one-third, and addition of 50 g of milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity approximately 90%. Nondairy creamers and soy milk also decreased the insulin-enhancing activity. These data demonstrate that tea contains in vitro insulin-enhancing activity and the predominant active ingredient is epigallocatechin gallate. PMID:12428980

  20. Vestibular activation of sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Carter, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The vestibulosympathetic reflex refers to sympathetic nerve activation by the vestibular system. Animal studies indicate that the vestibular system assists in blood pressure regulation during orthostasis. Although human studies clearly demonstrate activation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during engagement of the otolith organs, the role of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in maintaining blood pressure during orthostasis is not well-established. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes indicates that it is a powerful and independent reflex. Ageing, which is associated with an increased risk for orthostatic hypotension, attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex. The attenuated reflex is associated with a reduction in arterial pressure. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the vestibulosympathetic reflex assists in blood pressure regulation in humans, but future studies examining this reflex in other orthostatically intolerant populations are necessary to address this hypothesis.

  1. New Insight into the Structure-Activity Relationships of the Selective Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Subtype 1 (EAAT1) Inhibitors UCPH-101 and UCPH-102.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Stinne W; Erichsen, Mette N; Huynh, Tri H V; Ruiz, Josep A; Haym, Isabell; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden E; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Hansen, Jeanette; Storgaard, Morten; Eriksen, Anette L; Jensen, Anders A; Bunch, Lennart

    2016-02-17

    In the present study, we made further investigations on the structure-activity requirements of the selective excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) inhibitor, 2-amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-(naphthalen-1-yl)-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (UCPH-101), by exploring 15 different substituents (R(1) ) at the 7-position in combination with eight different substituents (R(2) ) at the 4-position. Among the 63 new analogues synthesized, we identified a number of compounds that unexpectedly displayed inhibitory activities at EAAT1 in light of understanding the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of this inhibitor class extracted from previous studies. Moreover, the nature of the R(1) and R(2) substituents were observed to contribute to the functional properties of the various analogues in additive and non-additive ways. Finally, separation of the four stereoisomers of analogue 14 g (2-amino-4-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-3-cyano-7-isopropyl-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene) was carried out, and in agreement with a study of a related scaffold, the R configuration at C4 was found to be mandatory for inhibitory activity, while both the C7 diastereomers were found to be active as EAAT1 inhibitors. A study of the stereochemical stability of the four pure stereoisomers 14 g-A-D showed that epimerization takes places at C7 via a ring-opening, C-C bond rotation, ring-closing mechanism. PMID:26757239

  2. Physical Activity and Albuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily S.; Fisher, Naomi D.; Forman, John P.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2010-01-01

    Higher urinary albumin excretion predicts future cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Physical activity improves endothelial function so activity may reduce albuminuria. Among diabetics, physical activity decreases albuminuria. In nondiabetics, prior studies have shown no association. The authors explored the cross-sectional association between physical activity and albuminuria in 3,587 nondiabetic women in 2 US cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study I in 2000 and the Nurses’ Health Study II in 1997. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalents per week. The outcome was the top albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) decile. Multivariate logistic regression was used. Secondary analyses explored the ACR association with strenuous activity and walking. The mean age was 58.6 years. Compared with women in the lowest physical activity quintile, those in the highest quintile had a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the top ACR decile of 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.93). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the top ACR decile for those with greater than 210 minutes per week of strenuous activity compared with no strenuous activity was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.99), and for those in the highest quintile of walking compared with the lowest quintile, it was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.02). Greater physical activity is associated with a lower ACR in nondiabetic women. PMID:20133515

  3. Activated carbon from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  4. Physiologic activities of the contact activation system.

    PubMed

    Schmaier, Alvin H

    2014-05-01

    The plasma contact activation (CAS) and kallikrein/kinin (KKS) systems consist of 4 proteins: factor XII, prekallikrein, high molecular weight kininogen, and the bradykinin B2 receptor. Murine genetic deletion of factor XII (F12(-/-)), prekallikrein (Klkb1(-/-)), high molecular weight kininogen (Kgn1(-/-)) and the bradykinin B2 receptor (Bdkrb2(-/-)) yield animals protected from thrombosis. With possible exception of F12(-/-) and Kgn1(-/-) mice, the mechanism(s) for thrombosis protection is not reduced contact activation. Bdkrb2(-/-) mice are best characterized and they are protected from thrombosis through over expression of components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) leading to elevated prostacyclin with vascular and platelet inhibition. Alternatively, prolylcarboxypeptidase, a PK activator and degrader of angiotensin II, when deficient in the mouse leads to a prothrombotic state. Its mechanism for increased thrombosis also is mediated in part by components of the RAS. These observations suggest that thrombosis in mice of the CAS and KKS are mediated in part through the RAS and independent of reduced contact activation. PMID:24759141

  5. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  6. Full activation of mouse platelets requires ADP secretion regulated by SERCA3 ATPase-dependent calcium stores.

    PubMed

    Elaïb, Ziane; Adam, Frédéric; Berrou, Eliane; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Prévost, Nicolas; Bobe, Régis; Bryckaert, Marijke; Rosa, Jean-Philippe

    2016-08-25

    The role of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) 3 (SERCA3) in platelet physiology remains poorly understood. Here, we show that SERCA3 knockout (SERCA3(-/-)) mice exhibit prolonged tail bleeding time and rebleeding. Thrombus formation was delayed both in arteries and venules in an in vivo ferric chloride-induced thrombosis model. Defective platelet adhesion and thrombus growth over collagen was confirmed in vitro. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) removal by apyrase diminished adhesion and thrombus growth of control platelets to the level of SERCA3(-/-) platelets. Aggregation, dense granule secretion, and Ca(2+) mobilization of SERCA3(-/-) platelets induced by low collagen or low thrombin concentration were weaker than controls. Accordingly, SERCA3(-/-) platelets exhibited a partial defect in total stored Ca(2+) and in Ca(2+) store reuptake following thrombin stimulation. Importantly ADP, but not serotonin, rescued aggregation, secretion, and Ca(2+) mobilization in SERCA3(-/-) platelets, suggesting specificity. Dense granules appeared normal upon electron microscopy, mepacrine staining, and total serotonin content, ruling out a dense granule defect. ADP induced normal platelet aggregation, excluding a defect in ADP activation pathways. The SERCA3-specific inhibitor 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone diminished both Ca(2+) mobilization and secretion of control platelets, as opposed to the SERCA2b inhibitor thapsigargin. This confirmed the specific role of catalytically active SERCA3 in ADP secretion. Accordingly, SERCA3-dependent Ca(2+) stores appeared depleted in SERCA3(-/-) platelets. Finally, αIIbβ3 integrin blockade did not affect SERCA3-dependent secretion, therefore proving independent of αIIbβ3 engagement. Altogether, these results show that SERCA3-dependent Ca(2+) stores control a specific ADP secretion pathway required for full platelet secretion induced by agonists at low concentration and independent

  7. Lightning Activities and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2016-04-01

    The lightning activity is one of the key parameters to understand the atmospheric electric fields and/or currents near the Earth's surface as well as the lithosphere-atmosphere coupling during the earthquake preparation period. In this study, to see whether or not lightning activities are related to earthquakes, we statistically examine lightning activities 30 days before and after 78 land and 230 sea M>5.0 earthquakes in Taiwan during the 12-year period of 1993-2004. Lightning activities versus the location, depth, and magnitude of earthquakes are investigated. Results show that lightning activities tend to appear around the forthcoming epicenter and are significantly enhanced a few, especially 17-19, days before the M>6.0 shallow (depth D< 20 km) land earthquakes. Moreover, the size of the area around the epicenter with the statistical significance of lightning activity enhancement is proportional to the earthquake magnitude.

  8. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  9. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  10. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  11. Active unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Luz, J G; de Rezende, J R; de Araújo, V C; Chilvarquer, I

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of active unilateral condylar hyperplasia which were treated with condylectomy alone are presented. The first case was an adult form and the other a juvenile form. Both were classified as active by using 99Tc bone scintigraphy. Clinical and radiographic features of both cases conformed to the hemimandibular hypertrophy type. Satisfactory facial symmetry and dental occlusion were achieved. Histopathological data confirmed the activity of the articular cartilage layers. PMID:8181091

  12. Activity in distant comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1992-01-01

    Activity in distant comets remains a mystery in the sense that we still have no complete theory to explain the various types of activity exhibited by different comets at large distances. This paper explores the factors that should play a role in determining activity in a distant comet, especially in the cases of comet P/Tempel 2, comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, and 2060 Chiron.

  13. A pre-steady state and steady state kinetic analysis of the N-ribosyl hydrolase activity of hCD157.

    PubMed

    Preugschat, Frank; Carter, Luke H; Boros, Eric E; Porter, David J T; Stewart, Eugene L; Shewchuk, Lisa M

    2014-12-15

    hCD157 catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR). The release of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid from NR or NAR was confirmed by spectrophotometric, HPLC and NMR analyses. hCD157 is inactivated by a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-nicotinamide arabinoside (fNR). Modification of the enzyme during the catalytic cycle by NR, NAR, or fNR increased the intrinsic protein fluorescence by approximately 50%. Pre-steady state and steady state data were used to derive a minimal kinetic scheme for the hydrolysis of NR. After initial complex formation a reversible step (360 and 30s(-1)) is followed by a slow irreversible step (0.1s(-1)) that defined the rate limiting step, or kcat. The calculated KMapp value for NR in the hydrolytic reaction is 6nM. The values of the kinetic constants suggest that one biological function of cell-surface hCD157 is to bind and slowly hydrolyze NR, possibly converting it to a ligand-activated receptor. Differences in substrate preference between hCD157 and hCD38 were rationalized through a comparison of the crystal structures of the two proteins. This comparison identified several residues in hCD157 (F108 and F173) that can potentially hinder the binding of dinucleotide substrates (NAD+). PMID:25250980

  14. Structure of the dinuclear active site of urease. X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of native and 2-mercaptoethanol-inhibited bacterial and plant enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shengke; Scott, R.A. ); Lee, M.H.; Hausinger, R.P. ); Clark, P.A.; Wilcox, D.E. )

    1994-04-13

    The structures of the dinuclear Ni(II) active sites of urease from jack bean and Klebsiella aerogenes are compared with and without the addition of the inhibitor 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). No significant differences are observed by nickel K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy between the plant and bacterial enzymes. The Ni X-ray absorption edge spectra display an 8332-eV 1s[yields]3d peak intensity similar to that observed for five-coordinate Ni(II) compounds[sup 1] for both native and 2-ME-bound derivatives. Curve-fitting of Ni EXAFS data indicates that the average Ni(II) coordination environment in native urease can be described as Ni(imidazole)[sub x](N,O)[sub 5[minus]x], with x = 2 or 3. Addition of 2-ME results in replacement of one of the non-imidazole (N,O) ligands with (S,Cl) (most likely the thiolate sulfur of 2-ME) and results in the appearance of a new peak in the Fourier transforms that can only be fit with a Ni[center dot][center dot][center dot]Ni scattering component at a Ni-Ni distance of [approximately]3.26 [angstrom]. A structure for this 2-ME-bound dinuclear site is proposed to contain the two Ni(II) ions bridged by the thiolate sulfur of 2-ME.

  15. Crew activities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluford, G. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    One of the mission requirements of the Space Shuttle is to serve as a working platform for experiments in space. Many of these experiments will be performed by crewmembers (mission specialists and payload specialists) in a general purpose laboratory called Spacelab. All nonexperiment-related activities or housekeeping activities will be done in the Orbiter, while most of the mission-related activities (experiments) will be done in Spacelab. In order for experimenters to design their experiments to best utilize the capabilities of the Orbiter, the Spacelab, and the crew, the working environment in the Orbiter and in Spacelab is described. In addition, the housekeeping activities required of the crew are summarized.

  16. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of scientists, ranging from experts in basic biological science to those with expertise in community behavioral interventions to increase physical activity. This combination of scientists and expertise will ...

  17. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  18. Astragaloside IV inhibits doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Daiying; Li, Zengqiang; Liu, Hanmo; Dai, Zhengning; Cai, Jiayi; Pang, Lili; Wu, Yingliang

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used antitumor drug whose application is seriously limited by its cardiotoxicity. Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of astragaloside IV (3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-cycloastragenol, AS-IV), a pure saponin isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, against DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Immunocytochemistry and Microculture Tetrazolium (MTT) assays showed that AS-IV significantly reduced DOX-induced cardiomyocyte loss. Additionally, AS-IV markedly ameliorated DOX-caused cardiomyocyte dysfunction via restoring the beating cell ratio and beating rate in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, AS-IV substantially reduced the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) and cytochrome c (CytC) release, and restored the reduced ATP level, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase activities induced by DOX, suggesting that AS-IV significantly attenuated DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. It was further observed that DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, as qualitatively evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining and accurately quantified by flow cytometry, was markedly inhibited by AS-IV. Western blot analysis manifested that AS-IV significantly inhibited the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (MAP) via inducing the phosphorylation of Akt and Bad. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) remarkably inhibited the anti-apoptotic effect of AS-IV. Moreover, AS-IV didn't compromise the antitumor activity of DOX. Taken together, our findings indicate that AS-IV ameliorates DIC, and this beneficial effect appears to be dependent on the activation of the PI3K

  19. Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.

  20. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  1. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  2. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  3. Activities of the ILO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  4. Active Students in Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolås, Line; Nordseth, Hugo; Yri, Jørgen Sørlie

    2015-01-01

    To ensure student activity in webinars we have defined 10 learning tasks focusing on production and communication e.g. collaborative writing, discussion and polling, and investigated how the technology supports the learning activities. The three project partners in the VisPed-project use different video-conferencing systems, and we analyzed how it…

  5. The Activity of Trypsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Salvatore F.; Holzman, Tom

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that illustrates the following points concerning the experimental determination of trypsin activity: (1) there is a difference in basing enzyme concentration on weight, absorbance, or active sites; and (2) the method of expressing enzyme concentration determines the value of specific, molecular, and catalytic center…

  6. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  7. Games and Word Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Games and word activities give children another way to integrate their learning and reinforce their literacy skills. They provide different and enjoyable contexts in which children can apply what they are learning. This booklet offers activities which provide a sampling of "fun" ways for tutors to support and supplement their tutees' classroom…

  8. Active Healthy Summer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Eloise

    2005-01-01

    Summer break is almost here for most elementary teachers and students. Warmer weather and additional free time to make choices create more opportunities to be physically active, whether home alone or out with friends and family. This article describes ways by which physical education specialists can encourage students' physical activity by…

  9. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  10. Reflections on Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  11. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  12. Science World Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

    This document consists of three sections. Section I contains 19 activities developed by master teachers for the Science World '84 summer science program. These activities focus on studies involving airplane controls, trash bag kites, computers, meteorology, compass orienteering, soils, aquatic ecosystems, bogs, and others. Objectives, materials…

  13. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  14. ZOOMsci Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Meredith

    This activity guide is based on the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program "ZOOM." It is designed for educators with activities that are categorized into three themes: (1) Things That Go, which includes "Air" which explores air pressure, "Rubber Bands" which discovers the potential energy of rubber bands, "Baking Soda and Vinegar" which…

  15. Active galactic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Andrew C.

    1999-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are the most powerful, long-lived objects in the Universe. Recent data confirm the theoretical idea that the power source is accretion into a massive black hole. The common occurrence of obscuration and outflows probably means that the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the power density of the Universe has been generally underestimated. PMID:10220363

  16. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  17. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  18. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  19. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  20. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  1. Learning Activities for Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)

  2. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  3. Calculator-Active Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy, Ed.; Harris, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This journal contains brief descriptions of calculator-active materials that were found using Resource Finder, the searchable online catalog of curriculum resources from the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse (ENC). It features both the calculators themselves and the activity books that are used with them. Among the calculators included are those…

  4. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  5. Bonus Activity Book. Peacemakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Betsy Blizard

    1992-01-01

    Activity book helps elementary students learn about peace and see themselves as peacemakers and peacekeepers. Students are introduced to literary and historical figures who have worked for peace and won the Nobel Peace Prize. Activities teach students that peace means more than calm situations or absence of war. (SM)

  6. Vegetable Soup Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Mary; Shepard, Ray

    Vegetable Soup is a new children's television series whose purpose is to counter the negative and destructive effects of racial isolation. This manual gives detailed instructions for discussion of activities that are presented during the television series such as: crafts, games, recipes, language activities, and children's questions. A list of…

  7. Student Activities. Managing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Barbara; And Others

    This monograph suggests ways that college or university administrations can undertake a systematic and careful review of the risks posed by students' activities. Its purpose is to provide guidance in integrating the risk management process into a school's existing approaches to managing student organizations and activities. It is noted that no…

  8. Untangling occupation and activity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D

    2001-01-01

    Activity and occupation are two core concepts of occupational therapy that are in need of differentiation. Occupation is defined here as a person's personally constructed, one-time experience within a unique context. Activity is defined as a more general, culturally shared idea about a category of action. The ways in which subjectivity and context are handled within the concepts of occupation and activity are keys to disentangling them. The proposed untangling of the two concepts into distinct definitions is congruent with their historical origins as well as with current definitional trends. Once occupation and activity are recognized as two separate and equally valuable concepts, they offer a rich set of theoretical relations for exploration. The clarity that will result from differentiating occupation and activity will enhance disciplinary discourse and research as well as enhance the intervention efficacy, moral surety, and political strength of the profession.

  9. Active element pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozar, D. M.

    1994-08-01

    This review article will discuss the use of the active element pattern for prediction of the scan performance of large phased array antennas. The introduction and application of the concept of the active element pattern goes back at least 30 years (1) -(6) , but the subject is generally not covered in modern antenna engineering textbooks or handbooks, and many contemporary workers are unfamiliar with this simple but powerful idea. In addition, early references on this subject do not provide a rigorous discussion or derivation of the active element pattern, relying instead on a more qualitative interpretation. The purpose of this communication is to make the technique of active element patterns more accessible to antenna engineers, and to provide a new derivation of the basic active element pattern relations in terms of scattering parameters.

  10. Unique intracellular activation of the potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent 1592U89.

    PubMed Central

    Faletto, M B; Miller, W H; Garvey, E P; St Clair, M H; Daluge, S M; Good, S S

    1997-01-01

    The anabolism of 1592U89, (-)-(1S,4R)-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-cyclo pentene-1-methanol, a selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was characterized in human T-lymphoblastoid CD4+ CEM cells. 1592U89 was ultimately anabolized to the triphosphate (TP) of the guanine analog (-)-carbovir (CBV), a potent inhibitor of HIV reverse transcriptase. However, less than 2% of intracellular 1592U89 was converted to CBV, an amount insufficient to account for the CBV-TP levels observed. 1592U89 was anabolized to its 5'-monophosphate (MP) by the recently characterized enzyme adenosine phosphotransferase, but neither its diphosphate (DP) nor its TP was detected. The MP, DP, and TP of CBV were found in cells incubated with either 1592U89 or CBV, with CBV-TP being the major phosphorylated species. We confirmed that CBV is phosphorylated by 5'-nucleotidase and that mycophenolic acid increased the formation of CBV-TP from CBV 75-fold. However, mycophenolic acid did not stimulate 1592U89 anabolism to CBV-TP. The adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) did not inhibit CBV-TP formation from CBV or 1592U89, whereas the adenylate deaminase inhibitor 2'-deoxycoformycin selectively inhibited 1592U89 anabolism to CBV-TP and reversed the antiviral activity of 1592U89. 1592U89-MP was not a substrate for adenylate deaminase but was a substrate for a distinct cytosolic deaminase that was inhibited by 2'-deoxycoformycin-5'-MP. Thus, 1592U89 is phosphorylated by adenosine phosphotransferase to 1592U89-MP, which is converted by a novel cytosolic enzyme to CBV-MP. CBV-MP is then further phosphorylated to CBV-TP by cellular kinases. This unique activation pathway enables 1592U89 to overcome the pharmacokinetic and toxicological deficiencies of CBV while maintaining potent and selective anti-HIV activity. PMID:9145876

  11. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  12. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  13. Active touch sensing

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

  14. Biological activity of purpurogallin.

    PubMed

    Inamori, Y; Muro, C; Sajima, E; Katagiri, M; Okamoto, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakagami, Y; Tsujibo, H

    1997-05-01

    Purpurogallin showed antibacterial activity toward gram-positive bacteria. Strong activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against methicillin of 1600 micrograms/ml] was found, with MIC of 11.0 micrograms/ml. Purpurogallin inhibited the growth of all tested plants and decreased the chlorophyll content in the cotyledons of Brassica campestris subsp. rapa. It showed potent inhibitory activity against prolyl endopeptidase (the 50% inhibitory concentration was 1.6 x 10(-5) M), unlike its analogues, hinokitiol and tropolone.

  15. Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems in control of elastase and rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, J P; Pesci, E C; Iglewski, B H

    1997-01-01

    Two quorum-sensing systems (las and rhl) regulate virulence gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The las system consists of a transcriptional activator, LasR, and LasI, which directs the synthesis of the autoinducer N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone (PAI-1). Induction of lasB (encoding elastase) and other virulence genes requires LasR and PAI-1. The rhl system consists of a putative transcriptional activator, RhlR, and RhlI, which directs the synthesis of N-butyryl homoserine lactone (PAI-2). Rhamnolipid production in P. aeruginosa has been reported to require both the rhl system and rhlAB (encoding a rhamnosyltransferase). Here we report the generation of a delta lasI mutant and both delta lasI delta rhlI and delta lasR rhlR::Tn501 double mutants of strain PAO1. Rhamnolipid production and elastolysis were reduced in the delta lasI single mutant and abolished in the double-mutant strains. rhlAB mRNA was not detected in these strains at mid-logarithmic phase but was abundant in the parental strain. Further RNA analysis of the wild-type strain revealed that rhlAB is organized as an operon. The rhlAB transcriptional start was mapped, and putative sigma 54 and sigma 70 promoters were identified upstream. To define components required for rhlAB expression, we developed a bioassay in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that PAI-2 and RhlR are required and sufficient for expression of rhlA. To characterize the putative interaction between PAI-2 and RhlR, we demonstrated that [3H]PAI-2 binds to E. coli cells expressing RhlR and not to those expressing LasR. Finally, the specificity of the las and rhl systems was examined in E. coli bioassays. The las system was capable of mildly activating rhlA, and similarly, the rhl system partly activated lasB. However; these effects were much less than the activation of rhlA by the rhl system and lasB by the las system. The results presented here further characterize the roles of the rhl and las quorum-sensing systems in

  16. Algorithm-development activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.

    1994-01-01

    The task of algorithm-development activities at USF continues. The algorithm for determining chlorophyll alpha concentration, (Chl alpha) and gelbstoff absorption coefficient for SeaWiFS and MODIS-N radiance data is our current priority.

  17. Microglial Activation & Chronic Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lull, Melinda E.; Block, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Microglia, the resident innate immune cells in the brain, have long been implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence points to activated microglia as a chronic source of multiple neurotoxic factors, including TNFα, NO, IL1-β, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), driving progressive neuron damage. Microglia can become chronically activated by either a single stimulus (ex. LPS or neuron damage) or multiple stimuli exposures to result in cumulative neuronal loss over time. While the mechanisms driving these phenomena are just beginning to be understood, reactive microgliosis (the microglial response to neuron damage) and ROS have been implicated as key mechanisms of chronic and neurotoxic microglial activation, particularly in the case of Parkinson’s Disease. Here, we review the mechanisms of neurotoxicity associated with chronic microglial activation and discuss the role of neuronal death and microglial ROS driving the chronic and toxic microglial phenotype. PMID:20880500

  18. Active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J.

    1984-01-01

    Active Noise Reduction (ANR) techniques, singly and in combination with passive hearing protectors, offer the potential for increased sound protection, enhanced voice communications and improved wearability features for personnel exposed to unacceptable noise conditions. An enhanced closed loop active noise reduction system was miniaturized and incorporated into a standard Air Force flight helmet (HGU-26/P). This report describes the theory of design and operation, prototype configuration and operation, and electroacoustic performance and specifications for the ANR system. This system is theoretically capable of producing in excess of 30 decibels of active noise reduction. Electroacoustic measurements on a flat plate coupler demonstrated approximately 20 decibels of active noise reduction with the prototype unit. A performance evaluation of the integrated ANR unit will be conducted under laboratory and field conditions by government personnel to determine the feasibility of the system for use in military applications.

  19. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  20. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  1. Authentic Listening Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Don; Roberts, Jon

    1981-01-01

    Discusses use of authentic listening experiences in second language classroom so that students will become involved in listening process demanded in authentic listening situations. Gives examples of sample classroom activities. (BK)

  2. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  3. Creating Art Appreciation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidt, Ann H.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of college students enrolled as majors in elementary education in designing art appreciation activities for use in elementary classrooms are described. The college students had no art background. (RM)

  4. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate planar terahertz metamaterial devices enabling actively controllable transmission amplitude, phase, or frequency at room temperature via carrier depletion or photoexcitation in the semiconductor substrate or in semiconductor materials incorporated into the metamaterial structure.

  5. Planning activities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kai-Hsiung

    1987-01-01

    Three aspects of planning activities in space are presented. These include generating plans efficiently, coordinating actions among multiple agents, and recovering from plan execution errors. Each aspect is discussed separately.

  6. A Big Gulp Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    Explains how to implement an activity in which students measure the volume of their oral cavities. Enables students to develop skills in estimation, measurement, connections, statistics, applying concepts and procedures, and communication. (DDR)

  7. PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

  8. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  9. RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Demeo, Martha E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: RMS active damping augmentation; potential space station assembly benefits to CSI; LaRC/JSC bridge program; control law design process; draper RMS simulator; MIMO acceleration control laws improve damping; potential load reduction benefit; DRS modified to model distributed accelerations; accelerometer location; Space Shuttle aft cockpit simulator; simulated shuttle video displays; SES test goals and objectives; and SES modifications to support RMS active damping augmentation.

  10. Information Activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takeyoshi

    The last few years have seen an explosive growth in database and computer networking activities in Australia. At present there are six major information networks in Australia, which carry more than 400 locally produced databases and many others from overseas. AUSINET databases are exemplified. MIDAS (Multi-mode International Data Aquisition System) provides lower cost access to overseas databases than before. The paper also gives brief outline of various bodies which relate to information and library policy in Australia and regional cooperative activities.

  11. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  12. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  13. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  14. Tinnitus activities treatment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Richard S; Gogel, Stephanie A; Gehringer, Anne K

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus Activities Treatment includes counseling of the whole person, and considers individual differences and needs. We consider four areas: thoughts and emotions, hearing and communication, sleep, and concentration. We typically use Partial Masking Sound Therapy, with a noise or music set to the lowest level that provides relief. A picture-based approach facilitates engagement of the patient, and provides thorough and structured counseling. We engage the patient by including homework and activities to demonstrate understanding and facilitate progress. PMID:17956807

  15. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  16. Physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A

    1999-04-01

    The regular practice of physical activity promotes metabolic adaptations that facilitate the regulation of energy and fat balance. These effects are important for a better control of body weight in the obese individual and should enable him or her to involve adipose tissue to a lesser extent in this regulation. Physical activity favours a negative energy and fat balance, particularly if activities are prolonged and vigorous. The achievement of a negative energy and fat balance with physical activity also strongly depends on the nutritional context in which it is performed. In the long term, an active lifestyle and low-fat food habits are expected to induce a substantial body weight loss in the obese. This weight loss is progressively attenuated over time, presumably because of the decreased impact of a reduced adipose tissue mass on the regulation of energy and fat balance. For the obese individual complying with an activity programme and healthy food habits, a body weight loss of 10% is a realistic goal before the occurrence of resistance to further loss of body fat.

  17. ABB: active bandwidth broker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kason; Law, Eddie

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we shall discuss a novel design on the policy-based management for the Internet. This design deploys the concept of active networking. As opposed to the traditional network design, active network empowers network node with the ability to manipulate data and program code in packets, and configure the network properties according to the needs of different applications. The policy-based management can control network routers in order to realize end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS), such as differentiated and integrated services, across the Internet. For the moment, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the framework of the policy-based management. It employs a simple client/server model that uses Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol to facilitate policy management and control. Our design of Active Bandwidth Broker (ABB) belongs to an active application. Our goals are to distribute centralized workload of the policy-based management over multiple active nodes in the active networks, introduce mobility of the bandwidth brokers, and allows load sharing to the policy-based management. This results a network-wide intelligent, highly available, and consistent QoS control that allows performance protection for voice, video and Internet business application while reducing costs for growing networks.

  18. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals γ-bisabolene inducing p53-mediated apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma via HDAC2 inhibition and ERK1/2 activation.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yu-Jen; Chen, Chao-Jung; Liu, Yu-Ching; Way, Tzong-Der; Lai, Chih-Ho; Hua, Chun-Hung; Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Su-Hua; Kao, Jung-Yie; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2015-10-01

    γ-Bisabolene, one of main components in cardamom, showed potent in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative activities against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). γ-Bisabolene activated caspases-3/9 and decreased mitochondrial memebrane potential, leading to apoptosis of OSCC cell lines (Ca9-22 and SAS), but not normal oral fibroblast cells. Phosphoproteome profiling of OSCC cells treated with γ-bisabolene was identified using TiO2-PDMS plate and LC-MS/MS, then confirmed using Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR assays. Phosphoproteome profiling revealed that γ-bisabolene increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, protein phosphatases 1 (PP1), and p53, as well as decreased the phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the process of apoptosis induction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis proposed the involvement of PP1-HDAC2-p53 and ERK1/2-p53 pathways in γ-bisabolene-induced apoptosis. Subsequent assays indicated γ-bisabolene eliciting p53 acetylation that enhanced the expression of p53-regulated apoptotic genes. PP1 inhibitor-2 restored the status of HDAC2 phosphorylation, reducing p53 acetylation and PUMA mRNA expression in γ-bisabolene-treated Ca9-22 and SAS cells. Meanwhile, MEK and ERK inhibitors significantly decreased γ-bisabolene-induced PUMA expression in both cancer cell lines. Notably, the results ascertained the involvement of PP1-HDAC2-p53 and ERK1/2-p53 pathways in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of γ-bisabolene-treated cells. This study demonstrated γ-bisabolene displaying potent anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against OSCC in vitro and in vivo, elucidating molecular mechanisms of γ-bisabolene-induced apoptosis. The novel insight could be useful for developing anti-cancer drugs. PMID:26194454

  19. The modulation of vascular ATP-sensitive K+ channel function via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway activated by phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Haba, Masanori; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Teramae, Hiroki; Azma, Toshiharu; Hatano, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined the modulator role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway activated by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine in ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in intact vascular smooth muscle. We evaluated the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function and the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the rat thoracic aorta without endothelium. The PI3K inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) (10(-5) M) augmented relaxation in response to the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener levcromakalim (10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) in aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxy-methanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619; 3 x 10(-8) M), although those agents induced similar contraction. ATP-sensitive K(+) channel currents induced by levcromakalim (10(-6) M) in the presence of phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) were enhanced by the nonselective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (10(-7) M) and LY294002 (10(-5) M). Levels of the regulatory subunits of PI3K p85-alpha and p55-gamma increased in the membrane fraction from aortas without endothelium treated with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with U46619 (3 x 10(-8) M). Phenylephrine simultaneously augmented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Therefore, activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway seems to play a role in the impairment of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in vascular smooth muscle exposed to alpha-1 adrenergic stimuli.

  20. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-01-01

    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).

  1. Walkability and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  2. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality.

  3. Photon-activation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable /sup 127/I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors. (ERB)

  4. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality. PMID:26390078

  5. Prenucleosomes and Active Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Khuong, Mai T.; Fei, Jia; Ishii, Haruhiko; Kadonaga, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin consists of nucleosomes as well as nonnucleosomal histone-containing particles. Here we describe the prenucleosome, which is a stable conformational isomer of the nucleosome that associates with ~80 bp DNA. Prenucleosomes are formed rapidly upon the deposition of histones onto DNA and can be converted into canonical nucleosomes by an ATP-driven chromatin assembly factor such as ACF. Different lines of evidence reveal that there are prenucleosome-sized DNA-containing particles with histones in the upstream region of active promoters. Moreover, p300 acetylates histone H3K56 in prenucleosomes but not in nucleosomes, and H3K56 acetylation is found at active promoters and enhancers. These findings therefore suggest that there may be prenucleosomes or prenucleosome-like particles in the upstream region of active promoters. More generally, we postulate that prenucleosomes or prenucleosome-like particles are present at dynamic chromatin, whereas canonical nucleosomes are at static chromatin. PMID:26767995

  6. [Physical activity and obesity].

    PubMed

    Winkler, S; Hebestreit, A; Ahrens, W

    2012-01-01

    One reason for the high prevalence of overweight and obesity might be the differences in lifestyle compared to earlier decades, called the "obesogenic environment." With this, the decline in physical activity (PA) in favor of a sedentary lifestyle is assumed to play an important role. Physical activity or inactivity has a major impact on the development of overweight and obesity as well as on certain metabolic disorders. This review summarizes current scientific knowledge regarding the association between PA and overweight/obesity. The term "physical activity" is defined and different methods of its assessment are introduced. In addition, certain methods for the evaluation/operationalization of collected PA data are described. Finally, some epidemiological studies dealing with the associations between PA and overweight/obesity in children/adolescents as well as in adults are presented.

  7. Shared Activity Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. In domains where agents have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus in real time. We briefly describe a largely unexplored class of real-time, distributed planning problems (inspired by interacting spacecraft missions), new challenges they pose, and a general approach to solving the problems. These problems involve self-interested agents that have infrequent communication but collaborate on joint activities. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities in a dynamic environment, a soft, real-time approach to reaching consensus during execution with limited communication, and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We apply SHAC to a realistic simulation of interacting Mars missions and illustrate the simplicity of protocol development.

  8. 2-(4-bromoacetamido)anilino-2-deoxypentitol 1,5-bisphosphate, a new affinity label for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum: determination of reaction parameters and characterization of an active site peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, C.S.; Hartman, F.C.

    1984-03-10

    Reductive amination of ribulose-P/sub 2/ with p-phenylenediamine in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride yielded an epimeric mixture which was resolved by chromatography. Subsequent bromoacetylation of the isolated amino bisphosphates gave reagents A and B (ribo and arabino epimers of 2-(4-bromoacetamido)anilino-2-deoxypentitol 1.5-bisphosphate) which were competitive inhibitors of the carboxylase with K/sub i/ values of 705 and 104 ..mu..M, respectively. Reagent A exhibited no time-dependent effects on the carboxylase in either the deactivated or activated state. Incubation of the enzyme with reagent B in the presence of the essential activators CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/, however, resulted in an irreversible, time-dependent loss of activity, with a K/sub inact/ of 125 ..mu..M and a minimal half-time of 7.3 min. Covalent incorporation of (/sup 14/C)reagent B was directly proportional to the loss of activity, with total inactivation correlating with an incorporation of 1.1 mol of reagent/mol of subunit. Inclusion of the competitive inhibitor 2-carboxyribitol 1,5-bisphosphate protected against inactivation with a concomitant reduction in incorporation. Neither reagent affected the activity of spinach carboxylase. Fractionation of (/sup 14/C)reagent B-modified enzyme on DEAE-cellulose, subsequent to carboxymethylation and tryptic digestion, revealed two major radioactive peaks of approximately equal area. Digestion of each peak with alkaline phosphatase and rechromatography on DEAE-cellulose resulted in pure peptides I and II. The peptides were identical except in the site of labeling: peptide I contained a modified cysteinyl residue while peptide II contained a modified histidyl residue. 60 references, 7 figures, tables.

  9. Stochastic optical active rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Shin, Yongdae; Kim, Sun Taek; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Lang, Matthew J.

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate a stochastic based method for performing active rheology using optical tweezers. By monitoring the displacement of an embedded particle in response to stochastic optical forces, a rapid estimate of the frequency dependent shear moduli of a sample is achieved in the range of 10-1-103 Hz. We utilize the method to probe linear viscoelastic properties of hydrogels at varied cross-linker concentrations. Combined with fluorescence imaging, our method demonstrates non-linear changes of bond strength between T cell receptors and an antigenic peptide due to force-induced cell activation.

  10. SCOR announces new activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Edward R., Jr.

    Roger Revelle had many good ideas during his long and productive career. One of them came to fruition in 1957 in the form of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), which the International Council for Science created as its first interdisciplinary body, to promote international activities in oceanography. Revelle served as SCOR's first president from 1957 to 1960. SCOR offers opportunities for scientists from different countries to cooperate in planning and executing international programs in ocean sciences. Over its 44 years in existence, SCOR has sponsored 120 working groups and has actively participated in many of the major international oceanographic projects. Thirty-six nations presently participate as SCOR members.

  11. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  12. Cosmogenic activation of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J.A.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.

    2005-09-08

    The problem of cosmogenic activation produced at sea level in materials typically used in underground experiments looking for rare events is being studied. Several nuclear data libraries have been screened looking for relevant isotope production cross-sections and different codes which can be applied to activation studies have been reviewed. The excitation functions for some problems of interest like production of 60Co and 68Ge in germanium and production of 60Co in tellurium have been obtained taking into account both measurements and calculations and a preliminary estimate of the corresponding rates of production at sea level has been performed.

  13. Optical activity and evolution.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, M M; Gladyshev, G P

    1980-09-01

    It is noted that the chemical reactions occurring in rarefied cosmic clouds (molecular concentration less than or approximately to 10(2) cm-3) differ from similar laboratory reactions by the much greater effect on the outcome of external force fields. In this light it is hypothesized that the synthesis of optically active substances may occur in the outer space under the conjoint stereospecific effect of a magnetic and other molecule-orienting field. It is further conjectured that the optically active substances of the Solar System had been produced in the course of its formation out of the primal rarefield cloud.

  14. Activated carbon material

    DOEpatents

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  15. Inflammasomes and Their Activation

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sonal; Luc, Nancy; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system relies on the recognition of pathogens by pattern recognition receptors as a first line of defense and to initiate the adaptive immune response. Substantial progress has been made in defining the role of Nod (nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain)-like receptors and AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) as pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammasomes in macrophages. Inflammasomes are protein platforms essential for the activation of inflammatory caspases and subsequent maturation of their pro-inflammatory cytokine substrates and induction of pyroptosis. This paper summarizes recent developments regarding the function of Nod-like receptors in immunity and disease. PMID:21083527

  16. Space construction activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado at Boulder was established in 1988 as a University Space Engineering Research Center. The mission of the Center is to conduct interdisciplinary engineering research which is critical to the construction of future space structures and systems and to educate students who will have the vision and technical skills to successfully lead future space construction activities. The research activities are currently organized around two central projects: Orbital Construction and Lunar Construction. Summaries of the research projects are included.

  17. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  18. [Adolescents' physical activity].

    PubMed

    Pagaeva, E K; Misho, P -A; Zhanin, A; Chanturishvili, T P; Pagaeva, K I

    2006-01-01

    The paper defines the parameters reflecting the physical activity of adolescents and their correlation with health and a risk of behavioral disorders, bad habits, and cravings. A total of 9499 Georgian adolescents aged 14-18 years, the senior (9th-llth-form) pupils, selected through two-step cluster sampling were surveyed. The pupils anonymously filled in special questionnaires. This yielded the parameters reflecting the intensity of physical activity of the adolescents and the latter's going in for sports. The parameters were shown to have a beneficial effect on health, including mental health, and on the magnitude of unhealthy behavior.

  19. EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program manages several transportation regulatory activities established by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended by the Energy Conservation Reauthorization Act of 1998, EPAct 2005, and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  20. Active-bridge oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2001-01-01

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  1. Antifungal activity of diethyldithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, F; Reisinger, E C; Söldner, B; Dierich, M P

    1989-10-01

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) was evaluated for its ability to combat four different species of fungi in vitro. Using a microtiter-broth-dilution method we were able to demonstrate an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor mucedo in doses achievable by intravenous administration in man.

  2. Activities of the ILO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the Workers' Education Branch of the ILO (International Labour Organisation), which has been developing workers' education activities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America for the purpose of assisting rural workers' organizations in identifying and developing plans to overcome their own major organizational and financial problems. (CT)

  3. Activities of the ILO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enevoldsen, Niels; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A series of articles reviews educational activities of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), including international seminars on workers' education, a study of women workers, trade union training courses at the ILO Turin Centre, and the importance of information dissemination to trade unions. (SK)

  4. Valuing Families. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; Glashagel, Char

    Developed as a resource for family life education, this activity guide can be used to lead experiential learning situations for intergenerational groups by a counselor, in a course, in a family organization like the YMCA, or in the home. The goals of this guide are to increase the self-esteem of each person and to strengthen the family as a human…

  5. Classroom Speaking Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuying, Yang

    1999-01-01

    Because most language teaching in China is focused on national tests, language is treated as a knowledge subject and development of communicative abilities is often ignored. This article describes activities that one English-as-a-Foreign-Language teacher used to teach oral English to university students in China. (Author/VWL)

  6. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  7. Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Letty P.

    1978-01-01

    Described are three physical activity games designed to help young children develop a sense of mastery over their bodies: (which will in turn improve their self concepts): a poem to be acted out, Simon Says, and a story play to be acted out. (DLS)

  8. Sexual activity and aging.

    PubMed

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. PMID:23540950

  9. Discovering Columbus: Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulden, Rick

    1992-01-01

    Presents learning activities concerning Christopher Columbus and his voyages. Includes lessons requiring students to (1) write a pledge of allegiance to the world; (2) examine the Americas before Columbus; (3) prepare a newscast on Columbus' arrival in the Americas; (4) imagine being a Native American encountering Columbus; and (5) explore what…

  10. Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carolyn

    This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  11. Highlights of 1978 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    General highlights of NASA's activities for 1978 are presented. The highlights are categorized into topics such as space science, space transportation systems, space and terrestrial applications, environment, technology utilization, aeronautics, space research and technology, energy programs, and international. A list of the 1978 launches including: (1) launch date; (2) payload designation; (3) launch vehicle; (4) launch site and (5) mission remarks is also presented.

  12. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  13. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  14. Activating silent argonautes.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    Multiple Argonaute proteins are implicated in gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi), but only one is known to be an endonuclease that can cleave target mRNAs. Chimeric Argonaute proteins now reveal an unexpected mechanism by which mutations distal to the catalytic center can unmask intrinsic catalytic activity, results hinting at structurally mediated regulation. PMID:23984440

  15. Highlights of 1976 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1976-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's 1976 activities are summarized. Sixteen successful launches were made. Two landings of Viking spacecraft on Mars and rollout of the space shuttle orbiter are reviewed. Applications of aerospace science to education, health care, and community services are also discussed.

  16. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that teachers…

  17. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

  18. Environmental Chemistry Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackland, Thomas; And Others

    The authors of this curriculum supplement believe in a laboratory approach to chemistry and express the feeling that environmental chemistry provides the students an opportunity to apply theoretical chemistry to important practical problems. There are eighteen activities presented, each accompanied with behavioral objectives, one or more suggested…

  19. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures affecting…

  20. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  1. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  2. Shark Tagging Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  3. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  4. Activity: Computer Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students create a computer program capable of recording and projecting paper use at school. Includes instructional strategies and background information such as requirements for pounds of paper/tree, energy needs, water consumption, and paper value at the recycling center. A sample program is included. (DH)

  5. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  6. Dissemination Activities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Hanna; Batatia, Hudj; Bauters, Merja; Ben Ami, Zvi; Drachman, Raul; Flouris, Giorgos; Jadin, Tanja; Jalonen, Satu; Karlgren, Klas; Karpati, Andrea; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Lakkala, Minna; Lallimo, Jiri; Moen, Anne; Nygard, Kathrine; Paavola, Sami; Padiglia, Sheila; Scapolla, Marina; Sins, Patrick; Vasileva, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In the first 24 months of the project, KP-Lab members were highly dedicated to dissemination and were engaged in various dissemination activities that contributed to the prime objective of the KP-Lab dissemination efforts which is "to make the project widely known to a variety of prospective users and, at a later stage, to promote the…

  7. Engineers and Active Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Udo

    2015-08-01

    Knowing that technologies are inherently value-laden and systemically interwoven with society, the question is how individual engineers can take up the challenge of accepting the responsibility for their work? This paper will argue that engineers have no institutional structure at the level of society that allows them to recognize, reflect upon, and actively integrate the value-laden character of their designs. Instead, engineers have to tap on the different institutional realms of market, science, and state, making their work a 'hybrid' activity combining elements from the different institutional realms. To deal with this institutional hybridity, engineers develop routines and heuristics in their professional network, which do not allow societal values to be expressed in a satisfactory manner. To allow forms of 'active' responsibility, there have to be so-called 'accountability forums' that guide moral reflections of individual actors. The paper will subsequently look at the methodologies of value-sensitive design (VSD) and constructive technology assessment (CTA) and explore whether and how these methodologies allow engineers to integrate societal values into the design technological artifacts and systems. As VSD and CTA are methodologies that look at the process of technological design, whereas the focus of this paper is on the designer, they can only be used indirectly, namely as frameworks which help to identify the contours of a framework for active responsibility of engineers.

  8. TI-73 Calculator Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Bey, Carol K.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes TI-73 calculator activities appropriate for middle school students. It was found that the use of the calculator allowed for higher-level thinking and a richer exploration of mathematical ideas by students. [Included with this article are "Dice Roll Worksheet" and "Transforming Tree Worksheet".] (Contains 9 figures.)

  9. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  10. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  11. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  12. Earthfest. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weilbacher, Mike

    1991-01-01

    An activity book to help elementary teachers and students explore the environment offers information and questions about spaceships; an ecology primer and poster with questions; information on animal adaptation with poster and questions; ecological and dramatic arts projects; a script for performance; and suggestions to make Earth Day celebrations…

  13. Antimalarial activity of cedronin.

    PubMed

    Moretti, C; Deharo, E; Sauvain, M; Jardel, C; David, P T; Gasquet, M

    1994-06-01

    Cedronin was isolated from Simaba cedron Planchon (Simaroubaceae), a species popularly believed in South America to have antimalarial properties. It was examined for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activities and for cytotoxicity against KB cells. Experimental results showed that cedronin was active against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strain, with an IC50 of 0.25 micrograms/ml (0.65 mumol/ml). It was also found to be active in vivo against Plasmodium vinkei with an IC50 of 1.8 mg/kg (4.7 nM/kg) in the classic 4-day test. Cedronin belongs to the small group of quassinoids with a C19 basic skeleton and shows a rather low cytotoxicity against KB cells (IC50 = 4 micrograms/ml, 10.4 microM) as compared with C20 biologically active quassinoids; however its toxic/therapeutic ratio (10/1.8) remains lower than chloroquine (10/0.5).

  14. Active rejector filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchinskii, A.G.; Pirogov, S.G.; Savchenko, V.M.; Yakushev, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an active rejector filter for suppressing noise signals in the frequency range 50-100 Hz and for extracting a vlf information signal. The filter has the following characteristics: a high input impedance, a resonant frequency of 75 Hz, a Q of 1.25, and an attenuation factor of 53 dB at resonant frequency.

  15. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  16. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2012-04-01

    Commission 10 of the International Astronomical Union has more than 650 members who study a wide range of activity phenomena produced by our nearest star, the Sun. Solar activity is intrinsically related to solar magnetic fields and encompasses events from the smallest energy releases (nano- or even picoflares) to the largest eruptions in the Solar System, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which propagate into the Heliosphere reaching the Earth and beyond. Solar activity is manifested in the appearance of sunspot groups or active regions, which are the principal sources of activity phenomena from the emergence of their magnetic flux through their dispersion and decay. The period 2008-2009 saw an unanticipated extended solar cycle minimum and unprecedentedly weak polar-cap and heliospheric field. Associated with that was the 2009 historical maximum in galactic cosmic rays flux since measurements begun in the middle of the 20th Century. Since then Cycle 24 has re-started solar activity producing some spectacular eruptions observed with a fleet of spacecraft and ground-based facilities. In the last triennium major advances in our knowledge and understanding of solar activity were due to continuing success of space missions as SOHO, Hinode, RHESSI and the twin STEREO spacecraft, further enriched by the breathtaking images of the solar atmosphere produced by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) launched on 11 February 2010 in the framework of NASA's Living with a Star program. In August 2012, at the time of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing when the mandate of this Commission ends, we will be in the unique position to have for the first time a full 3-D view of the Sun and solar activity phenomena provided by the twin STEREO missions about 120 degrees behind and ahead of Earth and other spacecraft around the Earth and ground-based observatories. These new observational insights are continuously posing new questions, inspiring and advancing theoretical analysis and

  17. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  18. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Karoff, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. Aims: We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson S index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. Methods: We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. Results: We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by the small frequency separation, as well as an anti-correlation between the S index and the oscillation amplitudes. We argue that the average activity level of the stars shows a stronger correlation with the small frequency separation than with the absolute age that is often considered in the literature. Conclusions: The phenomenological laws discovered in this paper have the potential to become new important diagnostics to link stellar evolution theory with the dynamics of global magnetic fields. In particular we argue that the relation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the oscillation amplitudes is in good agreement with the findings of direct numerical simulations of magneto-convection.

  19. Overexpression of arginase in the aged mouse penis impairs erectile function and decreases eNOS activity: influence of in vivo gene therapy of anti-arginase.

    PubMed

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Champion, Hunter C

    2007-03-01

    Since both increased nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) abundance and diminished NO signaling have been reported in the aging penis, the role of NO in the adaptations of aging remains controversial. Here we tested the hypothesis that arginase, an enzyme that competes with NOS for the substrate l-arginine, contributes to erectile dysfunction with advanced age in the B6/129 mouse strain. Arginase protein abundance, mRNA expression, and enzyme activity were elevated in aged compared with young penile endothelial cells. In addition, endothelial NOS (NOS3) protein abundance was greater in aged versus young penile endothelial cells, whereas NOS activity and cGMP levels were reduced. Calcium-dependent l-arginine-to-l-citrulline conversion and cGMP formation increased significantly in aged mouse penes in the presence of the arginase inhibitor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH). However, there was no effect on l-arginine-to-l-citrulline conversion or cGMP accumulation in the endothelium from young mouse penes. To assess the functional role of arginase in the inhibition of NOS pathway responsiveness in the penis, we evaluated the effects of ABH and an adeno-associated virus encoding an antisense sequence to arginase I (AAVanti-arginase) on erectile function in vivo. ABH and AAVanti-arginase enhanced endothelium-dependent erectile responses in the aged mice without altering endothelium-independent responses. Paralleling our in vitro observations, ABH or AAVanti-arginase did not affect vascular responses in the young mice. Inhibition of the arginase pathway improves endothelial function in the aging penile circulation, suggesting that the arginase pathway may be exploited to improve erectile dysfunction associated with aging. PMID:17071735

  20. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  1. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 6--Social Studies Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Based on the environment and directed at elementary and intermediate level students, 5 field trips are a significant part of the 12 social studies activities in the sixth booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center outlining environmental and outdoor education activities. Most of the activities include objectives, activity description,…

  2. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity. PMID:24416640

  3. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…

  4. Myofilament length dependent activation

    SciTech Connect

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  5. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities.

  6. LANSCE Activity Report

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Robinson; Audrey Archuleta; Barbara Maes; Dan Strottman; Earl Hoffman; Garth Tietjen; Gene Farnum; Geoff Greene; Joyce Roberts; Ken Johnson; Paul Lewis; Roger Pynn; Stan Schriber; Steve Sterbenz; Steve Wender; Sue Harper

    1999-02-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Activity Report describes scientific and technological progress and achievements in LANSCE Division during the period of 1995 to 1998. This report includes a message from the Division Director, an overview of LANSCE, sponsor overviews, research highlights, advanced projects and facility upgrades achievements, experimental and user program accomplishments, news and events, and a list of publications. The research highlights cover the areas of condensed-matter science and engineering, accelerator science, nuclear science, and radiography. This report also contains a compact disk that includes an overview, the Activity Report itself, LANSCE operations progress reports for 1996 and 1997, experiment reports from LANSCE users, as well as a search capability.

  7. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  8. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  9. Finsler Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Melonakos, John; Pichon, Eric; Angenent, Sigurd; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an image segmentation technique based on augmenting the conformal (or geodesic) active contour framework with directional information. In the isotropic case, the euclidean metric is locally multiplied by a scalar conformal factor based on image information such that the weighted length of curves lying on points of interest (typically edges) is small. The conformal factor that is chosen depends only upon position and is in this sense isotropic. Although directional information has been studied previously for other segmentation frameworks, here, we show that if one desires to add directionality in the conformal active contour framework, then one gets a well-defined minimization problem in the case that the factor defines a Finsler metric. Optimal curves may be obtained using the calculus of variations or dynamic programming-based schemes. Finally, we demonstrate the technique by extracting roads from aerial imagery, blood vessels from medical angiograms, and neural tracts from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imagery. PMID:18195436

  10. Active gel physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, J.; Jülicher, F.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical behaviour of cells is largely controlled by a structure that is fundamentally out of thermodynamic equilibrium: a network of crosslinked filaments subjected to the action of energy-transducing molecular motors. The study of this kind of active system was absent from conventional physics and there was a need for both new theories and new experiments. The field that has emerged in recent years to fill this gap is underpinned by a theory that takes into account the transduction of chemical energy on the molecular scale. This formalism has advanced our understanding of living systems, but it has also had an impact on research in physics per se. Here, we describe this developing field, its relevance to biology, the novelty it conveys to other areas of physics and some of the challenges in store for the future of active gel physics.

  11. Endocrine activation in tachycardias.

    PubMed

    Lukac, P; Lukacova, S; Vigas, M; Hatala, R

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the complex character of neuroendocrine response to paroxysmal tachycardia. While the endocrine influences in arrhythmogenesis are well perceived by the cardiologists, less attention has been paid to influence of tachycardia on neuroendocrine activation. However, this may significantly alter the clinical course of tachycardias and its responses to pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Main characteristics of hormones with direct relationship to cardiovascular system (ANP, AVP, catecholamines, angiotensin and others) are listed with description of regulation of their secretion and main biological effects, especially with regard to regulation of circulation. Changes in hemodynamics during tachycardia with accompanying changes in ANP, AVP renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympatho-neural and sympatho-adrenal activation are reviewed. Further research and understanding require more complex approach and concentration on interrelationship of different regulatory hormones in tachycardia. (Fig. 2, Ref. 96.) PMID:11763674

  12. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma.

  13. Environmental health program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  14. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  15. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  16. Proposed SOLCOST maintenance activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This document provides a short description of work that has been accomplished to date and work in progress. A discussion of the program status as it is currently configured follows and finally proposed work by Solar Environmental Engineering Company (SEEC) in its most recently signed contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) is given. Early statements are designed to give the reader a good background so that the suggested SOLCOST maintenance activities will be more easily understood.

  17. Semiconductor active plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendach, Stefan; Nötzel, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Plasmonics is a research area in nanophotonics attracting increasing interest due to the potential applications in sensing and detecting, sub-wavelength confinement of light, integrated circuits, and many others. In particular, when plasmonic structures such as metal nanostructures or highly doped semiconductor particles are combined with active semiconductor materials and nanostructures, novel exciting physics and applications arise. This special section on semiconductor active plasmonics covers several of the most important and complementary directions in the field. First is the modification of the optical properties of a semiconductor nanostructure due to the close proximity of a metallic film or nanostructure. These arise from the formation hybrid plasmon/exciton states and may lead to enhanced spontaneous emission rates, directional far field emission patterns, strong coupling phenomena, and many more. Second is the realization of sub-wavelength scale nanolasers by coupling a semiconductor gain medium with a plasmonic metallic cavity. Particular emphasis is given on the major technical challenges in the fabrication of these nanolasers, such as device patterning, surface passivation, and metal deposition. While the above topics address mainly active structures and devices operating in the visible or near-infrared wavelength region, in the third, the enhanced THz extinction by periodic arrays of semiconductor particles is discussed. This is based on the build-up of surface plasmon resonances in the doped semiconductor particles which can be resonantly coupled and widely tuned by the carrier density in the semiconductor. We believe these highly diverse aspects give insight into the wide variety of new physics and applications that semiconductor active plasmonics is offering. Finally, we would like to thank the IOP editorial staff, in particular Alice Malhador, for their support, and we would also like to thank the contributors for their efforts and participation

  18. Prebiotic activation processes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.; Orgel, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    Questions regarding the combination of amino acids and ribonucleotides to polypeptides and polynucleotides are investigated. Each of the reactions considered occurs in the solid state in plausible prebiotic conditions. Together they provide the basis for a unified scheme of amino acid and nucleotide activation. Urea, imidazole and Mg(++) are essential catalytic components of the reaction mixtures. However, these compounds could probably be replaced by other organic molecules.

  19. Active quantum plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Marinica, Dana Codruta; Zapata, Mario; Nordlander, Peter; Kazansky, Andrey K.; M. Echenique, Pedro; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of localized surface plasmons to squeeze light and engineer nanoscale electromagnetic fields through electron-photon coupling at dimensions below the wavelength has turned plasmonics into a driving tool in a variety of technological applications, targeting novel and more efficient optoelectronic processes. In this context, the development of active control of plasmon excitations is a major fundamental and practical challenge. We propose a mechanism for fast and active control of the optical response of metallic nanostructures based on exploiting quantum effects in subnanometric plasmonic gaps. By applying an external dc bias across a narrow gap, a substantial change in the tunneling conductance across the junction can be induced at optical frequencies, which modifies the plasmonic resonances of the system in a reversible manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Thus, along with two-dimensional structures, metal nanoparticle plasmonics can benefit from the reversibility, fast response time, and versatility of an active control strategy based on applied bias. The proposed electrical manipulation of light using quantum plasmonics establishes a new platform for many practical applications in optoelectronics. PMID:26824066

  20. THE ACTIVE ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David

    2012-03-15

    Some asteroids eject dust, unexpectedly producing transient, comet-like comae and tails. First ascribed to the sublimation of near-surface water ice, mass-losing asteroids (also called 'main-belt comets') can in fact be driven by a surprising diversity of mechanisms. In this paper, we consider 11 dynamical asteroids losing mass, in nine of which the ejected material is spatially resolved. We address mechanisms for producing mass loss including rotational instability, impact ejection, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure sweeping, dehydration stresses, and thermal fracture, in addition to the sublimation of ice. In two objects (133P and 238P) the repetitive nature of the observed activity leaves ice sublimation as the only reasonable explanation, while in a third ((596) Scheila), a recent impact is the cause. Another impact may account for activity in P/2010 A2, but this tiny object can also be explained as having shed mass after reaching rotational instability. Mass loss from (3200) Phaethon is probably due to cracking or dehydration at extreme ({approx}1000 K) perihelion temperatures, perhaps aided by radiation pressure sweeping. For the other bodies, the mass-loss mechanisms remain unidentified, pending the acquisition of more and better data. While the active asteroid sample size remains small, the evidence for an astonishing diversity of mass-loss processes in these bodies is clear.

  1. Determining activated carbon performance

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, W.F.; Rester, D.O.

    1995-07-01

    This article discusses the key elements involved in evaluating a system`s performance. Empty bed contact time (EBCT) is a term used to describe the length of time a liquid stream being treated is in contact with a granular activated carbon bed. The EBCT is the time required for a fluid to pass through the volume equivalent of the media bed, without the media being present. In a bed of granular activated carbon, the void volume or space between particles is usually about 45 percent. Therefore, the EBCT is about twice the true or actual time of contact between the fluid being treated and the GAC particles. The EBCT plays an important role in determining the effectiveness and longevity of granular activated carbon (GAC) used to treat liquids in a fixed-bed adsorber. Factors that influence and are influenced by EBCT, and their relationship to GAC performance in a treatment scheme include: adsorption, mass transfer zone, impurity concentration, adsorption affinity, flow rate and system design considerations.

  2. Active quantum plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Marinica, Dana Codruta; Zapata, Mario; Nordlander, Peter; Kazansky, Andrey K; M Echenique, Pedro; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G

    2015-12-01

    The ability of localized surface plasmons to squeeze light and engineer nanoscale electromagnetic fields through electron-photon coupling at dimensions below the wavelength has turned plasmonics into a driving tool in a variety of technological applications, targeting novel and more efficient optoelectronic processes. In this context, the development of active control of plasmon excitations is a major fundamental and practical challenge. We propose a mechanism for fast and active control of the optical response of metallic nanostructures based on exploiting quantum effects in subnanometric plasmonic gaps. By applying an external dc bias across a narrow gap, a substantial change in the tunneling conductance across the junction can be induced at optical frequencies, which modifies the plasmonic resonances of the system in a reversible manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Thus, along with two-dimensional structures, metal nanoparticle plasmonics can benefit from the reversibility, fast response time, and versatility of an active control strategy based on applied bias. The proposed electrical manipulation of light using quantum plasmonics establishes a new platform for many practical applications in optoelectronics.

  3. Cooperative nonproliferation activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ystesund, K.; Furaus, J.; Lucero, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under DOE sponsorship is engaged in nuclear nonproliferation activities with the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. From 1995 to the present SNL and PNC have been participating in a cooperative project to implement and assess the use of remote monitoring to achieve nuclear nonproliferation objectives. Implementation of remote monitoring at the PNC Joyo facility took place during 1996 and continues to date. An International Fellowship began in the Fall of 1995 and has complemented the nonproliferation study. Plans are underway to extend the Fellowship and to upgrade the existing Remote Monitoring System to include another area at the Joyo facility. SNL and PNC are currently exploring the possibility of exchanging experts with the objective of promoting regional confidence building in Northeast Asia, possibly using some of the same remote monitoring technologies. This paper will provide an overview of these activities and report on the status of cooperative nonproliferation activities being conducted by PNC and SNL.

  4. Active quantum plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Marinica, Dana Codruta; Zapata, Mario; Nordlander, Peter; Kazansky, Andrey K; M Echenique, Pedro; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G

    2015-12-01

    The ability of localized surface plasmons to squeeze light and engineer nanoscale electromagnetic fields through electron-photon coupling at dimensions below the wavelength has turned plasmonics into a driving tool in a variety of technological applications, targeting novel and more efficient optoelectronic processes. In this context, the development of active control of plasmon excitations is a major fundamental and practical challenge. We propose a mechanism for fast and active control of the optical response of metallic nanostructures based on exploiting quantum effects in subnanometric plasmonic gaps. By applying an external dc bias across a narrow gap, a substantial change in the tunneling conductance across the junction can be induced at optical frequencies, which modifies the plasmonic resonances of the system in a reversible manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Thus, along with two-dimensional structures, metal nanoparticle plasmonics can benefit from the reversibility, fast response time, and versatility of an active control strategy based on applied bias. The proposed electrical manipulation of light using quantum plasmonics establishes a new platform for many practical applications in optoelectronics. PMID:26824066

  5. Sesterterpenoids with Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Marco; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Terpenes have received a great deal of attention in the scientific literature due to complex, synthetically challenging structures and diverse biological activities associated with this class of natural products. Based on the number of C5 isoprene units they are generated from, terpenes are classified as hemi- (C5), mono- (C10), sesqui- (C15), di- (C20), sester- (C25), tri (C30), and tetraterpenes (C40). Among these, sesterterpenes and their derivatives known as sesterterpenoids, are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in fungi, marine organisms, and plants. Their structural diversity encompasses carbotricyclic ophiobolanes, polycyclic anthracenones, polycyclic furan-2-ones, polycyclic hydroquinones, among many other carbon skeletons. Furthermore, many of them possess promising biological activities including cytotoxicity and the associated potential as anticancer agents. This review discusses the natural sources that produce sesterterpenoids, provides sesterterpenoid names and their chemical structures, biological properties with the focus on anticancer activities and literature references associated with these metabolites. A critical summary of the potential of various sesterterpenoids as anticancer agents concludes the review. PMID:26295461

  6. Hormone-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme/A disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 impacts porcine cumulus cell oocyte complex expansion and meiotic maturation via ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Kawashima, Ikkou; Yanai, Yoshiari; Nishibori, Masahide; Richards, Joanne S; Shimada, Masayuki

    2007-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors, amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG), are expressed in murine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) where they impact the function of cumulus cells and oocyte maturation during LH-mediated ovulation. Because TNFalpha-converting enzyme (TACE)/a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17) is essential for ectodomain shedding of AREG and EREG from the surface of other cell types, the expression and function of TACE/ADAM17 was analyzed in a porcine COC culture system in which FSH- and LH-mediated expansion and oocyte meiotic maturation have been well characterized and shown to occur between 20 and 40 h. In this model, Areg, Ereg, and Tace/Adam17 mRNAs increased significantly with maximal levels observed between 5 and 20 h of culture with FSH plus LH. TACE/ADAM17 protein and protease activity were up-regulated markedly at 10 h and maintained to 40 h. Treatment of COCs with the TACE/ADAM17-selective inhibitor TNFalpha-processing inhibitor-2 (TAPI-2) significantly suppressed in a time-dependent manner downstream targets of EGF receptor activation such as ERK1/2 phosphorylation, Ptgs2, Has2, and Tnfaip6 mRNA expression, hormone-induced COC expansion, and meiotic maturation of the oocytes. Addition of EGF to COCs cultured in the presence of FSH/LH reversed the inhibitory effects of TAPI-2 on these ovulation-related processes. Gonadotropin-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was also inhibited in rat granulosa cells treated with TAPI-2 or after transfection with Tace/Adam17 small interfering RNA. Induced expression of Tnfaip6 mRNA was also reduced by Tace/Adam17 small interfering RNA. Thus, TACE/ADAM17 is induced and the activity is involved in porcine COC expansion as well as oocyte meiotic maturation through the activation of EGF receptor in cumulus cells.

  7. Multilayer Active Shell Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeves, John

    This thesis presents a novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber composites and replication manufacturing processes. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the structure in order to provide the reflective layer, actuation capabilities and electrode routing. The mirror is thin, lightweight, and has large actuation capabilities. These features, along with the associated manufacturing processes, represent a significant change in design compared to traditional optics. Structural redundancy in the form of added material or support structures is replaced by thin, unsupported lightweight substrates with large actuation capabilities. Several studies motivated by the desire to improve as-manufactured figure quality are performed. Firstly, imperfections in thin CFRP laminates and their effect on post-cure shape errors are studied. Numerical models are developed and compared to experimental measurements on flat laminates. Techniques to mitigate figure errors for thicker laminates are also identified. A method of properly integrating the reflective facesheet onto the front surface of the CFRP substrate is also presented. Finally, the effect of bonding multiple initially flat active plates to the backside of a curved CFRP substrate is studied. Figure deformations along with local surface defects are predicted and characterized experimentally. By understanding the mechanics behind these processes, significant improvements to the overall figure quality have been made. Studies related to the actuation response of the mirror are also performed. The active properties of two materials are characterized and compared. Optimal active layer thicknesses for thin surface-parallel schemes are determined. Finite element simulations are used to make predictions on shape correction capabilities, demonstrating high correctabiliity and stroke over low-order modes. The effect of actuator saturation is studied and shown to significantly degrade shape correction performance. The

  8. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  9. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  10. Metric Activities, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Bob, Comp.

    This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

  11. [Fernbank Science Center Environmental Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Lewis

    This document is a compilation of environmental activities related directly to the environment in Georgia. A description of the physiographic characteristics of Georgia is presented upon which the activities that follow are based. These activities include soil, stream and forest investigations; meteorology activities; and plant and animal studies.…

  12. Epsiodic Activity in Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, D.J.; Konar, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Machalski, J.; Gupta, Neeraj; Stawarz, L.; Mack, K.-H.; Siemiginowska, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2007-10-15

    One of the interesting issues in our understanding of active galactic nuclei is the duration of their active phase and whether such activity is episodic. In this paper we summarize our recent results on episodic activity in radio galaxies obtained with the GMRT and the VLA.

  13. Activated human platelets induce factor XIIa-mediated contact activation.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Jennie; Sanchez, Javier; Elgue, Graciela; Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson; Nilsson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that isolated platelets in buffer systems can promote activation of FXII or amplify contact activation, in the presence of a negatively charge substance or material. Still proof is lacking that FXII is activated by platelets in a more physiological environment. In this study we investigate if activated platelets can induce FXII-mediated contact activation and whether this activation affects clot formation in human blood. Human platelets were activated with a thrombin receptor-activating peptide, SFLLRN-amide, in platelet-rich plasma or in whole blood. FXIIa and FXIa in complex with preferentially antithrombin (AT) and to some extent C1-inhibitor (C1INH) were generated in response to TRAP stimulation. This contact activation was independent of surface-mediated contact activation, tissue factor pathway or thrombin. In clotting whole blood FXIIa-AT and FXIa-AT complexes were specifically formed, demonstrating that AT is a potent inhibitor of FXIIa and FXIa generated by platelet activation. Contact activation proteins were analyzed by flow cytometry and FXII, FXI, high-molecular weight kininogen, and prekallikrein were detected on activated platelets. Using chromogenic assays, enzymatic activity of platelet-associated FXIIa, FXIa, and kallikrein were demonstrated. Inhibition of FXIIa in non-anticoagulated blood also prolonged the clotting time. We conclude that platelet activation triggers FXII-mediated contact activation on the surface and in the vicinity of activated platelets. This leads specifically to generation of FXIIa-AT and FXIa-AT complexes, and contributes to clot formation. Activated platelets may thereby constitute an intravascular locus for contact activation, which may explain the recently reported importance of FXII in thrombus formation. PMID:19878657

  14. The active asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, D.

    2014-07-01

    Active asteroids simultaneously possess the orbits of main-belt asteroids and the physical appearances of comets; they show transient dust comae and solar-radiation pressure-swept tails. Apart from the shear surprise at finding such strange objects in the asteroid belt, the active asteroids are scientifically interesting for several reasons. Although we are limited to scarcely more than a dozen examples, the active asteroids already reveal the distinct action of different physical processes, each previously unobserved and carrying big-picture importance for understanding the solar system. 1. IMPACT. An unambiguous asteroid-asteroid impact was observed in 2010, when a 30-m scale body struck 100-km diameter (596) Scheila. Direct observations of impacts hold scientific importance both by sampling this natural process at full scale (compared with laboratory impacts conducted at tiny scales) and because impact statistics will allow us to assess the erosion rate in the asteroid belt and the contribution of asteroid dust to the interplanetary medium. 2. CRITICAL ROTATION. Several objects have been observed in which the best explanation seems to lie with spin-up to critical periods, presumably (but not certainly) caused by YORP. Examples of both likely mass-shedding (P/2010 A2, P/2013 P5) and full break-up (P/2013 R3, shown below) exist. It has been suggested that, at sub-kilometer sizes, spin-up disruption rates may surpass impact disruption rates. Future observations will show whether or not this is true, and may ultimately lead to an improved understanding of the physics of break-up. 3. THERMAL DISINTEGRATION. Geminid parent (3200) Phaethon shows on-going mass-loss at perihelion, driven by the 1000-K surface temperatures found there. The mechanisms appear to be some combination of thermal fracture and desiccation stress. 4. SUBLIMATION. Two objects have shown repeated activity that appears to be correlated with position in the orbit. The best example is 133P, which has

  15. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  16. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications. PMID:27492084

  17. Metadata Activities in Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Inigo, Gil San; HUTCHISON, VIVIAN; Frame, Mike; Palanisamy, Giri

    2010-01-01

    The National Biological Information Infrastructure program has advanced the biological sciences ability to standardize, share, integrate and synthesize data by making the metadata program a core of its activities. Through strategic partnerships, a series of crosswalks for the main biological metadata specifications have enabled data providers and international clearinghouses to aggregate and disseminate tens of thousands of metadata sets describing petabytes of data records. New efforts at the National Biological Information Infrastructure are focusing on better metadata creation and curation tools, semantic mediation for data discovery and other curious initiatives.

  18. ASTP RBCC Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Karl W.; McArthur, Craig; Leopard, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities of the Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) in the development of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC)technology. The document consist of the presentation slides for a talk scheduled to be given to the World Aviation Congress and Exhibit of SAE. Included in the review is discussion of recent accomplishments in the area of Advanced Reusable technologies (ART), which includes work in flowpath testing, and system studies of the various vehicle/engine combinations including RBCC, Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) and Pulsed Detonation Engine (PDE). Pictures of the proposed RBCC Flowpaths are included. The next steps in the development process are reviewed.

  19. GPS Activities at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Behrend, Dirk

    2002-11-19

    The Alignment Engineering Group of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) started to use RTK (real-time kinematic) GPS equipment in order to perform structure mapping and GIS-related tasks on the SLAC campus. In a first step a continuously observing GPS station (SLAC M40) was set up. This station serves as master control station for all differential GPS activities on site and its coordinates have been determined in the well-defined global geodetic datum ITRF2000 at a given reference epoch. Some trials have been performed to test the RTK method. The tests have proven RTK to be very fast and efficient.

  20. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  1. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; O' Hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

  2. Revitalizing AIDS activism.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M

    1998-12-01

    Maxine Wolf, an activist with ACT UP New York, suggests ways to motivate others in her organization and revitalize AIDS activism. Reach out to the gay and lesbian community, get them involved in grassroots efforts, and gain their input. Participate in discussions on larger issues such as research, funding, and treatment options. Wolf also suggests becoming educated, acting in a more public way, and finding more creative ways to act. Lastly, strive for goals with high expectations that can effect change instead of merely gathering and dispensing information.

  3. Crew Activity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  4. ECLSS medical support activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crump, William J.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    During the period from April 10, 1990 to April 9, 1991, the Consortium for the Space Life Sciences provided technical assistance to the NASA/MSFC water recovery efforts. This assistance was in the form of literature reviews, technical recommendations, and presentations. This final report summarizes the activities completed during this period and identifies those areas requiring additional efforts. The tasks which the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) water recovery team addressed were either identified by MSFC technical representatives or chosen from those outlined in the subject statement of work.

  5. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  6. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  7. Activities for the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Joyce

    From my research experiences on board the R/V Atlantis, I have developed experiments that can be used in an integrated science program or for biology. These activities reflect life in extreme environments on Earth such as the hydrothermal vents and on other planets and moons in our solar system. Students can learn to map the oceans of Europa and discover how plants grow on Mars. Students have designed research projects from the experimentation that I was involved with through the REVEL program.

  8. Rationales for regulatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Perhac, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  9. FY 1996 activity summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety provides nuclear safety policy, independent technical evaluation, and technical support. A summary of these activities is provided in this report. These include: (1) changing the mission of the former production facilities to storage and waste management; (2) stabilizing nuclear materials not recycled due to production cessation or interruptions; (3) reformulating the authorization basis for existing facilities to convert to a standards based approach for operations consistent with modern expectations; and (4) implementing a modern regulatory framework for nuclear facilities. Enforcement of the Price-Anderson Amendments Act is also reported.

  10. WFIRST Project Science Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST Project is a joint effort between GSFC and JPL. The project scientists and engineers are working with the community Science Definition Team to define the requirements and initial design of the mission. The objective is to design an observatory that meets the WFIRST science goals of the Astr02010 Decadal Survey for minimum cost. This talk will be a report of recent project activities including requirements flowdown, detector array development, science simulations, mission costing and science outreach. Details of the interim mission design relevant to scientific capabilities will be presented.

  11. Minor meteor shower activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendtel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Video meteor observations provide us with data to analyze structures in minor meteor showers or weak features in flux profiles. Samples obtained independently by other techniques allow to calibrate the data sets and to improve the confidence of results as demonstrated with a few results. Both, the confirmation of events predicted by model calculation and the input of observational data to improve the modelling results may help to better understand meteoroid stream evolution processes. Furthermore, calibrated data series can be used for studies of the long-term evolution of meteor shower activity.

  12. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  13. Reuse of activated alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Hobensack, J.E.

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  14. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  15. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  16. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  17. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  18. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  19. Activating Event Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and objects (trip-luggage) commonly found at those events; (2) location nouns prime people/animals (hospital-doctor) and objects (barn-hay) commonly found at those locations; and (3) instrument nouns prime things on which those instruments are commonly used (key-door), but not the types of people who tend to use them (hose-gardener). The priming effects are not due to normative word association. On our account, facilitation results from event knowledge relating primes and targets. This has much in common with computational models like LSA or BEAGLE in which one word primes another if they frequently occur in similar contexts. LSA predicts priming for all six experiments, whereas BEAGLE correctly predicted that priming should not occur for the instrument-people relation but should occur for the other five. We conclude that event-based relations are encoded in semantic memory and computed as part of word meaning, and have a strong influence on language comprehension. PMID:19298961

  20. The Active Solid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  1. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  2. Active Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Past activity from Near Earth Asteroids is recorded in the meteoroid streams that cause our meteor showers. Automated meteoroid orbit surveys by photographic, low-light video, specular radar, and head-echo radar reflections are providing the first maps of meteor shower activity at different particle sizes. There are distinct differences in particle size distributions among streams. The underlaying mechanisms that created these streams are illuminated: fragmentation from spin-up or thermal stresses, meteoroid ejection by water vapor drag, and ejection of icy particles by CO and CO2 sublimation. The distribution of the meteoroid orbital elements probe the subsequent evolution by planetary perturbations and sample the range of dynamical processes to which Near Earth Asteroids are exposed. The non-stream "sporadic" meteors probe early stages in the evolution from meteoroid streams into the zodiacal dust cloud. We see that the lifetime of large meteoroids is generally not limited by collisions. Results obtained by the CAMS video survey of meteoroid orbits are compared to those from other orbit surveys. Since October 2010, over 200,000 meteoroid orbits have been measured. First results from an expansion into the southern hemisphere are also presented, as are first results from the measurement of main element compositions. Among the many streams detected so far, the Geminid and Sextantid showers stand out by having a relatively high particle density and derive from parent bodies that appear to have originated in the main belt.

  3. Neutron activation for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Loughlin, M.J.; Nishitani, Takeo

    1996-04-29

    There are three primary goals for the Neutron Activation system for ITER: maintain a robust relative measure of fusion power with stability and high dynamic range (7 orders of magnitude); allow an absolute calibration of fusion power (energy); and provide a flexible and reliable system for materials testing. The nature of the activation technique is such that stability and high dynamic range can be intrinsic properties of the system. It has also been the technique that demonstrated (on JET and TFTR) the highest accuracy neutron measurements in DT operation. Since the gamma-ray detectors are not located on the tokamak and are therefore amenable to accurate characterization, and if material foils are placed very close to the ITER plasma with minimum scattering or attenuation, high overall accuracy in the fusion energy production (7--10%) should be achievable on ITER. In the paper, a conceptual design is presented. A system is shown to be capable of meeting these three goals, also detailed design issues remain to be solved.

  4. Active frequency selective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwald, Walter R.; Hendrickson, Joshua; Cleary, Justin W.; Guo, Junpeng

    2013-05-01

    Split ring resonator arrays are investigated for use as active elements for the realization of voltage controllable frequency selective surfaces. Finite difference time domain simulations suggest the absorptive and reflective properties of such surfaces can be externally controlled through modifications of the split ring resonator gap impedance. In this work, such voltage-controlled resonance tuning is obtained through the addition of an appropriately designed high electron mobility transistor positioned across the split ring resonator gap. It is shown that a 0.5μm gate length high electron mobility transistor allows voltage controllable switching between the two resonant conditions associated with a split ring resonator and that of a closed loop geometry when the surface is illuminated with THz radiation. Partial switching between these two resonant conditions is observed at larger gate lengths. Such active frequency selective surfaces are proposed, for example, for use as modulators in THz detection schemes and as RF filters in radar applications when scaled to operate at GHz frequencies.

  5. Active Chiral Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinghui; Schäferling, Martin; Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Tittl, Andreas; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas; Giessen, Harald

    2015-07-01

    Active control over the handedness of a chiral metamaterial has the potential to serve as key element for highly integrated polarization engineering approaches, polarization sensitive imaging devices, and stereo display technologies. However, this is hard to achieve as it seemingly involves the reconfiguration of the metamolecule from a left-handed into a right-handed enantiomer and vice versa. This type of mechanical actuation is intricate and usually neither monolithically realizable nor viable for high-speed applications. Here, enabled by the phase change material Ge3Sb2Te6 (GST-326), we demonstrate a tunable and switchable mid-infrared plasmonic chiral metamaterial in a proof-of-concept experiment. A large tunability range of the circular dichroism response from λ = 4.15 to 4.90 μm is achieved, and we experimentally demonstrate that the combination of a passive bias-type chiral layer with the active chiral metamaterial allows for switchable chirality, that is, the reversal of the circular dichroism sign, in a fully planar, layered design without the need for geometrical reconfiguration. Because phase change materials can be electrically and optically switched, our designs may open up a path for highly integrated mid-IR polarization engineering devices that can be modulated on ultrafast time scales.

  6. Regulation of inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Man, Si Ming; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Inflammasome biology is one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas in immunology. Over the past 10 years, inflammasomes have been recognized for their roles in the host defense against invading pathogens and in the development of cancer, autoinflammatory, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases. Assembly of an inflammasome complex requires cytosolic sensing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or danger-associated molecular patterns by a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) or absent in melanoma 2-like receptor (ALR). NLRs and ALRs engage caspase-1, in most cases requiring the adapter protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), to catalyze proteolytic cleavage of pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) and pro-IL-18 and drive pyroptosis. Recent studies indicate that caspase-8, caspase-11, IL-1R–associated kinases (IRAK), and receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases contribute to inflammasome functions. In addition, post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, deubiquitination, phosphorylation, and degradation, control almost every aspect of inflammasome activities. Genetic studies indicate that mutations in NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 are linked to the development of autoinflammatory diseases, enterocolitis, and cancer. Overall, these findings transform our understanding of the basic biology and clinical relevance of inflammasomes. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest development of inflammasome research and discuss how inflammasome activities govern health and disease. PMID:25879280

  7. Harmonic active contours.

    PubMed

    Estellers, Virginia; Zosso, Dominique; Bresson, Xavier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We propose a segmentation method based on the geometric representation of images as 2-D manifolds embedded in a higher dimensional space. The segmentation is formulated as a minimization problem, where the contours are described by a level set function and the objective functional corresponds to the surface of the image manifold. In this geometric framework, both data-fidelity and regularity terms of the segmentation are represented by a single functional that intrinsically aligns the gradients of the level set function with the gradients of the image and results in a segmentation criterion that exploits the directional information of image gradients to overcome image inhomogeneities and fragmented contours. The proposed formulation combines this robust alignment of gradients with attractive properties of previous methods developed in the same geometric framework: 1) the natural coupling of image channels proposed for anisotropic diffusion and 2) the ability of subjective surfaces to detect weak edges and close fragmented boundaries. The potential of such a geometric approach lies in the general definition of Riemannian manifolds, which naturally generalizes existing segmentation methods (the geodesic active contours, the active contours without edges, and the robust edge integrator) to higher dimensional spaces, non-flat images, and feature spaces. Our experiments show that the proposed technique improves the segmentation of multi-channel images, images subject to inhomogeneities, and images characterized by geometric structures like ridges or valleys.

  8. Active Wollaston polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, R. M.; Dayton, David; Gonglewski, John

    2005-10-01

    Active imaging polarimetry is a unique imaging technique in which a particular scene of interest is illuminated by a laser source with a known polarization state. Changes in the state of polarization of the received light yields information beyond what is available in conventional intensity imaging. This approach has an advantage over passive polarimetry in that one has control over the polarization state of the illumination with the potential of determining all sixteen elements of the associated Mueller matrix. While determining the entire Mueller matrix is the most comprehensive method for describing the polarization changing properties of the scene, for most cases it does not yield significantly more information than simply determining the 4 diagonal elements of the Mueller matrix. The Active Wollaston Polarimeter is based around the ability of the Wollaston prism to split orthogonal polarization states into two beams propagating at slightly different angles allowing two images to be formed on a single camera. The Wollaston prism, combined with a series of liquid crystal variable retarders allows monopulse determination of any polarization contrast image (PCI), which is directly related to a specific Muller matrix element. This technique results in a fast, compact polarization measurement system. This paper presents the continued investigation and analysis of the performance of the polarimeter and possible viability as a practical polarization measurement system.

  9. [Psychotropic effects of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Nespor, K; Csémy, L

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity can improve mental health. Positive effect of physical activity on depression and anxiety are mentioned. Moreover physical activity increases resistance against memory loss during aging. Physical activity also improves quality and life satisfaction in all age group; this fact was confirmed also in Czech children. Physical activity should be sufficient, but not excessive, and it should be combined with pharmacotherapy in severe and long-term depression. The kind of physical activity depends on the preferences and possibilities of patients; walking, yoga, swimming, etc. are usually appropriate.

  10. Structure-Activity Relationship of Azaindole-Based Glucokinase Activators.

    PubMed

    Paczal, Attila; Bálint, Balázs; Wéber, Csaba; Szabó, Zoltán B; Ondi, Levente; Theret, Isabelle; De Ceuninck, Frédéric; Bernard, Catherine; Ktorza, Alain; Perron-Sierra, Francoise; Kotschy, András

    2016-01-28

    7-Azaindole has been identified as a novel bidentate anchor point for allosteric glucokinase activators. A systematic investigation around three principal parts of the new small molecule glucokinase activators led to a robust SAR in agreement with structural data that also helped to assess the conformational flexibility of the allosteric activation site. The increase in glucose uptake resulting from glucokinase activation in hepatocytes in vitro translated into the efficient lowering of glucose levels in vivo with the best compounds. PMID:26685731

  11. Summary of JPL Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Surampudi, Subbarao

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight programs, including past, present and future missions targeting Solar System exploration. Details, including launch dates and batteries used, are given for Deep Space 1 (Asteroid Rendezvous), Deep Space 2 (Mars Penetrator), Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Surveyor '98, Stardust, Europa Orbiter, Mars Surveyor 2001, Mars 2003 Lander and Rover, and Genesis (Solar Dust Return). Earth science projects are also outlined: Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ARIMSAT), Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/Poseidon), Jason-1 (TOPEX follow-on), and QuikScat/Seawinds (Ocean Winds Tracking). The status, background, and plans are given for several batteries: (1) 2.5 inch common pressure vessel (CPV), (2) 3.5 inch CPV, (3) Ni-H2, and (4) Li-Ion.

  12. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, James A.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Melrose, Donald B.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Harrison, Richard A.; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Tsuneta, Saku; Vršnak, Bojan; Wang, Jing-Xiu

    Commission 10 deals with solar activity in all of its forms, ranging from the smallest nanoflares to the largest coronal mass ejections. This report reviews scientific progress over the roughly two-year period ending in the middle of 2008. This has been an exciting time in solar physics, highlighted by the launches of the Hinode and STEREO missions late in 2006. The report is reasonably comprehensive, though it is far from exhaustive. Limited space prevents the inclusion of many significant results. The report is divided into the following sections: Photosphere and chromosphere; Transition region; Corona and coronal heating; Coronal jets; flares; Coronal mass ejection initiation; Global coronal waves and shocks; Coronal dimming; The link between low coronal CME signatures and magnetic clouds; Coronal mass ejections in the heliosphere; and Coronal mass ejections and space weather. Primary authorship is indicated at the beginning of each section.

  13. Active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Carolyn R.

    Active noise reduction (ANR) techniques are described with reference to their application to crewmembers during aircraft operation to enhance productivity and safety. ANR concepts and theory are explained, and the development of protective ANR systems for direct implementation are described. Sound attenuation testing was conducted to study the feasibility of aircraft-powered ANR systems, and the positive results spurred their development for compatibility with flight helmets. The Helmets Limited ANR system uses a bypass mode at times of limited available power and complements the use of passive sound attenuation. Subjective testing results show that the device is effective, and a planned program of intensive evaluation is discussed. The aircraft that require an ANR system are listed, and key areas of implementation include battery power and the combination of ANR circuitry and helmet oxygen masks. It is suggested that ANR techniques can positively impact the efficiency and performance of crewmembers in high-noise-level aircraft.

  14. ESA Spacecraft Propulsion Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccoccia, G.

    2004-10-01

    ESA is currently involved in several activities related to spacecraft chemical and electric propulsion, from the basic research and development of conventional and new concepts to the manufacturing, AIV and flight control of the propulsion subsystems of several European satellites. In the commercial application field, the strong competition among satellite manufacturers is a major driver for advancements in the area of propulsion, where increasing better performance together with low prices are required. Furthermore, new scientific and Earth observation missions dictate new challenging requirements for propulsion systems and components based on advanced technologies. For all these reasons, the technology area of spacecraft propulsion is in strong evolution and this paper presents an overview of the current European programmes and initiatives in this technology field. Specific attention is devoted in the paper to the performance and flight experience of spacecraft currently in orbit or ready to be launched.

  15. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of meters into the atmosphere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. Countless eruptions in the geologic past have produced volcanic rocks that form much of the Earth's present surface. The gradual disintegration and weathering of these rocks have yielded some of the richest farmlands in the world, and these fertile soils play a significant role in sustaining our large and growing population. Were it not for volcanic activity, the Hawaiian Islands with their sugar cane and pineapple fields and magnificent landscapes and seascapes would not exist to support their residents and to charm their visitors. Yet, the actual eruptive processes are catastrophic and can claim life and property.

  16. Extravehicular activity welding experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

  17. Adrenocortical activity during meditation.

    PubMed

    Jevning, R; Wilson, A F; Davidson, J M

    1978-02-01

    We studied acute plasma cortisol and testosterone concentration changes during the practice known as "transcendental meditation" (TM) and during control rest. Three groups of normal, young adult volunteers were studied: a group of controls, these same controls restudied as practitioners after 3 to 4 months of TM practice, and a group of long-term, regular TM practitioners (3 to 5 years of practice). No change was found in controls during rest. Cortisol declined, but not significantly, in restudied controls, while cortisol decreased significantly in long-term practitioners during meditation and remained somewhat low afterward. No change in testerone concentration was noted during either rest or TM. Apparently, the practice of TM becomes associated with psychophysiologic response(s) which acutely inhibit pituitary-adrenal activity.

  18. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio

    2008-11-21

    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  19. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  20. DPAL activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  1. Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

    2002-01-01

    Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

  2. Tension in active shapes.

    PubMed

    Papari, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The concept of tension is introduced in the framework of active contours with prior shape information, and it is used to improve image segmentation. In particular, two properties of this new quantity are shown: 1) high values of the tension correspond to undesired equilibrium points of the cost function under minimization and 2) tension decreases if a curve is split into two or more parts. Based on these ideas, a tree is generated whose nodes are different local minima of the cost function. Deeper nodes in the tree are expected to correspond to lower values of the cost function. In this way, the search for the global optimum is reduced to visiting and pruning a binary tree. The proposed method has been applied to the problem of fish segmentation from low quality underwater images. Qualitative and quantitative comparison with existing algorithms based on the Euler–Lagrange diffusion equations shows the superiority of the proposed approach in avoiding undesired local minima.

  3. Wave activated generator

    SciTech Connect

    Neuenschwander, V. L.

    1985-09-03

    A wave activated generator utilizes the principle of providing relative movement between a permanent magnet and a coil to induce an electrical current in the coil. The coil is situated in a static tube anchored to the sea bed by means of a ballast tank at the base of the tube and guy wires extending from the tube. A plunger with permanent magnets is mounted in the tube for vertical reciprocation of the plunger, the plunger projecting outwardly from the upper end of the tube and terminating in a hull-shaped float which rides the water surface and provides vertical reciprocation of the plunger responsive to wave motion in order to move the magnets relative to the coil and generate current in the coil.

  4. General administrative activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    1982-07-01

    Significant safety-related activities reported during March and April, which are not covered elsewhere in this issue, are summarized here. The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) issued several reports on a variety of topics of current concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A recent NRC draft report identifies preliminary ranking of safety issues. The NRC is establishing a new Office of Investigations. The NRC also released a list of plants now under construction which it suspects will be canceled or indefinitely deferred. Four speeches by NRC Commissioners are summarized, as is the only Research Information Letter issued during the report period. Last is a listing of a variety of safety-related topics.

  5. Photon activation therapy.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, R G; Bond, V P

    1984-12-01

    It is suggested here that significant advantages should accrue from the use of 40 keV photons from implanted sources of 145Sm. These energies should stimulate Auger electron cascades from IdUrd, as well as produce non-repairable damage from radiosensitization. The use of low dose rates (approximately 10 rd/hr) should allow repair in normal tissues exposed to the activating photons. Utilization of this technique with brain tumors should minimize problems associated with radiosensitization of normal tissues, as CNS tissues do not synthesize DNA. The deposition of high LET radiations selectively in tumor cells provides unique advantages not available to either conventional therapy or other forms of particle therapy (fast neutrons, protons, pions, heavy ions). PMID:6515666

  6. Geothermal materials development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-06-01

    This ongoing R&D program is a part of the Core Research Category of the Department of Energy/Geothermal Division initiative to accelerate the utilization of geothermal resources. High risk materials problems that if successfully solved will result in significant reductions in well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs, are emphasized. The project has already developed several advanced materials systems that are being used by the geothermal industry and by Northeastern Electric, Gas and Steam Utilities. Specific topics currently being addressed include lightweight C0{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive scale and corrosion resistant liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, elastomer-metal bonding systems, and corrosion mitigation at the Geysers. Efforts to enhance the transfer of the technologies developed in these activities to other sectors of the economy are also underway.

  7. Active submarine volcano sampled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.

    1983-01-01

    On June 4, 1982, two full dredge hauls of fresh lava were recovered from the upper flanks of Kavachi submarine volcano, Solomon Islands, in the western Pacific Ocean, from the water depths of 1,200 and 2,700 feet. the shallower dredge site was within 0.5 mile of the active submarine vent shown at the surface by an area of slick water, probably caused by gas emissions. Kavachi is a composite stratovolcano that has been observed to erupt every year or two for at least the last 30 years (see photographs). An island formed in 1952, 1961, 1965, and 1978; but, in each case, it rapidly eroded below sea level. The latest eruption was observed by Solair pilots during the several weeks up to and including May 18, 1982. 

  8. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  9. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  10. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  11. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 1--Art and Music Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    First of a series of 6 publications containing environmental education activities, this booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center describes 12 environmentally-based art and music activities for elementary and intermediate grades. Each activity description contains objectives, preparation, materials, directions, student evaluation, and…

  12. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 2--Language Art Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    This booklet containing 20 language arts activities is the second in the series "101 Environmental Education Activities" produced by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center. The description of each activity contains learning objectives, directions, and suggested student evaluation standards. Elementary and intermediate level students expand their…

  13. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  14. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 4--Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Fourth in the series "101 Environmental Education Activities" by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center, the booklet contains 39 environment-based science activities directed to students in primary, intermediate, and junior high classes. Organization of the activities usually includes grade level, objectives, procedures, and materials, evaluation…

  15. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  16. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  17. Anti-diabetic activity of active fractions of Stereospermum tetragonum DC and isolation of active principles

    PubMed Central

    Bino Kingsley, Renjit; Mishra, Manisha; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the active principles, determine the anti-diabetes activity of fraction of Stereospermum tetragonum root. Materials and Methods The efficacy was evaluated in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats and the anti-hyperglycemic activity was studied by glucose tolerance test. The major active compounds were isolated by solvent fractionation and chromatographic techniques and characterized with spectral data. Results The active fraction of S. tetragonum showed presence of anti-diabetes mellitus activity in type-2 diabetic rats. It did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. Two active principles (active at 2 mg/kg dose) were isolated and characterized with spectral data. One of them was identified as an iridoid type glycoside and the other one was a lapachol like compound (derivative of naphthoquinone). Conclusions Two active principles from the anti-diabetes fraction of S. tetragonum root were isolated and identified as an iridoid glycoside and a naphthoquinone derivative. PMID:24023445

  18. Activities for Teaching Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jack Lee; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Plans and activities are suggested for teaching elementary children about solar energy. Directions are included for constructing a flat plate collector and a solar oven. Activities for a solar field day are given. (SA)

  19. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  20. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  1. [Antibiotic activity of some fungi].

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Ia I; Tsyganenko, K S; Zaĭchenko, O M

    2013-01-01

    Biological activity of pure extracts of cultural filtrates of Aspergillus niveus 2411, Myrothecium cinctum 910, Ulocladium consortiale 960, Penicillium sp. 10-51 concerning wide spectrum of test-organisms was investigated. It was shown that the extracts had high levels of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, especially against Bacillus genus. But their activity against Gram-negative bacteria was a bit lower. On the other hand, metabolites of M. cinctum 910 and Penicillium sp. 10-51 did show the activity concerning phytopathogenic bacteria. Extracts of fungi showed fungistatic activity against yeasts, but they were not so active concerning fungal test-cultures. Extracts of A. niveus 2411, Penicillium sp. 10-51 suppressed the growth of Phoma betae. The highest level of fungistatic activity was shown by metabolites of M. cinctum 910. They showed activity against Aspergillus genus strains and phytopathogenic isolates of Fusarium lactis, Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea. PMID:24479314

  2. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  3. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  4. Organic active materials for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abouimrane, Ali; Weng, Wei; Amine, Khalil

    2016-08-16

    A rechargeable battery includes a compound having at least two active sites, R.sup.1 and R.sup.2; wherein the at least two active sites are interconnected by one or more conjugated moieties; each active site is coordinated to one or more metal ions M.sup.a+ or each active site is configured to coordinate to one or more metal ions; and "a" is 1, 2, or 3.

  5. Obstacles to activity pacing: assessment, relationship to activity and functioning.

    PubMed

    Cane, Douglas; McCarthy, Mary; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2016-07-01

    Activity pacing is frequently included among the strategies provided to individuals with chronic pain to manage pain and improve functioning. Individuals with chronic pain may, however, limit their use of activity pacing because they perceive significant obstacles to its use. This study describes the development of a measure to assess obstacles to activity pacing and examines the relationship of this measure to activity patterns and functioning. A sample of 637 individuals with chronic pain completed items describing potential obstacles to activity pacing as part of their pretreatment assessment. Item analyses were used to construct a 14-item measure of obstacles to activity pacing. A subset of these individuals completed the measure again after completion of a group treatment program. The resulting measure demonstrated excellent internal consistency and was minimally affected by social desirability. Correlations with measures of activity and psychosocial functioning provided initial construct validity for the measure. Sex differences were found with women initially identifying more obstacles to activity pacing. Fewer obstacles were identified by both men and women after treatment, and these changes were related to modest changes in activity patterns and functioning. The present results identify a number of obstacles that may limit the use of activity pacing by individuals with chronic pain. Treatment may result in a decrease in the number of obstacles identified, and this change is related to changes in the individual's activity pattern and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26963845

  6. Preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Juan, Yang; Ke-Qiang, Qiu

    2009-05-01

    Activated carbons especially used for gaseous adsorption were prepared from Chinesefir sawdust by zinc chloride activation under vacuum condition. The micropore structure, adsorption properties, and surface morphology of activated carbons obtained under atmosphere and vacuum were investigated. The prepared activated carbons were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the structure of the starting material is kept after activation. The activated carbon prepared under vacuum exhibited higher values of the BET surface area (up to 1079 m2 g(-1)) and total pore volume (up to 0.5665 cm3 g(-1)) than those of the activated carbon obtained under atmosphere. This was attributed to the effect of vacuum condition that reduces oxygen in the system and limits the secondary reaction of the organic vapor. The prepared activated carbon has well-developed microstructure and high microporosity. According to the data obtained, Chinese fir sawdust is a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation. The obtained activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent with favorable surface properties. Compared with the traditional chemical activation, vacuum condition demands less energy consumption, simultaneity, and biomass-oil is collected in the procedure more conveniently. FTIR analysis showed that heat treatment would result in the aromatization of the carbon structure. PMID:19534162

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Pseudognaphalium moritzianum.

    PubMed

    Rangel, D; Garcia, I; Velasco, J; Buitrago, D; Velazco, E

    2002-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of ethanol, acetone and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of Pseudognaphalium moritzianum was evaluated. Ethanol and acetone extracts showed activity against Staphlococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aqueous extract was active against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.

  8. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  9. ACTIVITY LEVEL AND LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.; STAKE, ROBERT E.

    A STUDY OF LEARNING ACTIVITY EXPLORED (1) AN ACTIVITY-ACHIEVEMENT SCALE TO DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF ACTIVITY ON ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) THE POSSIBLE COMPLEXITY OR DIMENSIONALITY OF THIS IMPACT. TEN GROUPS, OF 10 COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS EACH, WERE SCHEDULED TO STUDY UNDER EACH OF 10 LEARNING SITUATIONS. THE SITUATIONS CONSISTED OF TWO MODES OF…

  10. Hospitality Services. Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This student activity book contains pencil-and-paper activities for use in a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The activities are organized into 29 chapters on the following topics: hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization/management structures in…

  11. Recycling: Activities for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Lynne, Comp.; Coon, Herbert L., Comp.

    This publication provides 80 classroom activities for the teacher. These activities are designed for elementary through high school students and are action-oriented for participation in the school community. Each activity is classified according to appropriate grade level, subject matter, and recycling concept involved. In addition, each activity…

  12. Art Activities for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurie, Frank, Comp.

    Intended for professionals interested in incorporating arts activities into the educational programs for disabled students, Part One of the document contains arts activities contributed by clinician-presenters in the 1978 Illinois series of Very Special Arts Festivals; while Part Two contains activities contributed by clinician-presenters and…

  13. Crime and Justice: 10 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This manual contains learning activities to aid secondary teachers in clarifying and enriching the Scholastic materials "Living Law." The format of the manual includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions, and a description of each activity. Case studies, simulations, and role-playing activities are provided. Topics…

  14. Motivating Kids in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2000-01-01

    This article adopts a motivational stance in identifying factors that strongly predict physical activity in children. One model for understanding physical activity motivation in children portrays the sources and consequences of self-esteem for physical activity behavior (perceived competency/adequacy, social support, enjoyment, and physical…

  15. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  16. Oriented active shape models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  17. RELAXIN ACTIVATES PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir; Bennett, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that triggers multiple signaling pathways through its receptor RXFP1. Many of relaxin’s functions, including vascular and antifibrotic effects, are similar to those induced by activation of PPARγ. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that relaxin signaling through RXFP1 would activate PPARγ activity. In cells overexpressing RXFP1 (HEK-RXFP1), relaxin increased transcriptional activity through a PPAR response element (PPRE) in a concentration-dependent manner. In cells lacking RXFP1, relaxin had no effect. Relaxin increased both the baseline activity and the response to the PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2, but not to agonists of PPARα or PPARδ. In HEK-RXFP1 cells infected with adenovirus expressing PPARγ, relaxin increased transcriptional activity through PPRE, and this effect was blocked with an adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative PPARγ. Knockdown of PPARγ using siRNA resulted in a decrease in the response to both relaxin and rosiglitazone. Both relaxin and rosiglitazone increased expression of the PPARγ target genes CD36 and LXRα in HEK-RXFP1 and in THP-1 cells naturally expressing RXFP1. Relaxin did not increase PPARγ mRNA or protein levels. Treatment of cells with GW9662, an inhibitor of PPARγ ligand binding, effectively blocked rosiglitazone-induced PPARγ activation, but had no effect on relaxin activation of PPARγ. These results suggest that relaxin activates PPARγ activity, and increases the overall response in the presence PPARγ agonists. This activation is dependent on the presence of RXFP1. Furthermore, relaxin activates PPARγ via a ligand-independent mechanism. These studies represent the first report that relaxin can activate the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. PMID:19712722

  18. [Active management of labor].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  19. Active Terahertz Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Antoinette

    2011-03-01

    In recent years terahertz technology has become an optimistic candidate for numerous sensing, imaging, and diagnostic applications. Nevertheless, THz technology still suffers from a deficiency in high-power sources, efficient detectors, and other functional devices ubiquitous in neighboring microwave and infrared frequency bands, such as amplifiers, modulators, and switches. One of the greatest obstacles in this progress is the lack of materials that naturally respond well to THz radiation. The potential of metamaterials for THz applications originates from their resonant electromagnetic response, which significantly enhances their interaction with THz radiation. Thus, metamaterials offer a route towards helping to fill the so-called ``THz gap''. Here, we present a series of novel THz metamaterials. Importantly, the critical dependence of the resonant response on the supporting substrate and/or the fabricated structure enables the creation of active THz metamaterial devices. We show that the resonant response can be controlled using optical or electrical excitation and thermal tuning, enabling efficient THz devices which will be of importance for advancing numerous real world THz applications. We acknowledge contribution to this work from H. Chen, J. O'Hara, A. Azad, J. Zhou, R. Singh, M. Reiten, and D. Chowdhury of the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies.

  20. VERA Geodetic Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jike, Takaaki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Shizugami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    This report briefly describes the geodetic activities of VERA in the year 2012. The regular geodetic observations are carried out both in K- and S/X-bands. The frequency of regular observations is three times a month-twice for the VERA internal observations in K-band. The networks of the S/X sessions are JADE of GSI and IVS-T2. The raw data of the T2 and JADE sessions are electronically transferred to the Bonn, Haystack, and GSI correlators via Internet. Gravimetric observations are carried out at the VERA stations. An SG was installed at Mizusawa and placed in the vicinity of the VERA antenna in order to monitor vertical displacement at the end of 2008, and the observations continued throughout the year. Also at the VERA-Ishigakijima station, continuous operation of the SG started in 2012. The crustal movements generated by the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku continued during 2012, and displacement of the VERA-Mizusawa position by post-seismic creeping continued.

  1. Europa's Active Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A newly discovered impact crater can be seen just right of the center of this image of Jupiter's moon Europa returned by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera. The crater is about 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) in diameter. The impact excavated into Europa's icy crust, throwing debris (seen as whitish material) across the surrounding terrain. Also visible is a dark band, named Belus Linea, extending east-west across the image. This type of feature, which scientists call a 'triple band,' is characterized by a bright stripe down the middle. The outer margins of this and other triple bands are diffuse, suggesting that the dark material was put there as a result of possible geyser-like activity which shot gas and rocky debris from Europa's interior. The curving 'X' pattern seen in the lower left corner of the image appears to represent fracturing of the icy crust and infilling by slush which froze in place. The crater is centered at about 2 degrees north latitude by 239 degrees west longitude. The image was taken from a distance of 156,000 kilometers (about 96,300 miles) on June 27, 1996, during Galileo's first orbit around Jupiter. The area shown is 860 by 700 kilometers (530 by 430 miles), or about the size of Oregon and Washington combined. The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. Active Cellular Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, Guillaume; Erlenkaemper, Christoph; Garcia, Simon; Yevick, Hannah; Joanny, Jean-François; Silberzan, Pascal; Biology inspired physics at mesoscales Team; Physical approach of biological problems Team

    We study the emergence of a nematic order in a two-dimensional tissue of apolar elongated fibroblast cells. Initially, these cells are very motile and the monolayer is characterized by giant density fluctuations, a signature of far-from-equilibrium systems. As the cell density increases because of proliferation, the cells align with each other forming large perfectly oriented domains while the cellular movements slow down and eventually freeze. Therefore topological defects characteristic of nematic phases remain trapped at long times, preventing the development of infinite domains. By analogy with classical non-active nematics, we have investigated the role of boundaries and we have shown that cells confined in stripes of width smaller than typically 500 µm are perfectly aligned in the stripe direction. Experiments performed in cross-shaped patterns show that both the number of cells and the degree of alignment impact the final orientation. Reference: Duclos G., Garcia S., Yevick H.G. and Silberzan P., ''Perfect nematic order in confined monolayers of spindle-shaped cells'', Soft Matter, 10, 14, 2014

  3. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  4. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

  5. Active region flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of observations has shown that active region phenomena in the photospheric, chromospheric and coronal temperature regimes are dynamical in nature. At the photosphere, recent observations of full line profiles place an upper limit of about + or - 20/msec on any downflows at supergranule cell edges. Observations of the full Stokes 5 profiles in the network show no evidence for downflows in magnetic flux tubes. In the area of chromospheric dynamics, several models were put forward recently to reproduce the observed behavior of spicules. However, it is pointed out that these adiabatic models do not include the powerful radiative dissipation which tend to damp out the large amplitude disturbances that produce the spicular acceleration in the models. In the corona, loop flows along field lines clearly transport mass and energy at rates important for the dynamics of these structures. However, advances in understanding the heating and mass balance of the loop structures seem to require new kinds of observations. Some results are presented using a remote sensing diagnostic of the intensity and orientation of macroscopic plasma electric fields predicted by models of reconnective heating and also wave heating.

  6. Needs assessment activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of a Transportation Management Division task (TMD), the Packaging Programs and Testing Group within Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has assessed the packaging needs of some of the mid- and small-sized US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by visiting them and meeting with their transportation and packaging personnel. To date, ten DOE facilities have been visited. As a result, these sites have been informed of some of the packaging activities that TMD has sponsored and is sponsoring, have been apprised of possible upcoming changes to transportation regulations, have discussed their short-term packaging needs, and have shared unique packaging they have developed which may be of use to other DOE facilities.. This report summarizes the findings from visits to the following sites: Fermi National Laboratory; Argonne National Laboratory; New Brunswick Laboratory; EG and G Mound Applied Technologies; Fernald Environmental Management Project; West Valley Demonstration Project; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Brookhaven National Laboratory; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  7. Active shape models unleashed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Matthias; Wesarg, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Active Shape Models (ASMs) are a popular family of segmentation algorithms which combine local appearance models for boundary detection with a statistical shape model (SSM). They are especially popular in medical imaging due to their ability for fast and accurate segmentation of anatomical structures even in large and noisy 3D images. A well-known limitation of ASMs is that the shape constraints are over-restrictive, because the segmentations are bounded by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) subspace learned from the training data. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new energy minimization approach which combines an external image energy with an internal shape model energy. Our shape energy uses the Distance From Feature Space (DFFS) concept to allow deviations from the PCA subspace in a theoretically sound and computationally fast way. In contrast to previous approaches, our model does not rely on post-processing with constrained free-form deformation or additional complex local energy models. In addition to the energy minimization approach, we propose a new method for liver detection, a new method for initializing an SSM and an improved k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN)-classifier for boundary detection. Our ASM is evaluated with leave-one-out tests on a data set with 34 tomographic CT scans of the liver and is compared to an ASM with standard shape constraints. The quantitative results of our experiments show that we achieve higher segmentation accuracy with our energy minimization approach than with standard shape constraints.nym

  8. Active terahertz metamaterial devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hou-Tong; Padilla, Willie J; Zide, Joshua M O; Gossard, Arthur C; Taylor, Antoinette J; Averitt, Richard D

    2006-11-30

    The development of artificially structured electromagnetic materials, termed metamaterials, has led to the realization of phenomena that cannot be obtained with natural materials. This is especially important for the technologically relevant terahertz (1 THz = 10(12) Hz) frequency regime; many materials inherently do not respond to THz radiation, and the tools that are necessary to construct devices operating within this range-sources, lenses, switches, modulators and detectors-largely do not exist. Considerable efforts are underway to fill this 'THz gap' in view of the useful potential applications of THz radiation. Moderate progress has been made in THz generation and detection; THz quantum cascade lasers are a recent example. However, techniques to control and manipulate THz waves are lagging behind. Here we demonstrate an active metamaterial device capable of efficient real-time control and manipulation of THz radiation. The device consists of an array of gold electric resonator elements (the metamaterial) fabricated on a semiconductor substrate. The metamaterial array and substrate together effectively form a Schottky diode, which enables modulation of THz transmission by 50 per cent, an order of magnitude improvement over existing devices. PMID:17136089

  9. Solar activity secular cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mordvinov, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term variations in solar activity secular cycles have been studied using a method for the expansion of reconstructed sunspot number series Sn( t) for 11400 years in terms of natural orthogonal functions. It has been established that three expansion components describe more than 98% of all Sn( t) variations. In this case, the contribution of the first expansion component is about 92%. The averaged form of the 88year secular cycle has been determined based on the form of the first expansion coordinate function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle have been revealed based on the time function conjugate to the first function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle coincide with those observed in the Sn( t) series spectrum. A change in the secular cycle form and the time variations in this form are described by the second and third expansion components, the contributions of which are about 4 and 2%, respectively. The variations in the steepness of the secular cycle branches are more pronounced in the 200-year cycle, and the secular cycle amplitude varies more evidently in the 2300-year cycle.

  10. Photoperiodism and Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Orlando; Morel, Claudine

    1974-01-01

    Metabolic readjustments after a change from long days to short days appear, in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, to be achieved through the operation of two main mechanisms: variation in enzyme capacity, and circadian rhythmicity. After a lag time, capacity in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and capacity in aspartate aminotransferase increase exponentially and appear to be allometrically linked during 50 to 60 short days; then a sudden fall takes place in the activity of the former. Malic enzyme and alanine aminotransferase behave differently. Thus, the operation of the two sections of the pathway (before and after the malate step) give rise to a continuously changing functional compartmentation in the pathway. Circadian rhythmicity, on the other hand, produces time compartmentation through phase shifts and variation in amplitude, independently for each enzyme. These characteristics suggest that the operation of a so-called biological clock would be involved. We propose the hypothesis that feedback regulation would be more accurate and efficient when applied to an already oscillating, clock-controlled enzyme system. PMID:16658749

  11. Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodden, Lee; Pease, Phil; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Rosen, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center (GSFC V0 DAAC) is being developed to enhance and improve scientific research and productivity by consolidating access to remote sensor earth science data in the pre-EOS time frame. In cooperation with scientists from the science labs at GSFC, other NASA facilities, universities, and other government agencies, the DAAC will support data acquisition, validation, archive and distribution. The DAAC is being developed in response to EOSDIS Project Functional Requirements as well as from requirements originating from individual science projects such as SeaWiFS, Meteor3/TOMS2, AVHRR Pathfinder, TOVS Pathfinder, and UARS. The GSFC V0 DAAC has begun operational support for the AVHRR Pathfinder (as of April, 1993), TOVS Pathfinder (as of July, 1993) and the UARS (September, 1993) Projects, and is preparing to provide operational support for SeaWiFS (August, 1994) data. The GSFC V0 DAAC has also incorporated the existing data, services, and functionality of the DAAC/Climate, DAAC/Land, and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) Systems.

  12. Recurrent Activity in Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Jamrozy, Marek; Konar, Chiranjib; Machalski, Jerzy; Mack, Karl-Heinz; Saikia, Dhruba; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Stawarz, Lukasz; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U.

    2007-10-15

    One of the outstanding issues concerning extragalactic radio sources is the total duration of their active phase and the possible existence of duty cycles of their nuclear activity. A duty cycle can be recognized if there is a mechanism which preserves the information of past activity for a sufficiently long time after a new activity has started up. If a new cycle starts before the radio lobes created during a former activity period have faded, we can recognize this by the observations of a young radio source embedded in an old relic structure.

  13. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-11-28

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  14. Perspectives in active liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M.; Virga, Epifanio G.

    2014-01-01

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour. PMID:25332386

  15. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: "physical activity" and "physical capacity". Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  16. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well known and well publicized. Healthy People 2020 has determined that physical activity is one of their key interventions to improve health in America. Despite wide acceptance that physical activity is a low-cost alternative to disease treatment and prevention, most Americans still do not exercise the recommended minimum of 150 minutes per week. Underpinning such recommendations is the growing concern that unless we change our behavior around active living, health care costs to treat preventable disease will become unsustainable and have a substantial impact on the financial health of the US. For this reason, physicians, health care executives, and community leaders are working together to improve total health for all Americans. One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving. The five strategies discussed in this paper include 1) measure physical activity as a vital sign; 2) encourage patients to be physically active at least 150 minutes per week; 3) create healthy environments by making it easier for patients to be physically active where they live, learn, work, play, and pray; 4) monitor disease incidence of patients who are physically active vs those who are not physically active; and 5) spread best practices. PMID:26517440

  17. Physical activity, immunity and infection.

    PubMed

    Romeo, J; Wärnberg, J; Pozo, T; Marcos, A

    2010-08-01

    During the last few decades, scientific evidence has confirmed a wide range of health benefits related to regular physical activity. How physical activity affects the immune function and infection risk is, however, still under debate. Commonly, intensive exercise suppresses the activity and levels of several immune cells, while other immune functions may be stimulated by moderate physical activity. With this knowledge, the understanding of the relationship between different levels of physical activity on the immune function has been raised as a potential tool to protect health not only in athletes but also in the general population; the mechanisms that translate a physically active lifestyle into good health continue to be investigated. Reviewing the literature, although several outcomes (i.e. the mechanisms by which different levels and duration of physical activity programmes affect numerous cell types and responses) remain unclear, given that the additional benefits encompass healthy habits including exercise, the use of physical activity programmes may result in improved health of elderly populations. Moderate physical activity or moderate-regulated training may enhance the immune function mainly in less fit subjects or sedentary population and the pre-event fitness status also seems to be an important individual factor regarding this relationship. Although adequate nutrition and regular physical activity habits may synergistically improve health, clinical trials in athletes using nutritional supplements to counteract the immune suppression have been inconclusive so far.Further research is necessary to find out to what extent physical activity training can exert an effect on the immune function.

  18. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop. PMID:24007856

  19. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop.

  20. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  1. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  2. Mechanically Active Electrospun Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee M.

    Electrospinning, a technique used to fabricate small diameter polymer fibers, has been employed to develop unique, active materials falling under two categories: (1) shape memory elastomeric composites (SMECs) and (2) water responsive fiber mats. (1) Previous work has characterized in detail the properties and behavior of traditional SMECs with isotropic fibers embedded in an elastomer matrix. The current work has two goals: (i) characterize laminated anisotropic SMECs and (ii) develop a fabrication process that is scalable for commercial SMEC manufacturing. The former ((i)) requires electrospinning aligned polymer fibers. The aligned fibers are similarly embedded in an elastomer matrix and stacked at various fiber orientations. The resulting laminated composite has a unique response to tensile deformation: after stretching and releasing, the composite curls. This curling response was characterized based on fiber orientation. The latter goal ((ii)) required use of a dual-electrospinning process to simultaneously electrospin two polymers. This fabrication approach incorporated only industrially relevant processing techniques, enabling the possibility of commercial application of a shape memory rubber. Furthermore, the approach had the added benefit of increased control over composition and material properties. (2) The strong elongational forces experienced by polymer chains during the electrospinning process induce molecular alignment along the length of electrospun fibers. Such orientation is maintained in the fibers as the polymer vitrifies. Consequently, residual stress is stored in electrospun fiber mats and can be recovered by heating through the polymer's glass transition temperature. Alternatively, the glass transition temperature can be depressed by introducing a plasticizing agent. Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is plasticized by water, and its glass transition temperature is lowered below room temperature. Therefore, the residual stress can be relaxed at room

  3. Origins of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, David M.

    1996-05-01

    Work under the subject grant began in August 1992, when Mr. J. J. Blanchette began study and data analysis in the area of solar flare research. Mr. Blanchette passed all requirements toward a Ph.D., except for the thesis. Mr. Blanchette worked with the APL Flare Genesis Experiment team to build a balloon-borne solar vector magnetograph. Other work on the magnetograph was partially supported by AFOSR grant F49620-94-1-0079. Mr. Blanchette assisted the Flare Genesis team prepare the telescope and focal plane optical elements for a test flight. He participated in instrument integ ration and in launch preparations for the flight, which took place on January 23, 1994. Mr. Blanchette was awarded a Masters Degree in Astrophysics by the Johns Hopkins University in recognition of his achievements. Mr. Blanchette indicated a desire to suspend work on the Ph.D. degree, and he left the AASERT program on August 31, 1994. Under the guidance of his advisor at JHU/APL, Dr. David M. Rust, Mr. Blanchette gained enough background in solar physics so that he can contribute to observational, analytical, and presentation efforts in solar research. Beginning in August 1995, Mr. Ashok Kumar was supported by the grant. Mr. Kumar demonstrated remarkable theoretical insight into the problems of solar activity. He developed the concept of intrinsic scale magnetic flux ropes in the solar atmosphere and interplanetary space. His model can explain the heating of interplanetary magnetic clouds. Recently, his idea has been extended to explain solar wind heating. If the idea is confirmed by further comparison with observations, it will be a major breakthrough in space physics and it may lead to an explanation for why the solar corona's temperature is over a million degrees.

  4. Strategy as active waiting.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.

  5. Active Beam Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hellermann, M. G.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O.; Summers, H. P.; Whiteford, A.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2008-03-01

    Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) plays a pivotal role in the diagnostics of hot fusion plasmas and is implemented currently in most of the operating devices. In the present report the main features of CXRS are summarized and supporting software packages encompassing "Spectral Analysis Code CXSFIT", "Charge Exchange Analysis Package CHEAP", and finally "Forward Prediction of Spectral Features" are described. Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) is proposed as indispensable cross-calibration tool for absolute local impurity density measurements and also for the continuous monitoring of the neutral beam power deposition profile. Finally, a full exploitation of the `Motional Stark Effect' pattern is proposed to deduce local pitch angles, total magnetic fields and possibly radial electric fields. For the proposed active beam spectroscopy diagnostic on ITER comprehensive performance studies have been carried out. Estimates of expected spectral signal-to-noise ratios are based on atomic modelling of neutral beam stopping and emissivities for CXRS, BES and background continuum radiation as well as extrapolations from present CXRS diagnostic systems on JET, Tore Supra, TEXTOR and ASDEX-UG. Supplementary to thermal features a further promising application of CXRS has been proposed recently for ITER, that is a study of slowing-down alpha particles in the energy range up to 2 MeV making use of the 100 keV/amu DNB (Diagnostic Neutral Beam) and the 500 keV/amu HNB (Heating Neutral Beam). Synthetic Fast Ion Slowing-Down spectra are evaluated in terms of source rates and slowing-down parameters

  6. AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joungmok; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Yeji; Kim, Jin; Ha, Joohun

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Thus, activators of AMPK may have potential as novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of both indirect and direct AMPK activators and their modes of action in relation to the structure of AMPK. We discuss the functional differences among isoform-specific AMPK complexes and their significance regarding the development of novel AMPK activators and the potential for combining different AMPK activators in the treatment of human disease. PMID:27034026

  7. AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joungmok; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Yeji; Kim, Jin; Ha, Joohun

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Thus, activators of AMPK may have potential as novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of both indirect and direct AMPK activators and their modes of action in relation to the structure of AMPK. We discuss the functional differences among isoform-specific AMPK complexes and their significance regarding the development of novel AMPK activators and the potential for combining different AMPK activators in the treatment of human disease. PMID:27034026

  8. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  9. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  10. Panic disorder and locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Noriyuki; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiroe; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Kumano, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Akabayashi, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Background Panic disorder is one of the anxiety disorders, and anxiety is associated with some locomotor activity changes such as "restlessness". However, there have been few studies on locomotor activity in panic disorder using actigraphy, although many studies on other psychiatric disorders have been reported using actigraphy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between panic disorder and locomotor activity pattern using a wrist-worn activity monitor. In addition, an ecological momentary assessment technique was used to record panic attacks in natural settings. Methods Sixteen patients with panic disorder were asked to wear a watch-type computer as an electronic diary for recording panic attacks for two weeks. In addition, locomotor activity was measured and recorded continuously in an accelerometer equipped in the watch-type computer. Locomotor activity data were analyzed using double cosinor analysis to calculate mesor and the amplitude and acrophase of each of the circadian rhythm and 12-hour harmonic component. Correlations between panic disorder symptoms and locomotor activity were investigated. Results There were significant positive correlations between the frequency of panic attacks and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.55) and between HAM-A scores and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.62). Conclusion Panic disorder patients with more panic attacks and more anxiety have greater objectively assessed locomotor activity, which may reflect the "restlessness" of anxiety disorders. PMID:19017383

  11. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  12. Silicon active photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  13. Permanent active longitudes and activity cycles on RS CVn stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1998-08-01

    A new analysis of the published long-term photometric observations has revealed permanent active-longitude structures in four RS CVn stars: EI Eri, II Peg, sigma Gem, and HR 7275. Two active longitudes separated by half of the period are found to dominate on the surface during all available seasons. The positions of the longitudes on three stars (EI Eri, II Peg, HR 7275) are migrating in the orbital reference frame, and there is no preferred orientation with respect to the line of centres in the binaries. The rate of migration is approximately constant. In case of sigma Gem the active longitude migration is synchronized with the orbital motion in the direction of the line of centres in the binary. The active region lifetimes can be longer than the time span of the observations (>=15 yr). The periods of the active longitude rotation are determined: for EI Eri 1fd 9510, for II Peg 6fd 7066, for sigma Gem 19fd 604, for HR 7275 28fd 263. Long-term activity cycles of the stars are discovered from the analysis of the relative contribution of the two longitudes to the photometric variability. One longitude is found to be usually more active than the other at a given moment, and the change of the activity level between the longitudes is cyclic with periods of years. The switch of the activity takes a much shorter time, about a few months, similar to the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon found for FK Com stars. Moments of switching are regarded as new tracers of the activity, and total cycles, which return activity to the same longitude, are found to be for EI Eri 9.0 yr, for II Peg 9.3 yr, for sigma Gem 14.9 yr, for HR 7275 17.5 yr.

  14. How physical activity can work?

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This review examines how physical activity can work for health during childhood and adolescence. Special emphasis is put on weight control and prevention of obesity-related morbidity. Both low sedentary and high exercise activities contribute to increased energy expenditure, improved weight control and prevention of obesity. Exercise, if intensity is at least moderate, has also a positive effect on fat distribution by decreasing the proportion of abdominal or visceral fat. The prevalence of clustered (multiple) cardiovascular risk factors is lower in children and adolescents, who are physically active or fit. However, the risks of obesity are greater than those from being sedentary, i.e., high physical activity reduces, but does not totally offset risks related to obesity. Good health in youth is easily lost by an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. An additional benefit of childhood physical activity is that it increases the likelihood of physical activity later in adulthood. PMID:18278627

  15. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

    2012-10-15

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the {sup 89}Zr/{sup 89m}Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of polycationic peptides.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, A; Cirioni, O; Barchiesi, F; Del Prete, M S; Scalise, G

    1999-11-01

    The in vitro activity of six polycationic peptides, buforin II, cecropin P1, indolicidin, magainin II, nisin, and ranalexin, were evaluated against several clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptosporidium parvum, by using microbroth dilution methods. The peptides exhibited different antibacterial activities and rapid time-dependent killing. The gram-negative organisms were more susceptible to buforin II and cecropin P1, whereas buforin II and ranalexin were the most active compounds against the gram-positive strains. Similarly, ranalexin showed the highest activity against Candida spp., whereas magainin II exerted the highest anticryptococcal activity. Finally, the peptides showed high anti-Pneumocystis activity, whereas no compound had strong inhibitory effect on C. parvum. PMID:10612440

  17. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  18. Swim pressure of active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team

    2014-11-01

    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  19. Active Learning Using Hint Information.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien

    2015-08-01

    The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine. PMID:26079748

  20. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnosticsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the 89Zr/89mZr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  1. Hydrogen activation by magnesia catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Yulin Gu; Brenner, A. )

    1992-07-01

    Hydrogen activation by magnesia catalysts was investigated by studying H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} exchange. The number of active sites, surface composition, rate, and mechanism of the reaction were investigated as a function of the activation temperature. Behavior of a commercial magnesia and a catalyst synthesized from Mg(OH){sub 2} were similar, although the latter catalyst had a much larger surface area. The upper limit for the number of active sites was determined in the classical manner by using selective poisoning by CO. A novel technique involving monitoring the stoichiometric reaction between magnesia and D{sub 2}(g) enabled the very unusual determination of the lower limit for the number of active sites. Thus, the true number of active sites is bracketed within the upper and lower limits. Maximal activity occurred after activation at 700 C. The number of active sites is about 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}, which is 10{sup 3}-fold higher than formerly reported on the basis of EPR data. The turnover frequency at 273 K and a partial pressure of 20 Torr of an equimolar mixture of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} is 4 s{sup {minus}1}, roughly 10{sup 3}-fold less than previously reported. The site density and activity are now consistent with expected values, rather than the anomalous values previously reported. The hydroxyl coverage of the surface was determined in a novel manner using thermogravimetric analysis over the temperature range of 300 to 1,400 K. The catalysts are of low activity when the surface is either of very high or very low hydroxyl content. A mechanism in which the active site includes an ensemble consisting of a Mg{sup 2+} center and neighboring surface OH and O{sup 2{minus}} is proposed.

  2. Japanese activities in refrigeration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Ohtsuka, T.; Ishizaki, Y.

    This paper reviews recent activities in refrigeration technology in Japan. The projects described are stimulated by growing industrial needs or form part of large national projects. The JNR project on the MAGLEV train is currently the most powerful activity and it demands knowledge in all the different disciplines of cryogenics in particular on various scales of refrigeration. Research activities are also directed towards the development of Stirling cycle and magnetic refrigerators for applications in a wider area.

  3. In Situ Activation of Microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing two or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug, or a prodrug and a drug activator are partitioned into separate phases. or prevented from diffusing out of the microcapsule by a liquid phase in which the drug is poorly soluble. Also disclosed are methods of using the microcapsules for in situ activation of drugs where upon exposure to an appropriate energy source the internal phases mix and the drug is activated in situ.

  4. Antibacterial activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R; Omoloso, A D; Kihara, M

    2003-07-01

    The crude methanolic extracts of the stem and root barks, stem and root heart-wood, leaves, fruits and seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus and their subsequent partitioning with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol gave fractions that exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The butanol fractions of the root bark and fruits were found to be the most active. None of the fractions were active against the fungi tested.

  5. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  6. Transplantation activities in Iran.

    PubMed

    Broumand, Behrooz

    2005-06-01

    Iran is a tropical country with a land area of 1,648,000 square kilometers and a population of 68,100,000. Iran has a recorded history that dates back 2553 years. Its earliest medical school was Pasargad. Jondi Chapour University was founded 1753 years ago during the Sassanid dynasty as a center for higher education in medicine, philosophy, and pharmacology. Indeed, the idea of xenotransplantation dates back to days of Achaemenidae (Achaemenian dynasty), as evidenced by engravings of many mythologic chimeras still present in Persepolis. Avicenna (980-1037 AD), the great Iranian physician, performed the first nerve repair. Transplantation progress in Iran follows roughly the same pattern as that of the rest of the world, with some 10-20 years' delay. Modern organ transplantation dates back to 1935, when the first cornea transplant was performed at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The first living-related kidney transplantation performed at Shiraz University Hospital dates back to 1968. The first bone marrow transplant was performed at Dr. Shariaati's Hospital in Tehran. The first heart transplant was performed 1993 in Tabriz, Iran. The first liver transplant was performed in 1993 in Shiraz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran. In late 1985, the renal transplantation program was officially started in a major university hospital in Tehran and was poised to carry out 2 to 4 transplantations each week. Soon, another large center initiated a similar program. Both of these centers accepted surgical, medical, and nursing teams from other academic medical centers for training in kidney transplantation. Since 2002, Iran has grown to include 23 active renal, 68 cornea, 2 liver, 4 heart, 2 lung, and 2 bone marrow transplantation centers in different cities. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the

  7. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  8. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  9. Observations of active chromosphere stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Africano, J. L.; Klimke, A.; Stencel, R. E.; Noah, P. V.; Bopp, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that spectroscopic signatures of stellar chromospheric activity are readily observable. The present study is concerned with new photometric and spectroscopic observations of active-chromosphere RS CVn, BY Dra, and FK Com stars. Attention is given to the first results of a synoptic monitoring program of many active chromosphere stars. During the time from 1980 to 1982, photometric and spectroscopic observations of 10 known or suspected active-chromosphere objects were made. The results regarding the individual stars are discussed. Seven stars observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) are all spectroscopic binaries.

  10. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized.

  11. Brain activation associated with active and passive lower limb stepping

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lukas; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert; Michels, Lars; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-01-01

    Reports about standardized and repeatable experimental procedures investigating supraspinal activation in patients with gait disorders are scarce in current neuro-imaging literature. Well-designed and executed tasks are important to gain insight into the effects of gait-rehabilitation on sensorimotor centers of the brain. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel imaging paradigm, combining the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible stepping robot (MARCOS) with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure task-related BOLD signal changes and to delineate the supraspinal contribution specific to active and passive stepping. Twenty-four healthy participants underwent fMRI during active and passive, periodic, bilateral, multi-joint, lower limb flexion and extension akin to human gait. Active and passive stepping engaged several cortical and subcortical areas of the sensorimotor network, with higher relative activation of those areas during active movement. Our results indicate that the combination of MARCOS and sparse sampling fMRI is feasible for the detection of lower limb motor related supraspinal activation. Activation of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas suggests motor response inhibition during passive movement in healthy participants. Our results are of relevance for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying gait in the healthy. PMID:25389396

  12. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 3--Mathematics Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaljo, Roger, Comp.

    Each of the 14 environment-related mathematics activities included in this publication by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center includes objectives, materials needed, preparation, and activity description. Occasionally, variations and helpful hints are added. Because the student can gain experience to help him with the practical application of…

  13. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  14. Development of Novel Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Activators

    PubMed Central

    Guh, Jih-Hwa; Chang, Wei-Ling; Yang, Jian; Lee, Su-Lin; Wei, Shuo; Wang, Dasheng; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2010-01-01

    In light of the unique ability of thiazolidinediones to mediate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-independent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and suppression of interleukin (IL)-6 production, we conducted a screening of an in-house, thiazolidinedione-based focused compound library to identify novel agents with these dual pharmacological activities. Cell-based assays pertinent to the activation status of AMPK and mammalian homolog of target of rapamycin (i.e., phosphorylation of AMPK and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, respectively), and IL-6/IL-6 receptor signaling (i.e., IL-6 production and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, respectively) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 human macrophages were used to screen this compound library, which led to the identification of compound 53 (N-{4-[3-(1-Methylcyclohexylmethyl)-2,4-dioxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene-methyl]-phenyl}-4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-benzenesulfonamide) as the lead agent. Evidence indicates that this drug-induced suppression of LPS-stimulated IL-6 production was attributable to AMPK activation. Furthermore, compound 53-mediated AMPK activation was demonstrated in C-26 colon adenocarcinoma cells, indicating that it is not a cell line-specific event. PMID:20170185

  15. Reading Aloud Activity in L2 and Cerebral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the cerebral mechanism of reading aloud activities in L2 learners. These activities have been widely used in L2 learning and teaching, and its effect has been reported in various Asian L2 learning contexts. However, the reasons for its effectiveness have not been examined. In order to fill in this gap, two studies using a…

  16. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches.

    PubMed

    Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson

    2015-03-01

    We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition.

  17. Platelet activating factor activity in the phospholipids of bovine spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, J.E.; Hough, S.; Elrod, C. )

    1990-11-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been detected in sperm from several mammalian species and can affect sperm motility and fertilization. Because bovine sperm contain a high percentage of ether-linked phospholipid precursors required for PAF synthesis, a study was undertaken to determine the PAF activity of bovine sperm phospholipids. Total lipids of washed, ejaculated bull sperm were extracted, and phospholipids were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography. Individual phospholipid fractions were assayed for PAF activity on the basis of (3H)serotonin release from equine platelets. PAF activity was detected in the PAF fraction (1.84 pmol/mumol total phospholipid) and in serine/inositol (PS/PI), choline (CP), and ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (EP) and cardiolipin (CA) fractions. Activity was highest in the CP fraction (8.05 pmol/mumol total phospholipid). Incomplete resolution of PAF and neutral lipids may have contributed to the activity in the PS/PI and CA fractions, respectively. Phospholipids from nonsperm sources did not stimulate serotonin release. Platelet activation by purified PAF and by sperm phospholipid fractions was inhibited by the receptor antagonist SRI 63-675. These results indicate that bovine sperm contain PAF and that other sperm phospholipids, especially CP and EP, which are high in glycerylether components, are capable of receptor-mediated platelet activation.

  18. How Active Are Your Students? Increasing Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Brandt, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that youth engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day, most of which should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Half of this amount (30 minutes) should be achieved during the school day. NASPE provides guidance in the form of a…

  19. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches.

    PubMed

    Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson

    2015-03-01

    We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition. PMID:25871116

  20. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson

    2015-03-01

    We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition.

  1. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.

    2014-12-01

    Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to

  2. Elastase and suppressor active peptide activity following burn injury.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, A N; Pinney, E; Hoyt, D B; Ninnemann, J; Hansbrough, J

    1988-02-01

    Proteolytic enzyme activity following trauma and inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of injury. The precise mechanisms involved in the induction of protease release has not been determined. We show here that sera from burn patients with greater than 40% TBSA have significantly elevated levels of active elastase which correspond with significantly increased levels of suppressor active peptide (SAP) and suppression of neutrophil chemotaxis. The elastase inhibitory capacity of serum from burned or blunt trauma patients was within normal range, suggesting that the primary elastase inhibitor, alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor, is functionally active. Additionally, granulocytes exposed to suppressor active peptide in vitro resulted in a markedly elevated release of elastase into the culture supernatants. These data suggest that the suppressor peptide is capable of not only suppressing immune function but is also a potent mediator for the induction of proteolytic enzyme release from leukocytes.

  3. Chronically active: activation of microglial proteolysis in ageing and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Sethe, Sebastian; Grune, Tilman

    2005-01-01

    One of the microglial cell functions is the removal of modified extracellular proteins in the brain. The connection between protein oxidation, proteolysis, and microglial activation is the topic of this review. The effect of various activation agents on microglial cells with regard to changes in substrate uptake, proteolytic capacity and degradation efficiency of different types of oxidized protein materials is reviewed. It is shown that different activation stimuli initiate substrate-specific modulation for uptake and proteolysis, influencing an array of factors including receptor expression, lysosomal pH, and proteasome subunit composition. Age-related alterations in activation and proteolytic capacity in microglial cells are also discussed. In ageing, proteolytic effectiveness is diminished, while microglial cells are chronically activated and lose the oxidative burst ability, possibly supporting a 'vicious circle' of macrophage-induced neurodegeneration.

  4. What Is an Activity? Appropriating an Activity-Centric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarosh, Svetlana; Matthews, Tara; Moran, Thomas P.; Smith, Barton

    Activity-Centric Computing (ACC) systems seek to address the fragmentation of office work across tools and documents by allowing users to organize work around the computational construct of an Activity. Defining and structuring appropriate Activities within a system poses a challenge for users that must be overcome in order to benefit from ACC support. We know little about how knowledge workers appropriate the Activity construct. To address this, we studied users’ appropriation of a production-quality ACC system, Lotus Activities, for everyday work by employees in a large corporation. We contribute to a better understanding of how users articulate their individual and collaborative work in the system by providing empirical evidence of their patterns of appropriation. We conclude by discussing how our findings can inform the design of other ACC systems for the workplace.

  5. Active Volcanism on Io: Global Distribution and Variations in Activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes-Gautier, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Smythe, W.B.; Geissler, P.E.; Kamp, L.; Davies, A.G.; Spencer, J.R.; Keszthelyi, L.; Carlson, R.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.; Soderblom, L.

    1999-01-01

    Io's volcanic activity has been monitored by instruments aboard the Galileo spacecraft since June 28, 1996. We present results from observations by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) for the first 10 orbits of Galileo, correlate them with results from the Solid State Imaging System (SSI) and from groundbased observations, and compare them to what was known about Io's volcanic activity from observations made during the two Voyager flybys in 1979. A total of 61 active volcanic centers have been identified from Voyager, groundbased, and Galileo observations. Of these, 41 are hot spots detected by NIMS and/or SSI. Another 25 locations were identified as possible active volcanic centers, mostly on the basis of observed surface changes. Hot spots are correlated with surface colors, particularly dark and red deposits, and generally anti-correlated with white, SO2-rich areas. Surface features corresponding to the hot spots, mostly calderas or flows, were identified from Galileo and Voyager images. Hot spot temperatures obtained from both NIMS and SSI are consistent with silicate volcanism, which appears to be widespread on Io. Two types of hot spot activity are present: persistent-type activity, lasting from months to years, and sporadic events, which may represent either short-lived activity or low-level activity that occasionally flares up. Sporadic events are not often detected, but may make an important contribution to Io's heat flow and resurfacing. The distribution of active volcanic centers on the surface does not show any clear correlation with latitude, longitude, Voyager-derived global topography, or heat flow patterns predicted by the asthenosphere and deep mantle tidal dissipation models. However, persistent hot spots and active plumes are concentrated toward lower latitudes, and this distribution favors the asthenosphere rather than the deep mantle tidal dissipation model. ?? 1999 Academic Press.

  6. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nasta K.; Mona R.

    2009-05-01

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The

  7. Gudden's dorsal tegmental nucleus is activated in carbachol-induced active (REM) sleep and active wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Sampogna, Sharon; Morales, Francisco R; Chase, Michael H

    2002-07-19

    Previous studies have shown that GABAergic processes in the ponto-mesencephalic region of the brainstem are involved in the generation of wakefulness and active sleep (AS). The dorsal and ventral tegmental nuclei of Gudden (DTN and VTN, respectively) are known to contain a large population of GABAergic neurons. In the present study, utilizing Fos immunoreactivity as a marker of neuronal activity, it was determined that GABAergic DTN pars dorsalis neurons are active during active wakefulness and AS induced by carbachol, but not during quiet wakefulness or quiet sleep. In contrast, no differences in the number of Fos immunoreactive neurons were observed in the DTN pars ventralis and VTN across behavioral states.

  8. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  9. An Activity Book. Book B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Donald L.

    This booklet was developed to provide Honolulu (Hawaii) students with an activity-oriented opportunity to learn more about water and water conservation. It contains inquiry-based games, puzzles, and activities dealing with: (1) how we use water; (2) where water comes from; (3) surface water; (4) groundwater; (5) population growth and its effect on…

  10. Activities and Things. Book A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Donald L.

    This booklet was developed to provide Honolulu (Hawaii) students with an activity-oriented opportunity to learn more about water and water conservation. It contains inquiry-based games, puzzles, and activities dealing with: (1) how we use water; (2) where water comes from; (3) surface water; (4) groundwater; (5) population growth and its effect on…

  11. Laboratory Activities for Introductory Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruglak, Haym

    1973-01-01

    Presents sample laboratory activities designed for use in astronomy teaching, including naked eye observations, instrument construction, student projects, and cloudy weather activities. Appended are bibliographies of journal articles and reference books and lists of films, laboratory manuals, and distributors of apparatus and teaching aids. (CC)

  12. A Sourcebook of Biotechnology Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Alison M., Ed.; Matheson, Robert H., III, Ed.

    This book contains 22 lessons using hands-on activities designed to present some aspect of biotechnology in a usable form that teachers can adapt for their classrooms. The introductory section serves as a resource that introduces the teacher and student to the history of biotechnology. The activities are divided into five units that group lessons…

  13. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  14. Active Approaches to Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindoe, Sylvia; Bond, Julia

    1987-01-01

    A three-day model inservice program for special education teachers in Coventry (England) focused on facilitating personal and social development in disabled students through group experiences based on materials and principles of the Active Tutorial Work project, a structured, developmentally based approach emphasizing active learning. (JW)

  15. An Application of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marken, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  16. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included.

  17. Activity Book. Columbus: 500 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This activity book for teachers and students presents ideas for lessons on Christopher Columbus. Three sections offer teaching ideas and student activities focusing on Columbus's inspiration and preparation for departure, the science of navigation and the voyage, and the pros and cons of changes brought about by Columbus's voyage. (SM)

  18. Multicultural Mathematics Posters and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle Public Schools, WA. Mathematics Office.

    A set of 18 posters, each 28 cm x 43 cm and printed on parchmentlike paper, and an activity book for teachers in middle and secondary schools make up this publication. The posters illustrate the ideas that mathematics spans centuries and cultures, and is both useful and enjoyable. The activity book emphasizes problem solving, with a focus on…

  19. Astronomy Activities for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Peggy W.; Welch, Daniel W.

    Presented are middle school level, activity-oriented astronomy activities developed as a result of an earth science workshop for teachers. Topics include: (1) sun and moon position and measurement; (2) daily, yearly, and seasonal changes in the sun's position; (3) shapes and positions of planetary orbits; (4) eclipses; (5) properties of light; (6)…

  20. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…