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Sample records for active archaeal communities

  1. Stratified active archaeal communities in the sediments of Jiulong River estuary, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianqian; Wang, Fengping; Chen, Zhiwei; Yin, Xijie; Xiao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Here the composition of total and active archaeal communities in a sediment core of Jiulong River estuary at Fujian Province, Southern China was reported. Profiles of CH4 and SO2−4 concentrations from the sediment core indicated the existence of a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in which sulfate reduction-coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs. Accordingly, three sediment layers (16–18.5 cm, 71–73.5 cm, and 161–163.5 cm) from the 1.2 m sediment core were sectioned and named top, middle and bottom, respectively. Total DNA and RNA of each layer were extracted and used for clone libraries and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR products of 16S rRNA and methyl CoM reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that archaeal communities of the three layers were dominated by the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) whose ecological functions were still unknown. The MCG could be further divided into seven subgroups, named MCG-A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. MCG-A and MCG-G were the most active groups in the estuarine sediments. Known anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANMEs) were only found as minor components in these estuarine archaeal communities. This study, together with the studies of deep subsurface sediments, would be a very good start point to target and compare the specific active archaeal groups and their roles in the dark, deep subsurface sediment environments. PMID:22969752

  2. Abundance, activity, and diversity of archaeal and bacterial communities in both uncontaminated and highly copper-contaminated marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Besaury, Ludovic; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Quillet, Laurent

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed the impact of copper mine tailing discharges on benthic Archaea and Bacteria around the city of Chanaral in northern Chile. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) showed that the bacteria dominated the prokaryotic community at both sites, but only the bacteria showed a decrease in abundance in the copper-contaminated site. Q-PCR on reverse transcripts indicated a higher activity of both bacterial and archaeal communities in the contaminated site, suggesting an adaptation of the two communities to copper. This hypothesis was reinforced by the concomitant augmentation of the copper-resistant copA gene coding for a P-type ATP-ase pump in the contaminated site. The metabolically active bacterial community of the contaminated site was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria related to Ectothiorhodospiraceae and Chromatiaceae and by Alphaproteobacteria phylum related to Rhodobacteraceae. The metabolically active archaeal community was dominated by one lineage belonging to unclassified Euryarchaeota and to methanogenic Archaea. PMID:24072336

  3. Seasonal Transition of Active Bacterial and Archaeal Communities in Relation to Water Management in Paddy Soils

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Hideomi; Ishii, Satoshi; Shiratori, Yutaka; Oshima, Kenshiro; Otsuka, Shigeto; Hattori, Masahira; Senoo, Keishi

    2013-01-01

    Paddy soils have an environment in which waterlogging and drainage occur during the rice growing season. Fingerprinting analysis based on soil RNA indicated that active microbial populations changed in response to water management conditions, although the fundamental microbial community was stable as assessed by DNA-based fingerprinting analysis. Comparative clone library analysis based on bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNAs (5,277 and 5,436 clones, respectively) revealed stable and variable members under waterlogged or drained conditions. Clones related to the class Deltaproteobacteria and phylum Euryarchaeota were most frequently obtained from the samples collected under both waterlogged and drained conditions. Clones related to syntrophic hydrogen-producing bacteria, hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea, rice cluster III, V, and IV, and uncultured crenarchaeotal group 1.2 appeared in greater proportion in the samples collected under waterlogged conditions than in those collected under drained conditions, while clones belonging to rice cluster VI related to ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) appeared at higher frequency in the samples collected under drained conditions than in those collected under waterlogged conditions. These results suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis may become active under waterlogged conditions, whereas ammonia oxidation may progress by rice cluster VI becoming active under drained conditions in the paddy field. PMID:24005888

  4. Layered Structure of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities and Their In Situ Activities in Anaerobic Granules▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Hisashi; Miura, Yuki; Tsushima, Ikuo; Okabe, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    The microbial community structure and spatial distribution of microorganisms and their in situ activities in anaerobic granules were investigated by 16S rRNA gene-based molecular techniques and microsensors for CH4, H2, pH, and the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). The 16S rRNA gene-cloning analysis revealed that the clones related to the phyla Alphaproteobacteria (detection frequency, 51%), Firmicutes (20%), Chloroflexi (9%), and Betaproteobacteria (8%) dominated the bacterial clone library, and the predominant clones in the archaeal clone library were affiliated with Methanosaeta (73%). In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes at the phylum level revealed that these microorganisms were numerically abundant in the granule. A layered structure of microorganisms was found in the granule, where Chloroflexi and Betaproteobacteria were present in the outer shell of the granule, Firmicutes were found in the middle layer, and aceticlastic Archaea were restricted to the inner layer. Microsensor measurements for CH4, H2, pH, and ORP revealed that acid and H2 production occurred in the upper part of the granule, below which H2 consumption and CH4 production were detected. Direct comparison of the in situ activity distribution with the spatial distribution of the microorganisms implied that Chloroflexi contributed to the degradation of complex organic compounds in the outermost layer, H2 was produced mainly by Firmicutes in the middle layer, and Methanosaeta produced CH4 in the inner layer. We determined the effective diffusion coefficient for H2 in the anaerobic granules to be 2.66 × 10−5 cm2 s−1, which was 57% in water. PMID:17905889

  5. Temporal Dynamics of Active Prokaryotic Nitrifiers and Archaeal Communities from River to Sea.

    PubMed

    Hugoni, Mylène; Agogué, Hélène; Taib, Najwa; Domaizon, Isabelle; Moné, Anne; Galand, Pierre E; Bronner, Gisèle; Debroas, Didier; Mary, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    To test if different niches for potential nitrifiers exist in estuarine systems, we assessed by pyrosequencing the diversity of archaeal gene transcript markers for taxonomy (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)) during an entire year along a salinity gradient in surface waters of the Charente estuary (Atlantic coast, France). We further investigated the potential for estuarine prokaryotes to oxidize ammonia and hydrolyze urea by quantifying thaumarchaeal amoA and ureC and bacterial amoA transcripts. Our results showed a succession of different nitrifiers from river to sea with bacterial amoA transcripts dominating in the freshwater station while archaeal transcripts were predominant in the marine station. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that Thaumarchaeota marine group I (MGI) were the most abundant overall but other archaeal groups like Methanosaeta were also potentially active in winter (December-March) and Euryarchaeota marine group II (MGII) were dominant in seawater in summer (April-August). Each station also contained different Thaumarchaeota MGI phylogenetic clusters, and the clusters' microdiversity was associated to specific environmental conditions suggesting the presence of ecotypes adapted to distinct ecological niches. The amoA and ureC transcript dynamics further indicated that some of the Thaumarchaeota MGI subclusters were involved in ammonia oxidation through the hydrolysis of urea. Our findings show that ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria were adapted to contrasted conditions and that the Thaumarchaeota MGI diversity probably corresponds to distinct metabolisms or life strategies. PMID:25851445

  6. Environmental Shaping of Sponge Associated Archaeal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Turque, Aline S.; Batista, Daniela; Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Martins, Orlando B.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Background Archaea are ubiquitous symbionts of marine sponges but their ecological roles and the influence of environmental factors on these associations are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the diversity and composition of archaea associated with seawater and with the sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila, Paraleucilla magna and Petromica citrina in two distinct environments: Guanabara Bay, a highly impacted estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the nearby Cagarras Archipelago. For this we used metagenomic analyses of 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene libraries. Hymeniacidon heliophila was more abundant inside the bay, while P. magna was more abundant outside and P. citrina was only recorded at the Cagarras Archipelago. Principal Component Analysis plots (PCA) generated using pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances showed that the archaeal community structure of inner bay seawater and sponges was different from that of coastal Cagarras Archipelago. Rarefaction analyses showed that inner bay archaeaoplankton were more diverse than those from the Cagarras Archipelago. Only members of Crenarchaeota were found in sponge libraries, while in seawater both Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were observed. Although most amoA archaeal genes detected in this study seem to be novel, some clones were affiliated to known ammonia oxidizers such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Cenarchaeum symbiosum. Conclusion/Significance The composition and diversity of archaeal communities associated with pollution-tolerant sponge species can change in a range of few kilometers, probably influenced by eutrophication. The presence of archaeal amoA genes in Porifera suggests that Archaea are involved in the nitrogen cycle within the sponge holobiont, possibly increasing its resistance to anthropogenic impacts. The higher diversity of Crenarchaeota in the polluted area suggests that some marine sponges are able to change the composition of their associated

  7. ¹³C pulse-chase labeling comparative assessment of the active methanogenic archaeal community composition in the transgenic and nontransgenic parental rice rhizospheres.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weijing; Lu, Haohao; Hill, Jaclyn; Guo, Xiaohui; Wang, Hailong; Wu, Weixiang

    2014-03-01

    More and more investigations indicate that genetic modification has no significant or persistent effects on microbial community composition in the rice rhizosphere. Very few studies, however, have focused on its impact on functional microorganisms. This study completed a ¹³C-CO₂ pulse-chase labeling experiment comparing the potential effects of cry1Ab gene transformation on ¹³C tissue distribution and rhizosphere methanogenic archaeal community composition with its parental rice variety (Ck) and a distant parental rice variety (Dp). Results showed that ¹³C partitioning in aboveground biomass (mainly in stems) and roots of Dp was significantly lower than that of Ck. However, there were no significant differences in ¹³C partitioning between the Bt transgenic rice line (Bt) and Ck. RNA-stable isotope probing combined with clone library analyses inferred that the group Methanosaetaceae was the predominant methanogenic Archaea in all three rice rhizospheres. The active methanogenic archaeal community in the Bt rhizosphere was dominated by Methanosarcinaceae, Methanosaetaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae, while there were only two main methanogenic clusters (Methanosaetaceae and Methanomicrobiaceae) in the Ck and Dp rhizospheres. These results indicate that the insertion of cry1Ab gene into the rice genome has the potential to result in the modification of methanogenic community composition in its rhizosphere. PMID:24266498

  8. Bioaugmentation of overloaded anaerobic digesters restores function and archaeal community.

    PubMed

    Tale, V P; Maki, J S; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Adding beneficial microorganisms to anaerobic digesters for improved performance (i.e. bioaugmentation) has been shown to decrease recovery time after organic overload or toxicity upset. Compared to strictly anaerobic cultures, adding aerotolerant methanogenic cultures may be more practical since they exhibit higher methanogenic activity and can be easily dried and stored in ambient air for future shipping and use. In this study, anaerobic digesters were bioaugmented with both anaerobic and aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures after a transient organic overload. Digesters bioaugmented with anaerobic and moderately aerated cultures recovered 25 and 100 days before non-bioaugmented digesters, respectively. Increased methane production due to bioaugmentation continued a long time, with 50-120% increases 6 to 12 SRTs (60-120 days) after overload. In contrast to the anaerobic enrichment, the aerated enrichments were more effective as bioaugmentation cultures, resulting in faster recovery of upset digester methane and COD removal rates. Sixty days after overload, the bioaugmented digester archaeal community was not shifted, but was restored to one similar to the pre-overload community. In contrast, non-bioaugmented digester archaeal communities before and after overload were significantly different. Organisms most similar to Methanospirillum hungatei had higher relative abundance in well-operating, undisturbed and bioaugmented digesters, whereas organisms similar to Methanolinea tarda were more abundant in upset, non-bioaugmented digesters. Bioaugmentation is a beneficial approach to increase digester recovery rate after transient organic overload events. Moderately aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures were more beneficial augments than a strictly anaerobic enrichment. PMID:25528544

  9. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH. PMID:26074731

  10. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G.; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH. PMID:26074731

  11. Drying effects on archaeal community composition and methanogenesis in bromeliad tanks.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Franziska B; Martinson, Guntars O; Pommerenke, Bianca; Pump, Judith; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Tank bromeliads are highly abundant epiphytes in neotropical forests and form a unique canopy wetland ecosystem which is involved in the global methane cycle. Although the tropical climate is characterized by high annual precipitation, the plants can face periods of restricted water. Thus, we hypothesized that water is an important controller of the archaeal community composition and the pathway of methane formation in tank bromeliads. Greenhouse experiments were established to investigate the resident and active archaeal community targeting the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA in the tank slurry of bromeliads at three different moisture levels. Archaeal community composition and abundance were determined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative PCR. Release of methane and its stable carbon isotopic signature were determined in a further incubation experiment under two moisture levels. The relative abundance of aceticlastic Methanosaetaceae increased up to 34% and that of hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales decreased by more than half with decreasing moisture. Furthermore, at low moisture levels, methane production was up to 100-fold lower (≤0.1-1.1 nmol gdw(-1) d(-1)) than under high moisture levels (10-15 nmol gdw(-1) d(-1)). The rapid response of the archaeal community indicates that the pathway of methane formation in bromeliad tanks may indeed be strongly susceptible to periods of drought in neotropical forest canopies. PMID:25764549

  12. Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Archaeal Communities in Two Freshwater Lakes at Different Trophic Status.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Dai, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In either eutrophic Dianchi Lake or mesotrophic Erhai Lake, the abundance, diversity, and structure of archaeaplankton communities in spring were different from those in summer. In summer, archaeaplankton abundance generally decreased in Dianchi Lake but increased in Erhai Lake, while archaeaplankton diversity increased in both lakes. These two lakes had distinct archaeaplankton community structure. Archaeaplankton abundance was influenced by organic content, while trophic status determined archaeaplankton diversity and structure. Moreover, in summer, lake sediment archaeal abundance considerably decreased. Sediment archaeal abundance showed a remarkable spatial change in spring but only a slight one in summer. The evident spatial change of sediment archaeal diversity occurred in both seasons. In Dianchi Lake, sediment archaeal community structure in summer was remarkably different from that in spring. Compared to Erhai Lake, Dianchi Lake had relatively high sediment archaeal abundance but low diversity. These two lakes differed remarkably in sediment archaeal community structure. Trophic status determined sediment archaeal abundance, diversity and structure. Archaeal diversity in sediment was much higher than that in water. Water and sediment habitats differed greatly in archaeal community structure. Euryarchaeota predominated in water column, but showed much lower proportion in sediment. Bathyarchaeota was an important component of sediment archaeal community. PMID:27065997

  13. Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Archaeal Communities in Two Freshwater Lakes at Different Trophic Status

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuyin; Dai, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In either eutrophic Dianchi Lake or mesotrophic Erhai Lake, the abundance, diversity, and structure of archaeaplankton communities in spring were different from those in summer. In summer, archaeaplankton abundance generally decreased in Dianchi Lake but increased in Erhai Lake, while archaeaplankton diversity increased in both lakes. These two lakes had distinct archaeaplankton community structure. Archaeaplankton abundance was influenced by organic content, while trophic status determined archaeaplankton diversity and structure. Moreover, in summer, lake sediment archaeal abundance considerably decreased. Sediment archaeal abundance showed a remarkable spatial change in spring but only a slight one in summer. The evident spatial change of sediment archaeal diversity occurred in both seasons. In Dianchi Lake, sediment archaeal community structure in summer was remarkably different from that in spring. Compared to Erhai Lake, Dianchi Lake had relatively high sediment archaeal abundance but low diversity. These two lakes differed remarkably in sediment archaeal community structure. Trophic status determined sediment archaeal abundance, diversity and structure. Archaeal diversity in sediment was much higher than that in water. Water and sediment habitats differed greatly in archaeal community structure. Euryarchaeota predominated in water column, but showed much lower proportion in sediment. Bathyarchaeota was an important component of sediment archaeal community. PMID:27065997

  14. Relating the Diversity, Abundance, and Activity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeal Communities to Nitrification Rates in the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolar, B. B.; Smith, J. M.; Chavez, F.; Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia oxidation, the rate-limiting first step of nitrification, is an important link between reduced (ammonia) and oxidized (nitrate) nitrogen, and controls the relative distribution of these forms of inorganic nitrogen. This process is catalyzed via the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme of both ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and Archaea (AOA); the α subunit of this enzyme is encoded by the amoA gene and has been used as the molecular marker to detect this process. In the ocean, AOA are typically 10-1000 times more and are likely more active than AOB, and thus are key players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Monterey Bay is a dynamic site to study nitrification, as seasonal upwelling brings deep water and nutrients into surface waters, which can promote phytoplankton blooms and impact biogeochemical processes such as the nitrogen cycle. We have sampled two sites within Monterey Bay bimonthly for two years as part of the ongoing Monterey Bay Time Series (MBTS) to quantify AOA genes, transcripts, and nitrification rates. Two ecotypes of AOA are routinely found in Monterey Bay - the 'shallow' water column A (WCA) and 'deep' water column B (WCB) clades, which are thought to have distinct physiological properties and can be distinguished based on the amoA gene sequence. Previous work has shown a strong relationship between nitrification rates in Monterey Bay with the abundance of WCA amoA genes and transcripts. Additionally, we found a correlation between the relative abundance of Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota 16S rRNA reads (as % of total) and the absolute abundance of AOA amoA genes (determined via qPCR) in Monterey Bay and the California Current System. AOA 16S rRNA gene abundances in turn correlated significantly with changes in nitrification rate with depth, while the relative abundance of genes and transcripts binned to a single AOA (Nitrosopumilus maritimus) was not significantly correlated to nitrification rate. Further analysis of the sequenced AOA

  15. Bacterial and archaeal communities in the deep-sea sediments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Xu, Jian; Shuai, Yinjie; Zhou, Xiaojian; Yang, Zhihui; Ma, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents harbor abundant thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms. However, microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents have not been well documented. Here, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in the two deep-sea sediments (named as TVG4 and TVG11) collected from inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq2500 platform. Based on the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, sequence analysis showed that bacterial communities in the two samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Furthermore, archaeal communities in the two samples were dominated by Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Comparative analysis showed that (i) TVG4 displayed the higher bacterial richness and lower archaeal richness than TVG11; (ii) the two samples had more divergence in archaeal communities than bacterial communities. Bacteria and archaea that are potentially associated with nitrogen, sulfur metal and methane cycling were detected in the two samples. Overall, we first provided a comparative picture of bacterial and archaeal communities and revealed their potentially ecological roles in the deep-sea environments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest Indian Ridge, augmenting microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents. PMID:27169490

  16. Bacterial and archaeal communities in the deep-sea sediments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Xu, Jian; Shuai, Yinjie; Zhou, Xiaojian; Yang, Zhihui; Ma, Kesen

    2016-05-01

    Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents harbor abundant thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms. However, microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents have not been well documented. Here, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in the two deep-sea sediments (named as TVG4 and TVG11) collected from inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq2500 platform. Based on the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, sequence analysis showed that bacterial communities in the two samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Furthermore, archaeal communities in the two samples were dominated by Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Comparative analysis showed that (i) TVG4 displayed the higher bacterial richness and lower archaeal richness than TVG11; (ii) the two samples had more divergence in archaeal communities than bacterial communities. Bacteria and archaea that are potentially associated with nitrogen, sulfur metal and methane cycling were detected in the two samples. Overall, we first provided a comparative picture of bacterial and archaeal communities and revealed their potentially ecological roles in the deep-sea environments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest Indian Ridge, augmenting microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents.

  17. Bacterial and archaeal communities in the deep-sea sediments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Xu, Jian; Shuai, Yinjie; Zhou, Xiaojian; Yang, Zhihui; Ma, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents harbor abundant thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms. However, microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents have not been well documented. Here, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in the two deep-sea sediments (named as TVG4 and TVG11) collected from inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq2500 platform. Based on the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, sequence analysis showed that bacterial communities in the two samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Furthermore, archaeal communities in the two samples were dominated by Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Comparative analysis showed that (i) TVG4 displayed the higher bacterial richness and lower archaeal richness than TVG11; (ii) the two samples had more divergence in archaeal communities than bacterial communities. Bacteria and archaea that are potentially associated with nitrogen, sulfur metal and methane cycling were detected in the two samples. Overall, we first provided a comparative picture of bacterial and archaeal communities and revealed their potentially ecological roles in the deep-sea environments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest Indian Ridge, augmenting microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents. PMID:27169490

  18. The Vertical Distribution of Sediment Archaeal Community in the "Black Bloom" Disturbing Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xianfang; Xing, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Using the Illumina sequencing technology, we investigated the vertical distribution of archaeal community in the sediment of Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu, where the black bloom frequently occurred in summer. Overall, the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6), and Methanobacterium dominated the archaeal community. However, we observed significant difference in composition of archaeal community among different depths of the sediment. DHVEG-6 dominated in the surface layer (0-3 cm) sediment. Methanobacterium was the dominating archaeal taxa in the L2 (3-6 cm) and L3 (6-10) sediment. MCG was most abundant in the L4 (10-15 cm) and L5 (15-20 cm) sediment. Besides, DHVEG-6 was significantly affected by the concentration of total phosphorus (TP). And loss on ignition (LOI) was an important environmental factor for Methanobacterium. As the typical archaeal taxa in the surface layer sediment, DHVEG-6 and Methanobacterium might be more adapted to abundant substrate supply from cyanobacterial blooms and take active part in the biomass transformation. We propose that DHVEG-6 and Methanobacterium could be the key archaeal taxa correlated with the "black bloom" formation in Zhushan Bay. PMID:26884723

  19. The Vertical Distribution of Sediment Archaeal Community in the “Black Bloom” Disturbing Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xianfang; Xing, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Using the Illumina sequencing technology, we investigated the vertical distribution of archaeal community in the sediment of Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu, where the black bloom frequently occurred in summer. Overall, the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6), and Methanobacterium dominated the archaeal community. However, we observed significant difference in composition of archaeal community among different depths of the sediment. DHVEG-6 dominated in the surface layer (0–3 cm) sediment. Methanobacterium was the dominating archaeal taxa in the L2 (3–6 cm) and L3 (6–10) sediment. MCG was most abundant in the L4 (10–15 cm) and L5 (15–20 cm) sediment. Besides, DHVEG-6 was significantly affected by the concentration of total phosphorus (TP). And loss on ignition (LOI) was an important environmental factor for Methanobacterium. As the typical archaeal taxa in the surface layer sediment, DHVEG-6 and Methanobacterium might be more adapted to abundant substrate supply from cyanobacterial blooms and take active part in the biomass transformation. We propose that DHVEG-6 and Methanobacterium could be the key archaeal taxa correlated with the “black bloom” formation in Zhushan Bay. PMID:26884723

  20. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Lake Nyos (Cameroon, Central Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Tiodjio, Rosine E.; Sakatoku, Akihiro; Nakamura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Daisuke; Fantong, Wilson Y.; Tchakam, Kamtchueng B.; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ohba, Takeshi; Hell, Victor J.; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nakamura, Shogo; Ueda, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the microbial diversity associated with Lake Nyos, a lake with an unusual chemistry in Cameroon. Water samples were collected during the dry season on March 2013. Bacterial and archaeal communities were profiled using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach of the 16S rRNA gene. The results indicate a stratification of both communities along the water column. Altogether, the physico-chemical data and microbial sequences suggest a close correspondence of the potential microbial functions to the physico-chemical pattern of the lake. We also obtained evidence of a rich microbial diversity likely to include several novel microorganisms of environmental importance in the large unexplored microbial reservoir of Lake Nyos. PMID:25141868

  1. Changes in northern Gulf of Mexico sediment bacterial and archaeal communities exposed to hypoxia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogeochemical changes in marine sediments during coastal water hypoxia are well described, but less is known about underlying changes in microbial communities. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) hypoxic zone sediments were characterized by py...

  2. Archaeal communities in boreal forest tree rhizospheres respond to changing soil temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bomberg, Malin; Münster, Uwe; Pumpanen, Jukka; Ilvesniemi, Hannu; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2011-07-01

    Temperature has generally great effects on both the activity and composition of microbial communities in different soils. We tested the impact of soil temperature and three different boreal forest tree species on the archaeal populations in the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and mycorrhizosphere. Scots pine, silver birch, and Norway spruce seedlings were grown in forest humus microcosms at three different temperatures, 7-11.5°C (night-day temperature), 12-16°C, and 16-22°C, of which 12-16°C represents the typical mid-summer soil temperature in Finnish forests. RNA and DNA were extracted from indigenous ectomycorrhiza, non-mycorrhizal long roots, and boreal forest humus and tested for the presence of archaea by nested PCR of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling and sequencing. Methanogenic Euryarchaeota belonging to Methanolobus sp. and Methanosaeta sp. were detected on the roots and mycorrhiza. The most commonly detected archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to group I.1c Crenarchaeota, which are typically found in boreal and alpine forest soils. Interestingly, also one sequence belonging to group I.1b Crenarchaeota was detected from Scots pine mycorrhiza although sequences of this group are usually found in agricultural and forest soils in temperate areas. Tree- and temperature-related shifts in the archaeal population structure were observed. A clear decrease in crenarchaeotal DGGE band number was seen with increasing temperature, and correspondingly, the number of euryarchaeotal DGGE bands, mostly methanogens, increased. The greatest diversity of archaeal DGGE bands was detected in Scots pine roots and mycorrhizas. No archaea were detected from humus samples from microcosms without tree seedling, indicating that the archaea found in the mycorrhizosphere and root systems were dependent on the plant host. The detection of archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from both RNA and DNA extractions show that the

  3. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial and archaeal methanogenic communities in flooded rice fields and effect of drainage

    PubMed Central

    Breidenbach, Björn; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We studied the resident (16S rDNA) and the active (16S rRNA) members of soil archaeal and bacterial communities during rice plant development by sampling three growth stages (vegetative, reproductive and maturity) under field conditions. Additionally, the microbial community was investigated in two non-flooded fields (unplanted, cultivated with upland maize) in order to monitor the reaction of the microbial communities to non-flooded, dry conditions. The abundance of Bacteria and Archaea was monitored by quantitative PCR showing an increase in 16S rDNA during reproductive stage and stable 16S rRNA copies throughout the growth season. Community profiling by T-RFLP indicated a relatively stable composition during rice plant growth whereas pyrosequencing revealed minor changes in relative abundance of a few bacterial groups. Comparison of the two non-flooded fields with flooded rice fields showed that the community composition of the Bacteria was slightly different, while that of the Archaea was almost the same. Only the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae and Soil Crenarchaeotic Group increased in non-flooded vs. flooded soil. The abundance of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA copies was highest in flooded rice fields, followed by non-flooded maize and unplanted fields. However, the abundance of ribosomal RNA (active microbes) was similar indicating maintenance of a high level of ribosomal RNA under the non-flooded conditions, which were unfavorable for anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. This maintenance possibly serves as preparedness for activity when conditions improve. In summary, the analyses showed that the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting Philippine rice field soil were relatively stable over the season but reacted upon change in field management. PMID:25620960

  4. Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patrícia Dörr; Camargo, Flavio A O; Triplett, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. Nitrite produced by AOA and further oxidized to nitrate can cause nitrogen loss from soils, surface and groundwater contamination, and water eutrophication. The AOA discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA. PMID:22715335

  5. Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patrícia Dörr; Camargo, Flavio A. O.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2012-01-01

    Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. Nitrite produced by AOA and further oxidized to nitrate can cause nitrogen loss from soils, surface and groundwater contamination, and water eutrophication. The AOA discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA. PMID:22715335

  6. Archaeal community in a human-disturbed watershed in southeast China: diversity, distribution, and responses to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anyi; Wang, Hongjie; Li, Jiangwei; Liu, Jing; Chen, Nengwang; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The response of freshwater bacterial community to anthropogenic disturbance has been well documented, yet the studies of freshwater archaeal community are rare, especially in lotic environments. Here, we investigated planktonic and benthic archaeal communities in a human-perturbed watershed (Jiulong River Watershed, JRW) of southeast China by using Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results of taxonomic assignments indicated that SAGMGC-1, Methanobacteriaceae, Methanospirillaceae, and Methanoregulaceae were the four most abundant families in surface waters, accounting for 12.65, 23.21, 18.58 and 10.97 % of planktonic communities, whereas Nitrososphaeraceae and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group occupied more than 49 % of benthic communities. The compositions of archaeal communities and populations in waters and sediments were significantly different from each other. Remarkably, the detection frequencies of families Methanobacteriaceae and Methanospirillaceae, and genera Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera in planktonic communities correlated strongly with bacterial fecal indicator, suggesting some parts of methanogenic Archaea may come from fecal contamination. Because soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to SRP instead of nitrogen nutrients showed significant correlation with several planktonic Nitrosopumilus- and Nitrosotalea-like OTUs, Thaumarchaeota may play an unexplored role in biogeochemical cycling of river phosphorus. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that the variation of α-diversity of planktonic archaeal community was best explained by water temperature, whereas nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry were the significant drivers of β-diversity of planktonic and benthic communities. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the structure of archaeal communities in the JRW is sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances caused by riparian human activities. PMID:26810199

  7. Structure of the rare archaeal biosphere and seasonal dynamics of active ecotypes in surface coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Hugoni, Mylène; Taib, Najwa; Debroas, Didier; Domaizon, Isabelle; Jouan Dufournel, Isabelle; Bronner, Gisèle; Salter, Ian; Agogué, Hélène; Mary, Isabelle; Galand, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    Marine Archaea are important players among microbial plankton and significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, but details regarding their community structure and long-term seasonal activity and dynamics remain largely unexplored. In this study, we monitored the interannual archaeal community composition of abundant and rare biospheres in northwestern Mediterranean Sea surface waters by pyrosequencing 16S rDNA and rRNA. A detailed analysis of the rare biosphere structure showed that the rare archaeal community was composed of three distinct fractions. One contained the rare Archaea that became abundant at different times within the same ecosystem; these cells were typically not dormant, and we hypothesize that they represent a local seed bank that is specific and essential for ecosystem functioning through cycling seasonal environmental conditions. The second fraction contained cells that were uncommon in public databases and not active, consisting of aliens to the studied ecosystem and representing a nonlocal seed bank of potential colonizers. The third fraction contained Archaea that were always rare but actively growing; their affiliation and seasonal dynamics were similar to the abundant microbes and could not be considered a seed bank. We also showed that the major archaeal groups, Thaumarchaeota marine group I and Euryarchaeota group II.B in winter and Euryarchaeota group II.A in summer, contained different ecotypes with varying activities. Our findings suggest that archaeal diversity could be associated with distinct metabolisms or life strategies, and that the rare archaeal biosphere is composed of a complex assortment of organisms with distinct histories that affect their potential for growth. PMID:23536290

  8. Changes in bacterial and archaeal communities in anaerobic digesters treating different organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mo; Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Park, Ki Young

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial communities in anaerobic batch digesters treating different representative organic sources (sewage sludge, food waste, septage). Among the digesters, the anaerobic digester of food waste had the highest methanogen density, producing a peak value methane yield of 813.2mLCH4/gVS. In all the digesters, acetoclastic Methanosarcinales and hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales were the most dominant methanogen groups, but their proportion among the methanogens varied depending on the organic sources. The bacteria community in the anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste and septage was distinctly different from that found in the AD of sewage sludge (primary sludge and waste activated sludge). Shifts in both bacterial and archaeal community structures could be related to differences in chemical properties, production, and accumulation of intermediates digested from organic wastes having different characteristics. These findings could prove useful in optimizing the microbial community to enhance AD process treating organic wastes. PMID:26184789

  9. TBP domain symmetry in basal and activated archaeal transcription.

    PubMed

    Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Hausner, Winfried; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2009-01-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is the platform for assembly of archaeal and eukaryotic transcription preinitiation complexes. Ancestral gene duplication and fusion events have produced the saddle-shaped TBP molecule, with its two direct-repeat subdomains and pseudo-two-fold symmetry. Collectively, eukaryotic TBPs have diverged from their present-day archaeal counterparts, which remain highly symmetrical. The similarity of the N- and C-halves of archaeal TBPs is especially pronounced in the Methanococcales and Thermoplasmatales, including complete conservation of their N- and C-terminal stirrups; along with helix H'1, the C-terminal stirrup of TBP forms the main interface with TFB/TFIIB. Here, we show that, in stark contrast to its eukaryotic counterparts, multiple substitutions in the C-terminal stirrup of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mja) TBP do not completely abrogate basal transcription. Using DNA affinity cleavage, we show that, by assembling TFB through its conserved N-terminal stirrup, Mja TBP is in effect ambidextrous with regard to basal transcription. In contrast, substitutions in either its N- or the C-terminal stirrup abrogate activated transcription in response to the Lrp-family transcriptional activator Ptr2. PMID:19007415

  10. Biogeography of Planktonic and Benthic Archaeal Communities in a Subtropical Eutrophic Estuary of China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anyi; Hou, Liyuan; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that Archaea are widespread and abundant in aquatic and terrestrial habitats and play fundamental roles in global biogeochemical cycles, yet the pattern and its ecological drivers of biogeographic distribution of archaeal community in estuarine ecosystem are still not well understood. Here, we investigated planktonic and benthic archaeal communities in the human-impacted Jiulong River estuary (JRE), southern China by using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing. RT-PCR analysis indicated that Archaea accounted for an average of 0.79 and 5.31 % of prokaryotic biomass in water and sediment samples of the JRE, respectively. The diversity of planktonic archaeal community decreased gradually from the river runoff to seawater, whereas that of benthic community did not show the similar pattern. The results of taxonomic assignments indicated that Thaumarchaeota (Nitrosopumilus and Cenarchaeum), Methanocorpusculum, and Methanospirillum were significantly more abundant in planktonic than benthic communities, whereas the relative abundances of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group, Marine Benthic Group-B/-D, anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea -1/-2D, and South Africa Gold Mine Euryarchaeotic Group 1 were higher in sediments than in surface waters. Moreover, planktonic archaeal community composition varied significantly at broad and finer-scale taxonomic levels along the salinity gradient. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that salinity is the main factor structuring the JRE planktonic but not benthic archaeal community at both total community and population level. SourceTrakcer analysis indicated that river might be a major source of archaea in the freshwater zone of the JRE. Overall, this study advances our understanding of the biogeographic patterns and its ecological drivers of estuarine archaeal communities. PMID:25805214

  11. Activity and Regulation of Archaeal DNA Alkyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Perugino, Giuseppe; Vettone, Antonella; Illiano, Giuseppina; Valenti, Anna; Ferrara, Maria C.; Rossi, Mosè; Ciaramella, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Agents that form methylation adducts in DNA are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic, and organisms have evolved specialized cellular pathways devoted to their repair, including DNA alkyltransferases. These are proteins conserved in eucarya, bacteria and archaea, acting by a unique reaction mechanism, which leads to direct repair of DNA alkylation damage and irreversible protein alkylation. The alkylated form of DNA alkyltransferases is inactive, and in eukaryotes, it is rapidly directed to degradation. We report here in vitro and in vivo studies on the DNA alkyltransferase from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsOGT). The development of a novel, simple, and sensitive fluorescence-based assay allowed a careful characterization of the SsOGT biochemical and DNA binding activities. In addition, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of SsOGT by DNA damage was studied. We show that although the gene transcription is induced by alkylating agent treatment, the protein is degraded in vivo by an alkylation-dependent mechanism. These experiments suggest a striking conservation, from archaea to humans, of this important pathway safeguarding genome stability. PMID:22167184

  12. Duration-Related Variations in Archaeal Communities after a Change from Upland Fields to Paddy Fields.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Wei, Kai; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Rui

    2016-05-28

    Archaea substantially contribute to global geochemical cycling and energy cycling and are impacted by land-use change. However, the response of archaeal communities to a change from upland field to paddy field has been poorly characterized. Here, soil samples were collected at two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) from one upland field and six paddy fields that were established on former upland fields at different times (1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 years before the study). Barcoded pyrosequencing was employed to assess the archaeal communities from the samples at taxonomic resolutions from phylum to genus levels. The total archaeal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness showed a significant positive correlation with the land-use change duration. Two phyla, Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, were recorded throughout the study. Both the relative abundance and OTU richness of Euryarchaeota increased at both depths but increased more steadily at the subsurface rather than at the surface. However, these data of Crenarchaeota were the opposite. Additionally, the archaeal composition exhibited a significant relationship with C/N ratios, total phosphorus, soil pH, Olsen phosphorus, and the land-use change duration at several taxonomic resolutions. Our results emphasize that after a change from upland fields to paddy fields, the archaeal diversity and composition changed, and the duration is an important factor in addition to the soil chemical properties. PMID:26869602

  13. The putative functional ecology and distribution of archaeal communities in sponges, sediment and seawater in a coral reef environment.

    PubMed

    Polónia, Ana R M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Freitas, Rossana; de Voogd, Nicole J; Gomes, Newton C M

    2015-01-01

    Archaea play crucial roles in a number of key ecological processes including nitrification and methanogenesis. Although several studies have been conducted on these organisms, the roles and dynamics of coral reef archaeal communities are still poorly understood, particularly in host and nonhost biotopes and in high (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. Here, archaeal communities detected in six distinct biotopes, namely, sediment, seawater and four different sponge species Stylissa carteri, Stylissa massa, Xestospongia testudinaria and Hyrtios erectus from the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia were investigated using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes (OTU cut-off 97%). Archaeal communities from sediment and sponges were dominated by Crenarchaeota, while the seawater community was dominated by Euryarchaeota. The biotope explained almost 75% of the variation in archaeal composition, with clear separation between microbial assemblages from sediment, X. testudinaria and H. erectus (HMA). In contrast, samples from seawater and both Stylissa species (LMA) showed considerable overlap in the ordination and, furthermore, shared most abundant OTUs with the exception of a single dominant OTU specifically enriched in both Stylissa species. Predicted functional gene content in archaeal assemblages also revealed significant differences among biotopes. Different ammonia assimilation strategies were exhibited by the archaeal communities: X. testudinaria, H. erectus and sediment archaeal communities were enriched for glutamate dehydrogenase with mixed specificity (NAD(P)(+) ) pathways, while archaeal planktonic communities were enriched for specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP(+) ) and glutamate synthase pathways. Archaeal communities in Stylissa had intermediate levels of enrichment. Our results indicate that archaeal communities in different biotopes have distinct ecophysiological roles. PMID:25438824

  14. Archaeal and bacterial community dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria Jesus; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Osorio, Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2016-07-01

    Two-stage technologies have been developed for anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. In this study, the archaeal and bacterial community structure dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester treating urban sewage sludge have been studied by the means of high-throughput sequencing techniques and physicochemical parameters such as pH, dried sludge, volatile dried sludge, acid concentration, alkalinity, and biogas generation. The coupled analyses of archaeal and bacterial communities and physicochemical parameters showed a direct relationship between archaeal and bacterial populations and bioprocess performance during start-up and working operation of a two-stage anaerobic digester. Moreover, results demonstrated that archaeal and bacterial community structure was affected by changes in the acid/alkalinity ratio in the bioprocess. Thus, a predominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at high-value acid/alkaline ratio, while a predominance of Methanomassilicoccaeceae archaea and Methanoculleus genus was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at low-value acid/alkaline ratio. Biodiversity tag-iTag sequencing studies showed that methanogenic archaea can be also detected in the acidogenic bioreactor, although its biological activity was decreased after 4 months of operation as supported by physicochemical analyses. Also, studies of the VFA producers and VFA consumers microbial populations showed as these microbiota were directly affected by the physicochemical parameters generated in the bioreactors. We suggest that the results obtained in our study could be useful for future implementations of two-stage anaerobic digestion processes at both bench- and full-scale. PMID:26940050

  15. Characterization of Archaeal Community in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Surface Stream Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Porat, Iris; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Mosher, Jennifer J; Brandt, Craig C; Yang, Zamin; Brooks, Scott C; Liang, Liyuan; Drake, Meghan M; Podar, Mircea; Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony Vito

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Archaeal communities from mercury and uranium-contaminated freshwater stream sediments were characterized and compared to archaeal communities present in an uncontaminated stream located in the vicinity of Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The distribution of the Archaea was determined by pyrosequencing analysis of the V4 region of 16S rRNA amplified from 12 streambed surface sediments. Crenarchaeota comprised 76% of the 1,670 archaeal sequences and the remaining 24% were from Euryarchaeota. Phylogenetic analysis further classified the Crenarchaeota as a Freshwater Group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota group, Group I3, Rice Cluster VI and IV, Marine Group I and Marine Benthic Group B; and the Euryarchaeota into Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Rice Cluster III, Marine Benthic Group D, Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeota 1 and Eury 5. All groups were previously described. Both hydrogen- and acetate-dependent methanogens were found in all samples. Most of the groups (with 60% of the sequences) described in this study were not similar to any cultivated isolates, making it difficult to discern their function in the freshwater microbial community. A significant decrease in the number of sequences, as well as in the diversity of archaeal communities was found in the contaminated sites. The Marine Group I, including the ammonia oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus, was the dominant group in both mercury and uranium/nitrate-contaminated sites. The uranium-contaminated site also contained a high concentration of nitrate, thus Marine Group I may play a role in nitrogen cycle.

  16. Seasonal Effects in a Lake Sediment Archaeal Community of the Brazilian Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Thiago; Catão, Elisa; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Quirino, Betania F.; Kruger, Ricardo H.; Kyaw, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome that corresponds to 24% of Brazil's territory. Only recently microbial communities of this biome have been investigated. Here we describe for the first time the diversity of archaeal communities from freshwater lake sediments of the Cerrado in the dry season and in the transition period between the dry and rainy seasons, when the first rains occur. Gene libraries were constructed, using Archaea-specific primers for the 16S rRNA and amoA genes. Analysis revealed marked differences between the archaeal communities found in the two seasons. I.1a and I.1c Thaumarchaeota were found in greater numbers in the transition period, while MCG Archaea was dominant on the dry season. Methanogens were only found in the dry season. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed lower diversity on the transition period. We detected archaeal amoA sequences in both seasons, but there were more OTUs during the dry season. These sequences were within the same cluster as Nitrosotalea devanaterra's amoA gene. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) test revealed significant differences between samples from different seasons. These results provide information on archaeal diversity in freshwater lake sediments of the Cerrado and indicates that rain is likely a factor that impacts these communities. PMID:25147480

  17. Archaeal ammonia oxidizers respond to soil factors at smaller spatial scales than the overall archaeal community does in a high Arctic polar oasis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samiran; Kennedy, Nabla; Richardson, Alan E; Egger, Keith N; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-06-01

    Archaea are ubiquitous and highly abundant in Arctic soils. Because of their oligotrophic nature, archaea play an important role in biogeochemical processes in nutrient-limited Arctic soils. With the existing knowledge of high archaeal abundance and functional potential in Arctic soils, this study employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) profiling and geostatistical analysis to explore spatial dependency and edaphic determinants of the overall archaeal (ARC) and ammonia-oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities in a high Arctic polar oasis soil. ARC communities were spatially dependent at the 2-5 m scale (P < 0.05), whereas AOA communities were dependent at the ∼1 m scale (P < 0.0001). Soil moisture, pH, and total carbon content were key edaphic factors driving both the ARC and AOA community structure. However, AOA evenness had simultaneous correlations with dissolved organic nitrogen and mineral nitrogen, indicating a possible niche differentiation for AOA in which dry mineral and wet organic soil microsites support different AOA genotypes. Richness, evenness, and diversity indices of both ARC and AOA communities showed high spatial dependency along the landscape and resembled scaling of edaphic factors. The spatial link between archaeal community structure and soil resources found in this study has implications for predictive understanding of archaea-driven processes in polar oases. PMID:27045904

  18. Changes in northern Gulf of Mexico sediment bacterial and archaeal communities exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Devereux, R; Mosher, J J; Vishnivetskaya, T A; Brown, S D; Beddick, D L; Yates, D F; Palumbo, A V

    2015-09-01

    Biogeochemical changes in marine sediments during coastal water hypoxia are well described, but less is known about underlying changes in microbial communities. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) hypoxic zone sediments were characterized by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA V4-region gene fragments obtained by PCR amplification of community genomic DNA with bacterial- or archaeal-specific primers. Duplicate LCS sediment cores collected during hypoxia had higher concentrations of Fe(II), and dissolved inorganic carbon, phosphate, and ammonium than cores collected when overlying water oxygen concentrations were normal. Pyrosequencing yielded 158,686 bacterial and 225,591 archaeal sequences from 20 sediment samples, representing five 2-cm depth intervals in the duplicate cores. Bacterial communities grouped by sampling date and sediment depth in a neighbor-joining analysis using Chao-Jaccard shared species values. Redundancy analysis indicated that variance in bacterial communities was mainly associated with differences in sediment chemistry between oxic and hypoxic water column conditions. Gammaproteobacteria (26.5%) were most prominent among bacterial sequences, followed by Firmicutes (9.6%), and Alphaproteobacteria (5.6%). Crenarchaeotal, thaumarchaeotal, and euryarchaeotal lineages accounted for 57%, 27%, and 16% of archaeal sequences, respectively. In Thaumarchaeota Marine Group I, sequences were 96-99% identical to the Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 sequence, were highest in surficial sediments, and accounted for 31% of archaeal sequences when waters were normoxic vs. 13% of archaeal sequences when waters were hypoxic. Redundancy analysis showed Nitrosopumilus-related sequence abundance was correlated with high solid-phase Fe(III) concentrations, whereas most of the remaining archaeal clusters were not. In contrast, crenarchaeotal sequences were from phylogenetically diverse lineages, differed little in relative abundance between

  19. Temporal changes in soil bacterial and archaeal communities with different fertilizers in tea orchards* #

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Yang, Shao-hui; Yang, Jing-ping; Lv, Ya-min; Zhao, Xing; Pang, Ji-liang

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effects of temporal changes in microbial communities in the acidic soils of tea orchards with different fertilizers. A field experiment involving organic fertilizer (OF), chemical fertilizer (CF), and unfertilized control (CK) treatments was arranged to analyze the temporal changes in the bacterial and archaeal communities at bimonthly intervals based on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling. The abundances of total bacteria, total archaea, and selected functional genes (bacterial and archaeal amoA, bacterial narG, nirK, nirS, and nosZ) were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicate that the structures of bacterial and archaeal communities varied significantly with time and fertilization based on changes in the relative abundance of dominant T-RFs. The abundancy of the detected genes changed with time. The total bacteria, total archaea, and archaeal amoA were less abundant in July. The bacterial amoA and denitrifying genes were less abundant in September, except the nirK gene. The OF treatment increased the abundance of the observed genes, while the CF treatment had little influence on them. The soil temperature significantly affected the bacterial and archaeal community structures. The soil moisture was significantly correlated with the abundance of denitrifying genes. Of the soil chemical properties, soil organic carbon was the most important factor and was significantly correlated with the abundance of the detected genes, except the nirK gene. Overall, this study demonstrated the effects of both temporal alteration and organic fertilizer on the structures of microbial communities and the abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle. PMID:25367788

  20. Archaeal promoter architecture and mechanism of gene activation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2011-01-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus islandicus contain several genes exhibiting D-arabinose-inducible expression and these systems are ideal for studying mechanisms of archaeal gene expression. At sequence level, only two highly conserved cis elements are present on the promoters: a regulatory element named ara box directing arabinose-inducible expression and the basal promoter element TATA, serving as the binding site for the TATA-binding protein. Strikingly, these promoters possess a modular structure that allows an essentially inactive basal promoter to be strongly activated. The invoked mechanisms include TFB (transcription factor B) recruitment by the ara-box-binding factor to activate gene expression and modulation of TFB recruitment efficiency to yield differential gene expression. PMID:21265754

  1. Controls on bacterial and archaeal community structure and greenhouse gas production in natural, mined, and restored Canadian peatlands

    PubMed Central

    Basiliko, Nathan; Henry, Kevin; Gupta, Varun; Moore, Tim R.; Driscoll, Brian T.; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Northern peatlands are important global C reservoirs, largely because of their slow rates of microbial C mineralization. Particularly in sites that are heavily influenced by anthropogenic disturbances, there is scant information about microbial ecology and whether or not microbial community structure influences greenhouse gas production. This work characterized communities of bacteria and archaea using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and functional genes across eight natural, mined, or restored peatlands in two locations in eastern Canada. Correlations were explored among chemical properties of peat, bacterial and archaeal community structure, and carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production rates under oxic and anoxic conditions. Bacteria and archaea similar to those found in other peat soil environments were detected. In contrast to other reports, methanogen diversity was low in our study, with only 2 groups of known or suspected methanogens. Although mining and restoration affected substrate availability and microbial activity, these land-uses did not consistently affect bacterial or archaeal community composition. In fact, larger differences were observed between the two locations and between oxic and anoxic peat samples than between natural, mined, and restored sites, with anoxic samples characterized by less detectable bacterial diversity and stronger dominance by members of the phylum Acidobacteria. There were also no apparent strong linkages between prokaryote community structure and CH4 or CO2 production, suggesting that different organisms exhibit functional redundancy and/or that the same taxa function at very different rates when exposed to different peat substrates. In contrast to other earlier work focusing on fungal communities across similar mined and restored peatlands, bacterial and archaeal communities appeared to be more resistant or resilient to peat substrate changes brought

  2. Influence of temperature and soil water content on bacterial, archaeal and denitrifying microbial communities in drained fen grassland soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Stres, Blaz; Danevcic, Tjasa; Pal, Levin; Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Resman, Lara; Leskovec, Simona; Hacin, Janez; Stopar, David; Mahne, Ivan; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2008-10-01

    In this study, microcosms were used to investigate the influence of temperature (4 and 28 degrees C) and water content (45% and 90% WHC) on microbial communities and activities in carbon-rich fen soil. Bacterial, archaeal and denitrifier community composition was assessed during incubation of microcosms for 12 weeks using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNA and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes. In addition, microbial and denitrifier abundance, potential denitrification activity and production of greenhouse gases were measured. No detectable changes were observed in prokaryote or denitrifier abundance. In general, cumulatively after 12 weeks more carbon was respired at the higher temperature (3.7 mg CO(2) g(-1) soil), irrespective of the water content, whereas nitrous oxide production was greater under wet conditions (98-336 microg N(2)O g(-1) soil). After an initial lag phase, methane emissions (963 microg CH(4) g(-1) soil) were observed only under warm and wet conditions. T-RFLP analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA and nosZ genes revealed small or undetectable community changes in response to temperature and water content, suggesting that bacterial and denitrifying microbial communities are stable and do not respond significantly to seasonal changes in soil conditions. In contrast, archaeal microbial community structure was more dynamic and was strongly influenced by temperature. PMID:18710395

  3. Effect of wastewater disposal on the bacterial and archaeal community of sea sediment in an industrial area in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Liu, Rui; Wen, Donghui

    2014-05-01

    Human activities usually leave footprints in the environment. By using 454 pyrosequencing, the impact of effluent from an industrial park on the coastal microecology in Hangzhou Bay, China, was interpreted by analysing the microbial communities of the activated sludge from three wastewater treatment plants and the sediment from the effluent receiving area. Based on richness and biodiversity, the sediments were more diversified than the activated sludge, although the seawater environment was highly contaminated. Both bacterial and archaeal communities were niche-determined. The bacterial phylum Proteobacteria dominated in all samples; and certain pollutant-resistant genera, such as Thauera and Truepera, were found in all samples. Archaeal phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota dominated the activated sludge and sediment samples, respectively. According to the analysis of shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and reads among different samples, more bacterial OTUs and reads were shared between two samples from sites with a direct effluent connection, showing a clear correlation between the wastewater treatment plants and the effluent receiving bay area. The impact of second-hand pollution can be evaluated by comparing the bacterial community in different eco-environments with a direct effluent connection, especially when pristine samples are not available. PMID:24697989

  4. Assessment of bacterial and archaeal community structure in Swine wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Cantão, Mauricio Egídio; Mezzari, Melissa Paola; Ma, Jie; Nossa, Carlos Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Microbial communities from two field-scale swine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were assessed by pyrosequencing analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments. Effluent samples from secondary (anaerobic covered lagoons and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB]) and tertiary treatment systems (open-pond natural attenuation lagoon and air-sparged nitrification-denitrification tank followed by alkaline phosphorus precipitation process) were analyzed. A total of 56,807 and 48,859 high-quality reads were obtained from bacterial and archaeal libraries, respectively. Dominant bacterial communities were associated with the phylum Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, or Actinobacteria. Bacteria and archaea diversity were highest in UASB effluent sample. Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and/or Prevotella were used as indicators of putative pathogen reduction throughout the WWTPs. Satisfactory pathogen reduction was observed after the open-pond natural attenuation lagoon but not after the air-sparged nitrification/denitrification followed by alkaline phosphorus precipitation treatment processes. Among the archaeal communities, 80% of the reads was related to hydrogeno-trophic methanogens Methanospirillum. Enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens detected in effluent samples from the anaerobic covered lagoons and UASB suggested that CO2 reduction with H2 was the dominant methanogenic pathway in these systems. Overall, the results served to improve our current understanding of major microbial communities' changes downgradient from the pen and throughout swine WWTP as a result of different treatment processes. PMID:25432577

  5. Bacterial and archaeal communities in sediments of the north Chinese marginal seas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiwen; Liu, Xiaoshou; Wang, Min; Qiao, Yanlu; Zheng, Yanfen; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Microbial communities of the Chinese marginal seas have rarely been reported. Here, bacterial and archaeal community structures and abundance in the surface sediment of four sea areas including the Bohai Sea (BS), North Yellow Sea (NYS), South Yellow Sea (SYS), and the north East China Sea (NECS) were surveyed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. The results showed that microbial communities of the four geographic areas were distinct from each other at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, whereas the microbial communities of the BS, NYS, and SYS were more similar to each other than to the NECS at higher taxonomic levels. Across all samples, Bacteria were numerically dominant relative to Archaea, and among them, Gammaproteobacteria and Euryarchaeota were predominant in the BS, NYS, and SYS, while Deltaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota were prevalent in the NECS. The most abundant bacterial genera were putative sulfur oxidizer and sulfate reducer, suggesting that sulfur cycle processes might prevail in these areas, and the high abundance of dsrB (10(7)-10(8) copies g(-1)) in all sites verified the dominance of sulfate reducer in the north Chinese marginal seas. The differences in sediment sources among the sampling areas were potential explanations for the observed microbial community variations. Furthermore, temperature and dissolved oxygen of bottom water were significant environmental factors in determining both bacterial and archaeal communities, whereas chlorophyll a in sediment was significant only in structuring archaeal community. This study presented an outline of benthic microbial communities and provided insights into understanding the biogeochemical cycles in sediments of the north Chinese marginal seas. PMID:25501892

  6. Spatial patterns of bacterial and archaeal communities along the Romanche Fracture Zone (tropical Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Lekunberri, Itziar; Sintes, Eva; de Corte, Daniele; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2013-09-01

    The composition of prokaryotic communities was determined in the meso- and bathypelagic waters funneled through the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ, 2°7'S, 31°79'W to 0°6'N, 14°33'W) in the tropical Atlantic. Distinct water masses were identified based on their physical and chemical characteristics. The bacterial and archaeal communities were depth-stratified with a total of 116 and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively, distributed among the distinct water masses as revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and cloning and sequencing. The relative abundance of Thaumarchaeota, determined by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization, was significantly higher in deeper layers (Antarctic Bottom Water, AABW, > 4000 m depth), contributing up to 31% to the total prokaryotic community, than in the mesopelagic and lower euphotic layer. Although the contribution of SAR11 to bacterial abundance did not increase with depth, SAR202, SAR324, SAR406 and Alteromonas did increase with depth. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed successional changes in the bacterial and archaeal community composition of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) with a passage time through the RFZ of c. 4 months but not in the under- and overlying water masses. Our results indicate that specific water masses harbor distinct bacterial and archaeal communities and that the prokaryotic community of the NADW undergoes successional changes in this conduit between the western and eastern Atlantic basin. Apparently, in the absence of major input of organic matter to specific deep-water masses, the indigenous prokaryotic community adapts to subtle physical and biogeochemical changes in the water mass within a time frame of weeks, similar to the reported seasonal changes in surface water prokaryotic communities. PMID:23621156

  7. Quantifying archaeal community autotrophy in the mesopelagic ocean using natural radiocarbon

    PubMed Central

    Ingalls, Anitra E.; Shah, Sunita R.; Hansman, Roberta L.; Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Santos, Guaciara M.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Pearson, Ann

    2006-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing, carbon-fixing archaeon, Candidatus “Nitrosopumilus maritimus,” recently was isolated from a salt-water aquarium, definitively confirming that chemoautotrophy exists among the marine archaea. However, in other incubation studies, pelagic archaea also were capable of using organic carbon. It has remained unknown what fraction of the total marine archaeal community is autotrophic in situ. If archaea live primarily as autotrophs in the natural environment, a large ammonia-oxidizing population would play a significant role in marine nitrification. Here we use the natural distribution of radiocarbon in archaeal membrane lipids to quantify the bulk carbon metabolism of archaea at two depths in the subtropical North Pacific gyre. Our compound-specific radiocarbon data show that the archaea in surface waters incorporate modern carbon into their membrane lipids, and archaea at 670 m incorporate carbon that is slightly more isotopically enriched than inorganic carbon at the same depth. An isotopic mass balance model shows that the dominant metabolism at depth indeed is autotrophy (83%), whereas heterotrophic consumption of modern organic carbon accounts for the remainder of archaeal biomass. These results reflect the in situ production of the total community that produces tetraether lipids and are not subject to biases associated with incubation and/or culture experiments. The data suggest either that the marine archaeal community includes both autotrophs and heterotrophs or is a single population with a uniformly mixotrophic metabolism. The metabolic and phylogenetic diversity of the marine archaea warrants further exploration; these organisms may play a major role in the marine cycles of nitrogen and carbon. PMID:16614070

  8. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production. PMID:24837280

  9. Archaeal and anaerobic methane oxidizer communities in the Sonora Margin cold seeps, Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California)

    PubMed Central

    Vigneron, Adrien; Cruaud, Perrine; Pignet, Patricia; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Godfroy, Anne; Toffin, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Cold seeps, located along the Sonora Margin transform fault in the Guaymas Basin, were extensively explored during the ‘BIG' cruise in June 2010. They present a seafloor mosaic pattern consisting of different faunal assemblages and microbial mats. To investigate this mostly unknown cold and hydrocarbon-rich environment, geochemical and microbiological surveys of the sediments underlying two microbial mats and a surrounding macrofaunal habitat were analyzed in detail. The geochemical measurements suggest biogenic methane production and local advective sulfate-rich fluxes in the sediments. The distributions of archaeal communities, particularly those involved in the methane cycle, were investigated at different depths (surface to 18 cm below the sea floor (cmbsf)) using complementary molecular approaches, such as Automated method of Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), 16S rRNA libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction with new specific primer sets targeting methanogenic and anaerobic methanotrophic lineages. Molecular results indicate that metabolically active archaeal communities were dominated by known clades of anaerobic methane oxidizers (archaeal anaerobic methanotroph (ANME)-1, -2 and -3), including a novel ‘ANME-2c Sonora' lineage. ANME-2c were found to be dominant, metabolically active and physically associated with syntrophic Bacteria in sulfate-rich shallow sediment layers. In contrast, ANME-1 were more prevalent in the deepest sediment samples and presented a versatile behavior in terms of syntrophic association, depending on the sulfate concentration. ANME-3 were concentrated in small aggregates without bacterial partners in a restricted sediment horizon below the first centimetres. These niche specificities and syntrophic behaviors, depending on biological surface assemblages and environmental availability of electron donors, acceptors and carbon substrates, suggest that ANME could support

  10. The influence of different land uses on the structure of archaeal communities in Amazonian anthrosols based on 16S rRNA and amoA genes.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2010-05-01

    Soil from the Amazonian region is usually regarded as unsuitable for agriculture because of its low organic matter content and low pH; however, this region also contains extremely rich soil, the Terra Preta Anthrosol. A diverse archaeal community usually inhabits acidic soils, such as those found in the Amazon. Therefore, we hypothesized that this community should be sensitive to changes in the environment. Here, the archaeal community composition of Terra Preta and adjacent soil was examined in four different sites in the Brazilian Amazon under different anthropic activities. The canonical correspondence analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms has shown that the archaeal community structure was mostly influenced by soil attributes that differentiate the Terra Preta from the adjacent soil (i.e., pH, sulfur, and organic matter). Archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that the two most abundant genera in both soils were Candidatus nitrosphaera and Canditatus nitrosocaldus. An ammonia monoxygenase gene (amoA) clone library analysis indicated that, within each site, there was no significant difference between the clone libraries of Terra Preta and adjacent soils. However, these clone libraries indicated there were significant differences between sites. Quantitative PCR has shown that Terra Preta soils subjected to agriculture displayed a higher number of amoA gene copy numbers than in adjacent soils. On the other hand, soils that were not subjected to agriculture did not display significant differences on amoA gene copy numbers between Terra Preta and adjacent soils. Taken together, our findings indicate that the overall archaeal community structure in these Amazonian soils is determined by the soil type and the current land use. PMID:20204349

  11. Response of Archaeal and Bacterial Soil Communities to Changes Associated with Outdoor Cattle Overwintering

    PubMed Central

    Chroňáková, Alica; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Radl, Viviane; Endesfelder, David; Quince, Christopher; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Schloter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and bacteria are important drivers for nutrient transformations in soils and catalyse the production and consumption of important greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigate changes in archaeal and bacterial communities of four Czech grassland soils affected by outdoor cattle husbandry. Two show short-term (3 years; STI) and long-term impact (17 years; LTI), one is regenerating from cattle impact (REG) and a control is unaffected by cattle (CON). Cattle manure (CMN), the source of allochthonous microbes, was collected from the same area. We used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to assess the composition of archaeal and bacterial communities in each soil type and CMN. Both short- and long- term cattle impact negatively altered archaeal and bacterial diversity, leading to increase of homogenization of microbial communities in overwintering soils over time. Moreover, strong shifts in the prokaryotic communities were observed in response to cattle overwintering, with the greatest impact on archaea. Oligotrophic and acidophilic microorganisms (e.g. Thaumarchaeota, Acidobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria) dominated in CON and expressed strong negative response to increased pH, total C and N. Whereas copiotrophic and alkalophilic microbes (e.g. methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) were common in LTI showing opposite trends. Crenarchaeota were also found in LTI, though their trophic interactions remain cryptic. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae indicated the introduction and establishment of faecal microbes into the impacted soils, while Chloroflexi and Methanosarcinaceae suggested increased abundance of soil-borne microbes under altered environmental conditions. The observed changes in prokaryotic community composition may have driven corresponding changes in soil functioning. PMID:26274496

  12. Response of Archaeal and Bacterial Soil Communities to Changes Associated with Outdoor Cattle Overwintering.

    PubMed

    Chroňáková, Alica; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Radl, Viviane; Endesfelder, David; Quince, Christopher; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Schloter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and bacteria are important drivers for nutrient transformations in soils and catalyse the production and consumption of important greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigate changes in archaeal and bacterial communities of four Czech grassland soils affected by outdoor cattle husbandry. Two show short-term (3 years; STI) and long-term impact (17 years; LTI), one is regenerating from cattle impact (REG) and a control is unaffected by cattle (CON). Cattle manure (CMN), the source of allochthonous microbes, was collected from the same area. We used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to assess the composition of archaeal and bacterial communities in each soil type and CMN. Both short- and long- term cattle impact negatively altered archaeal and bacterial diversity, leading to increase of homogenization of microbial communities in overwintering soils over time. Moreover, strong shifts in the prokaryotic communities were observed in response to cattle overwintering, with the greatest impact on archaea. Oligotrophic and acidophilic microorganisms (e.g. Thaumarchaeota, Acidobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria) dominated in CON and expressed strong negative response to increased pH, total C and N. Whereas copiotrophic and alkalophilic microbes (e.g. methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) were common in LTI showing opposite trends. Crenarchaeota were also found in LTI, though their trophic interactions remain cryptic. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae indicated the introduction and establishment of faecal microbes into the impacted soils, while Chloroflexi and Methanosarcinaceae suggested increased abundance of soil-borne microbes under altered environmental conditions. The observed changes in prokaryotic community composition may have driven corresponding changes in soil functioning. PMID:26274496

  13. PCR Biases Distort Bacterial and Archaeal Community Structure in Pyrosequencing Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ameet J.; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2012-01-01

    As 16S rRNA gene targeted massively parallel sequencing has become a common tool for microbial diversity investigations, numerous advances have been made to minimize the influence of sequencing and chimeric PCR artifacts through rigorous quality control measures. However, there has been little effort towards understanding the effect of multi-template PCR biases on microbial community structure. In this study, we used three bacterial and three archaeal mock communities consisting of, respectively, 33 bacterial and 24 archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences combined in different proportions to compare the influences of (1) sequencing depth, (2) sequencing artifacts (sequencing errors and chimeric PCR artifacts), and (3) biases in multi-template PCR, towards the interpretation of community structure in pyrosequencing datasets. We also assessed the influence of each of these three variables on α- and β-diversity metrics that rely on the number of OTUs alone (richness) and those that include both membership and the relative abundance of detected OTUs (diversity). As part of this study, we redesigned bacterial and archaeal primer sets that target the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, along with multiplexing barcodes, to permit simultaneous sequencing of PCR products from the two domains. We conclude that the benefits of deeper sequencing efforts extend beyond greater OTU detection and result in higher precision in β-diversity analyses by reducing the variability between replicate libraries, despite the presence of more sequencing artifacts. Additionally, spurious OTUs resulting from sequencing errors have a significant impact on richness or shared-richness based α- and β-diversity metrics, whereas metrics that utilize community structure (including both richness and relative abundance of OTUs) are minimally affected by spurious OTUs. However, the greatest obstacle towards accurately evaluating community structure are the errors in estimated mean relative abundance of

  14. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm

    PubMed Central

    Tupinambá, Daiva Domenech; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Costa, Ohana Yonara Assis; Bergmann, Jessica Carvalho; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7%) were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers) were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest) and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area). More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied. PMID:27006640

  15. Annual periodicity in planktonic bacterial and archaeal community composition of eutrophic Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Junyi; Liu, Liyang; Fan, Yucai; Li, Lianshuo; Yang, Yunfeng; Lu, Zuhong; Zhang, Xuegong

    2015-01-01

    Bacterioplankton plays a key role in nutrient cycling and is closely related to water eutrophication and algal bloom. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile archaeal and bacterial community compositions in the surface water of Lake Taihu. It is one of the largest lakes in China and has suffered from recurring cyanobacterial bloom. A total of 81 water samples were collected from 9 different sites in 9 different months of 2012. We found that temporal variation of the microbial community was significantly greater than spatial variation (adonis, n = 9999, P < 1e−4). The composition of bacterial community in December was similar to that in January, and so was the archaeal community, suggesting potential annual periodicity. Unsupervised K-means clustering was used to identify the synchrony of abundance variations between different taxa. We found that the cluster consisting mostly of ACK-M1, C111 (members of acIV), Pelagibacteraceae (alfV-A) and Synechococcaceae showed relatively higher abundance in autumn. On the contrary, the cluster of Comamonadaceae and Methylophilaceae (members of lineage betI and betIV) had higher abundance in spring. The co-occurrence relationships between taxa were greatly altered during the cyanobacterial bloom according to our further network module analysis. PMID:26503553

  16. Archaeal community composition affects the function of anaerobic co-digesters in response to organic overload

    SciTech Connect

    Lerm, S.; Kleyboecker, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Alawi, M.; Kasina, M.; Liebrich, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of methanogens are necessary to respond successfully to perturbation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diversity of methanogens correlates with the VFA concentration and methane yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregates indicate tight spatial relationship between minerals and microorganisms. - Abstract: Microbial community diversity in two thermophilic laboratory-scale and three full-scale anaerobic co-digesters was analysed by genetic profiling based on PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. In parallel operated laboratory reactors a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) resulted in a decrease of methane production and an accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, almost threefold different OLRs were necessary to inhibit the gas production in the reactors. During stable reactor performance, no significant differences in the bacterial community structures were detected, except for in the archaeal communities. Sequencing of archaeal PCR products revealed a dominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila, while hydrogenotrophic methanogens were of minor importance and differed additionally in their abundance between reactors. As a consequence of the perturbation, changes in bacterial and archaeal populations were observed. After organic overload, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum hungatei and Methanoculleus receptaculi) became more dominant, especially in the reactor attributed by a higher OLR capacity. In addition, aggregates composed of mineral and organic layers formed during organic overload and indicated tight spatial relationships between minerals and microbial processes that may support de-acidification processes in over-acidified sludge. Comparative analyses of mesophilic stationary phase full-scale reactors additionally indicated a correlation between the diversity of methanogens and the VFA concentration combined with the methane yield. This study

  17. Bacterial and Archaeal Community Dynamics at CO2-RICH Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Vents (panarea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubotz, F.; Huang, C.; Meyerdierks, A.; Amend, J.; Price, R. E.; Amann, R.; Hinrichs, K.; Summons, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Shallow marine hydrothermal vents are highly dynamic systems with unique habitats that can support both chemosynthetic and photosynthetic communities at steep temperature and geochemical gradients. Here, we present a combined organic geochemical and microbiological approach to describe the microbial community composition and their metabolism at the CO2-rich shallow hydrothermal vents off Panarea Island, in Sicily. We investigated two contrasting hydrothermal environments: Hot Lake, a depression filled with hydrothermal fluids diffusing gradually out of the seafloor, with temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C, and Blackpoint, a site with vigorous venting of hydrothermal gasses and fluids with temperatures as high as 135°C. At Hot Lake, Bacteria dominate the microbial community composition in the sediments. 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed Bacteriodetes-, Epsilonproteobacteria- and Deltaproteobacteria-related sequences as the most abundant members. Bacterial intact polar membrane lipids (IPLs) were dominated by the non-phosphorous containing ornithine lipids throughout all depths, indicating an important role of this aminolipid at elevated temperatures and/or low pH. At Hot Lake, archaeal IPLs were comprised mainly of glycosidic tetraethers and increased up to 20% of total IPLs with increasing temperature and depth. At the same site, archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries were mainly comprised of Euryarchaea-affiliated sequences; crenarchaeotal sequences were only found in deeper sediment layers with temperatures of ca. 70°C. In contrast to Hot Lake, Archaea dominated sediments at the much hotter site at Blackpoint. Here, novel methylated H-shaped archaeal tetraethers, with multiple sugars as head groups, were the most abundant membrane lipids. Reports on these lipids in cultures are very limited, but their abundant occurrence at elevated temperatures suggests an important role in membrane homeostastis in thermophilic Archaea. Stable carbon isotope values of -35‰ to

  18. Spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities in household biogas digesters from tropical and subtropical regions of Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guangliang; Li, Qiumin; Dong, Minghua; Wu, Yan; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yingjuan; Yin, Fang; Zhao, Xingling; Wang, Yongxia; Xiao, Wei; Cui, Xiaolong; Zhang, Wudi

    2016-06-01

    A combination of 16S rRNA gene PCR-based techniques and the determination of abiotic factors were used to study community composition, richness, and evenness and the correlation between biotic and abiotic factors in 19 household biogas digesters in tropical and subtropical regions of Yunnan Province, China. The results revealed that both bacterial and archaeal community composition differed between regions and archaeal community composition was more affected by season than bacterial; regardless of sampling location, the dominant bacterial phyla included Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, and the most dominant archaeal phylum was Euryarchaeota; in digesters from both regions, Chloroflexi as the first or second most dominant bacteria accounted for 21.50-26.10 % of bacterial library sequences, and the phylum Crenarchaeota as the second most dominant archaea accounted for 17.65-19.77 % of archaeal library sequences; the species Methanosaeta concilii as the most dominant archaeal species accounted for 67.80-72.80 % of the sequences. This study found that most of the abundant microbial communities in 19 biogas digesters are similar, and this result will provide enlightenment for finding the universal nature in rural biogas digesters at tropical and subtropical regions in China. PMID:26916266

  19. Impact of different bioenergy crops on N-cycling bacterial and archaeal communities in soil.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuejian; Yannarell, Anthony C; Davis, Sarah C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2013-03-01

    Biomass production for bioenergy may change soil microbes and influence ecosystem properties. To explore the impact of different bioenergy cropping systems on soil microorganisms, the compositions and quantities of soil microbial communities (16S rRNA gene) and N-cycling functional groups (nifH, bacterial amoA, archaeal amoA and nosZ genes) were assessed under maize, switchgrass and Miscanthus x giganteus at seven sites representing a climate gradient (precipitation and temperature) in Illinois, USA. Overall, the site-to-site variation in community composition surpassed the variation due to plant type, and microbial communities under each crop did not converge on a 'typical' species assemblage. Fewer than 5% of archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nifH and nosZ OTUs were significantly different among these crops, but the largest differences observed at each site were found between maize and the two perennial grasses. Quantitative PCR revealed that the abundance of the nifH gene was significantly higher in the perennial grasses than in maize, and we also found significantly higher total N in the perennial grass soils than in maize. Thus, we conclude that cultivation of these perennial grasses, instead of maize, as bioenergy feedstocks can improve soil ecosystem nitrogen sustainability by increasing the population size of N-fixing bacteria. PMID:22891790

  20. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs. PMID:26838035

  1. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs.

  2. Response of Archaeal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Maize and Soybean to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David M.; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Archaea are important to the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but it remains uncertain how rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) will influence the structure and function of soil archaeal communities. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured abundances of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA and amoA genes, phylogenies of archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes, concentrations of KCl-extractable soil ammonium and nitrite, and potential ammonia oxidation rates in rhizosphere soil samples from maize and soybean exposed to ambient (∼385 ppm) and elevated (550 ppm) [CO2] in a replicated and field-based study. There was no influence of elevated [CO2] on copy numbers of archaeal or bacterial 16S rRNA or amoA genes, archaeal community composition, KCl-extractable soil ammonium or nitrite, or potential ammonia oxidation rates for samples from maize, a model C4 plant. Phylogenetic evidence indicated decreased relative abundance of crenarchaeal sequences in the rhizosphere of soybean, a model leguminous-C3 plant, at elevated [CO2], whereas quantitative PCR data indicated no changes in the absolute abundance of archaea. There were no changes in potential ammonia oxidation rates at elevated [CO2] for soybean. Ammonia oxidation rates were lower in the rhizosphere of maize than soybean, likely because of lower soil pH and/or abundance of archaea. KCl-extractable ammonium and nitrite concentrations were lower at elevated than ambient [CO2] for soybean. Conclusion Plant-driven shifts in soil biogeochemical processes in response to elevated [CO2] affected archaeal community composition, but not copy numbers of archaeal genes, in the rhizosphere of soybean. The lack of a treatment effect for maize is consistent with the fact that the photosynthesis and productivity of maize are not stimulated by elevated [CO2] in the absence of drought. PMID:21209969

  3. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs.

    PubMed

    Frade, Pedro R; Roll, Katharina; Bergauer, Kristin; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the diversity and community structure of dominant archaeal and bacterial communities associating with the mucus of three common reef-building coral species (Porites astreoides, Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella annularis) over different spatial scales on a Caribbean fringing reef. Sampling locations included three reef sites, three reef patches within each site and two depths. Reference sediment samples and ambient water were also taken for each of the 18 sampling locations resulting in a total of 239 samples. While only 41% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) characterized by T-RFLP were shared between mucus and the ambient water or sediment, for archaeal OTUs this percentage was 2-fold higher (78%). About half of the mucus-associated OTUs (44% and 58% of bacterial and archaeal OTUs, respectively) were shared between the three coral species. Our multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, PERMANOVA and CCA) showed that while the bacterial community composition was determined by habitat (mucus, sediment or seawater), host coral species, location and spatial distance, the archaeal community composition was solely determined by the habitat. This study highlights that mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities differ in their degree of community turnover over reefs and in their host-specificity. PMID:26788724

  4. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Frade, Pedro R.; Roll, Katharina; Bergauer, Kristin; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the diversity and community structure of dominant archaeal and bacterial communities associating with the mucus of three common reef-building coral species (Porites astreoides, Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella annularis) over different spatial scales on a Caribbean fringing reef. Sampling locations included three reef sites, three reef patches within each site and two depths. Reference sediment samples and ambient water were also taken for each of the 18 sampling locations resulting in a total of 239 samples. While only 41% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) characterized by T-RFLP were shared between mucus and the ambient water or sediment, for archaeal OTUs this percentage was 2-fold higher (78%). About half of the mucus-associated OTUs (44% and 58% of bacterial and archaeal OTUs, respectively) were shared between the three coral species. Our multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, PERMANOVA and CCA) showed that while the bacterial community composition was determined by habitat (mucus, sediment or seawater), host coral species, location and spatial distance, the archaeal community composition was solely determined by the habitat. This study highlights that mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities differ in their degree of community turnover over reefs and in their host-specificity. PMID:26788724

  5. Forest strata drive spatial structure of bacterial and archaeal communities and microbial methane cycling in neotropical bromeliad wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, Guntars; Brandt, Franziska; Conrad, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Several thousands of tank bromeliads per hectare of neotropical forest create a unique wetland ecosystem that harbors diverse communities of archaea and bacteria and emit substantial amounts of methane. We studied spatial distribution of archaeal and bacterial communities, microbial methane cycling and their environmental drivers in tank bromeliad wetlands. We selected tank bromeliads of different species and functional types (terrestrial and canopy bromeliads) in a neotropical montane forest of Southern Ecuador and sampled the organic tank slurry. Archaeal and bacterial communities were characterized using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing, respectively, and linked with physico-chemical tank-slurry properties. Additionally, we performed tank-slurry incubations to measure methane production potential, stable carbon isotope fractionation and pathway of methane formation. Archaeal and bacterial community composition in bromeliad wetlands was dominated by methanogens and by Alphaproteobacteria, respectively, and did not differ between species but between functional types. Hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales were the dominant methanogens among all bromeliads but the relative abundance of aceticlastic Methanosaetaceae increased in terrestrial bromeliads. Complementary, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway of methane formation but the relative contribution of aceticlastic methanogenesis increased in terrestrial bromeliads and led to a concomitant increase in total methane production. Rhodospirillales were characteristic for canopy bromeliads, Planctomycetales and Actinomycetalis for terrestrial bromeliads. While nitrogen concentration and pH explained 32% of the archaeal community variability, 29% of the bacterial community variability was explained by nitrogen, acetate and propionate concentrations. Our study demonstrates that bromeliad functional types, associated with different forest strata

  6. Hot-Alkaline DNA Extraction Method for Deep-Subseafloor Archaeal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Takeshi; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Inagaki, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    A prerequisite for DNA-based microbial community analysis is even and effective cell disruption for DNA extraction. With a commonly used DNA extraction kit, roughly two-thirds of subseafloor sediment microbial cells remain intact on average (i.e., the cells are not disrupted), indicating that microbial community analyses may be biased at the DNA extraction step, prior to subsequent molecular analyses. To address this issue, we standardized a new DNA extraction method using alkaline treatment and heating. Upon treatment with 1 M NaOH at 98°C for 20 min, over 98% of microbial cells in subseafloor sediment samples collected at different depths were disrupted. However, DNA integrity tests showed that such strong alkaline and heat treatment also cleaved DNA molecules into short fragments that could not be amplified by PCR. Subsequently, we optimized the alkaline and temperature conditions to minimize DNA fragmentation and retain high cell disruption efficiency. The best conditions produced a cell disruption rate of 50 to 80% in subseafloor sediment samples from various depths and retained sufficient DNA integrity for amplification of the complete 16S rRNA gene (i.e., ∼1,500 bp). The optimized method also yielded higher DNA concentrations in all samples tested compared with extractions using a conventional kit-based approach. Comparative molecular analysis using real-time PCR and pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes showed that the new method produced an increase in archaeal DNA and its diversity, suggesting that it provides better analytical coverage of subseafloor microbial communities than conventional methods. PMID:24441163

  7. Detection and analysis of elusive members of a novel and diverse archaeal community within a thermal spring streamer consortium.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Thomas, Raquela; Maas, Kendra R; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2015-03-01

    Recent metagenomic analyses of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) thermal spring communities suggested the presence of minor archaeal populations that simultaneous PCR-based assays using traditional 'universal' 16S rRNA gene primers failed to detect. Here we use metagenomics to identify PCR primers effective at detecting elusive members of the Archaea, assess their efficacy, and describe the diverse and novel archaeal community from a circum-neutral thermal spring from the Bechler region of YNP. We determined that a less commonly used PCR primer, Arch349F, captured more diversity in this spring than the widely used A21F primer. A search of the PCR primers against the RDP 16S rRNA gene database indicated that Arch349F also captured the largest percentage of Archaea, including 41 % more than A21F. Pyrosequencing using the Arch349F primer recovered all of the phylotypes present in the clone-based portion of the study and the metagenome of this spring in addition to several other populations of Archaea, some of which are phylogenetically novel. In contrast to the lack of amplification with traditional 16S rRNA gene primers, our comprehensive analyses suggested a diverse archaeal community in the Bechler spring, with implications for recently discovered groups such as the Geoarchaeota and other undescribed archaeal groups. PMID:25477209

  8. Simultaneous Amplicon Sequencing to Explore Co-Occurrence Patterns of Bacterial, Archaeal and Eukaryotic Microorganisms in Rumen Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Seedorf, Henning; Walters, William A.; Clemente, Jose C.; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Janssen, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Ruminants rely on a complex rumen microbial community to convert dietary plant material to energy-yielding products. Here we developed a method to simultaneously analyze the community's bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, ciliate 18S rRNA genes and anaerobic fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 genes using 12 DNA samples derived from 11 different rumen samples from three host species (Ovis aries, Bos taurus, Cervus elephas) and multiplex 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. We show that the mixing ratio of the group-specific DNA templates before emulsion PCR is crucial to compensate for differences in amplicon length. This method, in contrast to using a non-specific universal primer pair, avoids sequencing non-targeted DNA, such as plant- or endophyte-derived rRNA genes, and allows increased or decreased levels of community structure resolution for each microbial group as needed. Communities analyzed with different primers always grouped by sample origin rather than by the primers used. However, primer choice had a greater impact on apparent archaeal community structure than on bacterial community structure, and biases for certain methanogen groups were detected. Co-occurrence analysis of microbial taxa from all three domains of life suggested strong within- and between-domain correlations between different groups of microorganisms within the rumen. The approach used to simultaneously characterize bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic components of a microbiota should be applicable to other communities occupying diverse habitats. PMID:23408926

  9. Responses of bacterial and archaeal communities to nitrate stimulation after oil pollution in mangrove sediment revealed by Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Xu; Zheng, Tian-Ling

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate microbial responses to nitrate stimulation in oiled mangrove mesocosm. Both supplementary oil and nitrate changed the water and sediment chemical properties contributing to the shift of microbial communities. Denitrifying genes nirS and nirK were increased several times by the interaction of oil spiking and nitrate addition. Bacterial chao1 was reduced by oil spiking and further by nitrate stimulation, whereas archaeal chao1 was only inhibited by oil pollution on early time. Sampling depth explained most of variation and significantly impacted bacterial and archaeal communities, while oil pollution only significantly impacted bacterial communities (p<0.05). Despite explaining less variation, nitrate addition coupled with oil spiking enhanced the growth of hydrocarbon degraders in mangrove. The findings demonstrate the impacts of environmental factors and their interactions in shaping microbial communities during nitrate stimulation. Our study suggests introducing genera Desulfotignum and Marinobacter into oiled mangrove for bioaugmentation. PMID:27262497

  10. Comparison of bacterial and archaeal communities in depth-resolved zones in an LNAPL body.

    PubMed

    Irianni-Renno, Maria; Akhbari, Daria; Olson, Mitchell R; Byrne, Adam P; Lefèvre, Emilie; Zimbron, Julio; Lyverse, Mark; Sale, Thomas C; De Long, Susan K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in our understanding of the microbial ecology at sites impacted by light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) are needed to drive development of optimized bioremediation technologies, support longevity models, and develop culture-independent molecular tools. In this study, depth-resolved characterization of geochemical parameters and microbial communities was conducted for a shallow hydrocarbon-impacted aquifer. Four distinct zones were identified based on microbial community structure and geochemical data: (i) an aerobic, low-contaminant mass zone at the top of the vadose zone; (ii) a moderate to high-contaminant mass, low-oxygen to anaerobic transition zone in the middle of the vadose zone; (iii) an anaerobic, high-contaminant mass zone spanning the bottom of the vadose zone and saturated zone; and (iv) an anaerobic, low-contaminant mass zone below the LNAPL body. Evidence suggested that hydrocarbon degradation is mediated by syntrophic fermenters and methanogens in zone III. Upward flux of methane likely contributes to promoting anaerobic conditions in zone II by limiting downward flux of oxygen as methane and oxygen fronts converge at the top of this zone. Observed sulfate gradients and microbial communities suggested that sulfate reduction and methanogenesis both contribute to hydrocarbon degradation in zone IV. Pyrosequencing revealed that Syntrophus- and Methanosaeta-related species dominate bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively, in the LNAPL body below the water table. Observed phylotypes were linked with in situ anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in LNAPL-impacted soils. PMID:26691516

  11. Patterns in bacterial and archaeal community structure and diversity in western Beaufort Sea sediments and waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L. J.; Sikaroodi, M.; Coffin, R. B.; Gillevet, P. M.

    2010-12-01

    A culture-independent phylogenetic study of microbial communities in water samples and sediment cores recovered from the Beaufort Sea slope east of Point Barrow, Alaska was conducted. The goal of the work was to describe community composition in sediment and water samples and determine the influence of local environmental conditions on microbial populations. Archaeal and bacterial community composition was studied using length heterogeneity-polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) and multitag pyrosequencing (MTPS). Sediment samples were obtained from three piston cores on the slope (~1000m depth) arrayed along an east-west transect and one core from a depth of approximately 2000m. Discrete water samples were obtained using a CTD-rosette from three locations adjacent to piston core sites. Water sample were selected at three discrete depths within a vertically stratified (density) water column. The microbial community in near surface waters was distinct from the community observed in deeper stratified layers of the water column. Multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) revealed that water samples from mid and deep stratified layers bore high similarity to communities in cores collected in close proximity. Overall, the highest diversity (bacteria and archaea) was observed in a core which had elevated methane concentration relative to other locations. Geochemical (e.g., bulk organic and inorganic carbon pools, nutrients, metabolites) and physical data (e.g. depth, water content) were used to reveal the abiotic factors structuring microbial communities. The analysis indicates that sediment water content (porosity) and inorganic carbon concentration are the most significant structuring elements on Beaufort shelf sedimentary microbial communities.

  12. Activation of archaeal transcription mediated by recruitment of transcription factor B.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Simon M; Thumann, Sybille; Richau, Renate; Weirauch, Matt T; Lowe, Todd M; Thomm, Michael; Hausner, Winfried

    2012-05-25

    Archaeal promoters consist of a TATA box and a purine-rich adjacent upstream sequence (transcription factor B (TFB)-responsive element (BRE)), which are bound by the transcription factors TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and TFB. Currently, only a few activators of archaeal transcription have been experimentally characterized. The best studied activator, Ptr2, mediates activation by recruitment of TBP. Here, we present a detailed biochemical analysis of an archaeal transcriptional activator, PF1088, which was identified in Pyrococcus furiosus by a bioinformatic approach. Operon predictions suggested that an upstream gene, pf1089, is polycistronically transcribed with pf1088. We demonstrate that PF1088 stimulates in vitro transcription by up to 7-fold when the pf1089 promoter is used as a template. By DNase I and hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments, we show that the binding site of PF1088 is located directly upstream of the BRE of pf1089. Mutational analysis indicated that activation requires the presence of the binding site for PF1088. Furthermore, we show that activation of transcription by PF1088 is dependent upon the presence of an imperfect BRE and is abolished when the pf1089 BRE is replaced with a BRE from a strong archaeal promoter. Gel shift experiments showed that TFB recruitment to the pf1089 operon is stimulated by PF1088, and TFB seems to stabilize PF1088 operator binding even in the absence of TBP. Taken together, these results represent the first biochemical evidence for a transcriptional activator working as a TFB recruitment factor in Archaea, for which the designation TFB-RF1 is suggested. PMID:22496454

  13. An Archaeal Homolog of Proteasome Assembly Factor Functions as a Proteasome Activator

    PubMed Central

    Kumoi, Kentaro; Satoh, Tadashi; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Hiromoto, Takeshi; Mizushima, Tsunehiro; Kamiya, Yukiko; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kato, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Assembly of the eukaryotic 20S proteasome is an ordered process involving several proteins operating as proteasome assembly factors including PAC1-PAC2 but archaeal 20S proteasome subunits can spontaneously assemble into an active cylindrical architecture. Recent bioinformatic analysis identified archaeal PAC1-PAC2 homologs PbaA and PbaB. However, it remains unclear whether such assembly factor-like proteins play an indispensable role in orchestration of proteasome subunits in archaea. We revealed that PbaB forms a homotetramer and exerts a dual function as an ATP-independent proteasome activator and a molecular chaperone through its tentacle-like C-terminal segments. Our findings provide insights into molecular evolution relationships between proteasome activators and assembly factors. PMID:23555947

  14. Phylogenetic Diversity of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities in the Anoxic Zone of the Cariaco Basin†

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Vanessa M.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Scranton, Mary I.; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial community samples were collected from the anoxic zone of the Cariaco Basin at depths of 320, 500, and 1,310 m on a November 1996 cruise and were used to construct 16S ribosomal DNA libraries. Of 60 nonchimeric sequences in the 320-m library, 56 belonged to the ɛ subdivision of the Proteobacteria (ɛ-Proteobacteria) and 53 were closely related to ectosymbionts of Rimicaris exoculata and Alvinella pompejana, which are referred to here as epsilon symbiont relatives (ESR). The 500-m library contained sequences affiliated with the fibrobacteria, the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides division, the division Verrucomicrobia, the division Proteobacteria, and the OP3 candidate division. The Proteobacteria included members of the γ, δ, ɛ and new candidate subdivisions, and γ-proteobacterial sequences were dominant (25.6%) among the proteobacterial sequences. As in the 320-m library, the majority of the ɛ-proteobacteria belonged to the ESR group. The genus Fibrobacter and its relatives were the second largest group in the library (23.6%), followed by the δ-proteobacteria and the ɛ-proteobacteria. The 1,310-m library had the greatest diversity; 59 nonchimeric clones in the library contained 30 unique sequences belonging to the planctomycetes, the fibrobacteria, the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides division, the Proteobacteria, and the OP3 and OP8 candidate divisions. The proteobacteria included members of new candidate subdivisions and the β, γ, δ, and ɛ-subdivisions. ESR sequences were still present in the 1,310-m library but in a much lower proportion (8.5%). One archaeal sequence was present in the 500-m library (2% of all microorganisms in the library), and eight archaeal sequences were present in the 1,310-m library (13.6%). All archaeal sequences fell into two groups; two clones in the 1,310-m library belonged to the kingdom Crenarchaeota and the remaining sequences in both libraries belonged to the kingdom Euryarchaeota. The latter group appears to

  15. Archaeal Diversity in Waters from Deep South African Gold Mines

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; DeFlaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, James K.

    2001-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold mines was performed by performing a PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with a sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. The water samples used represented various environments, including deep fissure water, mine service water, and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied with the source of water. The archaeal communities in the deep gold mine environments exhibited great phylogenetic diversity; the majority of the members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (soil clones) and marine environments (marine group I [MGI]). Other clones exhibited intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI in the Crenarchaeota. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences that exhibited novel phylogeny, including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African gold mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including the newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea are reevaluated. PMID:11722932

  16. Archaeal Diversity in Waters from Deep South African Gold Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; Deflaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2001-12-01

    Culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold (Au) mines was performed by PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. Water samples represented various environments including: deep fissure water; mine service water; and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied directly with the source of the water. The archaeal communities in the deep Au mine environments revealed a large phylogenetic diversity; the majority of members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to the environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (Soil clones) and marine environments (Marine Group I; MGI). Other clones possessed an intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI within the Crenarchaea. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences of novel phylogeny including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African Au mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including these newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea is reevaluated.

  17. Divergent responses of methanogenic archaeal communities in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level O3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianwei; Tang, Haoye; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi

    2016-06-01

    Inhibitive effect of elevated ground-level ozone (O3) on paddy methane (CH4) emission varies with rice cultivars. However, little information is available on its microbial mechanism. For this purpose, the responses of methane-metabolizing microorganisms, methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic bacteria to O3 pollution were investigated in the O3-tolerant (YD6) and the O3-sensitive (IIY084) cultivars at two rice growth stages in Free Air Concentration Elevation of O3 (O3-FACE) system of China. It was found that O3 pollution didn't change the abundances of Type I and Type II methanotrophic bacteria at two rice stages. For methanogenic archaea, their abundances in both cultivars were decreased by O3 pollution at the tillering stage. Furthermore, a greater negative influence on methanogenic archaeal community was observed on IIY084 than on YD6: at tillering stage, the alpha diversity indices of methanogenic archaeal community in IIY084 was decreased to a greater extent than in YD6; IIY084 shifted methanogenic archaeal community composition and decreased the abundances and the diversities of Methanosarcinaceae and Methanosaetaceae as well as the abundance of Methanomicrobiales, while the diversity of Methanocellaceae were increased in YD6. These findings indicate that the variations in the responses of paddy CH4 emission to O3 pollution between cultivars could result from the divergent responses of their methanogenic archaea. PMID:26895536

  18. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts. PMID:24282404

  19. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; Fields, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts. PMID:24282404

  20. Linking the Composition of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities to Characteristics of Soil and Flora Composition in the Atlantic Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Perim, Julia Elidia; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Durrer, Ademir; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-01-01

    The description of microbiomes as intrinsic fractions of any given ecosystem is an important issue, for instance, by linking their compositions and functions with other biotic and abiotic components of natural systems and hosts. Here we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities from soils of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Based on the comparison of three areas located along an altitudinal gradient—namely, Santa Virginia, Picinguaba and Restinga—we detected the most abundant groups of Bacteria (Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria) and Archaea (Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota). The particular composition of such communities in each of these areas was first evidenced by PCR-DGGE patterns [determined for Bacteria, Archaea and ammonia-oxidizing organisms—ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB)]. Moreover, sequence-based analysis provided a better resolution of communities, which indicated distinct frequencies of archaeal phyla and bacterial OTUs across areas. We found, as indicated by the Mantel test and multivariate analyses, a potential effect of the flora composition that outpaces the effect of soil characteristics (either physical and chemical) influencing the assembly of these microbial communities in soils. Our results indicate a collective role of the ecosystem underlying observed differences in microbial communities in these soils. Particularly, we posit that rainforest preservation also needs to take into account the maintenance of the soil biodiversity, as this is prompted to influence major processes that affect ecosystem functioning. PMID:26752633

  1. Linking the Composition of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities to Characteristics of Soil and Flora Composition in the Atlantic Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Lima-Perim, Julia Elidia; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Durrer, Ademir; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-01-01

    The description of microbiomes as intrinsic fractions of any given ecosystem is an important issue, for instance, by linking their compositions and functions with other biotic and abiotic components of natural systems and hosts. Here we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities from soils of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Based on the comparison of three areas located along an altitudinal gradient-namely, Santa Virginia, Picinguaba and Restinga-we detected the most abundant groups of Bacteria (Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria) and Archaea (Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota). The particular composition of such communities in each of these areas was first evidenced by PCR-DGGE patterns [determined for Bacteria, Archaea and ammonia-oxidizing organisms-ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB)]. Moreover, sequence-based analysis provided a better resolution of communities, which indicated distinct frequencies of archaeal phyla and bacterial OTUs across areas. We found, as indicated by the Mantel test and multivariate analyses, a potential effect of the flora composition that outpaces the effect of soil characteristics (either physical and chemical) influencing the assembly of these microbial communities in soils. Our results indicate a collective role of the ecosystem underlying observed differences in microbial communities in these soils. Particularly, we posit that rainforest preservation also needs to take into account the maintenance of the soil biodiversity, as this is prompted to influence major processes that affect ecosystem functioning. PMID:26752633

  2. A shift in the archaeal nitrifier community in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Newell, Silvia E; Eveillard, Damien; McCarthy, Mark J; Gardner, Wayne S; Liu, Zhanfei; Ward, Bess B

    2014-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is affected by hurricanes and suffers seasonal hypoxia. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted every trophic level in the coastal region. Despite their importance in bioremediation and biogeochemical cycles, it is difficult to predict the responses of microbial communities to physical and anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we quantify sediment ammonia-oxidizing archaeal (AOA) community diversity, resistance and resilience, and important geochemical factors after major hurricanes and the oil spill. Dominant AOA archetypes correlated with different geochemical factors, suggesting that different AOA are constrained by distinct parameters. Diversity was lowest after the hurricanes, showing weak resistance to physical disturbances. However, diversity was highest during the oil spill and coincided with a community shift, suggesting a new alternative stable state sustained for at least 1 year. The new AOA community was not significantly different from that at the spill site 1 year after the spill. This sustained shift in nitrifier community structure may be a result of oil exposure. PMID:24596268

  3. The Helicase Activity of Hyperthermophilic Archaeal MCM is Enhanced at High Temperatures by Lysine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yisui; Niu, Yanling; Cui, Jiamin; Fu, Yang; Chen, Xiaojiang S.; Lou, Huiqiang; Cao, Qinhong

    2015-01-01

    Lysine methylation and methyltransferases are widespread in the third domain of life, archaea. Nevertheless, the effects of methylation on archaeal proteins wait to be defined. Here, we report that recombinant sisMCM, an archaeal homolog of Mcm2-7 eukaryotic replicative helicase, is methylated by aKMT4 in vitro. Mono-methylation of these lysine residues occurs coincidently in the endogenous sisMCM protein purified from the hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus islandicus cells as indicated by mass spectra. The helicase activity of mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) is stimulated by methylation, particularly at temperatures over 70°C. The methylated MCM shows optimal DNA unwinding activity after heat-treatment between 76 and 82°C, which correlates well with the typical growth temperatures of hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus. After methylation, the half life of MCM helicase is dramatically extended at 80°C. The methylated sites are located on the accessible protein surface, which might modulate the intra- and inter- molecular interactions through changing the hydrophobicity and surface charge. Furthermore, the methylation-mimic mutants of MCM show heat resistance helicase activity comparable to the methylated MCM. These data provide the biochemical evidence that posttranslational modifications such as methylation may enhance kinetic stability of proteins under the elevated growth temperatures of hyperthermophilic archaea. PMID:26617586

  4. Buccal Swabbing as a Noninvasive Method To Determine Bacterial, Archaeal, and Eukaryotic Microbial Community Structures in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Michelle R.; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  5. Buccal swabbing as a noninvasive method to determine bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial community structures in the rumen.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Kirk, Michelle R; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  6. Archaeal Community Structures in the Solfataric Acidic Hot Springs with Different Temperatures and Elemental Compositions

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal 16S rRNA gene compositions and environmental factors of four distinct solfataric acidic hot springs in Kirishima, Japan were compared. The four ponds were selected by differences of temperature and total dissolved elemental concentration as follows: (1) Pond-A: 93°C and 1679 mg L−1, (2) Pond-B: 66°C and 2248 mg L−1, (3) Pond-C: 88°C and 198 mg L−1, and (4) Pond-D: 67°C and 340 mg L−1. In total, 431 clones of 16S rRNA gene were classified into 26 phylotypes. In Pond-B, the archaeal diversity was the highest among the four, and the members of the order Sulfolobales were dominant. The Pond-D also showed relatively high diversity, and the most frequent group was uncultured thermoacidic spring clone group. In contrast to Pond-B and Pond-D, much less diverse archaeal clones were detected in Pond-A and Pond-C showing higher temperatures. However, dominant groups in these ponds were also different from each other. The members of the order Sulfolobales shared 89% of total clones in Pond-A, and the uncultured crenarchaeal groups shared 99% of total Pond-C clones. Therefore, species compositions and biodiversity were clearly different among the ponds showing different temperatures and dissolved elemental concentrations. PMID:23710131

  7. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  8. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  9. Evaluation of 16S rRNA Gene Primer Pairs for Monitoring Microbial Community Structures Showed High Reproducibility within and Low Comparability between Datasets Generated with Multiple Archaeal and Bacterial Primer Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martin A.; Güllert, Simon; Neulinger, Sven C.; Streit, Wolfgang R.; Schmitz, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    The application of next-generation sequencing technology in microbial community analysis increased our knowledge and understanding of the complexity and diversity of a variety of ecosystems. In contrast to Bacteria, the archaeal domain was often not particularly addressed in the analysis of microbial communities. Consequently, established primers specifically amplifying the archaeal 16S ribosomal gene region are scarce compared to the variety of primers targeting bacterial sequences. In this study, we aimed to validate archaeal primers suitable for high throughput next generation sequencing. Three archaeal 16S primer pairs as well as two bacterial and one general microbial 16S primer pairs were comprehensively tested by in-silico evaluation and performing an experimental analysis of a complex microbial community of a biogas reactor. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that comparability of community profiles established using different primer pairs is difficult. 16S rRNA gene data derived from a shotgun metagenome of the same reactor sample added an additional perspective on the community structure. Furthermore, in-silico evaluation of primers, especially those for amplification of archaeal 16S rRNA gene regions, does not necessarily reflect the results obtained in experimental approaches. In the latter, archaeal primer pair ArchV34 showed the highest similarity to the archaeal community structure compared to observed by the metagenomic approach and thus appears to be the appropriate for analyzing archaeal communities in biogas reactors. However, a disadvantage of this primer pair was its low specificity for the archaeal domain in the experimental application leading to high amounts of bacterial sequences within the dataset. Overall our results indicate a rather limited comparability between community structures investigated and determined using different primer pairs as well as between metagenome and 16S rRNA gene amplicon based community structure analysis

  10. Evaluation of 16S rRNA Gene Primer Pairs for Monitoring Microbial Community Structures Showed High Reproducibility within and Low Comparability between Datasets Generated with Multiple Archaeal and Bacterial Primer Pairs.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin A; Güllert, Simon; Neulinger, Sven C; Streit, Wolfgang R; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    The application of next-generation sequencing technology in microbial community analysis increased our knowledge and understanding of the complexity and diversity of a variety of ecosystems. In contrast to Bacteria, the archaeal domain was often not particularly addressed in the analysis of microbial communities. Consequently, established primers specifically amplifying the archaeal 16S ribosomal gene region are scarce compared to the variety of primers targeting bacterial sequences. In this study, we aimed to validate archaeal primers suitable for high throughput next generation sequencing. Three archaeal 16S primer pairs as well as two bacterial and one general microbial 16S primer pairs were comprehensively tested by in-silico evaluation and performing an experimental analysis of a complex microbial community of a biogas reactor. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that comparability of community profiles established using different primer pairs is difficult. 16S rRNA gene data derived from a shotgun metagenome of the same reactor sample added an additional perspective on the community structure. Furthermore, in-silico evaluation of primers, especially those for amplification of archaeal 16S rRNA gene regions, does not necessarily reflect the results obtained in experimental approaches. In the latter, archaeal primer pair ArchV34 showed the highest similarity to the archaeal community structure compared to observed by the metagenomic approach and thus appears to be the appropriate for analyzing archaeal communities in biogas reactors. However, a disadvantage of this primer pair was its low specificity for the archaeal domain in the experimental application leading to high amounts of bacterial sequences within the dataset. Overall our results indicate a rather limited comparability between community structures investigated and determined using different primer pairs as well as between metagenome and 16S rRNA gene amplicon based community structure analysis

  11. Elevational Patterns in Archaeal Diversity on Mt. Fuji

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmesh; Takahashi, Koichi; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known of how archaeal diversity and community ecology behaves along elevational gradients. We chose to study Mount Fuji of Japan as a geologically and topographically uniform mountain system, with a wide range of elevational zones. PCR-amplified soil DNA for the archaeal 16 S rRNA gene was pyrosequenced and taxonomically classified against EzTaxon-e archaeal database. At a bootstrap cut-off of 80%, most of the archaeal sequences were classified into phylum Thaumarchaeota (96%) and Euryarchaeota (3.9%), with no sequences classified into other phyla. Archaeal OTU richness and diversity on Fuji showed a pronounced ‘peak’ in the mid-elevations, around 1500 masl, within the boreal forest zone, compared to the temperate forest zone below and the alpine fell-field and desert zones above. Diversity decreased towards higher elevations followed by a subtle increase at the summit, mainly due to an increase in the relative abundance of the group I.1b of Thaumarchaeota. Archaeal diversity showed a strong positive correlation with soil NH4+, K and NO3−. Archaeal diversity does not parallel plant diversity, although it does roughly parallel bacterial diversity. Ecological hypotheses to explain the mid diversity bulge on Fuji include intermediate disturbance effects, and the result of mid elevations combining a mosaic of upper and lower slope environments. Our findings show clearly that archaeal soil communities are highly responsive to soil environmental gradients, in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Distinct communities of archaea specific to each elevational zone suggest that many archaea may be quite finely niche-adapted within the range of soil environments. A further interesting finding is the presence of a mesophilic component of archaea at high altitudes on a mountain that is not volcanically active. This emphasizes the importance of microclimate – in this case solar heating of the black volcanic ash surface – for the ecology of

  12. From mesophilic to thermophilic digestion: the transitions of anaerobic bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in sludge and manure samples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Yu, Guangwei; Louie, Tiffany; Liu, Tong; Zhu, Chengsheng; Xue, Gang; Gao, Pin

    2015-12-01

    The shift of microbial communities during a transition from mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) to thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) was characterized in two treatments. One treatment was inoculated with sludge and the other was inoculated with manure. In this study, methane was produced both in MAD and TAD, but TAD has slightly more methane produced than MAD. A broad phylogenetic spectrum of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal taxa at thermophilic conditions was detected. Coprothermobacter, Bacillus, Haloplasma, Clostridiisalibacter, Methanobacterium, Methanothermobacter, Saccharomycetales, Candida, Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Penicillium were found almost exclusively in TAD, suggesting their adaptation to thermophilic conditions and ecological roles in digesting the organic compounds. The characterization of the lesser-known fungal community revealed that fungi probably constituted an important portion of the overall community within TAD and contributed to this process by degrading complex organic compounds. The shift of the microbial communities between MAD and TAD implied that temperature drastically affected the microbial diversity in anaerobic digestion. In addition, the difference in microbial communities between sludge and manure indicated that different source of inoculum also affected the microbial diversity and community. PMID:26245681

  13. Specific Bacterial, Archaeal, and Eukaryotic Communities in Tidal-Flat Sediments along a Vertical Profile of Several Meters†

    PubMed Central

    Wilms, Reinhard; Sass, Henrik; Köpke, Beate; Köster, Jürgen; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2006-01-01

    The subsurface of a tidal-flat sediment was analyzed down to 360 cm in depth by molecular and geochemical methods. A community structure analysis of all three domains of life was performed using domain-specific PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and sequencing of characteristic bands. The sediment column comprised horizons easily distinguishable by lithology that were deposited in intertidal and salt marsh environments. The pore water profile was characterized by a subsurface sulfate peak at a depth of about 250 cm. Methane and sulfate profiles were opposed, showing increased methane concentrations in the sulfate-free layers. The availability of organic carbon appeared to have the most pronounced effect on the bacterial community composition in deeper sediment layers. In general, the bacterial community was dominated by fermenters and syntrophic bacteria. The depth distribution of methanogenic archaea correlated with the sulfate profile and could be explained by electron donor competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sequences affiliated with the typically hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales were present in sulfate-free layers. Archaea belonging to the Methanosarcinales that utilize noncompetitive substrates were found along the entire anoxic-sediment column. Primers targeting the eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a subset of archaeal sequences in the deeper part of the sediment cores. The phylogenetic distance to other archaeal sequences indicates that these organisms represent a new phylogenetic group, proposed as “tidal-flat cluster 1.” Eukarya were still detectable at 360 cm, even though their diversity decreased with depth. Most of the eukaryotic sequences were distantly related to those of grazers and deposit feeders. PMID:16597980

  14. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B.J.; Carver, S.M.; Bockheim, J.G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G.W.; Hinkel, K.M.; Mueller, C.W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the active layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures. PMID:26681584

  15. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hinkel, K. M.; Mueller, C. W.

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the active layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.

  16. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in Arctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kao-Kniffin, J; Woodcroft, B J; Carver, S M; Bockheim, J G; Handelsman, J; Tyson, G W; Hinkel, K M; Mueller, C W

    2015-01-01

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus 'Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis' were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the active layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus 'M. stordalenmirensis' across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures. PMID:26681584

  17. Structure and diversity of bacterial, eukaryotic and archaeal communities in glacial cryoconite holes from the Arctic and the Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Karen A; Hodson, Andrew J; Osborn, A Mark

    2012-11-01

    The cryosphere presents some of the most challenging conditions for life on earth. Nevertheless, (micro)biota survive in a range of niches in glacial systems, including water-filled depressions on glacial surfaces termed cryoconite holes (centimetre to metre in diameter and up to 0.5 m deep) that contain dark granular material (cryoconite). In this study, the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic cryoconite communities from ten different locations in the Arctic and Antarctica was compared using T-RFLP analysis of rRNA genes. Community structure varied with geography, with greatest differences seen between communities from the Arctic and the Antarctic. DNA sequencing of rRNA genes revealed considerable diversity, with individual cryoconite hole communities containing between six and eight bacterial phyla and five and eight eukaryotic 'first-rank' taxa and including both bacterial and eukaryotic photoautotrophs. Bacterial Firmicutes and Deltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, eukaryotic Rhizaria, Haptophyta, Choanomonada and Centroheliozoa, and archaea were identified for the first time in cryoconite ecosystems. Archaea were only found within Antarctic locations, with the majority of sequences (77%) related to members of the Thaumarchaeota. In conclusion, this research has revealed that Antarctic and Arctic cryoconite holes harbour geographically distinct highly diverse communities and has identified hitherto unknown bacterial, eukaryotic and archaeal taxa, therein. PMID:22168226

  18. Distribution of ether lipids and composition of the archaeal community in terrestrial geothermal springs: impact of environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Wang, Jinxiang; Chen, Yufei; Zhu, Yuanqing; de la Torre, José R; Dong, Hailiang; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Hedlund, Brian P; Klotz, Martin G

    2015-05-01

    Archaea can respond to changes in the environment by altering the composition of their membrane lipids, for example, by modification of the abundance and composition of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Here, we investigated the abundance and proportions of polar GDGTs (P-GDGTs) and core GDGTs (C-GDGTs) sampled in different seasons from Tengchong hot springs (Yunnan, China), which encompassed a pH range of 2.5-10.1 and a temperature range of 43.7-93.6°C. The phylogenetic composition of the archaeal community (reanalysed from published work) divided the Archaea in spring sediment samples into three major groups that corresponded with spring pH: acidic, circumneutral and alkaline. Cluster analysis showed correlation between spring pH and the composition of P- and C-GDGTs and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, indicating an intimate link between resident Archaea and the distribution of P- and C-GDGTs in Tengchong hot springs. The distribution of GDGTs in Tengchong springs was also significantly affected by temperature; however, the relationship was weaker than with pH. Analysis of published datasets including samples from Tibet, Yellowstone and the US Great Basin hot springs revealed a similar relationship between pH and GDGT content. Specifically, low pH springs had higher concentrations of GDGTs with high numbers of cyclopentyl rings than neutral and alkaline springs, which is consistent with the predominance of high cyclopentyl ring-characterized Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmatales present in some of the low pH springs. Our study suggests that the resident Archaea in these hot springs are acclimated if not adapted to low pH by their genetic capacity to effect the packing density of their membranes by increasing cyclopentyl rings in GDGTs at the rank of community. PMID:25142282

  19. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hinkel, K. M.; Mueller, C. W.

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the activemore » layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.« less

  20. Linking Archaeal Molecular Diversity and Lipid Biomarker Composition in a Hypersaline Microbial Mat Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda; Orphan, Victoria; Turk, Kendra; Embaye, Tsegereda; Kubo, Mike; Summons, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers for discrete microbial groups are a valuable tool for establishing links to ancient microbial ecosystems. Lipid biomarkers can establish organism source and function in contemporary microbial ecosystems (membrane lipids) and by analogy, potential relevance to the fossilized carbon skeletons (geolipids) extracted from ancient sedimentary rock. The Mars Exploration Rovers have provided clear evidence for an early wet Mars and the presence of hypersaline evaporitic basins. Ongoing work on an early Earth analog, the hypersaline benthic mats in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, may provide clues to what may have evolved and flourished on an early wet Mars, if only for a short period. Cyanobacterial mats are a pertinent early Earth analog for consideration of evolutionary and microbial processes within the aerobic photosynthetic and adjacent anoxic layers. Fluctuations in physio-chemical parameters associated with spatial and temporal scales are expressed through vast microbial metabolic diversity. Our recent work hopes to establish the dynamic of archaeal diversity, particularly as it relates to methane production in this high sulfate environment, through the use of lipid biomarker and phylogenetic analyses. Archaeal 16s rRNA and mcrA gene assemblages, demonstrated distinct spatial separation over the 130 mm core of at least three distinct genera within the order Methanosarcinales, as well as an abundance of uncultured members of the Thermoplasmales and Crenarchaeota. Ether-bound lipid analysis identified abundant 0-alkyl and 0-isopranyl chains throughout the core, and the presence of sn-2 hydroxyarchaeol, a biomarker for methylotrophic methanogens. A unique ether isoprenoid chain, a C30:1 , possibly related to the geolipid squalane, a paleobiomarker associated with hypersaline environments, was most abundant within the oxic-anoxic transition zone.

  1. Microbial community structure analysis of a benzoate-degrading halophilic archaeal enrichment.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, Sonal; Youssef, Noha H; Fathepure, Babu Z

    2016-05-01

    A benzoate-degrading archaeal enrichment was developed using sediment samples from Rozel Point at Great Salt Lake, UT. The enrichment degraded benzoate as the sole carbon source at salinity ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 M NaCl with highest rate of degradation observed at 4.0 M. The enrichment was also tested for its ability to grow on other aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA), gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid (PCA), catechol, benzene and toluene as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Of these, the culture only utilized 4-HBA as the carbon source. To determine the initial steps in benzoate degradation pathway, a survey of ring-oxidizing and ring-cleaving genes was performed using degenerate PCR primers. Results showed the presence of 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase (4-HBMO) and protocatechuate 3, 4-dioxygenase (3,4-PCA) genes suggesting that the archaeal enrichment might degrade benzoate to 4-HBA that is further converted to PCA by 4-HBMO and, thus, formed PCA would undergo ring-cleavage by 3,4-PCA to form intermediates that enter the Krebs cycle. Small subunit rRNA gene-based diversity survey revealed that the enrichment consisted entirely of class Halobacteria members belonging to the genera Halopenitus, Halosarcina, Natronomonas, Halosimplex, Halorubrum, Salinarchaeum and Haloterrigena. Of these, Halopenitus was the dominant group accounting for almost 91 % of the total sequences suggesting their potential role in degrading oxygenated aromatic compounds at extreme salinity. PMID:26995683

  2. Structures and Activities of Archaeal Members of the LigD 3-Phosphoesterase DNA Repair Enzyme Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    P Smith; P Nair; U Das; H Zhu; S Shuman

    2011-12-31

    LigD 3'-phosphoesterase (PE) is a component of the bacterial NHEJ apparatus that performs 3'-end-healing reactions at DNA breaks. The tertiary structure, active site and substrate specificity of bacterial PE are unique vis-a-vis other end-healing enzymes. PE homologs are present in archaea, but their properties are uncharted. Here, we demonstrate the end-healing activities of two archaeal PEs - Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum PE (CkoPE; 117 amino acids) and Methanosarcina barkeri PE (MbaPE; 151 amino acids) - and we report their atomic structures at 1.1 and 2.1 {angstrom}, respectively. Archaeal PEs are minimized versions of bacterial PE, consisting of an eight-stranded {beta} barrel and a 3{sub 10} helix. Their active sites are located in a crescent-shaped groove on the barrel's outer surface, wherein two histidines and an aspartate coordinate manganese in an octahedral complex that includes two waters and a phosphate anion. The phosphate is in turn coordinated by arginine and histidine side chains. The conservation of active site architecture in bacterial and archaeal PEs, and the concordant effects of active site mutations, underscore a common catalytic mechanism, entailing transition state stabilization by manganese and the phosphate-binding arginine and histidine. Our results fortify the proposal that PEs comprise a DNA repair superfamily distributed widely among taxa.

  3. A meta-analysis of changes in bacterial and archaeal communities with time

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Ashley; Gregory Caporaso, J; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists have long studied the temporal dynamics of plant and animal communities with much less attention paid to the temporal dynamics exhibited by microbial communities. As a result, we do not know if overarching temporal trends exist for microbial communities or if changes in microbial communities are generally predictable with time. Using microbial time series assessed via high-throughput sequencing, we conducted a meta-analysis of temporal dynamics in microbial communities, including 76 sites representing air, aquatic, soil, brewery wastewater treatment, human- and plant-associated microbial biomes. We found that temporal variability in both within- and between-community diversity was consistent among microbial communities from similar environments. Community structure changed systematically with time in less than half of the cases, and the highest rates of change were observed within ranges of 1 day to 1 month for all communities examined. Microbial communities exhibited species–time relationships (STRs), which describe the accumulation of new taxa to a community, similar to those observed previously for plant and animal communities, suggesting that STRs are remarkably consistent across a broad range of taxa. These results highlight that a continued integration of microbial ecology into the broader field of ecology will provide new insight into the temporal patterns of microbial and ‘macro'-bial communities alike. PMID:23575374

  4. Archaeal community diversity and abundance changes along a natural salinity gradient in estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Gordon; O'Sullivan, Louise A.; Meng, Yiyu; Williams, Angharad S.; Sass, Andrea M.; Watkins, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John; Weightman, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Archaea are widespread in marine sediments, but their occurrence and relationship with natural salinity gradients in estuarine sediments is not well understood. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of Archaea in sediments at three sites [Brightlingsea (BR), Alresford (AR) and Hythe (HY)] along the Colne Estuary, using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes, DNA hybridization, Archaea 16S rRNA and mcrA gene phylogenetic analyses. Total archaeal 16S rRNA abundance in sediments were higher in the low-salinity brackish sediments from HY (2–8 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies cm−3) than the high-salinity marine sites from BR and AR (2 × 104–2 × 107 and 4 × 106–2 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies cm−3, respectively), although as a proportion of the total prokaryotes Archaea were higher at BR than at AR or HY. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the ‘Bathyarchaeota’ (MCG), Thaumarchaeota and methanogenic Euryarchaeota were the dominant groups of Archaea. The composition of Thaumarchaeota varied with salinity, as only ‘marine’ group I.1a was present in marine sediments (BR). Methanogen 16S rRNA genes from low-salinity sediments at HY were dominated by acetotrophic Methanosaeta and putatively hydrogentrophic Methanomicrobiales, whereas the marine site (BR) was dominated by mcrA genes belonging to methylotrophic Methanococcoides, versatile Methanosarcina and methanotrophic ANME-2a. Overall, the results indicate that salinity and associated factors play a role in controlling diversity and distribution of Archaea in estuarine sediments. PMID:25764553

  5. Stratified Communities of Active Archaea in Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Ketil B.; Teske, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Archaeal 16S rRNA was extracted from samples of deep marine subsurface sediments from Peru Margin site 1227, Ocean Drilling Program leg 201. The amounts of archaeal 16S rRNA in each extract were quantified by serial dilution and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The results indicated a 1,000-fold variation in rRNA content with depth in the sediment, with the highest concentrations found near the sediment surface and in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ). The phylogenetic composition of the active archaeal population revealed by cloning and sequencing of RT-PCR products changed with depth. Several phylotypes affiliated with marine benthic group B (MBGB) dominated clone libraries from the upper part of the SMTZ and were detected only in this layer. Members of the miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group (MCG) dominated clone libraries from the other layers. These results demonstrate that archaeal communities change in activity and community composition over short distances in geochemically distinct zones of deep subseafloor sediments and that these changes are traceable in the rRNA pool. It was shown for the first time that members of both the MCG and MBGB Archaea are more active in the SMTZ than in layers above and below. This indicates that they benefit either directly or indirectly from the anaerobic oxidation of methane. They also appear to be ecophysiologically flexible, as they have been retrieved from a wide range of marine sediments of various geochemical properties. PMID:16820449

  6. Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial, Archaeal, and Fungal Communities Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Alpine Forest Soils: What Are the Driving Factors?

    PubMed

    Siles, José A; Margesin, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Shifts in soil microbial communities over altitudinal gradients and the driving factors are poorly studied. Their elucidation is indispensable to gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of ecosystems to global climate change. Here, we investigated soil archaeal, bacterial, and fungal communities at four Alpine forest sites representing a climosequence, over an altitudinal gradient from 545 to 2000 m above sea level (asl), regarding abundance and diversity by using qPCR and Illumina sequencing, respectively. Archaeal community was dominated by Thaumarchaeota, and no significant shifts were detected in abundance or community composition with altitude. The relative bacterial abundance increased at higher altitudes, which was related to increasing levels of soil organic matter and nutrients with altitude. Shifts in bacterial richness and diversity as well as community structure (comprised basically of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) significantly correlated with several environmental and soil chemical factors, especially soil pH. The site at the lowest altitude harbored the highest bacterial richness and diversity, although richness/diversity community properties did not show a monotonic decrease along the gradient. The relative size of fungal community also increased with altitude and its composition comprised Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota. Changes in fungal richness/diversity and community structure were mainly governed by pH and C/N, respectively. The variation of the predominant bacterial and fungal classes over the altitudinal gradient was the result of the environmental and soil chemical factors prevailing at each site. PMID:26961712

  7. Conversion of upland to paddy field specifically alters the community structure of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. S.; Ren, G. D.; Lu, L.; Zheng, Y.; Peng, X. H.; Jia, Z. J.

    2013-08-01

    The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) depends on the major energy-generating compounds (i.e., ammonia and oxygen). The diversification of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in a complex environment have been much debated but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB upon conversion of an upland field to a paddy field and long-term field fertilization in an acid soil. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes demonstrated that the abundance of AOA was significantly stimulated after conversion of upland to paddy soils for more than 100 yr, whereas a slight decline in AOB numbers was observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints of amoA genes further revealed remarkable changes in the community compositions of AOA after conversion of aerobic upland to flooded paddy field. Sequencing analysis revealed that upland soil was dominated by AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage, whereas the marine group 1.1a-associated lineage predominated in AOA communities in paddy soils. Irrespective of whether the soil was upland or paddy soil, long-term field fertilization led to increased abundance of amoA genes in AOA and AOB compared with control treatments (no fertilization), whereas archaeal amoA gene abundances outnumbered their bacterial counterparts in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of amoA genes showed that Nitrosospira cluster-3-like AOB dominated bacterial ammonia oxidizers in both paddy and upland soils, regardless of fertilization treatment. The results of this study suggest that the marine group 1.1a-associated AOA will be better adapted to the flooded paddy field than AOA ecotypes of the soil group 1.1b lineage, and indicate that long-term flooding is the dominant selective force driving the

  8. Persistence of bacterial and archaeal communities in sea ice through an Arctic winter.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Eric; Rocap, Gabrielle; Deming, Jody W

    2010-07-01

    The structure of bacterial communities in first-year spring and summer sea ice differs from that in source seawaters, suggesting selection during ice formation in autumn or taxon-specific mortality in the ice during winter. We tested these hypotheses by weekly sampling (January-March 2004) of first-year winter sea ice (Franklin Bay, Western Arctic) that experienced temperatures from -9 degrees C to -26 degrees C, generating community fingerprints and clone libraries for Bacteria and Archaea. Despite severe conditions and significant decreases in microbial abundance, no significant changes in richness or community structure were detected in the ice. Communities of Bacteria and Archaea in the ice, as in under-ice seawater, were dominated by SAR11 clade Alphaproteobacteria and Marine Group I Crenarchaeota, neither of which is known from later season sea ice. The bacterial ice library contained clones of Gammaproteobacteria from oligotrophic seawater clades (e.g. OM60, OM182) but no clones from gammaproteobacterial genera commonly detected in later season sea ice by similar methods (e.g. Colwellia, Psychrobacter). The only common sea ice bacterial genus detected in winter ice was Polaribacter. Overall, selection during ice formation and mortality during winter appear to play minor roles in the process of microbial succession that leads to distinctive spring and summer sea ice communities. PMID:20192970

  9. The Primary Results of Analyses on The Archaeal and Bacterial Diversity of Active Cave Environments Settled in Limestones at Southern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tok, Ezgi; Kurt, Halil; Tunga Akarsubasi, A.

    2016-04-01

    The microbial diversity of cave sediments which are obtained from three different caves named Insuyu, Balatini and Altınbeşik located at Southern Turkey has been investigated using molecular methods for biomineralization . The total number of 22 samples were taken in duplicates from the critical zones of the caves at where the water activity is observed all year round. Microbial communities were monitored by 16S rRNA gene based PCR-DGGE (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturating Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) methodology. DNA were extracted from the samples by The PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (MO BIO Laboratories inc., CA) with the modifications on the producer's protocol. The synthetic DNA molecule poly-dIdC was used to increase the yield of PCR amplification via blocking the reaction between CaCO3 and DNA molecules. Thereafter samples were amplified by using both Archaeal and Bacterial universal primers (ref). Subsequently, archaeal and bacterial diversities in cave sediments, were investigated to be able to compare with respect to their similarities by using DGGE. DGGE patterns were analysed with BioNumerics software 5.1. Similarity matrix and dendograms of the DGGE profiles were generated based on the Dice correlation coefficient (band-based) and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The structural diversity of the microbial community was examined by the Shannon index of general diversity (H). Similtaneously, geochemical analyses of the sediment samples were performed within the scope of this study. Total organic carbon (TOC), x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) analysis of sediments were also implemented. The extensive results will be obtained at the next stages of the study currently carried on.

  10. Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration, Elevated Temperature and No Nitrogen Fertilization on Methanogenic Archaeal and Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structures in Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongyan; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) enhance the production and emission of methane in paddy fields. In the present study, the effects of elevated [CO2], elevated temperature (ET), and no nitrogen fertilization (LN) on methanogenic archaeal and methane-oxidizing bacterial community structures in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental paddy field were investigated by PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR. Soil samples were collected from the upper and lower soil layers at the rice panicle initiation (PI) and mid-ripening (MR) stages. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was not markedly affected by the elevated [CO2], ET, or LN condition. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was also not affected by elevated [CO2] or ET, but was significantly increased at the rice PI stage and significantly decreased by LN in the lower soil layer. In contrast, the composition of the methane-oxidizing bacterial community was affected by rice-growing stages in the upper soil layer. The abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was significantly decreased by elevated [CO2] and LN in both soil layers at the rice MR stage and by ET in the upper soil layer. The ratio of mcrA/pmoA genes correlated with methane emission from ambient and FACE paddy plots at the PI stage. These results indicate that the decrease observed in the abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was related to increased methane emission from the paddy field under the elevated [CO2], ET, and LN conditions. PMID:27600710

  11. Change in community structure of planktonic Archaea from the lower Pearl River to the Northern South China Sea: Implications for archaeal ecological functions in different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Wang, P.; Zhou, X.; Guo, W.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are widespread and play an important role in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. However, we still have limited knowledge about how the function of Archaea changes in varying habitats. The current paradigm is that change in community structure causes change in community function. Thus the goal of this study was to examine the change in community structure of planktonic Archaea from the Pearl River to the northern slope of the South China Sea in order to evaluate how archaeal ecological function changes along a salinity gradient. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of Archaea was performed on surface water samples that had salinity ranging from 0.0 in the river water to >3% toward the open ocean. The results showed that Methanomicrobiales and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group were abundant in the lower Pearl River, Nitrosopumilus-like species were abundant in estuary and shallow seawater (<50m), and Marine group II and III were abundant in the open ocean of deeper depth (50->4000m) of the North South China Sea. Methanomicrobiales are known methane-producing organisms and Nitrosopumilus is known to oxidize ammonia and fix CO2. Thus, the archaeal community appears to be able to perform methanogenesis in the freshwater and ammonia oxidation in the estuary and shallow sea with the major function being unknown toward the open ocean. The latter may be addressed by metagenomic studies that are currently underway.

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of archaeal diversity in meromictic, hypersaline Ocnei Lake (Transylvanian Basin, Romania).

    PubMed

    Baricz, Andreea; Coman, Cristian; Andrei, Adrian Stefan; Muntean, Vasile; Keresztes, Zsolt Gyula; Păuşan, Manuela; Alexe, Mircea; Banciu, Horia Leonard

    2014-03-01

    Saline, meromictic lakes with significant depth are usually formed as a result of salt mining activity. Ocnei Lake is one of the largest Transylvanian (Central Romania) neutral, hypersaline lake of man-made origin. We aimed to survey the seasonal dynamics of archaeal diversity in the water column of Ocnei Lake by employing microbiological methods as well as molecular techniques based on the sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that archaeal diversity in the water column increased with depth and salinity, with 8 OTUs being detected in the epilimnion compared to 21 found in the chemocline, and 32 OTUs in the monimolimnion. Down to 3.5 m depth, the archaeal community was markedly dominated by the presence of an unclassified archaeon sharing 93% sequence identity to Halogeometricum spp. At the chemocline, the shift in archaeal community composition was associated with an increase in salinity, the main factor affecting the vertical distribution of archaeal assemblages. It appears that the microoxic and hypersaline monimolimnion is populated by several major haloarchaeal taxa, with minor fluctuations in their relative abundances throughout all seasons. The culturable diversity was reasonably correlated to the dominant OTUs obtained by molecular methods. Our results indicate that Ocnei Lake represents a relatively stable extreme habitat, accommodating a diverse and putatively novel archaeal community, as 30% of OTUs could not be classified at the genus level. PMID:24414798

  13. Structurally Conserved Nop56/58 N-terminal Domain Facilitates Archaeal Box C/D Ribonucleoprotein-guided Methyltransferase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Keith T.; Biswas, Shyamasri; Zhang, Xinxin; Brown, Bernard A.; Wollenzien, Paul; Mattos, Carla; Maxwell, E. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Box C/D RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) guide the 2′-O-methylation of nucleotides in both archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs. The archaeal box C/D and C′/D′ RNP subcomplexes are each assembled with three sRNP core proteins. The archaeal Nop56/58 core protein mediates crucial protein-protein interactions required for both sRNP assembly and the methyltransferase reaction by bridging the L7Ae and fibrillarin core proteins. The interaction of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mj) Nop56/58 with the methyltransferase fibrillarin has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids in the N-terminal domain of Nop56/58 that interacts with fibrillarin. Extensive mutagenesis revealed an unusually strong Nop56/58-fibrillarin interaction. Only deletion of the NTD itself prevented dimerization with fibrillarin. The extreme stability of the Nop56/58-fibrillarin heterodimer was confirmed in both chemical and thermal denaturation analyses. However, mutations that did not affect Nop56/58 binding to fibrillarin or sRNP assembly nevertheless disrupted sRNP-guided nucleotide modification, revealing a role for Nop56/58 in methyltransferase activity. This conclusion was supported with the cross-linking of Nop56/58 to the target RNA substrate. The Mj Nop56/58 NTD was further characterized by solving its three-dimensional crystal structure to a resolution of 1.7 Å. Despite low primary sequence conservation among the archaeal Nop56/58 homologs, the overall structure of the archaeal NTD domain is very well conserved. In conclusion, the archaeal Nop56/58 NTD exhibits a conserved domain structure whose exceptionally stable interaction with fibrillarin plays a role in both RNP assembly and methyltransferase activity. PMID:22496443

  14. Phylogenetic Diversity of Archaea and the Archaeal Ammonia Monooxygenase Gene in Uranium Mining-Impacted Locations in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Radeva, Galina; Kenarova, Anelia; Bachvarova, Velina; Popov, Ivan; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities adversely affect the microbial populations of impacted sites. The negative effects of uranium on soil bacteria and fungi are well studied, but little is known about the effects of radionuclides and heavy metals on archaea. The composition and diversity of archaeal communities inhabiting the waste pile of the Sliven uranium mine and the soil of the Buhovo uranium mine were investigated using 16S rRNA gene retrieval. A total of 355 archaeal clones were selected, and their 16S rDNA inserts were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) discriminating 14 different RFLP types. All evaluated archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belong to the 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster of Crenarchaeota. The composition of the archaeal community is distinct for each site of interest and dependent on environmental characteristics, including pollution levels. Since the members of 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster have been implicated in the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal communities from these sites were probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Our data indicate that amoA gene sequences are distributed in a similar manner as in Crenarchaeota, suggesting that archaeal nitrification processes in uranium mining-impacted locations are under the control of the same key factors controlling archaeal diversity. PMID:24711725

  15. Visualization and quantification of archaeal and bacterial metabolically active cells in soil using fluorescence in situ hybridization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Manucharova, Natalia; Stepanov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The method of in situ hybridization using fluorescent labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (FISH - fluorescence in situ hybridization) combines identification and quantification of groups of microorganisms at different phylogenetic levels, from domain to species. The FISH method enables to study the soil microbial community in situ, avoiding plating on nutrient media, and allows to identify and quantify living, metabolically active cells of Bacteria and Archaea. The full procedure consists of the following steps: desorption of the cells from the soil particles, fixation of cells, coating a fixed sample on the glass slide, hybridization with the specific probes and, finally, microscopic observation and cell counting. For the FISH analysis of Bacteria and Archaea, the paraformaldehyde-fixed samples were hybridized with Cy3-labeled Archaea-specific probe(Arc915) and 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled Bacteria-specific probe(EUB338). When a molecular probe is incorporated into a cell, it can hybridize solely with a complementary rRNA sequence. The hybridization can be visualized under the fluorescent microscope and counted. The application of FISH will be demonstrated by the abundance of metabolically active cells of Archaea and Bacteria depending on soil properties, depth and land use. The research was carried out at field and natural ecosystems of European part of Russia. Samples were collected within the soil profiles (3-6 horizons) of Chernozem and Kastanozem with distinct land use. Quantification of metabolically active cells in virgin and arable Chernozem revealed that the abundance of Archaea in topsoil of virgin Chernozem was doubled as compared with arable soil, but it leveled off in the deeper horizons. Plowing of Chernozem decreased an amount of archaeal and bacterial active cells simultaneously, however, Bacteria were more resistant to agrogenic impact than Archaea. In Kastanozem, a significant change in the abundance of metabolically active

  16. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuhong; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Bo; Schonewille, Thomas; Zhou, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had similar crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and metabolizable energy. Following the feeding trial, the steers were slaughtered and ruminal liquid samples were collected to study the ruminal microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing were performed for each sample. Following sequence de-noising, chimera checking, and quality trimming, an average of 209,610 sequences were generated per sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine the selected bacterial species in the rumen. Our results showed that the predominant phyla were Bacteroidetes (43.90%), Firmicutes (39.06%), Proteobacteria (4.31%), and Tenericutes (2.04%), and the predominant genera included Prevotella (13.82%), Ruminococcus (2.51%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), and Succiniclasticum (2.26%). Compared to the control group, EML and SMFP groups had a higher abundance of total bacteria (p < 0.001); however, the bacterial community composition was similar among the three groups. At the phylum level, there were no significant differences in Firmicutes (p = 0.7932), Bacteroidetes (p = 0.2330), Tenericutes (p = 0.2811), or Proteobacteria (p = 0.0680) levels among the three groups; however, Fibrobacteres decreased in EML (p = 0.0431). At the genus level, there were no differences in Prevotella (p = 0.4280), Ruminococcus (p = 0.2639), Butyrivibrio (p = 0.4433), or Succiniclasticum (p = 0.0431) levels among the groups. Additionally, the dietary treatments had no significant effects on the archaeal community composition in the rumen. Therefore, EML and SMFP supplementation had no significant effects on the ruminal bacterial or

  17. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yuhong; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Bo; Schonewille, Thomas; Zhou, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had similar crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and metabolizable energy. Following the feeding trial, the steers were slaughtered and ruminal liquid samples were collected to study the ruminal microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing were performed for each sample. Following sequence de-noising, chimera checking, and quality trimming, an average of 209,610 sequences were generated per sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine the selected bacterial species in the rumen. Our results showed that the predominant phyla were Bacteroidetes (43.90%), Firmicutes (39.06%), Proteobacteria (4.31%), and Tenericutes (2.04%), and the predominant genera included Prevotella (13.82%), Ruminococcus (2.51%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), and Succiniclasticum (2.26%). Compared to the control group, EML and SMFP groups had a higher abundance of total bacteria (p < 0.001); however, the bacterial community composition was similar among the three groups. At the phylum level, there were no significant differences in Firmicutes (p = 0.7932), Bacteroidetes (p = 0.2330), Tenericutes (p = 0.2811), or Proteobacteria (p = 0.0680) levels among the three groups; however, Fibrobacteres decreased in EML (p = 0.0431). At the genus level, there were no differences in Prevotella (p = 0.4280), Ruminococcus (p = 0.2639), Butyrivibrio (p = 0.4433), or Succiniclasticum (p = 0.0431) levels among the groups. Additionally, the dietary treatments had no significant effects on the archaeal community composition in the rumen. Therefore, EML and SMFP supplementation had no significant effects on the ruminal bacterial or

  18. Lipids of Archaeal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

  19. Investigation of Archaeal and Bacterial community structure of five different small drinking water networks with special regard to the nitrifying microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nagymáté, Zsuzsanna; Homonnay, Zalán G; Márialigeti, Károly

    2016-01-01

    Total microbial community structure, and particularly nitrifying communities inhabiting five different small drinking water networks characterized with different water physical and chemical parameters was investigated, using cultivation-based methods and sequence aided Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Ammonium ion, originated from well water, was only partially oxidized via nitrite to nitrate in the drinking water distribution systems. Nitrification occurred at low ammonium ion concentration (27-46μM), relatively high pH (7.6-8.2) and over a wide range of dissolved oxygen concentrations (0.4-9.0mgL(-1)). The nitrifying communities of the distribution systems were characterized by variable most probable numbers (2×10(2)-7.1×10(4) MPN L(-1)) and probably originated from the non-treated well water. The sequence aided T-RFLP method revealed that ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms and nitrite-oxidizing Bacteria (Nitrosomonas oligotropha, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and Nitrospira moscoviensis, 'Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii') were present in different ratios in the total microbial communities of the distinct parts of the water network systems. The nitrate generated by nitrification was partly utilized by nitrate-reducing (and denitrifying) Bacteria, present in low MPN and characterized by sequence aided T-RFLP as Comamonas sp. and Pseudomonas spp. Different environmental factors, like pH, chemical oxygen demand, calculated total inorganic nitrogen content (moreover nitrite and nitrate concentration), temperature had important effect on the total bacterial and archaeal community distribution. PMID:27296965

  20. Archaeal community dynamics and abiotic characteristics in a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process treating fruit and vegetable processing waste sludge with chopped fresh artichoke waste.

    PubMed

    Ros, M; Franke-Whittle, I H; Morales, A B; Insam, H; Ayuso, M; Pascual, J A

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of obtaining methane in anaerobic digestion (AD) from the waste products generated by the processing of fruit and vegetables. During the first phase (0-55 d) of the AD using sludge from fruit and vegetable processing, an average value of 244±88 L kg(-1) dry matter d(-1)of biogas production was obtained, and methane content reached 65% of the biogas. Co-digestion with chopped fresh artichoke wastes in a second phase (55-71 d) enhanced biogas production, and resulted in an average value of 354±68 L kg(-1) dry matter d(-1), with higher methane content (more than 70%). The archaeal community involved in methane production was studied using the ANAEROCHIP microarray and real-time PCR. Results indicated that species of Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina were important during the AD process. Methanosarcina numbers increased after the addition of chopped fresh artichoke, while Methanosaeta numbers decreased. PMID:23548398

  1. Revealing archaeal diversity patterns and methane fluxes in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, and their association to Brazilian Antarctic Station activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, C. R.; Kuhn, E.; Araújo, A. C. V.; Alvalá, P. C.; Ferreira, W. J.; Vazoller, R. F.; Pellizari, V. H.

    2011-03-01

    The study of Antarctic archaeal communities adds information on the biogeography of this group and helps understanding the dynamics of biogenic methane production in such extreme habitats. Molecular methods were combined to methane flux determinations in Martel Inlet, Admiralty Bay, to assess archaeal diversity, to obtain information about contribution of the area to atmospheric methane budget and to detect possible interferences of the Antarctic Brazilian Station Comandante Ferraz (EACF) wastewater discharge on local archaeal communities and methane emissions. Methane fluxes in Martel Inlet ranged from 3.2 to 117.9 μmol CH 4 m -2 d -1, with an average of 51.3±8.5 μmol CH 4 m -2 d -1 and a median of 57.6 μmol CH 4 m -2d -1. However, three negative fluxes averaging -11.3 μmol CH 4 m -2 d -1 were detected in MacKellar Inlet, indicating that Admiralty Bay can be either a source or sink of atmospheric methane. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that archaeal communities at EACF varied with depth and formed a group separated from the reference sites. Granulometric analysis indicated that differences observed may be mostly related to sediment type. However, an influence of wastewater input could not be discarded, since higher methane fluxes were found at CF site, suggesting stimulation of local methanogenesis. DGGE profile of the wastewater sample grouped separated from all other samples, suggesting that methanogenesis stimulation may be due to changes in environmental conditions rather than to the input of allochtonous species from the wastewater. 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries analysis showed that all wastewater sequences were related to known methanogenic groups belonging to the hydrogenotrophic genera Methanobacterium and Methanobrevibacter and the aceticlastic genus Methanosaeta. EACF and Botany Point sediment clone libraries retrieved only groups of uncultivated Archaea, with predominance of Crenarchaeota representatives (MCG, MG1, MBG

  2. Start-Up of an Anaerobic Dynamic Membrane Digester for Waste Activated Sludge Digestion: Temporal Variations in Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Qiaoying; Wang, Zhiwei; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Li, Yongli; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    An anaerobic dynamic membrane digester (ADMD) was developed to digest waste sludge, and pyrosequencing was used to analyze the variations of the bacterial and archaeal communities during the start-up. Results showed that bacterial community richness decreased and then increased over time, while bacterial diversity remained almost the same during the start-up. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the major phyla. At the class level, Betaproteobacteria was the most abundant at the end of start-up, followed by Sphingobacteria. In the archaeal community, richness and diversity peaked at the end of the start-up stage. Principle component and cluster analyses demonstrated that archaeal consortia experienced a distinct shift and became stable after day 38. Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales were the two predominant orders. Further investigations indicated that Methanolinea and Methanosaeta were responsible for methane production in the ADMD system. Hydrogenotrophic pathways might prevail over acetoclastic means for methanogenesis during the start-up, supported by specific methanogenic activity tests. PMID:24695488

  3. Archaeal Extrachromosomal Genetic Elements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spindles, rods, filaments, spheres, head-tails, bottles, and droplets, and some of these new viruses have been classified into one order, 10 families, and 16 genera. Investigation of model archaeal viruses has yielded important insights into mechanisms underlining various steps in the viral life cycle, including infection, DNA replication and transcription, and virion egression. Many of these mechanisms are unprecedented for any known bacterial or eukaryal viruses. Studies of plasmids isolated from different archaeal hosts have also revealed a striking diversity in gene content and innovation in replication strategies. Highly divergent replication proteins are identified in both viral and plasmid genomes. Genomic studies of archaeal ECEs have revealed a modular sequence structure in which modules of DNA sequence are exchangeable within, as well as among, plasmid families and probably also between viruses and plasmids. In particular, it has been suggested that ECE-host interactions have shaped the coevolution of ECEs and their archaeal hosts. Furthermore, archaeal hosts have developed defense systems, including the innate restriction-modification (R-M) system and the adaptive CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system, to restrict invasive plasmids and viruses. Together, these interactions permit a delicate balance between ECEs and their hosts, which is vitally important for maintaining an innovative gene reservoir carried by ECEs. In conclusion, while research on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade. PMID

  4. Niche specificity of ammonia-oxidizing archaeal and bacterial communities in a freshwater wetland receiving municipal wastewater in Daqing, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwok-Ho; Wang, Yong-Feng; Li, Hui; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Ecophysiological differences between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) enable them to adapt to different niches in complex freshwater wetland ecosystems. The community characters of AOA and AOB in the different niches in a freshwater wetland receiving municipal wastewater, as well as the physicochemical parameters of sediment/soil samples, were investigated in this study. AOA community structures varied and separated from each other among four different niches. Wetland vegetation including aquatic macrophytes and terrestrial plants affected the AOA community composition but less for AOB, whereas sediment depths might contribute to the AOB community shift. The diversity of AOA communities was higher than that of AOB across all four niches. Archaeal and bacterial amoA genes (encoding for the alpha-subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) were most diverse in the dry-land niche, indicating O2 availability might favor ammonia oxidation. The majority of AOA amoA sequences belonged to the Soil/sediment Cluster B in the freshwater wetland ecosystems, while the dominant AOB amoA sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira-like cluster. In the Nitrosospira-like cluster, AOB amoA gene sequences affiliated with the uncultured ammonia-oxidizing beta-proteobacteria constituted the largest portion (99%). Moreover, independent methods for phylogenetic tree analysis supported high parsimony bootstrap values. As a consequence, it is proposed that Nitrosospira-like amoA gene sequences recovered in this study represent a potentially novel cluster, grouping with the sequences from Gulf of Mexico deposited in the public databases. PMID:25163821

  5. Determination of the archaeal and bacterial communities in two-phase and single-stage anaerobic systems by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Maspolim, Yogananda; Zhou, Yan; Guo, Chenghong; Xiao, Keke; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-10-01

    2-Phase anaerobic digestion (AD), where the acidogenic phase was operated at 2day hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the methanogenic phase at 10days HRT, had been evaluated to determine if it could provide higher organic reduction and methane production than the conventional single-stage AD (also operated at 12days HRT). 454 pyrosequencing was performed to determine and compare the microbial communities. The acidogenic reactor of the 2-phase system yielded a unique bacterial community of the lowest richness and diversity, while bacterial profiles of the methanogenic reactor closely followed the single-stage reactor. All reactors were predominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, mainly Methanolinea. Unusually, the acidogenic reactor contributed up to 24% of total methane production in the 2-phase system. This could be explained by the presence of Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter, and their activities could also help regulate reactor alkalinity during high loading conditions through carbon dioxide production. The enrichment of hydrolytic and acidogenic Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Bacteroidetes in the acidogenic reactor would have contributed to the improved sludge volatile solids degradation, and ultimately the overall 2-phase system's performance. Syntrophic acetogenic microorganisms were absent in the acidogenic reactor but present in the downstream methanogenic reactor, indicating the retention of various metabolic pathways also found in a single-stage system. The determination of key microorganisms further expands our understanding of the complex biological functions in AD process. PMID:26456614

  6. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep. PMID:26284035

  7. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep. PMID:26284035

  8. Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Bomberg, Malin; Nyyssönen, Mari; Pitkänen, Petteri; Lehtinen, Anne; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland) using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296–798 m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ) at 250–350 m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp.) dominated in the SMMZ and γ-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp.) below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG) were more common at 415–559 m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, α-, β- and δ-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems. PMID:26425566

  9. Bacterial and archaeal communities in long-term contaminated surface and subsurface soil evaluated through coextracted RNA and DNA.

    PubMed

    Mikkonen, Anu; Santalahti, Minna; Lappi, Kaisa; Pulkkinen, Anni-Mari; Montonen, Leone; Suominen, Leena

    2014-10-01

    Soil RNA and DNA were coextracted along a contamination gradient at a landfarming field with aged crude oil contamination to investigate pollution-dependent differences in 16S rRNA and rRNA gene pools. Microbial biomass correlated with nucleic acid yields as well as bacterial community change, indicating that the same factors controlled community size and structure. In surface soil, bacterial community evenness, estimated through length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) fingerprinting, appeared higher for RNA-based than for DNA-based communities. The RNA-based community profiles resembled the DNA-based communities of soil with a lower contamination level. Cloning-based identification of bacterial hydrocarbon-degrading taxa in the RNA pool, representing the viable community with high protein synthesis potential, indicated that decontamination processes still continue. Analyses of archaea revealed that only Thaumarchaeota were present in the aerobic samples, whereas more diverse communities were found in the compacted subsurface soil with more crude oil. For subsurface bacteria, hydrocarbon concentration explained neither the community structure nor the difference between RNA-based and DNA-based communities. However, rRNA of bacterial taxa associated with syntrophic and sulphate-reducing alkane degradation was detected. Although the same prokaryotic taxa were identified in DNA and RNA, comparison of the two nucleic acid pools can aid in the assessment of past and future restoration success. PMID:24986450

  10. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal-bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex R; Woyke, Tanja; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-07-12

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probe the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of >16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought. PMID:27357680

  11. Archaeal Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Displays Robust Activity under High-Salt Conditions and in Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Lana J.; Hepowit, Nathaniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPAs) that hydrolyze inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) to orthophosphate (Pi) are commonly used to accelerate and detect biosynthetic reactions that generate PPi as a by-product. Current PPAs are inactivated by high salt concentrations and organic solvents, which limits the extent of their use. Here we report a class A type PPA of the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii (HvPPA) that is thermostable and displays robust PPi-hydrolyzing activity under conditions of 25% (vol/vol) organic solvent and salt concentrations from 25 mM to 3 M. HvPPA was purified to homogeneity as a homohexamer by a rapid two-step method and was found to display non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Vmax of 465 U · mg−1 for PPi hydrolysis (optimal at 42°C and pH 8.5) and Hill coefficients that indicated cooperative binding to PPi and Mg2+. Similarly to other class A type PPAs, HvPPA was inhibited by sodium fluoride; however, hierarchical clustering and three-dimensional (3D) homology modeling revealed HvPPA to be distinct in structure from characterized PPAs. In particular, HvPPA was highly negative in surface charge, which explained its extreme resistance to organic solvents. To demonstrate that HvPPA could drive thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to completion under conditions of reduced water activity, a novel coupled assay was developed; HvPPA hydrolyzed the PPi by-product generated in 2 M NaCl by UbaA (a “salt-loving” noncanonical E1 enzyme that adenylates ubiquitin-like proteins in the presence of ATP). Overall, we demonstrate HvPPA to be useful for hydrolyzing PPi under conditions of reduced water activity that are a hurdle to current PPA-based technologies. PMID:26546423

  12. Improving the promiscuous nerve agent hydrolase activity of a thermostable archaeal lactonase.

    PubMed

    Merone, Luigia; Mandrich, Luigi; Porzio, Elena; Rossi, Mosé; Müller, Susanne; Reiter, Georg; Worek, Franz; Manco, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    The thermostable Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsoPox) hydrolyzes lactones and, at a lower rate, neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds. The persistent demand of detoxification tools in the field of agricultural wastes and restoring of conditions after terrorist acts prompted us to exploit SsoPox as a "starter" to evolve its ancillary nerve agents hydrolytic capability. A directed evolution strategy yielded, among several variants, the single mutant W263F with k(cat) and specificity constant against paraoxon 16- and 6-fold enhanced, respectively, compared to the wild type. Furthermore, a phenomenon of enzyme activation by SDS has been observed, which allowed to increase those values 150- and 28-fold, respectively. The activity of SsoPox against the deadly nerve gas Cyclosarin has been reported for the first time and proved to be substantially unaffected for variant W263F. Finally, outperforming efficiency of W263F was demonstrated, under severe stressing conditions, with respect to the best known phosphotriesterase PTE from Brevundimonas diminuta. PMID:20667718

  13. Pyrosequencing of mcrA and Archaeal 16S rRNA Genes Reveals Diversity and Substrate Preferences of Methanogen Communities in Anaerobic Digesters

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, David; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Shen, Zhiyong; Chen, Jiapeng

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea play a key role in biogas-producing anaerobic digestion and yet remain poorly taxonomically characterized. This is in part due to the limitations of low-throughput Sanger sequencing of a single (16S rRNA) gene, which in the past may have undersampled methanogen diversity. In this study, archaeal communities from three sludge digesters in Hong Kong and one wastewater digester in China were examined using high-throughput pyrosequencing of the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) and 16S rRNA genes. Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales were detected in each digester, indicating that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis was occurring. Two sludge digesters had similar community structures, likely due to their similar design and feedstock. Taxonomic classification of the mcrA genes suggested that these digesters were dominated by acetoclastic methanogens, particularly Methanosarcinales, while the other digesters were dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. The proposed euryarchaeotal order Methanomassiliicoccales and the uncultured WSA2 group were detected with the 16S rRNA gene, and potential mcrA genes for these groups were identified. 16S rRNA gene sequencing also recovered several crenarchaeotal groups potentially involved in the initial anaerobic digestion processes. Overall, the two genes produced different taxonomic profiles for the digesters, while greater methanogen richness was detected using the mcrA gene, supporting the use of this functional gene as a complement to the 16S rRNA gene to better assess methanogen diversity. A significant positive correlation was detected between methane production and the abundance of mcrA transcripts in digesters treating sludge and wastewater samples, supporting the mcrA gene as a biomarker for methane yield. PMID:25381241

  14. Bacterial and Archaeal Communities Variability Associated with Upwelling and Anthropogenic Pressures in the Protection Area of Arraial do Cabo (Cabo Frio region - RJ).

    PubMed

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A; Araújo, Fábio V; Cury, Juliano C; Jesus, Hugo E; Pereira, Gilberto C; Guimarães, Jean R D; Peixoto, Raquel S; Dávila, Alberto M R; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    Upwelling systems contain a high diversity of pelagic microorganisms and their composition and activity are defined by factors like temperature and nutrient concentration. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique was used to verify the spatial and temporal genetic variability of Bacteria and Archaea in two stations of the Arraial do Cabo coastal region, one under upwelling pressure and another under anthropogenic pressure. In addition, biotic and abiotic variables were measured in surface and deep waters from three other stations between these stations. Six samplings were done during a year and adequately represented the degrees of upwelling and anthropogenic pressures to the system. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed negative correlations between the concentrations of ammonia and phosphorous with prokaryotic secondary production and the total heterotrophic bacteria. PCA also showed negative correlation between temperature and the abundance of prokaryotic cells. Bacterial and archaeal compositions were changeable as were the oceanographic conditions, and upwelling had a regional pressure while anthropogenic pressure was punctual. We suggest that the measurement of prokaryotic secondary production was associated with both Bacteria and Archaea activities, and that substrate availability and temperature determine nutrients cycling. PMID:26375020

  15. Archaeal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed. PMID:25421597

  16. Effects on enteric methane production and bacterial and archaeal communities by the addition of cashew nut shell extract or glycerol-an in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Werner-Omazic, Anna; Ramin, Mohammad; Schnürer, Anna; Griinari, Mikko; Dicksved, Johan; Bertilsson, Jan

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of cashew nut shell extract (CNSE) and glycerol (purity >99%) on enteric methane (CH4) production and microbial communities in an automated gas in vitro system. Microbial communities from the in vitro system were compared with samples from the donor cows, in vivo. Inoculated rumen fluid was mixed with a diet with a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio and, in total, 5 different treatments were set up: 5mg of CNSE (CNSE-L), 10mg of CNSE (CNSE-H), 15mmol of glycerol/L (glycerol-L), and 30mmol of glycerol/L (glycerol-H), and a control without feed additive. Gas samples were taken at 2, 4, 8, 24, 32, and 48h of incubation, and the CH4 concentration was measured. Samples of rumen fluid were taken for volatile fatty acid analysis and for microbial sequence analyses after 8, 24, and 48h of incubation. In vivo rumen samples from the cows were taken 2h after the morning feeding at 3 consecutive days to compare the in vitro system with in vivo conditions. The gas data and data from microbial sequence analysis (454 sequencing) were analyzed using a mixed model and principal components analysis. These analyses illustrated that CH4 production was reduced with the CNSE treatment, by 8 and 18%, respectively, for the L and H concentration. Glycerol instead increased CH4 production by 8 and 12%, respectively, for the L and H concentration. The inhibition with CNSE could be due to the observed shift in bacterial population, possibly resulting in decreased production of hydrogen or formate, the methanogenic substrates. Alternatively the response could be explained by a shift in the methanogenic community. In the glycerol treatments, no main differences in bacterial or archaeal population were detected compared with the in vivo control. Thus, the increase in CH4 production may be explained by the increase in substrate in the in vitro system. The reduced CH4 production in vitro with CNSE suggests that CNSE can be a promising inhibitor of

  17. Examining the global distribution of dominant archaeal populations in soil

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Scott T; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Caporaso, J Gregory; Walters, William A; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Archaea, primarily Crenarchaeota, are common in soil; however, the structure of soil archaeal communities and the factors regulating their diversity and abundance remain poorly understood. Here, we used barcoded pyrosequencing to comprehensively survey archaeal and bacterial communities in 146 soils, representing a multitude of soil and ecosystem types from across the globe. Relative archaeal abundance, the percentage of all 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered that were archaeal, averaged 2% across all soils and ranged from 0% to >10% in individual soils. Soil C:N ratio was the only factor consistently correlated with archaeal relative abundances, being higher in soils with lower C:N ratios. Soil archaea communities were dominated by just two phylotypes from a constrained clade within the Crenarchaeota, which together accounted for >70% of all archaeal sequences obtained in the survey. As one of these phylotypes was closely related to a previously identified putative ammonia oxidizer, we sampled from two long-term nitrogen (N) addition experiments to determine if this taxon responds to experimental manipulations of N availability. Contrary to expectations, the abundance of this dominant taxon, as well as archaea overall, tended to decline with increasing N. This trend was coupled with a concurrent increase in known N-oxidizing bacteria, suggesting competitive interactions between these groups. PMID:21085198

  18. Adenosine triphosphatases of thermophilic archaeal double-stranded DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) of double-stranded (ds) DNA archaeal viruses are structurally related to the AAA+ hexameric helicases and translocases. These ATPases have been implicated in viral life cycle functions such as DNA entry into the host, and viral genome packaging into preformed procapsids. We summarize bioinformatical analyses of a wide range of archaeal ATPases, and review the biochemical and structural properties of those archaeal ATPases that have measurable ATPase activity. We discuss their potential roles in genome delivery into the host, virus assembly and genome packaging in comparison to hexameric helicases and packaging motors from bacteriophages. PMID:25105011

  19. An archaeal genomic signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. E.; Overbeek, R.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons of complete genome sequences allow the most objective and comprehensive descriptions possible of a lineage's evolution. This communication uses the completed genomes from four major euryarchaeal taxa to define a genomic signature for the Euryarchaeota and, by extension, the Archaea as a whole. The signature is defined in terms of the set of protein-encoding genes found in at least two diverse members of the euryarchaeal taxa that function uniquely within the Archaea; most signature proteins have no recognizable bacterial or eukaryal homologs. By this definition, 351 clusters of signature proteins have been identified. Functions of most proteins in this signature set are currently unknown. At least 70% of the clusters that contain proteins from all the euryarchaeal genomes also have crenarchaeal homologs. This conservative set, which appears refractory to horizontal gene transfer to the Bacteria or the Eukarya, would seem to reflect the significant innovations that were unique and fundamental to the archaeal "design fabric." Genomic protein signature analysis methods may be extended to characterize the evolution of any phylogenetically defined lineage. The complete set of protein clusters for the archaeal genomic signature is presented as supplementary material (see the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org).

  20. Investigation of bacterial and archaeal communities: novel protocols using modern sequencing by Illumina MiSeq and traditional DGGE-cloning.

    PubMed

    Kraková, Lucia; Šoltys, Katarína; Budiš, Jaroslav; Grivalský, Tomáš; Ďuriš, František; Pangallo, Domenico; Szemes, Tomáš

    2016-09-01

    Different protocols based on Illumina high-throughput DNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-cloning were developed and applied for investigating hot spring related samples. The study was focused on three target genes: archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA and mcrA of methanogenic microflora. Shorter read lengths of the currently most popular technology of sequencing by Illumina do not allow analysis of the complete 16S rRNA region, or of longer gene fragments, as was the case of Sanger sequencing. Here, we demonstrate that there is no need for special indexed or tailed primer sets dedicated to short variable regions of 16S rRNA since the presented approach allows the analysis of complete bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons (V1-V9) and longer archaeal 16S rRNA and mcrA sequences. Sample augmented with transposon is represented by a set of approximately 300 bp long fragments that can be easily sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Furthermore, a low proportion of chimeric sequences was observed. DGGE-cloning based strategies were performed combining semi-nested PCR, DGGE and clone library construction. Comparing both investigation methods, a certain degree of complementarity was observed confirming that the DGGE-cloning approach is not obsolete. Novel protocols were created for several types of laboratories, utilizing the traditional DGGE technique or using the most modern Illumina sequencing. PMID:27338271

  1. Impacts of bioturbation on temporal variation in bacterial and archaeal nitrogen-cycling gene abundance in coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Laverock, B; Tait, K; Gilbert, J A; Osborn, A M; Widdicombe, S

    2014-02-01

    In marine environments, macrofauna living in or on the sediment surface may alter the structure, diversity and function of benthic microbial communities. In particular, microbial nitrogen (N)-cycling processes may be enhanced by the activity of large bioturbating organisms. Here, we study the effect of the burrowing mud shrimp Upogebia deltaura upon temporal variation in the abundance of genes representing key N-cycling functional guilds. The abundance of bacterial genes representing different N-cycling guilds displayed different temporal patterns in burrow sediments in comparison with surface sediments, suggesting that the burrow provides a unique environment where bacterial gene abundances are influenced directly by macrofaunal activity. In contrast, the abundances of archaeal ammonia oxidizers varied temporally but were not affected by bioturbation, indicating differential responses between bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers to environmental physicochemical controls. This study highlights the importance of bioturbation as a control over the temporal variation in nitrogen-cycling microbial community dynamics within coastal sediments. PMID:24596269

  2. Impacts of bioturbation on temporal variation in bacterial and archaeal nitrogen-cycling gene abundance in coastal sediments

    PubMed Central

    Laverock, B; Tait, K; Gilbert, J A; Osborn, A M; Widdicombe, S

    2014-01-01

    In marine environments, macrofauna living in or on the sediment surface may alter the structure, diversity and function of benthic microbial communities. In particular, microbial nitrogen (N)-cycling processes may be enhanced by the activity of large bioturbating organisms. Here, we study the effect of the burrowing mud shrimp Upogebia deltaura upon temporal variation in the abundance of genes representing key N-cycling functional guilds. The abundance of bacterial genes representing different N-cycling guilds displayed different temporal patterns in burrow sediments in comparison with surface sediments, suggesting that the burrow provides a unique environment where bacterial gene abundances are influenced directly by macrofaunal activity. In contrast, the abundances of archaeal ammonia oxidizers varied temporally but were not affected by bioturbation, indicating differential responses between bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers to environmental physicochemical controls. This study highlights the importance of bioturbation as a control over the temporal variation in nitrogen-cycling microbial community dynamics within coastal sediments. PMID:24596269

  3. Nitrification of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in acid soils is supported by hydrolysis of urea

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Han, Wenyan; Zhang, Jinbo; Wu, Yucheng; Wang, Baozhan; Lin, Xiangui; Zhu, Jianguo; Cai, Zucong; Jia, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of urea as a source of ammonia has been proposed as a mechanism for the nitrification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in acidic soil. The growth of Nitrososphaera viennensis on urea suggests that the ureolysis of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) might occur in natural environments. In this study, 15N isotope tracing indicates that ammonia oxidation occurred upon the addition of urea at a concentration similar to the in situ ammonium content of tea orchard soil (pH 3.75) and forest soil (pH 5.4) and was inhibited by acetylene. Nitrification activity was significantly stimulated by urea fertilization and coupled well with abundance changes in archaeal amoA genes in acidic soils. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes at whole microbial community level demonstrates the active growth of AOA in urea-amended soils. Molecular fingerprinting further shows that changes in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprint patterns of archaeal amoA genes are paralleled by nitrification activity changes. However, bacterial amoA and 16S rRNA genes of AOB were not detected. The results strongly suggest that archaeal ammonia oxidation is supported by hydrolysis of urea and that AOA, from the marine Group 1.1a-associated lineage, dominate nitrification in two acidic soils tested. PMID:22592820

  4. Archaeal Viruses, Not Archaeal Phages: An Archaeological Dig

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.; Murray, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses infect members of domains Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea. While those infecting domain Eukarya are nearly universally described as “Viruses”, those of domain Bacteria, to a substantial extent, instead are called “Bacteriophages,” or “Phages.” Should the viruses of domain Archaea therefore be dubbed “Archaeal phages,” “Archaeal viruses,” or some other construct? Here we provide documentation of published, general descriptors of the viruses of domain Archaea. Though at first the term “Phage” or equivalent was used almost exclusively in the archaeal virus literature, there has been a nearly 30-year trend away from this usage, with some persistence of “Phage” to describe “Head-and-tail” archaeal viruses, “Halophage” to describe viruses of halophilic Archaea, use of “Prophage” rather than “Provirus,” and so forth. We speculate on the root of the early 1980's transition from “Phage” to “Virus” to describe these infectious agents, consider the timing of introduction of “Archaeal virus” (which can be viewed as analogous to “Bacterial virus”), identify numerous proposed alternatives to “Archaeal virus,” and also provide discussion of the general merits of the term, “Phage.” Altogether we identify in excess of one dozen variations on how the viruses of domain Archaea are described, and document the timing of both their introduction and use. PMID:23653528

  5. Protein Adaptations in Archaeal Extremophiles

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Christopher J.; Lewis, Hunter; Trejo, Eric; Winston, Vern; Evilia, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Extremophiles, especially those in Archaea, have a myriad of adaptations that keep their cellular proteins stable and active under the extreme conditions in which they live. Rather than having one basic set of adaptations that works for all environments, Archaea have evolved separate protein features that are customized for each environment. We categorized the Archaea into three general groups to describe what is known about their protein adaptations: thermophilic, psychrophilic, and halophilic. Thermophilic proteins tend to have a prominent hydrophobic core and increased electrostatic interactions to maintain activity at high temperatures. Psychrophilic proteins have a reduced hydrophobic core and a less charged protein surface to maintain flexibility and activity under cold temperatures. Halophilic proteins are characterized by increased negative surface charge due to increased acidic amino acid content and peptide insertions, which compensates for the extreme ionic conditions. While acidophiles, alkaliphiles, and piezophiles are their own class of Archaea, their protein adaptations toward pH and pressure are less discernible. By understanding the protein adaptations used by archaeal extremophiles, we hope to be able to engineer and utilize proteins for industrial, environmental, and biotechnological applications where function in extreme conditions is required for activity. PMID:24151449

  6. In vitro RNP assembly and methylation guide activity of an unusual box C/D RNA, cis-acting archaeal pre-tRNATrp

    PubMed Central

    Bortolin, Marie-Line; Bachellerie, Jean-Pierre; Clouet-d'Orval, Béatrice

    2003-01-01

    Among the large family of C/D methylation guide RNAs, the intron of euryarchaeal pre-tRNATrp represents an outstanding specimen able to guide in cis, instead of in trans, two 2′-O-methylations in the pre-tRNA exons. Remarkably, both sites of methylation involve nucleotides within the bulge–helix–bulge (BHB) splicing motif, while the RNA-guided methylation and pre-tRNA splicing events depend on mutually exclusive RNA folding patterns. Using the three recombinant core proteins of archaeal C/D RNPs, we have analyzed in vitro RNP assembly of the pre-tRNA and tested its site-specific methylation activity. Recognition by L7Ae of hallmark K-turns at the C/D and C′/D′ motifs appears as a crucial assembly step required for subsequent binding of a Nop5p–aFib heterodimer at each site. Unexpectedly, however, even without L7Ae but at a higher concentration of Nop5p–aFib, a substantially active RNP complex can still form, possibly reflecting the higher propensity of the cis-acting system to form guide RNA duplex(es) relative to classical trans- acting C/D RNA guides. Moreover, footprinting data of RNPs, consistent with Nop5p interacting with the non-canonical stem of the K-turn, suggest that binding of Nop5p–aFib to the pre-tRNA–L7Ae complex might direct transition from a splicing-competent structure to an RNA conformer displaying the guide RNA duplexes required for site-specific methylation. PMID:14602911

  7. DNA translocation activity of the multifunctional replication protein ORF904 from the archaeal plasmid pRN1

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Martin; Drechsler, Markus; Stark, Holger; Lipps, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The replication protein ORF904 from the plasmid pRN1 is a multifunctional enzyme with ATPase-, primase- and DNA polymerase activity. Sequence analysis suggests the presence of at least two conserved domains: an N-terminal prim/pol domain with primase and DNA polymerase activities and a C-terminal superfamily 3 helicase domain with a strong double-stranded DNA dependant ATPase activity. The exact molecular function of the helicase domain in the process of plasmid replication remains unclear. Potentially this motor protein is involved in duplex remodelling and/or origin opening at the plasmid replication origin. In support of this we found that the monomeric replication protein ORF904 forms a hexameric ring in the presence of DNA. It is able to translocate along single-stranded DNA in 3′–5′ direction as well as on double-stranded DNA. Critical residues important for ATPase activity and DNA translocation activity were identified and are in agreement with a homology model of the helicase domain. In addition we propose that a winged helix DNA-binding domain at the C-terminus of the helicase domain could assist the binding of the replication protein specifically to the replication origin. PMID:19762479

  8. Archaeal DNA polymerases in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Huang, Yanchao

    2015-08-01

    DNA polymerase (pol) is a ubiquitous enzyme that synthesizes DNA strands in all living cells. In vitro, DNA pol is used for DNA manipulation, including cloning, PCR, site-directed mutagenesis, sequencing, and several other applications. Family B archaeal DNA pols have been widely used for molecular biological methods. Biochemical and structural studies reveal that each archaeal DNA pol has different characteristics with respect to fidelity, processivity and thermostability. Due to their high fidelity and strong thermostability, family B archaeal DNA pols have the extensive application on high-fidelity PCR, DNA sequencing, and site-directed mutagenesis while family Y archaeal DNA pols have the potential for error-prone PCR and random mutagenesis because of their low fidelity and strong thermostability. This information combined with mutational analysis has been used to construct novel DNA pols with altered properties that enhance their use as biotechnological reagents. In this review, we focus on the development and use of family B archaeal DNA pols. PMID:26150245

  9. Microwave and ultrasound pre-treatments influence microbial community structure and digester performance in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, Maria; Crauwels, Sam; Van Geel, Maarten; Dewil, Raf; Lievens, Bart; Appels, Lise

    2016-06-01

    Comparative analyses of bacterial and archaeal community structures and dynamics in three biogas digesters during start-up and subsequent operation using microwaved, ultrasonicated or untreated waste activated sludge were performed based on 454 pyrosequencing datasets of part of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences and quantitative PCR. The pre-treatment increased the solubility, and thus the availability of the substrate for microbial degradation and significantly affected the succession of the anaerobic community structure over the course of the digestion. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in all digesters throughout operation. Proteobacteria decreased in relative abundance from 23-26 % to 11-13 % in association with enhanced substrate availability. Negative correlations between relative abundance of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the substrate availability and/or biogas production were disclosed in statistical analyses. Clostridiales was the dominant order in Firmicutes, and Clostridiales, Clostridia and Firmicutes relative abundance and richness were shown to positively correlate with substrate availability and biogas generation. Methanogenic communities had a fairly restricted structure, highly dominated by Methanosaeta and Methanobrevibacter phylotypes. A gradual decline in Methanobrevibacter and increased representation of Methanosaeta concilii over time were particularly apparent in the digester receiving untreated waste activated sludge, whereas more diversified archaeal communities were maintained in the pre-treatment digesters. The quantitative PCR analyses revealed a methanogenic community distribution that coincided with the 454 pyrosequencing data. PMID:26816092

  10. Interpretation of multiple archaeal lipid biomarkers in deep sediments bearing gas hydrate in the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-Hun, Lee; Jong-Gu, Gal; Ji-Hoon, Kim; Jang-Jun, Bahk; Kyung-Hoon, Shin

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the distributions and stable carbon isotope values of arhaeal lipid biomarkers at seismically chimney and non-chimney sites (UBGH 2-3, UBGH 2-1_1) of gas hydrate bearing deep core sediments during the second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH 2). The objective of this study was to identify and compare the metabolic pathway of methane-related archaea between both sites. The increased concentration and δ13C-depleted archaeol and sn-2-hydroxyarcheol at the Sulphate-Methane transition Zone (SMTZ) of UBGH 2-11 could be predominantly methanotrophic activity indicating methane consumption by Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). The concentration of methane-related specific biomarkers (PMI, crocetane, archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarcheol) within deep core sediment bearing gas hydrate of both sites is relatively higher than in other sediment sections, showing lower Cl- concentration. The carbon stable isotopic data (-47.5 o -75.2o to -52.4) for archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarcheol in the sediment sections (20mbsf, 93 - 100mbsf) at UBGH 2-11 reflect methane production via microbial carbon dioxide reduction in deep core sediment. Archaeal lipid biomarker concentrations are slightly different depending on upward methane diffusion or advection with the seismic characteristics of both sites. Based on the archaeal lipid biomarker ratio (sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol/archaeol) as a tool to demonstrate the different ANME communities, our result suggest that the predominant occurrence of ANMEs is mediated by upward migration of microbial methane. Consequently, geochemical signature of archaeal lipid biomarkers in the East Sea of the western North Paci?c may be a potential indicator reflected by upward transported-methane in methane cycle of deep core sediment. In addition, the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) is discussed with archaeal lipid biomarkers in the gas hydrate bearing deep sediment.

  11. Archaeal Distribution in Moonmilk Deposits from Alpine Caves and Their Ecophysiological Potential.

    PubMed

    Reitschuler, Christoph; Spötl, Christoph; Hofmann, Katrin; Wagner, Andreas O; Illmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    (Alpine) caves are, in general, windows into the Earth's subsurface. Frequently occurring structures in caves such as moonmilk (secondary calcite deposits) offer the opportunity to study intraterrestrial microbial communities, adapted to oligotrophic and cold conditions. This is an important research field regarding the dimensions of subsurface systems and cold regions on Earth. On a methodological level, moonmilk deposits from 11 caves in the Austrian Alps were collected aseptically and investigated using a molecular (qPCR and DGGE sequencing-based) methodology in order to study the occurrence, abundance, and diversity of the prevailing native Archaea community. Furthermore, these Archaea were enriched in complex media and studied regarding their physiology, with a media selection targeting different physiological requirements, e.g. methanogenesis and ammonia oxidation. The investigation of the environmental samples showed that all moonmilk deposits were characterized by the presence of the same few habitat-specific archaeal species, showing high abundances and constituting about 50 % of the total microbial communities. The largest fraction of these Archaea was ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, while another abundant group was very distantly related to extremophilic Euryarchaeota (Moonmilk Archaea). The archaeal community showed a depth- and oxygen-dependent stratification. Archaea were much more abundant (around 80 %), compared to bacteria, in the actively forming surface part of moonmilk deposits, decreasing to about 5 % down to the bedrock. Via extensive cultivation efforts, it was possible to enrich the enigmatic Moonmilk Archaea and also AOA significantly above the level of bacteria. The most expedient prerequisites for cultivating Moonmilk Archaea were a cold temperature, oligotrophic conditions, short incubation times, a moonmilk surface inoculum, the application of erythromycin, and anaerobic (microaerophilic) conditions. On a physiological level, it seems

  12. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and/or rice straw amendment on methanogenic archaeal communities and methane production from a rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qiongli; Huang, Yizong; Wang, Fenghua; Nie, Sanan; Nicol, Graeme W; Yao, Huaiying; Ding, Longjun

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fertilization and returning straw to paddy soil are important factors that regulate CH4 production. To evaluate the effect of rice straw and/or nitrate amendment on methanogens, a paddy soil was anaerobically incubated for 40 days. The results indicated that while straw addition increased CH4 production and the abundances of mcrA genes and their transcripts, nitrate amendment showed inhibitory effects on them. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis based on mcrA gene revealed that straw addition obviously changed methanogenic community structure. Based on mcrA gene level, straw-alone addition stimulated Methanosarcinaceaes at the early stage of incubation (first 11 days), but nitrate showed inhibitory effect. The relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae was also stimulated by straw addition during the first 11 days. Furthermore, Methanosaetaceae were enriched by nitrate-alone addition after 11 days, while Methanocellaceae were enriched by nitrate addition especially within the first 5 days. The transcriptional methanogenic community indicated more dynamic and complicated responses to straw and/or nitrate addition. Based on mcrA transcript level, nitrate addition alone resulted in the increase of Methanocellaceae and the shift from Methanosarcinaceae to Methanosaetaceae during the first 5 days of incubation. Straw treatments increased the relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae after 11 days. These results demonstrate that nitrate addition influences methanogens which are transcriptionally and functionally active and can alleviate CH4 production associated with straw amendment in paddy soil incubations, presumably through competition for common substrates between nitrate-utilizing organisms and methanogens. PMID:26923143

  13. Archaeal Lineages within the Human Microbiome: Absent, Rare or Elusive?

    PubMed

    Horz, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Archaea are well-recognized components of the human microbiome. However, they appear to be drastically underrepresented compared to the high diversity of bacterial taxa which can be found on various human anatomic sites, such as the gastrointestinal environment, the oral cavity and the skin. As our "microbial" view of the human body, including the methodological concepts used to describe them, has been traditionally biased on bacteria, the question arises whether our current knowledge reflects the actual ratio of archaea versus bacteria or whether we have failed so far to unravel the full diversity of human-associated archaea. This review article hypothesizes that distinct archaeal lineages within humans exist, which still await our detection. First, previously unrecognized taxa might be quite common but they have eluded conventional detection methods. Two recent prime examples are described that demonstrate that this might be the case for specific archaeal lineages. Second, some archaeal taxa might be overlooked because they are rare and/or in low abundance. Evidence for this exists for a broad range of phylogenetic lineages, however we currently do not know whether these sporadically appearing organisms are mere transients or important members of the so called "rare biosphere" with probably basic ecosystem functions. Lastly, evidence exists that different human populations harbor different archaeal taxa and/or the abundance and activity of shared archaeal taxa may differ and thus their impact on the overall microbiome. This research line is rather unexplored and warrants further investigation. While not recapitulating exhaustively all studies on archaeal diversity in humans, this review highlights pertinent recent findings that show that the choice of appropriate methodological approaches and the consideration of different human populations may lead to the detection of archaeal lineages previously not associated with humans. This in turn will help understand

  14. Prokaryotic Community Structure and Sulfate Reducer Activity in Water from High-Temperature Oil Reservoirs with and without Nitrate Treatment▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) cause severe problems like microbial corrosion and reservoir souring in seawater-injected oil production systems. One strategy to control SRP activity is the addition of nitrate to the injection water. Production waters from two adjacent, hot (80°C) oil reservoirs, one with and one without nitrate treatment, were compared for prokaryotic community structure and activity of SRP. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed higher prokaryotic abundance but lower diversity for the nitrate-treated field. The 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from both fields were dominated by sequences affiliated with Firmicutes (Bacteria) and Thermococcales (Archaea). Potential heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Deferribacterales) were exclusively found at the nitrate-treated field, possibly stimulated by nitrate addition. Quantitative PCR of dsrAB genes revealed that archaeal SRP (Archaeoglobus) dominated the SRP communities, but with lower relative abundance at the nitrate-treated site. Bacterial SRP were found in only low abundance at both sites and were nearly exclusively affiliated with thermophilic genera (Desulfacinum and Desulfotomaculum). Despite the high abundance of archaeal SRP, no archaeal SRP activity was detected in [35S]sulfate incubations at 80°C. Sulfate reduction was found at 60°C in samples from the untreated field and accompanied by the growth of thermophilic bacterial SRP in batch cultures. Samples from the nitrate-treated field generally lacked SRP activity. These results indicate that (i) Archaeoglobus can be a major player in hot oil reservoirs, and (ii) nitrate may act in souring control—not only by inhibiting SRP, but also by changing the overall community structure, including the stimulation of competitive nitrate reducers. PMID:19801479

  15. Lessons in Community Health Activism

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study employed historical methodologies to explore the means through which the Maternity Care Coalition used grassroots activism to dismantle the power structures and other obstacles that contributed to high infant mortality rates in Philadelphia’s health districts 5 and 6 during the 1980s. Infant mortality within the black community has been a persistent phenomenon in the United States. Refusing to accept poverty as a major determinant of infant mortality within marginalized populations of women, activists during the 1980s harnessed momentum from a postcivil rights context and sought alternative methods toward change and improvement of infant mortality rates. PMID:24892861

  16. Archaeal diversity in ODP legacy borehole 892b and associated seawater and sediments of the Cascadia Margin.

    PubMed

    Lanoil, Brain D; La Duc, Myron T; Wright, Miriam; Kastner, Miriam; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bartlett, Douglas

    2005-10-01

    The Cascadia Margin is a region of active accretionary tectonics characterized by high methane flux accompanied by the formation of sedimentary gas hydrates, carbonate nodules, and carbonate pavements. Several sediment cores have been obtained from this region by the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP), and in some cases the boreholes have been sealed off, serving as sites for long-term observatories. We characterized geochemical parameters and diversity of Archaea in one such "legacy" borehole, ODP site 892b, as well as in bottom water immediately above the borehole and in two nearby sediments. The methane concentrations in the samples varied over five orders of magnitude, from approximately 25 to 35 nM in the bottom water to approximately 1.4mM in one of the sediment samples. Despite these differences, the Archaeal community in all samples was dominated by gene sequences related to the methanogenic Archaea, a finding that correlates with studies of other environments characterized by high methane flux. The archaeal phylotype richness in borehole ODP 892b was limited to two phylotypes; one specifically related to Methanosaeta spp., the other to the anaerobic methane oxidizing ANME-1 group. Although some similar groups were observed in nearby sediment and seawater samples, their archaeal phylotype richness was significantly higher than in the borehole. The possible presence of a dynamic microbial community in the Cascadia Margin sub-surface and its potential roles in methanogenesis, anaerobic oxidation of methane, and authigenic precipitation of carbonate in the Cascadia Margin are discussed. PMID:16332316

  17. 28 CFR 551.109 - Community activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Community activities. 551.109 Section 551... MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.109 Community activities. (a) The Warden may not grant a furlough to a... in community programs....

  18. 28 CFR 551.109 - Community activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community activities. 551.109 Section 551... MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.109 Community activities. (a) The Warden may not grant a furlough to a... in community programs....

  19. 28 CFR 551.109 - Community activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Community activities. 551.109 Section 551... MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.109 Community activities. (a) The Warden may not grant a furlough to a... in community programs....

  20. 28 CFR 551.109 - Community activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Community activities. 551.109 Section 551... MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.109 Community activities. (a) The Warden may not grant a furlough to a... in community programs....

  1. 28 CFR 551.109 - Community activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Community activities. 551.109 Section 551... MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.109 Community activities. (a) The Warden may not grant a furlough to a... in community programs....

  2. Archaeal populations in hypersaline sediments underlying orange microbial mats in the Napoli mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the "active" archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano. PMID:21335391

  3. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. PMID:27266302

  4. Symbiotic archaea in marine sponges show stability and host specificity in community structure and ammonia oxidation functionality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Pita, Lucía; Erwin, Patrick M; Abaid, Summara; López-Legentil, Susanna; Hill, Russell T

    2014-12-01

    Archaea associated with marine sponges are active and influence the nitrogen metabolism of sponges. However, we know little about their occurrence, specificity, and persistence. We aimed to elucidate the relative importance of host specificity and biogeographic background in shaping the symbiotic archaeal communities. We investigated these communities in sympatric sponges from the Mediterranean (Ircinia fasciculata and Ircinia oros, sampled in summer and winter) and from the Caribbean (Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima). PCR cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes showed that the archaeal community composition and structure were different from that in seawater and varied among sponge species. We found that the communities were dominated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea closely related to Nitrosopumilus. The community in M. laxissima differed from that in Ircinia spp., including the sympatric sponge I. strobilina; yet, geographical clusters within Ircinia spp. were observed. Whereas archaeal phylotypes in Ircinia spp. were persistent and belong to 'sponge-enriched' clusters, archaea in M. laxissima were closely related with those from diverse habitats (i.e. seawater and sediments). For all four sponge species, the expression of the archaeal amoA gene was confirmed. Our results indicate that host-specific processes, such as host ecological strategy and evolutionary history, control the sponge-archaeal communities. PMID:25227989

  5. Archaeal dominated ammonia-oxidizing communities in Icelandic grassland soils are moderately affected by long-term N fertilization and geothermal heating

    PubMed Central

    Daebeler, Anne; Abell, Guy C. J.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Bodrossy, Levente; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively) to the net oxidation of ammonia varies greatly between terrestrial environments. To better understand, predict and possibly manage terrestrial nitrogen turnover, we need to develop a conceptual understanding of ammonia oxidation as a function of environmental conditions including the ecophysiology of associated organisms. We examined the discrete and combined effects of mineral nitrogen deposition and geothermal heating on ammonia-oxidizing communities by sampling soils from a long-term fertilization site along a temperature gradient in Icelandic grasslands. Microarray, clone library and quantitative PCR analyses of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene accompanied by physico-chemical measurements of the soil properties were conducted. In contrast to most other terrestrial environments, the ammonia-oxidizing communities consisted almost exclusively of archaea. Their bacterial counterparts proved to be undetectable by quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggesting AOB are only of minor relevance for ammonia oxidation in these soils. Our results show that fertilization and local, geothermal warming affected detectable ammonia-oxidizing communities, but not soil chemistry: only a subset of the detected AOA phylotypes was present in higher temperature soils and AOA abundance was increased in the fertilized soils, while soil physio-chemical properties remained unchanged. Differences in distribution and structure of AOA communities were best explained by soil pH and clay content irrespective of temperature or fertilizer treatment in these grassland soils, suggesting that these factors have a greater potential for ecological niche-differentiation of AOA in soil than temperature and N fertilization. PMID:23060870

  6. Archaeon and archaeal virus diversity classification via sequence entropy and fractal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremberger, George, Jr.; Gallardo, Victor; Espinoza, Carola; Holden, Todd; Gadura, N.; Cheung, E.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2010-09-01

    Archaea are important potential candidates in astrobiology as their metabolism includes solar, inorganic and organic energy sources. Archaeal viruses would also be expected to be present in a sustainable archaeal exobiological community. Genetic sequence Shannon entropy and fractal dimension can be used to establish a two-dimensional measure for classification and phylogenetic study of these organisms. A sequence fractal dimension can be calculated from a numerical series consisting of the atomic numbers of each nucleotide. Archaeal 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA sequences were studied. Outliers in the 16S rRNA fractal dimension and entropy plot were found to be halophilic archaea. Positive correlation (R-square ~ 0.75, N = 18) was observed between fractal dimension and entropy across the studied species. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence entropy correlates with the 23S ribosomal RNA sequence entropy across species with R-square 0.93, N = 18. Entropy values correspond positively with branch lengths of a published phylogeny. The studied archaeal virus sequences have high fractal dimensions of 2.02 or more. A comparison of selected extremophile sequences with archaeal sequences from the Humboldt Marine Ecosystem database (Wood-Hull Oceanography Institute, MIT) suggests the presence of continuous sequence expression as inferred from distributions of entropy and fractal dimension, consistent with the diversity expected in an exobiological archaeal community.

  7. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees.

    PubMed

    Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in "Eastern" and "Western" areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

  8. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B.; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in “Eastern” and “Western” areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant–microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

  9. Archaeal diversity analysis of spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    PubMed

    Moissl, Christine; Bruckner, James C; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2008-01-01

    One of the main tasks of NASA's planetary protection program is to prevent the forward contamination of extraterrestrial environments with Earth life, and in turn preserve other planets and the integrity of future life detection missions. Despite information regarding bacterial diversity in NASA's clean rooms, little is known about the presence of Archaea. Archaeal community analysis of spacecraft-associated surfaces is important, as they are considered by some to represent terrestrial life most capable of surviving on Mars. The first insights into the archaeal diversity of clean rooms where spacecraft assembled are attempted. Nucleic acid sequences clustering with uncultivable Archaea within the Eury- and Crenarchaeota were retrieved from 8 of 26 samples collected from several spacecraft assembly clean rooms. Due to their potential capability to survive and proliferate in Martian conditions, screening for Archaea on spacecraft surfaces and instruments that are associated with future life detection missions may be necessary. PMID:18180750

  10. Shared active site architecture between archaeal PolD and multi-subunit RNA polymerases revealed by X-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Raia, Pierre; Henneke, Ghislaine; Delarue, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Archaeal replicative DNA polymerase D (PolD) constitute an atypical class of DNA polymerases made of a proofreading exonuclease subunit (DP1) and a larger polymerase catalytic subunit (DP2), both with unknown structures. We have determined the crystal structures of Pyrococcus abyssi DP1 and DP2 at 2.5 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively, revealing a catalytic core strikingly different from all other known DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Rather, the PolD DP2 catalytic core has the same ‘double-psi β-barrel' architecture seen in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) superfamily, which includes multi-subunit transcriptases of all domains of life, homodimeric RNA-silencing pathway RNAPs and atypical viral RNAPs. This finding bridges together, in non-viral world, DNA transcription and DNA replication within the same protein superfamily. This study documents further the complex evolutionary history of the DNA replication apparatus in different domains of life and proposes a classification of all extant DNAPs. PMID:27548043

  11. Discovering Community: Activities for Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Out-of-School Time, Wellesley College, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The project activities highlighted in this publication were conducted within the framework of school-based afterschool programs operated by community-based organizations. The intention of the Discovering Community initiative, created by The After-School Corporation and MetLife Foundation, is to foster greater collaborations and mutual respect…

  12. Archaeal β diversity patterns under the seafloor along geochemical gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyano, Hitoshi; Tsubouchi, Taishi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2014-09-01

    Recently, deep drilling into the seafloor has revealed that there are vast sedimentary ecosystems of diverse microorganisms, particularly archaea, in subsurface areas. We investigated the β diversity patterns of archaeal communities in sediment layers under the seafloor and their determinants. This study was accomplished by analyzing large environmental samples of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences and various geochemical data collected from a sediment core of 365.3 m, obtained by drilling into the seafloor off the east coast of the Shimokita Peninsula. To extract the maximum amount of information from these environmental samples, we first developed a method for measuring β diversity using sequence data by applying probability theory on a set of strings developed by two of the authors in a previous publication. We introduced an index of β diversity between sequence populations from which the sequence data were sampled. We then constructed an estimator of the β diversity index based on the sequence data and demonstrated that it converges to the β diversity index between sequence populations with probability of 1 as the number of sampled sequences increases. Next, we applied this new method to quantify β diversities between archaeal sequence populations under the seafloor and constructed a quantitative model of the estimated β diversity patterns. Nearly 90% of the variation in the archaeal β diversity was explained by a model that included as variables the differences in the abundances of chlorine, iodine, and carbon between the sediment layers.

  13. Status of the Archaeal and Bacterial Census: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Rene A.; Martin, Thomas; Edwards, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A census is typically carried out for people across a range of geographical levels; however, microbial ecologists have implemented a molecular census of bacteria and archaea by sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. We assessed how well the census of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences is proceeding in the context of recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies because full-length sequences are typically used as references for classification of the short sequences generated by newer technologies. Among the 1,411,234 and 53,546 full-length bacterial and archaeal sequences, 94.5% and 95.1% of the bacterial and archaeal sequences, respectively, belonged to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that have been observed more than once. Although these metrics suggest that the census is approaching completion, 29.2% of the bacterial and 38.5% of the archaeal OTUs have been observed more than once. Thus, there is still considerable diversity to be explored. Unfortunately, the rate of new full-length sequences has been declining, and new sequences are primarily being deposited by a small number of studies. Furthermore, sequences from soil and aquatic environments, which are known to be rich in bacterial diversity, represent only 7.8 and 16.5% of the census, while sequences associated with host-associated environments represent 55.0% of the census. Continued use of traditional approaches and new technologies such as single-cell genomics and short-read assembly are likely to improve our ability to sample rare OTUs if it is possible to overcome this sampling bias. The success of ongoing efforts to use short-read sequencing to characterize archaeal and bacterial communities requires that researchers strive to expand the depth and breadth of this census. PMID:27190214

  14. Temporal dynamics of active Archaea in oxygen-depleted zones of two deep lakes.

    PubMed

    Hugoni, Mylène; Domaizon, Isabelle; Taib, Najwa; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Agogué, Hélène; Galand, Pierre E; Debroas, Didier; Mary, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Deep lakes are of specific interest in the study of archaeal assemblages as chemical stratification in the water column allows niche differentiation and distinct community structure. Active archaeal community and potential nitrifiers were investigated monthly over 1 year by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA transcripts and genes, and by quantification of archaeal amoA genes in two deep lakes. Our results showed that the active archaeal community patterns of spatial and temporal distribution were different between these lakes. The meromictic lake characterized by a stable redox gradient but variability in nutrient concentrations exhibited large temporal rearrangements of the dominant euryarchaeal phylotypes, suggesting a variety of ecological niches and dynamic archaeal communities in the hypolimnion of this lake. Conversely, Thaumarchaeota Marine Group I (MGI) largely dominated in the second lake where deeper water layers exhibited only short periods of complete anoxia and constant low ammonia concentrations. Investigations conducted on archaeal amoA transcripts abundance suggested that not all lacustrine Thaumarchaeota conduct the process of nitrification. A high number of 16S rRNA transcripts associated to crenarchaeal group C3 or the Miscellaneous Euryarchaeotic Group indicates the potential for these uncharacterized groups to contribute to nutrient cycling in lakes. PMID:25472601

  15. Diverse communities of active Bacteria and Archaea along oxygen gradients in coral reef sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, A.; Hannides, A. K.; Gaidos, E.

    2009-03-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting highly permeable sediments of Checker Reef in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, were characterized in relation to porewater geochemistry (O2, NO3 -, NO2 -, NH4 +, phosphate). The physiologically active part of the population, assessed by sequencing cDNA libraries of 16S rRNA amplicons, was very diverse, with an estimated ribotype richness ≥1,380 in anoxic sediment. Quantitative analysis of community structure by rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that the archaeal population (9-18%) was dominated by marine Crenarchaeota (5-9%). Planctomycetales were the most abundant group in the oxic and interfacial habitat (17-19%) but were a minority (<5%) in anoxic reef sediment, where γ-Proteobacteria were numerically dominant (18%). Another 9-14% of the microbial benthos belonged to β-Proteobacteria, predominantly within the order Nitrosomonadales, many cultured representatives of which are NH4 + oxidizers. The results of this study contribute to the phylogenetic characterization of benthic microbial communities that are important in organic matter degradation and nutrient recycling in coral reef ecosystems.

  16. Archaeal Enzymes and Applications in Industrial Biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeal enzymes are playing an important role in industrial biotechnology. Many representatives of organisms living in “extreme” conditions, the so-called Extremophiles, belong to the archaeal kingdom of life. This paper will review studies carried by the Exeter group and others regarding archaeal enzymes that have important applications in commercial biocatalysis. Some of these biocatalysts are already being used in large scale industrial processes for the production of optically pure drug intermediates and amino acids and their analogues. Other enzymes have been characterised at laboratory scale regarding their substrate specificity and properties for potential industrial application. The increasing availability of DNA sequences from new archaeal species and metagenomes will provide a continuing resource to identify new enzymes of commercial interest using both bioinformatics and screening approaches. PMID:26494981

  17. Prokaryotic community structure and diversity in the sediments of an active submarine mud volcano (Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Pachiadaki, Maria G; Lykousis, Vasilios; Stefanou, Euripides G; Kormas, Konstantinos A

    2010-06-01

    We investigated 16S rRNA gene diversity at a high sediment depth resolution (every 5 cm, top 30 cm) in an active site of the Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea. A total of 242 archaeal and 374 bacterial clones were analysed, which were attributed to 38 and 205 unique phylotypes, respectively (> or = 98% similarity). Most of the archaeal phylotypes were related to ANME-1, -2 and -3 members originating from habitats where anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs, although they occurred in sediment layers with no apparent AOM (below the sulphate depletion depth). Proteobacteria were the most abundant and diverse bacterial group, with the Gammaproteobacteria dominating in most sediment layers and these were related to phylotypes involved in methane cycling. The Deltaproteobacteria included several of the sulphate-reducers related to AOM. The rest of the bacterial phylotypes belonged to 15 known phyla and three unaffiliated groups, with representatives from similar habitats. Diversity index H was in the range 0.56-1.73 and 1.47-3.82 for Archaea and Bacteria, respectively, revealing different depth patterns for the two groups. At 15 and 20 cm below the sea floor, the prokaryotic communities were highly similar, hosting AOM-specific Archaea and Bacteria. Our study revealed different dominant phyla in proximate sediment layers. PMID:20370830

  18. The UCSC Archaeal Genome Browser: 2012 update.

    PubMed

    Chan, Patricia P; Holmes, Andrew D; Smith, Andrew M; Tran, Danny; Lowe, Todd M

    2012-01-01

    The UCSC Archaeal Genome Browser (http://archaea.ucsc.edu) offers a graphical web-based resource for exploration and discovery within archaeal and other selected microbial genomes. By bringing together existing gene annotations, gene expression data, multiple-genome alignments, pre-computed sequence comparisons and other specialized analysis tracks, the genome browser is a powerful aggregator of varied genomic information. The genome browser environment maintains the current look-and-feel of the vertebrate UCSC Genome Browser, but also integrates archaeal and bacterial-specific tracks with a few graphic display enhancements. The browser currently contains 115 archaeal genomes, plus 31 genomes of viruses known to infect archaea. Some of the recently developed or enhanced tracks visualize data from published high-throughput RNA-sequencing studies, the NCBI Conserved Domain Database, sequences from pre-genome sequencing studies, predicted gene boundaries from three different protein gene prediction algorithms, tRNAscan-SE gene predictions with RNA secondary structures and CRISPR locus predictions. We have also developed a companion resource, the Archaeal COG Browser, to provide better search and display of arCOG gene function classifications, including their phylogenetic distribution among available archaeal genomes. PMID:22080555

  19. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  20. Community Dynamics and Activity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Intertidal Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanling; Newell, Silvia; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junliang; Zhao, Hui; You, Lili; Cheng, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, abundance, and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase α subunit (amoA) in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Generally, AOB had a lower diversity of amoA genes than did AOA in this study. Clone library analysis revealed great spatial variations in both AOB and AOA communities along the estuary. The UniFrac distance matrix showed that all the AOB communities and 6 out of 7 AOA communities in the Yangtze Estuary were statistically indistinguishable between summer and winter. The studied AOB and AOA community structures were observed to correlate with environmental parameters, of which salinity, pH, ammonium, total phosphorus, and organic carbon had significant correlations with the composition and distribution of both communities. Also, the AOA communities were significantly correlated with sediment clay content. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results indicated that the abundance of AOB amoA genes was greater than that of AOA amoA genes in 10 of the 14 samples analyzed in this study. Potential nitrification rates were significantly greater in summer than in winter and had a significant negative correlation with salinity. In addition, potential nitrification rates were correlated strongly only with archaeal amoA gene abundance and not with bacterial amoA gene abundance. However, no significant differences were observed between rates measured with and without ampicillin (AOB inhibitor). These results implied that archaea might play a more important role in mediating the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite in the Yangtze estuarine sediments. PMID:24185847

  1. Community dynamics and activity of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze estuary.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Newell, Silvia; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junliang; Zhao, Hui; You, Lili; Cheng, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, abundance, and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase α subunit (amoA) in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Generally, AOB had a lower diversity of amoA genes than did AOA in this study. Clone library analysis revealed great spatial variations in both AOB and AOA communities along the estuary. The UniFrac distance matrix showed that all the AOB communities and 6 out of 7 AOA communities in the Yangtze Estuary were statistically indistinguishable between summer and winter. The studied AOB and AOA community structures were observed to correlate with environmental parameters, of which salinity, pH, ammonium, total phosphorus, and organic carbon had significant correlations with the composition and distribution of both communities. Also, the AOA communities were significantly correlated with sediment clay content. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results indicated that the abundance of AOB amoA genes was greater than that of AOA amoA genes in 10 of the 14 samples analyzed in this study. Potential nitrification rates were significantly greater in summer than in winter and had a significant negative correlation with salinity. In addition, potential nitrification rates were correlated strongly only with archaeal amoA gene abundance and not with bacterial amoA gene abundance. However, no significant differences were observed between rates measured with and without ampicillin (AOB inhibitor). These results implied that archaea might play a more important role in mediating the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite in the Yangtze estuarine sediments. PMID:24185847

  2. Diversity and activity of benthic microbial communities at the North Alex mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarow, Dorothee; Feseker, Tomas; Schmitz, Ruth; Treude, Tina

    2010-05-01

    North Alex mud volcano, located on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan, is characterized by an active seepage center transporting pore fluids, hydrocarbons and gases from deep subsurface sources to the sediment-water interface. Surface sediments feature steep temperature gradient of 8.5°C m-1. We sampled the top 40 cm of the sediments at different locations between the center and rim of the mud volcano to study the diversity, activity, and physiological characteristics of benthic microorganisms. The sediments revealed the activity of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction with a mesophilic temperature optimum. Organisms involved in the process include consortia of methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2 group) and an unknown bacterial partner. Besides methanotrophic organisms the sediments harbored a variety of other bacterial and archaeal groups - including potentially thermophilic bacteria that could be involved in sulfur cycling. This poster presentation will provide an overview of microbial activities and community compositions of North Alex mud volcano sediments.

  3. Inter-comparison of the potentially active prokaryotic communities in the halocline sediments of Mediterranean deep-sea hypersaline basins.

    PubMed

    Kormas, Konstantinos A; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Karayanni, Hera; Leadbetter, Edward R; Bernhard, Joan M; Edgcomb, Virginia P

    2015-09-01

    The sediment microbiota of the Mediterranean deep-sea anoxic hypersaline basins (DHABs) are understudied relative to communities in the brines and halocline waters. In this study, the active fraction of the prokaryotic community in the halocline sediments of L' Atalante, Urania, and Discovery DHABs was investigated based on extracted total RNA and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial and archaeal communities were different in the sediments underlying the halocline waters of the three habitats, reflecting the unique chemical settings of each basin. The relative abundance of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was also different between deep-sea control sediments and sediments underlying DHAB haloclines, suggesting adaptation to the steep DHAB chemical gradients. Only a few OTUs were affiliated to known bacterial halophilic and/or anaerobic groups. Many OTUs, including some of the dominant ones, were related to aerobic taxa. Archaea were detected only in few halocline samples, with lower OTU richness relative to Bacteria, and were dominated by taxa associated with methane cycling. This study suggests that, while metabolically active prokaryotic communities appear to be present in sediments underlying the three DHABs investigated, their diversity and activity are likely to be more reduced in sediments underlying the brines. PMID:26174531

  4. The Dispersed Archaeal Eukaryome and the Complex Archaeal Ancestor of Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V.; Yutin, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    The ancestral set of eukaryotic genes is a chimera composed of genes of archaeal and bacterial origins thanks to the endosymbiosis event that gave rise to the mitochondria and apparently antedated the last common ancestor of the extant eukaryotes. The proto-mitochondrial endosymbiont is confidently identified as an α-proteobacterium. In contrast, the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes remains elusive, although evidence is accumulating that it could have belonged to a deep lineage within the TACK (Thaumarchaeota, Aigarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota) superphylum of the Archaea. Recent surveys of archaeal genomes show that the apparent ancestors of several key functional systems of eukaryotes, the components of the archaeal “eukaryome,” such as ubiquitin signaling, RNA interference, and actin-based and tubulin-based cytoskeleton structures, are identifiable in different archaeal groups. We suggest that the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes was a complex form, rooted deeply within the TACK superphylum, that already possessed some quintessential eukaryotic features, in particular, a cytoskeleton, and perhaps was capable of a primitive form of phagocytosis that would facilitate the engulfment of potential symbionts. This putative group of Archaea could have existed for a relatively short time before going extinct or undergoing genome streamlining, resulting in the dispersion of the eukaryome. This scenario might explain the difficulty with the identification of the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes despite the straightforward detection of apparent ancestors to many signature eukaryotic functional systems. PMID:24691961

  5. Biodiversity and fermentative activity of caecal microbial communities in wild and farm rabbits from Spain.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Rodríguez-Romero, N; Yañez-Ruiz, D R; Fondevila, M

    2012-06-01

    In order to study the microbial caecal ecosystem of wild and domestic rabbits through the fermentation characteristics and concentration and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities, caecal samples from sixteen wild rabbits (WR) were contrasted with two groups (n = 4) of farm rabbits receiving low (LSF) or high (HSF) soluble fibre diets from 28 (weaning) to 51 days of age. DNA was extracted for quantifying bacteria and Archaea by qPCR and for biodiversity analysis of microbial communities by DGGE. Samples from WR had lower caecal pH and ammonia and higher volatile fatty acids concentration than farm animals. Lower acetate and higher butyrate proportions were detected in WR. Bacterial and archaeal DGGE profiles were clearly different between wild and farm rabbits, and diet-affected population of farm rabbits. Similarity index of bacteria was lower than 0.40 among WR, and 0.52 among farm rabbits. In conclusion, caecal fermentation characteristics differ between wild and farm rabbits, which harbour clearly different bacterial and archaeal communities. In farm rabbits, diversity is influenced by the dietary level of soluble fibre. PMID:22561060

  6. Turnover of microbial lipids in the deep biosphere and growth of benthic archaeal populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Sitan; Lipp, Julius S.; Wegener, Gunter; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments host a microbial biosphere with unknown impact on global biogeochemical cycles. This study tests previous evidence based on microbial intact polar lipids (IPLs) as proxies of live biomass, suggesting that Archaea dominate the marine sedimentary biosphere. We devised a sensitive radiotracer assay to measure the decay rate of ([14C]glucosyl)-diphytanylglyceroldiether (GlcDGD) as an analog of archaeal IPLs in continental margin sediments. The degradation kinetics were incorporated in model simulations that constrained the fossil fraction of subseafloor IPLs and rates of archaeal turnover. Simulating the top 1 km in a generic continental margin sediment column, we estimated degradation rate constants of GlcDGD being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of bacterial IPLs, with half-lives of GlcDGD increasing with depth to 310 ky. Given estimated microbial community turnover times of 1.6-73 ky in sediments deeper than 1 m, 50-96% of archaeal IPLs represent fossil signals. Consequently, previous lipid-based estimates of global subseafloor biomass probably are too high, and the widely observed dominance of archaeal IPLs does not rule out a deep biosphere dominated by Bacteria. Reverse modeling of existing concentration profiles suggest that archaeal IPL synthesis rates decline from around 1,000 pgṡmL-1 sedimentṡy-1 at the surface to 0.2 pgṡmL-1ṡy-1 at 1 km depth, equivalent to production of 7 × 105 to 140 archaeal cellsṡmL-1 sedimentṡy-1, respectively. These constraints on microbial growth are an important step toward understanding the relationship between the deep biosphere and the carbon cycle.

  7. Turnover of microbial lipids in the deep biosphere and growth of benthic archaeal populations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Sitan; Lipp, Julius S.; Wegener, Gunter; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments host a microbial biosphere with unknown impact on global biogeochemical cycles. This study tests previous evidence based on microbial intact polar lipids (IPLs) as proxies of live biomass, suggesting that Archaea dominate the marine sedimentary biosphere. We devised a sensitive radiotracer assay to measure the decay rate of ([14C]glucosyl)-diphytanylglyceroldiether (GlcDGD) as an analog of archaeal IPLs in continental margin sediments. The degradation kinetics were incorporated in model simulations that constrained the fossil fraction of subseafloor IPLs and rates of archaeal turnover. Simulating the top 1 km in a generic continental margin sediment column, we estimated degradation rate constants of GlcDGD being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of bacterial IPLs, with half-lives of GlcDGD increasing with depth to 310 ky. Given estimated microbial community turnover times of 1.6–73 ky in sediments deeper than 1 m, 50–96% of archaeal IPLs represent fossil signals. Consequently, previous lipid-based estimates of global subseafloor biomass probably are too high, and the widely observed dominance of archaeal IPLs does not rule out a deep biosphere dominated by Bacteria. Reverse modeling of existing concentration profiles suggest that archaeal IPL synthesis rates decline from around 1,000 pg⋅mL−1 sediment⋅y−1 at the surface to 0.2 pg⋅mL−1⋅y−1 at 1 km depth, equivalent to production of 7 × 105 to 140 archaeal cells⋅mL−1 sediment⋅y−1, respectively. These constraints on microbial growth are an important step toward understanding the relationship between the deep biosphere and the carbon cycle. PMID:23530229

  8. Differential response of archaeal groups to land use change in an acidic red soil.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ju-Pei; Cao, Peng; Hu, Hang-Wei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2013-09-01

    Land use management, one of the most important aspects of anthropogenic disturbance to terrestrial ecosystems, has exerted overriding impacts on soil biogeochemical cycling and inhabitant microorganisms. However, the knowledge concerning response of different archaeal groups to long-term land use changes is still limited in terrestrial environments. Here we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches to investigate the response of archaeal communities to four different land use practices, i.e. cropland, pine forest, restoration land and degradation land. qPCR analyses showed that expression of the archaeal amoA gene responds more sensitively to changes of land use. In particular, we observed, occurring at significantly lower numbers of archaeal amoA genes in degradation land samples, while the abundance of total archaea and Group 1.1c based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers remained constant among the different treatments examined. Soil nitrate content is significantly correlated with archaeal amoA gene abundance, but not their bacterial counterparts. The percentage of archaea among total prokaryote communities increases with increasing depth, but has no significant relationship with total carbon, total nitrogen or pH. Soil pH was significantly correlated with total bacterial abundance. Based on results from PCR-DGGE, three land use practices (i.e. cropland, pine forest, restoration land) showed distinct dominant bands, which were mostly affiliated with Group 1.1a. Degradation land, however, was dominated by sequences belonging to Group 1.1c. Results from this study suggest that community structure of ammonia oxidizing archaea were significantly impacted by land use practices. PMID:23774250

  9. Archaeal Abundance across a pH Gradient in an Arable Soil and Its Relationship to Bacterial and Fungal Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sterngren, Anna E.; Rousk, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Soil pH is one of the most influential factors for the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, but the influence of soil pH on the distribution and composition of soil archaeal communities has yet to be systematically addressed. The primary aim of this study was to determine how total archaeal abundance (quantitative PCR [qPCR]-based estimates of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers) is related to soil pH across a pH gradient (pH 4.0 to 8.3). Secondarily, we wanted to assess how archaeal abundance related to bacterial and fungal growth rates across the same pH gradient. We identified two distinct and opposite effects of pH on the archaeal abundance. In the lowest pH range (pH 4.0 to 4.7), the abundance of archaea did not seem to correspond to pH. Above this pH range, there was a sharp, almost 4-fold decrease in archaeal abundance, reaching a minimum at pH 5.1 to 5.2. The low abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at this pH range then sharply increased almost 150-fold with pH, resulting in an increase in the ratio between archaeal and bacterial copy numbers from a minimum of 0.002 to more than 0.07 at pH 8. The nonuniform archaeal response to pH could reflect variation in the archaeal community composition along the gradient, with some archaea adapted to acidic conditions and others to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. This suggestion is reinforced by observations of contrasting outcomes of the (competitive) interactions between archaea, bacteria, and fungi toward the lower and higher ends of the examined pH gradient. PMID:22706045

  10. Archaeal diversity in surface sediments of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas on Earth and known to be one of the global hot spots of biodiversity. Yet, little is known about the abundance, diversity, and distribution of archaea in it. In this study the diversity and distribution of archaea in the surface sediments of the South China Sea were investigated. The samples were collected from seven sites from south to north of the sea with water depths ranging from 1455 m to 3697 m. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the relative abundances of Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota species (OTUs at 2% cutoff) varied from site to site (Eury: 19.4%-67.6%, Cren: 32.4%-80.6%); however, they were about equal in species distribution (46.9% and 53.1%, respectively) for the total seven archaeal clone libraries. The Crenarchaeota predominates in MD05-2902 and MD05-2904 (80.6% and 70.4%); the Euryarchaeota predominates in MD05-2894 (67.6%). The archaeal groups MGI, MBGB, MCG and SAGMEG were dominant in most of the surface samples. MBGE was only dominant in MD05-2894 (64.7%). Overall, these results indicate that the community structures of archaea vary considerably in the surface sediments of the South China Sea.

  11. Activating the community for nutritional improvement.

    PubMed

    Devadas, Rajammal P

    2002-06-01

    This presentation provides information on community-oriented action research conducted under the leadership of Dr. Rajammal P. Devadas, the recipient of the IUNS International Nutrition Award for 2001. Educating, activating, and energizing the community with empowerment have been the focus of the action-oriented research. In the four decades of work presented, massive efforts have been made in the areas of infant and preschool child nutrition; nutritious noon meal programs for children; integration of nutrition, health, and sanitation concepts in the primary school curriculum; use of local foods to eradicate malnutrition; introduction of novel and underexploited foods; food-based approaches to overcome micronutrient malnutrition; equipping women for food and nutrition security; and nutrition education. These efforts have been activated through development of relevant food and educational materials, their introduction to the community, impact evaluation, follow-up, and implementation of the concepts in relevant national programs with massive training efforts. Many of the efforts outlined have formed the basis for regional and nationwide nutrition intervention strategies. The experiences gained and training efforts developed have gone beyond the country-level exposure to training and equipping nutrition workers in other countries. PMID:12094662

  12. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Archaeal Intron-Containing Genes Coding for rRNA Obtained from a Deep-Subsurface Geothermal Water Pool

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Horikoshi, Koki

    1999-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a naturally occurring microbial community in a deep-subsurface geothermal environment indicated that the phylogenetic diversity of the microbial population in the environment was extremely limited and that only hyperthermophilic archaeal members closely related to Pyrobaculum were present. All archaeal ribosomal DNA sequences contained intron-like sequences, some of which had open reading frames with repeated homing-endonuclease motifs. The sequence similarity analysis and the phylogenetic analysis of these homing endonucleases suggested the possible phylogenetic relationship among archaeal rRNA-encoded homing endonucleases. PMID:10584021

  13. Choosing a Retirement Community: Ask These 10 Physical Activity Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Choosing a Retirement Community Ask These 10 Physical Activity Questions As you visit potential retirement communities, consider their physical activity offerings. If you’ ...

  14. Minor impact of ocean acidification to the composition of the active microbial community in an Arctic sediment.

    PubMed

    Tait, Karen; Laverock, Bonnie; Shaw, Jennifer; Somerfield, Paul J; Widdicombe, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Effects of ocean acidification on the composition of the active bacterial and archaeal community within Arctic surface sediment was analysed in detail using 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing. Intact sediment cores were collected and exposed to one of five different pCO(2) concentrations [380 (present day), 540, 750, 1120 and 3000 μatm] and RNA extracted after a period of 14 days exposure. Measurements of diversity and multivariate similarity indicated very little difference between pCO(2) treatments. Only when the highest and lowest pCO(2) treatments were compared were significant differences evident, namely increases in the abundance of operational taxonomic units most closely related to the Halobacteria and differences to the presence/absence structure of the Planctomycetes. The relative abundance of members of the classes Planctomycetacia and Nitrospira increased with increasing pCO(2) concentration, indicating that these groups may be able to take advantage of changing pH or pCO(2) conditions. The modest response of the active microbial communities associated with these sediments may be due to the low and fluctuating pore-water pH already experienced by sediment microbes, a result of the pH buffering capacity of marine sediments, or due to currently unknown factors. Further research is required to fully understand the impact of elevated CO(2) on sediment physicochemical parameters, biogeochemistry and microbial community dynamics. PMID:24249294

  15. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity From the Eastern Lau Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reysenbach, A.; Banta, A.; Kelly, S.; Kirshstein, J.; Voytek, M.

    2005-12-01

    Due to the diversity of venting styles, geological settings and variations in fluid geochemistry, the Valu Fa Ridge and Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) provide a unique opportunity to explore the effects geological and geochemical variables on patterns of microbial phylogenetic and metabolic diversity. High temperature sulfides, diffuse flow fluids and microbial mats were collected from six active vent fields on the Valu Fa Ridge and Eastern Lau Spreading Center during the R/V Melville cruise TUIM05MV. All samples were subsampled for molecular and microbial culturing purposes. The archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR from a selection of samples. Additionally, the presence of Aquificales and an unidentified lineage, the DHVE archaeal group, was explored using PCR primers specific for these groups. A selection of DNAs were also screened for functional genes that are diagnostic for certain pathways, viz, aclB (reductive TCA cycle), mcrA (methanogenesis), nirS and nirK (nitrite reduction), amoA (ammonia oxidation). Culturing of thermophiles, both acidophiles and neutrophiles, was initiated. Over 20 hydrogen oxidizing (hydrogen and oxygen) or nitrate reducing (hydrogen and nitrate) chemolithoautotrophs were isolated as colonies and grow at 70 degrees C. All are related to Persephonella hydrogenophila, with the exception of 2 cultures that perhaps represent new species of Hydrogenivirga and Aquifex. Preliminary analysis of patterns of Aquificales diversity using both culturing and molecular approaches suggest that the distributions of this group alone are very different from that observed at other hydrothermal sites such as along the East Pacific Rise or Central Indian Ridge. As yet, the most commonly isolated Aquificales, P. marina, has not been detected in enrichment cultures from ELSC, and the diversity of Aquificales-related sequences is much greater than detected from sites along the EPR. It is therefore also likely, that patterns of

  16. Diversity of active microbial communities subjected to long-term exposure to chemical contaminants along a 40-year-old sediment core.

    PubMed

    Kaci, Assia; Petit, Fabienne; Fournier, Matthieu; Cécillon, Sébastien; Boust, Dominique; Lesueur, Patrick; Berthe, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    In estuarine ecosystems, metallic and organic contaminants are mainly associated with fine grain sediments which settle on mudflats. Over time, the layers of sediment accumulate and are then transformed by diagenetic processes mainly controlled by microbial activity, recording the history of the estuary's chemical contamination. In an environment of this specific type, we investigated the evolution of the chemical contamination and the structure of both total and active microbial communities, based on PhyloChip analysis of a 4.6-m core corresponding to a 40-year sedimentary record. While the archaeal abundance remained constant along the core, a decrease by one order of magnitude in the bacterial abundance was observed with depth. Both total and active microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes in all sediment samples. Among Proteobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria dominated both total (from 37 to 60 %) and metabolically active (from 19.7 to 34.6 %) communities, including the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter, Caulobacterales, and Sphingomonadales orders. Co-inertia analysis revealed a relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, zinc and some polychlorobiphenyls concentrations, and the structure of total and active microbial communities in the oldest and most contaminated sediments (from 1970 to 1975), suggesting that long-term exposure to chemicals shaped the structure of the microbial community. PMID:25934230

  17. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area. PMID:26494982

  18. Geochemical Approach to Archaeal Ecology: δ13C of GDGTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtin, S.; Warren, C.; Pearson, A.; Pagani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade and a half, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) have increasingly been used to reconstruct environmental temperatures; proxies like TEX86 that correlate the relative abundance of these archaeal cell membrane lipids to sea surface temperature are omnipresent in paleoclimatology literature. While it has become common to make claims about past temperatures using GDGTs, our present understanding of the organisms that synthesize the compounds is still quite limited. The generally accepted theory states that microorganisms like the Thaumarchaeota modify the structure of membrane lipids to increase intermolecular interactions, strengthening the membrane at higher temperatures. Yet to date, culture experiments have been largely restricted to a single species, Nitrosopumilus maritimes, and recent studies on oceanic archaeal rRNA have revealed that these biomarkers are produced in diverse, heterogeneous, and site-specific communities. This brings up questions as to whether different subclasses of GDGTs, and all subsequent proxies, represent adaptation within a single organismal group or a shift in community composition. To investigate whether GDGTs with different chain structures, from the simple isoprenoidal GDGT-0 to Crenarchaeol with its many cyclopentane groups, are sourced from archaea with similar or disparate metabolic pathways—and if that information is inherited in GDGTs trapped in marine sediments—this study examines the stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) of GDGTs extracted from the uppermost meters of sediment in the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico, using spooling-wire microcombustion isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (SWiM-IRMS), tackling a fundamental assumption of the TEX86 proxy that influences the way we perceive the veracity of existing temperature records.

  19. Influence of influent wastewater communities on temporal variation of activated sludge communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kang, Hyun-Jin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2015-04-15

    Continuously feeding influent wastewater containing diverse bacterial species to a wastewater treatment activated sludge bioreactor may influence the activated sludge bacterial community temporal dynamics. To explore this possibility, this study tracked influent wastewater and activated sludge bacterial communities by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes from four full-scale wastewater treatment plants over a 9-month period. The activated sludge communities showed significantly higher richness and evenness than the influent wastewater communities. Furthermore, the two communities were different in composition and temporal dynamics. These results demonstrate that the impact of the influent wastewater communities on the activated sludge communities was weak. Nevertheless, 4.3-9.3% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the activated sludge were shared with the influent wastewater, implying contribution from influent wastewater communities to some extent. However, the relative OTU abundance of the influent wastewater was not maintained in the activated sludge communities (i.e., weak neutral assembly). In addition, the variability of the communities of the shared OTUs was moderately correlated with abiotic factors imposed to the bioreactors. Taken together, temporal dynamics of activated sludge communities appear to be predominantly explained by species sorting processes in response to influent wastewater communities. PMID:25655320

  20. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Samta; Caforio, Antonella; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2014-01-01

    A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether bond to the sn-glycerol-1-phosphate backbone. In bacteria and eukarya on the other hand, fatty acid side chains are linked via an ester bond to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate backbone. The polar head groups are globally shared in the three domains of life. The unique membrane lipids of archaea have been implicated not only in the survival and adaptation of the organisms to extreme environments but also to form the basis of the membrane composition of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). In nature, a diverse range of archaeal lipids is found, the most common are the diether (or archaeol) and the tetraether (or caldarchaeol) lipids that form a monolayer. Variations in chain length, cyclization and other modifications lead to diversification of these lipids. The biosynthesis of these lipids is not yet well understood however progress in the last decade has led to a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of archaeol. This review describes the current knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of archaeal ether lipids; insights on the stability and robustness of archaeal lipid membranes; and evolutionary aspects of the lipid divide and the LUCA. It examines recent advances made in the field of pathway reconstruction in bacteria. PMID:25505460

  1. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  2. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Gruninger, Robert J.; McAllister, Tim A.; Forster, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the second largest living rodent and an iconic symbol of Canada. The beaver is a semi-aquatic browser whose diet consists of lignocellulose from a variety of plants. The beaver is a hindgut fermenter and has an enlarged ceacum that houses a complex microbiome. There have been few studies examining the microbial diversity in gastrointestinal tract of hindgut fermenting herbivores. To examine the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of the beaver, the microbiome of the ceacum and feaces was examined using culture-independent methods. DNA from the microbial community of the ceacum and feaces of 4 adult beavers was extracted, and the16S rRNA gene was sequenced using either bacterial or archaeal specific primers. A total of 1447 and 1435 unique bacterial OTUs were sequenced from the ceacum and feaces, respectively. On average, the majority of OTUs within the ceacum were classified as Bacteroidetes (49.2%) and Firmicutes (47.6%). The feaces was also dominated by OTUs from Bacteroidetes (36.8%) and Firmicutes (58.9%). The composition of bacterial community was not significantly different among animals. The composition of the ceacal and feacal microbiome differed, but this difference is due to changes in the abundance of closely related OTUs, not because of major differences in the taxonomic composition of the communities. Within these communities, known degraders of lignocellulose were identified. In contrast, to the bacterial microbiome, the archaeal community was dominated by a single species of methanogen, Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The data presented here provide the first insight into the microbial community within the hindgut of the beaver. PMID:27227334

  3. Soil Microbe Active Community Composition and Capability of Responding to Litter Addition after 12 Years of No Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Elizabeth; Yarwood, Rockie; Lajtha, Kate; Myrold, David

    2013-01-01

    One explanation given for the high microbial diversity found in soils is that they contain a large inactive biomass that is able to persist in soils for long periods of time. This persistent microbial fraction may help to buffer the functionality of the soil community during times of low nutrients by providing a reservoir of specialized functions that can be reactivated when conditions improve. A study was designed to test the hypothesis: in soils lacking fresh root or detrital inputs, microbial community composition may persist relatively unchanged. Upon addition of new inputs, this community will be stimulated to grow and break down litter similarly to control soils. Soils from two of the Detrital Input and Removal Treatments (DIRT) at the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, the no-input and control treatment plots, were used in a microcosm experiment where Douglas-fir needles were added to soils. After 3 and 151 days of incubation, soil microbial DNA and RNA was extracted and characterized using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 pyrosequencing. The abundance of 16S and 28S gene copies and RNA copies did not vary with soil type or amendment; however, treatment differences were observed in the abundance of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing amoA gene abundance. Analysis of ∼110,000 bacterial sequences showed a significant change in the active (RNA-based) community between day 3 and day 151, but microbial composition was similar between soil types. These results show that even after 12 years of plant litter exclusion, the legacy of community composition was well buffered against a dramatic disturbance. PMID:23263952

  4. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology. PMID:26830464

  5. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  6. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology. PMID:26830464

  7. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities. PMID:22175080

  8. Abundance and Composition of Epiphytic Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers of Marine Red and Brown Macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Trias, Rosalia; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Sánchez, Noemí; López-Jurado, José Luis; Hallin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are important for nitrogen cycling in marine ecosystems. Little is known about the diversity and abundance of these organisms on the surface of marine macroalgae, despite the algae's potential importance to create surfaces and local oxygen-rich environments supporting ammonia oxidation at depths with low dissolved oxygen levels. We determined the abundance and composition of the epiphytic bacterial and archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities on three species of macroalgae, Osmundaria volubilis, Phyllophora crispa, and Laminaria rodriguezii, from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean Sea). Quantitative PCR of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes was performed. In contrast to what has been shown for most other marine environments, the macroalgae's surfaces were dominated by bacterial amoA genes rather than those from the archaeal counterpart. On the basis of the sequences retrieved from AOB and AOA amoA gene clone libraries from each algal species, the bacterial ammonia-oxidizing communities were related to Nitrosospira spp. and to Nitrosomonas europaea and only 6 out of 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were specific for the host species. Conversely, the AOA diversity was higher (43 OTUs) and algal species specific, with 17 OTUs specific for L. rodriguezii, 3 for O. volubilis, and 9 for P. crispa. Altogether, the results suggest that marine macroalgae may exert an ecological niche for AOB in marine environments, potentially through specific microbe-host interactions. PMID:22081571

  9. Structural and Functional Studies of Archaeal Viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, C. Martin; Menon, Smita; Eilers, Brian J.; Bothner, Brian; Khayat, Reza; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Viruses populate virtually every ecosystem on the planet, including the extreme acidic, thermal, and saline environments where archaeal organisms can dominate. For example, recent studies have identified crenarchaeal viruses in the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and other high temperature environments worldwide. These viruses are often morphologically and genetically unique, with genomes that show little similarity to genes of known function, complicating efforts to understand their viral life cycles. Here, we review progress in understanding these fascinating viruses at the molecular level and the evolutionary insights coming from these studies. PMID:19158076

  10. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C Martin; Menon, Smita; Eilers, Brian J; Bothner, Brian; Khayat, Reza; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J

    2009-05-01

    Viruses populate virtually every ecosystem on the planet, including the extreme acidic, thermal, and saline environments where archaeal organisms can dominate. For example, recent studies have identified crenarchaeal viruses in the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and other high temperature environments worldwide. These viruses are often morphologically and genetically unique, with genomes that show little similarity to genes of known function, complicating efforts to understand their viral life cycles. Here, we review progress in understanding these fascinating viruses at the molecular level and the evolutionary insights coming from these studies. PMID:19158076

  11. Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in an Iron-Rich Coastal Hydrothermal Field in Yamagawa, Kagoshima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawaichi, Satoshi; Ito, Norihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and archaeal and bacterial community structures in an iron-rich coastal hydrothermal field, where the temperature of the most active hot spot reaches above 100°C, were investigated to obtain fundamental information on microbes inhabiting a coastal hydrothermal field. The environmental settings of the coastal hydrothermal field were similar in some degree to those of deep-sea hydrothermal environments because of its emission of H2, CO2, and sulfide from the bottom of the hot spot. The results of clone analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene led us to speculate the presence of a chemo-synthetic microbial ecosystem, where chemolithoautotrophic thermophiles, primarily the bacterial order Aquificales, function as primary producers using H2 or sulfur compounds as their energy source and CO2 as their carbon source, and the organic compounds synthesized by them support the growth of chemoheterotrophic thermophiles, such as members of the order Thermales and the family Desulfurococcaceae. In addition, the dominance of members of the bacterial genus Herbaspirillum in the high temperature bottom layer led us to speculate the temporal formation of mesophilic zones where they can also function as primary producing or nitrogen-fixing bacteria. PMID:24256999

  12. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    PubMed

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents. PMID:26959270

  13. Engagement in School and Community Civic Activities among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current…

  14. The archaeal Ced system imports DNA.

    PubMed

    van Wolferen, Marleen; Wagner, Alexander; van der Does, Chris; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2016-03-01

    The intercellular transfer of DNA is a phenomenon that occurs in all domains of life and is a major driving force of evolution. Upon UV-light treatment, cells of the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus express Ups pili, which initiate cell aggregate formation. Within these aggregates, chromosomal DNA, which is used for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, is exchanged. Because so far no clear homologs of bacterial DNA transporters have been identified among the genomes of Archaea, the mechanisms of archaeal DNA transport have remained a puzzling and underinvestigated topic. Here we identify saci_0568 and saci_0748, two genes from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that are highly induced upon UV treatment, encoding a transmembrane protein and a membrane-bound VirB4/HerA homolog, respectively. DNA transfer assays showed that both proteins are essential for DNA transfer between Sulfolobus cells and act downstream of the Ups pili system. Our results moreover revealed that the system is involved in the import of DNA rather than the export. We therefore propose that both Saci_0568 and Saci_0748 are part of a previously unidentified DNA importer. Given the fact that we found this transporter system to be widely spread among the Crenarchaeota, we propose to name it the Crenarchaeal system for exchange of DNA (Ced). In this study we have for the first time to our knowledge described an archaeal DNA transporter. PMID:26884154

  15. Extracting archaeal populations from iron oxidizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, L. M.; Hutchison, J.; Chrisler, W.; Jay, Z.; Moran, J.; Inskeep, W.; Kreuzer, H.

    2013-12-01

    Unique environments in Yellowstone National Park offer exceptional conditions for studying microorganisms in extreme and constrained systems. However, samples from some extreme systems often contain inorganic components that pose complications during microbial and molecular analysis. Several archaeal species are found in acidic, geothermal ferric-oxyhydroxide mats; these species have been shown to adhere to mineral surfaces in flocculated colonies. For optimal microbial analysis, (microscopy, flow cytometry, genomic extractions, proteomic analysis, stable isotope analysis, and others), improved techniques are needed to better facilitate cell detachment and separation from mineral surfaces. As a requirement, these techniques must preserve cell structure while simultaneously minimizing organic carryover to downstream analysis. Several methods have been developed for removing sediments from mixed prokaryotic populations, including ultra-centrifugation, nycodenz gradient, sucrose cushions, and cell straining. In this study we conduct a comparative analysis of mechanisms used to detach archaeal cell populations from the mineral interface. Specifically, we evaluated mechanical and chemical approaches for cell separation and homogenization. Methods were compared using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry analyses, and real-time PCR detection. The methodology and approaches identified will be used to optimize biomass collection from environmental specimens or isolates grown with solid phases.

  16. The archaeal Ced system imports DNA

    PubMed Central

    van Wolferen, Marleen; Wagner, Alexander; van der Does, Chris; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2016-01-01

    The intercellular transfer of DNA is a phenomenon that occurs in all domains of life and is a major driving force of evolution. Upon UV-light treatment, cells of the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus express Ups pili, which initiate cell aggregate formation. Within these aggregates, chromosomal DNA, which is used for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, is exchanged. Because so far no clear homologs of bacterial DNA transporters have been identified among the genomes of Archaea, the mechanisms of archaeal DNA transport have remained a puzzling and underinvestigated topic. Here we identify saci_0568 and saci_0748, two genes from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that are highly induced upon UV treatment, encoding a transmembrane protein and a membrane-bound VirB4/HerA homolog, respectively. DNA transfer assays showed that both proteins are essential for DNA transfer between Sulfolobus cells and act downstream of the Ups pili system. Our results moreover revealed that the system is involved in the import of DNA rather than the export. We therefore propose that both Saci_0568 and Saci_0748 are part of a previously unidentified DNA importer. Given the fact that we found this transporter system to be widely spread among the Crenarchaeota, we propose to name it the Crenarchaeal system for exchange of DNA (Ced). In this study we have for the first time to our knowledge described an archaeal DNA transporter. PMID:26884154

  17. Active and total prokaryotic communities in dryland soils.

    PubMed

    Angel, Roey; Pasternak, Zohar; Soares, M Ines M; Conrad, Ralf; Gillor, Osnat

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between total and metabolically active soil microbial communities can change drastically with environment. In dry lands, water availability is a key factor limiting cells' activity. We surveyed the diversity of total and active Archaea and Bacteria in soils ranging from arid desert to Mediterranean forests. Thirty composited soil samples were retrieved from five sites along a precipitation gradient, collected from patches located between and under the dominant perennial plant at each site. Molecular fingerprinting was used to site-sort the communities according of their 16S rRNA genes (total community) and their rRNA (active community) amplified by PCR or RT-PCR from directly extracted soil nucleic acids. The differences between soil samples were much higher in total rather than active microbial communities: differences in DNA fingerprints between sites were 1.2 and 2.5 times higher than RNA differences (for Archaea and Bacteria, respectively). Patch-type discrepancies between DNA fingerprints were on average 2.7-19.7 times greater than RNA differences. Moreover, RNA-based community patterns were highly correlated with soil moisture but did not necessarily follow spatial distribution pattern. Our results suggest that in water-limited environments, the spatial patterns obtained by the analysis of active communities are not as robust as those drawn from total communities. PMID:23730745

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers from anaerobically digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used in the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinone (RQ), bacterial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and archaeal phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) from anaerobically digested sludge. Bacterial RQ were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Determination of bacterial PLFA and archaeal PLEL was simultaneously performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of pressure, temperature, and modifier concentration on the total amounts of RQ, PLFA, and PLEL were investigated by 23 experiments with five settings chosen for each variable. The optimal extraction conditions that were obtained through a multiple-response optimization included a pressure of 23.6 MPa, temperature of 77.6 °C, and 10.6% (v/v) of methanol as the modifier. Thirty nine components of microbial lipid biomarkers were identified in the anaerobically digested sludge. Overall, the SFE method proved to be more effective, rapid, and quantitative for simultaneously extracting bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers, compared to conventional organic solvent extraction. This work shows the potential application of SFE as a routine method for the comprehensive analysis of microbial community structures in environmental assessments using the lipid biomarkers profile. PMID:22489140

  19. Analysis of methane-producing and metabolizing archaeal and bacterial communities in sediments of the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhichao; Chen, Jing; Cao, Huiluo; Han, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Communities of methanogens, anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (MOB) were compared by profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products of mcrA and pmoA genes encoded by methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit and particulate methane monooxygenase alpha subunit, respectively, in sediments of northern South China Sea (nSCS) and Mai Po mangrove wetland. Community structures representing by mcrA gene based on 12 clone libraries from nSCS showed separate clusters indicating niche specificity, while, Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales clades 1,2, and Methanomassiliicoccus-like groups of methanogens were the most abundant groups in nSCS sediment samples. Novel clusters specific to the SCS were identified and the phylogeny of mcrA gene-harboring archaea was updated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mcrA gene abundance in all samples: similar abundance of mcrA gene in the surface layers of mangrove (3.4∼3.9 × 10(6) copies per gram dry weight) and of intertidal mudflat (5.5∼5.8 × 10(6) copies per gram dry weight) was observed, but higher abundance (6.9 × 10(6) to 1.02 × 10(8) copies per gram dry weight) was found in subsurface samples of both sediment types. Aerobic MOB were more abundant in surface layers (6.7∼11.1 × 10(5) copies per gram dry weight) than the subsurface layers (1.2∼5.9 × 10(5) copies per gram dry weight) based on pmoA gene. Mangrove surface layers harbored more abundant pmoA gene than intertidal mudflat, but less pmoA genes in the subsurface layers. Meanwhile, it is also noted that in surface layers of all samples, more pmoA gene copies were detected than the subsurface layers. Reedbed rhizosphere exhibited the highest gene abundance of mcrA gene (8.51 × 10(8) copies per gram dry weight) and pmoA gene (1.56 × 10(7) copies per gram dry weight). This study investigated the prokaryotic communities responsible for methane cycling in both marine and coastal wetland

  20. Analysis of methane-producing and metabolizing archaeal and bacterial communities in sediments of the northern South China Sea and coastal Mai Po Nature Reserve revealed by PCR amplification of mcrA and pmoA genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhichao; Chen, Jing; Cao, Huiluo; Han, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Communities of methanogens, anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (MOB) were compared by profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products of mcrA and pmoA genes encoded by methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit and particulate methane monooxygenase alpha subunit, respectively, in sediments of northern South China Sea (nSCS) and Mai Po mangrove wetland. Community structures representing by mcrA gene based on 12 clone libraries from nSCS showed separate clusters indicating niche specificity, while, Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales clades 1,2, and Methanomassiliicoccus-like groups of methanogens were the most abundant groups in nSCS sediment samples. Novel clusters specific to the SCS were identified and the phylogeny of mcrA gene-harboring archaea was updated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mcrA gene abundance in all samples: similar abundance of mcrA gene in the surface layers of mangrove (3.4∼3.9 × 106 copies per gram dry weight) and of intertidal mudflat (5.5∼5.8 × 106 copies per gram dry weight) was observed, but higher abundance (6.9 × 106 to 1.02 × 108 copies per gram dry weight) was found in subsurface samples of both sediment types. Aerobic MOB were more abundant in surface layers (6.7∼11.1 × 105 copies per gram dry weight) than the subsurface layers (1.2∼5.9 × 105 copies per gram dry weight) based on pmoA gene. Mangrove surface layers harbored more abundant pmoA gene than intertidal mudflat, but less pmoA genes in the subsurface layers. Meanwhile, it is also noted that in surface layers of all samples, more pmoA gene copies were detected than the subsurface layers. Reedbed rhizosphere exhibited the highest gene abundance of mcrA gene (8.51 × 108 copies per gram dry weight) and pmoA gene (1.56 × 107 copies per gram dry weight). This study investigated the prokaryotic communities responsible for methane cycling in both marine and coastal wetland ecosystems, showing

  1. Archaeal transformation of metals in the environment.

    PubMed

    Bini, Elisabetta

    2010-07-01

    We are becoming increasingly aware of the role played by archaea in the biogeochemical cycling of the elements. Metabolism of metals is linked to fundamental metabolic functions, including nitrogen fixation, energy production, and cellular processes based on oxidoreductions. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that genes for metabolism, resistance, and detoxification of metals are widespread throughout the archaeal domain. Archaea share with other organisms strategies allowing them to utilize essential metals and maintain metal ions within a physiological range, although comparative proteomics show, in a few cases, preferences for specific genetic traits related to metals. A more in-depth understanding of the physiology of acidophilic archaea might lead to the development of new strategies for the bioremediation of metal-polluted sites and other applications, such as biomining. PMID:20455933

  2. Survey of Archaeal Diversity in Sediments of Qinghai Lake, China and Implications for Paleoclimate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Q.; Jiang, H.; Ji, S.; Dong, H.; Zhang, C.

    2006-12-01

    Qinghai Lake, the largest inland saline lake in China, is located in the northeastern corner of Tibetan Plateau at an altitude of 3200 m above the sea level. Previous research suggests that sediments in Qinghai Lake may be a good recorder of changes in climate during the last 18,000 years. But it is not clear if microbial record can be used to help reconstruct paleoclimate. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between archaeal microbial communities and paleoclimatic changes. A 5-m long sediment core was collected with a drilling rig and two subsamples from 0-10 cm and 345-355 cm depth intervals were used for this study. These two subsamples (corresponding to present and ~7 cal. Kyr BP, respectively) represent cold/arid and warm/wet conditions (Shen et al., 2004) . 16S archaeal rRNA gene and lipid biomarker analyses were performed on these two samples. The archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments were PCR-amplified from extracted nucleic acids and cloned for sequence determination. A total of 90 clones were sequenced for the two samples studied. Rarefaction analysis indicated that the number of unique clones reached saturation. Phylogenetic analysis of both clone libraries revealed the presence of two major lineages, belonging to the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota phyla. Sequences from different libraries formed distinct clusters in both phyla, and clonal sequences were not closely related to any known isolates. LIBSHUFF analysis displayed the significant dissimilarity of archaeal diversity between two studied samples. In addition, Crenarchaeotal biomarker (GDGT) was only detected in the top layer by lipid analyses.The crenarchaeotal abundance at the bottom sample may be below the detection limit and much lower than that of the top one. In summary, our results suggest that the composition and structure of archaeal community is significantly different under different climatic condition, and may affect the biological carbon cycling in this unique Qinghai

  3. Community Guide to Evaluating Aboriginal Healing Foundation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF), based in Ottawa (Ontario), works with Canada Native communities to reduce incidents of physical and sexual abuse, children in care, suicide, and incarceration among residential school survivors and their families. This guide has been prepared to help communities evaluate their AHF-funded activities in the…

  4. Ecological structuring of bacterial and archaeal taxa in surface ocean waters.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Iversen, Morten H; Hankeln, Wolfgang; Kottmann, Renzo; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank O

    2012-08-01

    The Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition is currently the largest and geographically most comprehensive metagenomic dataset, including samples from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. This study makes use of the wide range of environmental conditions and habitats encompassed within the GOS sites in order to investigate the ecological structuring of bacterial and archaeal taxon ranks. Community structures based on taxonomically classified 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments at phylum, class, order, family, and genus rank levels were examined using multivariate statistical analysis, and the results were inspected in the context of oceanographic environmental variables and structured habitat classifications. At all taxon rank levels, community structures of neritic, oceanic, estuarine biomes, as well as other exotic biomes (salt marsh, lake, mangrove), were readily distinguishable from each other. A strong structuring of the communities with chlorophyll a concentration and a weaker yet significant structuring with temperature and salinity were observed. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between community structures and habitat classification. These results were used for further investigation of one-to-one relationships between taxa and environment and provided indications for ecological preferences shaped by primary production for both cultured and uncultured bacterial and archaeal clades. PMID:22416918

  5. A human CCT5 gene mutation causing distal neuropathy impairs hexadecamer assembly in an archaeal model

    PubMed Central

    Min, Wonki; Angileri, Francesca; Luo, Haibin; Lauria, Antonino; Shanmugasundaram, Maruda; Almerico, Anna Maria; Cappello, Francesco; de Macario, Everly Conway; Lednev, Igor K.; Macario, Alberto J. L.; Robb, Frank T.

    2014-01-01

    Chaperonins mediate protein folding in a cavity formed by multisubunit rings. The human CCT has eight non-identical subunits and the His147Arg mutation in one subunit, CCT5, causes neuropathy. Knowledge is scarce on the impact of this and other mutations upon the chaperone's structure and functions. To make progress, experimental models must be developed. We used an archaeal mutant homolog and demonstrated that the His147Arg mutant has impaired oligomeric assembly, ATPase activity, and defective protein homeostasis functions. These results establish for the first time that a human chaperonin gene defect can be reproduced and studied at the molecular level with an archaeal homolog. The major advantage of the system, consisting of rings with eight identical subunits, is that it amplifies the effects of a mutation as compared with the human counterpart, in which just one subunit per ring is defective. Therefore, the slight deficit of a non-lethal mutation can be detected and characterized. PMID:25345891

  6. Factors Controlling the Distribution of Archaeal Tetraethers in Terrestrial Hot Springs▿

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Ann; Pi, Yundan; Zhao, Weidong; Li, WenJun; Li, Yiliang; Inskeep, William; Perevalova, Anna; Romanek, Christopher; Li, Shuguang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2008-01-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) found in hot springs reflect the abundance and community structure of Archaea in these extreme environments. The relationships between GDGTs, archaeal communities, and physical or geochemical variables are underexamined to date and when reported often result in conflicting interpretations. Here, we examined profiles of GDGTs from pure cultures of Crenarchaeota and from terrestrial geothermal springs representing a wide distribution of locations, including Yellowstone National Park (United States), the Great Basin of Nevada and California (United States), Kamchatka (Russia), Tengchong thermal field (China), and Thailand. These samples had temperatures of 36.5 to 87°C and pH values of 3.0 to 9.2. GDGT abundances also were determined for three soil samples adjacent to some of the hot springs. Principal component analysis identified four factors that accounted for most of the variance among nine individual GDGTs, temperature, and pH. Significant correlations were observed between pH and the GDGTs crenarchaeol and GDGT-4 (four cyclopentane rings, m/z 1,294); pH correlated positively with crenarchaeol and inversely with GDGT-4. Weaker correlations were observed between temperature and the four factors. Three of the four GDGTs used in the marine TEX86 paleotemperature index (GDGT-1 to -3, but not crenarchaeol isomer) were associated with a single factor. No correlation was observed for GDGT-0 (acyclic caldarchaeol): it is effectively its own variable. The biosynthetic mechanisms and exact archaeal community structures leading to these relationships remain unknown. However, the data in general show promise for the continued development of GDGT lipid-based physiochemical proxies for archaeal evolution and for paleo-ecology or paleoclimate studies. PMID:18390673

  7. Factors controlling the distribution of archaeal tetraethers in terrestrial hot springs.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ann; Pi, Yundan; Zhao, Weidong; Li, WenJun; Li, Yiliang; Inskeep, William; Perevalova, Anna; Romanek, Christopher; Li, Shuguang; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2008-06-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) found in hot springs reflect the abundance and community structure of Archaea in these extreme environments. The relationships between GDGTs, archaeal communities, and physical or geochemical variables are underexamined to date and when reported often result in conflicting interpretations. Here, we examined profiles of GDGTs from pure cultures of Crenarchaeota and from terrestrial geothermal springs representing a wide distribution of locations, including Yellowstone National Park (United States), the Great Basin of Nevada and California (United States), Kamchatka (Russia), Tengchong thermal field (China), and Thailand. These samples had temperatures of 36.5 to 87 degrees C and pH values of 3.0 to 9.2. GDGT abundances also were determined for three soil samples adjacent to some of the hot springs. Principal component analysis identified four factors that accounted for most of the variance among nine individual GDGTs, temperature, and pH. Significant correlations were observed between pH and the GDGTs crenarchaeol and GDGT-4 (four cyclopentane rings, m/z 1,294); pH correlated positively with crenarchaeol and inversely with GDGT-4. Weaker correlations were observed between temperature and the four factors. Three of the four GDGTs used in the marine TEX(86) paleotemperature index (GDGT-1 to -3, but not crenarchaeol isomer) were associated with a single factor. No correlation was observed for GDGT-0 (acyclic caldarchaeol): it is effectively its own variable. The biosynthetic mechanisms and exact archaeal community structures leading to these relationships remain unknown. However, the data in general show promise for the continued development of GDGT lipid-based physiochemical proxies for archaeal evolution and for paleo-ecology or paleoclimate studies. PMID:18390673

  8. Spatial Structure and Activity of Sedimentary Microbial Communities Underlying a Beggiatoa spp. Mat in a Gulf of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Karen G.; Albert, Daniel B.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Pizarro, Oscar; Teske, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background Subsurface fluids from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps undergo methane- and sulfur-cycling microbial transformations near the sediment surface. Hydrocarbon seep habitats are naturally patchy, with a mosaic of active seep sediments and non-seep sediments. Microbial community shifts and changing activity patterns on small spatial scales from seep to non-seep sediment remain to be examined in a comprehensive habitat study. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a transect of biogeochemical measurements and gene expression related to methane- and sulfur-cycling at different sediment depths across a broad Beggiatoa spp. mat at Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in the Gulf of Mexico. High process rates within the mat (∼400 cm and ∼10 cm from the mat's edge) contrasted with sharply diminished activity at ∼50 cm outside the mat, as shown by sulfate and methane concentration profiles, radiotracer rates of sulfate reduction and methane oxidation, and stable carbon isotopes. Likewise, 16S ribosomal rRNA, dsrAB (dissimilatory sulfite reductase) and mcrA (methyl coenzyme M reductase) mRNA transcripts of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae) and methane-cycling archaea (ANME-1 and ANME-2) were prevalent at the sediment surface under the mat and at its edge. Outside the mat at the surface, 16S rRNA sequences indicated mostly aerobes commonly found in seawater. The seep-related communities persisted at 12–20 cm depth inside and outside the mat. 16S rRNA transcripts and V6-tags reveal that bacterial and archaeal diversity underneath the mat are similar to each other, in contrast to oxic or microoxic habitats that have higher bacterial diversity. Conclusions/Significance The visual patchiness of microbial mats reflects sharp discontinuities in microbial community structure and activity over sub-meter spatial scales; these discontinuities have to be taken into account in geochemical and microbiological inventories of seep environments. In

  9. Community Analysis of Dynamic Microbial Mat Communities from Actively Erupting Seamounts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R.; Tebo, B.; Moyer, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    The actively erupting deep-sea volcanoes NW Rota-1 and W Mata have multiple diffuse low-temperature (Tmax= 20-30 degrees) vent sites which harbor dense populations of microbial mat communities driven by chemoautotrophy. These microbial mats were often composed of white filamentous bacteria growing in close proximity to focused hydrothermal flow. Eight microbial mats were sampled from discrete hydrothermal vents on NW Rota-1 and W Mata volcanoes in 2009. The microbial mat communities were analyzed with quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community fingerprinting. All of the sampled microbial mats were dominated by the class Epsilonproteobacteria. The microbial mat at Iceberg Vent contained 13.5% Archaea, while all other microbial mats contained less than 1% Archaea. Bacterial community fingerprints from NW Rota-1 and W Mata formed distinct clusters that were well separated from clusters formed by hydrothermal communities from Axial and Eifuku Seamounts that were also dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria. Iceberg vent communities from NW Rota-1 have transitioned from being dominated by Caminibacter phylotypes to Sulfuimonas group phylotypes since 2004. These data suggest that microbial communities found on actively erupting volcanoes are geographically distinct and provide a natural laboratory to study microbial colonization and community succession at hydrothermal systems.

  10. Structural and biochemical characterization of a halophilic archaeal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wende, Andy; Johansson, Patrik; Vollrath, Ronnald; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Grininger, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Phosphate is an essential component of all cells that must be taken up from the environment. Prokaryotes commonly secrete alkaline phosphatases (APs) to recruit phosphate from organic compounds by hydrolysis. In this study, the AP from Halobacterium salinarum, an archaeon that lives in a saturated salt environment, has been functionally and structurally characterized. The core fold and the active-site architecture of the H. salinarum enzyme are similar to other AP structures. These generally form dimers composed of dominant beta-sheet structures sandwiched by alpha-helices and have well-accessible active sites. The surface of the enzyme is predicted to be highly negatively charged, like other proteins of extreme halophiles. In addition to the conserved core, most APs contain a crown domain that strongly varies within species. In the H. salinarum AP, the crown domain is made of an acyl-carrier-protein-like fold. Different from other APs, it is not involved in dimer formation. We compare the archaeal AP with its bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts, and we focus on the role of crown domains in enhancing protein stability, regulating enzyme function, and guiding phosphoesters into the active-site funnel. PMID:20438737

  11. Bacterial and archaeal populations at two shallow hydrothermal vents off Panarea Island (Eolian Islands, Italy).

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Teresa Luciana; Lentini, Valeria; Gugliandolo, Concetta; Italiano, Francesco; Cousin, Sylvie; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial community thriving at two shallow hydrothermal vents off Panarea Island (Italy). Physico-chemical characteristics of thermal waters were examined in order to establish the effect of the vents on biodiversity of both Bacteria and Archaea. Water and adjacent sediment samples were collected at different times from two vents, characterised by different depth and temperature, and analysed to evaluate total microbial abundances, sulphur-oxidising and thermophilic aerobic bacteria. Total microbial abundances were on average of the order of 10(5) cells ml(-1), expressed as picoplanktonic size fraction. Picophytoplanktonic cells accounted for 0.77-3.83% of the total picoplanktonic cells. The contribution of bacterial and archaeal taxa to prokaryotic community diversity was investigated by PCR-DGGE fingerprinting method. The number of bands derived from bacterial DNA was highest in the DGGE profiles of water sample from the warmest and deepest site (site 2). In contrast, archaeal richness was highest in the water of the coldest and shallowest site (site 1). Sulphur-oxidising bacteria were detected by both culture-dependent and -independent methods. The primary production at the shallow hydrothermal system of Panarea is supported by a complex microbial community composed by phototrophs and chemolithotrophs. PMID:19050821

  12. Nitrification of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in a high- temperature hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun; Peng, Xiaotong; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation of ammonia by microbes has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the link of in situ nitrification activity to taxonomic identities of ammonia oxidizers in high-temperature environments remains poorly understood. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N-NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface and bottom sediments were 4.80 and 5.30 nmol N g-1 h-1, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the archaeal 16S rRNA genes and amoA genes were present in the range of 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 and 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 gene copies g-1 sediment, respectively, while bacterial amoA was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, which represented the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTU) in both surface and bottom sediments. The archaeal predominance was further supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) visualization. The cell-specific rate of ammonia oxidation was estimated to range from 0.410 to 0.790 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, higher than those in the two US Great Basin hot springs. These results suggest the importance of archaeal rather than bacterial ammonia oxidation in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  13. Microbial community dynamics linked to enhanced substrate availability and biogas production of electrokinetically pre-treated waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, Maria; Crauwels, Sam; Houtmeyers, Sofie; Meerbergen, Ken; Van Geel, Maarten; Lievens, Bart; Appels, Lise

    2016-10-01

    The restricted hydrolytic degradation rate of complex organic matter presents a considerable challenge in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Within this context, application of pre-treatment of digester substrate has potential for improved waste management and enhanced biogas production. Anaerobic degradation of untreated or electrokinetically pre-treated WAS was performed in two pilot-scale digesters for 132days. WAS electrokinetically pre-treated with energy input 0.066kJ/kg sludge was used in a first phase of operation and WAS pre-treated with energy input 0.091kJ/kg sludge was used in a second phase (each phase lasted at least three hydraulic retention times). Substrate characteristics before and after pre-treatment and effects on biogas digester performance were comprehensively analysed. To gain insights into influences of altered substrate characteristics on microbial communities, the dynamics within the bacterial and archaeal communities in the two digesters were investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (pyrosequencing) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Specific primers targeting dominant operation taxonomic units (OTUs) and members of the candidate phylum Cloacimonetes were designed to further evaluate their abundance and dynamics in the digesters. Electrokinetic pre-treatment significantly improved chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbohydrate solubility and increased biogas production by 10-11% compared with untreated sludge. Compositional similarity of the bacterial community during initial operation and diversification during later operation indicated gradual adaptation of the community to the higher solubility of organic material in the pre-treated substrate. Further analyses revealed positive correlations between gene abundance of dominant OTUs related to Clostridia and Cloacimonetes and increased substrate availability and biogas production. Among the methanogens, the genus Methanosaeta dominated in both digesters. Overall, the

  14. Pyrosequencing-based profiling of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes identifies a novel archaeon associated with black band disease in corals.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yui; Willis, Bette L; Bourne, David G

    2013-11-01

    Black band disease (BBD) is a microbial consortium that creates anoxic, sulfide-rich microenvironments and kills underlying coral tissues as it rapidly migrates across colonies. Although bacterial communities associated with BBD have been studied extensively, the presence and roles of archaea are unexplored. Using amplicon-pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, we investigated the community structure of both archaea and bacteria within microbial lesions of BBD and the less-virulent precursor stage, 'cyanobacterial patches' (CP), affecting the coral Montipora hispida. We detected characteristic shifts in microbial communities during the development of BBD from CP, reflecting microenvironmental changes within lesions. Archaeal profiles in CP suggested a diverse assemblage affiliated with the Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, similar to communities described for oxic marine environments. In contrast, a novel ribotype, distantly affiliated to the Euryarchaeota, dominated up to 94% of archaeal sequences retrieved from BBD. The physiological characteristics of this dominant archaeal ribotype are unknown because of the novelty of its 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences; however, their prominent associations with BBD lesions suggest the ability to thrive in the organic- and sulfide-rich anoxic microenvironment characteristic of BBD lesions. Discovery of this novel archaeal ribotype provides new insights into the microbial ecology and aetiology of BBD. PMID:24112537

  15. Subunit association as the stabilizing determinant for archaeal methionine adenosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Francisco; Alfonso, Carlos; Taylor, John C; Markham, George D; Pajares, María A

    2009-07-01

    Archaea contain a class of methionine adenosyltransferases (MATs) that exhibit substantially higher stability than their mesophilic counterparts. Their sequences are highly divergent, but preserve the essential active site motifs of the family. We have investigated the origin of this increased stability using chemical denaturation experiments on Methanococcus jannaschii MAT (Mj-MAT) and mutants containing single tryptophans in place of tyrosine residues. The results from fluorescence, circular dichroism, hydrodynamic, and enzyme activity measurements showed that the higher stability of Mj-MAT derives largely from a tighter association of its subunits in the dimer. Local fluorescence changes, interpreted using secondary structure predictions, further identify the least stable structural elements as the C-terminal ends of beta-strands E2 and E6, and the N-terminus of E3. Dimer dissociation however requires a wider perturbation of the molecule. Additional analysis was initially hindered by the lack of crystal structures for archaeal MATs, a limitation that we overcame by construction of a 3D-homology model of Mj-MAT. This model predicts preservation of the chain topology and three-domain organization typical of this family, locates the least stable structural elements at the flat contact surface between monomers, and shows that alterations in all three domains are required for dimer dissociation. PMID:19348969

  16. Quantitative Mapping of Archaeal Biodiversity on the Geochemical Landscape in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, E.; Hamilton, T.; He, L.; Wang, J.; Peters, J.; Zhang, C.

    2011-12-01

    Quantifying the constraints imposed by the environment on microbial community structure, composition, and function is a major frontier in biogeoscience research since such information can be used to predict how microbial communities will respond to environmental change at the compositional and functional level. The strong physical and chemical gradients and the relatively simple microbial diversity associated with geothermal environments makes them model environments for the development and application of techniques capable of quantifying the extent of such relationships. Here, we present the results of an integrated study of the genetics, lipids, and geochemistry from 40 geochemically- and geographically-distinct geothermal environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA. Ecological modeling tools were used to quantify the links between the structure, composition, and abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA genes, archaeal ammonia monoxygenase genes, core and intact polar glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids, and a number of physical and chemical measurements. The abundance of a number of 16S rRNA gene lineages was correlated with the abundance of lipids hypothesized to be synthesized by those lineages. The abundance of other uncharacterized and novel 16S rRNA gene lineages also exhibited strong correlations with individual lipids, suggesting that these organisms may be the source of these lipids in the natural environment. Collectively, these results suggest that both archaeal 16S rRNA genes and lipids are non-randomly distributed across the YNP geothermal landscape and that their distribution and composition can be predicted on the basis of geochemical and physical measurements. These quantitative results underscore the utility of modeling tools in understanding how environment drives the diversification of life both at the taxonomic and functional level, information which will be required to predict how ecosystems change in composition

  17. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  18. Microbial Community Structure and Activity Linked to Contrasting Biogeochemical Gradients in Bog and Fen Environments of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland

    PubMed Central

    Lin, X.; Green, S.; Tfaily, M. M.; Prakash, O.; Konstantinidis, K. T.; Corbett, J. E.; Chanton, J. P.; Cooper, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    The abundances, compositions, and activities of microbial communities were investigated at bog and fen sites in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland of northwestern Minnesota. These sites contrast in the reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the presence or absence of groundwater inputs. Microbial community composition was characterized using pyrosequencing and clone library construction of phylogenetic marker genes. Microbial distribution patterns were linked to pH, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratios, optical properties of DOM, and activities of laccase and peroxidase enzymes. Both bacterial and archaeal richness and rRNA gene abundance were >2 times higher on average in the fen than in the bog, in agreement with a higher pH, labile DOM content, and enhanced enzyme activities in the fen. Fungi were equivalent to an average of 1.4% of total prokaryotes in gene abundance assayed by quantitative PCR. Results revealed statistically distinct spatial patterns between bacterial and fungal communities. Fungal distribution did not covary with pH and DOM optical properties and was vertically stratified, with a prevalence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota near the surface and much higher representation of Zygomycota in the subsurface. In contrast, bacterial community composition largely varied between environments, with the bog dominated by Acidobacteria (61% of total sequences), while the Firmicutes (52%) dominated in the fen. Acetoclastic Methanosarcinales showed a much higher relative abundance in the bog, in contrast to the dominance of diverse hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the fen. This is the first quantitative and compositional analysis of three microbial domains in peatlands and demonstrates that the microbial abundance, diversity, and activity parallel with the pronounced differences in environmental variables between bog and fen sites. PMID:22843538

  19. ACS Community Activities Contest: NCW 2008 Winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stacy

    2009-03-01

    The winners of the annual National Chemistry Week (NCW) poster contest were announced on November 14, 2008. The contest, held during the fourth week in October, invites K-12 students to display artistically the impact of chemistry in their lives. The 2008 theme focused on the chemistry of sports. Students were encouraged to emphasize the chemical principles connected with different sports, sports materials, safety equipment, and how the body performs during physical activity.

  20. Involving Community Stakeholders to Increase Park Use and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Terry; Mariscal, Mark; Pina-Cortez, Sophia; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe implementation of a randomized controlled trial of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to increase park use and physical activity across 33 diverse neighborhoods in Los Angeles. Methods Fifty parks were randomly assigned based on park size, facilities and programs, and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics to: park director (PD, 17 parks); PD and park advisory board of interested community members (PD+PAB, 16 parks); and no-intervention control (17 parks) arms. Between 2007 and 2012, PDs and PABs from the 33 intervention parks participated in community engagement, baseline assessment, marketing training, intervention design and implementation, and follow-up assessment. Results Intervention parks (PD and PD+PAB) invested in new and diversified signage, promotional items, outreach or support for group activities like fitness classes and walking clubs, and various marketing strategies. Scaling up CBPR methods across parks in 33 diverse neighborhoods was challenging. Working with departmental management and established structures for community input (PABs) and park policy (PDs) facilitated implementation and sustainability. Conclusion Scaling up CBPR methods across diverse communities involved tradeoffs. CBPR is useful for tailoring research and enhancing community impact and sustainability, but more work is needed to understand how to conduct multi-site trials across diverse settings using CBPR. PMID:24674853

  1. Archaeal communities of Arctic methane-containing permafrost.

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, Victoria; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Ryzhmanova, Yana; Taguchi, Yukihiro; Segawa, Takahiro; Oshurkova, Victoria; Rivkina, Elizaveta

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we used culture-independent methods to investigate the diversity of methanogenic archaea and their distribution in five permafrost samples collected from a borehole in the Kolyma River Lowland (north-east of Russia). Total DNA was extracted from methane-containing permafrost samples of different age and amplified by PCR. The resulting DNA fragments were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed the presence of archaea in all studied samples; 60%-95% of sequences belonged to the Euryarchaeota. Methanogenic archaea were novel representatives of Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales, Methanobacteriales and Methanocellales orders. Bathyarchaeota (Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Group) representatives were found among nonmethanogenic archaea in all the samples studied. The Thaumarchaeota representatives were not found in the upper sample, whereas Woesearchaeota (formerly DHVEG-6) were found in the three deepest samples. Unexpectedly, the greatest diversity of archaea was observed at a depth of 22.3 m, probably due to the availability of the labile organic carbon and/or due to the migration of the microbial cells during the freezing front towards the bottom. PMID:27312964

  2. Global Occurrence of Archaeal amoA Genes in Terrestrial Hot Springs▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Ye, Qi; Huang, Zhiyong; Li, WenJun; Chen, Jinquan; Song, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Weidong; Bagwell, Christopher; Inskeep, William P.; Ross, Christian; Gao, Lei; Wiegel, Juergen; Romanek, Christopher S.; Shock, Everett L.; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of ammonium in geothermal environments and the thermodynamic favorability of aerobic ammonia oxidation, thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms belonging to the crenarchaeota kingdom have only recently been described. In this study, we analyzed microbial mats and surface sediments from 21 hot spring samples (pH 3.4 to 9.0; temperature, 41 to 86°C) from the United States, China, and Russia and obtained 846 putative archaeal ammonia monooxygenase large-subunit (amoA) gene and transcript sequences, representing a total of 41 amoA operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 2% identity. The amoA gene sequences were highly diverse, yet they clustered within two major clades of archaeal amoA sequences known from water columns, sediments, and soils: clusters A and B. Eighty-four percent (711/846) of the sequences belonged to cluster A, which is typically found in water columns and sediments, whereas 16% (135/846) belonged to cluster B, which is typically found in soils and sediments. Although a few amoA OTUs were present in several geothermal regions, most were specific to a single region. In addition, cluster A amoA genes formed geographic groups, while cluster B sequences did not group geographically. With the exception of only one hot spring, principal-component analysis and UPGMA (unweighted-pair group method using average linkages) based on the UniFrac metric derived from cluster A grouped the springs by location, regardless of temperature or bulk water pH, suggesting that geography may play a role in structuring communities of putative ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). The amoA genes were distinct from those of low-temperature environments; in particular, pair-wise comparisons between hot spring amoA genes and those from sympatric soils showed less than 85% sequence identity, underscoring the distinctness of hot spring archaeal communities from those of the surrounding soil system. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that amoA genes were

  3. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Inskeep, William P.; Jay, Zackary J.; Herrgard, Markus J.; Kozubal, Mark A.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Macur, Richard E.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Boyd, Eric S.; Spear, John R.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40–45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G + C content) and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport, and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH). These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high-temperature systems of YNP. PMID:23720654

  4. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus J; Kozubal, Mark A; Rusch, Douglas B; Tringe, Susannah G; Macur, Richard E; Jennings, Ryan deM; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R; Roberto, Francisco F

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G + C content) and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport, and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH). These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high-temperature systems of YNP. PMID:23720654

  5. Natural decay process affects the abundance and community structure of Bacteria and Archaea in Picea abies logs.

    PubMed

    Rinta-Kanto, J M; Sinkko, H; Rajala, T; Al-Soud, W A; Sørensen, S J; Tamminen, M V; Timonen, S

    2016-07-01

    Prokaryotes colonize decaying wood and contribute to the degradation process, but the dynamics of prokaryotic communities during wood decay is still poorly understood. We studied the abundance and community composition of Bacteria and Archaea inhabiting naturally decaying Picea abies logs and tested the hypothesis that the variations in archaeal and bacterial abundances and community composition are coupled with environmental parameters related to the decay process. The data set comprises >500 logs at different decay stages from five geographical locations in south and central Finland. The results show that Bacteria and Archaea are an integral and dynamic component of decaying wood biota. The abundances of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes increase as wood decay progresses. Changes in bacterial community composition are clearly linked to the loss of density of wood, while specific fungal-bacterial interactions may also affect the distribution of bacterial taxa in decaying wood. Thaumarchaeota were prominent members of the archaeal populations colonizing decaying wood, providing further evidence of the versatility and cosmopolitan nature of this phylum in the environment. The composition and dynamics of the prokaryotic community suggest that they are an active component of biota that are involved in processing substrates in decaying wood material. PMID:27127195

  6. Analysis of the microbial community and geochemistry of a sediment core from Great Slave Lake, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jesmine; Woodward, John; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Christoffersen, Poul; Cummings, Stephen P

    2011-02-01

    Sediment cores taken from Great Slave Lake, Canada, were analysed to investigate their metabolically active microbial populations and geochemistry. The amplification of cDNA detected metabolically active bacterial (50 separate bands) and archaeal (49 separate band) communities. The bacterial communities were further resolved indicating active actinobacterial and γ-proteobacterial communities (36 and 43 individual bands respectively). Redundancy discriminate analysis and Monte Carlo permutation testing demonstrated the significant impact of geochemical parameters on microbial community structures. Geochemical analyses suggest that the upper 0.4 m represents soil weathering and erosion in the lake catchment. An increase in organic carbon in the lower core suggests either more primary productivity, indicating warmer climate conditions, associated with Holocene Climatic Optimum conditions pre 5,000 years BP or change from a reducing environment in the lower core to an oxidizing environment during more recent deposition. Drivers for bacterial, archaeal and actinobacterial community structures were sediment particle size, and its mineral composition. Depth also significantly affected γ- proteobacterial community structure. In contrast the organic carbon content did not significantly shape the microbial community structures within the sediment. This study indicates that geochemical parameters significantly contribute to microbial community structure in these sediments. PMID:20803250

  7. Contrasting spatial patterns and ecological attributes of soil bacterial and archaeal taxa across a landscape

    PubMed Central

    Constancias, Florentin; Saby, Nicolas P A; Terrat, Sébastien; Dequiedt, Samuel; Horrigue, Wallid; Nowak, Virginie; Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Biju-Duval, Luc; Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Ranjard, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Even though recent studies have clarified the influence and hierarchy of environmental filters on bacterial community structure, those constraining bacterial populations variations remain unclear. In consequence, our ability to understand to ecological attributes of soil bacteria and to predict microbial community response to environmental stress is therefore limited. Here, we characterized the bacterial community composition and the various bacterial taxonomic groups constituting the community across an agricultural landscape of 12 km2, by using a 215 × 215 m systematic grid representing 278 sites to precisely decipher their spatial distribution and drivers at this scale. The bacterial and Archaeal community composition was characterized by applying 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing directly to soil DNA from samples. Geostatistics tools were used to reveal the heterogeneous distribution of bacterial composition at this scale. Soil physical parameters and land management explained a significant amount of variation, suggesting that environmental selection is the major process shaping bacterial composition. All taxa systematically displayed also a heterogeneous and particular distribution patterns. Different relative influences of soil characteristics, land use and space were observed, depending on the taxa, implying that selection and spatial processes might be differentially but not exclusively involved for each bacterial phylum. Soil pH was a major factor determining the distribution of most of the bacterial taxa and especially the most important factor explaining the spatial patterns of α-Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes. Soil texture, organic carbon content and quality were more specific to a few number of taxa (e.g., β-Proteobacteria and Chlorobi). Land management also influenced the distribution of bacterial taxa across the landscape and revealed different type of response to cropping intensity (positive, negative, neutral or hump-backed relationships

  8. Contrasting spatial patterns and ecological attributes of soil bacterial and archaeal taxa across a landscape.

    PubMed

    Constancias, Florentin; Saby, Nicolas P A; Terrat, Sébastien; Dequiedt, Samuel; Horrigue, Wallid; Nowak, Virginie; Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Biju-Duval, Luc; Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Ranjard, Lionel

    2015-06-01

    Even though recent studies have clarified the influence and hierarchy of environmental filters on bacterial community structure, those constraining bacterial populations variations remain unclear. In consequence, our ability to understand to ecological attributes of soil bacteria and to predict microbial community response to environmental stress is therefore limited. Here, we characterized the bacterial community composition and the various bacterial taxonomic groups constituting the community across an agricultural landscape of 12 km(2) , by using a 215 × 215 m systematic grid representing 278 sites to precisely decipher their spatial distribution and drivers at this scale. The bacterial and Archaeal community composition was characterized by applying 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing directly to soil DNA from samples. Geostatistics tools were used to reveal the heterogeneous distribution of bacterial composition at this scale. Soil physical parameters and land management explained a significant amount of variation, suggesting that environmental selection is the major process shaping bacterial composition. All taxa systematically displayed also a heterogeneous and particular distribution patterns. Different relative influences of soil characteristics, land use and space were observed, depending on the taxa, implying that selection and spatial processes might be differentially but not exclusively involved for each bacterial phylum. Soil pH was a major factor determining the distribution of most of the bacterial taxa and especially the most important factor explaining the spatial patterns of α-Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes. Soil texture, organic carbon content and quality were more specific to a few number of taxa (e.g., β-Proteobacteria and Chlorobi). Land management also influenced the distribution of bacterial taxa across the landscape and revealed different type of response to cropping intensity (positive, negative, neutral or hump-backed relationships

  9. Active living environment assessments in four rural Latino communities

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Nagel, Corey; Ko, Linda K.; Duggan, Catherine; Linde, Sandra; Rodriguez, Edgar A.; Thompson, Beti

    2015-01-01

    Objective Latinos and rural residents are less active and have a greater prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with their non-Latino white and urban counterparts. The objective of this study was to assess the active living environment in four rural, predominantly Latino communities. Methods Assessments were taken using the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA) in four rural predominantly Latino communities in Central Washington from September–November 2013. Street Segment Assessments of town center, thoroughfare, neighborhood and school zones were assessed for features related to walkability. Physical activity amenities, programs and policies in each town were assessed. Scores were generated for amenities, programs and policies. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results A total of 103 segments were assessed. Sidewalks in good condition were present in 32% of segments and shoulders in 44% of segments. Half of street segments were rated as walkable. Parks and playgrounds were available; however, half of these were rated in poor condition. All four districts offered after school physical activity programming but only two had a late bus option. Conclusions These four rural towns have some policies, programming and infrastructure in place that support active living. The information from the RALA can be used to inform program and policy development to enhance physical activity in these rural communities. PMID:26844156

  10. Physical activity influences in a disadvantaged African American community and the communities' proposed solutions.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Sarah F; Wilson, Dawn K; Wilcox, Sara; Buck, Jacqueline; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to increase our understanding of how safety and environmental factors influence physical activity among African American residents living in a low-income, high-crime neighborhood and to get input from these residents about how to best design physical activity interventions for their neighborhood. Twenty-seven African American adult residents of a low-income, high-crime neighborhood in a suburban southeastern community participated in three focus groups. Participants were asked questions about perceptions of what would help them, their families, and their neighbors be more physically active. Two independent raters coded the responses into themes. Participants suggested three environmental approaches in an effort to increase physical activity: increasing law enforcement, community connectedness and social support, and structured programs. Findings suggest that safety issues are an important factor for residents living in disadvantaged conditions and that the residents know how they want to make their neighborhoods healthier. PMID:17728204

  11. Community capacity for sustainability of nutrition and physical activity interventions in small, rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural communities would seem to present a challenge for sustainability of interventions because of resource limitations. This session will examine ways in which capacity for sustainability has been emphasized as part of nutrition and physical activity interventions in three rural Mississippi River D...

  12. Quantitative and phylogenetic study of the Deep Sea Archaeal Group in sediments of the Arctic mid-ocean spreading ridge

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Steffen L.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Baumberger, Tamara; Schleper, Christa

    2013-01-01

    In marine sediments archaea often constitute a considerable part of the microbial community, of which the Deep Sea Archaeal Group (DSAG) is one of the most predominant. Despite their high abundance no members from this archaeal group have so far been characterized and thus their metabolism is unknown. Here we show that the relative abundance of DSAG marker genes can be correlated with geochemical parameters, allowing prediction of both the potential electron donors and acceptors of these organisms. We estimated the abundance of 16S rRNA genes from Archaea, Bacteria, and DSAG in 52 sediment horizons from two cores collected at the slow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge, using qPCR. The results indicate that members of the DSAG make up the entire archaeal population in certain horizons and constitute up to ~50% of the total microbial community. The quantitative data were correlated to 30 different geophysical and geochemical parameters obtained from the same sediment horizons. We observed a significant correlation between the relative abundance of DSAG 16S rRNA genes and the content of organic carbon (p < 0.0001). Further, significant co-variation with iron oxide, and dissolved iron and manganese (all p < 0.0000), indicated a direct or indirect link to iron and manganese cycling. Neither of these parameters correlated with the relative abundance of archaeal or bacterial 16S rRNA genes, nor did any other major electron donor or acceptor measured. Phylogenetic analysis of DSAG 16S rRNA gene sequences reveals three monophyletic lineages with no apparent habitat-specific distribution. In this study we support the hypothesis that members of the DSAG are tightly linked to the content of organic carbon and directly or indirectly involved in the cycling of iron and/or manganese compounds. Further, we provide a molecular tool to assess their abundance in environmental samples and enrichment cultures. PMID:24109477

  13. Quantification of bacterial and archaeal symbionts in high and low microbial abundance sponges using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Kristina; Kamke, Janine; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-09-01

    In spite of considerable insights into the microbial diversity of marine sponges, quantitative information on microbial abundances and community composition remains scarce. Here, we established qPCR assays for the specific quantification of four bacterial phyla of representative sponge symbionts as well as the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaea. We could show that the 16S rRNA gene numbers of Archaea, Chloroflexi, and the candidate phylum Poribacteria were 4-6 orders of magnitude higher in high microbial abundance (HMA) than in low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges and that actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene numbers were 1-2 orders higher in HMA over LMA sponges, while those for Cyanobacteria were stable between HMA and LMA sponges. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of Aplysina aerophoba tissue sections confirmed the numerical dominance of Chloroflexi, which was followed by Poribacteria. Archaeal and actinobacterial cells were detected in much lower numbers. By use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a primer- and probe-independent approach, the dominance of Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Poribacteria in A. aerophoba was confirmed. Our study provides new quantitative insights into the microbiology of sponges and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA/LMA dichotomy. PMID:24942664

  14. Black Educational Activism for Community Empowerment: International Leadership Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Camille; Johnson, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses themes emerging from studies of Black educational activism conducted in London, Toronto, and Detroit. An analysis of narrative data reveals that Black educational activists resist racism and other forms of oppression; act as border crossers and/or boundary spanners as they navigate complex community-based, institutional, and…

  15. It Takes a Virtual Community: Promoting Collaboration through Student Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battista, Ludmila; Forrey, Carol; Stevenson, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Distance education provides many nontraditional students with the opportunity to pursue a college education not possible through traditional brick and mortar education. Although not meeting face-to-face, student activities help promote a stronger connection between the classroom and university community. This paper will discuss strategies for…

  16. MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN SEMIARID AGRICULTURAL SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of management on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of three semiarid soils from Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in cotton -peanut (Arachis h...

  17. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing.…

  18. Community Resources for Promoting Youth Nutrition and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kelly R.; McGowan, Melissa K.; Donato, Karen A.; Kollipara, Sobha; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a national public health crisis. The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), the National Institutes of Health and Kaiser Permanente have developed community tools and resources for children and families to lower their risk for obesity through healthier, active lifestyles. The authors describe innovative practices and…

  19. Generalized soil Thaumarchaeota community in weathering rock and saprolite.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ke; Kim, Woo-Sung; Tripathi, Binu Mani; Adams, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    Relatively little is known of the archaeal communities associated with endolithic environments, compared to other microbial groups such as bacteria and fungi. Analyzing the pyrosequenced archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V1-V3 region, we investigated the archaeal community associated with aboveground-exfoliated weathering layers of a granite gneiss, and of the saprolite derived from this rock at 1 m depth below the soil surface, in a forested hilly area south of Seoul, South Korea. In both these sites, an archaeal community dominated by the phylum Thaumarchaeota was identified. The archaeal community in all cases closely resembled that of the surface layer of acidic soils in temperate climates of Korea. It appears that there is no clear distinction in archaeal community composition between a soil and a rock and a saprolite despite a tremendous difference in the concentration of total nitrogen and organic carbon. Of the chemical properties we measured, pH was the best predictor of the archaeal community composition and relative abundance of thaumarchaeal subphyla. These findings reinforce the view that soil archaea are mostly generalists, whose ecology is not closely dependent on nitrogen concentration or soil organic matter status, the presence of living roots, or the abundant presence of any other biota. PMID:25370886

  20. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory library of bacterial and archaeal proteomic biodiversity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Payne, Samuel H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Overall, Christopher C.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Degan, Michael G.; Gibbons, Bryson C.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.; et al

    2015-08-18

    This dataset deposition announces the submission to public repositories of the PNNL Biodiversity Library, a large collection of global proteomics data for 112 bacterial and archaeal organisms. The data comprises 35,162 tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) datasets from ~10 years of research. All data has been searched, annotated and organized in a consistent manner to promote reuse by the community. Protein identifications were cross-referenced with KEGG functional annotations which allows for pathway oriented investigation. We present the data as a freely available community resource. A variety of data re-use options are described for computational modeling, proteomics assay design and bioengineering. Instrumentmore » data and analysis files are available at ProteomeXchange via the MassIVE partner repository under the identifiers PXD001860 and MSV000079053.« less

  1. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory library of bacterial and archaeal proteomic biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Samuel H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Overall, Christopher C.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Degan, Michael G.; Gibbons, Bryson C.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-08-18

    This dataset deposition announces the submission to public repositories of the PNNL Biodiversity Library, a large collection of global proteomics data for 112 bacterial and archaeal organisms. The data comprises 35,162 tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) datasets from ~10 years of research. All data has been searched, annotated and organized in a consistent manner to promote reuse by the community. Protein identifications were cross-referenced with KEGG functional annotations which allows for pathway oriented investigation. We present the data as a freely available community resource. A variety of data re-use options are described for computational modeling, proteomics assay design and bioengineering. Instrument data and analysis files are available at ProteomeXchange via the MassIVE partner repository under the identifiers PXD001860 and MSV000079053.

  2. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory library of bacterial and archaeal proteomic biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Samuel H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Overall, Christopher C.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Degan, Michael; Gibbons, Bryson C.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    This Data Descriptor announces the submission to public repositories of the PNNL Biodiversity Library, a large collection of global proteomics data for 112 bacterial and archaeal organisms. The data comprises 35,162 tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) datasets from ~10 years of research. All data has been searched, annotated and organized in a consistent manner to promote reuse by the community. Protein identifications were cross-referenced with KEGG functional annotations which allows for pathway oriented investigation. We present the data as a freely available community resource. A variety of data re-use options are described for computational modelling, proteomics assay design and bioengineering. Instrument data and analysis files are available at ProteomeXchange via the MassIVE partner repository under the identifiers PXD001860 and MSV000079053. PMID:26306205

  3. Prokaryotic diversity of an active mud volcano in the Usu City of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Mei; Lou, Kai; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Xiao-Long

    2012-02-01

    The Usu mud volcanoes are the largest group of terrestrial mud volcanoes in China. The volcanoes are located in a typical arid and semi-arid region, and the group consists of 36 erupting active mud volcanoes. In this study, the prokaryotic diversity and community structure in the sediment of an active mud volcano were investigated by constructing bacterial and archaeal clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 100 bacterial and 100 archaeal clones were analysed and found to comprise 11 and 7 distinct phylotypes, respectively. The bacterial phylotypes were classified into three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria). Of these, Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial group, with Deltaproteobacteria dominating the sediment community, and these were affiliated with the order Desulfuromonadales. The archaeal phylotypes were all closely related to uncultivated species, and the majority of the members were related to the orders Methanosarcinales and Halobacteriales of the Euryarchaeota originating from methane hydrate bearing or alkaline sediments. The rest of the archaeal phylotypes belonged to the phylum Crenarchaeota, with representatives from similar habitats. These results suggested that a large number of novel microbial groups and potential methanogenesis may exist in this unique ecosystem. PMID:21656823

  4. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-05-01

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  5. Crystal structure of the flagellar accessory protein FlaH of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii suggests a regulatory role in archaeal flagellum assembly.

    PubMed

    Meshcheryakov, Vladimir A; Wolf, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Archaeal flagella are unique structures that share functional similarity with bacterial flagella, but are structurally related to bacterial type IV pili. The flagellar accessory protein FlaH is one of the conserved components of the archaeal motility system. However, its function is not clearly understood. Here, we present the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of FlaH from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. The protein has a characteristic RecA-like fold, which has been found previously both in archaea and bacteria. We show that FlaH binds to immobilized ATP-however, it lacks ATPase activity. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrates that ATP affects the interaction between FlaH and the archaeal motor protein FlaI. In the presence of ATP, the FlaH-FlaI interaction becomes significantly weaker. A database search revealed similarity between FlaH and several DNA-binding proteins of the RecA superfamily. The closest structural homologs of FlaH are KaiC-like proteins, which are archaeal homologs of the circadian clock protein KaiC from cyanobacteria. We propose that one of the functions of FlaH may be the regulation of archaeal motor complex assembly. PMID:27060465

  6. Identification of a second GTP-bound magnesium ion in archaeal initiation factor 2

    PubMed Central

    Dubiez, Etienne; Aleksandrov, Alexey; Lazennec-Schurdevin, Christine; Mechulam, Yves; Schmitt, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic and archaeal translation initiation processes involve a heterotrimeric GTPase e/aIF2 crucial for accuracy of start codon selection. In eukaryotes, the GTPase activity of eIF2 is assisted by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), eIF5. In archaea, orthologs of eIF5 are not found and aIF2 GTPase activity is thought to be non-assisted. However, no in vitro GTPase activity of the archaeal factor has been reported to date. Here, we show that aIF2 significantly hydrolyses GTP in vitro. Within aIF2γ, H97, corresponding to the catalytic histidine found in other translational GTPases, and D19, from the GKT loop, both participate in this activity. Several high-resolution crystal structures were determined to get insight into GTP hydrolysis by aIF2γ. In particular, a crystal structure of the H97A mutant was obtained in the presence of non-hydrolyzed GTP. This structure reveals the presence of a second magnesium ion bound to GTP and D19. Quantum chemical/molecular mechanical simulations support the idea that the second magnesium ion may assist GTP hydrolysis by helping to neutralize the developing negative charge in the transition state. These results are discussed in light of the absence of an identified GAP in archaea to assist GTP hydrolysis on aIF2. PMID:25690901

  7. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  8. Active link selection for efficient semi-supervised community detection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liang; Jin, Di; Wang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Several semi-supervised community detection algorithms have been proposed recently to improve the performance of traditional topology-based methods. However, most of them focus on how to integrate supervised information with topology information; few of them pay attention to which information is critical for performance improvement. This leads to large amounts of demand for supervised information, which is expensive or difficult to obtain in most fields. For this problem we propose an active link selection framework, that is we actively select the most uncertain and informative links for human labeling for the efficient utilization of the supervised information. We also disconnect the most likely inter-community edges to further improve the efficiency. Our main idea is that, by connecting uncertain nodes to their community hubs and disconnecting the inter-community edges, one can sharpen the block structure of adjacency matrix more efficiently than randomly labeling links as the existing methods did. Experiments on both synthetic and real networks demonstrate that our new approach significantly outperforms the existing methods in terms of the efficiency of using supervised information. It needs ~13% of the supervised information to achieve a performance similar to that of the original semi-supervised approaches. PMID:25761385

  9. Active link selection for efficient semi-supervised community detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Jin, Di; Wang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Several semi-supervised community detection algorithms have been proposed recently to improve the performance of traditional topology-based methods. However, most of them focus on how to integrate supervised information with topology information; few of them pay attention to which information is critical for performance improvement. This leads to large amounts of demand for supervised information, which is expensive or difficult to obtain in most fields. For this problem we propose an active link selection framework, that is we actively select the most uncertain and informative links for human labeling for the efficient utilization of the supervised information. We also disconnect the most likely inter-community edges to further improve the efficiency. Our main idea is that, by connecting uncertain nodes to their community hubs and disconnecting the inter-community edges, one can sharpen the block structure of adjacency matrix more efficiently than randomly labeling links as the existing methods did. Experiments on both synthetic and real networks demonstrate that our new approach significantly outperforms the existing methods in terms of the efficiency of using supervised information. It needs ~13% of the supervised information to achieve a performance similar to that of the original semi-supervised approaches. PMID:25761385

  10. Community-Service Activities Versus Traditional Activities in an Intergenerational Visiting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Marcia S.; Hubbard, Pamela; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Thein, Khin

    2005-01-01

    The impact of traditional activities (e.g., playing board games) were compared with community-service activities (e.g., making first aid kits for a homeless shelter) during a monthly intergenerational visiting program. The participating seniors (n =19) gave high ratings to both types of activities. However, they felt that they had helped others…

  11. The archaeal molecular chaperone machine: peculiarities and paradoxes.

    PubMed Central

    Macario, A J; de Macario, E C

    1999-01-01

    A major finding within the field of archaea and molecular chaperones has been the demonstration that, while some species have the stress (heat-shock) gene hsp70(dnaK), others do not. This gene encodes Hsp70(DnaK), an essential molecular chaperone in bacteria and eukaryotes. Due to the physiological importance and the high degree of conservation of this protein, its absence in archaeal organisms has raised intriguing questions pertaining to the evolution of the chaperone machine as a whole and that of its components in particular, namely, Hsp70(DnaK), Hsp40(DnaJ), and GrpE. Another archaeal paradox is that the proteins coded by these genes are very similar to bacterial homologs, as if the genes had been received via lateral transfer from bacteria, whereas the upstream flanking regions have no bacterial markers, but instead have typical archaeal promoters, which are like those of eukaryotes. Furthermore, the chaperonin system in all archaea studied to the present, including those that possess a bacterial-like chaperone machine, is similar to that of the eukaryotic-cell cytosol. Thus, two chaperoning systems that are designed to interact with a compatible partner, e.g., the bacterial chaperone machine physiologically interacts with the bacterial but not with the eucaryal chaperonins, coexist in archaeal cells in spite of their apparent functional incompatibility. It is difficult to understand how these hybrid characteristics of the archaeal chaperoning system became established and work, if one bears in mind the classical ideas learned from studying bacteria and eukaryotes. No doubt, archaea are intriguing organisms that offer an opportunity to find novel molecules and mechanisms that will, most likely, enhance our understanding of the stress response and the protein folding and refolding processes in the three phylogenetic domains. PMID:10430558

  12. Archaeal TFEα/β is a hybrid of TFIIE and the RNA polymerase III subcomplex hRPC62/39

    PubMed Central

    Blombach, Fabian; Salvadori, Enrico; Fouqueau, Thomas; Yan, Jun; Reimann, Julia; Sheppard, Carol; Smollett, Katherine L; Albers, Sonja V; Kay, Christopher WM; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Werner, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Transcription initiation of archaeal RNA polymerase (RNAP) and eukaryotic RNAPII is assisted by conserved basal transcription factors. The eukaryotic transcription factor TFIIE consists of α and β subunits. Here we have identified and characterised the function of the TFIIEβ homologue in archaea that on the primary sequence level is related to the RNAPIII subunit hRPC39. Both archaeal TFEβ and hRPC39 harbour a cubane 4Fe-4S cluster, which is crucial for heterodimerization of TFEα/β and its engagement with the RNAP clamp. TFEα/β stabilises the preinitiation complex, enhances DNA melting, and stimulates abortive and productive transcription. These activities are strictly dependent on the β subunit and the promoter sequence. Our results suggest that archaeal TFEα/β is likely to represent the evolutionary ancestor of TFIIE-like factors in extant eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08378.001 PMID:26067235

  13. Activity and structure of methanotrophic communities in landfill cover soils.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Julia; Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente

    2009-10-01

    The composition of the methanotrophic community in soil covers on five landfills in Northern and Eastern Germany was investigated by means of diagnostic microarray and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), both targeting the pmoA gene of methanotrophs. Physical and chemical properties of the 15 sampled soil profiles varied greatly, thus providing for very different environmental conditions. The potential methane oxidation activity, assessed using undisturbed soil cores, varied between 0.2 and 28 µg CH4 gdw (-1)  h(-1) , the latter amounting to 426 g CH4 m(-2)  h(-1) . Total nitrogen was found to be the soil variable correlating most strongly with methanotrophic activity. Explaining close to 50% of the observed variability, this indicates that on the investigated sites activity and thus abundance of methanotrophs may have been nitrogen-limited. Variables that enhance organic matter and thus nitrogen accumulation, such as field capacity, also positively impacted methanotrophic activity. In spite of the great variability of soil properties and different geographic landfill location, both microarray and T-RFLP analysis suggested that the composition of the methanotrophic community on all five sites, in all profiles and across all depths was similar. Methylocystis, Methylobacter and Methylococcus species, including Methylococcus-related uncultivated methanotrophs, were predominantly detected among type II, Ia and Ib methanotrophs, respectively. This indicates that the high methane fluxes typical for landfill environments may be the most influential driver governing the community composition, or other variables not analysed in this study. Principal component analysis suggested that community diversity is most influenced by the site from which the samples were taken and second, from the location on the individual sites, i.e. the soil profile. Landfill and individual profiles reflect the combined impact of all effective variables, including

  14. Use of an Activity Monitor and GPS Device to Assess Community Activity and Participation in Transtibial Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Hordacre, Brenton; Barr, Christopher; Crotty, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized measures of community activity and participation of transtibial amputees based on combined data from separate accelerometer and GPS devices. The relationship between community activity and participation and standard clinical measures was assessed. Forty-seven participants were recruited (78% male, mean age 60.5 years). Participants wore the accelerometer and GPS devices for seven consecutive days. Data were linked to assess community activity (community based step counts) and community participation (number of community visits). Community activity and participation were compared across amputee K-level groups. Forty-six participants completed the study. On average each participant completed 16,645 (standard deviation (SD) 13,274) community steps and 16 (SD 10.9) community visits over seven days. There were differences between K-level groups for measures of community activity (F(2,45) = 9.4, p < 0.001) and participation (F(2,45) = 6.9, p = 0.002) with lower functioning K1/2 amputees demonstrating lower levels of community activity and participation than K3 and K4 amputees. There was no significant difference between K3 and K4 for community activity (p = 0.28) or participation (p = 0.43). This study demonstrated methodology to link accelerometer and GPS data to assess community activity and participation in a group of transtibial amputees. Differences in K-levels do not appear to accurately reflect actual community activity or participation in higher functioning transtibial amputees. PMID:24670721

  15. Archaeal-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Ibba, Michael; Bono, James L.; Rosa, Patricia A.; Söll, Dieter

    1997-01-01

    Lysyl-tRNAs are essential for protein biosynthesis by ribosomal mRNA translation in all organisms. They are synthesized by lysyl-tRNA synthetases (EC 6.1.1.6), a group of enzymes composed of two unrelated families. In bacteria and eukarya, all known lysyl-tRNA synthetases are subclass IIc-type aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, whereas some archaea have been shown to contain an unrelated class I-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase. Examination of the preliminary genomic sequence of the bacterial pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, indicated the presence of an open reading frame with over 55% similarity at the amino acid level to archaeal class I-type lysyl-tRNA synthetases. In contrast, no coding region with significant similarity to any class II-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase could be detected. Heterologous expression of this open reading frame in Escherichia coli led to the production of a protein with canonical lysyl-tRNA synthetase activity in vitro. Analysis of B. burgdorferi mRNA showed that the lysyl-tRNA synthetase-encoding gene is highly expressed, confirming that B. burgdorferi contains a functional class I-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase. The detection of an archaeal-type lysyl-tRNA synthetase in B. burgdorferi and other pathogenic spirochetes, but not to date elsewhere in bacteria or eukarya, indicates that the gene that encodes this enzyme has a common origin with its orthologue from the archaeal kingdom. This difference between the lysyl-tRNA synthetases of spirochetes and their hosts may be readily exploitable for the development of anti-spirochete therapeutics. PMID:9405621

  16. Microbial Community Structure and Enzyme Activities in Semiarid Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Martinez, V. A.; Zobeck, T. M.; Gill, T. E.; Kennedy, A. C.

    2002-12-01

    The effect of agricultural management practices on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of semiarid soils of different textures in the Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in rotations with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and had different water management (irrigated or dryland) and tillage (conservation or conventional). Microbial community structure was investigated using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by gas chromatography and enzyme activities, involved in C, N, P and S cycling of soils, were measured (mg product released per kg soil per h). The activities of b-glucosidase, b-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulfatase were significantly (P<0.05) increased in soils under cotton rotated with sorghum or wheat, and due to conservation tillage in comparison to continuous cotton under conventional tillage. Principal component analysis showed FAME profiles of these soils separated distinctly along PC1 (20 %) and PC2 (13 %) due to their differences in soil texture and management. No significant differences were detected in FAME profiles due to management practices for the same soils in this sampling period. Enzyme activities provide early indications of the benefits in microbial populations and activities and soil organic matter under crop rotations and conservation tillage in comparison to the typical practices in semiarid regions of continuous cotton and conventional tillage.

  17. Archaeal Viruses of the Sulfolobales: Isolation, Infection, and CRISPR Spacer Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Infection of archaea with phylogenetically diverse single viruses, performed in different laboratories, has failed to activate spacer acquisition into host CRISPR loci. The first successful uptake of archaeal de novo spacers was observed on infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species. PMID:25981476

  18. EarthCube Activities: Community Engagement Advancing Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to advance scientific research in order to better understand complex Earth systems, address emerging geoscience problems, and meet societal challenges is increasingly dependent upon the concept of Open Science and Data. Although these terms are relatively new to the world of research, Open Science and Data in this context may be described as transparency in the scientific process. This includes the discoverability, public accessibility and reusability of scientific data, as well as accessibility and transparency of scientific communication (www.openscience.org). Scientists and the US government alike are realizing the critical need for easy discovery and access to multidisciplinary data to advance research in the geosciences. The NSF-supported EarthCube project was created to meet this need. EarthCube is developing a community-driven common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of accessing, integrating, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources through advanced technological and computational capabilities. Engaging the geoscience community in EarthCube's development is crucial to its success, and EarthCube is providing several opportunities for geoscience involvement. This presentation will provide an overview of the activities EarthCube is employing to entrain the community in the development process, from governance development and strategic planning, to technical needs gathering. Particular focus will be given to the collection of science-driven use cases as a means of capturing scientific and technical requirements. Such activities inform the development of key technical and computational components that collectively will form a cyberinfrastructure to meet the research needs of the geoscience community.

  19. Rolf Bernander (1956-2014): pioneer of the archaeal cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Thijs J G; Lindås, Ann-Christin; Hjort, Karin; Poplawski, Andrzej B; Kaessmann, Henrik; Grogan, Dennis W; Kelman, Zvi; Andersson, Anders F; Pelve, Erik A; Lundgren, Magnus; Svärd, Staffan G

    2014-06-01

    On 19 January 2014 Rolf ('Roffe') Bernander passed away unexpectedly. Rolf was a dedicated scientist; his research aimed at unravelling the cell biology of the archaeal domain of life, especially cell cycle-related questions, but he also made important contributions in other areas of microbiology. Rolf had a professor position in the Molecular Evolution programme at Uppsala University, Sweden for about 8 years, and in January 2013 he became chair professor at the Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute at Stockholm University in Sweden. Rolf was an exceptional colleague and will be deeply missed by his family and friends, and the colleagues and co-workers that he leaves behind in the scientific community. He will be remembered for his endless enthusiasm for science, his analytical mind, and his quirky sense of humour. PMID:24865634

  20. Molecular Analysis of Endolithic Microbial Communities in Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Meo, C. A.; Giovannoni, S.; Fisk, M.

    2002-12-01

    Terrestrial and marine volcanic glasses become mineralogically and chemically altered, and in many cases this alteration has been attributed to microbial activity. We have used molecular techniques to study the resident microbial communities from three different volcanic environments that may be responsible for this crustal alteration. Total microbial DNA was extracted from rhyolite glass of the 7 million year old Rattlesnake Tuff in eastern Oregon. The DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bacterial primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rDNA was cloned and screened with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 89 total clones screened, 46 belonged to 13 different clone families containing two or more members, while 43 clones were unique. Sequences of eight clones representing the most dominant clone families in the library were 92 to 97% similar to soil bacterial species. In a separate study, young pillow basalts (<20 yrs old) from six different sites along the ridge axis at 9°N, East Pacific Rise were examined for microbial life. Total DNA was extracted from the basalt glass and screened for the presence of both bacteria and archaea using the PCR. Repeated attempts with different primer sets yielded no bacterial genes, whereas archaeal genes were quite abundant. A genetic fingerprinting technique, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was used to compare the archaeal community compositions among the six different basalts. Filtered deep-sea water samples (~15 L) were examined in parallel to identify any overlap between rock- and seawater-associated archaea. The six rock community profiles were quite similar to each other, and the background water communities were also similar, respectively. Both the rock and water communities shared the same dominant peak. To identify the T-RFLP peaks corresponding to the individual members of the rock and seawater communities, clone libraries of the archaeal

  1. Capturing community change: Active Living by Design's progress reporting system.

    PubMed

    Bors, Philip A

    2012-11-01

    The Active Living by Design (ALbD) National Program Office (NPO) developed an evaluation system to track progress of 25 community partnerships, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). Between June 2004 and October 2008, partnerships documented their actions and accomplishments through ALbD's online Progress Reporting System (PRS) database. All entries were verified and analyzed by the NPO. Results from the PRS suggest that the ALbD partnerships were successful fundraisers, leveraging $256 million from grants, policy decisions, in-kind and direct sources. The partnerships also documented newspaper coverage, TV, and radio air time and they developed physical activity programs such as exercise clubs and "walking school buses." Partnerships were adept at influencing decision makers to create or rewrite policies and improve built environments. Selected policy examples included, but were not limited to, approvals for capital improvements, street design standards, and development ordinances. Partnerships also contributed to the completion and approval of influential planning products, such as comprehensive land use, neighborhood, and roadway corridor plans. The most common built-environment changes were street improvements for safer pedestrian and bicycle travel, including new crosswalks, bicycle facilities, and sidewalks. The ALbD community partnerships' accomplishments and challenges contribute to knowledge and best practices in the active living field. Five years after their grant began, RWJF's initial investment showed substantial and measurable results. PMID:23079260

  2. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Microbial community dynamics and process functional resilience were investigated. • The threshold of TAN in mesophilic reactor was higher than the thermophilic reactor. • The recoverable archaeal community dynamic sustained the process resilience. • Methanosarcina was more sensitive than Methanoculleus on ammonia inhibition. • TAN and FA effects the dynamic of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria obviously. - Abstract: While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000 mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000 mg/L compared to 16,000 mg/L (FA1500 mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gV S{sub in} in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages.

  3. An ecosystem analysis of the activated sludge microbial community.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Trissevyene V

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken (i) to investigate the interactions of the activated sludge microbial community in a chemostat with the "environment", such as the substrate composition and variations, (ii) to investigate how these interactions affect the quality of the treated effluent and (iii) to determine the limits or applicability conditions to the indicators and to the prediction potential of the treated effluent quality. This work presents (a) the experimental results obtained from a reactor fed municipal wastewater (Data Set2-DS2) concerning the reactor's operating conditions and the microbial community of the sludge (b) comparisons between DS2 and an older Data Set (DS1) obtained when the reactor was fed synthetic substrate, all other experimental conditions being identical, and (c) simulation results and sensitivity analyses of two model runs (R1 and R2, corresponding to DS1 and DS2). The first trophic level (P(1)) of the DS2 microbial community consisted of bacteria, the second trophic level (P(2)) of bacteria-eating protozoa, rotifers and nematodes and the third trophic level (P(3)) of carnivorous protozoa and arthropods. Rotifers were an important constituent of the DS2 microbial community. The DS1 and DS1 communities differed in total size, trophic level sizes and species composition. Correlations between the major microbial groups of DS2 community and either loading rates or effluent quality attributes were generally low, but the correlation of bacteria with SVI and ammonia in the effluent was better. Also, the ratio of rotifers to protozoa in P(2) was correlated to BOD in the effluent. The results of this work indicate that predictions of the treated effluent quality based only on protozoa may not be safe. Sensitivity analysis of R2 run indicate that, when variation in Y and K(d) biokinetic coefficients of the sludge are combined with fluctuations in composition and quality of municipal wastewater entering the reactor, then sufficient significant

  4. Reorganization of the bacterial and archaeal populations associated with organic loading conditions in a thermophilic anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tomoyuki; Haruta, Shin; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hanajima, Dai; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Atsushi; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    Organic loading conditions are an important factor influencing reactor performances in methanogenic bioreactors. Yet the underlying microbiological basis of the process stability, deterioration, and recovery remains to be understood. Here, structural responses of the bacterial and archaeal populations to the change of organic loading conditions in a thermophilic anaerobic digester were investigated by process analyses and 16S rRNA gene-based molecular approaches. The biogas was produced stably without the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at low organic loading rates (OLRs) in the beginning of reactor operation. Increasing OLR in stages disrupted the stable reactor performance, and high OLR conditions continued the deteriorated performance with slight biogas production and high accumulation of VFAs. Thereafter, the gradual decrease of OLR resulted in the recovery from the deterioration, giving rise to the stable performance again. The stable performances before and after the high OLR conditions conducted were associated with compositionally similar but not identical methanogenic consortia. The bacterial and archaeal populations were synchronously changed at both the transient phases toward the deteriorated performance and in recovery process, during which the dynamic shift of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens including the recently identified Methanomassiliicoccus might contribute to the maintenance of the methanogenic activity. The distinctive bacterial population with a high predominance of Methanobacterium formicicum as archaeal member was found for the deteriorated performance. The results in this study indicate the coordinated reorganization of the bacterial and archaeal populations in response to functional states induced by the change of organic loading conditions in the anaerobic digester. PMID:25293692

  5. Identification of GH15 Family Thermophilic Archaeal Trehalases That Function within a Narrow Acidic-pH Range.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Shimodaira, Satoru; Ishida, Shin-Nosuke; Amemiya, Miko; Honda, Shotaro; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Two glucoamylase-like genes, TVN1315 and Ta0286, from the archaea Thermoplasma volcanium and T. acidophilum, respectively, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene products, TVN1315 and Ta0286, were identified as archaeal trehalases. These trehalases belong to the CAZy database family GH15, although they have putative (α/α)6 barrel catalytic domain structures similar to those of GH37 and GH65 family trehalases from other organisms. These newly identified trehalases function within a narrow range of acidic pH values (pH 3.2 to 4.0) and at high temperatures (50 to 60°C), and these enzymes display Km values for trehalose higher than those observed for typical trehalases. These enzymes were inhibited by validamycin A; however, the inhibition constants (Ki) were higher than those of other trehalases. Three TVN1315 mutants, corresponding to E408Q, E571Q, and E408Q/E571Q mutations, showed reduced activity, suggesting that these two glutamic acid residues are involved in trehalase catalysis in a manner similar to that of glucoamylase. To date, TVN1315 and Ta0286 are the first archaeal trehalases to be identified, and this is the first report of the heterologous expression of GH15 family trehalases. The identification of these trehalases could extend our understanding of the relationships between the structure and function of GH15 family enzymes as well as glycoside hydrolase family enzymes; additionally, these enzymes provide insight into archaeal trehalose metabolism. PMID:25979886

  6. Identification of GH15 Family Thermophilic Archaeal Trehalases That Function within a Narrow Acidic-pH Range

    PubMed Central

    Shimodaira, Satoru; Ishida, Shin-nosuke; Amemiya, Miko; Honda, Shotaro; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Two glucoamylase-like genes, TVN1315 and Ta0286, from the archaea Thermoplasma volcanium and T. acidophilum, respectively, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene products, TVN1315 and Ta0286, were identified as archaeal trehalases. These trehalases belong to the CAZy database family GH15, although they have putative (α/α)6 barrel catalytic domain structures similar to those of GH37 and GH65 family trehalases from other organisms. These newly identified trehalases function within a narrow range of acidic pH values (pH 3.2 to 4.0) and at high temperatures (50 to 60°C), and these enzymes display Km values for trehalose higher than those observed for typical trehalases. These enzymes were inhibited by validamycin A; however, the inhibition constants (Ki) were higher than those of other trehalases. Three TVN1315 mutants, corresponding to E408Q, E571Q, and E408Q/E571Q mutations, showed reduced activity, suggesting that these two glutamic acid residues are involved in trehalase catalysis in a manner similar to that of glucoamylase. To date, TVN1315 and Ta0286 are the first archaeal trehalases to be identified, and this is the first report of the heterologous expression of GH15 family trehalases. The identification of these trehalases could extend our understanding of the relationships between the structure and function of GH15 family enzymes as well as glycoside hydrolase family enzymes; additionally, these enzymes provide insight into archaeal trehalose metabolism. PMID:25979886

  7. Retirement Community Residents’ Physical Activity, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the types of physical activity (PA) retirement community residents report and the effects of PA and depressive symptoms on functional limitations. Elders (N = 38) enrolled in a 2-year sensor technology study in senior housing completed regular assessments of functional limitations and depressive symptoms with the Short Physical Performance Battery and Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Evaluation of reported PA using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly coincided with 12-month functional limitation testing. Subjects were 69% female with mean age of 85 years. Individuals reporting greater PA had significantly fewer functional limitations at 12 months. In multiple regression analysis, baseline functional limitations explained 66% of the variance in 12-month functional limitations, while current PA explained an additional 5%. Although PA explained a small amount of variance in 12-month functional limitations, as a modifiable behavior, PA should be championed and supported to help ameliorate functional limitations in older adults. PMID:24532671

  8. The active bacterial community in a pristine confined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Theodore M.; Sanford, Robert A.; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Levine, Audrey D.; Bethke, Craig M.

    2012-09-01

    This study of the active bacteria residing in a pristine confined aquifer provides unexpected insights into the ecology of iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the subsurface. At 18 wells, we trapped the microbes that attached to aquifer sediment and used molecular techniques to examine the bacterial populations. We used multivariate statistics to compare the composition of bacterial communities among the wells with respect to the chemistry of the groundwater. We found groundwater at each well was considerably richer in ferrous iron than sulfide, indicating iron-reducing bacteria should, by established criteria, dominate the sulfate reducers. Our results show, however, that areas where groundwater contains more than a negligible amount of sulfate (>0.03 mM), populations related to sulfate reducers of the generaDesulfobacter and Desulfobulbus were of nearly equal abundance with putative iron reducers related to Geobacter, Geothrix, and Desulfuromonas. Whereas sulfate is a key discriminant of bacterial community structure, we observed no statistical relationship between the distribution of bacterial populations in this aquifer and the concentration of either ferrous iron or dissolved sulfide. These results call into question the validity of using the relative concentration of these two ions to predict the nature of bacterial activity in an aquifer. Sulfate reducers and iron reducers do not appear to be segregated into discrete zones in the aquifer, as would be predicted by the theory of competitive exclusion. Instead, we find the two groups coexist in the subsurface in what we suggest is a mutualistic relationship.

  9. Life in the dark: metagenomic evidence that a microbial slime community is driven by inorganic nitrogen metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tetu, Sasha G; Breakwell, Katy; Elbourne, Liam D H; Holmes, Andrew J; Gillings, Michael R; Paulsen, Ian T

    2013-01-01

    Beneath Australia's large, dry Nullarbor Plain lies an extensive underwater cave system, where dense microbial communities known as ‘slime curtains' are found. These communities exist in isolation from photosynthetically derived carbon and are presumed to be chemoautotrophic. Earlier work found high levels of nitrite and nitrate in the cave waters and a high relative abundance of Nitrospirae in bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries. This suggested that these communities may be supported by nitrite oxidation, however, details of the inorganic nitrogen cycling in these communities remained unclear. Here we report analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon and metagenomic sequence data from the Weebubbie cave slime curtain community. The microbial community is comprised of a diverse assortment of bacterial and archaeal genera, including an abundant population of Thaumarchaeota. Sufficient thaumarchaeotal sequence was recovered to enable a partial genome sequence to be assembled, which showed considerable synteny with the corresponding regions in the genome of the autotrophic ammonia oxidiser Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1. This partial genome sequence, contained regions with high sequence identity to the ammonia mono-oxygenase operon and carbon fixing 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle genes of N. maritimus SCM1. Additionally, the community, as a whole, included genes encoding key enzymes for inorganic nitrogen transformations, including nitrification and denitrification. We propose that the Weebubbie slime curtain community represents a distinctive microbial ecosystem, in which primary productivity is due to the combined activity of archaeal ammonia-oxidisers and bacterial nitrite oxidisers. PMID:23426011

  10. Offering Community Engagement Activities to Increase Chemistry Knowledge and Confidence for Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewry, Joyce D.; Glover, Sarah R.; Harrison, Timothy G.; Shallcross, Dudley E.; Ngcoza, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the emphasis on community engagement in higher education, academic departments need to become more involved in the community. This paper discusses a number of outreach activities undertaken by the chemistry department at Rhodes University, South Africa. The activities range from service learning to community engagement with teachers and…

  11. Prelude: The ISME Commission on Community Music Activity and Its Oslo Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, John

    2010-01-01

    This short introduction to the proceedings of the 1990 Commission of Community Music Activity spells out a prevailing spirit of those involved. Describing community music as the cutting edge in music education, this prelude suggests that community music activity should play a vital role in the future of music education training.

  12. Microbial diversity in an anaerobic digester with biogeographical proximity to geothermally active region.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rishi; Nikitina, Anna; Nozhevnikova, Alla; Goel, Gunjan

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass or wastes can offer renewable energy, to help meet the rise in energy demands. The performance of an anaerobic digester considerably depends upon the complex interactions between bacterial and archaeal microbiome, which is greatly influenced by environmental factors. In the present study, we evaluate a microbial community of digester located at two different geographical locations, to understand whether the biogeographical proximity of a digester to a geothermally active region has any influence on microbial composition. The comparative microbial community profiling, highlights coexistence of specific bacterial and archaeal representatives (especially, Prosthecochloris sp., Conexibacter sp., Crenarchaeota isolate (Caldivirga sp.), Metallosphaera sp., Pyrobaculum sp. and Acidianus sp.) in a digester with close proximity to geothermally active region (Site I) and their absence in a digester located far-off from geothermally active region (Site II). A Sörensen's index of similarity of 83.33% and 66.66% for bacterial and archaeal community was observed in both the reactors, respectively. PMID:26934210

  13. Response of Ammonia-oxidizing Bacterial and Archaeal Populations to Organic Nitrogen Amendments in Low-Nutrient Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Reed; Yoshiko Fujita; Jason M. Smith; Christopher A. Francis

    2010-02-01

    To better understand the fate of ammonia introduced into low-nutrient groundwater as a result of the application of a novel remediation approach for trace metal contaminants, the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively) were examined in samples collected during a field trial of the approach. The ammonia is derived from microbial urea hydrolysis, which has the potential to induce the formation of calcite and remove contaminants by coprecipitation in the calcite. The in situ oxidation of the ammonia by AOB and AOA could, however, potentially destabilize the calcite and lead to elevated nitrate levels in the groundwater. To evaluate the potential for stimulating ammonia oxidation by addition of urea, samples were collected from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho before, during, and after the addition of molasses and urea, and subjected to PCR analysis of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes. AOB and AOA were present in all of the samples tested, with the AOA amoA genes more numerous in all of the samples except those collected following urea addition, when AOB genes were slightly more abundant. Following urea addition, nitrate levels rose and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOB + AOA) increased relative to the total microbial population, evidence that nitrification was stimulated by urea hydrolysis. Bacterial amoA diversity was limited to two sequence types, whereas the archaeal amoA analyses revealed 20 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including several that were significantly different from any reported previously from other environments. In view of the results from this study, the potential for stimulation of ammonia-oxidizing communities should be considered in field-scale engineering activities involving microbial urea hydrolysis in groundwater.

  14. Metabolically Active Eukaryotic Communities in Extremely Acidic Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brett J.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Dawson, Scott C.; Bond, Philip L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2004-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities contain microbial eukaryotes (both fungi and protists) that confer a biofilm structure and impact the abundance of bacteria and archaea and the community composition via grazing and other mechanisms. Since prokaryotes impact iron oxidation rates and thus regulate AMD generation rates, it is important to analyze the fungal and protistan populations. We utilized 18S rRNA and beta-tubulin gene phylogenies and fluorescent rRNA-specific probes to characterize the eukaryotic diversity and distribution in extremely acidic (pHs 0.8 to 1.38), warm (30 to 50°C), metal-rich (up to 269 mM Fe2+, 16.8 mM Zn, 8.5 mM As, and 4.1 mM Cu) AMD solutions from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Calif. A Rhodophyta (red algae) lineage and organisms from the Vahlkampfiidae family were identified. The fungal 18S rRNA and tubulin gene sequences formed two distinct phylogenetic groups associated with the classes Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Three fungal isolates that were closely related to the Dothideomycetes clones were obtained. We suggest the name “Acidomyces richmondensis” for these isolates. Since these ascomycete fungi were morphologically indistinguishable, rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to target the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes via fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH analyses indicated that Eurotiomycetes are generally more abundant than Dothideomycetes in all of the seven locations studied within the Richmond Mine system. This is the first study to combine the culture-independent detection of fungi with in situ detection and a demonstration of activity in an acidic environment. The results expand our understanding of the subsurface AMD microbial community structure. PMID:15466574

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of planktonic archaeal abundance in the Humboldt Current System off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiñones, Renato A.; Levipan, Héctor A.; Urrutia, Homero

    2009-07-01

    The latest advances in the field of microbial ecology have shown that planktonic Archaea are one of the most abundant unicellular microorganisms of the oceans. However, no information is available on the contribution this group makes to the prokaryote assemblages that inhabit the eastern South Pacific Ocean. Here, we describe the relative abundance and vertical distribution of planktonic Archaea off northern and central-southern Chile. Data come from several cruises and a 45-month time series at a station located on the shelf off central-southern Chile. Both the taxonomic composition of the prokaryote community and its relative abundance were determined using quantitative dot blot 16S-rRNA hybridizations. Total Archaea in central-southern Chile made up 6-87% of the prokaryote rRNA in the water column and did not present evidence of any seasonal pattern. Crenarchaea were the most abundant archaeal group at this site and were significantly associated with the ammonium concentration ( r2=0.16, p=0.0003, n=80). Archaeal abundance in the time series was usually greater in the deeper layer (>50 m), with contributions reaching up to ˜90% of the prokaryote rRNA on certain occasions, and decreasing towards the surface. Important increments in the relative abundance of total Archaea were observed on given dates at the surface of the time-series station off central-southern Chile. Off northern Chile, total Archaea normally contributed from ˜10% to 50% of the prokaryote rRNA found between 10 and 1000 m, and were generally important in the mesopelagic realm. Our results indicate that Archaea constitute an important fraction of the prokaryote assemblage in the water column of the Humboldt Current System, especially in the oxygen minimum zone.

  16. A Case Study Analysis of a Constructionist Knowledge Building Community with Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Chee S.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Wilson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its…

  17. Effects of sludge inoculum and organic feedstock on active microbial communities and methane yield during anaerobic digestion

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, David; Rao, Subramanya; Lu, Xiaoying; Lee, Patrick K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widespread microbial technology used to treat organic waste and recover energy in the form of methane (“biogas”). While most AD systems have been designed to treat a single input, mixtures of digester sludge and solid organic waste are emerging as a means to improve efficiency and methane yield. We examined laboratory anaerobic cultures of AD sludge from two sources amended with food waste, xylose, and xylan at mesophilic temperatures, and with cellulose at meso- and thermophilic temperatures, to determine whether and how the inoculum and substrate affect biogas yield and community composition. All substrate and inoculum combinations yielded methane, with food waste most productive by mass. Pyrosequencing of transcribed bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA showed that community composition varied across substrates and inocula, with differing ratios of hydrogenotrophic/acetoclastic methanogenic archaea associated with syntrophic partners. While communities did not cluster by either inoculum or substrate, additional sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the source sludge revealed that the bacterial communities were influenced by their inoculum. These results suggest that complete and efficient AD systems could potentially be assembled from different microbial inocula and consist of taxonomically diverse communities that nevertheless perform similar functions. PMID:26528262

  18. Phylogenetic survey of metabolically active microbial communities associated with the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Apulian plateau, Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Michail M.; Cappello, Simone; Crisafi, Ermanno; Tursi, Angelo; Savini, Alessandra; Corselli, Cesare; Scarfi, Simona; Giuliano, Laura

    2006-01-01

    diversity was considerably higher in this sample than archaeal diversity, with four abundant eubacterial phylotypes: Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes (95% of all clones analyzed). This is one of the first phylogenetic evaluation of the presumed metabolically active microbial community structure associated with the deep-sea scleratinian coral L. pertusa.

  19. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lenchi, Nesrine; İnceoğlu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already

  20. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Lenchi, Nesrine; Inceoğlu, Ozgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already

  1. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, A. M.; Artaxo, P. E.; Ishida, F. Y.; Mueller, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  2. Community participation in health activities in an Amazon community of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tauil, M C; de Azevedo, A C

    1978-01-01

    This article describes community participation in a comprehensive eight-year health program at Porto Nacional, a town in Brazils Amazon region. The authors discuss various techniques employed to encourage community participation, indicate methods used to resolve low-key conflicts in a positive manner, describe the major contributions made by community participation in this program, and present a number of conclusions considered applicable to other communities in this part of Brazil. PMID:698459

  3. Immunogenic Properties of Archaeal Species Found in Bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Blais Lecours, Pascale; Duchaine, Caroline; Taillefer, Michel; Tremblay, Claudine; Veillette, Marc; Cormier, Yvon; Marsolais, David

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of bioaerosol-related pulmonary diseases remains poorly understood. Recently, archaea emerged as prominent airborne components of agricultural environments, but the consequences of airway exposure to archaea remain unknown. Since subcomponents of archaea can be immunogenic, we used a murine model to study the pulmonary immune responses to two archaeal species found in agricultural facilities: Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS) and Methanosphaera stadtmanae (MSS). Mice were administered intranasally with 6.25, 25 or 100 µg of MBS or MSS, once daily, 3 days a week, for 3 weeks. MSS induced more severe histopathological alterations than MBS with perivascular accumulation of granulocytes, pronounced thickening of the alveolar septa, alveolar macrophages accumulation and increased perivascular mononucleated cell accumulation. Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids revealed up to 3 times greater leukocyte accumulation with MSS compared to MBS. Instillation of 100 µg of MBS or MSS caused predominant accumulation of monocyte/macrophages (4.5×105 and 4.8×105 cells/ml respectively) followed by CD4+ T cells (1.38×105 and 1.94×105 cells/ml respectively), B cells (0.73×105 and 1.28×105 cells/ml respectively), and CD8+ T cells (0.20×105 and 0.31×105 cells/ml respectively) in the airways. Both archaeal species induced similar titers of antigen-specific IgGs in plasma. MSS but not MBS caused an accumulation of eosinophils and neutrophils in the lungs, which surprisingly, correlated inversely with the size of the inoculum. Stronger immunogenicity of MSS was confirmed by a 3 fold higher accumulation of myeloid dendritic cells in the airways, compared to MBS. Thus, the dose and species of archaea determine the magnitude and nature of the pulmonary immune response. This is the first report of an immunomodulatory role of archaeal species found in bioaerosols. PMID:21858070

  4. Electroporation of archaeal lipid membranes using MD simulations.

    PubMed

    Polak, Andraž; Tarek, Mounir; Tomšič, Matija; Valant, Janez; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Jamnik, Andrej; Kramar, Peter; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2014-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the electroporation of archaeal lipid bilayers when subjected to high transmembrane voltages induced by a charge imbalance, mimicking therefore millisecond electric pulse experiments. The structural characteristics of the bilayer, a 9:91 mol% 2,3-di-O-sesterterpanyl-sn-glicerol-1-phospho-myo-inositol (AI) and 2,3-di-O-sesterterpanyl-sn-glicerol-1-phospho-1'(2'-O-α-D-glucosyl)-myo-inositol (AGI) were compared to small angle X-ray scattering data. A rather good agreement of the electron density profiles at temperatures of 298 and 343 K was found assessing therefore the validity of the protocols and force fields used in simulations. Compared to dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the electroporation threshold for the bilayer was found to increase from ~2 V to 4.3 V at 323 K, and to 5.2 V at 298 K. Comparing the electroporation thresholds of the archaeal lipids to those of simple diphytanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) bilayers (2.5 V at 323 K) allowed one to trace back the stability of the membranes to the structure of their lipid head groups. Addition of DPPC in amounts of 50 mol% to the archaeal lipid bilayers decreases their stability and lowers the electroporation thresholds to 3.8 V and 4.1 V at respectively 323 and 298 K. The present study therefore shows how membrane compositions can be selected to cover a wide range of responses to electric stimuli. This provides new routes for the design of liposomes that can be efficiently used as drug delivery carriers, as the selection of their composition allows one to tune in their electroporation threshold for subsequent release of their load. PMID:24461702

  5. Novel Archaeal Adhesion Pilins with a Conserved N Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel, Rianne N.; Xu, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Type IV pili play important roles in a wide array of processes, including surface adhesion and twitching motility. Although archaeal genomes encode a diverse set of type IV pilus subunits, the functions for most remain unknown. We have now characterized six Haloferax volcanii pilins, PilA[1-6], each containing an identical 30-amino-acid N-terminal hydrophobic motif that is part of a larger highly conserved domain of unknown function (Duf1628). Deletion mutants lacking up to five of the six pilin genes display no significant adhesion defects; however, H. volcanii lacking all six pilins (ΔpilA[1-6]) does not adhere to glass or plastic. Consistent with these results, the expression of any one of these pilins in trans is sufficient to produce functional pili in the ΔpilA[1-6] strain. PilA1His and PilA2His only partially rescue this phenotype, whereas ΔpilA[1-6] strains expressing PilA3His or PilA4His adhere even more strongly than the parental strain. Most surprisingly, expressing either PilA5His or PilA6His in the ΔpilA[1-6] strain results in microcolony formation. A hybrid protein in which the conserved N terminus of the mature PilA1His is replaced with the corresponding N domain of FlgA1 is processed by the prepilin peptidase, but it does not assemble functional pili, leading us to conclude that Duf1628 can be annotated as the N terminus of archaeal PilA adhesion pilins. Finally, the pilin prediction program, FlaFind, which was trained primarily on archaeal flagellin sequences, was successfully refined to more accurately predict pilins based on the in vivo verification of PilA[1-6]. PMID:23794623

  6. Archaeal viruses from Yellowstone’s high temperature environments

    SciTech Connect

    M. Young; B. Wiedenheft; J. Snyder; J. Spuhler; F. Roberto; T. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    In general, our understanding of Archaea lags far behind our knowledge of the other two domains of life—Bacteria and Eukarya. Unlike the other domains of life, very few viruses of Archaea have been characterized. Of the approximately 4000 viruses described to date, only 36 are associated with archaeal hosts--many of these from thermophilic Crenarchaeota. In this work we describe the discovery, isolation and preliminary characterization of viruses and novel virus-like particles isolated directly from diverse thermal environments in Yellowstone National Park.

  7. Archaeal viruses at the cell envelope: entry and egress

    PubMed Central

    Quemin, Emmanuelle R. J.; Quax, Tessa E. F.

    2015-01-01

    The cell envelope represents the main line of host defense that viruses encounter on their way from one cell to another. The cytoplasmic membrane in general is a physical barrier that needs to be crossed both upon viral entry and exit. Therefore, viruses from the three domains of life employ a wide range of strategies for perforation of the cell membrane, each adapted to the cell surface environment of their host. Here, we review recent insights on entry and egress mechanisms of viruses infecting archaea. Due to the unique nature of the archaeal cell envelope, these particular viruses exhibit novel and unexpected mechanisms to traverse the cellular membrane. PMID:26097469

  8. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  9. Bacterial and archaeal phylogenetic diversity of a cold sulfur-rich spring on the shoreline of Lake Erie, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaudhary, A.; Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Marsh, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of sulfidic springs have provided new insights into microbial metabolism, groundwater biogeochemistry, and geologic processes. We investigated Great Sulphur Spring on the western shore of Lake Erie and evaluated the phylogenetic affiliations of 189 bacterial and 77 archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from three habitats: the spring origin (11-m depth), bacterial-algal mats on the spring pond surface, and whitish filamentous materials from the spring drain. Water from the spring origin water was cold, pH 6.3, and anoxic (H2, 5.4 nM; CH4, 2.70 ??M) with concentrations of S2- (0.03 mM), SO42- (14.8 mM), Ca2+ (15.7 mM), and HCO3- (4.1 mM) similar to those in groundwater from the local aquifer. No archaeal and few bacterial sequences were >95% similar to sequences of cultivated organisms. Bacterial sequences were largely affiliated with sulfur-metabolizing or chemolithotrophic taxa in Beta-, Gamma-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Epsilonproteobacteria sequences similar to those obtained from other sulfidic environments and a new clade of Cyanobacteria sequences were particularly abundant (16% and 40%, respectively) in the spring origin clone library. Crenarchaeota sequences associated with archaeal-bacterial consortia in whitish filaments at a German sulfidic spring were detected only in a similar habitat at Great Sulphur Spring. This study expands the geographic distribution of many uncultured Archaea and Bacteria sequences to the Laurentian Great Lakes, indicates possible roles for epsilonproteobacteria in local aquifer chemistry and karst formation, documents new oscillatorioid Cyanobacteria lineages, and shows that uncultured, cold-adapted Crenarchaeota sequences may comprise a significant part of the microbial community of some sulfidic environments. Copyright ?? 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Bacterial and Archaeal Phylogenetic Diversity of a Cold Sulfur-Rich Spring on the Shoreline of Lake Erie, Michigan▿

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anita; Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.; Marsh, Terence L.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of sulfidic springs have provided new insights into microbial metabolism, groundwater biogeochemistry, and geologic processes. We investigated Great Sulphur Spring on the western shore of Lake Erie and evaluated the phylogenetic affiliations of 189 bacterial and 77 archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from three habitats: the spring origin (11-m depth), bacterial-algal mats on the spring pond surface, and whitish filamentous materials from the spring drain. Water from the spring origin water was cold, pH 6.3, and anoxic (H2, 5.4 nM; CH4, 2.70 μM) with concentrations of S2− (0.03 mM), SO42− (14.8 mM), Ca2+ (15.7 mM), and HCO3− (4.1 mM) similar to those in groundwater from the local aquifer. No archaeal and few bacterial sequences were >95% similar to sequences of cultivated organisms. Bacterial sequences were largely affiliated with sulfur-metabolizing or chemolithotrophic taxa in Beta-, Gamma-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Epsilonproteobacteria sequences similar to those obtained from other sulfidic environments and a new clade of Cyanobacteria sequences were particularly abundant (16% and 40%, respectively) in the spring origin clone library. Crenarchaeota sequences associated with archaeal-bacterial consortia in whitish filaments at a German sulfidic spring were detected only in a similar habitat at Great Sulphur Spring. This study expands the geographic distribution of many uncultured Archaea and Bacteria sequences to the Laurentian Great Lakes, indicates possible roles for epsilonproteobacteria in local aquifer chemistry and karst formation, documents new oscillatorioid Cyanobacteria lineages, and shows that uncultured, cold-adapted Crenarchaeota sequences may comprise a significant part of the microbial community of some sulfidic environments. PMID:19542341

  11. Bacterial and archaeal phylogenetic diversity of a cold sulfur-rich spring on the shoreline of Lake Erie, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Anita; Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W; Marsh, Terence L

    2009-08-01

    Studies of sulfidic springs have provided new insights into microbial metabolism, groundwater biogeochemistry, and geologic processes. We investigated Great Sulphur Spring on the western shore of Lake Erie and evaluated the phylogenetic affiliations of 189 bacterial and 77 archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from three habitats: the spring origin (11-m depth), bacterial-algal mats on the spring pond surface, and whitish filamentous materials from the spring drain. Water from the spring origin water was cold, pH 6.3, and anoxic (H(2), 5.4 nM; CH(4), 2.70 microM) with concentrations of S(2-) (0.03 mM), SO(4)(2-) (14.8 mM), Ca(2+) (15.7 mM), and HCO(3)(-) (4.1 mM) similar to those in groundwater from the local aquifer. No archaeal and few bacterial sequences were >95% similar to sequences of cultivated organisms. Bacterial sequences were largely affiliated with sulfur-metabolizing or chemolithotrophic taxa in Beta-, Gamma-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Epsilonproteobacteria sequences similar to those obtained from other sulfidic environments and a new clade of Cyanobacteria sequences were particularly abundant (16% and 40%, respectively) in the spring origin clone library. Crenarchaeota sequences associated with archaeal-bacterial consortia in whitish filaments at a German sulfidic spring were detected only in a similar habitat at Great Sulphur Spring. This study expands the geographic distribution of many uncultured Archaea and Bacteria sequences to the Laurentian Great Lakes, indicates possible roles for epsilonproteobacteria in local aquifer chemistry and karst formation, documents new oscillatorioid Cyanobacteria lineages, and shows that uncultured, cold-adapted Crenarchaeota sequences may comprise a significant part of the microbial community of some sulfidic environments. PMID:19542341

  12. Non-extremophilic 'extremophiles' - Archaeal dominance in the subsurface and their implication for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitschuler, Christoph; Lins, Philipp; Illmer, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Archaea - besides bacteria and eukaryota constituting the third big domain of life - were so far regarded as typical inhabitants of extreme environments, as indicated by the name (Archaeon, Greek: 'original', 'primal'). Previous research and cultivation successes were basically carried out in habitats characterized by extreme temperature, pH and salinity regimes. Such extreme conditions, as expected at the beginning of the Earth's evolution, are occasionally also prevalent on extraterrestrial planets and moons and make the Archaeal domain a key group to be studied concerning life's evolution and the most likely pioneer organisms to colonize environments that are regarded as hostile. However, in recent years it became obvious that Archaea, in particular non-extremophilic species, can be found almost ubiquitously in marine, freshwater, terrestrial and also subsurface habitats and occasionally outnumber other microbial domains and hold key positions in globally relevant energy and nutrient cycles. Besides extreme environments - the big question remains how to define a parameter as extreme - subsurface and cave environments present a window to the past, where adaptions to early life's conditions can be studied and how microbiomes may be structured in a habitat that represents a refugium on extraterrestrial celestial bodies, were surface conditions might be at first sight too extreme for life. The lower part of the alpine Hundsalm cave in Tyrol (Austria) offered a unique opportunity to study an almost pristine cave habitat, which is separated from the touristic part of the ice cave. The main focus of our research was laid on the microbial communities that were supposed to be in connection with secondary carbonate precipitations ('moonmilk'). For the ascertainment of these so far poorly evaluated structures a multiple approach assessment was chosen to generate a virtually complete picture of these subsurface microbiomes. Thereby, a combination of different cultivation

  13. The influence of soil pH on the diversity, abundance and transcriptional activity of ammonia oxidizing archaea and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Graeme W; Leininger, Sven; Schleper, Christa; Prosser, James I

    2008-11-01

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidation occurs in acid soils, even though laboratory cultures of isolated ammonia oxidizing bacteria fail to grow below neutral pH. To investigate whether archaea possessing ammonia monooxygenase genes were responsible for autotrophic nitrification in acid soils, the community structure and phylogeny of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea were determined across a soil pH gradient (4.9-7.5) by amplifying 16S rRNA and amoA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequence analysis. The structure of both communities changed with soil pH, with distinct populations in acid and neutral soils. Phylogenetic reconstructions of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes confirmed selection of distinct lineages within the pH gradient and high similarity in phylogenies indicated a high level of congruence between 16S rRNA and amoA genes. The abundance of archaeal and bacterial amoA gene copies and mRNA transcripts contrasted across the pH gradient. Archaeal amoA gene and transcript abundance decreased with increasing soil pH, while bacterial amoA gene abundance was generally lower and transcripts increased with increasing pH. Short-term activity was investigated by DGGE analysis of gene transcripts in microcosms containing acidic or neutral soil or mixed soil with pH readjusted to that of native soils. Although mixed soil microcosms contained identical archaeal ammonia oxidizer communities, those adapted to acidic or neutral pH ranges showed greater relative activity at their native soil pH. Findings indicate that different bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizer phylotypes are selected in soils of different pH and that these differences in community structure and abundances are reflected in different contributions to ammonia oxidizer activity. They also suggest that both groups of ammonia oxidizers have distinct physiological characteristics and ecological niches, with consequences for nitrification in acid soils. PMID:18707610

  14. An Inquiry "Warm-Up" Activity: Preparing Students for an Active Classroom Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    An active learning community that engages in inquiry activities will employ strategies and structures that students from traditional classrooms may find unfamiliar or uncomfortable. These include group work, voicing questions, shifting from one part of an activity to another (and sometimes shifting groups at the same time), presenting informally to the group, and many others. In addition, the role of the instructor as facilitator rather than teacher may not be familiar to students. As inquiry activities become incorporated into the regular classroom curriculum at Maui Community College (through collaboration with the Professional Development Program as part of the Akamai Workforce Initiative), a need emerged to give students a "warm-up" early in the semester to help them practice these participation structures. This activity was designed to be used on the very first day of class, to be easy and accessible to students, and to give them practice with these features of inquiry activities that they would see again throughout the semester. In addition, the activity introduces the engineering technology concepts of requirements, trade-offs, and limitations. It is important to note that this activity is not in and of itself an inquiry activity; in fact the content and processes featured in the activity are not particularly challenging nor are they the main focus. Instead, this is a "warm-up" for inquiry, so that students gain some comfort with the unconventional features of inquiry activities. The particular activity presented is for 20-30 students in a ˜90 minute lab period, and highlights different imaging technologies of cameras; however, it is easily adaptable to other requirements, to different technology, or other needs.

  15. Professional development using student-led, community-based activities.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley E; Cunningham, Stacey C; Magnus, Jeanette H

    2011-01-01

    As a community health education center affiliated with an academic institution, we recognize that by investing in the professional development of our students, we not only maximize our own outcomes but those of our students as well. Our project, Creating Community Connections, was developed to aid the work of our Center in characterizing the evolving community landscape following Hurricane Katrina while providing opportunities for students to engage in experiential learning. Students in the project could gain skills in program planning and community assessment, as well as leadership and communications. Twenty-three students worked on the project during its 2 years, developing data collection tools, organizing and conducting key informant interviews, facilitating focus groups and community forums, managing data, and summarizing project findings for community presentations. Participation in this project allowed our students to grow as public health leaders and researchers while gaining a greater appreciation for community collaboration. PMID:21617412

  16. Development of antimicrobial thermoplastic material from archaeal poly-γ-L-glutamate and its nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Ashiuchi, Makoto; Fukushima, Kenzo; Oya, Haruna; Hiraoki, Toshihumi; Shibatani, Shigeo; Oka, Nogiho; Nishimura, Hirokazu; Hakuba, Hirofumi; Nakamori, Masahiko; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2013-03-13

    Here we describe a stoichiometric ion-complex of archaeal poly-γ-L-glutamate (L-PGA) and hexadecylpyridinium cation (HDP(+)), called PGAIC, which shows remarkable chemical resistance and potential as a novel functional thermoplastic. PGAIC films suppressed the proliferation of prokaryotic (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) and eukaryotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) microorganisms. Moreover, its antifungal activity was demonstrated against a prevalent species of Candida (Candida albicans) and a filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger). The minimal inhibitory concentrations were estimated as 0.25 mg mL(-1), and zones of growth inhibition appeared when PGAIC-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were placed in culture plates, whereas PET had very little effect on fungal growth. Soluble PGAIC thus shows promises as an antimicrobial and as a coating substrate. We also succeeded in synthesizing an L-PGA-based nanofiber using an ethanol solution of PGAIC. PMID:23388052

  17. Tropical Aquatic Archaea Show Environment-Specific Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Lima, Joyce L.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria. PMID:24086729

  18. Energy for two: New archaeal lineages and the origin of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F; Neukirchen, Sinje; Zimorski, Verena; Gould, Sven B; Sousa, Filipa L

    2016-09-01

    Metagenomics bears upon all aspects of microbiology, including our understanding of mitochondrial and eukaryote origin. Recently, ribosomal protein phylogenies show the eukaryote host lineage - the archaeal lineage that acquired the mitochondrion - to branch within the archaea. Metagenomic studies are now uncovering new archaeal lineages that branch more closely to the host than any cultivated archaea do. But how do they grow? Carbon and energy metabolism as pieced together from metagenome assemblies of these new archaeal lineages, such as the Deep Sea Archaeal Group (including Lokiarchaeota) and Bathyarchaeota, do not match the physiology of any cultivated microbes. Understanding how these new lineages live in their environment is important, and might hold clues about how mitochondria arose and how the eukaryotic lineage got started. Here we look at these exciting new metagenomic studies, what they say about archaeal physiology in modern environments, how they impact views on host-mitochondrion physiological interactions at eukaryote origin. PMID:27339178

  19. Bacterial Community Dynamics in Full-Scale Activated Sludge Bioreactors: Operational and Ecological Factors Driving Community Assembly and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Massol-Deyá, Arturo A.

    2012-01-01

    The assembling of bacterial communities in conventional activated sludge (CAS) bioreactors was thought, until recently, to be chaotic and mostly unpredictable. Studies done over the last decade have shown that specific, and often, predictable random and non-random factors could be responsible for that process. These studies have also motivated a “structure–function” paradigm that is yet to be resolved. Thus, elucidating the factors that affect community assembly in the bioreactors is necessary for predicting fluctuations in community structure and function. For this study activated sludge samples were collected during a one-year period from two geographically distant CAS bioreactors of different size. Combining community fingerprinting analysis and operational parameters data with a robust statistical analysis, we aimed to identify relevant links between system performance and bacterial community diversity and dynamics. In addition to revealing a significant β-diversity between the bioreactors’ communities, results showed that the largest bioreactor had a less dynamic but more efficient and diverse bacterial community throughout the study. The statistical analysis also suggests that deterministic factors, as opposed to stochastic factors, may have a bigger impact on the community structure in the largest bioreactor. Furthermore, the community seems to rely mainly on mechanisms of resistance and functional redundancy to maintain functional stability. We suggest that the ecological theories behind the Island Biogeography model and the species-area relationship were appropriate to predict the assembly of bacterial communities in these CAS bioreactors. These results are of great importance for engineers and ecologists as they reveal critical aspects of CAS systems that could be applied towards improving bioreactor design and operation. PMID:22880016

  20. Promoting Physical Activity among Youth through Community-Based Prevention Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; McDermott, Robert J.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nickelson, Jen; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; DeBate, Rita D.; Phillips, Leah M.; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age)…

  1. Identification and characterization of microbial biofilm communities associated with corroded oil pipeline surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Tiffany R; Duncan, Kathleen E; Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Smith, Whitney; Bonifay, Vincent; Biri, Bernadette; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has long been implicated in the deterioration of carbon steel in oil and gas pipeline systems. The authors sought to identify and characterize sessile biofilm communities within a high-temperature oil production pipeline, and to compare the profiles of the biofilm community with those of the previously analyzed planktonic communities. Eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA sequences of DNA recovered from extracted pipeline pieces, termed 'cookies,' revealed the presence of thermophilic sulfidogenic anaerobes, as well as mesophilic aerobes. Electron microscopy and elemental analysis of cookies confirmed the presence of sessile cells and chemical constituents consistent with corrosive biofilms. Mass spectrometry of cookie acid washes identified putative hydrocarbon metabolites, while surface profiling revealed pitting and general corrosion damage. The results suggest that in an established closed system, the biofilm taxa are representative of the planktonic eubacterial and archaeal community, and that sampling and monitoring of the planktonic bacterial population can offer insight into biocorrosion activity. Additionally, hydrocarbon biodegradation is likely to sustain these communities. The importance of appropriate sample handling and storage procedures to oilfield MIC diagnostics is highlighted. PMID:25115517

  2. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-01

    While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000mg/L compared to 16,000mg/L (FA1500mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gVSin in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages. PMID:26054964

  3. Diversity of Archaeal Consortia in an Arsenic-Rich Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, M.; Bennett, P.; Omelon, C.; Engel, A.

    2008-12-01

    Characterizing microbial communities within their geochemical environment is essential to understanding microbial distribution and microbial adaptations to extreme physical and chemical conditions. The hydrothermal waters at El Tatio geyser field demonstrate extreme conditions, with water at local boiling (85°C), arsenic concentrations at 0.5 mM, and inorganic carbon concentrations as low as 0.02mM. Yet many of El Tatio's hundred plus hydrothermal features are associated with extensive microbial mat communities. Recent work has shown phylogenetic variation in the communities that correlates to variations in water chemistry between features. MPN analysis indicates variations in metabolic function between hydrothermal features, such as the ability of the community to fix nitrogen, and the presence of methanogens within the community. Methanogenic archaea, which are typical of hydrothermal environments, are found in very few of the sampled hydrothermal features at El Tatio. MPN enumeration shows that nonspecific microbial mat samples from sites with dissolved methane contain 106 cells of methanogenic archaea per gram while non-specific samples from sites lacking dissolved methane contain 100 cells per gram or less. An acetylene assay showed evidence for nitrogen fixation in a sample associated with methanogenesis, but microbial transformation of acetylene to ethylene did not occur in non-methanogenic sites. More specific sampling of microbial mats indicates that methanogenic archaea are dominated by microorganisms within the genus Methanospirillum and Methanobrevibacter. These microbes are associated with a number of unclassified archaea in the class Thermoplasmata Halobacteriales, and unclassifiec Crenarchaeota. In addition, preliminary results include an unclassified Thaumarchaeota clone, a member of the recently proposed third archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota. Nonspecific microbial mat sample from a non- methanogenic site included only Crenarchaeal clones within the

  4. Short-term effect of elevated temperature on the abundance and diversity of bacterial and archaeal amoA genes in Antarctic Soils.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiwon; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Minsuk; Hyun, Seunghun; Park, Woojun

    2013-09-28

    Global warming will have far-reaching effects on our ecosystem. However, its effects on Antarctic soils have been poorly explored. To assess the effects of warming on microbial abundance and community composition, we sampled Antarctic soils from the King George Island in the Antarctic Peninsula and incubated these soils at elevated temperatures of 5°C and 8°C for 14 days. The reduction in total organic carbon and increase in soil respiration were attributed to the increased proliferation of Bacteria, Fungi, and Archaea. Interestingly, bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes were predominant over archaeal amoA, unlike in many other environments reported previously. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal amoA communities via clone libraries revealed that the diversity of amoA genes in Antarctic ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotic communities were temperature-insensitive. Interestingly, our data also showed that the amoA of Antarctic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities differed from previously described amoA sequences of cultured isolates and clone library sequences, suggesting the presence of novel Antarctic-specific AOB communities. Denitrification-related genes were significantly reduced under warming conditions, whereas the abundance of amoA and nifH increased. Barcoded pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the major phyla in Antarctic soils and the effect of short-term warming on the bacterial community was not apparent. PMID:23751559

  5. Archaeal Viruses Multiply: Temporal Screening in a Solar Saltern

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Nina S.; Demina, Tatiana A.; Buivydas, Andrius; Bamford, Dennis H.; Oksanen, Hanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersaline environments around the world are dominated by archaea and their viruses. To date, very little is known about these viruses and their interaction with the host strains when compared to bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. We performed the first culture-dependent temporal screening of haloarchaeal viruses and their hosts in the saltern of Samut Sakhon, Thailand, during two subsequent years (2009, 2010). Altogether we obtained 36 haloarchaeal virus isolates and 36 archaeal strains, significantly increasing the number of known archaeal virus isolates. Interestingly, the morphological distribution of our temporal isolates (head-tailed, pleomorphic, and icosahedral membrane-containing viruses) was similar to the outcome of our previous spatial survey supporting the observations of a global resemblance of halophilic microorganisms and their viruses. Myoviruses represented the most abundant virus morphotype with strikingly broad host ranges. The other viral morphotypes (siphoviruses, as well as pleomorphic and icosahedral internal membrane-containing viruses) were more host-specific. We also identified a group of Halorubrum strains highly susceptible to numerous different viruses (up to 26). This high virus sensitivity, the abundance of broad host range viruses, and the maintenance of infectivity over a period of one year suggest constant interplay of halophilic microorganisms and their viruses within an extreme environment. PMID:25866903

  6. Handling tRNA introns, archaeal way and eukaryotic way

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihisa, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Introns are found in various tRNA genes in all the three kingdoms of life. Especially, archaeal and eukaryotic genomes are good sources of tRNA introns that are removed by proteinaceous splicing machinery. Most intron-containing tRNA genes both in archaea and eukaryotes possess an intron at a so-called canonical position, one nucleotide 3′ to their anticodon, while recent bioinformatics have revealed unusual types of tRNA introns and their derivatives especially in archaeal genomes. Gain and loss of tRNA introns during various stages of evolution are obvious both in archaea and eukaryotes from analyses of comparative genomics. The splicing of tRNA molecules has been studied extensively from biochemical and cell biological points of view, and such analyses of eukaryotic systems provided interesting findings in the past years. Here, I summarize recent progresses in the analyses of tRNA introns and the splicing process, and try to clarify new and old questions to be solved in the next stages. PMID:25071838

  7. Archaeal type IV pili and their involvement in biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Pohlschroder, Mechthild; Esquivel, Rianne N.

    2015-01-01

    Type IV pili are ancient proteinaceous structures present on the cell surface of species in nearly all bacterial and archaeal phyla. These filaments, which are required for a diverse array of important cellular processes, are assembled employing a conserved set of core components. While type IV pilins, the structural subunits of pili, share little sequence homology, their signal peptides are structurally conserved allowing for in silico prediction. Recently, in vivo studies in model archaea representing the euryarchaeal and crenarchaeal kingdoms confirmed that several of these pilins are incorporated into type IV adhesion pili. In addition to facilitating surface adhesion, these in vivo studies also showed that several predicted pilins are required for additional functions that are critical to biofilm formation. Examples include the subunits of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Ups pili, which are induced by exposure to UV light and promote cell aggregation and conjugation, and a subset of the Haloferax volcanii adhesion pilins, which play a critical role in microcolony formation while other pilins inhibit this process. The recent discovery of novel pilin functions such as the ability of haloarchaeal adhesion pilins to regulate swimming motility may point to novel regulatory pathways conserved across prokaryotic domains. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the functional roles played by archaeal type IV adhesion pili and their subunits, with particular emphasis on their involvement in biofilm formation. PMID:25852657

  8. Structure and cell biology of archaeal virus STIV.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-yu; Johnson, Johnson E

    2012-04-01

    Recent investigations of archaeal viruses have revealed novel features of their structures and life cycles when compared to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses, yet there are structure-based unifying themes suggesting common ancestral relationships among dsDNA viruses in the three kingdoms of life. Sulfolobus solfataricus and the infecting virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) is one of the well-established model systems to study archaeal virus replication and viral-host interactions. Reliable laboratory conditions to propagate STIV and available genetic tools allowed structural characterization of the virus and viral components that lead to the proposal of common capsid ancestry with PRD1 (bacteriophage), Adenovirus (eukaryotic virus) and PBCV (chlorellavirus). Microarray and proteomics approaches systematically analyzed viral replication and the corresponding host responses. Cellular cryo-electron tomography and thin-section EM studies uncovered the assembly and maturation pathway of STIV and revealed dramatic cellular ultra-structure changes upon infection. The viral-induced pyramid-like protrusions on cell surfaces represent a novel viral release mechanism and previously uncharacterized functions in viral replication. PMID:22482708

  9. Archaeal and Bacterial Variation Across Geochemical Gradients in an Arsenic-Rich, Shallow Submarine Vent, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Osburn, M. R.; Amend, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    Near the Feni Islands of Papua New Guinea, reduced hydrothermal fluids mix with seawater, establishing redox disequilibria that may serve as energy sources for chemotrophic Archaea and Bacteria. Of particular interest are elevated arsenite concentrations (1000 μg/L) in the vent water and arsenate-rich ferrihydrite deposits (up to 7 wt.%) that envelope the sediment and coral. In sediment pore waters out to > 200m from the vents, a steeply decreasing arsenic gradient is observed. To establish a baseline of microbial community composition at the vent fluid-seawater interface, bulk DNA was extracted from ferrihydrite coatings, then amplified (16S rRNA, targeting both Archaea and Bacteria), cloned, and sequenced. Red and green biofilms associated with the coatings revealed archaeal communities exclusively composed of deeply-branching, uncultured Crenarchaea. The bacterial members of the community differed in the two biofilms; the red biofilm is primarily composed of gamma Proteobacteria, Chloroflexis, and Planctomycetes, but 60% of clones from the green biofilm community affiliates with the alpha Proteobacteria and candidate group OP11. The remaining portion of the bacterial community in the red coating is made of Thermotogales, Aquificales, Thermales phylotypes and uncultured Bacteria, while OP10, Chloroflexis and Plantomycetales complete the community in the green coatings. No clones associating with thermophilic bacterial groups were found in the green coatings. To provide a comparison to the vent source communities, a sediment core was taken 2.5m from the vent and two depths (10 and 40cm) were analyzed by similar molecular analysis. In both core horizons, the archaeal community is composed of > 75% uncultured Crenarchaea, similar to phylotypes found in deep-sea and terrestrial hydrothermal locations, with the remainder of the communities from known crenarchaeal phylotypes. The bacterial communities are primarily Chloroflexis and gamma Proteobacteria-like phylotypes

  10. Microbial Diversity Analysis of the Bacterial and Archaeal Population in Present Day Stromatolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Maya C.

    2011-01-01

    Stromatolites are layered sedimentary structures resulting from microbial mat communities that remove carbon dioxide from their environment and biomineralize it as calcium carbonate. Although prevalent in the fossil record, stromatolites are rare in the modem world and are only found in a few locations including Highbome Cay in the Bahamas. The stromatolites found at this shallow marine site are analogs to ancient microbial mat ecosystems abundant in the Precambrian period on ancient Earth. To understand how stromatolites form and develop, it is important to identify what microorganisms are present in these mats, and how these microbes contribute to geological structure. These results will provide insight into the molecular and geochemical processes of microbial communities that prevailed on ancient Earth. Since stromatolites are formed by lithifying microbial mats that are able to mineralize calcium carbonate, understanding the biological mechanisms involved may lead to the development of carbon sequestration technologies that will be applicable in human spaceflight, as well as improve our understanding of global climate and its sustainability. The objective of my project was to analyze the archaeal and bacterial dIversity in stromatolites from Highborn Cay in the Bahamas. The first step in studying the molecular processes that the microorganisms carry out is to ascertain the microbial complexity within the mats, which includes identifying and estimating the numbers of different microbes that comprise these mats.

  11. Partnering with those we serve: using experiential learning activities to support community nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Fries, Kathleen; Stewart, Julie G

    2012-01-01

    The concept of community is multidimensional and may include geographical boundaries and/or the shared interests of its members. Community nursing practice involves nurses, patients, and families who collaborate to address health issues and to promote positive health initiatives. Informed by community health theorists, experiential learning activities provide the structure to promote partnering in community nursing practice to achieve outcomes that benefit those who serve and those who are served. PMID:23061199

  12. A Coexisting Fungal-Bacterial Community Stabilizes Soil Decomposition Activity in a Microcosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ushio, Masayuki; Miki, Takeshi; Balser, Teri C.

    2013-01-01

    How diversity influences the stability of a community function is a major question in ecology. However, only limited empirical investigations of the diversity–stability relationship in soil microbial communities have been undertaken, despite the fundamental role of microbial communities in driving carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we conducted a microcosm experiment to investigate the relationship between microbial diversity and stability of soil decomposition activities against changes in decomposition substrate quality by manipulating microbial community using selective biocides. We found that soil respiration rates and degradation enzyme activities by a coexisting fungal and bacterial community (a taxonomically diverse community) are more stable against changes in substrate quality (plant leaf materials) than those of a fungi-dominated or a bacteria-dominated community (less diverse community). Flexible changes in the microbial community composition and/or physiological state in the coexisting community against changes in substrate quality, as inferred by the soil lipid profile, may be the mechanism underlying this positive diversity–stability relationship. Our experiment demonstrated that the previously found positive diversity–stability relationship could also be valid in the soil microbial community. Our results also imply that the functional/taxonomic diversity and community ecology of soil microbes should be incorporated into the context of climate–ecosystem feedbacks. Changes in substrate quality, which could be induced by climate change, have impacts on decomposition process and carbon dioxide emission from soils, but such impacts may be attenuated by the functional diversity of soil microbial communities. PMID:24260368

  13. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with subsurface sediments of the Sonora Margin, Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Adrien; Cruaud, Perrine; Roussel, Erwan G; Pignet, Patricia; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Callac, Nolwenn; Ciobanu, Maria-Cristina; Godfroy, Anne; Cragg, Barry A; Parkes, John R; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Toffin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface sediments of the Sonora Margin (Guaymas Basin), located in proximity of active cold seep sites were explored. The taxonomic and functional diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities were investigated from 1 to 10 meters below the seafloor. Microbial community structure and abundance and distribution of dominant populations were assessed using complementary molecular approaches (Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis, 16S rRNA libraries and quantitative PCR with an extensive primers set) and correlated to comprehensive geochemical data. Moreover the metabolic potentials and functional traits of the microbial community were also identified using the GeoChip functional gene microarray and metabolic rates. The active microbial community structure in the Sonora Margin sediments was related to deep subsurface ecosystems (Marine Benthic Groups B and D, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group, Chloroflexi and Candidate divisions) and remained relatively similar throughout the sediment section, despite defined biogeochemical gradients. However, relative abundances of bacterial and archaeal dominant lineages were significantly correlated with organic carbon quantity and origin. Consistently, metabolic pathways for the degradation and assimilation of this organic carbon as well as genetic potentials for the transformation of detrital organic matters, hydrocarbons and recalcitrant substrates were detected, suggesting that chemoorganotrophic microorganisms may dominate the microbial community of the Sonora Margin subsurface sediments. PMID:25099369

  14. Phylogenetic and Functional Diversity of Microbial Communities Associated with Subsurface Sediments of the Sonora Margin, Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    Vigneron, Adrien; Cruaud, Perrine; Roussel, Erwan G.; Pignet, Patricia; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Callac, Nolwenn; Ciobanu, Maria-Cristina; Godfroy, Anne; Cragg, Barry A.; Parkes, John R.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Toffin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface sediments of the Sonora Margin (Guaymas Basin), located in proximity of active cold seep sites were explored. The taxonomic and functional diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities were investigated from 1 to 10 meters below the seafloor. Microbial community structure and abundance and distribution of dominant populations were assessed using complementary molecular approaches (Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis, 16S rRNA libraries and quantitative PCR with an extensive primers set) and correlated to comprehensive geochemical data. Moreover the metabolic potentials and functional traits of the microbial community were also identified using the GeoChip functional gene microarray and metabolic rates. The active microbial community structure in the Sonora Margin sediments was related to deep subsurface ecosystems (Marine Benthic Groups B and D, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group, Chloroflexi and Candidate divisions) and remained relatively similar throughout the sediment section, despite defined biogeochemical gradients. However, relative abundances of bacterial and archaeal dominant lineages were significantly correlated with organic carbon quantity and origin. Consistently, metabolic pathways for the degradation and assimilation of this organic carbon as well as genetic potentials for the transformation of detrital organic matters, hydrocarbons and recalcitrant substrates were detected, suggesting that chemoorganotrophic microorganisms may dominate the microbial community of the Sonora Margin subsurface sediments. PMID:25099369

  15. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carlo; Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo; Jürgens, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread, and their abundance in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggests a prominent role in nitrification. AOA also occur in high numbers in oxygen-deficient marine environments, such as the pelagic redox gradients of the central Baltic Sea; however, data on archaeal nitrification rates are scarce and little is known about the factors, for example sulfide, that regulate nitrification in this system. In the present work, we assessed the contribution of AOA to ammonia oxidation rates in Baltic deep basins and elucidated the impact of sulfide on this process. Rate measurements with 15N-labeled ammonium, CO2 dark fixation measurements and quantification of AOA by catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that among the three investigated sites the highest potential nitrification rates (122–884 nmol l−1per day) were measured within gradients of decreasing oxygen, where thaumarchaeotal abundance was maximal (2.5–6.9 × 105 cells per ml) and CO2 fixation elevated. In the presence of the archaeal-specific inhibitor GC7, nitrification was reduced by 86–100%, confirming the assumed dominance of AOA in this process. In samples spiked with sulfide at concentrations similar to those of in situ conditions, nitrification activity was inhibited but persisted at reduced rates. This result together with the substantial nitrification potential detected in sulfidic waters suggests the tolerance of AOA to periodic mixing of anoxic and sulfidic waters. It begs the question of whether the globally distributed Thaumarchaeota respond similarly in other stratified water columns or whether the observed robustness against sulfide is a specific feature of the thaumarchaeotal subcluster present in the Baltic Deeps. PMID:25423026

  16. Significance of archaeal nitrification in hypoxic waters of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carlo; Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo; Jürgens, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are widespread, and their abundance in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggests a prominent role in nitrification. AOA also occur in high numbers in oxygen-deficient marine environments, such as the pelagic redox gradients of the central Baltic Sea; however, data on archaeal nitrification rates are scarce and little is known about the factors, for example sulfide, that regulate nitrification in this system. In the present work, we assessed the contribution of AOA to ammonia oxidation rates in Baltic deep basins and elucidated the impact of sulfide on this process. Rate measurements with (15)N-labeled ammonium, CO(2) dark fixation measurements and quantification of AOA by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that among the three investigated sites the highest potential nitrification rates (122-884 nmol l(-1)per day) were measured within gradients of decreasing oxygen, where thaumarchaeotal abundance was maximal (2.5-6.9 × 10(5) cells per ml) and CO(2) fixation elevated. In the presence of the archaeal-specific inhibitor GC(7), nitrification was reduced by 86-100%, confirming the assumed dominance of AOA in this process. In samples spiked with sulfide at concentrations similar to those of in situ conditions, nitrification activity was inhibited but persisted at reduced rates. This result together with the substantial nitrification potential detected in sulfidic waters suggests the tolerance of AOA to periodic mixing of anoxic and sulfidic waters. It begs the question of whether the globally distributed Thaumarchaeota respond similarly in other stratified water columns or whether the observed robustness against sulfide is a specific feature of the thaumarchaeotal subcluster present in the Baltic Deeps. PMID:25423026

  17. Sense of Cohesion among Community Activists Engaging in Volunteer Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Drorit; Itzhaky, Haya; Zanbar, Lea; Schwartz, Chaya

    2012-01-01

    The present article attempts to shed light on the direct and indirect contribution of personal resources and community indices to Sense of Cohesion among activists engaging in community volunteer work. The sample comprised 481 activists. Based on social systems theory, three levels of variables were examined: (1) inputs, which included personal…

  18. Linking Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities to Environmental Fluctuations and Biogeochemical Activity in a Large, Urban Estuary: the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) availability is an important factor controlling productivity and thus carbon cycling in estuaries. The fate of N in estuaries depends on the activities of the microbes that carry out the N-cycle, which in turn depend on factors such as organic matter availability, dissolved inorganic N, salinity, oxygen, and temperature. Key microbial N transformations include nitrification (the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate) and denitrification (the anaerobic reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas). While denitrification leads to N loss, nitrification is the only link between reduced N (produced by decomposition) and oxidized N (substrates for N loss processes), and both processes are known to produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Understanding controls of N-cycling in the San Francisco Bay-Delta (SFBD)—the largest estuary on the west coast of North America—is particularly important, as this urban estuary is massively polluted with N, even compared to classic "eutrophic" systems. Interestingly, the SFBD has been spared the detrimental consequences of nutrient enrichment, largely due to high suspended sediment concentrations (and thus low light penetration) throughout the water column, combined with high grazing pressure. However, the recent "clearing" of SFBD waters due to a sharp decrease in suspended sediments may significantly alter the ecology of the estuary, by increasing phytoplankton growth. Thus, the SFBD may be losing its historical resilience to eutrophication, and may soon be "high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll" no more. Elucidating the environmental factors affecting the community structure, activity, and functioning of N-cycling microbes in SFBD is crucial for determining how changes in turbidity and productivity will be propagated throughout the ecosystem. While substantial ecological research in the SFBD has focused on phytoplankton and food webs, bacterial and archaeal communities have received far less attention

  19. Bacterial communities and enzyme activities of PAHs polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, V; Cavalca, L; Rao, M A; Nocerino, G; Bernasconi, S; Dell'Amico, E; Colombo, M; Gianfreda, L

    2004-11-01

    Three soils (i.e. a Belgian soil, B-BT, a German soil, G, and an Italian agricultural soil, I-BT) with different properties and hydrocarbon-pollution history with regard to their potential to degrade phenanthrene were investigated. A chemical and microbiological evaluation of soils was done using measurements of routine chemical properties, bacterial counts and several enzyme activities. The three soils showed different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), being their contamination strictly associated to their pollution history. High values of enzyme activities and culturable heterotrophic bacteria were detected in the soil with no or negligible presence of organic pollutants. Genetic diversity of soil samples and enrichment cultures was measured as bands on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified 16S rDNA sequences from the soil and enrichment community DNAs. When analysed by Shannon index (H'), the highest genetic biodiversity (H'=2.87) was found in the Belgian soil B-BT with a medium-term exposition to PAHs and the poorest biodiversity (H'=0.85) in the German soil with a long-term exposition to alkanes and PAHs and where absence, or lower levels of enzyme activities were measured. For the Italian agricultural soil I-BT, containing negligible amounts of organic pollutants but the highest Cu content, a Shannon index=2.13 was found. The enrichment of four mixed cultures capable of degrading solid phenanthrene in batch liquid systems was also studied. Phenanthrene degradation rates in batch systems were culture-dependent, and simple (one-slope) and complex (two-slope) kinetic behaviours were observed. The presence of common bands of microbial species in the cultures and in the native soil DNA indicated that those strains could be potential in situ phenanthrene degraders. Consistent with this assumption are the decrease of PAH and phenanthrene contents of Belgian soil B-BT and the isolation of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria. From

  20. Microbial community structures in anoxic freshwater lake sediment along a metal contamination gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Heidi L; Stahl, David A

    2011-01-01

    Contamination, such as by heavy metals, has frequently been implicated in altering microbial community structure. However, this association has not been extensively studied for anaerobic communities, or in freshwater lake sediments. We investigated microbial community structure in the metal-contaminated anoxic sediments of a eutrophic lake that were impacted over the course of 80 years by nearby zinc-smelting activities. Microbial community structure was inferred for bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic populations by evaluating terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) patterns in near-surface sediments collected in triplicate from five areas of the lake that had differing levels of metal contamination. The majority of the fragments in the bacterial and eukaryotic profiles showed no evidence of variation in association with metal contamination levels, and diversity revealed by these profiles remained consistent even as metal concentrations varied from 3000 to 27 000 mg kg−1 total Zn, 0.125 to 11.2 μ pore water Zn and 0.023 to 5.40 μ pore water As. Although most archaeal fragments also showed no evidence of variation, the prevalence of a fragment associated with mesophilic Crenarchaeota showed significant positive correlation with total Zn concentrations. This Crenarchaeota fragment dominated the archaeal TRFLP profiles, representing between 35% and 79% of the total measured peak areas. Lake DePue 16S rRNA gene sequences corresponding to this TRFLP fragment clustered with anaerobic and soil mesophilic Crenarchaeota sequences. Although Crenarchaeota have been associated with metal-contaminated groundwater and soils, this is a first report (to our knowledge) documenting potential increased prevalence of Crenarchaeota associated with elevated levels of metal contamination. PMID:20811473

  1. Use of 16S rRNA gene based clone libraries to assess microbial communities potentially involved in anaerobic methane oxidation in a Mediterranean cold seep.

    PubMed

    Heijs, Sander K; Haese, Ralf R; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Forney, Larry J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2007-04-01

    This study provides data on the diversities of bacterial and archaeal communities in an active methane seep at the Kazan mud volcano in the deep Eastern Mediterranean sea. Layers of varying depths in the Kazan sediments were investigated in terms of (1) chemical parameters and (2) DNA-based microbial population structures. The latter was accomplished by analyzing the sequences of directly amplified 16S rRNA genes, resulting in the phylogenetic analysis of the prokaryotic communities. Sequences of organisms potentially associated with processes such as anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction were thus identified. Overall, the sediment layers revealed the presence of sequences of quite diverse bacterial and archaeal communities, which varied considerably with depth. Dominant types revealed in these communities are known as key organisms involved in the following processes: (1) anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction, (2) sulfide oxidation, and (3) a range of (aerobic) heterotrophic processes. In the communities in the lowest sediment layer sampled (22-34 cm), sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea of the ANME-2 cluster (likely involved in anaerobic methane oxidation) were prevalent, whereas heterotrophic organisms abounded in the top sediment layer (0-6 cm). Communities in the middle layer (6-22 cm) contained organisms that could be linked to either of the aforementioned processes. We discuss how these phylogeny (sequence)-based findings can support the ongoing molecular work aimed at unraveling both the functioning and the functional diversities of the communities under study. PMID:17431711

  2. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  3. Family and Community Involvement in the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Kristin; Richardson, Cheryl; Roberts, Georgi

    2012-01-01

    Engaging families and communities in physical activities for the benefit of children is an extension of the role of a physical education instructor. Although it is possible for a physical educator to generate ideas that encourage families and communities to move, a certified director of physical activity (C-DPA) would be better trained to…

  4. Newspaper Content Analysis in Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Project to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…

  5. A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service Activities Scale in Turkey: A Social Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service Activities Scale (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service activities. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…

  6. Community College Involvement in Contract Training and Other Economic Development Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert; And Others

    In 1989-90, a national survey was conducted to assess the scope and nature of contract training and other economic development activities at community colleges and technical institutes. The survey was sent to a random sample of 246 community colleges, requesting information on the colleges' workforce and economic development activities in 1988-89.…

  7. Microbial Communities in Methane- and Short Chain Alkane-Rich Hydrothermal Sediments of Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Frederick; Cardman, Zena; Dasarathy, Srishti; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Lipp, Julius S; Ruff, S Emil; Biddle, Jennifer F; McKay, Luke J; MacGregor, Barbara J; Lloyd, Karen G; Albert, Daniel B; Mendlovitz, Howard; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal sediments of Guaymas Basin, an active spreading center in the Gulf of California (Mexico), are rich in porewater methane, short-chain alkanes, sulfate and sulfide, and provide a model system to explore habitat preferences of microorganisms, including sulfate-dependent, methane- and short chain alkane-oxidizing microbial communities. In this study, hot sediments (above 60°C) covered with sulfur-oxidizing microbial mats surrounding a hydrothermal mound (termed "Mat Mound") were characterized by porewater geochemistry of methane, C2-C6 short-chain alkanes, sulfate, sulfide, sulfate reduction rate measurements, in situ temperature gradients, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and V6 tag pyrosequencing. The most abundantly detected groups in the Mat mound sediments include anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea of the ANME-1 lineage and its sister clade ANME-1Guaymas, the uncultured bacterial groups SEEP-SRB2 within the Deltaproteobacteria and the separately branching HotSeep-1 Group; these uncultured bacteria are candidates for sulfate-reducing alkane oxidation and for sulfate-reducing syntrophy with ANME archaea. The archaeal dataset indicates distinct habitat preferences for ANME-1, ANME-1-Guaymas, and ANME-2 archaea in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal sediments. The bacterial groups SEEP-SRB2 and HotSeep-1 co-occur with ANME-1 and ANME-1Guaymas in hydrothermally active sediments underneath microbial mats in Guaymas Basin. We propose the working hypothesis that this mixed bacterial and archaeal community catalyzes the oxidation of both methane and short-chain alkanes, and constitutes a microbial community signature that is characteristic for hydrothermal and/or cold seep sediments containing both substrates. PMID:26858698

  8. Microbial Communities in Methane- and Short Chain Alkane-Rich Hydrothermal Sediments of Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Frederick; Cardman, Zena; Dasarathy, Srishti; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Lipp, Julius S.; Ruff, S. Emil; Biddle, Jennifer F.; McKay, Luke J.; MacGregor, Barbara J.; Lloyd, Karen G.; Albert, Daniel B.; Mendlovitz, Howard; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal sediments of Guaymas Basin, an active spreading center in the Gulf of California (Mexico), are rich in porewater methane, short-chain alkanes, sulfate and sulfide, and provide a model system to explore habitat preferences of microorganisms, including sulfate-dependent, methane- and short chain alkane-oxidizing microbial communities. In this study, hot sediments (above 60°C) covered with sulfur-oxidizing microbial mats surrounding a hydrothermal mound (termed “Mat Mound”) were characterized by porewater geochemistry of methane, C2–C6 short-chain alkanes, sulfate, sulfide, sulfate reduction rate measurements, in situ temperature gradients, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and V6 tag pyrosequencing. The most abundantly detected groups in the Mat mound sediments include anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea of the ANME-1 lineage and its sister clade ANME-1Guaymas, the uncultured bacterial groups SEEP-SRB2 within the Deltaproteobacteria and the separately branching HotSeep-1 Group; these uncultured bacteria are candidates for sulfate-reducing alkane oxidation and for sulfate-reducing syntrophy with ANME archaea. The archaeal dataset indicates distinct habitat preferences for ANME-1, ANME-1-Guaymas, and ANME-2 archaea in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal sediments. The bacterial groups SEEP-SRB2 and HotSeep-1 co-occur with ANME-1 and ANME-1Guaymas in hydrothermally active sediments underneath microbial mats in Guaymas Basin. We propose the working hypothesis that this mixed bacterial and archaeal community catalyzes the oxidation of both methane and short-chain alkanes, and constitutes a microbial community signature that is characteristic for hydrothermal and/or cold seep sediments containing both substrates. PMID:26858698

  9. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  10. Targeted diversity generation by intraterrestrial archaea and archaeal viruses

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Blair G.; Bagby, Sarah C.; Czornyj, Elizabeth; Arambula, Diego; Handa, Sumit; Sczyrba, Alexander; Ghosh, Partho; Miller, Jeff F.; Valentine, David L.

    2015-01-01

    In the evolutionary arms race between microbes, their parasites, and their neighbours, the capacity for rapid protein diversification is a potent weapon. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) use mutagenic reverse transcription and retrohoming to generate myriad variants of a target gene. Originally discovered in pathogens, these retroelements have been identified in bacteria and their viruses, but never in archaea. Here we report the discovery of intact DGRs in two distinct intraterrestrial archaeal systems: a novel virus that appears to infect archaea in the marine subsurface, and, separately, two uncultivated nanoarchaea from the terrestrial subsurface. The viral DGR system targets putative tail fibre ligand-binding domains, potentially generating >1018 protein variants. The two single-cell nanoarchaeal genomes each possess ≥4 distinct DGRs. Against an expected background of low genome-wide mutation rates, these results demonstrate a previously unsuspected potential for rapid, targeted sequence diversification in intraterrestrial archaea and their viruses. PMID:25798780

  11. Useful scars: Physics of the capsids of archaeal viruses.

    PubMed

    Perotti, L E; Dharmavaram, S; Klug, W S; Marian, J; Rudnick, J; Bruinsma, R F

    2016-07-01

    We propose a physical model for the capsids of tailed archaeal viruses as viscoelastic membranes under tension. The fluidity is generated by thermal motion of scarlike structures that are an intrinsic feature of the ground state of large particle arrays covering surfaces with nonzero Gauss curvature. The tension is generated by a combination of the osmotic pressure of the enclosed genome and an extension force generated by filamentous structure formation that drives the formation of the tails. In continuum theory, the capsid has the shape of a surface of constant mean curvature: an unduloid. Particle arrays covering unduloids are shown to exhibit pronounced subdiffusive and diffusive single-particle transport at temperatures that are well below the melting temperature of defect-free particle arrays on a surface with zero Gauss curvature. PMID:27575161

  12. Useful scars: Physics of the capsids of archaeal viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, L. E.; Dharmavaram, S.; Klug, W. S.; Marian, J.; Rudnick, J.; Bruinsma, R. F.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a physical model for the capsids of tailed archaeal viruses as viscoelastic membranes under tension. The fluidity is generated by thermal motion of scarlike structures that are an intrinsic feature of the ground state of large particle arrays covering surfaces with nonzero Gauss curvature. The tension is generated by a combination of the osmotic pressure of the enclosed genome and an extension force generated by filamentous structure formation that drives the formation of the tails. In continuum theory, the capsid has the shape of a surface of constant mean curvature: an unduloid. Particle arrays covering unduloids are shown to exhibit pronounced subdiffusive and diffusive single-particle transport at temperatures that are well below the melting temperature of defect-free particle arrays on a surface with zero Gauss curvature.

  13. Microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brett J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2003-05-01

    The dissolution of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2), arsenopyrite (FeAsS), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), sphalerite (ZnS), and marcasite (FeS2) yields hot, sulfuric acid-rich solutions that contain high concentrations of toxic metals. In locations where access of oxidants to sulfide mineral surfaces is increased by mining, the resulting acid mine drainage (AMD) may contaminate surrounding ecosystems. Communities of autotrophic and heterotrophic archaea and bacteria catalyze iron and sulfur oxidation, thus may ultimately determine the rate of release of metals and sulfur to the environment. AMD communities contain fewer prokaryotic lineages than many other environments. However, it is notable that at least two archaeal and eight bacterial divisions have representatives able to thrive under the extreme conditions typical of AMD. AMD communities are characterized by a very limited number of distinct species, probably due to the small number of metabolically beneficial reactions available. The metabolisms that underpin these communities include organoheterotrophy and autotrophic iron and sulfur oxidation. Other metabolic activity is based on anaerobic sulfur oxidation and ferric iron reduction. Evidence for physiological synergy in iron, sulfur, and carbon flow in these communities is reviewed. The microbial and geochemical simplicity of these systems makes them ideal targets for quantitative, genomic-based analyses of microbial ecology and evolution and community function. PMID:19719632

  14. The archaeal transamidosome for RNA-dependent glutamine biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rampias, Theodoros; Sheppard, Kelly; Söll, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Archaea make glutaminyl-tRNA (Gln-tRNAGln) in a two-step process; a non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-GluRS) forms Glu-tRNAGln, while the heterodimeric amidotransferase GatDE converts this mischarged tRNA to Gln-tRNAGln. Many prokaryotes synthesize asparaginyl-tRNA (Asn-tRNAAsn) in a similar manner using a non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) and the heterotrimeric amidotransferase GatCAB. The transamidosome, a complex of tRNA synthetase, amidotransferase and tRNA, was first described for the latter system in Thermus thermophilus [Bailly, M., Blaise, M., Lorber, B., Becker, H.D. and Kern, D. (2007) The transamidosome: a dynamic ribonucleoprotein particle dedicated to prokaryotic tRNA-dependent asparagine biosynthesis. Mol. Cell, 28, 228–239.]. Here, we show a similar complex for Gln-tRNAGln formation in Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus that allows the mischarged Glu-tRNAGln made by the tRNA synthetase to be channeled to the amidotransferase. The association of archaeal ND-GluRS with GatDE (KD = 100 ± 22 nM) sequesters the tRNA synthetase for Gln-tRNAGln formation, with GatDE reducing the affinity of ND-GluRS for tRNAGlu by at least 13-fold. Unlike the T. thermophilus transamidosome, the archaeal complex does not require tRNA for its formation, is not stable through product (Gln-tRNAGln) formation, and has no major effect on the kinetics of tRNAGln glutamylation nor transamidation. The differences between the two transamidosomes may be a consequence of the fact that ND-GluRS is a class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, while ND-AspRS belongs to the class II family. PMID:20457752

  15. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcanii was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of specific tfb

  16. Effect of increased load of high-strength food wastewater in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge on bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Young Mo; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) has been widely used to improve reactor performance, especially methane production. In this study, we applied two different operating temperatures (thermophilic and mesophilic) and gradually increased the load of food wastewater (FWW) to investigate the bacterial communities during the AcoD of waste activated sludge (WAS) and FWW. As the load of FWW was increased, methane production rate (MPR; L CH4/L d) and methane content (%) in both Thermophilic AcoD (TAcoD) and Mesophilic AcoD (MAcoD) increased significantly; the highest MPR and methane content in TAcoD (1.423 L CH4/L d and 68.24%) and MAcoD (1.233 L CH4/L d and 65.21%) were observed when the FWW mixing ratio was 75%. However, MPR and methane yield in both reactors decreased markedly and methane production in TAcoD ceased completely when only FWW was fed into the reactor, resulting from acidification of the reactor caused by accumulation of organic acids. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed a decrease in bacterial diversity in TAcoD and a markedly different composition of bacterial communities between TAcoD and MAcoD with an increase in FWW load. For example, Bacterial members belonging to two genera Petrotoga (assigned to phylum Thermotogae) and Petrimonas (assigned to phylum Bacteroidetes) became dominant in TAcoD and MAcoD with an increase in FWW load, respectively. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results showed higher bacterial and archaeal populations (expressed as 16S rRNA gene concentration) in TAcoD than MAcoD with an increase in FWW load and showed maximum population when the FWW mixing ratio was 75% in both reactors. Collectively, this study demonstrated the dynamics of key bacterial communities in TAcoD and MAcoD, which were highly affected by the load of FWW. PMID:27155112

  17. Which Members of the Microbial Communities Are Active? Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brandon E. L.

    only at the early stages of understanding the microbial processes that occur in petroliferous formations and the surrounding subterranean environment. Important first steps in characterising the microbiology of oilfield systems involve identifying the microbial community structure and determining how population diversity changes are affected by the overall geochemical and biological parameters of the system. This is relatively easy to do today by using general 16S rRNA primers for PCR and building clone libraries. For example, previous studies using molecular methods characterised many dominant prokaryotes in petroleum reservoirs (Orphan et al., 2000) and in two Alaskan North Slope oil facilities (Duncan et al., 2009; Pham et al., 2009). However, the problem is that more traditional molecular biology approaches, such as 16S clone libraries, fail to detect large portions of the community perhaps missing up to half of the biodiversity (see Hong et al., 2009) and require significant laboratory time to construct large libraries necessary to increase the probability of detecting the majority of even bacterial biodiversity. In the energy sector, the overarching desire would be to quickly assess the extent of in situ hydrocarbon biodegradation or to disrupt detrimental processes such as biofouling, and in these cases it may not be necessary to identify specific microbial species. Rather, it would be more critical to evaluate metabolic processes or monitor gene products that are implicated in the specific activity of interest. Research goals such as these are well suited for a tailored application of microarray technology.

  18. Evaluation of a Community-Based Intervention To Promote Physical Activity in Youth: Lessons from Active Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Felton, Gwen; Trost, Stewart G.; Dowda, Marsha

    2003-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of a community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity among rural fifth graders. Data on students who participated in after-school and summer programs and home, school, and community interventions indicated that the after-school and summer interventions were implemented as planned, but the home, school,…

  19. Microbial Community Dynamics and Activity Link to Indigo Production from Indole in Bioaugmented Activated Sludge Systems

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jie; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Qin, Yujia; Zhou, Jiti; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the popular dyestuff indigo from indole has been comprehensively studied using pure cultures, but less has been done to characterize the indigo production by microbial communities. In our previous studies, a wild strain Comamonas sp. MQ was isolated from activated sludge and the recombinant Escherichia coli nagAc carrying the naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nag) from strain MQ was constructed, both of which were capable of producing indigo from indole. Herein, three activated sludge systems, G1 (non-augmented control), G2 (augmented with Comamonas sp. MQ), and G3 (augmented with recombinant E. coli nagAc), were constructed to investigate indigo production. After 132-day operation, G3 produced the highest yields of indigo (99.5 ± 3.0 mg/l), followed by G2 (27.3 ± 1.3 mg/l) and G1 (19.2 ± 1.2 mg/l). The microbial community dynamics and activities associated with indigo production were analyzed by Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The inoculated strain MQ survived for at least 30 days, whereas E. coli nagAc was undetectable shortly after inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis suggested the abundance of naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nagAc) from both inoculated strains was strongly correlated with indigo yields in early stages (0–30 days) (P < 0.001) but not in later stages (30–132 days) (P > 0.10) of operation. Based on detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity test results, the communities underwent a noticeable shift during the operation. Among the four major genera (> 1% on average), the commonly reported indigo-producing populations Comamonas and Pseudomonas showed no positive relationship with indigo yields (P > 0.05) based on Pearson correlation test, while Alcaligenes and Aquamicrobium, rarely reported for indigo production, were positively correlated with indigo yields (P < 0.05). This study should provide new insights into our understanding of indigo bio-production by microbial communities

  20. Genomic and enzymatic evidence for acetogenesis among multiple lineages of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota widespread in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Li, M; Perumal, V; Feng, X; Fang, J; Xie, J; Sievert, S M; Wang, F

    2016-01-01

    Members of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota are widespread and abundant in the energy-deficient marine subsurface sediments. However, their life strategies have remained largely elusive. Here, we provide genetic evidence that some lineages of Bathyarchaeota are acetogens, being capable of homoacetogenesis, a metabolism so far restricted to the domain Bacteria. Metabolic reconstruction based on genomic bins assembled from the metagenome of deep-sea subsurface sediments shows that the metabolism of some lineages of Bathyarchaeota is similar to that of bona fide bacterial homoacetogens, by having pathways for acetogenesis and for the fermentative utilization of a variety of organic substrates. Heterologous expression and activity assay of the acetate kinase gene ack from Bathyarchaeota, demonstrate further the capability of these Bathyarchaeota to grow as acetogens. The presence and expression of bathyarchaeotal genes indicative of active acetogenesis was also confirmed in Peru Margin subsurface sediments where Bathyarchaeota are abundant. The analyses reveal that this ubiquitous and abundant subsurface archaeal group has adopted a versatile life strategy to make a living under energy-limiting conditions. These findings further expand the metabolic potential of Archaea and argue for a revision of the role of Archaea in the carbon cycle of marine sediments. PMID:27572832

  1. New insight into RNase P RNA structure from comparative analysis of the archaeal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J K; Haas, E S; Williams, D; Frank, D N; Brown, J W

    2001-01-01

    A detailed comparative analysis of archaeal RNase P RNA structure and a comparison of the resulting structural information with that of the bacterial RNA reveals that the archaeal RNase P RNAs are strikingly similar to those of Bacteria. The differences between the secondary structure models of archaeal and bacterial RNase P RNA have largely disappeared, and even variation in the sequence and structure of the RNAs are similar in extent and type. The structure of the cruciform (P7-11) has been reevaluated on the basis of a total of 321 bacterial and archaeal sequences, leading to a model for the structure of this region of the RNA that includes an extension to P11 that consistently organizes the cruciform and adjacent highly-conserved sequences. PMID:11233979

  2. Development of a genetic system for the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV).

    PubMed

    Wirth, Jennifer Fulton; Snyder, Jamie C; Hochstein, Rebecca A; Ortmann, Alice C; Willits, Deborah A; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J

    2011-06-20

    Our understanding of archaeal viruses has been limited by the lack of genetic systems for examining viral function. We describe the construction of an infectious clone for the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV). STIV was isolated from a high temperature (82°C) acidic (pH 2.2) hot spring in Yellowstone National Park and replicates in the archaeal model organism Sulfolobus solfataricus (Rice et al., 2004). While STIV is one of most studied archaeal viruses, little is known about its replication cycle. The development of an STIV infectious clone allows for directed gene disruptions and detailed genetic analysis of the virus. The utility of the STIV infectious clone was demonstrated by gene disruption of STIV open reading frame (ORF) B116 which resulted in crippled virus replication, while disruption of ORFs A197, C381 and B345 was lethal for virus replication. PMID:21496857

  3. Vertical Distribution of Functional Potential and Active Microbial Communities in Meromictic Lake Kivu.

    PubMed

    İnceoğlu, Özgul; Llirós, Marc; Crowe, Sean A; García-Armisen, Tamara; Morana, Cedric; Darchambeau, François; Borges, Alberto V; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Servais, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The microbial community composition in meromictic Lake Kivu, with one of the largest CH4 reservoirs, was studied using 16S rDNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) pyrosequencing during the dry and rainy seasons. Highly abundant taxa were shared in a high percentage between bulk (DNA-based) and active (RNA-based) bacterial communities, whereas a high proportion of rare species was detected only in either an active or bulk community, indicating the existence of a potentially active rare biosphere and the possible underestimation of diversity detected when using only one nucleic acid pool. Most taxa identified as generalists were abundant, and those identified as specialists were more likely to be rare in the bulk community. The overall number of environmental parameters that could explain the variation was higher for abundant taxa in comparison to rare taxa. Clustering analysis based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs at 0.03 cutoff) level revealed significant and systematic microbial community composition shifts with depth. In the oxic zone, Actinobacteria were found highly dominant in the bulk community but not in the metabolically active community. In the oxic-anoxic transition zone, highly abundant potentially active Nitrospira and Methylococcales were observed. The co-occurrence of potentially active sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the anoxic zone may suggest the presence of an active yet cryptic sulfur cycle. PMID:25912922

  4. Post-baccalaureate activities of community nutrition graduates.

    PubMed

    Smiciklas-Wright, H; Sims, L S; McLaughlin, M D

    1981-07-01

    A comparison was made of the employment status of graduates of three types of programs in community nutrition. Graduates of community nutrition programs were less likely to be employed in dietetics or nutrition-related positions; were less likely to be registered dietitians or to have fulfilled requirements for professional registration; and were less likely to recommend the profession than were graduates of coordinated undergraduate programs or of programs in general dietetics or foods and nutrition. Implications for student counseling and professional accreditation are discussed. PMID:7240606

  5. Isolation and Stability of Distinct Subsurface Microbial Communities Associated with Two Hydrothermal Vent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opatkiewicz, A. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Baross, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Subseafloor microbial communities may be important in global primary production and biogeochemical cycling. However, too little is known about the physiological and phylogenetic diversity and activity of these communities to assess this potential, and understanding the temporal and spatial variability in microbial community structure is critical. The microbial community structure of five geographically distinct hydrothermal vents located within the Axial Seamount caldera, and four geographically distinct vents within the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge, were examined over six years. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (tRFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were used to determine the bacterial and archaeal diversity, and the statistical software Primer was used to compare vent microbiology, temperature and fluid chemistry. Statistical analysis of vent fluid temperature and chemical composition shows that there are significant differences between vents in any year, and persistent differences in composition between one of the Axial vents compared to the rest of the vents. For the majority of vents, however, the fluid composition changed over time such that separate vents do not maintain a statistically distinct composition. In contrast, the subseafloor microbial communities associated with individual vents also changed from year to year but each location maintained a distinct community structure (based on tRFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses) that was significantly different and greater than 60-percent dissimilar from all other vents included in this study. At Axial, epsilon-proteobacterial microdiversity is shown to be important in distinguishing vent communities. The deeper, high-temperature archaeal communities have more overlap between sites. We propose that persistent venting at many diffuse sites over time creates the potential to isolate and stabilize diverse microbial community structures between vents. Variation in dilution

  6. Microbial community structure and dynamics in two-stage vs single-stage thermophilic anaerobic digestion of mixed swine slurry and market bio-waste.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Giuseppe; Rizzi, Aurora; Schievano, Andrea; Tenca, Alberto; Scaglia, Barbara; Oberti, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-04-15

    The microbial community of a thermophilic two-stage process was monitored during two-months operation and compared to a conventional single-stage process. Qualitative and quantitative microbial dynamics were analysed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The bacterial community was dominated by heat-shock resistant, spore-forming clostridia in the two-stage process, whereas a more diverse and dynamic community (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Synergistes) was observed in the single-stage process. A significant evolution of bacterial community occurred over time in the acidogenic phase of the two-phase process with the selection of few dominant species associated to stable hydrogen production. The archaeal community, dominated by the acetoclastic Methanosarcinales in both methanogen reactors, showed a significant diversity change in the single-stage process after a period of adaptation to the feeding conditions, compared to a constant stability in the methanogenic reactor of the two-stage process. The more diverse and dynamic bacterial and archaeal community of single-stage process compared to the two-stage process accounted for the best degradation activity, and consequently the best performance, in this reactor. The microbiological perspective proved a useful tool for a better understanding and comparison of anaerobic digestion processes. PMID:23399080

  7. An archaeal protein evolutionarily conserved in prokaryotes is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yongmei; Peng, Nan; Han, Wenyuan; Mei, Yuxia; Chen, Zhengjun; Feng, Xu; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2012-01-01

    A putative protease gene (tldD) was previously identified from studying tolerance of letD encoding the CcdB toxin of a toxin–antidote system of the F plasmid in Escherichia coli. While this gene is evolutionarily conserved in archaea and bacteria, the proteolytic activity of encoded proteins remained to be demonstrated experimentally. Here we studied Sso0660, an archaeal TldD homologue encoded in Sulfolobus solfataricus by overexpression of the recombinant protein and characterization of the purified enzyme. We found that the enzyme is active in degrading azocasein and FITC–BSA substrates. Protease inhibitor studies showed that EDTA and o-phenanthroline, two well-known metalloprotease inhibitors, either abolished completely or strongly inhibited the enzyme activity, and flame spectrometric analysis showed that a zinc ion is a cofactor of the protease. Furthermore, the protein forms disulfide bond via the Cys416 residue, yielding protein dimer that is the active form of the enzyme. These results establish for the first time that tidD genes encode zinc-containing proteases, classifying them as a family in the metalloprotease class. PMID:22950735

  8. DESIGNING A COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT TOOL: DEFINING COMMUNITIES WHERE NUTRITION AND ACTIVITY COUNT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Communities play an important role in that their infrastructures and characteristics may influence healthy behaviors. In the United States, fruit and vegetable intake increases with each additional supermarket in a census tract. Food choice also is influenced by neighborhood wealth status, for exa...

  9. The Dynamics of Online Communities in the Activity Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Bahar; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal how well online communities of practice (oCoPs) help teachers share explicit knowledge and bring their tacit knowledge to the surface. An Internet based oCoP platform called "The Professional Development Circle" (The PDC) was developed for this study. The study was conducted in two phases: 1) a mandatory…

  10. Affinity through Mathematical Activity: Cultivating Democratic Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta-Irving, Tesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrates how a broader view of what shapes affinity is ideologically and practically linked to creating democratic learning communities. Specifically, the author explores how a teacher employed complex instruction (an equity pedagogy) with her ethnically and racially diverse students in the "lowest track"…

  11. Active Women: Perspectives on Their Structural Position in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Harriett; And Others

    An exploratory pilot study to determine the personal characteristics of women community leaders and their position in the power structure was conducted in Chippewa and Eau Claire Counties, Wisconsin. The research design involved a comparison of three samples: the traditional power structure identified through reputational techniques; the active…

  12. Peer Leadership in School and Community Alcohol Prevention Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komro, Kelli A.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara; Williams, Carolyn L.; Roel, Joseph P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes peer leadership components within a community-wide trial to prevent alcohol use and related youth problems. Seventh and eighth graders could be elected or volunteer as peer leaders. Surveys indicated that at baseline, both types of leaders had fewer problem behaviors than non-peer leaders. Following the 7th-grade curriculum, alcohol use…

  13. Patient Engagement and Activation in Three Underserved Beacon Communities.

    PubMed

    Jardins, Terrisca Des; Drone, Shenetta A; Hashisaka, Susan; Hazzard, Jobyna; Hunt, Susan B; Massey, Kimberly; Rein, Alison; Schachter, Abigail; Turske, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Whether the setting is urban, rural, or somewhere in between, engagement strategies for the underserved require a great deal of flexibility and sensitivity to the socioeconomic, cultural, and geographic conditions of the patient population. The following report details how three unique communities designed specific strategies to engage underserved populations in the management of their chronic conditions. PMID:26320912

  14. Harmonizing Self and Community in the Activity of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Dayvid

    Using a sixth grade classroom as an example, this paper discusses balance within the classroom, including balance of instruction and learning, of intentions and actions, and of relationships. This balance holds teachers in positive tension with students, parents, and the school community. Three metaphors describe pedagogic judgment as the…

  15. "Community", Semiotic Flows, and Mediated Contribution to Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    This article begins with an overview and problematization of the term "community" through a brief assessment of its history, diverse uses, core attributes, heterogeneous elements, and collocational companions. Following this, I describe demographics and processes associated with collective engagement in digitally mediated environments. Utilizing…

  16. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation’s health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments. PMID:26005510

  17. Psychosocial factors associated with youth involvement in community activities promoting heart health.

    PubMed

    Altman, D G; Feighery, E; Robinson, T N; Haydel, K F; Strausberg, L; Lorig, K; Killen, J D

    1998-08-01

    This study examined factors that influence youth participation in heart disease prevention activities among 2,609 ninth graders in six inner-city public high schools. Constructs derived from social cognitive, empowerment, and community development theories informed the conceptual framework employed. Study participants were diverse with respect to gender, ethnicity, parent education, acculturation, and academic achievement. Perceived incentive value, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, sense of community, and perceived policy control were all significantly associated with participation in community activities promoting heart health. In multivariate analyses, perceived incentive value, defined as the extent to which participants valued a heart-healthy environment, was most strongly associated with community participation, accounting for 11.9% of the total variance. These findings have implications for designing school curricula and after-school and community programs targeting adolescents' involvement in health advocacy activities. PMID:9690106

  18. Sequence Analysis and Comparative Study of the Protein Subunits of Archaeal RNase P

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Manoj P.; Lai, Stella M.; Daniels, Charles J.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    RNase P, a ribozyme-based ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that catalyzes tRNA 5′-maturation, is ubiquitous in all domains of life, but the evolution of its protein components (RNase P proteins, RPPs) is not well understood. Archaeal RPPs may provide clues on how the complex evolved from an ancient ribozyme to an RNP with multiple archaeal and eukaryotic (homologous) RPPs, which are unrelated to the single bacterial RPP. Here, we analyzed the sequence and structure of archaeal RPPs from over 600 available genomes. All five RPPs are found in eight archaeal phyla, suggesting that these RPPs arose early in archaeal evolutionary history. The putative ancestral genomic loci of archaeal RPPs include genes encoding several members of ribosome, exosome, and proteasome complexes, which may indicate coevolution/coordinate regulation of RNase P with other core cellular machineries. Despite being ancient, RPPs generally lack sequence conservation compared to other universal proteins. By analyzing the relative frequency of residues at every position in the context of the high-resolution structures of each of the RPPs (either alone or as functional binary complexes), we suggest residues for mutational analysis that may help uncover structure-function relationships in RPPs. PMID:27104580

  19. Sequence Analysis and Comparative Study of the Protein Subunits of Archaeal RNase P.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Manoj P; Lai, Stella M; Daniels, Charles J; Gopalan, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    RNase P, a ribozyme-based ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that catalyzes tRNA 5'-maturation, is ubiquitous in all domains of life, but the evolution of its protein components (RNase P proteins, RPPs) is not well understood. Archaeal RPPs may provide clues on how the complex evolved from an ancient ribozyme to an RNP with multiple archaeal and eukaryotic (homologous) RPPs, which are unrelated to the single bacterial RPP. Here, we analyzed the sequence and structure of archaeal RPPs from over 600 available genomes. All five RPPs are found in eight archaeal phyla, suggesting that these RPPs arose early in archaeal evolutionary history. The putative ancestral genomic loci of archaeal RPPs include genes encoding several members of ribosome, exosome, and proteasome complexes, which may indicate coevolution/coordinate regulation of RNase P with other core cellular machineries. Despite being ancient, RPPs generally lack sequence conservation compared to other universal proteins. By analyzing the relative frequency of residues at every position in the context of the high-resolution structures of each of the RPPs (either alone or as functional binary complexes), we suggest residues for mutational analysis that may help uncover structure-function relationships in RPPs. PMID:27104580

  20. Single-Domain Parvulins Constitute a Specific Marker for Recently Proposed Deep-Branching Archaeal Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Christoph; Heider, Dominik; van den Boom, Johannes; Hoffmann, Daniel; Mueller, Jonathan W.; Bayer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) are enzymes assisting protein folding and protein quality control in organisms of all kingdoms of life. In contrast to the other sub-classes of PPIases, the cyclophilins and the FK-506 binding proteins, little was formerly known about the parvulin type of PPIase in Archaea. Recently, the first solution structure of an archaeal parvulin, the PinA protein from Cenarchaeum symbiosum, was reported. Investigation of occurrence and frequency of PPIase sequences in numerous archaeal genomes now revealed a strong tendency for thermophilic microorganisms to reduce the number of PPIases. Single-domain parvulins were mostly found in the genomes of recently proposed deep-branching archaeal subgroups, the Thaumarchaeota and the ARMANs (archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms). Hence, we used the parvulin sequence to reclassify available archaeal metagenomic contigs, thereby, adding new members to these subgroups. A combination of genomic background analysis and phylogenetic approaches of parvulin sequences suggested that the assigned sequences belong to at least two distinct groups of Thaumarchaeota. Finally, machine learning approaches were applied to identify amino acid residues that separate archaeal and bacterial parvulin proteins from each other. When mapped onto the recent PinA solution structure, most of these positions form a cluster at one site of the protein possibly indicating a different functionality of the two groups of parvulin proteins. PMID:22065628

  1. Archaeal diversity and the extent of iron and manganese pyritization in sediments from a tropical mangrove creek (Cardoso Island, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, X. L.; Lucheta, A. R.; Ferreira, T. O.; Huerta-Díaz, M. A.; Lambais, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    Even though several studies on the geochemical processes occurring in mangrove soils and sediments have been performed, information on the diversity of Archaea and their functional roles in these ecosystems, especially in subsurface environments, is scarce. In this study, we have analyzed the depth distribution of Archaea and their possible relationships with the geochemical transformations of Fe and Mn in a sediment core from a tropical mangrove creek, using 16S rRNA gene profiling and sequential extraction of different forms of Fe and Mn. A significant shift in the archaeal community structure was observed in the lower layers (90-100 cm), coinciding with a clear decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) content and an increase in the percentage of sand. The comparison of the archaeal communities showed a dominance of methanogenic Euryarchaeota in the upper layers (0-20 cm), whereas Crenarchaeota was the most abundant taxon in the lower layers. The dominance of methanogenic Euryarchaeota in the upper layer of the sediment suggests the occurrence of methanogenesis in anoxic microenvironments. The concentrations of Fe-oxyhydroxides in the profile were very low, and showed positive correlation with the concentrations of pyrite and degrees of Fe and Mn pyritization. Additionally, a partial decoupling of pyrite formation from organic matter concentration was observed, suggesting excessive Fe pyritization. This overpyritization of Fe can be explained either by the anoxic oxidation of methane by sulfate and/or by detrital pyrite tidal transportation from the surrounding mangrove soils. The higher pyritization levels observed in deeper layers of the creek sediment were also in agreement with its Pleistocenic origin.

  2. Using Phenomenography to Build an Understanding of How University People Conceptualise Their Community-Engaged Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kim; Shephard, Kerry; Warren, David; Hesson, Gala; Fleming, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions are seeking greater community engagement through academic, social and civic activity. In response, researcher attention has turned to impacts on students' education, and benefits to both university and community partners. This phenomenographic study examines how a diverse group of teachers, researchers and…

  3. Sediment Enzyme Activities and Microbial Community Diversity in an Oligotrophic Drinking Water Reservoir, Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin; Liu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water reservoir plays a vital role in the security of urban water supply, yet little is known about microbial community diversity harbored in the sediment of this oligotrophic freshwater environmental ecosystem. In the present study, integrating community level physiological profiles (CLPPs), nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone sequence technologies, we examined the sediment urease and protease activities, bacterial community functional diversity, genetic diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in sediments from six sampling sites of Zhou cun drinking water reservoir, eastern China. The results showed that sediment urease activity was markedly distinct along the sites, ranged from 2.48 to 11.81 mg NH3-N/(g·24h). The highest average well color development (AWCD) was found in site C, indicating the highest metabolic activity of heterotrophic bacterial community. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed tremendous differences in the functional (metabolic) diversity patterns of the sediment bacterial communities from different sites. Meanwhile, DGGE fingerprints also indicated spatial changes of genetic diversity of sediment bacterial and fungal communities. The sequence BLAST analysis of all the sediment samples found that Comamonas sp. was the dominant bacterial species harbored in site A. Alternaria alternate, Allomyces macrogynus and Rhizophydium sp. were most commonly detected fungal species in sediments of the Zhou cun drinking water reservoir. The results from this work provide new insights about the heterogeneity of sediment microbial community metabolic activity and genetic diversity in the oligotrophic drinking water reservoir. PMID:24205265

  4. 76 FR 79212 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Information Collection for Community Harvest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... subsistence activities. A survey will be used to estimate subsistence harvests and to describe community subsistence economies. This project will survey residents of several communities in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve and Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve on these topics. The...

  5. Teachers' Professional Agency and Learning--From Adaption to Active Modification in the Teacher Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine teacher learning in terms of teachers' professional agency in the professional community of the school. Altogether 2310 Finnish comprehensive school teachers completed a survey. Results showed that teachers' active efforts to learn in the professional community and to promote school development cannot be…

  6. From Active Lurkers to Community Leader: Who They Are and What They Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakurt, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an email-based community supporting a community of practice (CoP) of mathematic teachers was investigated. Public messages members send were examined in order to determine what activities that were conducted by the members and what their level of participation is. Data was gathered via a "Media Records Evaluation Form". A…

  7. Data for Free: Using LMS Activity Logs to Measure Community in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Erik W.; Dawson, Kara; Priem, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In the study of online learning community, many investigators have turned attention to automatically logged web data. This study aims to further this work by seeking to determine whether logs of student activity within online graduate level courses related to student perceptions of course community. Researchers utilized the data logging features…

  8. A Community-Based Activities Survey: Systematically Determining the Impact on and of Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lane; Farmer, Betty; Onder, David; Tanner, Benjamin; Burton, Carol

    2015-01-01

    As a descriptive case study from Western Carolina University (WCU), this article describes the development of a measuring, monitoring, and tracking system (the WCU Community-based Activities Survey) for faculty engagement in, adoption of, and impact through community engagement practices both internal and external to their courses. This paper will…

  9. Roots of Civic Identity: International Perspectives on Community Service and Activism in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Miranda, Ed.; Youniss, James, Ed.

    This international collection of essays describes the state of community participation among the world's youth. An array of empirical research is used to present portraits of contemporary youth constructing their civic identities through such means as community service and political activism. The collection contains the following essays:…

  10. Seasonal composition and activity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotic communities in seagrass bed sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) play a key role in the carbon and nutrient cycles of coastal marine, vegetated ecosystems, but the interactions of SRP communities with aquatic plants remain little studied. The abundance, activity, and community composition of SRP was studied i...

  11. Leadership Enhancement for the Active Retired: A Community Leadership Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Carol M., Ed.; Olson, Philip, Ed.

    Developed for program facilitators in rural communities, Leadership Enhancement for the Active Retired (LEAR) is a training model that builds on the leadership skills and expertise of people who are retired from full-time employment, but are still willing to share their time and talent to benefit their community. Although other formats for the…

  12. A Framework for Physical Activity Programs within School-Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Ragnar; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Martelaer, Kristine; Seghers, Jan; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen; De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet

    2011-01-01

    School-community partnerships have shown their potential as incubators for innovations and for contributing to comprehensive physical activity (PA) programs. However, implementation frameworks for school-community partnerships that allow local tailoring of PA programs remain scarce. The present paper aims at documenting the composition of a…

  13. Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by an archaeal presenilin homologue PSH.

    PubMed

    Dang, Shangyu; Wu, Shenjie; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Min; He, Wei; Li, Yue-Ming; Wong, Catherine C L; Shi, Yigong

    2015-03-17

    Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by γ-secretase contributes to the development of Alzheimer's disease. More than 200 disease-derived mutations have been identified in presenilin (the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase), making modulation of γ-secretase activity a potentially attractive therapeutic opportunity. Unfortunately, the technical challenges in dealing with intact γ-secretase have hindered discovery of modulators and demand a convenient substitute approach. Here we report that, similar to γ-secretase, the archaeal presenilin homolog PSH faithfully processes the substrate APP C99 into Aβ42, Aβ40, and Aβ38. The molar ratio of the cleavage products Aβ42 over Aβ40 by PSH is nearly identical to that by γ-secretase. The proteolytic activity of PSH is specifically suppressed by presenilin-specific inhibitors. Known modulators of γ-secretase also modulate PSH similarly in terms of the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. Structural analysis reveals association of a known γ-secretase inhibitor with PSH between its two catalytic aspartate residues. These findings identify PSH as a surrogate protease for the screening of agents that may regulate the protease activity and the cleavage preference of γ-secretase. PMID:25733893

  14. Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by an archaeal presenilin homologue PSH

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Shangyu; Wu, Shenjie; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Min; He, Wei; Li, Yue-Ming; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Shi, Yigong

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by γ-secretase contributes to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. More than 200 disease-derived mutations have been identified in presenilin (the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase), making modulation of γ-secretase activity a potentially attractive therapeutic opportunity. Unfortunately, the technical challenges in dealing with intact γ-secretase have hindered discovery of modulators and demand a convenient substitute approach. Here we report that, similar to γ-secretase, the archaeal presenilin homolog PSH faithfully processes the substrate APP C99 into Aβ42, Aβ40, and Aβ38. The molar ratio of the cleavage products Aβ42 over Aβ40 by PSH is nearly identical to that by γ-secretase. The proteolytic activity of PSH is specifically suppressed by presenilin-specific inhibitors. Known modulators of γ-secretase also modulate PSH similarly in terms of the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. Structural analysis reveals association of a known γ-secretase inhibitor with PSH between its two catalytic aspartate residues. These findings identify PSH as a surrogate protease for the screening of agents that may regulate the protease activity and the cleavage preference of γ-secretase. PMID:25733893

  15. Environmental microarray analyses of Antarctic soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung A; Brodie, Eoin L; Déjean, Sébastien; DeSantis, Todd Z; Gonçalves, Olivier; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary L; Kowalchuk, George A

    2009-03-01

    Antarctic ecosystems are fascinating in their limited trophic complexity, with decomposition and nutrient cycling functions being dominated by microbial activities. Not only are Antarctic habitats exposed to extreme environmental conditions, the Antarctic Peninsula is also experiencing unequalled effects of global warming. Owing to their uniqueness and the potential impact of global warming on these pristine systems, there is considerable interest in determining the structure and function of microbial communities in the Antarctic. We therefore utilized a recently designed 16S rRNA gene microarray, the PhyloChip, which targets 8741 bacterial and archaeal taxa, to interrogate microbial communities inhabiting densely vegetated and bare fell-field soils along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 51 degrees S (Falkland Islands) to 72 degrees S (Coal Nunatak). Results indicated a clear decrease in diversity with increasing latitude, with the two southernmost sites harboring the most distinct Bacterial and Archaeal communities. The microarray approach proved more sensitive in detecting the breadth of microbial diversity than polymerase chain reaction-based bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries of modest size ( approximately 190 clones per library). Furthermore, the relative signal intensities summed for phyla and families on the PhyloChip were significantly correlated with the relative occurrence of these taxa in clone libraries. PhyloChip data were also compared with functional gene microarray data obtained earlier, highlighting numerous significant relationships and providing evidence for a strong link between community composition and functional gene distribution in Antarctic soils. Integration of these PhyloChip data with other complementary methods provides an unprecedented understanding of the microbial diversity and community structure of terrestrial Antarctic habitats. PMID:19020556

  16. Linking DNRA community structure and activity in a shallow lagoonal estuarine system

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bongkeun; Lisa, Jessica A.; Tobias, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and denitrification are two nitrate respiration pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle. Diversity and abundance of denitrifying bacteria have been extensively examined in various ecosystems. However, studies on DNRA bacterial diversity are limited, and the linkage between the structure and activity of DNRA communities has yet to be discovered. We examined the composition, diversity, abundance, and activities of DNRA communities at five sites along a salinity gradient in the New River Estuary, North Carolina, USA, a shallow temporal/lagoonal estuarine system. Sediment slurry incubation experiments with 15N-nitrate were conducted to measure potential DNRA rates, while the abundance of DNRA communities was calculated using quantitative PCR of nrfA genes encoding cytochrome C nitrite reductase, commonly found in DNRA bacteria. A pyrosequencing method targeting nrfA genes was developed using an Ion Torrent sequencer to examine the diversity and composition of DNRA communities within the estuarine sediment community. We found higher levels of nrfA gene abundance and DNRA activities in sediments with higher percent organic content. Pyrosequencing analysis of nrfA genes revealed spatial variation of DNRA communities along the salinity gradient of the New River Estuary. Percent abundance of dominant populations was found to have significant influence on overall activities of DNRA communities. Abundance of dominant DNRA bacteria and organic carbon availability are important regulators of DNRA activities in the eutrophic New River Estuary. PMID:25232351

  17. The influence of hydrogeological disturbance and mining on coal seam microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, M J; Gagen, E J; Evans, P; Tyson, G W; Golding, S D; Southam, G

    2016-03-01

    The microbial communities present in two underground coal mines in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia, were investigated to deduce the effect of pumping and mining on subsurface methanogens and methanotrophs. The micro-organisms in pumped water from the actively mined areas, as well as, pre- and post-mining formation waters were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The methane stable isotope composition of Bowen Basin coal seam indicates that methanogenesis has occurred in the geological past. More recently at the mine site, changing groundwater flow dynamics and the introduction of oxygen in the subsurface has increased microbial biomass and diversity. Consistent with microbial communities found in other coal seam environments, pumped coal mine waters from the subsurface were dominated by bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and the family Rhodocyclaceae. These environments and bacterial communities supported a methanogen population, including Methanobacteriaceae, Methanococcaceae and Methanosaeta. However, one of the most ubiquitous micro-organisms in anoxic coal mine waters belonged to the family 'Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae'. As the Archaeal family 'Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae' has not been extensively defined, the one studied species in the family is capable of anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction. This introduces the possibility that a methane cycle between archaeal methanogenesis and methanotrophy may exist in the anoxic waters of the coal seam after hydrogeological disturbance. PMID:26541089

  18. A Community-Based Volunteer After-School Activity Program Created for Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaser, Thomas C., Jr.

    This practicum was designed to provide an after-school activity program to middle school students not engaged in interscholastic sports. Utilizing community volunteers, an enrichment-prevention program that featured 19 different activities in 2 class sessions per week over a 10-week period was developed and implemented. Activities included…

  19. The Archaeal Proteasome Is Regulated by a Network of AAA ATPases*

    PubMed Central

    Forouzan, Dara; Ammelburg, Moritz; Hobel, Cedric F.; Ströh, Luisa J.; Sessler, Nicole; Martin, Jörg; Lupas, Andrei N.

    2012-01-01

    The proteasome is the central machinery for targeted protein degradation in archaea, Actinobacteria, and eukaryotes. In its basic form, it consists of a regulatory ATPase complex and a proteolytic core particle. The interaction between the two is governed by an HbYX motif (where Hb is a hydrophobic residue, Y is tyrosine, and X is any amino acid) at the C terminus of the ATPase subunits, which stimulates gate opening of the proteasomal α-subunits. In archaea, the proteasome-interacting motif is not only found in canonical proteasome-activating nucleotidases of the PAN/ARC/Rpt group, which are absent in major archaeal lineages, but also in proteins of the CDC48/p97/VAT and AMA groups, suggesting a regulatory network of proteasomal ATPases. Indeed, Thermoplasma acidophilum, which lacks PAN, encodes one CDC48 protein that interacts with the 20S proteasome and activates the degradation of model substrates. In contrast, Methanosarcina mazei contains seven AAA proteins, five of which, both PAN proteins, two out of three CDC48 proteins, and the AMA protein, function as proteasomal gatekeepers. The prevalent presence of multiple, distinct proteasomal ATPases in archaea thus results in a network of regulatory ATPases that may widen the substrate spectrum of proteasomal protein degradation. PMID:22992741

  20. Comparative structural biology of eubacterial and archaeal oligosaccharyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Maita, Nobuo; Nyirenda, James; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Kohda, Daisuke

    2010-02-12

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) catalyzes the transfer of an oligosaccharide from a lipid donor to an asparagine residue in nascent polypeptide chains. In the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, a single-subunit membrane protein, PglB, catalyzes N-glycosylation. We report the 2.8 A resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of PglB and its comparison with the previously determined structure from the archaeon Pyrococcus AglB. The two distantly related oligosaccharyltransferases share unexpected structural similarity beyond that expected from the sequence comparison. The common architecture of the putative catalytic sites revealed a new catalytic motif in PglB. Site-directed mutagenesis analyses confirmed the contribution of this motif to the catalytic function. Bacterial PglB and archaeal AglB constitute a protein family of the catalytic subunit of OST along with STT3 from eukaryotes. A structure-aided multiple sequence alignment of the STT3/PglB/AglB protein family revealed three types of OST catalytic centers. This novel classification will provide a useful framework for understanding the enzymatic properties of the OST enzymes from Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria. PMID:20007322

  1. Protein phosphorylation and its role in archaeal signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Esser, Dominik; Hoffmann, Lena; Pham, Trong Khoa; Bräsen, Christopher; Qiu, Wen; Wright, Phillip C; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Siebers, Bettina

    2016-09-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the main mechanism of signal transduction that enables cells to rapidly respond to environmental changes by controlling the functional properties of proteins in response to external stimuli. However, whereas signal transduction is well studied in Eukaryotes and Bacteria, the knowledge in Archaea is still rather scarce. Archaea are special with regard to protein phosphorylation, due to the fact that the two best studied phyla, the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeaota, seem to exhibit fundamental differences in regulatory systems. Euryarchaeota (e.g. halophiles, methanogens, thermophiles), like Bacteria and Eukaryotes, rely on bacterial-type two-component signal transduction systems (phosphorylation on His and Asp), as well as on the protein phosphorylation on Ser, Thr and Tyr by Hanks-type protein kinases. Instead, Crenarchaeota (e.g. acidophiles and (hyper)thermophiles) only depend on Hanks-type protein phosphorylation. In this review, the current knowledge of reversible protein phosphorylation in Archaea is presented. It combines results from identified phosphoproteins, biochemical characterization of protein kinases and protein phosphatases as well as target enzymes and first insights into archaeal signal transduction by biochemical, genetic and polyomic studies. PMID:27476079

  2. Protein phosphorylation and its role in archaeal signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Dominik; Hoffmann, Lena; Pham, Trong Khoa; Bräsen, Christopher; Qiu, Wen; Wright, Phillip C.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Siebers, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the main mechanism of signal transduction that enables cells to rapidly respond to environmental changes by controlling the functional properties of proteins in response to external stimuli. However, whereas signal transduction is well studied in Eukaryotes and Bacteria, the knowledge in Archaea is still rather scarce. Archaea are special with regard to protein phosphorylation, due to the fact that the two best studied phyla, the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeaota, seem to exhibit fundamental differences in regulatory systems. Euryarchaeota (e.g. halophiles, methanogens, thermophiles), like Bacteria and Eukaryotes, rely on bacterial-type two-component signal transduction systems (phosphorylation on His and Asp), as well as on the protein phosphorylation on Ser, Thr and Tyr by Hanks-type protein kinases. Instead, Crenarchaeota (e.g. acidophiles and (hyper)thermophiles) only depend on Hanks-type protein phosphorylation. In this review, the current knowledge of reversible protein phosphorylation in Archaea is presented. It combines results from identified phosphoproteins, biochemical characterization of protein kinases and protein phosphatases as well as target enzymes and first insights into archaeal signal transduction by biochemical, genetic and polyomic studies. PMID:27476079

  3. Coupling Genetic and Chemical Microbiome Profiling Reveals Heterogeneity of Archaeome and Bacteriome in Subsurface Biofilms That Are Dominated by the Same Archaeal Species

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Wanner, Gerhard; Andersen, Gary L.; Perras, Alexandra K.; Meck, Sandra; Völkel, Jörg; Bechtel, Hans A.; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Earth harbors an enormous portion of subsurface microbial life, whose microbiome flux across geographical locations remains mainly unexplored due to difficult access to samples. Here, we investigated the microbiome relatedness of subsurface biofilms of two sulfidic springs in southeast Germany that have similar physical and chemical parameters and are fed by one deep groundwater current. Due to their unique hydrogeological setting these springs provide accessible windows to subsurface biofilms dominated by the same uncultivated archaeal species, called SM1 Euryarchaeon. Comparative analysis of infrared imaging spectra demonstrated great variations in archaeal membrane composition between biofilms of the two springs, suggesting different SM1 euryarchaeal strains of the same species at both aquifer outlets. This strain variation was supported by ultrastructural and metagenomic analyses of the archaeal biofilms, which included intergenic spacer region sequencing of the rRNA gene operon. At 16S rRNA gene level, PhyloChip G3 DNA microarray detected similar biofilm communities for archaea, but site-specific communities for bacteria. Both biofilms showed an enrichment of different deltaproteobacterial operational taxonomic units, whose families were, however, congruent as were their lipid spectra. Consequently, the function of the major proportion of the bacteriome appeared to be conserved across the geographic locations studied, which was confirmed by dsrB-directed quantitative PCR. Consequently, microbiome differences of these subsurface biofilms exist at subtle nuances for archaea (strain level variation) and at higher taxonomic levels for predominant bacteria without a substantial perturbation in bacteriome function. The results of this communication provide deep insight into the dynamics of subsurface microbial life and warrant its future investigation with regard to metabolic and genomic analyses. PMID:24971452

  4. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  5. Measuring the level of activity in community built bio-ontologies.

    PubMed

    Malone, James; Stevens, Robert

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we explore the measurement of activity in ontology projects as an aspect of community ontology building. When choosing whether to use an ontology or whether to participate in its development, having some knowledge of how actively that ontology is developed is an important issue. Our knowledge of biology grows and changes and an ontology must adapt to keep pace with those changes and also adapt with respect to other ontologies and organisational principles. In essence, we need to know if there is an 'active' community involved with a project or whether a given ontology is inactive or moribund. We explore the use of additions, deletions and changes to ontology files, the regularity and frequency of releases, and the number of ontology repository updates to an ontology as the basis for measuring activity in an ontology. We present our results of this study, which show a dramatic range of activity across some of the more prominent community ontologies, illustrating very active and mature efforts through to those which appear to have become dormant for a number of possible reasons. We show that global activity within the community has remained at a similar level over the last 2 years. Measuring additions, deletions and changes, together with release frequency, appear to be useful metrics of activity and useful pointers towards future behaviour. Measuring who is making edits to ontologies is harder to capture; this raises issues of record keeping in ontology projects and in micro-credit, although we have identified one ontologist that appears influential across many community efforts; a Super-Ontologist. We also discuss confounding factors in our activity metric and discuss how it can be improved and adopted as an assessment criterion for community ontology development. Overall, we show that it is possible to objectively measure the activity in an ontology and to make some prediction about future activity. PMID:22554701

  6. Environmental Conditions Constrain the Distribution and Diversity of Archaeal merA in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Boyd, E.; Crane, S.; Lu-Irving, P.; Krabbenhoft, D.; King, S.; Dighton, J.; Geesey, G.; Barkay, T.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and phylogeny of extant protein-encoding genes recovered from geochemically diverse environments can provide insight into the physical and chemical parameters that led to the origin and which constrained the evolution of a functional process. Mercuric reductase (MerA) plays an integral role in mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry by catalyzing the transformation of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Putative merA sequences were amplified from DNA extracts of microbial communities associated with mats and sulfur precipitates from physicochemically diverse Hg-containing springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, using four PCR primer sets that were designed to capture the known diversity of merA. The recovery of novel and deeply rooted MerA lineages from these habitats supports previous evidence that indicates merA originated in a thermophilic environment. Generalized linear models indicate that the distribution of putative archaeal merA lineages was constrained by a combination of pH, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved total mercury and sulfide. The models failed to identify statistically well supported trends for the distribution of putative bacterial merA lineages as a function of these or other measured environmental variables, suggesting that these lineages were either influenced by environmental parameters not considered in the present study, or the bacterial primer sets were designed to target too broad of a class of genes which may have responded differently to environmental stimuli. The widespread occurrence of merA in the geothermal environments implies a prominent role for Hg detoxification in these environments. Moreover, the differences in the distribution of the merA genes amplified with the four merA primer sets suggests that the organisms putatively engaged in this activity have evolved to occupy different ecological niches within the geothermal gradient. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Education and Vocational Training within the European Community. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities in 1983 and 1984. Report from the Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    This report discusses activities directly linked with the implementation of the education action program set up in February 1976 by the Council of the European Communities and Ministers of Education. Activities relating to the pursuit of the European Community's vocational training policies are also addressed. Chapter I gives an account of the…

  8. Characteristics of Walking, Activity, Fear of Falling and Falls in Community Dwelling Older Adults by Residence

    PubMed Central

    Wert, David M.; Talkowski, Jaime B.; Brach, Jennifer; VanSwearingen, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research focusing on community dwelling older adults includes adults living in senior living residences (SLR) and independent community residences (ICR). Walking, physical activity, fear and falls may differ based on residence. Purpose We describe characteristics of walking, physical activity, fear of falling and fall history between community dwelling older adults by residence. Methods Participants of this secondary analysis included community dwelling older adults from independent living units within a senior life care community (SLR) and older adults recruited from the Pittsburgh community (ICR). Demographic information, physical (gait speed and physical activity), psychosocial (fear of falling and confidence in walking) and fall history measures were collected. Results Adults living in SLR compared to ICR were older, more likely to live alone and had greater disease burden. Compared to ICR, individuals in SLR reported less fear of falling (SAFFE fear .24 and .50 respectively). Fewer older adults in SLR compared to ICR reported falling in the past year. Discussion Older adults living in SLR compared to ICR had similar physical function but differed in report of fear of falling and fall history. Recognizing the possible differences in psychosocial function by place of residence is important for healthcare providers and researchers conducting interventions and studies for community-dwelling older adults. PMID:20503733

  9. Use of a virtual community to contextualize learning activities.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Laura; Fenske, Cynthia L

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of two schools of nursing using a virtual community (VC) and how integrated teaching strategies were developed, which lessened the gap between didactic and clinical applications. Exemplars for nursing education practice are highlighted. The term context as used in nursing education, means placing the particular concept, topic, or skill in a setting where it is given enhanced meaning to the learner. This strategy allows nursing students to better retain knowledge and apply new concepts. The VC detailed in this article provides students with such context to enhance learning. It also enhances student engagement by adding an additional level of complexity and richness. One advantage of the VC is the ability to present nursing education beyond the acute inpatient care setting. The VC allows students to observe how illness progresses and exacerbations occur. This pedagogical shift moves from content-driven didactic instruction to a learner-centered approach. PMID:22132719

  10. Novel Bacterial and Archaeal Lineages from an In Situ Growth Chamber Deployed at a Mid-Atlantic Ridge Hydrothermal Vent

    PubMed Central

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Longnecker, Krista; Kirshtein, Julie

    2000-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity was determined for a microbial community obtained from an in situ growth chamber placed on a deep-sea hydrothermal vent on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (23°22′ N, 44°57′ W). The chamber was deployed for 5 days, and the temperature within the chamber gradually decreased from 70 to 20°C. Upon retrieval of the chamber, the DNA was extracted and the small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) were amplified by PCR using primers specific for the Archaea or Bacteria domain and cloned. Unique rDNA sequences were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and 38 different archaeal and bacterial phylotypes were identified from the 85 clones screened. The majority of the archaeal sequences were affiliated with the Thermococcales (71%) and Archaeoglobales (22%) orders. A sequence belonging to the Thermoplasmales confirms that thermoacidophiles may have escaped enrichment culturing attempts of deep-sea hydrothermal vent samples. Additional sequences that represented deeply rooted lineages in the low-temperature eurarchaeal (marine group II) and crenarchaeal clades were obtained. The majority of the bacterial sequences obtained were restricted to the Aquificales (18%), the ɛ subclass of the Proteobacteria (ɛ-Proteobacteria) (40%), and the genus Desulfurobacterium (25%). Most of the clones (28%) were confined to a monophyletic clade within the ɛ-Proteobacteria with no known close relatives. The prevalence of clones related to thermophilic microbes that use hydrogen as an electron donor and sulfur compounds (S0, SO4, thiosulfate) indicates the importance of hydrogen oxidation and sulfur metabolism at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The presence of sequences that are related to sequences from hyperthermophiles, moderate thermophiles, and mesophiles suggests that the diversity obtained from this analysis may reflect the microbial succession that occurred in response to the shift in temperature and possible associated changes in the chemistry of the

  11. Response of the methanogenic microbial communities in Amazonian oxbow lake sediments to desiccation stress.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Ralf; Ji, Yang; Noll, Matthias; Klose, Melanie; Claus, Peter; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Methanogenic microbial communities in soil and sediment function only when the environment is inundated and anoxic. In contrast to submerged soils, desiccation of lake sediments happens only rarely. However, some predictions suggest that extreme events of drying will become more common in the Amazon region, and this will promote an increase in sediments drying and exposure. We asked whether and how such methanogenic communities can withstand desiccation stress. Therefore, we determined the rates and pathways of CH(4) production (analysis of CH(4) and δ(13) C of CH(4), CO(2) and acetate), the copy numbers of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA genes (quantitative PCR), and the community composition of Archaea and Bacteria (T-RFLP and pyrosequencing) in oxbow lake sediments of rivers in the Brazilian Amazon region. The rivers were of white water, black water and clear water type. The measurements were done with sediment in fresh state and after drying and rewetting. After desiccation and rewetting the composition of both, the archaeal and bacterial community changed. Since lake sediments from white water rivers exhibited only negligible methanogenic activity, probably because of relatively high iron and low organic matter content, they were not further analysed. The other sediments produced CH(4), with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis usually accounting for > 50% of total activity. After desiccation and rewetting, archaeal and bacterial gene copy numbers decreased. The bacterial community showed a remarkable increase of Clostridiales from about 10% to > 30% of all Bacteria, partially caused by proliferation of specific taxa as the numbers of OTU shared with fresh sediment decreased from about 9% to 3%. Among the Archaea, desiccation specifically enhanced the relative abundance of either Methanocellales (black water) and/or Methanosarcinaceae (clear water). Despite the changes in gene copy numbers and composition of the microbial community, rates of CH

  12. Geographic Distribution of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizing Ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Sintes, Eva; De Corte, Daniele; Haberleitner, Elisabeth; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the question arises whether the key enzyme responsible for ammonia oxidation, ammonia monooxygenase (amo), exhibits different affinities to ammonia along the oceanic water column and consequently, whether there are different ecotypes of AOA present in the oceanic water column. We determined the abundance and phylogeny of AOA based on their amoA gene. Two ecotypes of AOA exhibited a distribution pattern reflecting the reported availability of ammonia and the physico-chemical conditions throughout the Atlantic, and from epi- to bathypelagic waters. The distinction between these two ecotypes was not only detectable at the nucleotide level. Consistent changes were also detected at the amino acid level. These changes include substitutions of polar to hydrophobic amino acid, and glycine substitutions that could have an effect on the configuration of the amo protein and thus, on its activity. Although we cannot identify the specific effect, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) between the two ecotypes indicates a strong positive selection between them. Consequently, our results point to a certain degree of environmental selection on these two ecotypes that have led to their niche specialization. PMID:26903961

  13. Structural, mass and elemental analyses of storage granules in methanogenic archaeal cells

    PubMed Central

    Toso, Daniel B.; Henstra, Anne M.; Gunsalus, Robert P.; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2013-01-01

    Summary Storage granules are an important component of metabolism in many organisms spanning the bacterial, eukaryal and archaeal domains, but systematic analysis of their organization inside cells is lacking. In this study, we identify and characterize granulelike inclusion bodies in a methanogenic archaeon, Methanospirillum hungatei, an anaerobic microorganism that plays an important role in nutrient recycling in the ecosystem. Using cryo electron microscopy, we show that granules in mature M. hungatei are amorphous in structure with a uniform size. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis establishes that each granule is a polyphosphate body (PPB) that consists of high concentrations of phosphorous and oxygen, and increased levels of iron and magnesium. By scanning transmission electron tomography, we further estimate that the mass density within a PPB is a little less than metal titanium at room temperature and is about four times higher than that of the surrounding cytoplasm. Finally, three-dimensional cryo electron tomography reveals that PPBs are positioned off-centre in their radial locations relative to the cylindrical axis of the cell, and almost uniformly placed near cell ends. This positioning ability points to a genetic program that spatially and temporally directs the accumulation of polyphosphate into a storage granule, perhaps for energy-consuming activities, such as cell maintenance, division or motility. PMID:21854518

  14. Extremolyte-like applicability of an archaeal exopolymer, poly-gamma-L-glutamate.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Daisuke; Minouchi, Yutaka; Ashiuchi, Makoto

    2010-09-01

    An extremely halophilic archaeon Natrialba aegyptiaca produces extracellular poly-gamma-glutamate (PGA), in which only L-glutamate is polymerized via gamma-amide linkages. We examined the extremolyte-like applicability of archaeal PGA and found the ameliorating effects of L-PGA on the resistibility to freeze-thawing and proteolysis, thermostability, and alkalotolerance of a model enzyme, labile DNA ligase. For example, the coexistence of low (e.g. 0.01 mg mL(-1)) and high (e.g. 0.1 mg mL(-1)) concentrations of L-PGA with an average molecular mass of 1000 kDa increased the midpoint of thermal inactivation of DNA ligase by about 15 degrees C and 18 degrees C, respectively, and the model enzyme further remained active even under extremely alkaline conditions of pH 11.4 in the presence of the high concentration of L-PGA. This is the first characterization of the stereo-regular PGA molecules as atypical extremolytes. L-PGA from extremophiles has great potential as a bio-based protectant (or stabilizer) with industrial versatility. PMID:20718295

  15. Geographic Distribution of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizing Ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sintes, Eva; De Corte, Daniele; Haberleitner, Elisabeth; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the question arises whether the key enzyme responsible for ammonia oxidation, ammonia monooxygenase (amo), exhibits different affinities to ammonia along the oceanic water column and consequently, whether there are different ecotypes of AOA present in the oceanic water column. We determined the abundance and phylogeny of AOA based on their amoA gene. Two ecotypes of AOA exhibited a distribution pattern reflecting the reported availability of ammonia and the physico-chemical conditions throughout the Atlantic, and from epi- to bathypelagic waters. The distinction between these two ecotypes was not only detectable at the nucleotide level. Consistent changes were also detected at the amino acid level. These changes include substitutions of polar to hydrophobic amino acid, and glycine substitutions that could have an effect on the configuration of the amo protein and thus, on its activity. Although we cannot identify the specific effect, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) between the two ecotypes indicates a strong positive selection between them. Consequently, our results point to a certain degree of environmental selection on these two ecotypes that have led to their niche specialization. PMID:26903961

  16. Plant nitrogen-use strategy as a driver of rhizosphere archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidiser abundance.

    PubMed

    Thion, Cécile E; Poirel, Jessica D; Cornulier, Thomas; De Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Prosser, James I

    2016-07-01

    The influence of plants on archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia oxidisers (AO) is poorly understood. Higher microbial activity in the rhizosphere, including organic nitrogen (N) mineralisation, may stimulate both groups, while ammonia uptake by plants may favour AOA, considered to prefer lower ammonia concentration. We therefore hypothesised (i) higher AOA and AOB abundances in the rhizosphere than bulk soil and (ii) that AOA are favoured over AOB in the rhizosphere of plants with an exploitative strategy and high N demand, especially (iii) during early growth, when plant N uptake is higher. These hypotheses were tested by growing 20 grassland plants, covering a spectrum of resource-use strategies, and determining AOA and AOB amoA gene abundances, rhizosphere and bulk soil characteristics and plant functional traits. Joint Bayesian mixed models indicated no increase in AO in the rhizosphere, but revealed that AOA were more abundant in the rhizosphere of exploitative plants, mostly grasses, and less abundant under conservative plants. In contrast, AOB abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil depended on pH, rather than plant traits. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for plant-ammonia oxidiser interactions and for links between plant functional traits and ammonia oxidiser ecology. PMID:27130939

  17. Differential responses of nitrate reducer community size, structure, and activity to tillage systems.

    PubMed

    Chèneby, D; Brauman, A; Rabary, B; Philippot, L

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine how the size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community were affected by adoption of a conservative tillage system as an alternative to conventional tillage. The experimental field, established in Madagascar in 1991, consists of plots subjected to conventional tillage or direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DM), both amended with three different fertilization regimes. Comparisons of size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community in samples collected from the top layer in 2005 and 2006 revealed that all characteristics of this functional community were affected by the tillage system, with increased nitrate reduction activity and numbers of nitrate reducers under DM. Nitrate reduction activity was also stimulated by combined organic and mineral fertilization but not by organic fertilization alone. In contrast, both negative and positive effects of combined organic and mineral fertilization on the size of the nitrate reducer community were observed. The size of the nitrate reducer community was a significant predictor of the nitrate reduction rates except in one treatment, which highlighted the inherent complexities in understanding the relationships the between size, diversity, and structure of functional microbial communities along environmental gradients. PMID:19304827

  18. Differential Responses of Nitrate Reducer Community Size, Structure, and Activity to Tillage Systems▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chèneby, D.; Brauman, A.; Rabary, B.; Philippot, L.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine how the size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community were affected by adoption of a conservative tillage system as an alternative to conventional tillage. The experimental field, established in Madagascar in 1991, consists of plots subjected to conventional tillage or direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DM), both amended with three different fertilization regimes. Comparisons of size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community in samples collected from the top layer in 2005 and 2006 revealed that all characteristics of this functional community were affected by the tillage system, with increased nitrate reduction activity and numbers of nitrate reducers under DM. Nitrate reduction activity was also stimulated by combined organic and mineral fertilization but not by organic fertilization alone. In contrast, both negative and positive effects of combined organic and mineral fertilization on the size of the nitrate reducer community were observed. The size of the nitrate reducer community was a significant predictor of the nitrate reduction rates except in one treatment, which highlighted the inherent complexities in understanding the relationships the between size, diversity, and structure of functional microbial communities along environmental gradients. PMID:19304827

  19. Engaging the Community to Improve Nutrition and Physical Activity Among Houses of Worship

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Shawna V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition have been linked to many chronic diseases. Research indicates that interventions in community-based settings such as houses of worship can build on attendees’ trust to address health issues and help them make behavioral changes. Community Context New Brunswick, New Jersey, has low rates of physical activity and a high prevalence of obesity. An adapted community-based intervention was implemented there to improve nutrition and physical activity among people who attend houses of worship and expand and enhance the network of partners working with Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey. Methods An adapted version of Body & Soul: A Celebration of Healthy Living and Eating was created using a 3-phase model to 1) educate lay members on nutrition and physical activity, 2) provide sustainable change through the development of physical activity programming, and 3) increase access to local produce through collaborations with community partners. Outcome Nineteen houses of worship were selected for participation in this program. Houses of worship provided a questionnaire to a convenience sample of its congregation to assess congregants’ physical activity levels and produce consumption behaviors at baseline using questions from the Health Information National Trends Survey instrument. This information was also used to inform future program activities. Interpretation Community-based health education can be a promising approach when appropriate partnerships are identified, funding is adequate, ongoing information is extracted to inform future action, and there is an expectation from all parties of long-term engagement and capacity building. PMID:24625362

  20. The Community Music Activity Commission of ISME, 1982-2007: A Forum for Global Dialogue and Institutional Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Marie

    2007-01-01

    The development of community music as a structured activity and academic discipline occurred in a variety of social and institutional contexts during the last fifty years. The International Society for Music Education, through its Commission on Community Music Activity (CMA), represents one forum in which community musicians and those interested…

  1. Eukaryotic and archaeal TBP and TFB/TF(II)B follow different promoter DNA bending pathways.

    PubMed

    Gietl, Andreas; Holzmeister, Phil; Blombach, Fabian; Schulz, Sarah; von Voithenberg, Lena Voith; Lamb, Don C; Werner, Finn; Tinnefeld, Philip; Grohmann, Dina

    2014-06-01

    During transcription initiation, the promoter DNA is recognized and bent by the basal transcription factor TATA-binding protein (TBP). Subsequent association of transcription factor B (TFB) with the TBP-DNA complex is followed by the recruitment of the ribonucleic acid polymerase resulting in the formation of the pre-initiation complex. TBP and TFB/TF(II)B are highly conserved in structure and function among the eukaryotic-archaeal domain but intriguingly have to operate under vastly different conditions. Employing single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we monitored DNA bending by eukaryotic and archaeal TBPs in the absence and presence of TFB in real-time. We observed that the lifetime of the TBP-DNA interaction differs significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic system. We show that the eukaryotic DNA-TBP interaction is characterized by a linear, stepwise bending mechanism with an intermediate state distinguished by a distinct bending angle. TF(II)B specifically stabilizes the fully bent TBP-promoter DNA complex and we identify this step as a regulatory checkpoint. In contrast, the archaeal TBP-DNA interaction is extremely dynamic and TBP from the archaeal organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius strictly requires TFB for DNA bending. Thus, we demonstrate that transcription initiation follows diverse pathways on the way to the formation of the pre-initiation complex. PMID:24744242

  2. Diversity of putative archaeal RNA viruses in metagenomic datasets of a yellowstone acidic hot spring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongming; Yu, Yongxin; Liu, Taigang; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Two genomic fragments (5,662 and 1,269 nt in size, GenBank accession no. JQ756122 and JQ756123, respectively) of novel, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect archaea were first discovered in an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park (Bolduc et al., 2012). To investigate the diversity of these newly identified putative archaeal RNA viruses, global metagenomic datasets were searched for sequences that were significantly similar to those of the viruses. A total of 3,757 associated reads were retrieved solely from the Yellowstone datasets and were used to assemble the genomes of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. Nine contigs with lengths ranging from 417 to 5,866 nt were obtained, 4 of which were longer than 2,200 nt; one contig was 204 nt longer than JQ756122, representing the longest genomic sequence of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. These contigs revealed more than 50% sequence similarity to JQ756122 or JQ756123 and may be partial or nearly complete genomes of novel genogroups or genotypes of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the archaeal RNA viruses are genetically diverse, with at least 3 related viral lineages in the Yellowstone acidic hot spring environment. PMID:25918685

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity Observed in Wetland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaofei; Yu, Junbao; Fu, Yuqin; Ma, Bin; Qu, Fanzhu; Ning, Kai; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the bacterial and archaeal diversity from a worldwide range of wetlands soils and sediments using a meta-analysis approach. All available 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from wetlands in public databases were retrieved. In November 2012, a total of 12677 bacterial and 1747 archaeal sequences were collected in GenBank. All the bacterial sequences were assigned into 6383 operational taxonomic units (OTUs 0.03), representing 31 known bacterial phyla, predominant with Proteobacteria (2791 OTUs), Bacteroidetes (868 OTUs), Acidobacteria (731 OTUs), Firmicutes (540 OTUs), and Actinobacteria (418 OTUs). The genus Flavobacterium (11.6% of bacterial sequences) was the dominate bacteria in wetlands, followed by Gp1, Nitrosospira, and Nitrosomonas. Archaeal sequences were assigned to 521 OTUs from phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. The dominating archaeal genera were Fervidicoccus and Methanosaeta. Rarefaction analysis indicated that approximately 40% of bacterial and 83% of archaeal diversity in wetland soils and sediments have been presented. Our results should be significant for well-understanding the microbial diversity involved in worldwide wetlands. PMID:24982954

  4. Close relationship of a novel Flavobacteriaceae α-amylase with archaeal α-amylases and good potentials for industrial applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol production from various starchy materials has received much attention in recent years. α-Amylases are key enzymes in the bioconversion process of starchy biomass to biofuels, food or other products. The properties of thermostability, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of such fermentation process. Results A novel Flavobacteriaceae Sinomicrobium α-amylase (FSA) was identified and characterized from genomic analysis of a novel Flavobacteriaceae species. It is closely related with archaeal α-amylases in the GH13_7 subfamily, but is evolutionary distant with other bacterial α-amylases. Based on the conserved sequence alignment and homology modeling, with minor variation, the Zn2+- and Ca2+-binding sites of FSA were predicated to be the same as those of the archaeal thermophilic α-amylases. The recombinant α-amylase was highly expressed and biochemically characterized. It showed optimum activity at pH 6.0, high enzyme stability at pH 6.0 to 11.0, but weak thermostability. A disulfide bond was introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in domain C and resulted in the apparent improvement of the enzyme activity at high temperature and broad pH range. Moreover, about 50% of the enzyme activity was detected under 100°C condition, whereas no activity was observed for the wild type enzyme. Its thermostability was also enhanced to some extent, with the half-life time increasing from 25 to 55 minutes at 50°C. In addition, after the introduction of the disulfide bond, the protein became a Ca-independent enzyme. Conclusions The improved stability of FSA suggested that the domain C contributes to the overall stability of the enzyme under extreme conditions. In addition, successfully directed modification and special evolutionary status of FSA imply its directional reconstruction potentials for bioethanol production, as well as for other industrial applications. PMID:24485248

  5. Mobile loop mutations in an archaeal inositol monophosphatase: Modulating three-metal ion assisted catalysis and lithium inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Stieglitz, Kimberly A; Shrout, Anthony L; Wei, Yang; Weis, Robert M; Stec, Boguslaw; Roberts, Mary F

    2010-01-01

    The inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii requires Mg2+ for activity and binds three to four ions tightly in the absence of ligands: KD = 0.8 μM for one ion with a KD of 38 μM for the other Mg2+ ions. However, the enzyme requires 5–10 mM Mg2+ for optimum catalysis, suggesting substrate alters the metal ion affinity. In crystal structures of this archaeal IMPase with products, one of the three metal ions is coordinated by only one protein contact, Asp38. The importance of this and three other acidic residues in a mobile loop that approaches the active site was probed with mutational studies. Only D38A exhibited an increased kinetic KD for Mg2+; D26A, E39A, and E41A showed no significant change in the Mg2+ requirement for optimal activity. D38A also showed an increased Km, but little effect on kcat. This behavior is consistent with this side chain coordinating the third metal ion in the substrate complex, but with sufficient flexibility in the loop such that other acidic residues could position the Mg2+ in the active site in the absence of Asp38. While lithium ion inhibition of the archaeal IMPase is very poor (IC50∼250 mM), the D38A enzyme has a dramatically enhanced sensitivity to Li+ with an IC50 of 12 mM. These results constitute additional evidence for three metal ion assisted catalysis with substrate and product binding reducing affinity of the third necessary metal ion. They also suggest a specific mode of action for lithium inhibition in the IMPase superfamily. PMID:20027624

  6. Competition for Ammonia Structures the Composition of a Hydrothermal Microbial Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Peters, J.; Boyd, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    All life requires fixed nitrogen (N), and its bioavailability is what often limits ecosystem productivity. Biological nitrogen fixation, or the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), is a keystone process in N limited ecosystems, providing bioavailable forms of fixed nitrogen for members of the community. N2 fixing organisms likely represent a 'bottom up control' on the structure of communities that develop in N limited environments. N2 fixation is catalyzed by a limited number of metabolically diverse bacteria and some of the methanogenic Archaea and occurs in a variety of physically and geochemically diverse environments. Nitrification, or the sequential oxidation of NH4+ to nitrite (NO2-) and ultimately nitrate (NO3-), is catalyzed by several lineages of Proteobacteria at temperatures of < 62°C and by members of the Thaumarcheota at temperatures up to 90°C. Nitrification can thus be considered a top down control on the structure of communities that develop in N limited environments. Our preliminary assessment of 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts at the source of Perpetual Spouter, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (pH = 7.2, Temp. = 84°C) reveals the presence of diazotrophs and archaeal nitrifiers. Likewise, chemical analyses of source water revealed low concentrations of NH4+ but relatively high concentrations of NO2- and NO3-. Together, these data suggest that the oxidation of NH4+ by archaeal nitrifiers may be maintaining the low concentration of the NH4+ despite the production of NH4+ by diazotrophs. In an effort to better define the interaction between archaeal nitrifiers and diazotrophs, we undertook coupled transcriptional and activity-based assays in the presence and absence of allylthiourea (ATU), an inhibitor of nitrification, as well as ammonia, which suppresses N2 fixation. In addition, sequence based analyses of nifH (encode a protein required for N2 fixation) and amoA transcripts (encode a protein required for archaeal nitrification

  7. Adapting a Community-Based Physical Activity Promotion Program for Rural, Diverse Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Gavin; Walker, Ashley; Alfonso, Moya

    2014-01-01

    With school-aged youth spending less time in physical education, school-community-university partnerships offer potential to promote physical activity among school-aged youth. The VERB™ Summer Scorecard (VSS) program was designed in Lexington, Kentucky, to promote physical activity among "tweens" (8- to 13-year-olds). VSS since has been…

  8. The Extent and Nature of Scholarly Activities among Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2009-01-01

    This study used the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty data from 1993 and 2004 to examine the work roles of community college faculty. Results indicated that the average reported work week (i.e., time spent on instructional activities and on scholarly activities) of faculty in 2004 was significantly longer than that of faculty in 1993.…

  9. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  10. Speaking as a Pre-Writing Activity: Its Application to Teaching Community College Freshman Composition Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, George Douglas

    A study conducted to determine if speaking activities facilitated growth in writing involved approximately 60 community college students enrolled in freshman composition. A review of the literature supported the notions that a definite relationship exists between talking and writing, that prewriting activities affect the quality of composition,…

  11. Community-Referenced Math Activities for Moderately and Severely Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Sharon F.

    Community-referenced activities, which involve combinations of skills used in routine tasks of daily living, are critical for the independent functioning of moderately and severely handicapped persons. The paper examines the characteristics of these activities in order to extract implications for enhancing instruction. The tasks involved in such…

  12. Pyrosequencing-Derived Bacterial, Archaeal, and Fungal Diversity of Spacecraft Hardware Destined for Mars

    PubMed Central

    Vaishampayan, Parag; Nilsson, Henrik R.; Torok, Tamas; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2012-01-01

    Spacecraft hardware and assembly cleanroom surfaces (233 m2 in total) were sampled, total genomic DNA was extracted, hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria and archaea) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (fungi) were subjected to 454 tag-encoded pyrosequencing PCR amplification, and 203,852 resulting high-quality sequences were analyzed. Bioinformatic analyses revealed correlations between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and certain sample characteristics, such as source (cleanroom floor, ground support equipment [GSE], or spacecraft hardware), cleaning regimen applied, and location about the facility or spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) cleanroom floor and GSE surfaces gave rise to a larger number of diverse bacterial communities (619 OTU; 20 m2) than colocated spacecraft hardware (187 OTU; 162 m2). In contrast to the results of bacterial pyrosequencing, where at least some sequences were generated from each of the 31 sample sets examined, only 13 and 18 of these sample sets gave rise to archaeal and fungal sequences, respectively. As was the case for bacteria, the abundance of fungal OTU in the GSE surface samples dramatically diminished (9× less) once cleaning protocols had been applied. The presence of OTU representative of actinobacteria, deinococci, acidobacteria, firmicutes, and proteobacteria on spacecraft surfaces suggests that certain bacterial lineages persist even following rigorous quality control and cleaning practices. The majority of bacterial OTU observed as being recurrent belonged to actinobacteria and alphaproteobacteria, supporting the hypothesis that the measures of cleanliness exerted in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms (SAC) inadvertently select for the organisms which are the most fit to survive long journeys in space. PMID:22729532

  13. Archaeal diversity along a subterranean salt core from the Salar Grande (Chile).

    PubMed

    Gramain, Audrey; Díaz, Guillermo Chong; Demergasso, Cecilia; Lowenstein, Tim K; McGenity, Terry J

    2011-08-01

    The Salar Grande in the Coastal Range of Northern Chile is a fossil evaporitic basin filled with almost pure halite (95% NaCl average). It is assumed that the basin has not received input of brines since the Pliocene (5.3 to 1.8 million years). Below 1 m the halite has remained undissolved since this time, whereas the upper layer has been dissolved and recrystallized by dripping fogs and occasional rainfall. We compared the archaeal community at different depths using both nested PCR and cultivation. The upper 10 cm of halite crust contained diverse haloarchaeal species, including several from new genera, but their provenance is unknown. For samples deeper in the core, a new and rigorous procedure for chemically sterilizing the surface of single halite crystals was developed. These halite crystals contained only species of the genus Halobacterium (Hbt.). Halobacterium salinarum-like sequences were detected by PCR, and evidence that they were from ancient DNA include: comparison with numerous negative controls; detection of 16S rRNA sequence differences in non-conserved regions, indicating genuine evolutionary mutations rather than PCR-cloning artefacts; independent isolation of Hbt. salinarum from ancient halite; and diverse mechanisms possessed by this species for minimizing radiation damage and thus enhancing its potential for long-term survival. Haloarchaea related to Hbt. noricense were obtained from enrichment cultures from ≈ 0.4 and 15.4 m depth. We investigated Hbt. noricense strain A1 and found that when trapped inside halite crystals its recovery was as rapid after 27 months of entombment as at day 0, faring much better than other extreme halophiles. A biogeographical investigation showed that Hbt. noricense-like organisms were: commonly found in surface-sterilized ancient halite, associated with salt mines, in halite crusts, and, despite a much more intense search, only rarely detected in surface environments. We conclude that some Halobacterium species

  14. Perspectives on physical activity among immigrants and refugees to a small urban community in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Mark L.; Tiedje, Kristina; Meiers, Sonja J.; Mohamed, Ahmed A.; Formea, Christine M.; Ridgeway, Jennifer L.; Asiedu, Gladys B.; Boyum, Ginny; Weis, Jennifer A.; Nigon, Julie A.; Patten, Christi; Sia, Irene G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit relatively low levels of physical activity, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. METHODS 16 gender and age-stratified focus groups were conducted among 127 participants from heterogenous immigrant and refugee groups (Cambodian, Mexican, Somali, Sudanese) in a small Minnesota urban community. RESULTS We found many similarities in perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity between heterogeneous immigrant and refugee groups. While the benefits of physical activity were widely acknowledged, lack of familiarity and comfort with taking the first steps towards being physically active were the most significant barriers to physical activity. Participants described being motivated by social support from family, friends, and communities to be physically active. DISCUSSION Our findings suggest that shared experiences of immigration and associated social, economic, and linguistic factors influence how physical activity is understood, conceptualized and practiced. PMID:24052480

  15. Soil-Borne Bacterial Structure and Diversity Does Not Reflect Community Activity in Pampa Biome

    PubMed Central

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Suleiman, Afnan Khalil Ahmad; Jacques, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Würdig

    2013-01-01

    The Pampa biome is considered one of the main hotspots of the world’s biodiversity and it is estimated that half of its original vegetation was removed and converted to agricultural land and tree plantations. Although an increasing amount of knowledge is being assembled regarding the response of soil bacterial communities to land use change, to the associated plant community and to soil properties, our understanding about how these interactions affect the microbial community from the Brazilian Pampa is still poor and incomplete. In this study, we hypothesized that the same soil type from the same geographic region but under distinct land use present dissimilar soil bacterial communities. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the soil bacterial communities from four land-uses within the same soil type by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and by soil microbial activity analyzes. We found that the same soil type under different land uses harbor similar (but not equal) bacterial communities and the differences were controlled by many microbial taxa. No differences regarding diversity and richness between natural areas and areas under anthropogenic disturbance were detected. However, the measures of microbial activity did not converge with the 16S rRNA data supporting the idea that the coupling between functioning and composition of bacterial communities is not necessarily correlated. PMID:24146873

  16. Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Elfstrom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape men's participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between men's report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve women's status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect men's sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence men's sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change. PMID:23215551

  17. The Active Bacterial Community in a Pristine Confined Aquifer

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of the active bacteria residing in a pristine confined aquifer provides unexpected insights into the ecology of iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the subsurface. At 18 wells in east-central Illinois, we trapped the microbes that attached to aquifer sedimen...

  18. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the activities of ß-glucosidase (C cycling, ß-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling), acid phosphatase (P cycling) and arylsulfatase (S cycling) under lettuce (Lactuca sativa), potato (Solanum Tuberosum), onion (Allium cepa L), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Tall f...

  19. Measurements of microbial community activities in individual soil macroaggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for ß-glucosidase, N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine...

  20. Linguistic Human Rights Discourse in Deaf Community Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The past three decades of activism for linguistic human rights (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000) have witnessed examples of language planning by various national and supranational actors in national and international spaces, with an exchange of ideas and strategies employed by national, regional, and worldwide organizations. In many countries a key goal of…

  1. Anthropological Approach and Activity Theory: Culture, Communities and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropological approach (AA) concurrently to Activity Theory (AT) in view of overarching questions about classroom use of technology for teaching and learning mathematics. I will do it first from a philosophical point of view, presenting the main notions of AA that have been used to…

  2. Active bacterial community structure along vertical redox gradients in Baltic Sea sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Janet; Edlund, Anna; Hardeman, Fredrik; Jansson, Janet K.; Sjoling, Sara

    2008-05-15

    Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179 mV, -64 mV and -337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labeled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription PCR (rt-PCR) showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths.

  3. Community Lenses Revealing the Role of Sociocultural Environment on Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify perceptions of how sociocultural environment enabled and hindered physical activity (PA) participation. Design Community-based participatory research. Setting Two semirural and two urban communities located in Alberta, Canada. Participants Thirty-five people (74.3% females, 71.4% aged 25–64 years) across the four communities. Method PhotoVoice activities occurred over 3 months during the spring of 2009. Participants were asked to document perceived environmental attributes that might foster or inhibit PA in their community. Photographs and narratives were shared in one-on-one interviews. Line-by-line coding of the transcripts was independently conducted by two researchers using an inductive approach. Codes were arranged into themes and subthemes, which were then organized into the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Results Six main themes (accompanied by subthemes) emerged: sociocultural aesthetics, safety, social involvement, PA motivation, cultural ideas of recreation, and car culture. Representative quotes and photographs illustrate enablers and obstacles identified by participants. Conclusion This PhotoVoice study revealed how aspects of participants’ sociocultural environments shaped their decisions to be physically active. Providing more PA resources is only one step in the promotion of supportive environments. Strategies should also account for the beautification and maintenance of communities, increasing feelings of safety, enhancement of social support among community members, popularization of PA, and mitigating car culture, among others. PMID:25973966

  4. Liquid but Durable: Molecular Dynamics Simulations Explain the Unique Properties of Archaeal-Like Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugunov, Anton O.; Volynsky, Pavel E.; Krylov, Nikolay A.; Boldyrev, Ivan A.; Efremov, Roman G.

    2014-12-01

    Archaeal plasma membranes appear to be extremely durable and almost impermeable to water and ions, in contrast to the membranes of Bacteria and Eucaryota. Additionally, they remain liquid within a temperature range of 0-100°C. These are the properties that have most likely determined the evolutionary fate of Archaea, and it may be possible for bionanotechnology to adopt these from nature. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to assess at the atomistic level the structure and dynamics of a series of model archaeal membranes with lipids that have tetraether chemical nature and ``branched'' hydrophobic tails. We conclude that the branched structure defines dense packing and low water permeability of archaeal-like membranes, while at the same time ensuring a liquid-crystalline state, which is vital for living cells. This makes tetraether lipid systems promising in bionanotechnology and material science, namely for design of new and unique membrane nanosystems.

  5. Liquid but durable: molecular dynamics simulations explain the unique properties of archaeal-like membranes.

    PubMed

    Chugunov, Anton O; Volynsky, Pavel E; Krylov, Nikolay A; Boldyrev, Ivan A; Efremov, Roman G

    2014-01-01

    Archaeal plasma membranes appear to be extremely durable and almost impermeable to water and ions, in contrast to the membranes of Bacteria and Eucaryota. Additionally, they remain liquid within a temperature range of 0-100°C. These are the properties that have most likely determined the evolutionary fate of Archaea, and it may be possible for bionanotechnology to adopt these from nature. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to assess at the atomistic level the structure and dynamics of a series of model archaeal membranes with lipids that have tetraether chemical nature and "branched" hydrophobic tails. We conclude that the branched structure defines dense packing and low water permeability of archaeal-like membranes, while at the same time ensuring a liquid-crystalline state, which is vital for living cells. This makes tetraether lipid systems promising in bionanotechnology and material science, namely for design of new and unique membrane nanosystems. PMID:25501042

  6. Liquid but Durable: Molecular Dynamics Simulations Explain the Unique Properties of Archaeal-Like Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Chugunov, Anton O.; Volynsky, Pavel E.; Krylov, Nikolay A.; Boldyrev, Ivan A.; Efremov, Roman G.

    2014-01-01

    Archaeal plasma membranes appear to be extremely durable and almost impermeable to water and ions, in contrast to the membranes of Bacteria and Eucaryota. Additionally, they remain liquid within a temperature range of 0–100°C. These are the properties that have most likely determined the evolutionary fate of Archaea, and it may be possible for bionanotechnology to adopt these from nature. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to assess at the atomistic level the structure and dynamics of a series of model archaeal membranes with lipids that have tetraether chemical nature and “branched” hydrophobic tails. We conclude that the branched structure defines dense packing and low water permeability of archaeal-like membranes, while at the same time ensuring a liquid-crystalline state, which is vital for living cells. This makes tetraether lipid systems promising in bionanotechnology and material science, namely for design of new and unique membrane nanosystems. PMID:25501042

  7. Periphytic photosynthetic stimulation of extracellular enzyme activity in aquatic microbial communities associated with decaying typha litter.

    PubMed

    Francoeur, Steven N; Schaecher, Mark; Neely, Robert K; Kuehn, Kevin A

    2006-11-01

    We examined the effect of light on extracellular enzyme activities of periphytic/endogenous microbial assemblages associated with decomposing litter of an emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia within a small inland wetland in southeastern Michigan. Standing-dead Typha leaf litter was collected, placed into floating wire mesh litter baskets, and submerged in a wetland pool. Enzyme saturation assays were conducted on three occasions following litter submergence (days 9, 28, and 44) to generate saturation curves for the individual enzymes tested and to examine potential differences in enzyme saturation kinetics during microbial colonization and development. Experimental light manipulations were conducted on two occasions during microbial development (days 10 and 29). Short-term (30 min) light exposure significantly increased extracellular beta-glucosidase activity of litter-associated microbial communities. Activities of beta-xylosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase were not stimulated, and stimulation of phosphatase activity was variable. The exact mechanism for increased enzyme activity remains unknown, but it may have been increased pH arising from periphytic algal photosynthesis. These results suggest that extracellular enzyme activity in microbial communities colonizing natural organic substrata may be influenced by light/photosynthesis, as has previously been demonstrated for periphyton communities grown on artificial, inert substrata. Thus, light/photosynthetic mediated stimulation of extracellular enzyme activities may be a common occurrence in microbial communities associated with natural decaying plant litter in wetlands and might engender diurnal patterns in other microbial decay processes (e.g., production, organic matter decomposition, and mineralization). PMID:17082997

  8. Microbial community structure of hydrothermal deposits from geochemically different vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Gilberto E.; Campbell, James H.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Meneghin, Jennifer; Podar, Mircea; Steinberg, Joshua I.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Tivey, Margaret Kingston; Voytek, Mary A.; Yang, Zamin K.; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of local fluid geochemistry on microbial communities associated with active hydrothermal vent deposits, we examined the archaeal and bacterial communities of 12 samples collected from two very different vent fields: the basalt-hosted Lucky Strike (37°17'N, 32°16.3'W, depth 1600-1750m) and the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow (36°13'N, 33°54.1'W, depth 2270-2330m) vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Using multiplexed barcoded pyrosequencing of the variable region 4 (V4) of the 16S rRNA genes, we show statistically significant differences between the archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the different vent fields. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the functional gene diagnostic for methanogenesis (mcrA), as well as geochemical modelling to predict pore fluid chemistries within the deposits, support the pyrosequencing observations. Collectively, these results show that the less reduced, hydrogen-poor fluids at Lucky Strike limit colonization by strict anaerobes such as methanogens, and allow for hyperthermophilic microaerophiles, like Aeropyrum. In contrast, the hydrogen-rich reducing vent fluids at the ultramafic-influenced Rainbow vent field support the prevalence of methanogens and other hydrogen-oxidizing thermophiles at this site. These results demonstrate that biogeographical patterns of hydrothermal vent microorganisms are shaped in part by large scale geological and geochemical processes.

  9. Microbial community structure of hydrothermal deposits from geochemically different vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Gilberto E; Campbell, James H; Kirshtein, Julie D; Meneghin, Jennifer; Podar, Mircea; Steinberg, Joshua; Seewald, Jeffrey S; Tivey, Margaret Kingston; Voytek, Mary A; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Yang, Zamin Koo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of local fluid geochemistry on microbial communities associated with active hydrothermal vent deposits, we examined the archaeal and bacterial communities of 12 samples collected from two very different vent fields: the basalt-hosted Lucky Strike (37 17'N, 32 16.3'W, depth 1600-1750 m) and the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow (36 13'N, 33 54.1'W, depth 2270-2330 m) vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Using multiplexed barcoded pyrosequencing of the variable region 4 (V4) of the 16S rRNA genes, we show statistically significant differences between the archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the different vent fields. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the functional gene diagnostic for methanogenesis (mcrA), as well as geochemical modelling to predict pore fluid chemistries within the deposits, support the pyrosequencing observations. Collectively, these results show that the less reduced, hydrogen-poor fluids at Lucky Strike limit colonization by strict anaerobes such as methanogens, and allow for hyperthermophilic microaerophiles, like Aeropyrum. In contrast, the hydrogen-rich reducing vent fluids at the ultramafic-influenced Rainbow vent field support the prevalence of methanogens and other hydrogen-oxidizing thermophiles at this site. These results demonstrate that biogeographical patterns of hydrothermal vent microorganisms are shaped in part by large scale geological and geochemical processes.

  10. Redox-dependent Structural Changes in Archaeal and Bacterial Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Cosper, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    Proteins containing Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] clusters play important roles in many biological electron transfer reactions. Typically, [2Fe-2S] clusters are not directly involved in the catalytic transformation of substrate, but rather supply electrons to the active site. We report herein X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) data that directly demonstrate an average increase in the iron-histidine bond length of at least 0.1 {angstrom} upon reduction of two distantly related Rieske-type clusters in archaeal Rieske ferredoxin from Sulfolobus solfataricus strain P-1 and bacterial anthranilate dioxygenases from Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. This localized redox-dependent structural change may fine tune the protein-protein interaction (in the case of ARF) or the interdomain interaction (in AntDO) to facilitate rapid electron transfer between a lower potential Rieske-type cluster and its redox partners, thereby regulating overall oxygenase reactions in the cells.

  11. Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments.

    PubMed

    Thureborn, Petter; Franzetti, Andrea; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöling, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning. PMID:26823996

  12. Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments

    PubMed Central

    Franzetti, Andrea; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöling, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning. PMID:26823996

  13. Microbial communities involved in methane production from hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Klassen, Jonathan; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia M

    2012-09-01

    Microbial metabolism of residual hydrocarbons, primarily short-chain n-alkanes and certain monoaromatic hydrocarbons, in oil sands tailings ponds produces large volumes of CH(4) in situ. We characterized the microbial communities involved in methanogenic biodegradation of whole naphtha (a bitumen extraction solvent) and its short-chain n-alkane (C(6)-C(10)) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) components using primary enrichment cultures derived from oil sands tailings. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA genes amplified from these enrichments showed increased proportions of two orders of Bacteria: Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales, with Desulfotomaculum and Syntrophus/Smithella as the closest named relatives, respectively. In parallel archaeal clone libraries, sequences affiliated with cultivated acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaetaceae) were enriched in cultures amended with n-alkanes, whereas hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales) were enriched with BTEX. Naphtha-amended cultures harbored a blend of these two archaeal communities. The results imply syntrophic oxidation of hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings, with the activities of different carbon flow pathways to CH(4) being influenced by the primary hydrocarbon substrate. These results have implications for predicting greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands tailings repositories. PMID:22894132

  14. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial and archaeal assemblages in the soil-mousse surrounding a geothermal spring.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sonu; Batra, Navneet; Pathak, Ashish; Joshi, Amit; Souza, Leila; Almeida, Paulo; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2015-09-01

    The soil-mousse surrounding a geothermal spring was analyzed for bacterial and archaeal diversity using 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing which revealed the presence of 18 bacterial phyla distributed across 109 families and 219 genera. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and the Deinococcus-Thermus group were the predominant bacterial assemblages with Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota as the main archaeal assemblages in this largely understudied geothermal habitat. Several metagenome sequences remained taxonomically unassigned suggesting the presence of a repertoire of hitherto undescribed microbes in this geothermal soil-mousse econiche. PMID:26484255

  15. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial and archaeal assemblages in the soil-mousse surrounding a geothermal spring

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sonu; Batra, Navneet; Pathak, Ashish; Joshi, Amit; Souza, Leila; Almeida, Paulo; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2015-01-01

    The soil-mousse surrounding a geothermal spring was analyzed for bacterial and archaeal diversity using 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing which revealed the presence of 18 bacterial phyla distributed across 109 families and 219 genera. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and the Deinococcus-Thermus group were the predominant bacterial assemblages with Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota as the main archaeal assemblages in this largely understudied geothermal habitat. Several metagenome sequences remained taxonomically unassigned suggesting the presence of a repertoire of hitherto undescribed microbes in this geothermal soil-mousse econiche. PMID:26484255

  16. Close Encounters of the Third Domain: The Emerging Genomic View of Archaeal Diversity and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spang, Anja; Saw, Jimmy H.; Lind, Anders E.; Ettema, Thijs J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea represent the so-called Third Domain of life, which has evolved in parallel with the Bacteria and which is implicated to have played a pivotal role in the emergence of the eukaryotic domain of life. Recent progress in genomic sequencing technologies and cultivation-independent methods has started to unearth a plethora of data of novel, uncultivated archaeal lineages. Here, we review how the availability of such genomic data has revealed several important insights into the diversity, ecological relevance, metabolic capacity, and the origin and evolution of the archaeal domain of life. PMID:24348093

  17. Community level predictors of physical activity among women in the preconception period.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B; DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Thompson, Erika; Bleck, Jennifer; Merrell, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Although physical activity is a key behavior targeted during the preconception period given its significant impact on pregnancy/birth outcomes and psychological well-being, few women meet national guidelines. While intrapersonal factors influencing physical activity among this population have been studied, community factors remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine community level predictors of physical activity among preconception women. Data from Add Health were limited to women (Wave III; age 18-28; n = 7,596) and excluded respondents who were pregnant, physically disabled, and missing data. The outcome variable was ≥5 instances of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 1 week. Community predictor variables included neighborhood-level structural and social determinants (e.g., socio-demographic composition; landscape diversity; urbanization; access to resources; crime; vehicle availability). Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds of engaging in ≥5 instances of MVPA. Few women (26 %) reported ≥5 instances of MVPA in 1 week. Adjusted multilevel analysis revealed women in the preconception period were more likely to report high MVPA when living in communities with larger population densities (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.02-1.77) and median household income greater than $50,000 (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.06-1.66). Additionally, a significant inverse trend was found between high MVPA and proportion of the community without a high school diploma. Findings suggest that neighborhood composition may have an impact on preconception physical activity status. Implications include increased efforts targeting community conditions for facilitating physical activity; ultimately, improving health among women and subsequent offspring. PMID:25636646

  18. Community-based physical activity interventions among women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Farahani, Leila; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Parvizy, Soroor; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Taghizadeh, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review and assess the effectiveness of community-based physical activity interventions among women aged 18–65 years. Design Systematic review Methods To find relevant articles, the researcher selected reports published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 March 2013. Systematic search was to find controlled-trial studies that were conducted to uncover the effect of community-based interventions to promote physical activity among women 18–65 years of age, in which physical activity was reported as one of the measured outcomes. The methodological quality assessment was performed using a critical appraisal sheet. Also, the levels of evidence were assessed for the types of interventions. Results The literature search identified nine articles. Four of the studies were randomised and the others studies had high methodological quality. There was no evidence, on the basis of effectiveness, for social cognitive theory-based interventions and inconclusive evidence of effectiveness for the rest of interventions. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions for enhancing physical activity among women. There is a need for high-quality randomised clinical trials with adequate statistical power to determine whether multicomponent and community-based intervention programmes increase physical activity among women, as well as to determine what type of interventions have a more effective and sustainable impact on women's physical activity. PMID:25833668

  19. High-rate activated sludge communities have a distinctly different structure compared to low-rate sludge communities, and are less sensitive towards environmental and operational variables.

    PubMed

    Meerburg, Francis A; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Roume, Hugo; Seuntjens, Dries; Pieper, Dietmar H; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Boon, Nico

    2016-09-01

    High-rate activated sludge processes allow for the recovery of organics and energy from wastewaters. These systems are operated at a short sludge retention time and high sludge-specific loading rates, which results in a higher sludge yield and better digestibility than conventional, low-rate activated sludge. Little is known about the microbial ecology of high-rate systems. In this work, we address the need for a fundamental understanding of how high-rate microbial communities differ from low-rate communities. We investigated the high-rate and low-rate communities in a sewage treatment plant in relation to environmental and operational variables over a period of ten months. We demonstrated that (1) high-rate and low-rate communities are distinctly different in terms of richness, evenness and composition, (2) high-rate community dynamics are more variable and less shaped by deterministic factors compared to low-rate communities, (3) sub-communities of continuously core and transitional members are more shaped by deterministic factors than the continuously rare members, both in high-rate and low-rate communities, and (4) high-rate community members showed a co-occurrence pattern similar to that of low-rate community members, but were less likely to be correlated to environmental and operational variables. These findings provide a basis for further optimization of high-rate systems, in order to facilitate resource recovery from wastewater. PMID:27183209

  20. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J; Parkes, R John

    2015-08-01

    The impact of temperature (0-80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple 'windows' within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, 'Bathyarchaeota') changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045