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Sample records for active bd patients

  1. Tolerability and activity of a new recombinant interferon-alpha B/D hybrid in patients with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Frissen, P H; Brinkman, K; Ten Napel, C H; van der Ende, I M; van Buuren, I A; Boucher, C A; Reiss, P; Lange, J M

    1996-04-01

    The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and toxicity profile of a new recombinant interferon-alpha B/D hybrid (IFN-alpha B/D) in HlV-1-infected patients were determined in an outpatient, dose-escalating study with dose groups of three patients: 16, 32, 48, 64, 96 and 112 million international units (MIU) three times weekly subcutaneously during 12 weeks. The MTD was the last dose level just below the dose level at which more than one patient experienced > or = grade 3 toxicity. The study also searched for preliminary evidence of efficacy of IFN-alpha B/D. Sixteen HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 cell counts > or = 200/mm3 were enrolled: eight were asymptomatic and eight had symptomatic disease. Two patients were excluded as a result of protocol violations. Five patients (36 per cent; one at each tested dose level) discontinued prematurely due to side effects. One patient was lost to follow-up. Twelve patients (87 per cent) experienced > or = grade 2 toxicity. Toxicity > or = grade 3 occurred in none of three patients assigned to 16 MIU, one of five assigned to 32 MIU (fatigue), one of three assigned to 48 MIU (haemorrhagic colitis) and two of three assigned to 64 MIU (fatigue). One patient (48 MIU) had reversible cardiomegaly. Progressive weight loss was experienced by 12 of 14 participants. Serum HIV-1 p24 antigen declined in nine of 11 antigenaemic patients (seven persistently > 50 per cent) without a clear dose-response relationship. CD4 percentages showed no consistent pattern and T cell reactivity diminished. The tolerability and toxicity profile of IFN-alpha B/D appear to be fairly similar to that of other types of IFN-alpha.

  2. Cytochrome bd Displays Significant Quinol Peroxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Sinan; Yu, Yuanjie; Pinkse, Martijn; Hoeser, Jo; Friedrich, Thorsten; Bald, Dirk; de Vries, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome bd is a prokaryotic terminal oxidase that catalyses the electrogenic reduction of oxygen to water using ubiquinol as electron donor. Cytochrome bd is a tri-haem integral membrane enzyme carrying a low-spin haem b558, and two high-spin haems: b595 and d. Here we show that besides its oxidase activity, cytochrome bd from Escherichia coli is a genuine quinol peroxidase (QPO) that reduces hydrogen peroxide to water. The highly active and pure enzyme preparation used in this study did not display the catalase activity recently reported for E. coli cytochrome bd. To our knowledge, cytochrome bd is the first membrane-bound quinol peroxidase detected in E. coli. The observation that cytochrome bd is a quinol peroxidase, can provide a biochemical basis for its role in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide and may explain the frequent findings reported in the literature that indicate increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and decreased virulence in mutants that lack the enzyme. PMID:27279363

  3. Altered intracellular signaling cascades in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BD patients.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Nogueira, Camila R C; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Queiroz, Ana Luiza Lemos; Vago, Juliana Priscila; Tavares, Luciana Pádua; Assis, Frankcinéia; Fagundes, Caio Tavares; Huguet, Rodrigo Barreto; Bauer, Moisés Evandro; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; de Sousa, Lirlândia Pires

    2013-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder of complex physiopathology that has been associated with a pro-inflammatory state. The aim of the present study was to investigate intracellular pathways associated with inflammatory signaling, assessing the phosphorylation levels of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of euthymic BD patients and healthy controls. Fifteen BD euthymic type I patients, and 12 healthy controls matched by age and gender were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview and the patients also by the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Phosphorylation levels of p65 NF-κB subunit, and MAPK ERK1/2, and p38 were assessed by Western blot and flow cytometry. Plasma cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL6, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17A) were measured using cytometric bead arrays. Western blot and flow cytometry analyses showed increased phosphorylation levels of p65 NF-κB subunit, and MAPKs ERK1/2, and p38 in BD patients in euthymia in comparison with controls. BD patients presented increased pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in comparison with controls, and TNF-α correlated with the levels of phosphorylated p65 NF-κB. The present study found increased activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in BD patients, which is in line with a pro-inflammatory status.

  4. Construction of Eukaryotic Expression Vector with mBD1-mBD3 Fusion Genes and Exploring Its Activity against Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanyi; Feng, Yan; Kuang, Yu; Zeng, Wei; Yang, Yuan; Li, Hong; Jiang, Zhonghua; Li, Mingyuan

    2014-01-01

    Influenza (flu) pandemics have exhibited a great threat to human health throughout history. With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza A virus (IAV), it is necessary to look for new agents for treatment and transmission prevention of the flu. Defensins are small (2–6 kDa) cationic peptides known for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Beta-defensins (β-defensins) are mainly produced by barrier epithelial cells and play an important role in attacking microbe invasion by epithelium. In this study, we focused on the anti-influenza A virus activity of mouse β-defensin 1 (mBD1) and β defensin-3 (mBD3) by synthesizing their fusion peptide with standard recombinant methods. The eukaryotic expression vectors pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3 were constructed successfully by overlap-PCR and transfected into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The MDCK cells transfected by pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3 were obtained by G418 screening, and the mBD1-mBD3 stable expression pattern was confirmed in MDCK cells by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assay. The acquired stable transfected MDCK cells were infected with IAV (A/PR/8/34, H1N1, 0.1 MOI) subsequently and the virus titers in cell culture supernatants were analyzed by TCID50 72 h later. The TCID50 titer of the experimental group was clearly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.001). Furthermore, BALB/C mice were injected with liposome-encapsulated pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3 through muscle and then challenged with the A/PR/8/34 virus. Results showed the survival rate of 100% and lung index inhibitory rate of 32.6% in pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3group; the TCID50 titer of lung homogenates was clearly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that mBD1-mBD3 expressed by the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3 could inhibit influenza A virus replication both in vitro and in vivo. These observations suggested that the recombinant mBD1-mBD3 might be developed into an agent for influenza

  5. Clinical Evaluation of the BD FACSPresto™ Near-Patient CD4 Counter in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Angira, Francis; Akoth, Benta; Omolo, Paul; Opollo, Valarie; Bornheimer, Scott; Judge, Kevin; Tilahun, Henok; Lu, Beverly; Omana-Zapata, Imelda; Zeh, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background The BD FACSPresto™ Near-Patient CD4 Counter was developed to expand HIV/AIDS management in resource-limited settings. It measures absolute CD4 counts (AbsCD4), percent CD4 (%CD4), and hemoglobin (Hb) from a single drop of capillary or venous blood in approximately 23 minutes, with throughput of 10 samples per hour. We assessed the performance of the BD FACSPresto system, evaluating accuracy, stability, linearity, precision, and reference intervals using capillary and venous blood at KEMRI/CDC HIV-research laboratory, Kisumu, Kenya, and precision and linearity at BD Biosciences, California, USA. Methods For accuracy, venous samples were tested using the BD FACSCalibur™ instrument with BD Tritest™ CD3/CD4/CD45 reagent, BD Trucount™ tubes, and BD Multiset™ software for AbsCD4 and %CD4, and the Sysmex™ KX-21N for Hb. Stability studies evaluated duration of staining (18–120-minute incubation), and effects of venous blood storage <6–24 hours post-draw. A normal cohort was tested for reference intervals. Precision covered multiple days, operators, and instruments. Linearity required mixing two pools of samples, to obtain evenly spaced concentrations for AbsCD4, total lymphocytes, and Hb. Results AbsCD4 and %CD4 venous/capillary (N = 189/ N = 162) accuracy results gave Deming regression slopes within 0.97–1.03 and R2 ≥0.96. For Hb, Deming regression results were R2 ≥0.94 and slope ≥0.94 for both venous and capillary samples. Stability varied within 10% 2 hours after staining and for venous blood stored less than 24 hours. Reference intervals results showed that gender—but not age—differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Precision results had <3.5% coefficient of variation for AbsCD4, %CD4, and Hb, except for low AbsCD4 samples (<6.8%). Linearity was 42–4,897 cells/μL for AbsCD4, 182–11,704 cells/μL for total lymphocytes, and 2–24 g/dL for Hb. Conclusions The BD FACSPresto system provides accurate, precise clinical

  6. High Milk-Clotting Activity Expressed by the Newly Isolated Paenibacillus spp. Strain BD3526.

    PubMed

    Hang, Feng; Liu, Peiyi; Wang, Qinbo; Han, Jin; Wu, Zhengjun; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-12

    Paenibacillus spp. BD3526, a bacterium exhibiting a protein hydrolysis circle surrounded with an obvious precipitation zone on skim milk agar, was isolated from raw yak (Bos grunniens) milk collected in Tibet, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and whole genome sequence comparison indicated the isolate belong to the genus Paenibacillus. The strain BD3526 demonstrated strong ability to produce protease with milk clotting activity (MCA) in wheat bran broth. The protease with MCA was predominantly accumulated during the late-exponential phase of growth. The proteolytic activity (PA) of the BD3526 protease was 1.33-fold higher than that of the commercial R. miehei coagulant. A maximum MCA (6470 ± 281 SU mL(-1)) of the strain BD3526 was reached under optimal cultivation conditions. The protease with MCA was precipitated from the cultivated supernatant of wheat bran broth with ammonium sulfate and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the protease with MCA was determined as 35 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gelatin zymography. The cleavage site of the BD3526 protease with MCA in κ-casein was located at the Met106-Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis.

  7. The Unusual Resistance of Avian Defensin AvBD7 to Proteolytic Enzymes Preserves Its Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Geoffrey; Kravtzoff, Amanda; Joulin-Giet, Alix; Lecaille, Fabien; Labas, Valérie; Meudal, Hervé; Loth, Karine; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Gilbert, Florence B.; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Brömme, Dieter; Schouler, Catherine; Landon, Céline; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Defensins are frontline peptides of mucosal immunity in the animal kingdom, including birds. Their resistance to proteolysis and their ensuing ability to maintain antimicrobial potential remains questionable and was therefore investigated. We have shown by bottom-up mass spectrometry analysis of protein extracts that both avian beta-defensins AvBD2 and AvBD7 were ubiquitously distributed along the chicken gut. Cathepsin B was found by immunoblotting in jejunum, ileum, caecum, and caecal tonsils, while cathepsins K, L, and S were merely identified in caecal tonsils. Hydrolysis product of AvBD2 and AvBD7 incubated with a panel of proteases was analysed by RP-HPLC, mass spectrometry and antimicrobial assays. AvBD2 and AvBD7 were resistant to serine proteases and to cathepsins D and H. Conversely cysteine cathepsins B, K, L, and S degraded AvBD2 and abolished its antibacterial activity. Only cathepsin K cleaved AvBD7 and released Ile4-AvBD7, a N-terminal truncated natural peptidoform of AvBD7 that displayed antibacterial activity. Besides the 3-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet typical of beta-defensins, structural analysis of AvBD7 by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy highlighted the restricted accessibility of the C-terminus embedded by the N-terminal region and gave a formal evidence of a salt bridge (Asp9-Arg12) that could account for proteolysis resistance. The differential susceptibility of avian defensins to proteolysis opens intriguing questions about a distinctive role in the mucosal immunity against pathogen invasion. PMID:27561012

  8. Construction of Recombinant Pichia pastoris Carrying a Constitutive AvBD9 Gene and Analysis of Its Activity.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jian; Qi, Kezong; Xue, Ting; Wei, Haiting; Zhang, Yongzheng; Wu, Yanli; Zhou, Xiuhong; Lv, Xiaolong

    2015-12-28

    Avian beta-defensin 9 (AvBD9) is a small cationic peptide consisting of 41 amino acids that plays a crucial rule in innate immunity and acquired immunity in chickens. Owing to its wide antibacterial spectrum, lack of a residue, and failure to induce bacterial drug resistance, AvBD9 is expected to become a substitute for conventional antibiotics in the livestock and poultry industries. Using the preferred codon of Pichia pastoris, the mature AvBD9 peptide was designed and synthesized, based on the sequence from GenBank. The P. pastoris constitutive expression vector pGHKα was used to construct a pGHKα-AvBD9 recombinant plasmid. Restriction enzyme digestion was performed using SacI and BglII to remove the ampicillin resistance gene, and the plasmid was electrotransformed into P. pastoris GS115. High-expression strains with G418 resistance were screened, and the culture supernatant was analyzed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and western blot assay to identify target bands of about 6 kDa. A concentrate of the supernatant containing AvBD9 was used for determination of antimicrobial activity. The supernatant concentrate was effective against Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella pullorum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae. The fermentation product of P. pastoris carrying the recombinant AvBD9 plasmid was adjusted to 1.0 × 10(8) CFU/ml and added to the drinking water of white feather broilers at different concentrations. The daily average weight gain and immune organ indices in broilers older than 7 days were significantly improved by the AvBD9 treatment.

  9. Synchronization of EEG activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panischev, O. Yu; Demin, S. A.; Muhametshin, I. G.; Demina, N. Yu

    2015-12-01

    In paper we apply the method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) to determine the differences in frequency-phase synchronization of the cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We found that for healthy subjects the frequency-phase synchronization of EEGs from long-range electrodes was significantly better for BD patients. In BD patients a high synchronization of EEGs was observed only for short-range electrodes. Thus, the FNS is a simple graphical method for qualitative analysis can be applied to identify the synchronization effects in EEG activity and, probably, may be used for the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  10. Characterization of the levan produced by Paenibacillus bovis sp. nov BD3526 and its immunological activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofen; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Zhenmin; Wu, Jiang; Han, Jin; Yan, Minghui; Wu, Zhengjun

    2016-06-25

    Paenibacillus bovis sp. nov BD3526 synthesizes a large amount of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) (36.25g/L) in a semi-defined chemical medium containing 20% (w/v) sucrose. The EPSs were extracted from the cultured broth by ethanol precipitation and purified via anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed that the primary EPS fraction (F1) was a linear β (2→6)-linked levan. The peak molecular weight (Mp) of the levan exceeded 2.6×10(6)Da based on high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The levan adopted a spherical conformation in aqueous solution as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corresponding levansucrase was identified by SDS-PAGE analysis and in situ polymer synthesis. The in vitro assay demonstrated that the levan significantly stimulated the proliferation of spleen cells and induced the expression of TNF-α, indicating its potential as a natural immunomodulator.

  11. Calcium triggers beta-defensin (hBD-2 and hBD-3) and chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha (MIP-3alpha/CCL20) expression in monolayers of activated human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Pernet, I; Reymermier, C; Guezennec, A; Branka, J-E; Guesnet, J; Perrier, E; Dezutter-Dambuyant, C; Schmitt, D; Viac, J

    2003-12-01

    The inducible epidermal beta-defensins and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha/CCL20) are important mediators involved in innate and adaptive immunity and in the recruitment of immune cells. The aim of our study was to determine whether calcium could trigger the induction of beta-defensins (hBD-2 and hBD-3) mRNA and the release of MIP-3alpha by normal human keratinocyte monolayers. Epidermal cells derived from foreskin were cultured in defined medium supplemented with different calcium levels (0.09, 0.8 and 1.7 mM) and were stimulated or not with the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha 1-500 ng/ml) or interferon-gamma (INF-gamma 1-100 ng/ml). A high calcium concentration (1.7 mM) alone applied in culture medium for 4 days was sufficient to induce hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA expression. Whatever interindividual variability in the expression of hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA and MIP-3alpha secretion, the addition of TNF-alpha for a short duration (26h), initiated a dose-dependent and coordinated up-regulation of hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA and MIP-3alpha release in keratinocyte cultures. Unlike hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA was preferentially stimulated by IFN-gamma rather than TNF-alpha. In our experimental conditions, L-isoleucine, described to stimulate beta-defensin in bovine epithelial cells, did not exert any effect either on hBD-2 and hBD-3 transcripts or MIP-3alpha protein. Taken together, these results confirm the major role of the maturation/differentiation process of normal human keratinocytes in the induction of inducible beta-defensins and MIP-3alpha chemokine, which contribute in vivo to the immunosurveillance of the skin barrier function.

  12. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in a pig model of brain death (BD) and living donation (LD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As organ shortage is increasing, the acceptance of marginal donors increases, which might result in poor organ function and patient survival. Mostly, organ damage is caused during brain death (BD), cold ischemic time (CIT) or after reperfusion due to oxidative stress or the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to study a panel of genes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis and compare these findings with immunohistochemistry from a BD and living donation (LD) pig model and after cold ischemia time (CIT). Methods BD was induced in pigs; after 12 h organ retrieval was performed; heart, liver and kidney tissue specimens were collected in the BD (n = 6) and in a LD model (n = 6). PCR analysis for NFKB1, GSS, SOD2, PPAR-alpha, OXSR1, BAX, BCL2L1, and HSP 70.2 was performed and immunohistochemistry used to show apoptosis and nitrosative stress induced cell damage. Results In heart tissue of BD BAX, BCL2L1 and HSP 70.2 increased significantly after CIT. Only SOD2 was over-expressed after CIT in BD liver tissue. In kidney tissue, BCL2L1, NFKB, OXSR1, SOD2 and HSP 70.2 expression was significantly elevated in LD. Immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in activated Caspase 3 and nitrotyrosine positive cells after CIT in BD in liver and in kidney tissue but not in heart tissue. Conclusion The up-regulation of protective and apoptotic genes seems to be divergent in the different organs in the BD and LD setting; however, immunohistochemistry revealed more apoptotic and nitrotyrosine positive cells in the BD setting in liver and kidney tissue whereas in heart tissue both BD and LD showed an increase. PMID:24088575

  13. Comparison of the BD Veritor System for Flu A+B with the Alere BinaxNOW influenza A&B card for detection of influenza A and B viruses in respiratory specimens from pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ferdaus; Nguyen, Ashley; Formanek, Ashley; Bell, James J; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

    2014-03-01

    The performance characteristics of two commercially available rapid tests for influenza, the BD Veritor System for Flu A+B (BD) and the Alere BinaxNOW influenza A&B card (BN), were evaluated using 200 frozen clinical specimens collected from January 2011 to June 2012 from pediatric patients. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was used as the gold standard to evaluate the results obtained by the two different assays. Of the 200 specimens tested, real-time RT-PCR assay detected influenza A or B virus in 116 samples, while BD detected 104 samples and BN detected 84 samples as positive. The overall sensitivity and specificity for detection of both influenza A and B virus in comparison to those of real-time RT-PCR were 89.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.2 to 94.3) and 98.8% (95% CI, 92.6 to 99.9) for BD Veritor and 72.4% (95% CI, 63.2 to 80.0) and 100% (95% CI, 94.5 to 100.0) for BinaxNOW. Workflow analysis indicated that overall processing times for a batch size of 10 specimens were virtually identical between both systems. Overall, these results indicate that the BD Veritor assay was more sensitive than the BinaxNOW assay in detection of influenza A and B viruses in respiratory specimens from pediatric patients.

  14. Structural basis for the differential binding affinities of the HsfBD1 and HsfBD2 domains in the Haemophilus influenzae Hsf adhesin.

    PubMed

    Radin, Jana N; Grass, Susan A; Meng, Guoyu; Cotter, Shane E; Waksman, Gabriel; St Geme, Joseph W

    2009-08-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a human-specific gram-negative coccobacillus that causes a variety of human infections ranging from localized respiratory infections to invasive diseases. Hsf is the major nonpilus adhesin in encapsulated strains of H. influenzae and belongs to the trimeric autotransporter family of proteins. The Hsf protein contains two highly homologous binding domains, designated HsfBD1 and HsfBD2. In this study we characterized the differential binding properties of HsfBD1 and HsfBD2. In assays using HeLa cells, we found that bacteria expressing either full-length Hsf or HsfBD1 by itself adhered at high levels, while bacteria expressing HsfBD2 by itself adhered at low levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy and a cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified proteins revealed that the binding affinity was significantly higher for HsfBD1 than for HsfBD2. Purified HsfBD1 was able to completely block adherence by bacteria expressing either HsfBD1 or HsfBD2, while purified HsfBD2 was able to block adherence by bacteria expressing HsfBD2 but had minimal activity against bacteria expressing HsfBD1. Conversion of the residue at position 1935 in the HsfBD1 binding pocket from Asp to Glu resulted in HsfBD2-like binding properties, and conversion of the residue at position 569 in the HsfBD2 binding pocket from Glu to Asp resulted in HsfBD1-like binding properties, as assessed by adherence assays with recombinant bacteria and by immunofluorescence microscopy with purified proteins. This work demonstrates the critical role of a single amino acid in the core of the binding pocket in determining the relative affinities of the HsfBD1 and HsfBD2 binding domains.

  15. BdCESA7, BdCESA8, and BdPMT Utility Promoter Constructs for Targeted Expression to Secondary Cell-Wall-Forming Cells of Grasses.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Deborah L; Cass, Cynthia L; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Foster, Cliff E; Vogel, John P; Karlen, Steven D; Ralph, John; Sedbrook, John C

    2016-01-01

    Utility vectors with promoters that confer desired spatial and temporal expression patterns are useful tools for studying gene and cellular function and for industrial applications. To target the expression of DNA sequences of interest to cells forming plant secondary cell walls, which generate most of the vegetative biomass, upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 were isolated and cloned into binary vectors designed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocots. Expression patterns were assessed using the β-glucuronidase gene GUSPlus and X-glucuronide staining. All three promoters showed strong expression levels in stem tissue at the base of internodes where cell wall deposition is most active, in both vascular bundle xylem vessels and tracheids, and in interfascicular tissues, with expression less pronounced in developmentally older tissues. In leaves, BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 promoter-driven expression was strongest in leaf veins, leaf margins, and trichomes; relatively weaker and patchy expression was observed in the epidermis. BdPMT promoter-driven expression was similar to the BdCESA promoters expression patterns, including strong expression in trichomes. The intensity and extent of GUS staining varied considerably between transgenic lines, suggesting that positional effects influenced promoter activity. Introducing the BdPMT and BdCESA8 Open Reading Frames into BdPMT and BdCESA8 utility promoter binary vectors, respectively, and transforming those constructs into Brachypodium pmt and cesa8 loss-of-function mutants resulted in rescue of the corresponding mutant phenotypes. This work therefore validates the functionality of these utility promoter binary vectors for use in Brachypodium and likely other grass species. The identification, in Bdcesa8-1 T-DNA mutant stems, of an 80% reduction in crystalline cellulose levels confirms that the BdCESA8 gene is

  16. BdCESA7, BdCESA8, and BdPMT Utility Promoter Constructs for Targeted Expression to Secondary Cell-Wall-Forming Cells of Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Deborah L.; Cass, Cynthia L.; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Foster, Cliff E.; Vogel, John P.; Karlen, Steven D.; Ralph, John; Sedbrook, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Utility vectors with promoters that confer desired spatial and temporal expression patterns are useful tools for studying gene and cellular function and for industrial applications. To target the expression of DNA sequences of interest to cells forming plant secondary cell walls, which generate most of the vegetative biomass, upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 were isolated and cloned into binary vectors designed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocots. Expression patterns were assessed using the β-glucuronidase gene GUSPlus and X-glucuronide staining. All three promoters showed strong expression levels in stem tissue at the base of internodes where cell wall deposition is most active, in both vascular bundle xylem vessels and tracheids, and in interfascicular tissues, with expression less pronounced in developmentally older tissues. In leaves, BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 promoter-driven expression was strongest in leaf veins, leaf margins, and trichomes; relatively weaker and patchy expression was observed in the epidermis. BdPMT promoter-driven expression was similar to the BdCESA promoters expression patterns, including strong expression in trichomes. The intensity and extent of GUS staining varied considerably between transgenic lines, suggesting that positional effects influenced promoter activity. Introducing the BdPMT and BdCESA8 Open Reading Frames into BdPMT and BdCESA8 utility promoter binary vectors, respectively, and transforming those constructs into Brachypodium pmt and cesa8 loss-of-function mutants resulted in rescue of the corresponding mutant phenotypes. This work therefore validates the functionality of these utility promoter binary vectors for use in Brachypodium and likely other grass species. The identification, in Bdcesa8-1 T-DNA mutant stems, of an 80% reduction in crystalline cellulose levels confirms that the BdCESA8 gene is

  17. The relationship between disease activity and depression and sleep quality in Behçet's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Koca, Irfan; Savas, Esen; Ozturk, Zeynel Abidin; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Ahmet; Alkan, Samet; Kisacik, Bünyamin; Onat, Ahmet Mesut

    2015-07-01

    Like many chronic illnesses, Behçet's disease (BD) has been reported to negatively affect the quality of life and mental health of the individuals diagnosed with this disease. This study aims to investigate the relationship between disease activity and depression and sleep quality in BD. Forty patients with BD and 30 healthy subjects (controls), aged 18-65, were included in this study, and all of the subjects enrolled in this study were assessed in terms of depression and sleep quality using the Beck depression index (BDI) and Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI). Additionally, the subjects with BD were also assessed using the Behçet's disease current activity form (BDCAF). It was determined that the depression and sleep quality scores were significantly higher in the BD group compared to those in the control group (p = 0.012 and p = 0.020, respectively), and in the BD group, significant positive correlations were determined between the BDCAF and depression and sleep quality scores (r = 0.559, p < 0.001 and r = 0.462, p = 0.003, respectively). We believe that the assessment of BD patients for depressive symptoms and sleep quality, and providing medical support to those who need it, will contribute to the treatment and follow-up processes of BD.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of the BD MAX MRSA Assay

    PubMed Central

    Healer, Vicki; Silbert, Suzane

    2014-01-01

    A comparison between the BD MAX MRSA and Xpert MRSA assays was performed using 239 nares samples. A 97.9% overall agreement between the two molecular assays was observed. The BD MAX MRSA assay proved to be a reliable alternative for a highly automated system to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patient nares samples. PMID:24829235

  19. Evaluation of BD Max StaphSR and BD Max MRSAXT Assays Using ESwab-Collected Specimens.

    PubMed

    Silbert, Suzane; Kubasek, Carly; Galambo, Faris; Vendrone, Elaine; Widen, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    The BD Max MRSAXT and the BD Max StaphSR assays were validated for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in ESwab samples. In addition, the BD Max StaphSR assay was evaluated for its ability to detect and differentiate S. aureus and MRSA in the same sample. A total of 255 ESwab samples collected from the anterior nares of patients were tested by each of three BD Max assays, including the BD Max MRSA first-generation assay. The results were compared to those of direct and enrichment culture. Additionally, a challenge panel comprising 14 control strains was evaluated to determine the ability of these assays to correctly identify MRSA and also appropriately differentiate S. aureus by the BD Max StaphSR assay. Out of 255 clinical samples tested, 161 were negative and 30 were positive for MRSA, and 45 were positive for S. aureus (by BD Max StaphSR) and negative for MRSA by all three PCR assays and culture. Nineteen samples had discrepant results; all of them were retested by additional laboratory testing. All strains from the challenge panel were correctly identified or excluded by the BD Max MRSAXT and BD Max StaphSR assays. The results showed that the BD Max StaphSR and the BD MRSAXT assays have excellent sensitivity (94.3%) and specificity (97.7%) for detecting MRSA. The BD Max StaphSR assay demonstrated excellent sensitivity (96.4%) and specificity (93.6%) for detecting S. aureus.

  20. Sigma-1 Receptor Antagonist BD1047 Reduces Mechanical Allodynia in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain through the Inhibition of Spinal NR1 Phosphorylation and Microglia Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Chenchen; Han, Yuan; Song, Chao; Hu, Xueming; Liu, Yannan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sigma-1 receptor plays important roles in the induction phase of rodent neuropathic pain; however, whether it is involved in bone cancer pain (BCP) and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of the spinal sigma-1 receptor in the development of bone cancer pain. Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were implanted into the intramedullary space of the right tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats to induce ongoing bone cancer-related pain behaviors; our findings indicated that, on days 7, 10, 14, and 21 after operation, the expression of sigma-1 receptor in the spinal cord was higher in BCP rats compared to the sham rats. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of 120 nmol of sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047 on days 5, 6, and 7 after operation attenuated mechanical allodynia as well as the associated induction of c-Fos and activation of microglial cells, NR1, and the subsequent Ca2+-dependent signals of BCP rats. These results suggest that sigma-1 receptor is involved in the development of bone cancer pain and that targeting sigma-1 receptor may be a new strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:26696751

  1. Sigma-1 Receptor Antagonist BD1047 Reduces Mechanical Allodynia in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain through the Inhibition of Spinal NR1 Phosphorylation and Microglia Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Chenchen; Han, Yuan; Song, Chao; Hu, Xueming; Liu, Yannan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sigma-1 receptor plays important roles in the induction phase of rodent neuropathic pain; however, whether it is involved in bone cancer pain (BCP) and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of the spinal sigma-1 receptor in the development of bone cancer pain. Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were implanted into the intramedullary space of the right tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats to induce ongoing bone cancer-related pain behaviors; our findings indicated that, on days 7, 10, 14, and 21 after operation, the expression of sigma-1 receptor in the spinal cord was higher in BCP rats compared to the sham rats. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of 120 nmol of sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047 on days 5, 6, and 7 after operation attenuated mechanical allodynia as well as the associated induction of c-Fos and activation of microglial cells, NR1, and the subsequent Ca(2+)-dependent signals of BCP rats. These results suggest that sigma-1 receptor is involved in the development of bone cancer pain and that targeting sigma-1 receptor may be a new strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain.

  2. BdCESA7, BdCESA8, and BdPMT utility promoter constructs for targeted expression to secondary cell-wall-forming cells of grasses

    DOE PAGES

    Petrik, Deborah L.; Cass, Cynthia L.; Padmakshan, Dharshana; ...

    2016-02-04

    Utility vectors with promoters that confer desired spatial and temporal expression patterns are useful tools for studying gene and cellular function and for industrial applications. To target the expression of DNA sequences of interest to cells forming plant secondary cell walls, which generate most of the vegetative biomass, upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 were isolated and cloned into binary vectors designed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocots. Expression patterns were assessed using the β-glucuronidase gene GUSPlus and X-glucuronide staining. All three promoters showed strong expression levels inmore » stem tissue at the base of internodes where cell wall deposition is most active, in both vascular bundle xylem vessels and tracheids, and in interfascicular tissues, with expression less pronounced in developmentally older tissues. In leaves, BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 promoter-driven expression was strongest in leaf veins, leaf margins, and trichomes; relatively weaker and patchy expression was observed in the epidermis. BdPMT promoter-driven expression was similar to the BdCESA promoters expression patterns, including strong expression in trichomes. The intensity and extent of GUS staining varied considerably between transgenic lines, suggesting that positional effects influenced promoter activity. Introducing the BdPMT and BdCESA8 Open Reading Frames into BdPMT and BdCESA8 utility promoter binary vectors, respectively, and transforming those constructs into Brachypodium pmt and cesa8 loss-of-function mutants resulted in rescue of the corresponding mutant phenotypes. This work therefore validates the functionality of these utility promoter binary vectors for use in Brachypodium and likely other grass species. Lastly, the identification, in Bdcesa8-1 T-DNA mutant stems, of an 80% reduction in crystalline cellulose levels confirms that the

  3. Comparison of BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR versus the CHROMagar MRSA Assay for Screening Patients for the Presence of MRSA Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, John M.; Havill, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the BD GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) real-time PCR assay with the CHROMagar MRSA assay for the detection of MRSA in 286 nasal surveillance specimens. Compared with the CHROMagar MRSA assay, PCR had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of 100%, 98.6%, 95.8%, and 100%, respectively. The mean PCR turnaround time was 14.5 h. PMID:18032616

  4. Benchmarking Compound Methods (CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, G3, G4, W1BD) against the Active Thermochemical Tables: Formation Enthalpies of Radicals.

    PubMed

    Somers, Kieran P; Simmie, John M

    2015-08-20

    The 298.15 K formation enthalpies of 38 radicals with molecular formula CxHyOz have been computed via the atomization procedure using the five title methods. The computed formation enthalpies are then benchmarked against the values recommended in the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT). The accuracy of the methods have been interpreted in terms of descriptive statistics, including the mean-signed error, mean-unsigned error, maximum average deviation, 2σ uncertainties, and 2×root-mean-square-deviations (2RMSD). The results highlight the following rank order of accuracy for the methods studied G4 > G3 > W1BD > CBS-APNO > CBS-QB3. The findings of this work are also considered in light of a recent companion study, which took an identical approach to quantifying the accuracies of these methods for 48 closed-shell singlet CxHyOz compounds. A similar order of accuracies and precisions were observed therein: G3 > G4 > W1BD > CBS-APNO > CBS-QB3. Both studies highlight systematic biases/deviations from the ATcT for the methods investigated, which are discussed in some detail, with methods having clear tendencies to over- or underpredict the recommended formation enthalpies for radical and/or closed-shell CxHyOz compounds. We show that one can improve the accuracy of their computation, and simultaneously reduce the uncertainty, by taking unweighted average formation enthalpies from various combinations of methods used. The reader should note that the statistical analyses preceding these conclusions also highlight that these error cancellation effects are unique for closed-shell and radical species. By extension, these error-cancellation effects can be expected to be different for various homologous series and chemical functionalities and their closed- and open-shell subgroups. Hence, further benchmarking studies are advised for other homologous series, such that the scientists and engineers (e.g., combustion/atmospheric/astrochemical) who frequently use these methods can

  5. Abnormal high-energy phosphate molecule metabolism during regional brain activation in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, C; Du, F; Ravichandran, C; Goldbach, J R; Thida, T; Lin, P; Dora, B; Gelda, J; O'Connor, L; Sehovic, S; Gruber, S; Ongur, D; Cohen, B M

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests bioenergetic abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD). In the brain, phosphocreatine (PCr) acts a reservoir of high-energy phosphate (HEP) bonds, and creatine kinases (CK) catalyze the transfer of HEP from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to PCr and from PCr back to ATP, at times of increased need. This study examined the activity of this mechanism in BD by measuring the levels of HEP molecules during a stimulus paradigm that increased local energy demand. Twenty-three patients diagnosed with BD-I and 22 healthy controls (HC) were included. Levels of phosphorus metabolites were measured at baseline and during visual stimulation in the occipital lobe using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4T. Changes in metabolite levels showed different patterns between the groups. During stimulation, HC had significant reductions in PCr but not in ATP, as expected. In contrast, BD patients had significant reductions in ATP but not in PCr. In addition, PCr/ATP ratio was lower at baseline in patients, and there was a higher change in this measure during stimulation. This pattern suggests a disease-related failure to replenish ATP from PCr through CK enzyme catalysis during tissue activation. Further studies measuring the CK flux in BD are required to confirm and extend this finding.

  6. Precision analysis of passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years BD (BeiDou positioning system), an active satellite navigation system, has been widely applied in geodetic survey, precise engineering survey and GNC (guide, navigation and control system) of weapons because of its reliability and availability. However, it has several problems on the accuracy, anti-interference and active-positioning. A passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system is introduced in details in this paper. The configuration and the operating principle of system are presented. In analyzing the precision of location, one of the crucial aspects to be studied is how to determine the arrangement of the pseudolites to get the good GDOP, which is discussed in the different arrangements of the pseudolites in this paper. The simulation results show that the VDOP (vertical dilution of precision) of BD is improved due to introducing the pseudolites. The experiments indicate the validity of the methods and the improvement of the positioning precision in the BD aided pseudolite system.

  7. Femtosecond resolution of ligand-heme interactions in the high-affinity quinol oxidase bd: A di-heme active site?

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Marten H.; Borisov, Vitaliy B.; Liebl, Ursula; Martin, Jean-Louis; Konstantinov, Alexander A.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction of the two high-spin hemes in the oxygen reduction site of the bd-type quinol oxidase from Escherichia coli has been studied by femtosecond multicolor transient absorption spectroscopy. The previously unidentified Soret band of ferrous heme b595 was determined to be centered around 440 nm by selective excitation of the fully reduced unliganded or CO-bound cytochrome bd in the α-band of heme b595. The redox state of the b-type hemes strongly affects both the line shape and the kinetics of the absorption changes induced by photodissociation of CO from heme d. In the reduced enzyme, CO photodissociation from heme d perturbs the spectrum of ferrous cytochrome b595 within a few ps, pointing to a direct interaction between hemes b595 and d. Whereas in the reduced enzyme no heme d-CO geminate recombination is observed, in the mixed-valence CO-liganded complex with heme b595 initially oxidized, a significant part of photodissociated CO does not leave the protein and recombines with heme d within a few hundred ps. This caging effect may indicate that ferrous heme b595 provides a transient binding site for carbon monoxide within one of the routes by which the dissociated ligand leaves the protein. Taken together, the data indicate physical proximity of the hemes d and b595 and corroborate the possibility of a functional cooperation between the two hemes in the dioxygen-reducing center of cytochrome bd. PMID:10660685

  8. Genetic Association of HLA-A*26, -A*31, and -B*51 with Behcet’s Disease in Saudi Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Okaily, Fahda; Al-Rashidi, Seham; Al-Balawi, Maysoon; Mustafa, Md.; Arfin, Misbahul; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND HLA-B*51 has been universally associated with Behcet’s disease (BD) susceptibility, while different alleles of HLA-A have also been identified as independent BD susceptibility loci in various ethnic populations. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of HLA-A and -B alleles with BD in Saudi patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Genotyping for HLA-A and HLA-B was performed using HLA genotyping kit (Lab type(R) SSO) in 120 Saudi subjects, including 60 BD patients and 60 matched healthy controls. RESULTS Our results revealed that frequencies of HLA-A*26, -A*31, and -B*51 were significantly higher in BD patients than in controls, suggesting that HLA-A*26, -A*31, and -B*51 are associated with BD. The frequency of HLA-B*15 was significantly lower in BD patients than in controls. Stratification of genotyping results into active and nonactive forms of BD revealed that the frequency of HLA-A*31 was significantly higher in the nonactive form than in the active form of BD, while there was no significant difference in the distribution of other alleles between the two forms of BD. CONCLUSION This study suggests that HLA-A*26, -A*31, and -B*51 are associated with susceptibility risk to BD, while HLA-B*15 may be protective in Saudi patients. However, larger scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27547040

  9. Increased Activity or Energy as a Primary Criterion for the Diagnosis of Bipolar Mania in DSM-5: Findings From the STEP-BD Study

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Henter, Ioline D.; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective DSM-5 describes “a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy” as a primary criterion for mania. Thus, increased energy or activity is now considered a core symptom of manic and hypomanic episodes. Using data from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder study, the authors analyzed point prevalence data obtained at the initial visit to assess the diagnostic validity of this new DSM-5 criterion. The study hypothesis was that the DSM-5 criterion would alter the prevalence of mania and/or hypomania. Method The authors compared prevalence, clinical characteristics, validators, and outcome in patients meeting the DSM-5 criteria (i.e., DSM-IV criteria plus the DSM-5 criterion of increased activity or energy) and those who did not meet the new DSM-5 criterion (i.e., who only met DSM-IV criteria). Results All 4,360 participants met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder, and 310 met DSM-IV criteria for a manic or hypomanic episode. When the new DSM-5 criterion of increased activity or energy was added as a coprimary symptom, the prevalence of mania and hypomania was reduced. Although minor differences were noted in clinical and concurrent validators, no changes were observed in longitudinal outcomes. Conclusions The findings confirm that including increased activity or energy as part of DSM-5 criterion A decreases the prevalence of manic and hypomanic episodes but does not affect longitudinal clinical outcomes. PMID:27523498

  10. Benchmarking Compound Methods (CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, G3, G4, W1BD) against the Active Thermochemical Tables: A Litmus Test for Cost-Effective Molecular Formation Enthalpies.

    PubMed

    Simmie, John M; Somers, Kieran P

    2015-07-16

    The theoretical atomization energies of some 45 CxHyOz molecules present in the Active Thermochemical Tables compilation and of particular interest to the combustion chemistry community have been computed using five composite model chemistries as titled. The species contain between 1-8 "heavy" atoms, and a few are conformationally diverse with up to nine conformers. The enthalpies of formation at 0 and 298.15 K are then derived via the atomization method and compared against the recommended values. In general, there is very good agreement between our averaged computed values and those in the ATcT; those for 1,3-cyclopentadiene exceptionally differ considerably, and we show from isodesmic reactions that the true value for 1,3-cyclopentadiene is closer to 134 kJ mol(-1) than the reported 101 kJ mol(-1). If one is restricted to using a single method, statistical measures indicate that the best methods are in the rank order G3 ≈ G4 > W1BD > CBS-APNO > CBS-QB3. The CBS-x methods do on average predict ΔfH(⊖)(298.15 K) within ≈5 kJ mol(-1) but are prone to occasional lapses. There are statistical advantages to be gained from using a number of methods in tandem, and all possible combinations have been tested. We find that the average formation enthalpy coming from using CBS-APNO/G4, CBS-APNO/G3, and G3/G4 show lower mean signed and mean unsigned errors, and lower standard and root-mean-squared deviations, than any of these methods in isolation. Combining these methods also leads to the added benefit of providing an uncertainty rooted in the chemical species under investigation. In general, CBS-APNO and W1BD tend to underestimate the formation enthalpies of target species, whereas CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 have a tendency to overestimate the same. Thus, combining CBS-APNO with a G3/G4 combination leads to an improvement in all statistical measures of accuracy and precision, predicting the ATcT values to within 0.14 ± 4.21 kJ mol(-1), thus rivalling "chemical accuracy" (

  11. BdCESA7, BdCESA8, and BdPMT utility promoter constructs for targeted expression to secondary cell-wall-forming cells of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, Deborah L.; Cass, Cynthia L.; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Foster, Cliff E.; Vogel, John P.; Karlen, Steven D.; Ralph, John; Sedbrook, John C.

    2016-02-04

    Utility vectors with promoters that confer desired spatial and temporal expression patterns are useful tools for studying gene and cellular function and for industrial applications. To target the expression of DNA sequences of interest to cells forming plant secondary cell walls, which generate most of the vegetative biomass, upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 were isolated and cloned into binary vectors designed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of monocots. Expression patterns were assessed using the β-glucuronidase gene GUSPlus and X-glucuronide staining. All three promoters showed strong expression levels in stem tissue at the base of internodes where cell wall deposition is most active, in both vascular bundle xylem vessels and tracheids, and in interfascicular tissues, with expression less pronounced in developmentally older tissues. In leaves, BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 promoter-driven expression was strongest in leaf veins, leaf margins, and trichomes; relatively weaker and patchy expression was observed in the epidermis. BdPMT promoter-driven expression was similar to the BdCESA promoters expression patterns, including strong expression in trichomes. The intensity and extent of GUS staining varied considerably between transgenic lines, suggesting that positional effects influenced promoter activity. Introducing the BdPMT and BdCESA8 Open Reading Frames into BdPMT and BdCESA8 utility promoter binary vectors, respectively, and transforming those constructs into Brachypodium pmt and cesa8 loss-of-function mutants resulted in rescue of the corresponding mutant phenotypes. This work therefore validates the functionality of these utility promoter binary vectors for use in Brachypodium and likely other grass species. Lastly, the identification

  12. Superior efficacy of calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate aerosol foam versus ointment in patients with psoriasis vulgaris – A randomized phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Koo, John; Tyring, Stephen; Werschler, William P.; Bruce, Suzanne; Olesen, Martin; Villumsen, John; Bagel, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An aerosol foam formulation of fixed combination calcipotriene 0.005% (as hydrate; Cal) plus betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% (BD) was developed to improve psoriasis treatment. Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of Cal/BD aerosol foam with Cal/BD ointment after 4 weeks. Methods: In this Phase II, multicenter, investigator-blind, 4-week trial, adult patients with psoriasis vulgaris were randomized to Cal/BD aerosol foam, Cal/BD ointment, aerosol foam vehicle or ointment vehicle (3:3:1:1). The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients at week 4 who achieved treatment success (clear or almost clear with at least a two-step improvement) according to the physician’s global assessment of disease severity. Results: In total, 376 patients were randomized. At week 4, significantly more patients using Cal/BD aerosol foam achieved treatment success (54.6% versus 43.0% [ointment]; p = 0.025); mean modified (excluding the head, which was not treated) psoriasis area and severity index score was significantly different between Cal/BD aerosol foam and Cal/BD ointment (mean difference –0.6; p = 0.005). Rapid, continuous itch relief occurred with both active treatments. One adverse drug reaction was reported with Cal/BD aerosol foam (application site itch). Conclusions: Cal/BD aerosol foam demonstrates significantly greater efficacy and similar tolerability compared with Cal/BD ointment for psoriasis treatment. PMID:26444907

  13. Reduced prefrontal activation during performance of the Iowa Gambling Task in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yasuki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Hino, Shoryoku; Nagasawa, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Takanori; Munesue, Toshio; Minabe, Yoshio

    2015-07-30

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a complex decision-making task in which monetary wins and losses guide the development of strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate hemodynamic responses of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during performance of the IGT using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants comprised 13 patients and 15 healthy control subjects who were matched for age, sex, handedness, and intelligence quotient. Relative changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb) levels in the frontal region were measured using a 46-channel NIRS system. All subjects were evaluated using NIRS during a verbal fluency task (VFT) and the IGT. During performance of the IGT, BD patients showed significantly decreased oxy-Hb levels in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared with normal control subjects. However, during the VFT, patients with BD showed no significant changes in oxy-Hb levels compared with control subjects. Changes in oxy-Hb levels in the bilateral OFC and the PFC during the IGT were negatively correlated with total scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Although the IGT was useful for differentiating patients with BP from control subjects, no significant differences in autonomic activity were observed.

  14. A novel water-soluble benzothiazole derivative BD926 triggers ROS-mediated B lymphoma cell apoptosis via mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Hui; Yang, Ping; Yang, Tai; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jin; Li, Li-Mei; Luo, Xing-Yan; Yang, Shu-Xia; Zou, Qiang; Zhang, Chong-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Benzothiazole derivatives are known for various biological activities, and their potency in cancer therapy have received considerable attention in recent years. However, the poor water solubility of most benzothiazole derivatives has limited their clinical application. We developed BD926, a novel water-soluble benzothiazole derivative and showed here that it could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of human Ramos B-lymphoma cells. We further showed that BD926 triggered apoptosis through both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum pathways. Moreover, BD926 caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 stage. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed after BD926 treatment and ROS inhibitor was able to attenuate BD926-induced apoptosis, which suggested that BD926-induced apoptosis may be due to over-producing ROS. These results demonstrate the anticancer effects of BD926 in cell models and raise the possibility for the application of BD926 in cancer therapy.

  15. Cytochrome bd-Dependent Bioenergetics and Antinitrosative Defenses in Salmonella Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Carson, Jessica; Husain, Maroof; Liu, Lin; Orlicky, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the course of an infection, Salmonella enterica occupies diverse anatomical sites with various concentrations of oxygen (O2) and nitric oxide (NO). These diatomic gases compete for binding to catalytic metal groups of quinol oxidases. Enterobacteriaceae express two evolutionarily distinct classes of quinol oxidases that differ in affinity for O2 and NO as well as stoichiometry of H+ translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane. The investigations presented here show that the dual function of bacterial cytochrome bd in bioenergetics and antinitrosative defense enhances Salmonella virulence. The high affinity of cytochrome bd for O2 optimizes respiratory rates in hypoxic cultures, and thus, this quinol oxidase maximizes bacterial growth under O2-limiting conditions. Our investigations also indicate that cytochrome bd, rather than cytochrome bo, is an intrinsic component of the adaptive antinitrosative toolbox of Salmonella. Accordingly, induction of cytochrome bd helps Salmonella grow and respire in the presence of inhibitory NO. The combined antinitrosative defenses of cytochrome bd and the flavohemoglobin Hmp account for a great part of the adaptations that help Salmonella recover from the antimicrobial activity of NO. Moreover, the antinitrosative defenses of cytochrome bd and flavohemoglobin Hmp synergize to promote Salmonella growth in systemic tissues. Collectively, our investigations indicate that cytochrome bd is a critical means by which Salmonella resists the nitrosative stress that is engendered in the innate response of mammalian hosts while it concomitantly allows for proper O2 utilization in tissue hypoxia. PMID:27999164

  16. BD monomer and elastomer production processes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J

    2001-06-01

    The monomer 1,3 butadiene (BD) is a product of the petrochemical industry. It is used to make several elastomers including the very high volume styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) that comprises the bulk of automobile tires. It is also used to make polybutadiene rubber that is used in parts of tires, coatings, composites and other products. The monomer can be converted to chlorobutadiene (chloroprene) and used to make polychloroprene (neoprene). BD is one of the several olefins created by cracking hydrocarbons in the presence of steam. A mixed C4 stream from the steam cracker is then sent to a BD monomer extraction unit. Modern units typically use dimethyl formamide as the extraction solvent. SBR is commonly made by the copolymerization of BD and styrene, along with various additives to control the reaction, in a water emulsion. The reaction proceeds in a continuous chain of reactors until it is 'shortstopped' by a strong reducing agent. After removing unreacted monomers from the stabilized latex, it is blended, coagulated and dewatered. The resulting dry rubber crumb is bailed, film wrapped and stored in crates. The polymerization of BD to make polybutadiene rubber can be conducted as a water suspension type polymerization similar to SBR or in a solvent system followed by solvent recovery and transfer into water suspension.

  17. Far ultraviolet spectrophotometry of BD +28 4211

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Timothy A.; Cash, Webster; Green, James C.

    1991-01-01

    The results are reported of a November 1989 rocket flight which recorded a flux-calibrated spectrum of BD +28 4211 from 912 to 1150 A with 1A resolution. BD +28 4211, an SdO-type star, is commonly used as an ultraviolet calibration source in the IUE wavelength band. The present work extends the useful range of this standard shortward of Lyman-alpha. Since previous experiments show marked disparity, this study can be useful in determining a standard in the 912 to 1216 A band.

  18. Overexpressions of hBD-2, hBD-3, and hCAP18/LL-37 in Gingiva of Diabetics with Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Dogukan; Güncü, Guliz N; Könönen, Eija; Barış, Emre; Çağlayan, Feriha; Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides of the epithelium play a significant role in the innate immune response in the oral cavity, which is constantly exposed to microbes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent metabolic disease which is related to periodontal disease. To date, little is known about expressions of antimicrobial peptides in gingival epithelia of diabetics. Our aim was to examine the expression and localization of human beta-defensins (hBD)-2 and -3 and cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) in diabetic subjects suffering from generalized periodontitis (GP). Gingival tissue sections were collected from three subject groups: 14 T2DM subjects with GP (T2DM+GP), 11 systemically healthy GP patients (GP), and 13 systemically and periodontally healthy subjects (control). Surgical incisions targeted the sulcular epithelium and/or the bottom of the selected periodontal pocket. Tissue specimens were fixed in paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin blocks. Immunohistochemistry stainings were performed for cytokeratin19, hBD-2, hBD-3 and hCAP18/LL-37. Stainings were examined under light microscope with 40× magnification. Results were statistically evaluated by the t-test. In controls, hBD-2 was localized at the superficial layers of the gingival epithelium, hBD-3 and hCAP18/LL-37 were at the basal layers, whereas in subjects with periodontitis both defensins were visible at all epithelial layers. hBD-2 was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm, while hBD-3 and hCAP18/LL-37 were detected only in the cytoplasm of the cells. Expressions of hBD-2 (p=0.005), hBD-3 (p=0.007), and hCAP18/LL-37 (p=0.002) were elevated in subjects with T2DM+GP in comparison to controls. No statistically significant difference was found in the expression of hBD-2, -3, and hCAP18/LL-37 between the GP group and the control or T2DM+GP groups. Gingival antimicrobial peptides are overexpressed in T2DM. This outcome can be part of impaired immune response in diabetics, and underlying factors and

  19. The effect of vitamin D on clinical manifestations and activity of Behçet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kamile; Güler, Tuba; Dörtbaş, Fulya; Kale, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Immune mechanisms have been implemented to have a role in the pathogenesis of Behçet’s disease (BD) and vitamin D has been shown to have a regulatory role in the immune system function. Aim To evaluate the vitamin D levels of BD patients and its relationship between clinical findings and disease activity of BD. Material and methods Sixty-eight patients with BD and 70 age- and sex-matched controls were examined retrospectively. Demographic features, vitamin D levels for both groups and clinical findings, disease activity, drug usage for BD patients were examined from their medical reports. Disease activity was calculated for each patient according to Krause’s BD activity assessment. Results Mean vitamin D levels of patients and controls were 15.35 ±7.18 ng/ml and 18.44 ±5.79 ng/ml, respectively. Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in BD patients than in controls (p = 0.006). Mean vitamin D levels of active and inactive BD cases were 15.68 ±7.31 ng/ml and 15.08 ±7.17 ng/ml, respectively (p = 0.73). Disease activity of patients using and not using vitamin D was similar (p = 0.51). Conclusions Significantly lower levels of vitamin D were observed in BD patients. Our results indicate that there is no correlation between BD activity and a vitamin D level. Together with these, vitamin D replacement treatment was found to have no effect on disease activity. PMID:28261027

  20. The ischemia modified albumin and mean platelet volume levels in patients with Behçet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Sevilay; Hiz, Meliha Merve; Çakır, Dilek Ülker; Türkön, Hakan; Cevizci, Sibel; Ogretmen, Zerrin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with endothelial dysfunction. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a marker used in the detection of diseases associated with oxidative stress, vascular endothelial cell dysfunction and ischemia. Mean platelet volume (MPV) signifies the platelet function and activity. Aim To show whether MPV and IMA are useful in revealing the oxidative stress and the risk of thrombosis in patients with BD. Material and methods Twenty-six patients with BD and 28 healthy volunteers as a control group over 18 years of age were included in the study. Serum IMA and MPV levels were analyzed in both groups. Results The mean MPV values were identified as 0.86 ±0.15 and 0.82 ±0.08 (in the BD and control groups, respectively; p = 0.188) and the mean IMA values were 9.39 ±0.73 and 9.17 ±1.09 (in the BD and control groups, respectively; p = 0.275). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The IMA values of BD patients who were in the active phase were significant as compared to inactive BD patients and control groups (p = 0.041). The IMA and MPV values of the thrombotic patients, non-thrombotic patients and control groups were not significant. Conclusions Ischemia-modified albumin may be a helpful marker of possible complications during an active period of BD. PMID:27881940

  1. Evaluation of the BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in human stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Putsathit, Papanin; Morgan, Justin; Bradford, Damien; Engelhardt, Nelly; Riley, Thomas V

    2015-02-01

    The Becton Dickinson (BD) PCR-based GeneOhm Cdiff assay has demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting Clostridium difficile. Recently, the BD Max platform, using the same principles as BD GeneOhm, has become available in Australia. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile in an Australian setting. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 406 stool specimens from 349 patients were analysed with the BD Max Cdiff assay. Direct and enrichment toxigenic culture were performed on bioMérieux ChromID C. difficile agar as a reference method. isolates from specimens with discrepant results were further analysed with an in-house PCR to detect the presence of toxin genes. The overall prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile was 7.2%. Concordance between the BD Max assay and enrichment culture was 98.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the BD Max Cdiff assay were 95.5%, 99.0%, 87.5% and 99.7%, respectively, when compared to direct culture, and 91.7%, 99.0%, 88.0% and 99.4%, respectively, when compared to enrichment culture. The new BD Max Cdiff assay appeared to be an excellent platform for rapid and accurate detection of toxigenic C. difficile.

  2. 49 CFR Appendixes B-D to Part 99 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false B Appendixes B-D to Part 99 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Appendixes B-D to Part 99...

  3. Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD) to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II) and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients' symptomatology. Therefore, the Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of Bipolar Disorder (WAVE-bd) (NCT01062607) aims to provide reliable information on the management of patients with BD in daily clinical practice. It also seeks to determine factors influencing clinical outcomes and resource use in relation to the management of BD. Methods WAVE-bd is a multinational, multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Approximately 3000 patients diagnosed with BD type I or II with at least one mood event in the preceding 12 months were recruited at centres in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela. Site selection methodology aimed to provide a balanced cross-section of patients cared for by different types of providers of medical aid (e.g. academic hospitals, private practices) in each country. Target recruitment percentages were derived either from scientific publications or from expert panels in each participating country. The minimum follow-up period will be 12 months, with a maximum of 27 months, taking into account the retrospective and the prospective parts of the study. Data on demographics, diagnosis, medical history, clinical management, clinical and functional outcomes (CGI-BP and FAST scales), adherence to treatment (DAI-10 scale and Medication Possession Ratio), quality of life (EQ-5D scale), healthcare resources, and caregiver burden (BAS scale) will be collected

  4. The differences in temperament–character traits, suicide attempts, impulsivity, and functionality levels of patients with bipolar disorder I and II

    PubMed Central

    Izci, Filiz; Fındıklı, Ebru Kanmaz; Zincir, Serkan; Zincir, Selma Bozkurt; Koc, Merve Iris

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the differences in temperament–character traits, suicide attempts, impulsivity, and functionality levels of patients with bipolar disorder I (BD-I) and bipolar disorder II (BD-II). Methods Fifty-two BD-I patients and 49 BD-II patients admitted to Erenköy Mental and Neurological Disease Training and Research Hospital psychiatry clinic and fifty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. A structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Axis I Disorders, Temperament and Character Inventory, Barrett Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), Hamilton Depression Inventory Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Bipolar Disorder Functioning Questionnaire (BDFQ) were administered to patients and to control group. Results No statistically significant difference in sociodemographic features existed between the patient and control groups (P>0.05). Thirty-eight subjects (37.62%) in the patient group had a suicide attempt. Twenty-three of these subjects (60.52%) had BD-I, and 15 of these subjects (39.47%) had BD-II. Suicide attempt rates in BD-I and II patients were 60.52% and 39.47%, respectively (P<0.05). Comparison of BD-I and II patients with healthy control subjects revealed that cooperativeness (C), self-directedness (Sdi), and self-transcendence (ST) scores were lower and novelty seeking (NS1 and NS2), harm avoidance (HA4), and reward dependence (RD2) subscale scores were higher in patients with BD-I. When BD-I patients were compared with BD-II patients, BIS-11 (attention) scores were higher in patients with BD-II and BIS-11 (motor and nonplanning impulsivity) scores were higher in patients with BD-I. According to BDFQ, relations with friends, participation in social activities, daily activities and hobbies, and occupation subscale scores were lower and taking initiative subscale scores were higher in patients with BD-I. Social withdrawal

  5. Increased Serum Antibody Titer against HPV-16 Antigen in Patients with Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been reported to be significantly associated with Behçet's disease (BD). However, no reports have described HPV infection as a possible cause for the development of BD. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether anti-HPV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titer is increased in BD. Serum samples from 93 Korean BD patients, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the International Study Group for BD, were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The clinical activity of BD was evaluated at the time of blood sampling. HPV-16 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) antigen was used in this study for the ELISA. Patients with BD had significantly higher antibody titers against HPV-16 (optical density [OD], 0.210–3.675; mean 0.992) than that of healthy controls (OD, 0.248–0.762; mean 0.517; P < 0.001). Using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, a cut-off value of 0.578 OD for the anti-HPV antibody titer was determined that differentiated BD patients from healthy controls. When we compared the clinical features of BD between the 2 groups, articular involvement of BD was more likely in patients with an anti-HPV-16 antibody titer < 0.578 OD (P = 0.035). In addition, patients with an anti-HPV-16 antibody titer < 0.578 were significantly younger than those with a titer ≥ 0.578 OD. HPV itself may be a possible extrinsic triggering infectious agent causing the development of BD. PMID:28244285

  6. Genome-wide analysis of SnRK gene family in Brachypodium distachyon and functional characterization of BdSnRK2.9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianzhe; Hu, Wei; Sun, Jiutong; Liang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Xiaoyue; Wei, Shuya; Wang, Xiatian; Zhou, Yi; Xiao, Qiang; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2015-08-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinases (SnRKs) play key roles in plant signaling pathways including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although SnRKs have been systematically studied in Arabidopsis and rice, there is no information concerning SnRKs in the new Poaceae model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In the present study, a total of 44 BdSnRKs were identified and classified into three subfamilies, including three members of BdSnRK1, 10 of BdSnRK2 and 31 of BdSnRK3 (CIPK) subfamilies. Phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution and synteny analyses suggested that BdSnRK family had been established before the dicot-monocot lineage parted, and had experienced rapid expansion during the process of plant evolution since then. Expression analysis of the BdSnRK2 subfamily showed that the majority of them could respond to abiotic stress and related signal molecules treatments. Protein-protein interaction and co-expression analyses of BdSnRK2s network showed that SnRK2s might be involved in biological pathway different from that of dicot model plant Arabidopsis. Expression of BdSnRK2.9 in tobacco resulted in increased tolerance to drought and salt stresses through activation of NtABF2. Taken together, comprehensive analyses of BdSnRKs would provide a basis for understanding of evolution and function of BdSnRK family.

  7. Serum ghrelin levels in patients with Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Ilker; Demir, Betül; Cicek, Demet; Dertlioğlu, Selma Bakar; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozturk, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Behcet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Aim To measure serum ghrelin levels in BD patients and healthy controls and to investigate its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Material and methods Thirty BD patients and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Ghrelin levels were measured in blood samples using ELISA. Results The mean serum ghrelin level in BD patients (28.57 ±14.04) was significantly lower compared to healthy controls (40.72 ±23.21) (p = 0.01). The mean serum ghrelin level in BD patients who had MetS (24.18 ±12.73) was lower compared to BD patients who did not have MetS (30.77 ±14.45), but this difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions Ghrelin levels were lower in BD patients compared to healthy controls. There was no association between reduced ghrelin levels and MetS; however, there was a negative correlation between ghrelin levels and disease activity. PMID:28035223

  8. Mannans and endo-β-mannanases (MAN) in Brachypodium distachyon: expression profiling and possible role of the BdMAN genes during coleorhiza-limited seed germination

    PubMed Central

    González-Calle, Virginia; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Carbonero, Pilar; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Immunolocalization of mannans in the seeds of Brachypodium distachyon reveals the presence of these polysaccharides in the root embryo and in the coleorhiza in the early stages of germination (12h), decreasing thereafter to the point of being hardly detected at 27h. Concurrently, the activity of endo-β-mannanases (MANs; EC 3.2.1.78) that catalyse the hydrolysis of β-1,4 bonds in mannan polymers, increases as germination progresses. The MAN gene family is represented by six members in the Brachypodium genome, and their expression has been explored in different organs and especially in germinating seeds. Transcripts of BdMAN2, BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 accumulate in embryos, with a maximum at 24–30h, and are detected in the coleorhiza and in the root by in situ hybridization analyses, before root protrusion (germination sensu stricto). BdMAN4 is not only present in the embryo root and coleorhiza, but is abundant in the de-embryonated (endosperm) imbibed seeds, while BdMAN2 and BdMAN6 are faintly expressed in endosperm during post-germination (36–42h). BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 transcripts are detected in the aleurone layer. These data indicate that BdMAN2, BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 are important for germination sensu stricto and that BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 may also influence reserve mobilization. Whether the coleorhiza in monocots and the micropylar endosperm in eudicots have similar functions, is discussed. PMID:25922488

  9. Mannans and endo-β-mannanases (MAN) in Brachypodium distachyon: expression profiling and possible role of the BdMAN genes during coleorhiza-limited seed germination.

    PubMed

    González-Calle, Virginia; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Carbonero, Pilar; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel

    2015-07-01

    Immunolocalization of mannans in the seeds of Brachypodium distachyon reveals the presence of these polysaccharides in the root embryo and in the coleorhiza in the early stages of germination (12h), decreasing thereafter to the point of being hardly detected at 27h. Concurrently, the activity of endo-β-mannanases (MANs; EC 3.2.1.78) that catalyse the hydrolysis of β-1,4 bonds in mannan polymers, increases as germination progresses. The MAN gene family is represented by six members in the Brachypodium genome, and their expression has been explored in different organs and especially in germinating seeds. Transcripts of BdMAN2, BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 accumulate in embryos, with a maximum at 24-30h, and are detected in the coleorhiza and in the root by in situ hybridization analyses, before root protrusion (germination sensu stricto). BdMAN4 is not only present in the embryo root and coleorhiza, but is abundant in the de-embryonated (endosperm) imbibed seeds, while BdMAN2 and BdMAN6 are faintly expressed in endosperm during post-germination (36-42h). BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 transcripts are detected in the aleurone layer. These data indicate that BdMAN2, BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 are important for germination sensu stricto and that BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 may also influence reserve mobilization. Whether the coleorhiza in monocots and the micropylar endosperm in eudicots have similar functions, is discussed.

  10. Adiponectin Suppresses UVB-Induced Premature Senescence and hBD2 Overexpression in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, MinJeong; Park, Kui Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jin, Taewon; Seo, Seong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that adiponectin can suppress cellular inflammatory signaling pathways. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of adiponectin on the unregulated production of hBD2 in UVB-induced premature senescent keratinocytes. We constructed an in vitro model of premature senescent keratinocytes through repeated exposure to low energy UVB. After repeated low energy UVB exposure, there was significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of senescence-associated markers, including senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity and expression of p16INK4a and histone H2AX. In addition, the present clinical study showed higher expression of hBD2 in sun-exposed skin of elderly group, and the overexpression of hBD2 was observed by c-Fos activation in vitro. Adiponectin has the ability to scavenge ROS and consequently inhibit MAPKs and SA-markers in UVB-exposed keratinocytes. An inhibitor study demonstrated that adiponectin downregulated hBD2 mRNA expression through suppression of the AP-1 transcription factor components c-Fos via inactivation of p38 MAPK. Collectively, the dysregulated production of hBD2 by the induction of oxidative stress was attenuated by adiponectin through the suppression of p38 and JNK/SAPK MAPK signaling in UVB-mediated premature senescent inducible conditions. These results suggest the feasibility of adiponectin as an anti-photoaging and anti-inflammatory agent in the skin. PMID:27526049

  11. Human papillomavirus oncogenic E6 protein regulates human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) expression via the tumor suppressor protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong; Wang, Liming; Jin, Jessica; Ghosh, Santosh K.; Kawsar, Hameem I.; Zender, Chad; Androphy, Elliot J.; Weinberg, Aaron; McCormick, Thomas S.; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Human β-defensin-3 (hBD3) is an epithelial cell-derived innate immune regulatory molecule overexpressed in oral dysplastic lesions and fosters a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Expression of hBD3 is induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Here we describe a novel pathway through which the high-risk human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) oncoprotein E6 induces hBD3 expression in mucosal keratinocytes. Ablation of E6 by siRNA induces the tumor suppressor p53 and diminishes hBD3 in HPV-16 positive CaSki cervical cancer cells and UM-SCC-104 head and neck cancer cells. Malignant cells in HPV-16-associated oropharyngeal cancer overexpress hBD3. HPV-16 E6 induces hBD3 mRNA expression, peptide production and gene promoter activity in mucosal keratinocytes. Reduction of cellular levels of p53 stimulates hBD3 expression, while activation of p53 by doxorubicin inhibits its expression in primary oral keratinocytes and CaSki cells, suggesting that p53 represses hBD3 expression. A p53 binding site in the hBD3 gene promoter has been identified by using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In addition, the p63 protein isoform ΔNp63α, but not TAp63, stimulated transactivation of the hBD3 gene and was co-expressed with hBD3 in head and neck cancer specimens. Therefore, high-risk HPV E6 oncoproteins may stimulate hBD3 expression in tumor cells to facilitate tumorigenesis of HPV-associated head and neck cancer. PMID:27034006

  12. Elevated Corticosterone Levels and Changes in Amphibian Behavior Are Associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Infection and Bd Lineage.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Caitlin R; Fisher, Matthew C; Bosch, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role hormones play in mediating clinical changes associated with infection by the parasite Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones such as corticosteroids (CORT) regulate homeostasis and likely play a key role in response to infection in amphibians. We explore the relationship between CORT release rates and Bd infection in tadpoles of the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricians, using a non-invasive water-borne hormone collection method across seven populations. We further examined whether tadpoles of A. muletensis infected with a hypervirulent lineage of Bd, BdGPL, had greater CORT release rates than those infected with a hypovirulent lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we examined the relationship between righting reflex and CORT release rates in infected metamorphic toads of A. obstetricans. We found an interaction between elevation and Bd infection status confirming that altitude is associated with the overall severity of infection. In tandem, increasing elevation was associated with increasing CORT release rates. Tadpoles infected with the hypervirulent BdGPL had significantly higher CORT release rates than tadpoles infected with BdCAPE showing that more aggressive infections lead to increased CORT release rates. Infected metamorphs with higher CORT levels had an impaired righting reflex, our defined experimental endpoint. These results provide evidence that CORT is associated with an amphibian's vulnerability to Bd infection, and that CORT is also affected by the aggressiveness of infection by Bd. Together these results indicate that CORT is a viable biomarker of amphibian stress.

  13. Elevated Corticosterone Levels and Changes in Amphibian Behavior Are Associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Infection and Bd Lineage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role hormones play in mediating clinical changes associated with infection by the parasite Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones such as corticosteroids (CORT) regulate homeostasis and likely play a key role in response to infection in amphibians. We explore the relationship between CORT release rates and Bd infection in tadpoles of the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricians, using a non-invasive water-borne hormone collection method across seven populations. We further examined whether tadpoles of A. muletensis infected with a hypervirulent lineage of Bd, BdGPL, had greater CORT release rates than those infected with a hypovirulent lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we examined the relationship between righting reflex and CORT release rates in infected metamorphic toads of A. obstetricans. We found an interaction between elevation and Bd infection status confirming that altitude is associated with the overall severity of infection. In tandem, increasing elevation was associated with increasing CORT release rates. Tadpoles infected with the hypervirulent BdGPL had significantly higher CORT release rates than tadpoles infected with BdCAPE showing that more aggressive infections lead to increased CORT release rates. Infected metamorphs with higher CORT levels had an impaired righting reflex, our defined experimental endpoint. These results provide evidence that CORT is associated with an amphibian’s vulnerability to Bd infection, and that CORT is also affected by the aggressiveness of infection by Bd. Together these results indicate that CORT is a viable biomarker of amphibian stress. PMID:25893675

  14. Social Aspect of Functioning Deteriorates More Than Individual Aspect in Patients with Remitted Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    TIĞLI FİLİZER, Arzu; CERİT, Cem; TÜZÜN, Başak; AKER, Ahmet Tamer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have demonstrated that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) suffer from significant functional impairment, even during remission periods. This study aimed to assess the levels of overall functioning and specific areas of functioning in remitted patients with BD compared with those in healthy controls. Methods Eighty completely remitted patients with BD and 80 healthy controls were included in the study. The Bipolar Disorder Functioning Questionnaire (BDFQ), Young Mania Rating Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory were used. Results There were fewer married and employed cohorts in the BD group than in the control group. Compared with healthy controls, patients with BD exhibited a worse functioning in terms of intellectual and sexual functioning, feelings of stigmatization, social withdrawal, household relationships, relationships with friends, and participation in social activities. There was no difference between the groups in terms of emotional functioning, daily activities and hobbies, taking initiative and self-sufficiency, and occupation. The total BDFQ scores of patients were lower than those of healthy controls. A better functionality was observed in patients using only a mood stabilizer than in patients using three or more drugs. Conclusion Remarkably, remitted patients with BD tended to perform daily activities well when these activities were not in a social context. Stigma-oriented interpersonal approaches can be particularly beneficial for these patients. PMID:28360789

  15. 77 FR 69568 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Aerospace, Model BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Airplanes; Sidestick...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Aerospace, Model BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Airplanes; Sidestick Controllers AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Bombardier Aerospace Model BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 airplanes are equipped with a sidestick controller... conditions for the Bombardier Aerospace Model BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 airplanes. These airplanes...

  16. Solid-state synthesis of LiBD(4) observed by in situ neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Remhof, A; Friedrichs, O; Buchter, F; Mauron, Ph; Züttel, A; Wallacher, D

    2008-10-14

    The synthesis of Li[(11)BD(4)] from LiB and D(2) (p = 180 bar) is investigated by in situ neutron diffraction. The onset of the Li[(11)BD(4)] formation is observed far below the temperatures reported so far for the reaction from the pure elements, indicative of a lower activation barrier. We attribute the improved formation behavior to the breaking of the rigid boron lattice and intermixing of the elements on an atomic level when forming the binary compound LiB. The reaction starts with the decomposition of the initial LiB compound and the formation of LiD. At 623 K LiBD(4) starts to form. However, under the given experimental conditions (maximal temperature = 773 K) a complete reaction was not achieved; there is still residual LiD present.

  17. 45 CFR Appendixes B-D to Part 74 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false B Appendixes B-D to Part 74 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Appendixes B-D to Part 74...

  18. 45 CFR Appendixes B-D to Part 74 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false B Appendixes B-D to Part 74 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Appendixes B-D to Part 74...

  19. Brachypodium distachyon BdPP2CA6 Interacts with BdPYLs and BdSnRK2 and Positively Regulates Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Wei, Qiuhui; Shi, Jiaochun; Jin, Xia; He, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Luo, Qingchen; Wang, Yuesheng; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2017-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is essential in plant responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although ABA signaling model is well established in Arabidopsis, ABA receptor PYL family and clade A PP2C subfamily are not yet characterized in monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, we identified 12 PYLs and 8 clade A PP2Cs from B. distachyon genome and successfully cloned 12 PYLs and 7 clade A PP2Cs. Bioinformatic and expression analyses showed that most of the identified genes respond to several signal molecules and abiotic stresses. Protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that many BdPYLs and BdPP2CAs participate in the classic ABA-PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 signaling pathway. A clade A PP2C, designated BdPP2CA6, interacted with BdPYL11 in the absence of ABA and localized in nucleus. Most clade A PP2C members from Arabidopsis showed negatively regulation in ABA signaling pathway, whereas BdPP2CA6-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis showed ABA hypersensitive phenotype, resulting in enhanced stomatal closure and salinity tolerance. Our results indicate that BdPP2CA6 positively regulates ABA and stress signal pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis plant seedlings. PMID:28293246

  20. Brachypodium distachyon BdPP2CA6 Interacts with BdPYLs and BdSnRK2 and Positively Regulates Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wei, Qiuhui; Shi, Jiaochun; Jin, Xia; He, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Luo, Qingchen; Wang, Yuesheng; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2017-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is essential in plant responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although ABA signaling model is well established in Arabidopsis, ABA receptor PYL family and clade A PP2C subfamily are not yet characterized in monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, we identified 12 PYLs and 8 clade A PP2Cs from B. distachyon genome and successfully cloned 12 PYLs and 7 clade A PP2Cs. Bioinformatic and expression analyses showed that most of the identified genes respond to several signal molecules and abiotic stresses. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that many BdPYLs and BdPP2CAs participate in the classic ABA-PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 signaling pathway. A clade A PP2C, designated BdPP2CA6, interacted with BdPYL11 in the absence of ABA and localized in nucleus. Most clade A PP2C members from Arabidopsis showed negatively regulation in ABA signaling pathway, whereas BdPP2CA6-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis showed ABA hypersensitive phenotype, resulting in enhanced stomatal closure and salinity tolerance. Our results indicate that BdPP2CA6 positively regulates ABA and stress signal pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis plant seedlings.

  1. Widespread Occurrence of Bd in French Guiana, South America

    PubMed Central

    Courtois, Elodie A.; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme; Schmeller, Dirk S.

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area’s high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1) determine its geographical distribution, (2) test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera) to define sentinel species for future work, (3) track changes in prevalence through time and (4) determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012). At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4%) as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 %) and Hylidae (1.5%). In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield. PMID:25902035

  2. Perceived oral health status, oral function and related behaviour among the patients of Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Miura, H; Isogai, E; Mizugai, H; Miura, K

    2000-01-01

    The majority of patients with Behçet's disease (BD) suffers from oral ulcers. The aim of the present study was to survey self-rated oral health status, oral function, and oral health behaviour of patients with BD in eastern Japan. Subjects were 33 BD patients and 101 healthy individuals ranging in age from 20 to 59 years. The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The items of oral health in the questionnaire included subjective symptoms, self-rated dental problems and oral health behaviour. We found that compared to the healthy subjects, BD patients experienced more severe physical limitations, mainly involving difficulty in pronouncing words (p < 0.01) and the pain of oral mucosa and gingival tissue caused by oral ulcers (p < 0.01). Based on the results of oral health behaviour, BD patients did not behave positively with regard to maintaining oral health including regular tooth brushing despite relatively higher risk of dental diseases that they face. The present results suggest that oral ulcers due to BD induced dental disorder such as the pain of gingiva, oral mucosa, and difficulty in the pronouncing of words. In spite of this, their oral health behaviour is not positive compared to the healthy subjects. Thus, the need to develop a more active pragramme for oral health education for patients with BD is indicated.

  3. Establishing an active patient partnership.

    PubMed

    Herrier, R N; Boyce, R W

    1995-04-01

    Pharmacists face many changes in the coming decade, some of which threaten their professional survival. Although uncertainty may currently prevail, one of these changes, the shift in the patient-health care professional relationship from the patient taking a passive role to an active partnering role, provides pharmacists with many opportunities to realize the vision of patient-centered care that has been advocated by pharmacy innovators and leaders for almost three decades. To take advantage of these changes, pharmacists must modify their practice paradigms and use their existing strengths, such as easy patient access and high levels of patient trust, to help develop a new model of pharmaceutical care. The concern that the magnitude of these changes will prevent successful practice transformations may be exaggerated. In reality, these proposed "new" roles have been in existence for much of this century. Most pharmacists can expand and enhance their traditional roles as self-care advisors and patient educators simply by incremental improvements in interpersonal and clinical skills. Rather than a Star Trek approach to "go where no man has gone before," the profession needs only a pharmaceutical sequel to Back to the Future.

  4. Polymorphisms of Promoter Region of TNF-α Gene in Iranian Azeri Turkish Patients with Behçet’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Behçet’s disease (BD) is a complex chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Alterations of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression related to the polymorphic alleles of TNF gene may implicate a pathogenetic role in increased activity of this cytokine in BD. A current study aimed at investigating the possible association between BD and its clinical features in Iranian Azeri Turks with two functional TNF-α gene polymorphisms (at the positions of -238 and -857). A total number of 166 Iranian subjects were enrolled into two different groups; patients with BD (n = 64), and ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 101). The genotype distributions of BD patients and healthy controls were determined. The frequency of TNF-α -857C allele was significantly higher in Behçet’s patients than that of healthy controls (P = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 2.616; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.129–6.160), whereas the frequency of TNF-α -238A allele was similar in both groups. The sole TNF-α haplotype-857C-1031C, was associated with an increase in the risk of developing BD. The TNF-α -857C allele was considerably associated with BD in this cohort. The findings of this study, collectively, indicate that TNF-α -857C-1031C haplotype located in the promoter region of the gene could exert major influence on the susceptibility to BD. PMID:27914129

  5. Comparison of Allergenicity at Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K of Soybean after Genetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Chang, Ching-Yun; Liao, En-Chih

    2017-02-15

    Despite rapid growth of genetically modified (GM) crops, effective evaluations of genetic modification on allergenicity are still lacking. Gly m Bd 30K is cross-reactive with cow's milk protein casein, Gly m 4, and with birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Here we compared the allergenicity between GM and non-GM soybeans with respect to the foci Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K. Recombinant allergens of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 were generated and polyclonal antibodies raised to identify these two allergenic components in soybeans. GM soybean was first PCR-confirmed using 35S promoter. A total of 20 soybeans (half GM, half non-GM) obtained from a food market were used to assess their allergenicity based on IgE-binding and histamine release. The concentrations of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 in soybeans were then determined. Most soybean-allergic patients (9 of 10) showed IgE-positive reactions to the allergen of 30 kDa in molecular weight. That allergen turned out to be Glycine max Gly m Bd 30K based on LC-MS/MS analyses. Gly m Bd 30K is therefore the major allergen in the soybean. An increase in the transcription of both the Gly m 4 (stress-induced protein SAM22) and Gly m Bd 28K (soybean allergen precursor) was found after genetic modification. The protein concentrations of Gly m 4 and Gly m Bd 30K were not statistically significant different between non-GM and GM soybeans. There were also no statistical significances between them in the tests of IgE binding and histamine release. In conclusion, soybeans showed similar concentrations of Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 regardless of genetic modification or absence thereof. The allergenicity of both Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m 4 was therefore not altered after genetic modification. Patients showing hypersensitivity to soybeans and who had pre-existing allergy to birch pollen and cow's milk casein might not further increase their allergic reactions following exposures to the GM soybeans.

  6. Molecular Evolution of Cytochrome bd Oxidases across Proteobacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro; Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis Eduardo; Bolaños, Luis Manuel; Rosenblueth, Monica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    This work is aimed to resolve the complex molecular evolution of cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, a nearly ubiquitous bacterial enzyme that is involved in redox balance and bioenergetics. Previous studies have created an unclear picture of bd oxidases phylogenesis without considering the existence of diverse types of bd oxidases. Integrated approaches of genomic and protein analysis focused on proteobacteria have generated a molecular classification of diverse types of bd oxidases, which produces a new scenario for interpreting their evolution. A duplication of the original gene cluster of bd oxidase might have occurred in the ancestors of extant α-proteobacteria of the Rhodospirillales order, such as Acidocella, from which the bd-I type of the oxidase might have diffused to other proteobacterial lineages. In contrast, the Cyanide-Insensitive Oxidase type may have differentiated into recognizable subtypes after another gene cluster duplication. These subtypes are widespread in the genomes of α-, β-, and γ-proteobacteria, with occasional instances of lateral gene transfer. In resolving the evolutionary pattern of proteobacterial bd oxidases, this work sheds new light on the basal taxa of α-proteobacteria from which the γ-proteobacterial lineage probably emerged. PMID:25688108

  7. Comparison of the BD GeneOhm VanR Assay to Culture for Identification of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Rectal and Stool Specimens▿

    PubMed Central

    Stamper, Paul D.; Cai, Mian; Lema, Clara; Eskey, Kim; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    Active screening for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in rectal and stool specimens has been recommended to limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance within certain high-risk populations. Directly from 502 rectal swabs and stool specimens, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the BD GeneOhm VanR assay (BD GeneOhm, San Diego, CA), a rapid real-time PCR test that detects the presence of vanA and/or vanB genes. The VanR assay was compared to culture consisting of both bile-esculin-azide agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (BEAV agar) (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) and BEAV broth with 8 μg/ml vancomycin (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Enterococci were identified to the species level using standard biochemical tests and a Phoenix automated microbiology system (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD). The susceptibility of the enterococci to vancomycin and teicoplanin was determined using an Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden). VRE were initially isolated from 147 cultures, and the VanR assay detected 142 of the 147 positive cultures for a sensitivity of 96.6%. The specificity was 87.0% (309/355) largely due to false positives seen with the vanB portion of the assay. The sensitivity when testing rectal swabs was 98.3%, and the sensitivity for stool samples was 95.4% (P = 0.643). The specificity of rectal swabs was comparable to that of the stool specimens (87.5% and 86.5%, respectively). When used only to detect VanA resistance, the VanR assay was 94.4% (136/144) sensitive and 96.4% (345/358) specific, with positive and negative predictive values of 91.3% and 97.7%, respectively. In summary, the BD GeneOhm VanR assay is a good screening test for VRE in our population of predominantly vanA-colonized patients. However, patient samples testing only vanB positive should be confirmed by another method for the presence of VRE. PMID:17704282

  8. Comparison of the BD GeneOhm VanR assay to culture for identification of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in rectal and stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Stamper, Paul D; Cai, Mian; Lema, Clara; Eskey, Kim; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-10-01

    Active screening for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in rectal and stool specimens has been recommended to limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance within certain high-risk populations. Directly from 502 rectal swabs and stool specimens, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the BD GeneOhm VanR assay (BD GeneOhm, San Diego, CA), a rapid real-time PCR test that detects the presence of vanA and/or vanB genes. The VanR assay was compared to culture consisting of both bile-esculin-azide agar with 6 mug/ml vancomycin (BEAV agar) (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) and BEAV broth with 8 mug/ml vancomycin (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Enterococci were identified to the species level using standard biochemical tests and a Phoenix automated microbiology system (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD). The susceptibility of the enterococci to vancomycin and teicoplanin was determined using an Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden). VRE were initially isolated from 147 cultures, and the VanR assay detected 142 of the 147 positive cultures for a sensitivity of 96.6%. The specificity was 87.0% (309/355) largely due to false positives seen with the vanB portion of the assay. The sensitivity when testing rectal swabs was 98.3%, and the sensitivity for stool samples was 95.4% (P = 0.643). The specificity of rectal swabs was comparable to that of the stool specimens (87.5% and 86.5%, respectively). When used only to detect VanA resistance, the VanR assay was 94.4% (136/144) sensitive and 96.4% (345/358) specific, with positive and negative predictive values of 91.3% and 97.7%, respectively. In summary, the BD GeneOhm VanR assay is a good screening test for VRE in our population of predominantly vanA-colonized patients. However, patient samples testing only vanB positive should be confirmed by another method for the presence of VRE.

  9. Transcription Factors Regulating Inflammatory Cytokine Production Are Differentially Expressed in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Behçet Disease Depending on Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Min-Yeong; Yun, Su Jin; Lee, Mi Jin; Kim, Kyongmin

    2017-01-01

    Background Behçet disease (BD) is a relapsing inflammatory disease with increased production of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well known. Objective To analyze whether the differential expression of transcription factors is involved in the increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 production by PBMCs of BD patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). Methods Expression of transcription factors was examined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cytokine production by CD11b+ cells transfected with siRNAs against transcription factors was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In the absence of lipopolysaccharide stimulation, the transcript level of CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) β was increased in PBMCs from patients with active BD compared to that in PBMCs from patients with stable BD. The C/EBPδ transcript level was higher in PBMCs from patients with active BD than in those from HCs. The activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) transcript level was increased in PBMCs from patients with stable BD compared to that in PBMCs from HCs. siRNAs targeting C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ significantly reduced the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated CD11b+ cells from patients with BD as well as from HCs. Conclusion We found differential expression of C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, and ATF3 in PBMCs from patients with BD depending on disease activity, indicating the involvement of these molecules in BD pathogenesis.

  10. Inflammatory gene expression in monocytes of patients with schizophrenia: overlap and difference with bipolar disorder. A study in naturalistically treated patients.

    PubMed

    Drexhage, Roosmarijn C; van der Heul-Nieuwenhuijsen, Leonie; Padmos, Roos C; van Beveren, Nico; Cohen, Dan; Versnel, Marjan A; Nolen, Willem A; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2010-11-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates an activated inflammatory response system as a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to detect a specific inflammatory monocyte gene expression signature in SZ and compare such signature with our recently described inflammatory monocyte gene signature in BD. A quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) case-control gene expression study was performed on monocytes of 27 SZ patients and compared to outcomes collected in 56 BD patients (all patients naturalistically treated). For Q-PCR we used nine 'SZ specific genes' (found in whole genome analysis), the 19 BD signature genes (previously found by us) and six recently described autoimmune diabetes inflammatory monocyte genes. Monocytes of SZ patients had (similar to those of BD patients) a high inflammatory set point composed of three subsets of strongly correlating genes characterized by different sets of transcription/MAPK regulating factors. Subset 1A, characterized by ATF3 and DUSP2, and subset 1B, characterized by EGR3 and MXD1, were shared between BD and SZ patients (up-regulated in 67% and 51%, and 34% and 41%, respectively). Subset 2, characterized by PTPN7 and NAB2 was up-regulated in the monocytes of 62% BD, but down-regulated in the monocytes of 48% of SZ patients. Our approach shows that monocytes of SZ and BD patients overlap, but also differ in inflammatory gene expression. Our approach opens new avenues for nosological classifications of psychoses based on the inflammatory state of patients, enabling selection of those patients who might benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment.

  11. A Member of the 14-3-3 Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon, BdGF14d, Confers Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Lihong; Wu, Chunlai; Luo, Qingchen; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Qiuhui; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are involved in diverse biological processes, but for the model monocotyledonous species, Brachypodium distachyon, their roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not well understood. In this study, a total of eight Bd14-3-3 genes were identified from B. distachyon and these were designated respectively as BdGF14a–BdGF14g. The qRT-PCR analyses of 3-month-old plants of B. distachyon showed that these genes were all expressed in the stems, leaves, and spikelets. By contrast, most of the plants had relatively lower transcriptional levels in their roots, except for the BdGF14g gene. The different expression profiles of the Bd14-3-3s under various stress treatments, and the diverse interaction patterns between Bd14-3-3s and BdAREB/ABFs, suggested that these gene products probably had a range of functions in the stress responses. The NaCl-induced Bd14-3-3 gene, BdGF14d, was selected for overexpression in tobacco. BdGF14d was found to be localized throughout the cell and it conferred enhanced tolerance to salt in the transgenic plants. Lowered contents of malondialdehyde, H2O2, and Na+, and lower relative electronic conductance (Rec%), yet greater activities of catalase and peroxidase, were observed in the overexpressing plants. Higher photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency were measured in the transgenic lines. Following abscisic acid (ABA) or NaCl treatment, stomatal aperture in leaves of the BdGF14d-overexpression plants was significantly lower than in leaves of the wild type (WT) controls. The stress-related marker genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging system, and the ion transporters were all up-regulated in the BdGF14d-overexpressing plants as compared with WT. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the Bd14-3-3 genes play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance. The ABA signaling pathway, the ROS-scavenging system, and ion

  12. TRAC-BD1/MOD1 user's guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R G

    1985-11-01

    Code assessment studies and specific code applications have provided insight into the effective use of the TRAC-BWR series of codes. This document reports the experience gained from the studies and serves to assist the user in the effective application of the TRAC-BD1/MOD1 computer code. This document stresses the user's perspective relative to approprite use of the TRAC-BD1/MOD1 code and is considered an adjunct to other documentation provided with the code.

  13. Disrupting the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1 gene (BdCAD1) leads to altered lignification and improved saccharification in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Bouvier d'Yvoire, Madeleine; Bouchabke-Coussa, Oumaya; Voorend, Wannes; Antelme, Sébastien; Cézard, Laurent; Legée, Frédéric; Lebris, Philippe; Legay, Sylvain; Whitehead, Caragh; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Gomez, Leonardo D; Jouanin, Lise; Lapierre, Catherine; Sibout, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has been proposed as a model for grasses, but there is limited knowledge regarding its lignins and no data on lignin-related mutants. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) genes involved in lignification are promising targets to improve the cellulose-to-ethanol conversion process. Down-regulation of CAD often induces a reddish coloration of lignified tissues. Based on this observation, we screened a chemically induced population of Brachypodium mutants (Bd21-3 background) for red culm coloration. We identified two mutants (Bd4179 and Bd7591), with mutations in the BdCAD1 gene. The mature stems of these mutants displayed reduced CAD activity and lower lignin content. Their lignins were enriched in 8-O-4- and 4-O-5-coupled sinapaldehyde units, as well as resistant inter-unit bonds and free phenolic groups. By contrast, there was no increase in coniferaldehyde end groups. Moreover, the amount of sinapic acid ester-linked to cell walls was measured for the first time in a lignin-related CAD grass mutant. Functional complementation of the Bd4179 mutant with the wild-type BdCAD1 allele restored the wild-type phenotype and lignification. Saccharification assays revealed that Bd4179 and Bd7591 lines were more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than wild-type plants. Here, we have demonstrated that BdCAD1 is involved in lignification of Brachypodium. We have shown that a single nucleotide change in BdCAD1 reduces the lignin level and increases the degree of branching of lignins through incorporation of sinapaldehyde. These changes make saccharification of cells walls pre-treated with alkaline easier without compromising plant growth.

  14. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    PubMed

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  15. Development of a real-time PCR Assay for identification of Coccidioides immitis by use of the BD Max system.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marilyn; Dizon, Dominic; Libke, Robert; Peterson, Michael; Slater, David; Dhillon, Akashdeep

    2015-03-01

    Rapid real-time PCR (RT-PCR) can be performed in a community hospital setting to identify Coccidioides species using the new Becton Dickinson molecular instrument BD Max. Following sample preparation, DNA extraction and PCR were performed on the BD Max using the BD Max extraction kit ExK-DNA-1 test strip and a master mix prepared by BioGX (Birmingham, AL). Sample preparation took 2 h, and testing on the BD Max took an additional 2 h. Method sensitivity and specificity were evaluated along with the limits of detection to confirm that this convenient method would provide medically useful information. Using serial dilutions, the lower limit of detection was determined to be 1 CFU/μl. Testing with this method was validated using samples from various body sites, including bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid; sputum and lung tissue samples; and pleural and spinal fluids. Safety protocols were established, and specimen preparation processes were developed for the various types of specimens. The range for the cycle threshold (CT) indicating adequate fluorescent signal to signify a positive result was established along with the acceptable range for the internal standard. Positive controls run with each batch were prepared by spiking a pooled BAL fluid specimen with a known dilution of Coccidioides immitis organism. Our experience with testing >330 patient samples shows that clinically relevant information can be available within 4 h using an RT-PCR method on the BD Max to identify Coccidioides spp., with sensitivity equivalent to culture.

  16. 13 CFR 124.204 - How does SBA process applications for 8(a) BD program admission?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... admission? (a) The AA/BD is authorized to approve or decline applications for admission to the 8(a) BD... from ANC-owned applicants and review them for completeness before sending them to the AA/BD for further... admittance. (e) The decision of the AA/BD to approve or deny an application will be in writing. A decision...

  17. Usefulness of Measuring Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sook Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The relationships between serum procalcitonin, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD) have not been completely determined. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum procalcitonin levels to assess disease activity and infection stage in patients with IBD and intestinal BD. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 129 patients with IBD and intestinal BD for whom serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured between January 2006 and February 2013. Results The median serum procalcitonin levels in the IBD and intestinal BD with septic shock or sepsis (n=8), with localized infection (n=76), and without infection (n=45) were 3.46 ng/mL (range, 0.17 to 63.66 ng/mL), 0.22 ng/mL (range, 0.05 to 140.18 ng/mL), and 0.07 ng/mL (range, 0.00 to 31.50 ng/mL), respectively (p=0.001). The serum CRP levels in the IBD and intestinal BD patients did not differ according to the infection stage. Variations in serum procalcitonin levels were not observed in the IBD and intestinal BD patients with different disease activities. Conclusions Serum procalcitonin levels may not be affected by IBD and intestinal BD activity itself, although they may be affected by concomitant infection. Serum procalcitonin measurements could be more useful than CRP in determining the infection stage that reflects the severity of infection in IBD and intestinal BD patients. PMID:26780089

  18. Monocyte and Lymphocyte Activation in Bipolar Disorder: A New Piece in the Puzzle of Immune Dysfunction in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Assis, Frankcinéia; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Soares, Jair C; Bauer, Moises Evandro; Teixeira,, Antônio Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study tested the hypothesis that the low-grade inflammation presented in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with expansion of activated T cells, and this activated state may be due to a lack of peripheral regulatory cells. Methods: Specifically, we investigated the distribution of monocytes and lymphocyte subsets, and investigated Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in plasma by flow cytometry. Twenty-one BD type I patients and 21 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited for this study. Results: BD patients had increased proportions of monocytes (CD14+). Regarding lymphocyte populations, BD patients presented reduced proportions of T cells (CD3+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+). BD patients also exhibited a higher percentage of activated T CD4+CD25+ cells, and a lower percentage of IL-10 expressing Treg cells. Conclusions: Our data shed some light into the underlying mechanisms involved with the chronic low-grade inflammatory profile described in BD patients. PMID:25539506

  19. Coping strategies used by poorly adherent patients for self-managing bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol; Levin, Jennifer B; Cassidy, Kristin A; Perzynski, Adam T; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness associated with reduced quality of life, high rates of suicide, and high financial costs. Evidence indicates that psychosocial stress might play an important role in the onset and course of BD. Objective The objective of this study was to address the gap between coping theory and the clinical use of coping strategies used to self-manage BD. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 21 poorly adherent patients with BD. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis with an emphasis on dominant themes. Results Transcript-based analysis generated two major domains of coping strategies used to self-manage BD: 1) problem focused (altering eating habits, managing mood-stabilizing medications, keeping psychiatric appointments, seeking knowledge, self-monitoring, and socializing) and 2) emotion focused (distracting activities, denial, isolation, modifying/avoiding, helping others, and seeking social support). Participants used both types of coping strategies to deal with stressful situations brought about by the internal and external demands associated with self-management of BD. Conclusion This qualitative study provided a first step in evaluating coping strategies as a possible mediator in the self-management of BD and has implications for health care providers. Being able to characterize an individual’s coping behaviors can help patients modify or replace more maladaptive coping with better coping strategies in the self-management of this chronic mental illness. PMID:27524888

  20. Ubiquitously expressed Human Beta Defensin 1 (hBD1) forms bacteria-entrapping nets in a redox dependent mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Raschig, Judith; Mailänder-Sánchez, Daniela; Berscheid, Anne; Berger, Jürgen; Malek, Nisar P.; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of endogenous host defense antimicrobial peptides it has been discussed how these evolutionary conserved molecules avoid to induce resistance and to remain effective. Human ß-defensin 1 (hBD1) is an ubiquitously expressed endogenous antimicrobial peptide that exhibits qualitatively distinct activities between its oxidized and reduced forms. Here, we explore these antimicrobial mechanisms. Surprisingly, using electron microscopy we detected a so far unknown net-like structure surrounding bacteria, which were treated with the reduced but not the oxidized form of hBD1. A transmigration assay demonstrated that hBD1-derived nets capture bacteria and inhibit bacterial transmigration independent of bacterial killing. The presence of nets could completely prevent migration of hBD1 resistant pathogens and are stable in the presence of human duodenal secretion with a high amount of proteases. In contrast to HD6, cysteins are necessary for net formation. This redox-dependent function serves as an additional mechanism of action for hBD1 and differs from net formation by other defensins such as Paneth cell-derived human α-defensin 6 (HD6). While hBD1red and hBD1ox have distinct antimicrobial profiles and functions, only the reduced form provides additional host protection by entrapping bacteria in extracellular net structures preventing bacterial invasion. Better understanding of the modes of action of endogenous host peptides will help to find new antimicrobial strategies. PMID:28323883

  1. Prefronto–cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation improves visuospatial memory, executive functions, and neurological soft signs in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Minichino, Amedeo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Bernabei, Laura; Spagnoli, Francesco; Vergnani, Lucilla; Corrado, Alessandra; Taddei, Ines; Biondi, Massimo; Delle Chiaie, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to improve neuropsychological functioning of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to cerebellar and prefrontal cortices. Methods Twenty-five BD outpatients underwent prefrontal (anodal) and cerebellar (cathodal) tDCS for 3 consecutive weeks. All participants were assessed through the Rey Complex Figure Test delay and copy and the Neurological Examination Scale at baseline and after therapy with tDCS. Results After tDCS treatment, patients showed significant improvements in visuospatial memory tasks. Patients with worse baseline cognitive performances also showed a significant improvement in executive functioning tasks. Neurological Examination Scale total score and motor coordination subscale significantly improved. Conclusion Prefrontal-excitatory and cerebellar-inhibitory stimulations in euthymic BD patients may lead to better neurocognitive performances. This improvement could result from the modulation of prefronto–thalamic–cerebellar circuit activity pattern, which can be disrupted in BD. PMID:26356034

  2. 78 FR 67321 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Aerospace Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Bombardier Aerospace Inc., Models BD... conditions for the Bombardier Aerospace Inc. Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 series airplanes....

  3. Photometric, Spectroscopic, and X-ray Analysis of the Cool Algol BD+05 706

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, G.; Mader, J.; Marschall, L. A.; Neuhaeuser, R.; Duffy, A. S.

    2000-12-01

    BD+05 706 is an example of a rare class of a dozen or so interacting binaries called ``cool Algols", in which both components of the system are late-type stars. By contrast, the ``classical Algols" are systems in which the star transfering mass is of late spectral type, but the mass gainer is much hotter. BD+05 706 was shown previously to be eclipsing (Marschall, Torres & Neuhaeuser 1998, BAAS, 30, 835). In this paper we report our complete analysis of BVRI light curves for the system obtained at Gettysburg College Observatory, together with spectroscopy from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics reported previously (Torres, Neuhaeuser & Wichmann 1998, AJ, 115, 2028), and X-ray observations obtained with the ROSAT satellite. Our light curve analysis indicates the presence of spots, most likely on the more massive, active component (primary), which change from season to season. Our results confirm the semi-detached nature of the system, and combined with the spectroscopy they have allowed us to obtain the most precise absolute masses and radii for any object of this class. Our X-ray light curve for BD+05 706 shows the primary eclipse clearly, but no sign of a secondary eclipse, confirming that the primary is the active star. Strong X-ray flares are also visible.

  4. Identification and Characterization of the RouenBd1987 Babesia divergens Rhopty-Associated Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Marilis; Alhassan, Andy; Ord, Rosalynn L.; Cursino-Santos, Jeny R.; Singh, Manpreet; Gray, Jeremy; Lobo, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Human babesiosis is caused by one of several babesial species transmitted by ixodid ticks that have distinct geographical distributions based on the presence of competent animal hosts. The pathology of babesiosis, like malaria, is a consequence of the parasitaemia which develops through the cyclical replication of Babesia parasites in a patient's red blood cells, though symptoms typically are nonspecific. We have identified the gene encoding Rhoptry-Associated Protein −1 (RAP-1) from a human isolate of B. divergens, Rouen1987 and characterized its protein product at the molecular and cellular level. Consistent with other Babesia RAP-1 homologues, BdRAP-1 is expressed as a 46 kDa protein in the parasite rhoptries, suggesting a possible role in red cell invasion. Native BdRAP-1 binds to an unidentified red cell receptor(s) that appears to be non-sialylated and non-proteinacious in nature, but we do not find significant reduction in growth with anti-rRAP1 antibodies in vitro, highlighting the possibility the B. divergens is able to use alternative pathways for invasion, or there is an alternative, complementary, role for BdRAP-1 during the invasion process. As it is the parasite's ability to recognize and then invade host cells which is central to clinical disease, characterising and understanding the role of Babesia-derived proteins involved in these steps are of great interest for the development of an effective prophylaxis. PMID:25226276

  5. Anti-TNF therapy in the management of ocular attacks in an elderly patient with long-standing Behçet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Karube, Hisako; Kamoi, Koju; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Background Ocular symptoms in Behçet’s disease (BD) begin mostly before 30 years of age according to international surveys, and BD activity may decrease with age. Information regarding the treatment of ocular symptoms in elderly BD patients is thus scant. Anti-TNFα antibody has recently demonstrated strong effects against recurrent uveitis in BD, but the efficacy and safety of anti-TNFα therapy in elderly patients remain unclear. We report herein the case of an elderly patient with long-standing uveitis due to BD who was successfully treated with two types of anti-TNF therapy. Case An 81-year-old Japanese man presented with a 33-year history of ocular inflammation due to BD. As immunosuppressive agents, such as cyclosporine A, were difficult to use because he had undergone removal of the left kidney due to cancer, he was treated with colchicine. However, attacks of ocular inflammation persisted around nine times a year. After colchicine had been changed to infliximab, ocular inflammation was fairly well controlled, but ocular attacks still occurred once or twice a year. As soon as intestinal hemorrhage related to BD occurred, infliximab was switched to adalimumab. After this switch, ocular attacks resolved and visual acuity was maintained at 1.0. Intestinal lesions were also well controlled, and no side effects were seen. Conclusion This represents the first report of the application of two types of anti-TNFα therapy for ocular attacks in an elderly BD patient. In addition to infliximab, adalimumab appears to offer an alternative therapy for refractory, long-standing BD-related uveitis in elderly patients. PMID:27729816

  6. Scaling Behavior of Human Locomotor Activity Amplitude: Association with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Indic, Premananda; Salvatore, Paola; Maggini, Carlo; Ghidini, Stefano; Ferraro, Gabriella; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Murray, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Scale invariance is a feature of complex biological systems, and abnormality of multi-scale behaviour may serve as an indicator of pathology. The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a major node in central neural networks responsible for regulating multi-scale behaviour in measures of human locomotor activity. SCN also is implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) or manic-depressive illness, a severe, episodic disorder of mood, cognition and behaviour. Here, we investigated scaling behaviour in actigraphically recorded human motility data for potential indicators of BD, particularly its manic phase. A proposed index of scaling behaviour (Vulnerability Index [VI]) derived from such data distinguished between: [i] healthy subjects at high versus low risk of mood disorders; [ii] currently clinically stable BD patients versus matched controls; and [iii] among clinical states in BD patients. PMID:21655197

  7. Sigma-1 receptor antagonist, BD1047 reduces nociceptive responses and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in mice orofacial formalin model.

    PubMed

    Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) play a role in different types of pain and in central sensitization mechanism in spinal cord. However, it is currently unexplored whether Sig-1Rs are involved in orofacial pain processing. Here we show whether a selective Sig-1R antagonist, BD1047 reduces nociceptive responses in the mouse orofacial formalin model and the number of Fos-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). In addition, it was examined whether the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) or p38 (pp38) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), which are closely linked to pain signaling and sensitization, in TNC was modified by BD1047. The 5% formalin (10 µL) was subcutaneously injected into the right upper lip, and the rubbing responses with ipsilateral fore- or hind paw were counted for 45 min. BD1047 (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally treated 30 min before formalin injection. High dose of BD1047 (10 mg/kg) produced significant anti-nociceptive effects in the first and the second phase. The number of Fos-ir cells in ipsilateral side of TNC was also reduced by BD1047 as compared to that in saline-treated animals. In addition, the number of pp38-ir cells in ipsilateral TNC was decreased in BD1047-treated animals, whereas the number of pERK-ir cells was not modified. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Sig-1Rs play a pivotal role in the orofacial pain processing, and the pp38 signaling pathway can be associated with Sig-1R's action in TNC.

  8. Community Influences on E/BD Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2008-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has mandated that all students reach proficiency by 2014. This mandate places special emphasis on the performance of special education students. The purpose of this study is to use social theory to understand the factors that explain the achievement of emotionally or behaviorally disordered (E/BD) students. Results suggest a…

  9. A dual mechanism involved in membrane and nucleic acid disruption of AvBD103b, a new avian defensin from the king penguin, against Salmonella enteritidis CVCC3377.

    PubMed

    Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Xi, Di; Mao, Ruoyu; Zhang, Yong; Guan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    The food-borne bacterial gastrointestinal infection is a serious public health threat. Defensins are evolutionarily conserved innate immune components with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity that do not easily induce resistance. AvBD103b, an avian defensin with potent activity against Salmonella enteritidis, was isolated from the stomach contents of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). To elucidate further the antibacterial mechanism of AvBD103b, its effect on the S. enteritidis CVCC3377 cell membrane and intracellular DNA was researched. The cell surface hydrophobicity and a N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine uptake assay demonstrated that AvBD103b treatment increased the cell surface hydrophobicity and outer membrane permeability. Atomic absorption spectrometry, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that AvBD103b treatment can lead to the release of the cellular contents and cell death through damage of the membrane. DNA gel retardation and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that AvBD103b interacted with DNA and intercalated into the DNA base pairs. A cell cycle assay demonstrated that AvBD103b affected cellular functions, such as DNA synthesis. Our results confirmed that AvBD103b exerts its antibacterial activity by damaging the cell membrane and interfering with intracellular DNA, ultimately causing cell death, and suggested that AvBD103b may be a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics against S. enteritidis.

  10. Novel markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in Behçet's disease patients with ocular involvement: epicardial fat thickness, carotid intima media thickness, serum ADMA level, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Murat; Yildiz, Abdulkadir; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Ekinci, Aysun; Elbey, Bilal; Tekbas, Ebru; Alan, Sait

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of Behçet's disease (BD) has not been fully elucidated. However, immunological and environmental factors, endothelial dysfunction (ED), and genetic susceptibility have been proposed to play a role. In this study, we aimed to evaluate epicardial fat thickness (EFT) together with serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in BD patients with ocular involvement. Thirty-six ocular BD patients (17 active and 19 inactive ocular involvement), and 35 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent examinations with transthoracic echocardiography and carotid Doppler ultrasound. Serum ADMA levels, CIMT, EFT, and NLR were compared between groups, and their association with disease activity was evaluated. Behçet's disease patients had higher WBC counts, neutrophil counts, NLR, CIMT, EFT values, and serum ADMA levels than do healthy controls. The other biochemical, hematological, and echocardiographic parameters were comparable between the two groups. Behçet's disease duration was positively correlated with EFT and CIMT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased serum ADMA concentration and CIMT are independently associated with BD. Neutrophil counts, NLR, and serum ADMA level were higher, and lymphocyte count was lower in patients with active ocular BD compared to those of inactive ocular BD group. Carotid intima media thickness, serum ADMA level, EFT, and NLR were increased in ocular BD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, both serum ADMA level and NLR were associated with disease activity of ocular involvement. Increase in disease duration was associated with increase in CIMT and EFT which suggests that anatomical changes occur in time during the disease course. Increased CIMT, serum ADMA level, EFT, and NLR may provide new clues about the role of ED and inflammation in the

  11. Patient Activation: Public Libraries and Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Patient activation is a new term for a perennial problem. People know what they need to do for their health: exercise, eat right, and get enough rest--but how are they motivated to actually do these things? This is what patient activation is. From this author's vantage point as a medical librarian, public libraries are well-placed to be part of…

  12. Brain Death in Pediatric Patients in Japan: Diagnosis and Unresolved Issues

    PubMed Central

    ARAKI, Takashi; YOKOTA, Hiroyuki; FUSE, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Brain death (BD) is a physiological state defined as complete and irreversible loss of brain function. Organ transplantation from a patient with BD is controversial in Japan because there are two classifications of BD: legal BD in which the organs can be donated and general BD in which the organs cannot be donated. The significance of BD in the terminal phase remains in the realm of scientific debate. As indicated by the increasing number of organ transplants from brain-dead donors, certain clinical diagnosis for determining BD in adults is becoming established. However, regardless of whether or not organ transplantation is involved, there are many unresolved issues regarding BD in children. Here, we will discuss the historical background of BD determination in children, pediatric emergencies and BD, and unresolved issues related to pediatric BD. PMID:26548741

  13. Methylation Status of Alu and LINE-1 Interspersed Repetitive Sequences in Behcet's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Şahru; Kucukazman, Selma Ozbek; Karataş, Gülten Sungur; Ozturk, Mehmet Akif; Prombhul, Sasiprapa; Hirankarn, Nattiya

    2016-01-01

    Behcet's Disease (BD) is a multisystem chronic inflammatory disease. The pathology is believed to involve both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Hypomethylation leading to activation of interspersed repetitive sequences (IRSs) such as LINE-1 and Alu contributes to the pathologies of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Herein, the epigenetic changes of IRSs in BD were evaluated using combined bisulfite restriction analysis-interspersed repetitive sequences (COBRA-IRS). DNA from neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of BD patients with ocular involvement that were in active or inactive states and healthy controls were used to analyze LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels. For Alu sequences, significant differences were observed in the frequency of (u)C(u)C alleles between PBMCs of patients and controls (p = 0.03), and between inactive patients and controls (p = 0.03). For neutrophils, the frequency of (u)C(u)C was significantly higher between patients and controls (p = 0.006) and between inactive patients and controls (p = 0.002). The partial methylation ((u)C(m)C + (m)C(u)C) frequencies of Alu between inactive patients and control samples also differed (p = 0.02). No statistically significant differences for LINE-1 were detected. Thus, changes in the methylation level of IRS elements might contribute to the pathogenesis of BD. The role of Alu transcripts in BD should be investigated further.

  14. Photometry and Spectroscopy of BD+35 1111 in M38

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Steven P.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Sami, Mona; Beltz-Mohrmann, Gillian

    2014-06-01

    BD+35 1111 is a ~10.5-magnitude star in the field of M38, an open cluster that has been a target of our ongoing study of Hα emission variability in massive stars via narrowband CCD photometry (e.g. Souza, Davis, and Teich 2013, BAAS. 45, PM354.22). BD+35 1111 has no MKK classification in the literature, and is not listed as variable in GCVS, VSX, or NSVS. It is included, with no further characterization, in both the Vatican and Kohoutek catalogs of emission line stars. Using inhomogeneous ensemble photometry (e.g. Bhatti, Richmond, Ford, and Petro 2010, ApJ Supp., 186, 233), we find it to be an irregular variable with a range of ~0.15 mag. To further understand this star we obtained a medium-resolution spectrum using the DIS spectrograph on the ARC 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory. We classify BD+35 1111 as B2Ve, the only confirmed Be star in the field of M38. This raises the question of membership, since the age of M38 is likely 250 Ma or greater (Pandey et al. 2007, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 59, 547). From published B and V magnitudes we find a nominal distance to BD+35 1111 of 1.6 kpc, but with a range of 1.3 to 2.0 kpc, marginally consistent with distance estimates for M38 ranging from 1.0 to 1.4 kpc. If a member, BD+35 1111 is a candidate blue straggler. If not, it may have escaped from a nearby younger cluster, possibly Kronberger 1 (Kronberger et al. 2006, A&A 447, 921), which has the right heliocentric distance and age. The notion that BD+35 1111 is behind M38 is supported by its reddening of EB-V ~ 0.5, significantly higher than for M38 itself 0.24). We gratefully acknowledge support for student research from NSF grant AST-1005024 to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium, Williams College, and NASA via an American Astronomical Society Small Research Grant.

  15. Systemic and pulmonary screening of patients with Behçet's disease during periodic follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Gulden; Sungur, Gulten; Kucukterzi, Vildan

    2013-03-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic disease that may involve all systems, the most common symptoms being oral and genital ulcerations and ocular involvement. Pulmonary involvement is not usually investigated in BD unless there is a specific complaint. In this study, pulmonary parameters and findings were investigated in BD patients at periodic follow-ups. A total of 112 subjects with a definitive diagnosis of BD from the Ocular Diseases Polyclinic, Behçet Disease Center, Ankara Training and Research Hospital and who had been referred to the Thoracic Diseases Polyclinic between January-October 2010 were evaluated. In the patients, the absence of active smoking, pregnancy, lactation and systemic steroid use were especially considered. A total of 112 patients between 14 and 61 years-old (53 male, 59 female) were enrolled in the study. The duration of follow-up varied between 1 and 22 years. The most commonly encountered symptom was hemoptysis observed in 18 subjects. 43 patients had mild obstruction, 9 patients had moderate obstruction, 4 patients had advanced obstruction and 4 patients showed restrictive alterations. Thoracic CT was normal for 83 subjects. Pulmonary involvement was observed as a pulmonary artery aneurysm in 4 patients and was treated. In BD, although anyone of PFT and CT values is normal, others may show pathological values. We believe that it would be useful in the follow-up to keep a regular record of the patient data and to perform PFT and, if possible, CT periodically.

  16. The cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase augments survival of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli during infection

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Mark; Achard, Maud E. S.; Idris, Adi; Totsika, Makrina; Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M.; Sarkar, Sohinee; Ribeiro, Cláudia A.; Holyoake, Louise V.; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Ulett, Glen C.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Poole, Robert K.; McEwan, Alastair G.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a toxic free radical produced by neutrophils and macrophages in response to infection. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induces a variety of defence mechanisms in response to NO, including direct NO detoxification (Hmp, NorVW, NrfA), iron-sulphur cluster repair (YtfE), and the expression of the NO-tolerant cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase (CydAB). The current study quantifies the relative contribution of these systems to UPEC growth and survival during infection. Loss of the flavohemoglobin Hmp and cytochrome bd-I elicit the greatest sensitivity to NO-mediated growth inhibition, whereas all but the periplasmic nitrite reductase NrfA provide protection against neutrophil killing and promote survival within activated macrophages. Intriguingly, the cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase was the only system that augmented UPEC survival in a mouse model after 2 days, suggesting that maintaining aerobic respiration under conditions of nitrosative stress is a key factor for host colonisation. These findings suggest that while UPEC have acquired a host of specialized mechanisms to evade nitrosative stresses, the cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase is the main contributor to NO tolerance and host colonisation under microaerobic conditions. This respiratory complex is therefore of major importance for the accumulation of high bacterial loads during infection of the urinary tract. PMID:27767067

  17. A novel competence gene, comP, is essential for natural transformation of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413.

    PubMed Central

    Porstendörfer, D; Drotschmann, U; Averhoff, B

    1997-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 (= ATCC 33305), a nutritionally versatile bacterium, has an extremely efficient natural transformation system. Here we describe the generation of eight transformation-affected mutants of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 by insertional mutagenesis. These mutants were found by Southern blot analysis and complementation studies to result from single nptII marker insertions at different chromosomal loci. DNA binding and uptake studies with one mutant, T205, revealed that the transformation deficiency of this mutant results from a complete lack of DNA binding and, therefore, uptake activity. A novel competence gene essential for natural transformation, named comP, was cloned by complementation of mutant T205. The nucleotide sequence of comP was determined, and its deduced 15-kDa polypeptide displays significant similarities to type IV pilins. Analysis of the ultrastructure of a transformation-deficient comP mutant and the transformation-competent wild-type strain revealed that both are covered with bundle-forming thin fimbriae (3 to 4 nm in diameter) and individual thick fimbriae (6 nm in diameter). These results provide evidence that the pilinlike ComP is unrelated to the piluslike structures of strain BD413. Taking all data into account, we propose that ComP functions as a major subunit of an organelle acting as a channel or pore mediating DNA binding and/or uptake in Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413. PMID:9361398

  18. Repeated Assessment of Exploration and Novelty Seeking in the Human Behavioral Pattern Monitor in Bipolar Disorder Patients and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.; Masten, Virginia; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2011-01-01

    Background Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD) and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM), a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. Methodology and Principal Findings Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability) patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. Conclusions/Significance Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design to characterize

  19. BD+22DEG4409 - a Rapidly Rotating Low-Mass Member of the Local Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, R. D.; Byrne, P. B.; Doyle, J. G.; Anders, G. J.; James, D. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.

    1994-09-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric observations of BD +2204409, a nearby, low-mass star which, on the basis of its Galactic space motions and high EUV-tobolometric luminosity ratio, has been previously assigned membership of the young kinematic group known as the Local Association. Our observations show that BD +2204409 is a single, K5V-K7V, chromospherically active ultrafast rotator, with a probable period of 10.1710.10 h and a projected equatorial velocity of 691 1 km 1 It has a comparatively high photo spheric lithium abundance of N(Li) = 1.3010.25, and this, combined with our photometry and a trigonometric parallax, leads to the conclusion that the star is young, although probably no younger than 20-30 Myr, and is a prime Local Association candidate in all respects. Considerable variability is seen in the rotationally broadened H a emission line, and can be interpreted in terms of transient flare activity at very high latitudes or the combination of a rotationally modulated, high-latitude active region and a rather smaller flare at an unconstrained latitude. In either case, the flare radiative losses in the H a line are at least 2 x 1032 erg. There is no evidence for the corotating cool prominences that have been seen at some distance from the surfaces of other late-type rapid rotators. This may be interpreted as a geometric effect, whereby the low inclination deduced for BD +2204409, of 5001 100, combined with a centrifugal flattening of any cloud system towards the equatorial plane, renders clouds unobservable as Ha absorption transients. Spot modelling of the photometric light curves yields an asymmetric spot component, covering at least 4 per cent of the total stellar surface. Variability of 1013 per cent is seen in the strength of the Lii 6708-A line over 7 h of a rotation period, in the sense that the peak Li I equivalent width correlates with the time of maximum spot coverage deduced from the shapes of photospheric line profiles. This result is

  20. BD-21 3873: another yellow-symbiotic barium star.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, V. V.; Cunha, K.; Jorissen, A.; Boffin, H. M. J.

    1997-08-01

    An abundance analysis of the yellow symbiotic system BD-21 3873 reveals it to be a metal-poor K-giant ([Fe/H]=-1.3) which is enriched in the heavy s-process elements. In that respect, this star appears to be a twin of AG Dra, another yellow symbiotic system analyzed in a previous paper (Smith et al., 1996A&A...315..179S). The heavy-element abundance distributions of AG Dra and BD-21 3873 are almost identical, and are best reproduced by a s-process with a neutron exposure parameter of 1.2-1.3mb^-1^ and a neutron density logN_n_=8.3 (as derived from the Rb/Zr ratio). These two systems thus link the symbiotic stars to the binary barium and CH stars which are also s-process enriched. These binary systems, which exhibit overabundances of the heavy elements, owe their abundance peculiarities to mass transfer from thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars, which have since evolved to become white-dwarf companions of the cool stars we now view as the chemically-peculiar primaries. The spectroscopic orbits of BD-21 3873 (derived from CORAVEL measurements) and AG Dra are similar to those of barium and CH stars. With an orbital period of 281.6d, BD-21 3873 is one of the closest systems in these families, and its light curve indeed suggests that variations due to reflection and ellipticity effects are present. The amplitude of the ellipsoidal variations indicates that the giant must be close to filling its Roche lobe. However, no acceptable solution simultaneously satisfies the constraints from the light curve, the orbital elements and the evolutionary tracks in the framework of the standard Roche lobe geometry. We suggest that this discrepancy may be resolved by taking into account the deformation of the Roche lobe caused by the force driving the large mass loss of the giant.

  1. The elusive variability of BD + 10.2179 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drilling, J. S.; Schonberner, D.; Grauer, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    High-speed photometry of the hydrogen-deficient star BD + 10.2179 deg has been obtained in order to ascertain if it is presently pulsationally unstable with the previously published period of 0.162 to 0.164 d. During an observing run of 0.21 d no pulsations were observed above the noise limit of 0.002 mag. Either the previously published period is not real or the star is no longer pulsating.

  2. Bd +60 73 = Igr J00370+6122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Reig, Pablo

    2004-05-01

    A classification spectrum of BD +60 73, reported to be the optical counterpart to IGR J00370+6122 (ATel #281), was taken on the night of 2003 July 7th with the 2.5-m Issac Newton telescope at La Palma. The derived spectral type is BN0.5II-III, where the composite luminosity class indicates an intermediate luminosity. The Nitrogen enhancement is moderately high, with numerous NII lines being rather stronger than corresponds to the spectral type.

  3. Activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Tulunay, A; Dozmorov, M G; Ture-Ozdemir, F; Yilmaz, V; Eksioglu-Demiralp, E; Alibaz-Oner, F; Ozen, G; Wren, J D; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G; Sawalha, A H; Direskeneli, H

    2015-03-01

    Th1/Th17-type T-cell responses are upregulated in Behcet's disease (BD). However, signaling pathways associated with this aberrant immune response are not clarified. Whole-genome microarray profiling was performed with human U133 (Plus 2.0) chips using messenger RNA of isolated CD14(+) monocytes and CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) in patients with BD (n = 9) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 9). Flow cytometric analysis of unstimulated (US) and stimulated (phytohaemagglutinin) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) and pSTAT3 expressions of PBMCs were also analyzed (BD and HC, both n = 26). Janus family of kinase (JAK1) was observed to be upregulated in both CD14(+) monocytes (1.95-fold) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes (1.40-fold) of BD patients. Using canonical pathway enrichment analysis, JAK/STAT signaling was identified as activated in both CD14(+) monocytes (P = 9.55E-03) and in CD4(+) lymphocytes (P =8.13E-04) in BD. Interferon signaling was also prominent among upregulated genes in CD14(+) monocytes (P = 5.62E-05). Glucocorticoid receptor signaling and interleukin (IL-6) signaling were among the most enriched pathways in differentially expressed genes in CD14+ monocytes (P = 2.45E-09 and 1.00E-06, respectively). Basal US total STAT3 expression was significantly higher in BD (1.2 vs 3.45, P < 0.05). The JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in BD, possibly through the activation of Th1/Th17-type cytokines such as IL-2, interferon (IFN-γ), IL-6, IL-17 and IL-23.

  4. What explains the intention to be physically active in cancer patients? Different determinants for active and insufficiently active patients.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    In a qualitative elicitation study with 61 cancer patients, a broad range of attitudes toward physical activity could be obtained, especially negative attitudes among insufficiently active patients. Based on these results, a second quantitative study was conducted; 64 patients [40 men; 42% insufficiently active (<150 minutes/week)] completed a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) questionnaire. Regression analyses revealed that different variables of the TPB are relevant for explaining the intention to exercise for physically active (subjective norm) and insufficiently active (attitudes) cancer patients. Health professionals should adapt their support to the special needs of insufficiently active and active cancer patients.

  5. Phenotype markers and cytokine intracellular production by CD8+ gammadelta T lymphocytes do not support a regulatory T profile in Behçet's disease patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Antonio; Cambra, Ana; Munoz-Saá, Iván; Crespí, Catalina; Pallarés, Lucio; Juan, Antonio; Matamoros, Núria; Julià, Maria Rosa

    2010-04-08

    gammadelta T lymphocytes (GD) have been suggested as one of the causes of cytokine dysregulation that results in neutrophils hyperactivation in Behçet's disease (BD) patients. In addition, GD can provoke cytotoxic lesions in autoimmune diseases by interaction with MICA (MHC class I chain-related A) molecules, through NKG2D receptor on its surface. In contrast, the CD8+ subset of gammadelta T lymphocytes (GDCD8+) has been related to regulatory T activity. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotype and the intracellular cytokine profile in GD from peripheral blood, to discern if they were skewed to an effector or regulatory pattern in BD. We performed phenotype analysis, by three-colour flow cytometry, in 28 BD, 15 healthy controls (HC) and 14 patients with recurrent bucal ulcers (RBU). We studied intracellular cytokine production in 10 BD and 14 HC, after polyclonal stimulation. In addition, we analysed serum IL-15 and soluble MICA, by ELISA, in 27 BD, 21 HC and 40 rheumatoid arthritis patients. The hallmark in BD was a specific increase in CD8 expression by GD, and in GDCD8+ absolute numbers. Most of GDCD8+ presented CD8 alphaalpha homodimers and were negative for CD103, Foxp3 and CTLA-4. GDCD8+ and GDCD8- were high IFNgamma-, but poor IL-2, IL-10, TGFbeta and IL-4-producing cells, with no differences between BD and HC. NKG2D expression on CD8+ T cells, serum IL-15 and soluble MICA were not significantly increased in BD. Our results do not suggest a T regulatory profile for GDCD8+ neither in HC, nor in BD. We cannot rule out other suppression mechanisms or some heterogeneity within this subset that could contribute to regulatory function.

  6. Circulating T lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with bipolar II or major depression: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Zheng, Ya-li; Tian, Li-ping; Lai, Jian-bo; Hu, Chan-chan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jing-kai; Hu, Jian-bo; Huang, Man-li; Wei, Ning; Xu, Wei-juan; Zhou, Wei-hua; Lu, Shao-jia; Lu, Jing; Qi, Hong-li; Wang, Dan-dan; Zhou, Xiao-yi; Duan, Jin-feng; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-hua

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the less known activation pattern of T lymphocyte populations and immune checkpoint inhibitors on immunocytes in patients with bipolar II disorder depression (BD) or major depression (MD). A total of 23 patients with BD, 22 patients with MD, and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The blood cell count of T lymphocyte subsets and the plasma level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) were selectively investigated. The expression of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, on T lymphocytes and monocytes, was detected. In results, blood proportion of cytotoxic T cells significantly decreased in BD patients than in either MD patients or HCs. The plasma level of IL-6 increased in patients with BD and MD. The expression of TIM-3 on cytotoxic T cells significantly increased, whereas the expression of PD-L2 on monocytes significantly decreased in patients with BD than in HCs. These findings extended our knowledge of the immune dysfunction in patients with affective disorders. PMID:28074937

  7. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and carotid-intima media thickness in patients with Behçet disease without cardiovascular involvement.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Cengiz; Balta, Sevket; Balta, Ilknur; Demirkol, Sait; Celik, Turgay; Turker, Turker; Iyisoy, Atila; Eksioglu, Meral

    2015-03-01

    Behçet disease (BD) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammation. The neutrophil-lymphocyte (N/L) ratio and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) are markers of inflammation and vascular risk, respectively. We assessed the relationship between cIMT values and N/L ratio in BD (65 patients and 62 control participants). There were statistically significant differences in N/L ratios and cIMT values between the patients with BD and control group (P < .001). There were moderate positive correlations between cIMT value, C-reactive protein, and N/L ratio in patients with BD. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that the optimum N/L ratio cutoff point for patients with BD was 1.29, with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 97, 77, 96, and 75%, respectively (area under curve: 0.691, 95% confidence interval = 0.600-0.782, P < .001). The N/L ratio may be a useful index of BD activity.

  8. Distinct proteomic profiles in post-mortem pituitary glands from bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Alsaif, Murtada; Chan, Man K; Rahmoune, Hassan; Steeb, Hannah; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine this further, we carried out proteomic profiling of post-mortem pituitaries from 13 BD and 14 MDD patients, in comparison to 15 controls. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) analysis showed that BD patients had significantly increased levels of the major pituitary hormones pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and galanin. BD patients also showed changes in proteins associated with gene transcription, stress response, lipid metabolism and growth signalling. In contrast, LC-MS(E) profiling revealed that MDD patients had significantly decreased levels of the prohormone-converting enzyme carboxypeptidease E and follow-up enzymatic analysis showed decreased activity of prolyl-oligopeptidase convertase. This suggested that altered prohormone processing may occur in pituitaries of MDD patients. In addition, MDD patients had significant changes in proteins involved in intracellular transport and cytoskeletal signalling. Finally, we carried out selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry profiling for validation of protein changes in key biological pathways. This confirmed increased POMC levels in BD patients with no change in the levels of this prohormone in MDD. This study demonstrates that proteomic profiling analysis of the pituitary can lead to new insights into the pathophysiology of BD and MDD. Also, given that the pituitary directly releases a variety of bioactive molecules into the bloodstream, many of the proteins identified here could serve as focal points in the search for peripheral biomarkers in clinical or drug treatment studies of BD and MDD patients.

  9. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA by use of self-obtained vaginal swabs with the BD ProbeTec Qx assay on the BD Viper system.

    PubMed

    Van Der Pol, Barbara; Williams, James A; Taylor, Stephanie N; Cammarata, Catherine L; Rivers, Charles A; Body, Barbara A; Nye, Melinda; Fuller, Deanna; Schwebke, Jane R; Barnes, Mathilda; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and improved diagnostic methods are critical for controlling this pathogen. Diagnostic assays that can be used in conjunction with routine chlamydia/gonorrhea nucleic acid-based screening are likely to have the most impact on disease control. Here we describe the performance of the new BD T. vaginalis Qx (TVQ) amplified DNA assay, which can be performed on the automated BD Viper system. We focus on data from vaginal swab samples, since this is the specimen type routinely used for traditional trichomonas testing and the recommended specimen type for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening. Vaginal swabs were obtained from women attending sexually transmitted disease or family planning clinics at 7 sites. Patient-collected vaginal swabs were tested by the TVQ assay, and the Aptima T. vaginalis (ATV) assay was performed using clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Additional clinician-collected vaginal swabs were used for the wet mount and culture methods. Analyses included comparisons versus the patient infection status (PIS) defined by positive results with the wet mount method or culture, direct comparisons assessed with κ scores, and latent class analysis (LCA) as an unbiased estimator of test accuracy. Data from 838 women, 116 of whom were infected with T. vaginalis, were analyzed. The TVQ assay sensitivity and specificity estimates based on the PIS were 98.3% and 99.0%, respectively. The TVQ assay was similar to the ATV assay (κ=0.938) in direct analysis. LCA estimated the TVQ sensitivity and specificity as 98.3 and 99.6%, respectively. The TVQ assay performed well using self-collected vaginal swabs, the optimal sample type, as recommended by the CDC for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening among women.

  10. Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii on the fully automated BD MAX platform.

    PubMed

    Dalpke, Alexander H; Hofko, Marjeta; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised and AIDS patients. Detection by quantitative PCR is faster and more sensitive than microscopic diagnosis yet requires specific infrastructure. We adapted a real-time PCR amplifying the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) target from Pneumocystis jirovecii for use on the new BD MAX platform. The assay allowed fully automated DNA extraction and multiplex real-time PCR. The BD MAX assay was evaluated against manual DNA extraction and conventional real-time PCR. The BD MAX was used in the research mode running a multiplex PCR (MSG, internal control, and sample process control). The assay had a detection limit of 10 copies of an MSG-encoding plasmid per PCR that equated to 500 copies/ml in respiratory specimens. We observed accurate quantification of MSG targets over a 7- to 8-log range. Prealiquoting and sealing of the complete PCR reagents in conical tubes allowed easy and convenient handling of the BD MAX PCR. In a retrospective analysis of 54 positive samples, the BD MAX assay showed good quantitative correlation with the reference PCR method (R(2) = 0.82). Cross-contamination was not observed. Prospectively, 278 respiratory samples were analyzed by both molecular assays. The positivity rate overall was 18.3%. The BD MAX assay identified 46 positive samples, compared to 40 by the reference PCR. The BD MAX assay required liquefaction of highly viscous samples with dithiothreitol as the only manual step, thus offering advantages for timely availability of molecular-based detection assays.

  11. Alterations of brain activity in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Sawaddiruk, Passakorn; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients. Nevertheless, due to few studies, limited knowledge for alterations in brain activities in fibromyalgia is currently available. In this review, the changes in brain activity in various brain areas obtained from reports in fibromyalgia patients are comprehensively summarized. Changes of the grey matter in multiple regions such as the superior temporal gyrus, posterior thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, SII, caudate and putamen from the MRI as well as the increase of brain activities in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, insula in fMRI studies are presented and discussed. Moreover, evidence from pharmacological interventions offering benefits for fibromyalgia patients by reducing brain activity is presented. Because of limited knowledge regarding the roles of brain activity alterations in fibromyalgia, this summarized review will encourage more future studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the brains of these patients.

  12. 78 FR 75511 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD- 500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Electronic Flight Control System: Control... control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety... control system (EFCS) and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller to the control surface. As...

  13. 76 FR 17582 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Model BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Bombardier Model BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD) With Video Synthetic Vision System (SVS) AGENCY: Federal...

  14. High Production of 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) by Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 via Optimizing Fermentation Conditions and Overexpressing 2,3-BD Synthesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Cho, Sukhyeong; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Jinwon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of 2,3-butandiol (2,3-BD) has received great attention as an alternative to the petroleum-based 2,3-BD production. In this study, a high production of 2,3-BD in fed-batch fermentation was investigated with a newly isolated bacterium designated as Raoultella ornithinolytica B6. The isolate produced 2,3-BD as the main product using hexoses (glucose, galactose, and fructose), pentose (xylose) and disaccharide (sucrose). The effects of temperature, pH-control schemes, and agitation speeds on 2,3-BD production were explored to optimize the fermentation conditions. Notably, cell growth and 2,3-BD production by R. ornithinolytica B6 were higher at 25°C than at 30°C. When three pH control schemes (no pH control, pH control at 7, and pH control at 5.5 after the pH was decreased to 5.5 during fermentation) were tested, the best 2,3-BD titer and productivity along with reduced by-product formation were achieved with pH control at 5.5. Among different agitation speeds (300, 400, and 500 rpm), the optimum agitation speed was 400 rpm with 2,3-BD titer of 68.27 g/L, but acetic acid was accumulated up to 23.32 g/L. Further enhancement of the 2,3-BD titer (112.19 g/L), yield (0.38 g/g), and productivity (1.35 g/L/h) as well as a significant reduction of acetic acid accumulation (9.71 g/L) was achieved by the overexpression of homologous budABC genes, the 2,3-BD-synthesis genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to 2,3-BD. This is the first report presenting a high 2,3-BD production by R.ornithinolytica which has attracted little attention with respect to 2,3-BD production, extending the microbial spectrum of 2,3-BD producers. PMID:27760200

  15. Left ventricular intracardiac thrombus in a patient with Behçet disease successfully treated with immunosuppressive agents without anticoagulation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, Tatiana; Alekberova, Zemfira; Ovcharov, Pavel; Volkov, Alexander; Korsakova, Julia; Nasonov, Evgeni

    2015-11-01

    Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic multisystem disorder with vasculitis underlying its systemic manifestations. Cardiac involvement and particularly left ventricular intracardiac thrombus are rarely diagnosed in the course of BD and are often associated with poor prognosis. The causes of intracardiac thrombi are unknown. It is plausible that specific proinflammatory pathways resulting in the endothelial cell injury and hypercoagulation contribute to the formation of thrombotic masses in the heart. Known thrombophilic factors such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations, factor V Leiden mutation, proteins S and C, antithrombin III, activated protein C resistance, and antiphospholipid antibodies may contribute to the formation of intracardiac thrombi in BD. We report a case of a 24-year-old male patient with BD presented with left ventricular thrombus. Transthoracic echocardiography allowed to describe and monitor such a rare cardiac manifestation of the disease. A combination of high-dose corticosteroid and azathioprine successfully dissolved intracardiac thrombus within ten days without anticoagulation.

  16. D/H Toward BD+28 4211: First FUSE Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborne, George; Andre, M.; Oliveira, C.; Friedman, S. D.; Howk, J. C.; Kruk, J. W.; Moos, H. W.; Oegerle, W. R.; Sembach, K. R.; Chayer, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The atomic deuterium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio has been evaluated for the sight line toward the hot O subdwarf BD+28(sup circ) 4211. High signal-to-noise ratio (S/N is approx. 100) observations covering the wavelength range 905 to 1187 angstroms at a wavelength resolving power of lambda/Delta/lambda at approx. 20,000 were obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. BD+28(sup circ) 4211 is approx. 00 pc away with a total H I column density of approx. 10(exp 19)/sq cm, much higher than is typically found in the local interstellar medium (ISM). The deuterium column density was measured by analyzing several D I Lyman series transitions (Lyman delta, C, epsilon, eta, theta, iota with curve of growth and profile fitting techniques, after determining which lines were free of interference from other interstellar species and narrow stellar features. The neutral hydrogen column density was measured by an analysis of the Lyman-alpha profile using HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) spectra. The stellar spectrum of BD+28(sup circ) 4211 was modelled to assist in determining the sensitivity of H I (Ly-alpha) and D I to the continuum placement and to identify stellar transitions. The D I and H I column densities, their uncertainties, and potential sources of systematic error will be presented. This work is based on data obtained for the FUSE Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by the Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided in part by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  17. Physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often associated with physical hyperactivity. Recent studies have established links between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of commonalities in neural pathways. How physical activity should be managed during the clinical care of patients with anorexia remains controversial. This review first focuses on the implication of hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of AN. Hyperactivity during refeeding of patients with AN has been associated with increased energy needs to achieve weight gain, poorer clinical outcome, longer hospitalization, and increased psychiatric comorbidity. This typically leads to the prescription of bed rest. However, current knowledge suggests that preserving some kind of physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be safe and beneficial for the restoration of body composition, the preservation of bone mineral density, and the management of mood and anxiety. In the absence of standardized guidelines, it is suggested here that physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be personalized according to the physical and mental status of each patient. More research is needed to assess whether programmed physical activity may be a beneficial part of the treatment of AN.

  18. Prolidase activity in chronic plaque psoriasis patients

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Nurten; Ozgöztas, Orhan; Sezen, Hatice; Yesilova, Yavuz; Turan, Enver

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, T-cell-mediated and hyperproliferative skin disease characterized by erythematous, squamous, sharply circumscribed and infiltrated plaques. The metabolisms of the collagen proteins undergo considerable changes due to the acceleration of their turnovers as a result of increased prolidase activity in psoriasis patients. Aim To determine the level of prolidase activity in psoriasis patients and evaluate its relationship with the oxidative system. Material and methods The serum prolidase enzyme activity, total antioxidant levels and total oxidant levels of 40 psoriasis patients and a control group including 47 healthy individuals were analyzed by using their serum samples, and their oxidative stress indices were calculated. Results The prolidase levels (p < 0.01), total oxidant levels (p < 0.01) and oxidative stress index levels (p < 0.001) of the patient group were higher than the corresponding parameters in the control group. The total antioxidant level was low (p < 0.01). Although a positive correlation was found between the prolidase and total antioxidant levels and the total oxidant level, no correlation was found between prolidase and the oxidative stress index. Conclusions It has been determined that the activity of the prolidase enzyme increases due to the increased collage turnover in psoriasis patients. Increased serum oxidant levels and oxidative stress indices values may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:26015776

  19. Evaluation of a New Selective Medium, BD BBL CHROMagar MRSA II, for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Stool Specimens ▿

    PubMed Central

    Havill, Nancy L.; Boyce, John M.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the recovery of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on a new selective chromogenic agar, BD BBL CHROMagar MRSA II (CMRSAII), to that on traditional culture media with 293 stool specimens. The recovery of MRSA was greater on the CMRSAII agar. Screening of stool samples can identify patients who were previously unknown carriers of MRSA. PMID:20392908

  20. GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD addiction.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Amsterdam, Jan G C; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an addictive substance. Its precursors gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) show the same properties and may pose even more risks due to different pharmacokinetics. There are indications that problematic GHB use is increasing in the European Union. This review investigates the existing literature on the neurochemistry of GHB and its precursors, their acute toxicity, addiction potential and withdrawal, the proposed molecular mechanism underlying addiction and the treatment of withdrawal and addiction. Current evidence shows that GHB and its precursors are highly addictive, both in humans and animals, probably through a GABAB receptor related mechanism. Severity of withdrawal symptoms can be considered as a medical emergency. Recent studies suggest that benzodiazepines are not very effective, showing a high treatment resistance, whereas detoxification with pharmaceutical GHB proved to be successful. However, relapse in GHB use is frequent and more research is warranted on relapse prevention. This might aid medical practitioners in the field and improve general understanding of the severity of addiction to GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD.

  1. When seeing the same physician, highly activated patients have better care experiences than less activated patients.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca; Overton, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    Measures of the patient care experience are now routinely used in public reports and increasingly influence health provider payment. We examined data from 5,002 patients of forty-nine primary care providers to explore the relationship between patient activation-a term referring to the knowledge, skills, and confidence a patient has for managing his or her health care-and the patient care experience. We found that patients at higher levels of activation had more positive experiences than patients at lower levels seeing the same clinician. The observed differential was maintained when we controlled for demographic characteristics and health status. We did not find evidence that patients at higher levels of activation selected providers who were more patient-centric. The findings suggest that the care experience is transactional, shaped by both providers and patients. Strategies to improve the patient experience, therefore, should focus not only on providers but also on improving patients' ability to elicit what they need from their providers.

  2. Probing the substrate-binding sites of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with the procion dye green HE-4BD.

    PubMed Central

    McArdell, J E; Duffield, M; Atkinson, T

    1989-01-01

    A reactive bis-dichloro derivative of the Procion dye Green HE-4BD was shown to inactivate irreversibly methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MTS) from Escherichia coli and also tryptophyl-tRNA synthetase (WTS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YTS) from Bacillus stearothermophilus at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. At a 5-fold excess of reactive dye over enzyme subunit concentration MTS was quantitatively inactivated within 20 min in the ATP/pyrophosphate exchange assay, whereas WTS and YTS show an 80% loss of activity over the same time period. The inactivation is affected by the addition of substrates, which either protect (WTS and YTS) or promote (YTS with tyrosine) the dye-mediated enzyme inactivation. Green HE-4BD-OH was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of MTS with respect to MgATP, methionine and tRNA substrates. PMID:2658972

  3. The Lifestyle Switch Protein Bd0108 of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Is an Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    PubMed Central

    Prehna, Gerd; Ramirez, Benjamin E.; Lovering, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a δ-proteobacterium that preys upon Salmonella spp., E. coli, and other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio can grow axenically (host-independent, HI, rare and mutation-driven) or subsist via a predatory lifecycle (host-dependent, HD, the usual case). Upon contact with prey, B. bacteriovorus enters the host periplasm from where it slowly drains the host cytosol of nutrients for its own replication. At the core of this mechanism is a retractile pilus, whose architecture is regulated by the protein Bd0108 and its interaction with the neighboring gene product Bd0109. Deletion of bd0108 results in negligible pilus formation, whereas an internal deletion (the one that instigates host-independence) causes mis-regulation of pilus length. These mutations, along with a suite of naturally occurring bd0108 mutant strains, act to control the entry to HI growth. To further study the molecular mechanism of predatory regulation, we focused on the apparent lifecycle switch protein Bd0108. Here we characterize the solution structure and dynamics of Bd0108 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy complemented with additional biophysical methods. We then explore the interaction between Bd0108 and Bd0109 in detail utilizing isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and NMR spectroscopy. Together our results demonstrate that Bd0108 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) and that the interaction with Bd0109 is of low affinity. Furthermore, we observe that Bd0108 retains an IDP nature while binding Bd0109. From our data we conclude that Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus utilizes an intrinsically disordered protein to regulate its pilus and control predation signaling. PMID:25514156

  4. Expression of hBD-2 induced by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and split influenza virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenwei; Lei, Han

    2012-10-01

    Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide with high activity and broad spectrum activity. hBD-2 expression may be highly elevated by microorganisms and inflammation. We reported that the majority of common vaccines used, including 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and split influenza virus vaccine, could induce the expression of hBD-2 in epithelial cells. Among them, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine was effective at a lower concentration (0.5 µg/ml), while Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and split influenza virus vaccine were effective at the concentration of 1 µg/ml. However, bacteriostatic experiments revealed that the split influenza virus vaccine was capable of inducing the highest antimicrobial activity. The medium of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine treatment group had a higher antimicrobial activity than the medium of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine treatment group. The transcriptional regulator of hBD-2, that is, the NF-κB subunit, had a high level of activity, while the normal epithelial cells showed barely detectable activity, indicating that these vaccines have potential for clinical application.

  5. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Amygdala Activation in Youths with and without Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xinmin; Akula, Nirmala; Skup, Martha; Brotman, Melissa A.; Leibenluft, Ellen; McMahon, Francis J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging is commonly used to characterize brain activity underlying a variety of psychiatric disorders. A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study found that amygdala activation during a face-processing task differed between pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls. We…

  6. Gamma-N activation of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Meek, A.G.; Moskowitz, M.; Cohn, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    High energy gamma radiation (8 to 30 MeV) is gaining acceptance for radiation therapy of patients with deep cancers. This radiation is of sufficient energy to induce photonuclear activation of the elements in the human body. Our results of measurements of nitrogen and phosphorus in an anthropomorphic phantom, a cadaver, and a cancer patient with bremsstrahlung radiation from 15 MeV electrons demonstrate the feasibility of a method to monitor these two elements in the human body in vivo by measuring the radioactivity induced in these targets by photonuclear reactions. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Normal Metabolic Levels in Prefrontal Cortex in Euthymic Bipolar I Patients with and without Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Marlos Vasconcelos; Nery-Fernandes, Fabiana; Guimarães, José Luiz; Quarantini, Lucas de Castro; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Ladeia-Rocha, Giovanna G.; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Araujo Neto, César; Miranda-Scippa, Ângela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Objective. Evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), but few neurochemical studies have evaluated this region in bipolar patients and there is no information from BD suicide attempters using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H+MRS). The objective was to evaluate the metabolic function of the medial orbital frontal cortex in euthymic BD type I suicide and nonsuicide attempters compared to healthy subjects by H+MRS. Methods. 40 euthymic bipolar I outpatients, 19 without and 21 with history of suicide attempt, and 22 healthy subjects were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview with the DSM-IV axis I, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and underwent H+MRS. Results. We did not find any metabolic abnormality in medial orbital frontal regions of suicide and nonsuicide BD patients and BD patients as a group compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions. The combined chronic use of psychotropic drugs with neuroprotective or neurotrophic effects leading to a euthymic state for longer periods of time may improve neurometabolic function, at least measured by H+MRS, even in suicide attempters. Besides, these results may implicate mood dependent alterations in brain metabolic activity. However, more studies with larger sample sizes of this heterogeneous disorder are warranted to clarify these data. PMID:26075096

  8. Venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer.

    PubMed

    Seddighzadeh, Ali; Shetty, Ranjith; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2007-09-01

    Patients with cancer have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). To further define the demographics, comorbidities, and risk factors of VTE in these patients, we analyzed a prospective registry of 5,451 patients with ultrasound confirmed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) from 183 hospitals in the United States. Cancer was reported in 1,768 (39%), of whom 1,096 (62.0%) had active cancer. Of these, 599 (54.7%) were receiving chemotherapy, and 226 (20.6%) had metastases. Lung (18.5%), colorectal (11.8%), and breast cancer (9.0%) were among the most common cancer types. Cancer patients were younger (median age 66 years vs. 70 years; p < 0.0001), were more likely to be male (50.4% vs. 44.5%; p = 0.0005), and had a lower average body mass index (26.6 kg/m(2) vs. 28.9 kg/m(2); p < 0.0001). Cancer patients less often received VTE prophylaxis prior to development of DVT compared to those with no cancer (308 of 1,096, 28.2% vs. 1,196 of 3,444, 34.6%; p < 0.0001). For DVT therapy, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) as monotherapy without warfarin (142 of 1,086, 13.1% vs. 300 of 3,429, 8.7%; p < 0.0001) and inferior vena caval filters (234 of 1,086, 21.5% vs. 473 of 3,429, 13.8%; p < 0.0001) were utilized more often in cancer patients than in DVT patients without cancer. Cancer patients with DVT and neurological disease were twice as likely to receive inferior vena caval filters than those with no cancer (odds ratio 2.17, p = 0.005). In conclusion, cancer patients who develop DVT receive prophylaxis less often and more often receive filters than patients with no cancer who develop DVT. Future studies should focus on ways to improve implementation of prophylaxis in cancer patients and to further define the indications, efficacy, and safety of inferior vena caval filters in this population.

  9. Purification and characterization of a novel milk-clotting metalloproteinase from Paenibacillus spp. BD3526.

    PubMed

    Hang, Feng; Wang, Qinbo; Hong, Qing; Liu, Peiyi; Wu, Zhengjun; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a milk-clotting enzyme (MCE) isolated from Paenibacillus spp. BD3526 was purified and characterized. The MCE was purified 8.9-fold with a 10.11% recovery using ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography and the specific milk-clotting activity (MCA) reached 6791.73 SU/mg. The enzyme was characterized as a 35kDa metalloproteinase, and the zymogen of which was encoded by a 1671 bp gene named zinc metalloproteinase precursor (zmp) with a predicted molecular weight of 59.6 kDa. The optimal temperature for MCA and proteolytic activity (PA) was 65°C and 60°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a pH range of 5.0-9.0 and at temperatures below 50°C. The MCA was completely inactivated when the enzyme was heated at 60°C for 30 min, and the PA was totally inactivated for 20 and 10 min when the enzyme was heated at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. The BD3526 enzyme was preferentially active towards κ-casein (κ-CN) and β-casein (β-CN), as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE), whereas the hydrolysis of αs-casein (αs-CN) was slow and comparable to that caused by chymosin and asparatic acid proteinase from Rhizomucor miehei. The cleavage site of the metalloproteinase in κ-CN was located at the Met106-Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis.

  10. Endoscopic findings of gastrointestinal involvement in Chinese patients with Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Shen, Yan; Ji, Da-Nian; Zheng, Song-Bai; Guan, Jian-Long

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To report the incidence, clinical features and outcomes of gastrointestinal (GI) involvement in Behcet’s disease (BD). METHODS: A total of 168 consecutive patients with BD were screened and upper and lower GI endoscopies were performed in 148 patients. Four hundred age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled for comparison. RESULTS: Fifty-two (35.1%) patients had GI lesions. After a mean follow-up of 10 mo, ileocecal ulcers had been confirmed in 20 patients, including active ulcer(s) in 18 patients, but no ileocecal ulceration was found in controls. GI symptoms were present in 14 patients with active ulcer(s), while 4 patients with smaller ulcer were asymptomatic. Endoscopic features of ileocecal ulcer were: a single ulcer (50%), larger than 1 cm in diameter (72.2%), and round/oval or volcano-type in shape (83.3%). Compared with patients without GI involvement, less ocular lesions, lower levels of albumin, erythrocyte count and hemoglobin, and higher levels of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were confirmed in the intestinal BD group. Four patients had esophageal ulcers in the BD group but no case in controls. The other endoscopic findings were similar between the two groups. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was similar in both groups. Most patients received an immunomodulator and responded well. CONCLUSION: GI lesions commonly occur in Chinese BD patients. The most frequently involved area is the ileocecal region. Esophageal ulcer might be a rare but unique lesion. PMID:25493032

  11. Future Research Directions for the Field of E/BD: Standing on the Shoulders of Giants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Jolivette, Kristine; Conroy, Maureen; Nelson, C. Michael; Benner, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The origins and evolution of the field of emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) provide a context for offering suggestions for advancing the field. Building from this historical past and the research of others in the field, four broad recommendations which focus on academic and social needs of students with E/BD are offered: (a) ensuring high…

  12. Fusing Functional MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Measures of Brain Function and Structure to Predict Working Memory and Processing Speed Performance among Inter-episode Bipolar Patients.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Benjamin S; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Sutherland, Ashley N; Eyler, Lisa T

    2015-05-01

    Evidence for abnormal brain function as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and cognitive dysfunction have been observed in inter-episode bipolar disorder (BD) patients. We aimed to create a joint statistical model of white matter integrity and functional response measures in explaining differences in working memory and processing speed among BD patients. Medicated inter-episode BD (n=26; age=45.2±10.1 years) and healthy comparison (HC; n=36; age=46.3±11.5 years) participants completed 51-direction DTI and fMRI while performing a working memory task. Participants also completed a processing speed test. Tract-based spatial statistics identified common white matter tracts where fractional anisotropy was calculated from atlas-defined regions of interest. Brain responses within regions of interest activation clusters were also calculated. Least angle regression was used to fuse fMRI and DTI data to select the best joint neuroimaging predictors of cognitive performance for each group. While there was overlap between groups in which regions were most related to cognitive performance, some relationships differed between groups. For working memory accuracy, BD-specific predictors included bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from fMRI, splenium of the corpus callosum, left uncinate fasciculus, and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi from DTI. For processing speed, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and right superior longitudinal fasciculus from DTI were significant predictors of cognitive performance selectively for BD patients. BD patients demonstrated unique brain-cognition relationships compared to HC. These findings are a first step in discovering how interactions of structural and functional brain abnormalities contribute to cognitive impairments in BD.

  13. Markers of innate immune activity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the effect of the anti-oxidant coenzyme Q10 on inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Brauner, H; Lüthje, P; Grünler, J; Ekberg, N R; Dallner, G; Brismar, K; Brauner, A

    2014-08-01

    Major long-term complications in patients with diabetes are related to oxidative stress, caused by the hyperglycaemia characteristic for diabetes mellitus. The anti-oxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has therefore been proposed as a beneficial supplement to diabetes treatment. Apart from its anti-oxidative function, CoQ10 appears to modulate immune functions by largely unknown mechanisms. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of CoQ10 on antimicrobial peptides and natural killer (NK) cells, both innate immune components implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetes-associated long-term complications such as cardiovascular disease. We determined serum levels of antimicrobial peptides and the phenotype of NK cells isolated from peripheral blood of patients with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and from healthy controls. In addition, the same parameters were determined in diabetic patients after a 12-week period of CoQ10 supplementation. Two antimicrobial peptides, the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) and the human beta defensin 1 (hBD1), were reduced in serum from patients with T1DM. This defect was not reversible by CoQ10 supplementation. In contrast, CoQ10 reduced the levels of circulating hBD2 in these patients and induced changes in subset distribution and activation markers in peripheral NK cells. The results of the present study open up novel approaches in the prevention of long-term complications associated to T1DM, although further investigations are needed.

  14. [Autonomy of the patient with chronic diseases: from passive patient to active patient].

    PubMed

    González Mestre, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    Due to social, economic and cultural changes, there has been a transformation of Health Services around the world. A new figure has emerged from this: the Active Patient, more responsible, with more information and willing to change his life as a chronic patient. In order to respond to this new situation, several countries have established initiatives such as self-reliance programmes for chronic patients. The aim of this article is to underline the Expert Patient Programme Catalonia(®) and to explain its operation and the results obtained up until now. The purpose of this program is to improve the experience of chronic disease by patients, from meetings in which an expert patient provides his knowledge and experiences to a group of patients with the same disease, with the aim of promoting changes in habits and lifestyles that improve the quality of life and the coexistence of the person with his chronic process.

  15. Pattern and outcome of vascular involvement of Omani patients with Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Alkaabi, Juma K; Pathare, Anil

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study is to study the pattern, frequency and outcome of vascular events in Omani patients with Behcet's disease (BD). Forty BD patients were recruited. Clinical data parameters were recorded, including age at onset, disease duration, current disease activity, and the vascular manifestations of the disease (current and past events). Disease activity was assessed by ESR, CRP and also clinically. For venous and arterial thrombotic events, imaging studies, such as Doppler ultrasonography, angiography, MRI, CT, and echocardiography were performed. Nine patients had vascular events (23%). The mean age of these patients at diagnosis of the vascular event was 24 years (range 15-37) and the mean disease duration at onset of the vascular event was 3.8 years (range 3-5); this was significant when compared with patients without thrombosis (P=0.001, Mann-Whitney test). In these patients with vascular involvement, two patients (22%) had venous lesions, three (33%) patients had arterial lesions and four patients (44%) had mixed lesions. Two patients (22%) had pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) and concomitant intracardiac thrombus, and further one patient also had PAA. Immunosuppressive therapy resulted in the resolution of PAA and intracardiac thrombous. In conclusion, the frequency of vascular complications of BD in our patients is similar to those reported around the world. We found younger male patients with short disease duration are at a greater risk of developing thrombosis. Medical treatment with immunosuppressive therapy without anticoagulation seems successful in treating PAA and intracardiac thrombus.

  16. D-glucose metabolism in BRIN-BD11 islet cells.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, J; Flatt, P R; Barnett, C R; McClenaghan, N H; Malaisse, W J

    1996-04-01

    A novel insulin-secreting cell line, BRIN-BD11, was recently established following electrofusion of RINm5F cells with NEDH rat pancreatic islet cells. In the present study, D-glucose metabolism was compared in BRIN-BD11 and RINm5F cells. The concentration dependency of D[5-3H]glucose utilization displayed a comparable pattern in the two cell lines, but the absolute values were lower in BRIN-BD11 than RINm5F cells. Except in the case of D-[1-14C]glucose, the ratio between 14C labeled D-glucose oxidation and D-[5-3H]glucose utilization was higher, however, in BRIN-BD11 than RINm5F cells. Moreover, BRIN-BD11 cells were less affected than RINm5F cells by a rise in D-glucose concentration, in terms of the inhibitory action of the hexose upon oxidative variables, such as oxidative glycolysis, pyruvate decarboxylation, and oxidation of glucose-derived acetyl residues in the Krebs cycle. The total energy yield from D-glucose catabolism appeared similar, however, in BRIN-BD11 and RINm5F cells. These findings extend the knowledge that BRIN-BD11 cells display an improved metabolic and secretory behavior, when considering the difference otherwise found between normal and tumoral islet cells.

  17. 75 FR 79984 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    .... Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... 39-16297. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Bombardier, Inc. Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300... of Chapter 5 of Bombardier Challenger 300 BD-100 Time Limits/Maintenance Checks. (1) For the...

  18. 76 FR 17758 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    .... Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... Bombardier, Inc. Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) airplanes, having serial numbers (S/Ns) 20001 through..., ``Certification Maintenance Requirements,'' in Part 2 of Chapter 5 of Bombardier Challenger 300 BD-100 Time...

  19. 76 FR 62669 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    .... Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... 300 BD-100 Time Limits/Maintenance Checks Manual. The actions described in this service information... all Bombardier, Inc. Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) airplanes, certificated in any category....

  20. 75 FR 27406 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    .... Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... Maintenance Requirements,'' in Part 2 of Chapter 5 of Bombardier Challenger 300 BD- 100 Time Limits.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to Bombardier, Inc. Model BD-100-1A10 (Challenger 300) airplanes,...

  1. Independent code assessment at BNL in FY 1982. [TRAC-PF1; RELAP5/MOD1; TRAC-BD1

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, P.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Jo, J.H.; Neymotin, L.; Slovik, G.; Yuelys-Miksis, C.

    1982-01-01

    Independent assessment of the advanced codes such as TRAC and RELAP5 has continued at BNL through the Fiscal Year 1982. The simulation tests can be grouped into the following five categories: critical flow, counter-current flow limiting (CCFL) or flooding, level swell, steam generator thermal performance, and natural circulation. TRAC-PF1 (Version 7.0) and RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14) codes were assessed by simulating all of the above experiments, whereas the TRAC-BD1 (Version 12.0) code was applied only to the CCFL tests. Results and conclusions of the BNL code assessment activity of FY 1982 are summarized below.

  2. Creation of a gold nanoparticle based electrochemical assay for the detection of inhibitors of bacterial cytochrome bd oxidases.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Eugénie; Nikolaev, Anton; Nasiri, Hamid R; Hoeser, Jo; Friedrich, Thorsten; Hellwig, Petra; Melin, Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Cytochrome bd oxidases are membrane proteins expressed by bacteria including a number of pathogens, which make them an attractive target for the discovery of new antibiotics. An electrochemical assay is developed to study the activity of these proteins and inhibition by quinone binding site tool compounds. The setup relies on their immobilization at electrodes specifically modified with gold nanoparticles, which allows achieving a direct electron transfer to/from the heme cofactors of this large enzyme. After optimization of the protein coverages, the assay shows at pH7 a good reproducibility and readout stability over time, and it is thus suitable for further screening of small molecule collections.

  3. [Physical activities and sports in asthmatic patients].

    PubMed

    Todaro, A

    1983-05-31

    Asthma patients are too often advised to refrain from sport. Enforced sedentariness, especially in children, leads to muscle hypotonia, reduced mechanical efficiency, paramorphisms, and adverse psychological consequences. Not all asthmatics develop airway spasm as a result of exercise. On the other hand, there are subjects whose bronchial hyper-reactivity is stimulated solely by muscular effort. The pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchospasm is not fully understood. In any event, numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial and even therapeutic effect of physical exercise and sport in cases of asthma. Provided they are practised with judgment and in accordance with a suitable programme, swimming, activities of an alternating aerobic and anaerobic type, cross-country skiing, gymnastics, and fencing are primarily indicated. Some asthmatics have also won Olympic medals. In the light of the studies carried out so far, it is strongly suggested that asthmatics be encouraged to take up sport suitable to their psychophysical characteristics, and not kept wrapped up in cotton wool.

  4. Hypericum perforatum modulates apoptosis and calcium mobilization through voltage-gated and TRPM2 calcium channels in neutrophil of patients with Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Sahin, Mehmet; Ciğ, Bilal; Aykur, Mehmet; Erturan, Ijlal; Ugan, Yunus

    2014-03-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic, inflammatory, and multisystemic condition although its pathogenesis is uncertain. Main component of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum, HP) is hyperforin and induces antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate effects of HP on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cytosolic-free Ca²⁺ [Ca²⁺](i) concentration in neutrophil of BD patients. Nine new-diagnosed active patients with BD and nine control subjects were included in the study. Disease activity was considered by clinical findings. Neutrophil samples were obtained from the patients and controls. The neutrophils from patients were divided into three subgroups and were incubated with HP, voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blockers, (verapamil+dilitiazem) and non-specific TRPM2 channel blocker (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, 2-APB), respectively. The neutrophils were stimulated by fMLP as a Ca²⁺-concentration agonist and oxidative stress former. Caspase-3, caspase-9, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and [Ca²⁺](i) values were high in the patient groups, although cell viability, glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) values were low in patient group. However, the [Ca²⁺](i), caspase-3, and caspase-9 values decreased markedly in patient+HP group although GSH and GSH-Px values increased in the group. The [Ca²⁺](i) concentration was also decreased in the patient group by V+D, 2-APB, and HP incubations. In conclusion, we observed the importance of neutrophil Ca²⁺ entry, apoptosis, and oxidative stress through gating VGCC and TRPM2 channels in the neutrophils in the pathogenesis and activation of the patients with BD. HP induced protective effects on oxidative stress by modulating Ca²⁺ influx in BD patients.

  5. Biomechanical Evaluation of Russian BD-1 Treadmill during Non-Motorized Treadmill Locomotion in a Weightless Environment (KC-135)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Hagan, Don

    2005-01-01

    Subjects are able to successfully perform locomotion exercise on the BD-1 treadmill in weightlessness. The BD-1 bungee system has limited adjustability and provides higher loading for small subjects and lower loading for larger subjects. Some subjects have difficulty reaching and maintaining higher speeds starting at around 14 km/h. The ground reaction force profile for BD-1 locomotion shows peak propulsive forces comparable to 1g, but the heel strike peak appears to be absent during running on the BD-1 in weightlessness. These observations have implications for exercise prescriptions for BD-1 treadmill use on-board ISS.

  6. Assessment of TRAC-BD1 amd RAMONA-3B codes fpr BWR ATWS application

    SciTech Connect

    Neymotin, L.; Hsu, C.J.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    Based on comparisons between the TRAC-BD1 power imposed calculation and the RAMONA-3B results, it can be said that the thermal-hydraulic models of both RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1 provide adequate representation of an ATWS event in a BWR. However, for the reactor power calculation, RAMONA-3B with space-time neutron kinetics is a superior and preferable tool to the TRAC-BD1 with point kinetics for ATWS type events where the spatial core power distribution varies with time. Also, the computer running time for RAMONA-3B (with 115 hydraulic cells and 192 neutronic cells has been found to be about four times lower than TRAC-BD1 (with 63 hydraulic cells and point kinetics). Therefore, it is recommended that RAMONA-3B be further used for best-estimate analysis of BWR ATWS-type events.

  7. Component validation of direct diode 488nm lasers in BD Accuri C6 flow cytometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei P.; Luo, Ningyi D.

    2016-03-01

    The 488nm laser is the most important excitation light source of flow cytometry. The indirect diode (frequency-doubled diode) 488nm lasers are used in the excitation of Becton Dickinson (BD) AccuriTM C6. For using cost effective lasers, we have validated direct diode 488nm lasers as the replacement component of frequency-doubled diode laser. BD Bioscience issued the protocols to cover wavelength, power, noise, and polarization at the operation temperature range of cytometer. Pavilion Integration Corporation (PIC) tested 6 samples as the component validation of direct diode 488nm lasers based on the protocols from BD Biosciences. BD Bioscience also tested one of laser samples to further validate the test results of power, noise, and polarization from PIC.

  8. Autonomic neural control of the cardiovascular system in patients with Behçet's disease in the absence of neurological involvement.

    PubMed

    Erol, Tansel; Tekin, Abdullah; Tufan, Müge; Altay, Hakan; Tekin, Göknur; Bilgi, Muhammet; Özin, Bülent; Yücel, Eftal; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2012-10-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic multi-system disease presenting with recurrent oral and genital ulceration, and relapsing uveitis. Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is a marker of parasympathetic activity. A delayed recovery of systolic blood pressure (SBP) after exercise might reflect sympathetic hyperactivity. The analysis of variations in heart rate has also been used to determine the balance between sympathetic and vagal nerve activities in the heart. Our objective was to determine HRR, the SBP response to exercise and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with BD in the absence of neurological involvement. The study population consisted of 32 patients with BD and 30 healthy controls who were matched with respect to age, sex, and physical activity. Heart rate recovery was calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and heart rate at 1, 2, and 3 min of recovery. Blood pressure recovery indexes were determined by dividing the systolic blood pressure at 2 and 3 min in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise. In patients with BD, mean HRR at 1 min (HRR1) were not significantly different than that of controls (21 ± 7 vs 20 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.50). Although, resting mean SBP of patients with BD was higher than controls (121 ± 13 vs 115 ± 12 mmHg, p = 0.039), the SBP recovery indices of the patients with BD at 2 and 3 min were similar to those of controls (0.84 ± 0.07 vs 0.84 ± 0.09, p = 0.89 and 0.78 ± 0.09 vs 0.78 ± 0.08, p = 0.93, respectively). Both time domain and frequency domain parameters of patients with BD were similar to that of controls. This study shows that the patients with BD have normal HRR1 and normal SBP response to exercise and normal HRV. These findings might suggest unaltered autonomic neural control of the cardiovascular system in this disorder in the absence of neurological involvement.

  9. Effect of flavor-changing neutral currents in the leptonic asymmetry in Bd decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Parada, P. A.; Morozumi, T.; Rebelo, M. N.

    1993-06-01

    We evaluate the charge asymmetry in equal sign dileptons arising from the decay of a Bd0-Bd0 pair, in the presence of Z-mediated flavor-changing neutral currents. We compare our predictions with those of the standard model and the superweak model. Work supported by the Deprtment of Energy, contract DEAC03-76SF00515 and by a fellowship from OTAN (NATO).

  10. How relevant is opportunistic Bd sampling: are we ready for the big picture?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Pedersen, Britt Spurre; Pedersen, Finn Spurre

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of chytridiomycosis, both at global and local scales, is important to controlling its impacts on host species (e.g., biocontrol or eradication) and to managing host amphibian populations (e.g., reintroduction and habitat management). In response to this, efforts to map observations of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) are underway to better understand its distribution and impact on amphibian populations (e.g., www.spatialepidemiology.net/Bd).

  11. Evolution effect of BD+60°2522 to Bubble Nebula NGC 7635

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprilia; Arfianty, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    Bubble Nebula is a bubble formed by the interaction between the stellar wind of BD+60°2522 with ambient interstellar gas. We use a web-based stellar evolution code, the EZ- web, to construct the evolution of BD+60°2522. From the evolution, we obtain the age of the system needed for the interstellar bubbles model. Then from the model, we determine parameters such as radius, expansion velocity, luminosity, temperature, and density of the Bubble.

  12. [Plasma antithrombin III activity in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Vertun, B; Filipecki, S; Szczepański, M; Wawrzyńska, L; Rózycka, J

    A decreased plasma antithrombin III activity has been noted in 12 out of 20 patients. In 2 patients it was most probably congenital defect, whereas in the remaining 10 patients--acquired. The observed disorders in the activity of antithrombin III with particular reference to anticoagulant therapy have been discussed.

  13. Exploring Contextual Factors and Patient Activation: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of Patients with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mortensen, Karoline; Bloodworth, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Patient activation has been considered as a "blockbuster drug of the century." Patients with mental disorders are less activated compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Low activation due to mental disorders can affect the efficiency of treatment of other comorbidities. Contextual factors are significantly associated with…

  14. Antidepressants worsen rapid-cycling course in bipolar depression: A STEP-BD randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Vöhringer, Paul A.; Ostacher, Michael M.; Baldassano, Claudia F.; Holtzman, Niki S.; Whitham, Elizabeth A.; Thommi, Sairah B.; Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of antidepressants in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder has been controversial. We report the first randomized clinical trial with modern antidepressants on this topic. Methods As part of the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) study, we analyzed, as an a priori secondary outcome, rapid cycling as a predictor of response in 68 patients randomized to continue versus discontinue antidepressant treatment, after initial response for an acute major depressive episode. Outcomes assessed were percent time well and total number of episodes. All patients received standard mood stabilizers. Results In those continued on antidepressants (AD), rapid cycling (RC) subjects experienced 268% (3.14/1.17) more total mood episodes/year, and 293% (1.29/0.44) more depressive episodes/year, compared with non-rapid cycling (NRC) subjects (mean difference in depressive episodes per year RC vs NRC was 0.85 ± 0.37 (SE), df=28, p =0.03). In the AD continuation group, RC patients also had 28.8% less time in remission than NRC patients (95% confidence intervals [9.9%, 46.5%], p = 0.004). No such differences between RC and NRC subjects were seen in the AD discontinuation group (Table 1). Analyses within the rapid-cycling subgroup alone were consistent with the above comparisons between RC and NRC subjects, stratified by maintenance antidepressant treatment, though limited by sample size. Conclusions In an a priori analysis, despite preselection for good antidepressant response and concurrent mood stabilizer treatment, antidepressant continuation in rapid-cycling was associated with worsened maintenance outcomes, especially for depressive morbidity, versus antidepressant discontinuation. PMID:26142612

  15. 78 FR 75287 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed special conditions. SUMMARY: This... can be accomplished smoothly with average piloting skill and without exceeding any structural...

  16. 78 FR 65231 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 series airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... BD- 500-1A11 series airplanes; Fuselage In-Flight Fire Safety and Flammability Resistance AGENCY... test criteria for insulation films directly relating to in-flight fire resistance. The current test... Determine Flame Penetration Resistance of Cargo Compartment Liners). However, the problem with using...

  17. 78 FR 76736 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Side...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... BD- 500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Side Stick Controllers: Pilot Strength, Pilot Control Authority, and... elements. The fuselage is aluminum alloy material, blended double- bubble fuselage, sized for nominal 5.... Regulatory requirements pertaining to conventional wheel and column, such as pilot strength...

  18. Molecular detection of common intestinal parasites: a performance evaluation of the BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel.

    PubMed

    Batra, R; Judd, E; Eling, J; Newsholme, W; Goldenberg, S D

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement of the BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) with microscopy for the detection of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in stool samples. A total of 372 stool samples (partly collected on the basis of positive microscopy and partly unselected, consecutive sample submitted for parasite investigation) were tested with EPP according to manufacturer's instructions and also using microscopy according to standard techniques. Discrepant samples were further tested using PCR by the National Parasitology reference laboratory. Levels of agreement and laboratory turnaround times were measured and compared. Overall, positive and negative percent agreement was high between the two methods. However, microscopy resulted in four false positives and one false negative for G. duodenalis and two false positives for Cryptosporidium. Additionally, microscopy could not differentiate between E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Median laboratory turnaround time was 65 hours for microscopy; results from EPP could be available after four hours. Blastocycstis hominis was detected by microscopy in one sample and would have been missed if only EPP was performed. The EPP was a good alternative to microscopy, detecting a small number of additional positives that were missed by microscopy. The assay is significantly faster than microscopy and allows laboratory workflows to be streamlined. The risk of missing parasites that are not included in the EPP appears to be minimal in the studied population; however, there may be certain patient groups who would benefit from microscopic examination of stools.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation studies and in vitro site directed mutagenesis of avian beta-defensin Apl_AvBD2

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Defensins comprise a group of antimicrobial peptides, widely recognized as important elements of the innate immune system in both animals and plants. Cationicity, rather than the secondary structure, is believed to be the major factor defining the antimicrobial activity of defensins. To test this hypothesis and to improve the activity of the newly identified avian β-defensin Apl_AvBD2 by enhancing the cationicity, we performed in silico site directed mutagenesis, keeping the predicted secondary structure intact. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies were done to predict the activity. Mutant proteins were made by in vitro site directed mutagenesis and recombinant protein expression, and tested for antimicrobial activity to confirm the results obtained in MD simulation analysis. Results MD simulation revealed subtle, but critical, structural variations between the wild type Apl_AvBD2 and the more cationic in silico mutants, which were not detected in the initial structural prediction by homology modelling. The C-terminal cationic 'claw' region, important in antimicrobial activity, which was intact in the wild type, showed changes in shape and orientation in all the mutant peptides. Mutant peptides also showed increased solvent accessible surface area and more number of hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules. In functional studies, the Escherichia coli expressed, purified recombinant mutant proteins showed total loss of antimicrobial activity compared to the wild type protein. Conclusion The study revealed that cationicity alone is not the determining factor in the microbicidal activity of antimicrobial peptides. Factors affecting the molecular dynamics such as hydrophobicity, electrostatic interactions and the potential for oligomerization may also play fundamental roles. It points to the usefulness of MD simulation studies in successful engineering of antimicrobial peptides for improved activity and other desirable functions. PMID

  20. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma*

    PubMed Central

    Odashiro, Macanori; Hans Filho, Gunter; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; Stief, Alcione Cavalheiro; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: Blood was obtained from ten patients with proved metastatic cutaneous melanoma (Group 1), 15 patients resected for cutaneous melanoma without metastasis (Group 2) and 5 healthy donors (Group 3). Melanoma inhibitory activity was measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference of Melanoma inhibitory activity levels between patients with and without metastasis (p=0.002), and between patients with metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.002). There was no difference between patients without metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.443). CONCLUSION: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a tumor marker for cutaneous melanoma and the Melanoma inhibitory activity-ELISA test can be easily performed. Patients with metastasis have increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels when compared to patients without metastasis and healthy donors. PMID:26131861

  1. Behçet’s disease: new insight into the relationship between procoagulant state, endothelial activation/damage and disease activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Behçet disease (BD) is associated with a prothrombotic state of unknown origin that may lead to life-threatening events. Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) and Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are two global haemostasis assays that may reveal new insights into the physiopathological mechanisms of the disease and its procoagulant condition. Methods 23 BD patients who had no signs or symptoms of current thrombosis and 33 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the study. We performed ROTEM and CAT tests and assessed erythrocyte count, platelet count, platelet contribution to clot formation and plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT), D-dimer and E-selectin (ES). Results Both ROTEM and CAT tests showed a hypercoagulable state in the BD patients. Plasma levels of PAI-1, fibrinogen, TAT, CRP and ES were significantly increased in this group compared to controls. The disease activity (DA) was significantly correlated with levels of ES and the maximum clot firmness, and this last one, in turn, correlated with rising levels of ES, PAI-1, CRP and fibrinogen. CAT parameters did not correlate with DA or ES. Conclusions Both ROTEM and CAT tests reveal that patients with BD have a procoagulant state even in the absence of thrombosis. ROTEM test indicates that increased levels of fibrinogen and PAI-1 may be involved in the prothrombotic state of this pathology, while platelets do not significantly contribute. Moreover, CAT assay demonstrate that plasma from BD patients is able to generate more thrombin than controls in response to the same stimulus and that this effect is independent of the DA and the endothelial impairment suggesting the involvement of another factor in the hypercoagulable state observed in BD patients. This study also shows that endothelium activation/damage may be a contributing factor in both

  2. Antimicrobial activity of human β-defensins against lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fang; Tian, Fei; Cao, Rui-Ming; Li, Jing; Wu, Sheng-Mei; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Chen, Tong-Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of human β-defensin-1 (hBD-1), human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) and human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3) against three internationally common probiotic strains of lactic acid bacterium. Our results indicated that hBD-1, hBD-2 and hBD-3 at the range of 0.08-10 μg/mL do not have obvious antimicrobial activity against these strains. Viability of Bifidobacterium longum JDM301 (B. longum JDM301), Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (B. lactis HN019) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were still very high even at concentration of 10 μg hBD/mL. Then, we explored the mechanism of resistance by using carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to inhibit efflux pumps. In the presence of CCCP, hBD-1, hBD-2 and hBD-3 exhibited enhanced antibacterial effect against B. longum JDM301 and B. lactis HN019, but not against LGG. Efflux pumps in B. longum JDM301 and B. lactis HN019 may partly contribute to their resistance to hBD-1, hBD-2, and hBD-3.

  3. Agrowaste to vanillin conversion by a natural Pediococcus acidilactici strain BD16.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kaur, Baljinder; Obulisamy, Karthikeyan; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-13

    Owing to its flavoring, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic nature, vanillin is widely used in foods, beverages, perfumes and pharmaceutical products. Ferulic acid (FA) is an important precursor of vanillin which is abundant in cereals like maize, rice and wheat and sugar beet. A major drawback of microbial vanillin production from FA is the degradation and biotransformation of toxic vanillin to other phenolic derivatives. The present study is undertaken to explore microbial vanillin production from FA precursor rice bran by employing vanillin-resistant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16, a natural lactic acid bacteria isolate. Extracellular, intracellular and cellular vanillin dehydrogenase activity was found least, which was minimized vanillin degradation, and the strain resists more than 5 g L(-1) vanillin in the medium. A metabolomics approach was followed for the detection of FA, vanillin and other metabolites generated during fermentation of rice bran medium. A metabolic pathway was also predicted for vanillin biosynthesis. Approximately 1.06 g L(-1) of crude vanillin was recovered from rice-bran-containing medium and this further offers scope for the industrial utilization of the organism and its genetic manipulation to enhance production of biovanillin.

  4. BD+15 2940 AND HD 233604: TWO GIANTS WITH PLANETS CLOSE TO THE ENGULFMENT ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Adamow, M.; Maciejewski, G.; Wolszczan, A. E-mail: andrzej.niedzielski@astri.umk.pl E-mail: gracjan.maciejewski@astri.umk.pl

    2013-06-10

    We report the discovery of planetary-mass companions to two red giants by the ongoing Penn State-Torun Planet Search (PTPS) conducted with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The 1.1 M{sub Sun} K0-giant, BD+15 2940, has a 1.1 M{sub J} minimum mass companion orbiting the star at a 137.5 day period in a 0.54 AU orbit what makes it the closest-in planet around a giant and possible subject of engulfment as the consequence of stellar evolution. HD 233604, a 1.5 M{sub Sun} K5-giant, is orbited by a 6.6 M{sub J} minimum mass planet which has a period of 192 days and a semi-major axis of only 0.75 AU making it one of the least distant planets to a giant star. The chemical composition analysis of HD 233604 reveals a relatively high {sup 7}Li abundance which may be a sign of its early evolutionary stage or recent engulfment of another planet in the system. We also present independent detections of planetary-mass companions to HD 209458 and HD 88133, and stellar activity-induced radial velocity variations in HD 166435, as part of the discussion of the observing and data analysis methods used in the PTPS project.

  5. Strategy for rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria directly recovered from positive blood cultures using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and the BD Phoenix system.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Jana L; Long, S Wesley; Cernoch, Patricia; Land, Geoffrey A; Davis, James R; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2012-07-01

    Decreasing the time to species identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of strains recovered from patients with bacteremia significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Herein, we validated a method to identify Gram-negative bacteria directly from positive blood culture medium using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and to rapidly perform susceptibility testing using the BD Phoenix.

  6. The Terminal Oxidase Cytochrome bd Promotes Sulfide-resistant Bacterial Respiration and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Elena; Borisov, Vitaliy B.; Falabella, Micol; Colaço, Henrique G.; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Poole, Robert K.; Vicente, João B.; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) impairs mitochondrial respiration by potently inhibiting the heme-copper cytochrome c oxidase. Since many prokaryotes, including Escherichia (E.) coli, generate H2S and encounter high H2S levels particularly in the human gut, herein we tested whether bacteria can sustain sulfide-resistant O2-dependent respiration. E. coli has three respiratory oxidases, the cyanide-sensitive heme-copper bo3 enzyme and two bd oxidases much less sensitive to cyanide. Working on the isolated enzymes, we found that, whereas the bo3 oxidase is inhibited by sulfide with half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.1 μM, under identical experimental conditions both bd oxidases are insensitive to sulfide up to 58 μM. In E. coli respiratory mutants, both O2-consumption and aerobic growth proved to be severely impaired by sulfide when respiration was sustained by the bo3 oxidase alone, but unaffected by ≤200 μM sulfide when either bd enzyme acted as the only terminal oxidase. Accordingly, wild-type E. coli showed sulfide-insensitive respiration and growth under conditions favouring the expression of bd oxidases. In all tested conditions, cyanide mimicked the functional effect of sulfide on bacterial respiration. We conclude that bd oxidases promote sulfide-resistant O2-consumption and growth in E. coli and possibly other bacteria. The impact of this discovery is discussed. PMID:27030302

  7. The Terminal Oxidase Cytochrome bd Promotes Sulfide-resistant Bacterial Respiration and Growth.

    PubMed

    Forte, Elena; Borisov, Vitaliy B; Falabella, Micol; Colaço, Henrique G; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Poole, Robert K; Vicente, João B; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2016-03-31

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) impairs mitochondrial respiration by potently inhibiting the heme-copper cytochrome c oxidase. Since many prokaryotes, including Escherichia (E.) coli, generate H2S and encounter high H2S levels particularly in the human gut, herein we tested whether bacteria can sustain sulfide-resistant O2-dependent respiration. E. coli has three respiratory oxidases, the cyanide-sensitive heme-copper bo3 enzyme and two bd oxidases much less sensitive to cyanide. Working on the isolated enzymes, we found that, whereas the bo3 oxidase is inhibited by sulfide with half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.1 μM, under identical experimental conditions both bd oxidases are insensitive to sulfide up to 58 μM. In E. coli respiratory mutants, both O2-consumption and aerobic growth proved to be severely impaired by sulfide when respiration was sustained by the bo3 oxidase alone, but unaffected by ≤200 μM sulfide when either bd enzyme acted as the only terminal oxidase. Accordingly, wild-type E. coli showed sulfide-insensitive respiration and growth under conditions favouring the expression of bd oxidases. In all tested conditions, cyanide mimicked the functional effect of sulfide on bacterial respiration. We conclude that bd oxidases promote sulfide-resistant O2-consumption and growth in E. coli and possibly other bacteria. The impact of this discovery is discussed.

  8. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  9. Enhancing the Lives of Nursing Home Patients through Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Terry

    This study investigated the use of reading activities in the enhancement of the lives of nursing-home patients. A special reading group was led by a reading specialist in weekly sessions. Patients voluntarily attended the one-hour sessions and read short selections supplied by the reading specialist. Patients ranged in age from 54 to 91. The…

  10. The Leisure Activities of Mental Patients Prior to Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babow, Irving; Simkin, Sol

    To study the leisure activities, social participation, and organizational participation of mental patients before hospital admission, a three-part research instrument was developed consisting of a structured interview schedule requesting information on the patient's leisure activities, a self-administered questionnaire entitled Survey of Opinions…

  11. Isolation and identification of berberine and berberrubine metabolites by berberine-utilizing bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain BD7100.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazuki; Takeda, Hisashi; Wakana, Daigo; Sato, Fumihiko; Hosoe, Tomoo

    2016-05-01

    Based on the finding of a novel berberine (BBR)-utilizing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain BD7100, we investigated the degradation of BBR and its analog berberrubine (BRU). Resting cells of BD7100 demethylenated BBR and BRU, yielding benzeneacetic acid analogs. Isolation of benzeneacetic acid analogs suggested that BD7100 degraded the isoquinoline ring of the protoberberine skeleton. This work represents the first report of cleavage of protoberberine skeleton by a microorganism.

  12. Primary Structure and Antibacterial Activity of Chicken Bone Marrow-Derived β-Defensins▿

    PubMed Central

    Derache, Chrystelle; Labas, Valérie; Aucagne, Vincent; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Delmas, Agnès F.; Magallon, Thierry; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2009-01-01

    Three biologically active β-defensins were purified by chromatography from chicken bone marrow extract: avian β-defensin 1 (AvBD1), AvBD2, and the newly isolated β-defensin AvBD7. Mass spectrometry analyses showed that bone marrow-derived AvBD1, -2, and -7 peptides were present as mature peptides and revealed posttranslational modifications for AvBD1 and AvBD7 in comparison to their in silico-predicted amino acid sequences. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the nanoelectrospray-quadrupole time of flight method showed N-terminal glutaminyl cyclization of mature AvBD7 and C-terminal amidation of mature AvBD1 peptide, while posttranslational modifications were absent in bone marrow-derived mature AvBD2 peptide. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis performed on intact cells confirmed the presence of these three peptides in mature heterophils. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the three β-defensins against a large panel of gram-positive and -negative bacteria were assessed. While the three defensins displayed similar antibacterial spectra of activity against gram-positive strains, AvBD1 and AvBD7 exhibited the strongest activity against gram-negative strains in comparison to AvBD2. PMID:19738012

  13. Evaluation of Xpert MRSA Gen 3 and BD MAX MRSA XT for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus screening in a routine diagnostic setting in a low-prevalence area.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Madsen, Tina Vasehus; Engberg, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Screening and pre-emptive isolation of at-risk patients are important aspects of the Danish approach to the prevention of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA) infection, but screening with conventional culture can take up to 3 days for results to become available with attendant costs and disadvantages of prolonged isolation. We sought to evaluate the accuracy, time to availability of results and potential economic benefits of two next-generation MRSA screening assays, Xpert MRSA Gen 3 (GX MRSA) and BD MAX MRSA XT, in a setting of a consolidated laboratory serving a number of hospitals with a low prevalence of MRSA and using enrichment culture as a reference method. Four hundred and forty-seven screening samples together with 49 previously positive MRSA samples were evaluated. Xpert MRSA Gen 3 demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 88.2, 97.9, 62.5 and 99.5 %, respectively, and for BD MAX MRSA XT, they were 88.2, 97.4, 57.7 and 99.5 %, respectively. Hands-on time was 8.8 and 21.6 min, respectively, for the Xpert MRSA Gen 3 and BD MAX MRSA XT PCR assays when five samples were handled simultaneously. The mean laboratory turnaround time was 2.9 (1-6) hours for the Xpert MRSA Gen 3 assay, 6.5 (2-46) hours for BD MAX MRSA XT and 49.6 (42-122) hours for enriched culture. Despite laboratory costs being higher for the rapid PCR assays, when the costs of isolation are taken into account, the assays offer the potential for significant cost savings.

  14. Dextran synthesized by Leuconostoc mesenteroides BD1710 in tomato juice supplemented with sucrose.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin; Hang, Feng; Guo, Benheng; Liu, Zhenmin; You, Chunpin; Wu, Zhengjun

    2014-11-04

    The characteristics of the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides BD1710 and the synthesis of dextran in tomato juice supplemented with 15% sucrose were assayed. L. mesenteroides BD1710 could synthesize approximately 32 g L(-1) dextran in the tomato-juice-sucrose medium when cultured at 28 °C for 48 h, which was on the same level as the dextran yield in a chemically defined medium. The viscosity of the cultured tomato-juice-sucrose medium with various dextran contents was also measured. The results of the monosaccharide composition, molecular-weight distribution, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR) showed that the polysaccharide synthesized by L. mesenteroides BD1710 in the tomato-juice-sucrose medium was dextran with a peak molecular weight of 6.35 × 10(5)Da, a linear backbone composed of consecutive α-(1 → 6)-linked d-glucopyranosyl units and approximately 6% α-(1 → 3) branches.

  15. Managing the computational chemistry big data problem: the ioChem-BD platform.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Moreno, M; de Graaf, C; López, N; Maseras, F; Poblet, J M; Bo, C

    2015-01-26

    We present the ioChem-BD platform ( www.iochem-bd.org ) as a multiheaded tool aimed to manage large volumes of quantum chemistry results from a diverse group of already common simulation packages. The platform has an extensible structure. The key modules managing the main tasks are to (i) upload of output files from common computational chemistry packages, (ii) extract meaningful data from the results, and (iii) generate output summaries in user-friendly formats. A heavy use of the Chemical Mark-up Language (CML) is made in the intermediate files used by ioChem-BD. From them and using XSL techniques, we manipulate and transform such chemical data sets to fulfill researchers' needs in the form of HTML5 reports, supporting information, and other research media.

  16. Increasing Patient Activation Could Improve Outcomes for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shawn L; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disease process that often requires the integration of skills from various health care providers to adequately meet the needs of patients with IBD. The medical and surgical treatment options for IBD have become more complicated and are frequently a source of angst for both the patient and provider. However, it has become more important than ever to engage patients in navigating the treatment algorithm. Although novel in the IBD world, the concept of patients' becoming more active and effective managers of their care has been well studied in other disease processes such as diabetes mellitus and mental illness. This idea of patient activation refers to a patient understanding his or her role in the care process and having the skill sets and self-reliance necessary to manage his or her own health care. Over the past decade, evidence supporting the role of patient activation in chronic illness has grown, revealing improved health outcomes, enhanced patient experiences, and lower overall costs. Patient activation can be measured, and interventions have been shown to improve levels of activation over time and influence outcomes. A focus on patient activation is very appropriate for patients with IBD because this may potentially serve as a tool for IBD providers to not only improve patient outcomes and experience but also reduce health care costs.

  17. Colchicine modulates oxidative stress in serum and neutrophil of patients with Behçet disease through regulation of Ca²⁺ release and antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Selma; Erturan, Ijlal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Uğuz, Abdulhadi Cihangir; Ciğ, Bilal; Övey, Ishak Suat

    2011-12-01

    Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic, inflammatory, and multisystemic condition with an uncertain pathogenesis. One of the major immunologic findings in BD pathogenesis is increase in activity of neutrophil. An increase in the cytosolic free Ca²⁺[Ca²⁺](i) concentration that induces Ca²⁺ signaling is an important step that participates in the neutrophil activation and reactive oxygen species production that leads to tissue damage in body cells. We aimed to investigate the effects of colchicine on oxidative stress and Ca²⁺ release in serum and neutrophil of BD patients with active and inactive periods. Twelve Behçet patients (6 active and 6 inactive) and 6 control subject were included in the study. Disease activity was considered by clinical findings. Serum and neutrophil samples were obtained from the patients and control subjects. Neutrophils from patients with active BD were divided into three subgroups and were incubated with colchicine, verapamil + diltiazem, and colchicine + verapamil + diltiazem, respectively. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leucocytes counts, serum C-reactive protein, neutrophil, and serum lipid peroxidation and intracellular Ca²⁺ release levels were higher in active and inactive groups than in the control group, although their levels were lower in active group than in inactive group. However, neutrophil Ca²⁺ release levels were decreased in colchicine, verapamil + diltiazem, and colchicine + verapamil + diltiazem groups group compared to active group. Serum glutathione, vitamin A, vitamin E, and β-carotene concentrations were lower in active and inactive groups than in the control group, although serum vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were higher in the inactive group than in the active group. Neutrophil and serum glutathione peroxidase activity within the three groups did not change. In conclusion, we observed the importance of Ca²⁺ influx into the neutrophils and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and

  18. Family history of psychiatric disorders and alcohol and substance misuse in patients with bipolar I disorder, substance use disorder, or both.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, Alfredo; Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Rucci, Paola; Gonnelli, Chiara; Massei, Jacopo G; Ravani, Laura; Endicott, Jean; Maser, Jack D; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2007-01-01

    Family history data were collected on first-degree relatives of 78 patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and substance use disorder (SUD), 47 with BD only, and 35 with SUD only. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was significantly higher in first-degree relatives of patients with BD + SUD (64%) and BD (61%) compared with first-degree relatives of SUD patients (20%). The prevalence of alcohol misuse was significantly higher in first-degree relatives of patients with BD + SUD (23.1%) and SUD alone (28.6%) compared to first-degree relatives of patients with BD (4.3%). Our findings suggest that BD and SUD do not share familial risk factors.

  19. On the nature of BD-10 deg 4662. [variable binary star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zappala, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Attention was first called to BD-10 deg 4662 (now assigned variable-star designation FK Ser) by Stienon (1971), who reported a temporary brightening in the blue on a Case objective-prism plate, accompanied by Balmer emission and a strong ultraviolet continuum. In its normal state the star appeared to be an ordinary late K-type object without emission features. Infrared observations show that BD-10 deg 4662 has excesses in the H - K and K - L colors similar to ordinary T Tauri stars. Emission at Ca II H and K confirms the close relationship to that group of objects.

  20. Activity recognition in patients with lower limb impairments: do we need training data from each patient?

    PubMed

    Lonini, Luca; Gupta, Aakash; Kording, Konrad; Jayaraman, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Machine learning allows detecting specific physical activities using data from wearable sensors. Such a quantification of patient mobility over time promises to accurately inform clinical decisions for physical rehabilitation. There are two strategies of setting up the machine learning problem: detect one patient's activities using data from the same patient (personal model) or detect their activities using data from other patients (global model), and we currently do not know if personal models are necessary. Here we consider the problem of detecting physical activities from a waist-worn accelerometer in patients who use a knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) to walk. We show that while a model based on healthy subjects has low accuracy, the global model performs as well as the personal model. This is encouraging because it suggests that condition-specific activity recognition algorithms are sufficient and that no data from individual patients is necessary.

  1. Development of a Real-Time PCR Protocol Requiring Minimal Handling for Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci with the Fully Automated BD Max System.

    PubMed

    Dalpke, Alexander H; Hofko, Marjeta; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of health care-associated infections, resulting in significant mortality and a significant economic burden in hospitals. Active surveillance for at-risk populations contributes to the prevention of infections with VRE. The availability of a combination of automation and molecular detection procedures for rapid screening would be beneficial. Here, we report on the development of a laboratory-developed PCR for detection of VRE which runs on the fully automated Becton Dickinson (BD) Max platform, which combines DNA extraction, PCR setup, and real-time PCR amplification. We evaluated two protocols: one using a liquid master mix and the other employing commercially ordered dry-down reagents. The BD Max VRE PCR was evaluated in two rounds with 86 and 61 rectal elution swab (eSwab) samples, and the results were compared to the culture results. The sensitivities of the different PCR formats were 84 to 100% for vanA and 83.7 to 100% for vanB; specificities were 96.8 to 100% for vanA and 81.8 to 97% for vanB The use of dry-down reagents and the ExK DNA-2 kit for extraction showed that the samples were less inhibited (3.3%) than they were by the use of the liquid master mix (14.8%). Adoption of a cutoff threshold cycle of 35 for discrimination of vanB-positive samples allowed an increase of specificity to 87.9%. The performance of the BD Max VRE assay equaled that of the BD GeneOhm VanR assay, which was run in parallel. The use of dry-down reagents simplifies the assay and omits any need to handle liquid PCR reagents.

  2. BD Andromedae: A new short-period RS CVn eclipsing binary star with a distant tertiary body in a highly eccentric orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chun-Hwey; Song, Mi-Hwa; Yoon, Jo-Na; Jeong, Min-Ji; Han, Wonyong

    2014-06-20

    A photometric study of BD And was made through the analysis of two sets of new BVR light curves. The light curves with migrating photometric waves outside eclipse show that BD And is a short-period RS CVn-type binary star. The analysis of all available timings reveals that the orbital period has varied in a strictly cyclical way with a period of 9.2 yr. The periodic variation most likely arises from the light-time effect due to a tertiary moving in a highly elliptical orbit (e {sub 3} = 0.76). The Applegate mechanism could not operate properly in the eclipsing pair. The light curves were modeled with two large spots on the hotter star and a large third light amounting to about 14% of the total systemic light. BD And is a triple system: a detached binary system consisting of two nearly equal solar-type stars with an active primary star and a G6-G7 tertiary dwarf. The absolute dimensions of the eclipsing pair and tertiary components were determined. The three components with a mean age of about 5.8 Gyr are located at midpositions in main-sequence bands. The radius of the secondary is about 17% larger than that deduced from stellar models. The orbital and radiometric characteristics of the tertiary are intensively investigated. One important feature is that the mutual inclination between two orbits is larger than 60°, implying that Kozai cycles had occurred very efficiently in the past. The possible past and future evolutions of the BD And system, driven by KCTF and MBTF, are also discussed.

  3. Effects of an Individualized Activity Program on Elderly Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Carlota de Lerma; Salter, Charles A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined program of Reality Orientation, Activities of Daily Living, and Recreational Activities, together with environmental stimulation, was applied on an individualized basis to 21 elderly patients suffering from both psychological disorders and long-term physical illness. The motivation to participate in the available activities increased…

  4. Evaluation of the New BD Max GC Real-Time PCR Assay, Analytically and Clinically as a Supplementary Test for the BD ProbeTec GC Qx Amplified DNA Assay, for Molecular Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Golparian, Daniel; Boräng, Stina; Sundqvist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The new BD Max GC real-time PCR assay showed high clinical and analytical sensitivity and specificity. It can be an effective and accurate supplementary test for the BD ProbeTec GC Qx amplified DNA assay, which had suboptimal specificity, and might also be used for initial detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMID:26468501

  5. Specific subcellular changes in oxidative stress in prefrontal cortex from patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Ana C; Wang, Jun-Feng; Salmasi, Faraz; Shao, Li; Young, Lionel T

    2013-11-01

    Previously, we found decreased mitochondrial complex I subunits levels and increased protein oxidation and nitration in postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) from patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). The objectives of this study were to replicate our findings in an independent sample of subjects with BD, and to examine more specifically oxidative and nitrosative damage to mitochondrial and synaptosomal proteins and lipid peroxidation in myelin. We isolated mitochondria, synaptosomes, and myelin using a percoll gradient from postmortem PFC from patients with BD, SCZ, and healthy controls. Levels of mitochondrial complex I and III proteins, protein oxidation (carbonylation), and nitration (3-nitrotyrosine) were assessed using immunobloting analysis. Lipid peroxidation [lipid hydroperoxides (LPH), 8-isoprostane (8-Iso), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE)] were measured using colorimetric or ELISA assays. We found decreased complex I subunits levels in BD subjects compared with control (CTL), but no difference in complex III subunits. Carbonylation was increased in synaptosomes from BD group while 3-nitrotyrosine was increased in mitochondria from BD and SCZ groups. 8-Iso was found increased in the BD group while 4-HNE was increased in both SCZ and BD when compared with controls with no differences in LPH. Our results suggest that in BD mitochondrial proteins are more susceptible to potentially reversible nitrosative damage while more longstanding oxidative damage occurs to synaptic proteins. Oxidative stress has been shown to be higher in the brain of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Here, we demonstrated increased levels of protein oxidation in synaptosomes from postmortem prefrontal cortex from patients from BD group, while 3-nitrotyrosine was increased in mitochondria from BD and schizophrenia (SCZ) groups. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was found increased in the BD when compared with controls; suggesting that in BD mitochondrial proteins are more

  6. Prevalence of Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders and Associated Factors in Euthymic Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Yuichi; Murakoshi, Akiko; Komada, Yoko; Otsuka, Ayano; Futenma, Kunihiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that there are certain pathophysiological relationships between bipolar disorder (BD) and circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, apparently no studies have clarified the prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) in patients with BD. This study was set out to investigate the prevalence of CRSWD and associated factors in patients with BD. One hundred four euthymic BD outpatients participated in this study. The subjects were asked to answer questionnaires including demographic variables, clinical course of BD, and family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide. Severity of BD was assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. CRSWD was diagnosed by clinical interview, together with sleep logs, according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, third edition (ICSD-3). Thirty-five subjects (32.4%) met the criteria for CRSWD. The age at the time of investigation and that at the onset of BD were both lower in the CRSWD group than in the non-CRSWD group. The rates of family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide in the CRSWD group were higher than those in the non-CRSWD group. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of CRSWD was significantly associated with younger onset age of BD and family history of suicide. The prevalence of CRSWD could be quite high in BD patients. Younger onset age of BD and family history of suicide were associated with presence of CRSWD in BD patients. PMID:27442503

  7. Antibodies to endothelial cells in Behçet's disease: cell-binding heterogeneity and association with clinical activity.

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, R; Navarro, M; López-Soto, A; Cid, M C; Font, J; Esparza, J; Reverter, J C; Monteagudo, J; Ingelmo, M; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of antibodies to endothelial cells (aEC) from large vessel and from microvasculature in a group of patients with Behçet's disease (BD) to determine the relationship of these antibodies with clinical and laboratory features of the disease. METHODS--Thirty patients with BD were prospectively and consecutively studied. The aEC were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using endothelial cells derived from human umbilical vein (large vessel) as well as from retroperitoneal adipose tissue (microvasculature). RESULTS--Fifteen patients (50%) had aEC, either directed to large vessel [8(26%) patients] or microvascular [13(43%) patients] endothelial cells. The percentage of active patients was significantly higher in the aEC-positive group [12(80%) patients] compared with the aEC-negative group [5(33%) patients] (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Patients with BD have a high prevalence of aEC when microvascular endothelial cells are used in the assay. These antibodies seem to be a marker of disease activity in this condition, previously considered as negative for autoantibodies. PMID:8203957

  8. Defining "Effectiveness" for Students with E/BD: Teacher, Instruction, and Management Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terrance M.; Jolivette, Kristine; Ennis, Robin Parks; Hirn, Regina Gilkey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss how issues of effectiveness and efficiency are considered most logically in the field of education. More specifically, the focus is on the importance of these issues as they pertain to teaching, instruction, and management strategies for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). The driving…

  9. Three-Tiered Support for Students with E/BD: Highlights of the Universal Tier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Michael P.; George, Nancy L.; Kern, Lee; Fogt, Julie B.

    2013-01-01

    The scant data available suggest there is a critical need for improving service delivery within alternative education (AE) settings for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). A promising approach for improving student outcomes in AE settings is school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS), an…

  10. 13. Outer blast door #BD4A/#101 in open positions at entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Outer blast door #BD4A/#101 in open positions at entrance of perimeter acquisition radar building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. 13 CFR 124.3 - What definitions are important in the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Provisions of General Applicability § 124.3 What definitions are important in the 8(a) BD program... Indians not enrolled in the Metlaktla Indian Community), Eskimo, or Aleut blood, or a combination of...

  12. 13 CFR 124.3 - What definitions are important in the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Provisions of General Applicability § 124.3 What definitions are important in the 8(a) BD program... Indians not enrolled in the Metlaktla Indian Community), Eskimo, or Aleut blood, or a combination of...

  13. 13 CFR 124.3 - What definitions are important in the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Provisions of General Applicability § 124.3 What definitions are important in the 8(a) BD program... Indians not enrolled in the Metlaktla Indian Community), Eskimo, or Aleut blood, or a combination of...

  14. ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy of experimental malignant glioma in the BD-IX rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Angell-Petersen, Even; Peng, Qian; Sun, Chung-Ho; Sorensen, Dag R.; Carper, Steven W.; Madsen, Steen J.

    2005-04-01

    Introduction: Failure of treatment for high grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resec-tion indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy could be of benefit. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a local form of treatment involving the administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength The results of in vitro experiments indicated that PDT, given at low fluence rates was substantially more effective at inhibiting glioma spheroid growth than short term high fluence rate regimes. This prompted the initia-tion of in vivo studies of low fluence rate 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) PDT in a rat glioma model. Methods:BT4C cell line tumors were established in the brains of inbred BD- IX rats. Eighteen days following tumor induction the animals were injected with 125 mg/kg ALA ip. and four hours later light treatment at various fluences and fluence rates were given after the introduction of an optical fiber. Tumor histology and animal survival were examined. Results: In vitro experiments verified that the cell line was sensitive to ALA PDT. Microfluorometry of frozen tissue sections showed that PpIX is produced with a greater than 20:1 tumor to normal tissue selectivity ratio four hours after ALA injection. Histological examination demonstrated neutrophil infiltration and tumor central necrosis in low fluence rate treated tumors. Conclusions: Low fluence rate long term ALA mediated PDT had a more pronounced effect on tumor histology than single shot short duration treatments at similar total fluence levels.

  15. Management of Hypertension: Adapting New Guidelines for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.; Batt, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent guidelines on hypertension from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and details the latest management protocols for patients with high blood pressure. The article helps physicians interpret the guidelines for treating active patients, highlighting diagnosis, step care revision, pharmacology, and sports participation…

  16. Decreased Prolidase Activity in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mahmut; Atli, Abdullah; Kaplan, İbrahim; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Bez, Yasin; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Sır, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many neurochemical systems have been implicated in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The prolidase enzyme is a cytosolic exopeptidase that detaches proline or hydroxyproline from the carboxyl terminal position of dipeptides. Prolidase has important biological effects, and to date, its role in the etiology of PTSD has not been studied. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate prolidase activity in patients with PTSD. Methods The study group consisted of patients who were diagnosed with PTSD after the earthquake that occurred in the province of Van in Turkey in 2011 (n=25); the first control group consisted of patients who experienced the earthquake but did not show PTSD symptoms (n=26) and the second control group consisted of patients who have never been exposed to a traumatic event (n=25). Prolidase activities in the patients and the control groups were determined by the ELISA method using commercial kits. Results Prolidase activity in the patient group was significantly lower when compared to the control groups. Prolidase activity was also significantly lower in the traumatized healthy subjects compared to the other healthy group (p<0.01). Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that the decrease in prolidase activity may have neuroprotective effects in patients with PTSD. PMID:27482243

  17. Constraining the Physical Properties of Near-Earth Object 2009 BD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Farnocchia, D.; Chesley, S. R.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Smith, H. A.; Fazio, G. G.

    2014-05-01

    We report on Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera observations of near-Earth object 2009 BD that were carried out in support of the NASA Asteroid Robotic Retrieval Mission concept. We did not detect 2009 BD in 25 hr of integration at 4.5 μm. Based on an upper-limit flux density determination from our data, we present a probabilistic derivation of the physical properties of this object. The analysis is based on the combination of a thermophysical model with an orbital model accounting for the non-gravitational forces acting upon the body. We find two physically possible solutions. The first solution shows 2009 BD as a 2.9 ± 0.3 m diameter rocky body (ρ = 2.9 ± 0.5 g cm-3) with an extremely high albedo of 0.85_{-0.10}^{+0.20} that is covered with regolith-like material, causing it to exhibit a low thermal inertia (\\Gamma =30_{-10}^{+20} SI units). The second solution suggests 2009 BD to be a 4 ± 1 m diameter asteroid with p_V=0.45_{-0.15}^{+0.35} that consists of a collection of individual bare rock slabs (Γ = 2000 ± 1000 SI units, \\rho = 1.7_{-0.4}^{+0.7} g cm-3). We are unable to rule out either solution based on physical reasoning. 2009 BD is the smallest asteroid for which physical properties have been constrained, in this case using an indirect method and based on a detection limit, providing unique information on the physical properties of objects in the size range smaller than 10 m.

  18. Constraining the physical properties of near-Earth object 2009 BD

    SciTech Connect

    Mommert, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Hora, J. L.; Smith, H. A.; Fazio, G. G.; Farnocchia, D.; Chesley, S. R.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.

    2014-05-10

    We report on Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera observations of near-Earth object 2009 BD that were carried out in support of the NASA Asteroid Robotic Retrieval Mission concept. We did not detect 2009 BD in 25 hr of integration at 4.5 μm. Based on an upper-limit flux density determination from our data, we present a probabilistic derivation of the physical properties of this object. The analysis is based on the combination of a thermophysical model with an orbital model accounting for the non-gravitational forces acting upon the body. We find two physically possible solutions. The first solution shows 2009 BD as a 2.9 ± 0.3 m diameter rocky body (ρ = 2.9 ± 0.5 g cm{sup –3}) with an extremely high albedo of 0.85{sub −0.10}{sup +0.20} that is covered with regolith-like material, causing it to exhibit a low thermal inertia (Γ=30{sub −10}{sup +20} SI units). The second solution suggests 2009 BD to be a 4 ± 1 m diameter asteroid with p{sub V}=0.45{sub −0.15}{sup +0.35} that consists of a collection of individual bare rock slabs (Γ = 2000 ± 1000 SI units, ρ=1.7{sub −0.4}{sup +0.7} g cm{sup –3}). We are unable to rule out either solution based on physical reasoning. 2009 BD is the smallest asteroid for which physical properties have been constrained, in this case using an indirect method and based on a detection limit, providing unique information on the physical properties of objects in the size range smaller than 10 m.

  19. Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Eliakim, R; Stalnikowicz, R; Ackerman, Z; Amir, G; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In 17 duodenal ulcer patients gastric antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity was found to be two and 1.5-fold respectively higher than its activity in the antrum and fundus of 14 normal subjects (p < 0.05). H pylori was detected in the antrum of 15 of 17 duodenal ulcer patients and only in 7 of 14 of the control subjects. Antral nitric oxide synthase activity in H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients was twofold higher than in H pylori positive normal subjects (p < 0.05). In duodenal ulcer patients antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity resumed normal values after induction of ulcer healing with ranitidine. Eradication of H pylori did not further affect gastric nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings suggest that in duodenal ulcer patients stimulated gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity, though independent of the H pylori state, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525417

  20. Management of patients with active caries.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports on a mechanism to manage caries as a disease and to medically intervene in the disease process to halt progression. The goal of this paper is to provide this alternative to a surgical-only approach. The management of caries begins with assessing lesion activity and the potential for arrest. This requires a clinical and radiological assessment and evaluation of risk. Hopeless teeth are extracted and large cavities filled to reduce infection. Risk reduction strategies are employed so efforts to arrest lesions can be successful. Teeth with lesions in the enamel or outer third of the dentin should be sealed, not restored, as restorations can weaken teeth and can be traumatic to pulps.

  1. Health-care needs of remitted patients with bipolar disorder: A comparison with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Rajarshi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate health-care needs and their correlates among patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD) compared to patients with remitted schizophrenia. METHODS Outpatients with BD (n = 150) and schizophrenia (n = 75) meeting clearly defined remission criteria were included in the study along with their relatives. Diagnostic ascertainment was carried out using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Demographic and clinical details were recorded using structured formats. Residual symptoms were assessed using standardized scales. Health-care needs were assessed on two separate scales. The principal instrument employed to assess health-care needs was the Camberwell Assessment of Need-Research version (CAN-R). To further evaluate health-care needs we felt that an additional instrument, which was more relevant for Indian patients and treatment-settings and designed to cover those areas of needs not specifically covered by the CAN-R was required. This instrument with a structure and scoring pattern similar to the CAN-R was used for additional evaluation of needs. Patients’ level of functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and their quality of life (QOL) using the World Health Organization Quality Of Life-BREF version in Hindi. RESULTS An average of 6-7 needs was reported by patients with BD as well as their relatives. Commonly reported needs were in the areas of economic and welfare needs, informational needs, social needs and the need for treatment. According to the CAN-R, both patients and relatives reported that more than 60% of the total needs were being met. However, over 90% of the needs covered by the additional evaluation were unmet according to patients and relatives. Needs in the areas of economic and welfare-benefits, information, company, daytime activities and physical health-care were largely unmet according to patients and relatives. Total, met and unmet needs were significantly higher for schizophrenia

  2. Inflammatory bowel diseases activity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seisen, Thomas; Klotz, Caroline; Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Bossi, Alberto; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Blanchard, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined. Results Overall, 28 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (n=13) or ulcerative colitis (n=15) were included in the present study. Median follow-up time after irradiation was 5.9 years. Regarding IBD activity, only one and two patients experienced a severe episode within and after 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Grade 3/4 acute GI toxicity occurred in 3 (11%) patients, whereas one (3.6%) patient experienced late grade 3/4 GI toxicity. Only patients with rectal IBD location (P=0.016) or low body mass index (BMI) (P=0.012) experienced more severe IBD activity within or after 6 months following RT, respectively. Conclusions We report an acceptable tolerance of RT in IBD patients with pelvic malignancies. Specifically, a low risk of uncontrolled flare-up was observed. PMID:28280621

  3. Characteristics of daily arm activities in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Kenneth; Annegarn, Janneke; Lima Passos, Valéria; Savelberg, Hans H; Schols, Annemie M; Wouters, Emiel F; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Arm activities are required for maintenance of self-care and independent living. This study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent arm activities of daily living (ADL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients differ compared to healthy controls and the extent to which they perform arm ADL at a relatively higher upper limb muscle effort. Daily arm and leg activities were assessed using accelerometers in the home environment (COPD: n=21, healthy: n=24; part 1). The relative efforts of the trapezius, deltoid and biceps muscles were studied using electromyography during domestic arm ADL in a laboratory setting (COPD: n=17, healthy: n=15; part 2). After correction for walking time, the time spent on arm ADL was similar between COPD patients and healthy control subjects (p=0.52), while the intensity of arm activities was lower in COPD patients (p=0.041). In the laboratory setting, arm ADL were performed at a lower intensity by COPD patients, while the trapezius muscle effort was significantly higher during several arm ADL compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.05). COPD patients have a similar duration of arm ADL compared to healthy subjects after correction for walking time, but perform arm activities at a lower intensity. Moreover, patients perform some arm ADL at a relatively higher muscle effort.

  4. Reduced Silent Occlusions with a Novel Catheter Infusion Set (BD FlowSmart): Results from Two Open-Label Comparative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, Michael; Xue, Zhenyi; Swinney, Monica; Bialonczyk, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Insulin pump users experience periods of unexplained hyperglycemia. In some cases these may be due to insulin flow interruptions termed “silent occlusions,” which occur without activating the pump alarm and may require set replacement. Materials and Methods: In-line pressure profiles of a novel infusion set with a 6-mm, 28-gauge polymer, dual-ported catheter (BD FlowSmart™; Becton Dickinson and Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ) were compared with those of an existing infusion set (Quick-set®; Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA) in two separate studies involving insulin diluent infusions over 2.5–4.5-h periods in healthy adults without diabetes. Study 1, a pilot study (n = 25), compared the occurrence of flow interruption events (silent occlusions and/or occlusion alarms) between the two infusion sets and between manual or device-assisted insertion methods. Study 2 (n = 60) was designed to show ≥50% reduction in flow interruption events with the BD set after manual insertions. (Silent occlusions were defined by a continuous pressure rise for ≥30 min.) Results: In Study 1, significantly fewer silent occlusions were seen with BD FlowSmart versus Quick-set infusion sets for both manual (three of 22 [13.6%] vs. 12 of 24 [50%]; P = 0.012) and mechanical (two of 24 [8.3%] vs. nine of 25 [36%]; P = 0.037) insertions, yielding risk reductions of 73% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25–91%) and 77% (95% CI, 17–94%), respectively. In Study 2, flow interruption events occurred in three of 117 (2.6%) and 12 of 118 (10.2%) BD FlowSmart and Quick-set infusion sets, respectively, yielding a 75% risk reduction (95% CI, 20–92%; P = 0.030). Percentage of time with flow interruption was significantly lower with BD sets in both studies (P < 0.02). Leakage (>0.5 IU or 5 μL) occurred infrequently and did not differ between sets. Conclusions: A novel side-ported insulin infusion set demonstrated significant reductions in flow

  5. [Problems connected with sexual activity in patients with heart disease].

    PubMed

    Rembek, Magdalena; Tylkowski, Michał; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Goch, Jan Henryk

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents some basic data on sexual activity in patients with heart disease. The most typical problems of people with stable angina or after myocardial infarction connected with sexual intercourse have been presented. Modulation of risk of heart attack during sexual activity and main problems of sexual dysfunction after acute coronary syndromes have been described.

  6. The consent process: Enabling or disabling patients' active participation?

    PubMed

    Doherty, Carole; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Saunders, Mark Nk; Brown, Tracey

    2015-10-20

    Standards expected by doctors' regulatory bodies in respect of the process of consent to treatment have arguably sought to restructure the nature of the doctor-patient relationship from one of the paternalism to that of shared decision-making. Yet, few studies have explored empirically, from patients' perspectives, the extent to which the process of consent to treatment enables or disables patients' participation in medical decision-making. Our article examines patients' attitudes towards the consent process, exploring how and why these attitudes influence patients' active participation in decision-making and considering possible consequent medico-legal issues. Data were collected longitudinally using semi-structured interviews and field observations involving 35 patients and 19 of their caregivers, in an English hospital between February and November 2014. These indicate that generally patients defer to the doctor in respect of treatment decision-making. Although most patients and their caregivers wanted detailed information and discussion, they did not necessarily expect that this would be provided. Furthermore, patients perceived that signing the consent form was an obligatory routine principally to protect doctors from legal action should something go wrong. Our study suggests that patients' predominantly paternalistic perceptions of the consent process can not only undermine attempts by doctors to involve them in decision-making but, as patients are now considered in law as informed actors, their perceptions of the consent form as not being in their interests could be a self-fulfilling prophecy if signing is undertaken without due consideration to the content.

  7. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation.

  8. Physical Activity in Patients Treated With Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Thangarasa, Tharshika; Imtiaz, Rameez; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic diseases are known to benefit from exercise. Despite a lack of compelling evidence, patients with end-stage kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis are often discouraged from participating in exercise programs that include resistance training due to concerns about the development of hernias and leaks. The actual effects of physical activity with or without structured exercise programs for these patients remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to more completely define the risks and benefits of physical activity in the end-stage kidney disease population treated with peritoneal dialysis. Methods/design: We will conduct a systematic review examining the effects of physical activity on end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. For the purposes of this review, exercise will be considered a purposive subcategory of physical activity. The primary objective is to determine if physical activity in this patient population is associated with improvements in mental health, physical functioning, fatigue and quality of life and if there is an increase in adverse outcomes. With the help of a skilled librarian, we will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials and observational studies. We will include adult end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis that have participated in an exercise training program or had their level of physical activity assessed directly or by self-report. The study must include an assessment of the association between physical activity and one of our primary or secondary outcomes measures. We will report study quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for observational studies. Quality across studies will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The

  9. Prefrontocerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation increases amplitude and decreases latency of P3b component in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Minichino, Amedeo; Fattapposta, Francesco; Bernabei, Laura; Spagnoli, Francesco; Mannarelli, Daniela; Francesconi, Marta; Pauletti, Caterina; Corrado, Alessandra; Vergnani, Lucilla; Taddei, Ines; Biondi, Massimo; Delle Chiaie, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neurocognitive impairments have been observed in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) even during the euthymic phase of the disease, potentially representing trait-associated rather than state-associated characteristics of the disorder. In the present study, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to cerebellar and prefrontal cortices to improve the neurophysiological performances of patients with euthymic BD. Methods Twenty-five outpatients with BD underwent open-label prefrontocerebellar tDCS for 3 consecutive weeks. Neurophysiological performances were assessed through the examination of the P3b and P3a subcomponents of P300 event-related potential at baseline and after stimulation. Results Compared to baseline, P3b component after tDCS showed significantly higher amplitude and shorter latency (latency: Fz P=0.02, Cz P=0.03, and Pz P=0.04; amplitude: Fz P=0.24, Cz P=0.02, and Pz P=0.35). Conclusion In our sample of patients with euthymic BD, concomitant prefrontoexcitatory and cerebellar-inhibitory modulations led to improved brain information processing stream. This improvement may at least partially result from neuroplastic modulation of prefrontocerebellar circuitry activity. PMID:26640377

  10. Relationship between disease activity and infection in patients with spondyloarthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, A; Pacheco-Tena, C; Vazquez-Mellado, J; Burgos-Vargas, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: A cross sectional study of 95 non-selected patients with SpA (62 men; mean age 26.4 years), who were examined for signs and symptoms of infection and their association with disease activity. 52 had ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 32 undifferentiated SpA (uSpA), 6 chronic reactive arthritis (ReA), and 5 psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Categorical data were analysed by χ2 or Fisher's tests. Results: 53 (56%) patients had infections: 41 (43%) upper respiratory tract (URT), 34 (36%) enteric, and 20 (21%) genitourinary infections. More infections occurred in HLA-B27 positive patients as a whole (39 v 5; p = 0.003) and in uSpA (12 v 2; p = 0.005). In AS and uSpA, infections occurred in ∼50%. 30/39 (77%) patients with active disease (group A) and 23/56 (41%) (group B) (p = 0.001) had infection. There were more enteric infections in group A (47%; p<0.001) and more URT infections in group B (52%; p = NS). 22/30 (73%) patients attributed disease activity to infection. Conclusion: Enteric, and less commonly, URT infections in Mexican patients with SpA, particularly those who were HLA-B27 positive, seem to have a role in the active phase of AS and uSpA. PMID:15361397

  11. Chewing pattern and muscular activation in open bite patients.

    PubMed

    Piancino, Maria Grazia; Isola, Gaetano; Merlo, Andrea; Dalessandri, Domenico; Debernardi, Cesare; Bracco, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    Different studies have indicated, in open bite patients, that masticatory muscles tend to generate a small maximum bite force and to show a reduced cross-sectional area with a lower EMG activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinematics parameters of the chewing cycles and the activation of masseters and anterior temporalis muscles of patients with anterior dental open bite malocclusion. There have been no previous reports evaluating both kinematic values and EMG activity of patients with anterior open bite during chewing. Fifty-two young patients (23 boys and 29 girls; mean age±SD 11.5±1.2 and 10.2±1.6years, respectively) with anterior open bite malocclusion and 21 subjects with normal occlusion were selected for the study. Kinematics parameters and surface electromyography (EMG) were simultaneously recorded during chewing a hard bolus with a kinesiograph K7-I Myotronics-Usa. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the open bite patients and the control group for a narrower chewing pattern, a shorter total and closing duration of the chewing pattern, a lower peak of both the anterior temporalis and the masseter of the bolus side. In this study, it has been observed that open bite patients, lacking the inputs from the anterior guidance, that are considered important information for establishing the motor scheme of the chewing pattern, show narrower chewing pattern, shorter lasting chewing cycles and lower muscular activation with respect to the control group.

  12. Physical activity in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: a cross-sectional study of 203 patients.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Stéphanie; Molto, Anna; Dadoun, Sabrina; Rein, Christopher; Hudry, Christophe; Kreis, Sarah; Fautrel, Bruno; Pertuiset, Edouard; Gossec, Laure

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity is recommended in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) but may be insufficiently performed. The objective of this study was to assess physical activity in axial spondyloarthritis and to explore its explanatory factors. This was a cross-sectional study of patients with definite axSpA. The level of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long form, IPAQ-L), type of aerobic exercise and the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Score were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explain levels of exercise at least as recommended by the World Health Organization. In all, 203 patients were included: mean age 46.0 ± 11.6 years, 108 (53.2 %) males, mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index (0-100) 37.8 ± 19.9; 137 (68.8 %) were treated with TNF-inhibitors. In all, 111 patients (54.7 %) were exercising at least as recommended; 96 (47.2 %) were in the 'high physical activity' category. Aerobic exercise >30 min was performed at least once a week by 61 (30.0 %) patients; the most frequent activities were energetic walking (31.0 %) and swimming (21.2 %). Main perceived benefits of exercising were improving physical fitness and functioning of the cardiovascular system, and the main barrier was physical exertion. Patients with paid employment had lower levels of physical activity whereas other demographic variables, disease activity/severity or TNF-inhibitor treatment were not predictive. One half of these patients performed enough physical activity according to the recommendations, similarly to the French population. Levels of physical activity did not appear to be explained by disease-related variables. Physical activity should be encouraged in axSpA.

  13. Using Health Information Technology to Foster Engagement: Patients' Experiences with an Active Patient Health Record.

    PubMed

    Rief, John J; Hamm, Megan E; Zickmund, Susan L; Nikolajski, Cara; Lesky, Dan; Hess, Rachel; Fischer, Gary S; Weimer, Melissa; Clark, Sunday; Zieth, Caroline; Roberts, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) typically employ "passive" communication strategies, such as non-personalized medical text, rather than direct patient engagement in care. Currently there is a call for more active PHRs that directly engage patients in an effort to improve their health by offering elements such as personalized medical information, health coaches, and secure messaging with primary care providers. As part of a randomized clinical trial comparing "passive" with "active" PHRs, we explore patients' experiences with using an "active" PHR known as HealthTrak. The "passive" elements of this PHR included problem lists, medication lists, information about patient allergies and immunizations, medical and surgical histories, lab test results, health reminders, and secure messaging. The active arm included all of these elements and added personalized alerts delivered through the secure messaging platform to patients for services coming due based on various demographic features (including age and sex) and chronic medical conditions. Our participants were part of the larger clinical trial and were eligible if they had been randomized to the active PHR arm, one that included regular personalized alerts. We conducted focus group discussions on the benefits of this active PHR for patients who are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Forty-one patients agreed to participate and were organized into five separate focus group sessions. Three main themes emerged from the qualitatively analyzed focus groups: participants reported that the active PHR promoted better communication with providers; enabled them to more effectively partner with their providers; and helped them become more proactive about tracking their health information. In conclusion, patients reported improved communication, partnership with their providers, and a sense of self-management, thus adding insights for PHR designers hoping to address low adoption rates and other patient barriers to the development

  14. Bipolar disorder is associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among patients in treatment for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Bevilacqua, Lisa A.; Key, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined HIV transmission risk behavior among 63 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and no mood disorder (NMD); half had substance use disorders (SUDs). Patients with BD were more likely than others to report unprotected intercourse with HIV-negative partners and < 95% adherence to antiretroviral medications. In multivariate models, BD and SUD were independent predictors of both risk behaviors. Participants with poorer medication adherence were more likely to have detectable HIV viral loads and unprotected intercourse with HIV-negative partners. Patients with BD deserve careful evaluation and HIV prevention services to reduce HIV transmission risk behaviors. PMID:22614744

  15. Ongoing Contact Activation in Patients with Hereditary Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Joke; Cugno, Massimo; Suffritti, Chiara; ten Cate, Hugo; Cicardi, Marco; Govers-Riemslag, José W. P.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is predominantly caused by a deficiency in C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) (HAE-C1INH). C1INH inhibits activated factor XII (FXIIa), activated factor XI (FXIa), and kallikrein. In HAE-C1INH patients the thrombotic risk is not increased even though activation of the contact system is poorly regulated. Therefore, we hypothesized that contact activation preferentially leads to kallikrein formation and less to activation of the coagulation cascade in HAE-C1INH patients. We measured the levels of C1INH in complex with activated contact factors in plasma samples of HAE-C1INH patients (N=30, 17 during remission and 13 during acute attack) and healthy controls (N=10). We did not detect differences in enzyme-inhibitor complexes between samples of controls, patients during remission and patients during an acute attack. Reconstitution with C1INH did not change this result. Next, we determined the potential to form enzyme-inhibitory complexes after complete in vitro activation of the plasma samples with a FXII trigger. In all samples, enzyme-C1INH levels increased after activation even in patients during an acute attack. However, the levels of FXIIa-C1INH, FXIa-C1INH and kallikrein-C1INH were at least 52% lower in samples taken during remission and 70% lower in samples taken during attack compared to samples from controls (p<0.05). Addition of C1INH after activation led to an increase in levels of FXIIa-C1INH and FXIa-C1INH (p<0.05), which were still lower than in controls (p<0.05), while the levels of kallikrein-C1INH did not change. These results are consistent with constitutive activation and attenuated depletion of the contact system and show that the ongoing activation of the contact system, which is present in HAE-C1INH patients both during remission and during acute attacks, is not associated with preferential generation of kallikrein over FXIa. PMID:24013493

  16. Rapid Response Team Activations in Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Wathen, Beth; Roosevelt, Genie E; Hill, Lauren R S; Schubert, Anna; Reese, Jenny; Bensard, Denis D; Kulungowski, Ann M

    2017-02-01

    Introduction The rapid response team (RRT) is a multidisciplinary team who evaluates hospitalized patients for concerns of nonemergent clinical deterioration. RRT evaluations are mandatory for children whose Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score (assessment of child's behavior, cardiovascular and respiratory status) is ≥4. We aimed to determine if there were differences in characteristics of RRT calls between children who were admitted primarily to either medical or surgical services. We hypothesized that RRT activations would be called for less severely ill children with lower PEWS score on surgical services compared with children admitted to a medical service. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of all children with RRT activations between January 2008 and April 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. We evaluated the characteristics of RRT calls and made comparisons between RRT calls made for children admitted primarily to medical or surgical services. Results A total of 2,991 RRT activations were called, and 324 (11%) involved surgical patients. Surgical patients were older than medical patients (median: 7 vs. 4 years; p < 0.001). RRT evaluations were called for lower PEWS score in surgical patients compared with medical (median: 3 vs. 4, p < 0.001). Surgical patients were more likely to remain on the inpatient ward following the RRT (51 vs. 39%, p < 0.001) and were less likely to require an advanced airway than medical patients (0.9 vs. 2.1%; p = 0.412). RRT evaluations did not differ between day and night shifts (52% day vs. 48% night; p = 0.17). All surgical patients and all but one medical patient survived the event; surgical patients were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (97 vs. 91%, p < 0.001) Conclusions RRT activations are rare events among pediatric surgical patients. When compared with medical patients, RRT evaluation is requested for surgical patients with a lower PEWS

  17. The promise of wearable activity sensors to define patient recovery.

    PubMed

    Appelboom, Geoff; Yang, Annie H; Christophe, Brandon R; Bruce, Eliza M; Slomian, Justine; Bruyère, Olivier; Bruce, Samuel S; Zacharia, Brad E; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Connolly, E Sander

    2014-07-01

    The recent emergence of mobile health--the use of mobile telecommunication and wireless devices to improve health outcomes, services, and research--has inspired a patient-centric approach to monitor health metrics. Sensors embedded in wearable devices are utilized to acquire greater self-knowledge by tracking basic parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature as well as data related to exercise, diet, and psychological state. To that end, recent studies on utilizing wireless fitness activity trackers to monitor and promote functional recovery in patients suggest that collecting up-to-date performance data could help patients regain functional independence and help hospitals determine the appropriate length of stay for a patient. This manuscript examines existing functional assessment scales, discusses the use of activity tracking sensors in evaluating functional independence, and explores the growing application of wireless technology in measuring and promoting functional recovery.

  18. Cool temperatures reduce antifungal activity of symbiotic bacteria of threatened amphibians--implications for disease management and patterns of decline.

    PubMed

    Daskin, Joshua H; Bell, Sara C; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2014-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a widespread disease of amphibians responsible for population declines and extinctions. Some bacteria from amphibians' skins produce antimicrobial substances active against Bd. Supplementing populations of these cutaneous antifungal bacteria might help manage chytridiomycosis in wild amphibians. However, the activity of protective bacteria may depend upon environmental conditions. Biocontrol of Bd in nature thus requires knowledge of how environmental conditions affect their anti-Bd activity. For example, Bd-driven amphibian declines have often occurred at temperatures below Bd's optimum range. It is possible these declines occurred due to reduced anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts at cool temperatures. Better understanding of the effects of temperature on chytridiomycosis development could also improve risk evaluation for amphibian populations yet to encounter Bd. We characterized, at a range of temperatures approximating natural seasonal variation, the anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts from the skins of three species of rainforest tree frogs (Litoria nannotis, Litoria rheocola, and Litoria serrata). All three species declined during chytridiomycosis outbreaks in the late 1980s and early 1990s and have subsequently recovered to differing extents. We collected anti-Bd bacterial symbionts from frogs and cultured the bacteria at constant temperatures from 8 °C to 33 °C. Using a spectrophotometric assay, we monitored Bd growth in cell-free supernatants (CFSs) from each temperature treatment. CFSs from 11 of 24 bacteria showed reduced anti-Bd activity in vitro when they were produced at cool temperatures similar to those encountered by the host species during population declines. Reduced anti-Bd activity of metabolites produced at low temperatures may, therefore, partially explain the association between Bd-driven declines and cool temperatures. We show that to avoid

  19. Stellar oxygen abundances. 3: The oxygen abundance of the very metal poor halo star BD -13 deg 3442

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Jeremy R.

    1994-01-01

    A spectrum of the very metal poor ((Fe/H) approximately -3) halo star BD -13 deg 3442 is presented and used to determine this star's oxygen abundance. Our determination makes BD -13 deg 3442 the most metal poor dwarf (though a somewhat evolved one) with an O abundance determination. The O abundance (determined from the 7774 A O I triped) and (O/Fe) ratio is compared to that of two other metal-poor stars. The (O/Fe) ratio of BD -13 deg 3442 is found to be approximately 0.35 dex larger than that of the other two halo stars. Possible implications of this result are discussed.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A COMPACT COMPANION TO THE HOT SUBDWARF STAR BD +37 Degree-Sign 442

    SciTech Connect

    La Palombara, Nicola; Mereghetti, Sandro; Tiengo, Andrea; Esposito, Paolo E-mail: sandro@iasf-milano.inaf.it E-mail: paoloesp@oa-cagliari.inaf.it

    2012-05-10

    We report the results of the first X-ray observation of the luminous and helium-rich O-type subdwarf BD +37 Degree-Sign 442 carried out with the XMM-Newton satellite in 2011 August. X-ray emission is detected with a flux of about 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (0.2-1 keV) and a very soft spectrum, well fit by the sum of a blackbody with temperature kT{sub BB} = 45{sup +11}{sub -9} eV, and a power law with a poorly constrained photon index. Significant pulsations with a period of 19.2 s are detected, indicating that the X-ray emission originates in a white dwarf or neutron star companion, most likely powered by accretion from the wind of BD +37 Degree-Sign 442.

  1. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome bd oxidase mutant is hypersensitive to bedaquiline.

    PubMed

    Berney, Michael; Hartman, Travis E; Jacobs, William R

    2014-07-15

    The new medicinal compound bedaquiline (BDQ) kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis by inhibiting F1Fo-ATP synthase. BDQ is bacteriostatic for 4 to 7 days and kills relatively slowly compared to other frontline tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Here we show that killing with BDQ can be improved significantly by inhibiting cytochrome bd oxidase, a non-proton-pumping terminal oxidase. BDQ was instantly bactericidal against a cytochrome bd oxidase null mutant of M. tuberculosis, and the rate of killing was increased by more than 50%. We propose that this exclusively bacterial enzyme should be a high-priority target for new drug discovery. Importance: A major drawback of current TB chemotherapy is its long duration. New drug regimens with rapid killing kinetics are desperately needed. Our study demonstrates that inhibition of a nonessential bacterial enzyme greatly improves the efficacy of the latest TB drug bedaquiline and emphasizes that screening for compounds with synergistic killing mechanisms is a promising strategy.

  2. Fourth-generation effect on CP violation in Bd hadronic decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasuike, Tsutom; Hattori, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Wakaizumi, Seiichi

    1990-03-01

    Du, Dunietz, and Wu examined CP violation in partial-decay-rate asymmetries of neutral b-flavored mesons in the standard Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) model. We calculate in the four-generation model the same CP asymmetry in Bd hadronic decays in light of the large Bd-B¯d mixing obtained by the ARGUS and CLEO Collaborations. The general 4×4 KM matrix proposed by Botella and Chau is used. The effect of the fourth generation on asymmetry is found to be sizable for various mixings of the fourth with the preceding three generations, changing signs of the asymmetry in the modes b¯-->ūud¯ and b¯-->c¯cd¯, and enhancing magnitudes in the modes b¯-->ūcd¯ and b¯-->c¯ud¯ from their standard-model predictions.

  3. Isolation of an aerobic sulfur oxidizer from the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Katharine T; Morris, Robert M

    2013-02-01

    Bacteria from the uncultured SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade of gamma proteobacterial sulfur oxidizers (GSOs) have the genetic potential to oxidize reduced sulfur and fix carbon in the tissues of clams and mussels, in oxygen minimum zones and throughout the deep ocean (>200 m). Here, we report isolation of the first cultured representative from this GSO clade. Closely related cultures were obtained from surface waters in Puget Sound and from the deep chlorophyll maximum in the North Pacific gyre. Pure cultures grow aerobically on natural seawater media, oxidize sulfur, and reach higher final cell densities when glucose and thiosulfate are added to the media. This suggests that aerobic sulfur oxidation enhances organic carbon utilization in the oceans. The first isolate from the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade was given the provisional taxonomic assignment 'Candidatus: Thioglobus singularis', alluding to the clade's known role in sulfur oxidation and the isolate's planktonic lifestyle.

  4. Genetic and clinical factors predict lithium's effects on PER2 gene expression rhythms in cells from bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M J; Wei, H; Marnoy, Z; Darvish, R M; McPhie, D L; Cohen, B M; Welsh, D K

    2013-10-22

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with abnormal circadian rhythms. In treatment responsive BD patients, lithium (Li) stabilizes mood and reduces suicide risk. Li also affects circadian rhythms and expression of 'clock genes' that control them. However, the extent to which BD, Li and the circadian clock share common biological mechanisms is unknown, and there have been few direct measurements of clock gene function in samples from BD patients. Hence, the role of clock genes in BD and Li treatment remains unclear. Skin fibroblasts from BD patients (N=19) or healthy controls (N=19) were transduced with Per2::luc, a rhythmically expressed, bioluminescent circadian clock reporter gene, and rhythms were measured for 5 consecutive days. Rhythm amplitude and period were compared between BD cases and controls with and without Li. Baseline period was longer in BD cases than in controls. Li 1 mM increased amplitude in controls by 36%, but failed to do so in BD cases. Li 10 mM lengthened period in both BD cases and controls. Analysis of clock gene variants revealed that PER3 and RORA genotype predicted period lengthening by Li, whereas GSK3β genotype predicted rhythm effects of Li, specifically among BD cases. Analysis of BD cases by clinical history revealed that cells from past suicide attempters were more likely to show period lengthening with Li 1 mM. Finally, Li enhanced the resynchronization of damped rhythms, suggesting a mechanism by which Li could act therapeutically in BD. Our work suggests that the circadian clock's response to Li may be relevant to molecular pathology of BD.

  5. Motoneuron activity in patients with different types of tremor.

    PubMed

    Milanov, I

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the segmental motoneuron activity as a possible mechanism of tremor generation. Eighty-three patients with different types of tremor (25 with Parkinsonian, 29 with essential, and 30 with enhanced physiological tremor due to anxiety), 25 Parkinsonian patients without tremor and 30 healthy volunteers were examined. The tremor was studied clinically and by electromyography in all limb positions. The F wave was examined for assessment of motoneuron activity. The wave was recorded after stimulation of the ulnar, median, tibial and fibular nerves. The maximal and mean F wave amplitudes, frequency of occurrence and number of phases were increased, and the duration was prolonged in all group of patients as compared to the healthy persons. The maximal and the mean F/M amplitude ratios, as well as the Fmean./Fmax amplitude ratio were increased in all groups of patients. All F wave parameters were most altered in Parkinsonian tremor patients followed by patients with rigidity. In conclusion increased motoneuron activity participates in generation of different types of tremor and in Parkinsonian rigidity.

  6. The Relationship Between Race, Patient Activation, and Working Alliance: Implications for Patient Engagement in Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Eliacin, Johanne; Coffing, Jessica M; Matthias, Marianne S; Burgess, Diana J; Bair, Matthew J; Rollins, Angela L

    2016-12-01

    This study explored the relationship between race and two key aspects of patient engagement-patient activation and working alliance-among a sample of African-American and White veterans (N = 152) seeking medication management for mental health conditions. After adjusting for demographics, race was significantly associated with patient activation, working alliance, and medication adherence scores. Patient activation was also associated with working alliance. These results provide support for the consideration of race and ethnicity in facilitating patient engagement and patient activation in mental healthcare. Minority patients may benefit from targeted efforts to improve their active engagement in mental healthcare.

  7. Patterns of Spontaneous Magnetoencephalographic Activity in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Siekmeier, Peter J.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) non-invasively measures the magnetic fields produced by the brain. Pertinent research articles from 1993 to 2009 that measured spontaneous, whole-head MEG activity in schizophrenic patients were reviewed. Data on localization of oscillatory activity and correlation of these findings with psychotic symptoms are summarized. While the variety of measures used by different research groups makes a quantitative meta-analysis difficult, it appears that MEG activity in patients may exhibit identifiable patterns, defined by topographic organization and frequency band. Specifically, 11 of the 12 studies showed increased theta (4–8 Hz) and delta (1–4 Hz) band oscillations in the temporal lobes of patients; of the 10 studies that examined the relationship between oscillatory activity and symptomatology, 8 found a positive correlation between temporal lobe theta activity and positive schizophrenic symptoms. Abnormally high frontal delta activity was not seen. These findings are analyzed in comparison to the EEG literature on schizophrenics, and possible confounds (e.g., medication effects) are discussed. In the future, MEG might be used to assist in diagnosis, or might be fruitfully used in conjunction with new neuroscience research approaches such as computational modeling, which may be able to link oscillatory activity and cellular-level pathology. PMID:20461010

  8. Patterns of spontaneous magnetoencephalographic activity in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, Peter J; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2010-06-01

    Magnetoencephalography noninvasively measures the magnetic fields produced by the brain. Pertinent research articles from 1993 to 2009 that measured spontaneous, whole-head magnetoencephalography activity in patients with schizophrenia were reviewed. Data on localization of oscillatory activity and correlation of these findings with psychotic symptoms are summarized. Although the variety of measures used by different research groups makes a quantitative meta-analysis difficult, it appears that magnetoencephalography activity in patients may exhibit identifiable patterns, defined by topographic organization and frequency band. Specifically, 11 of the 12 studies showed increased theta (4-8 Hz) and delta (1-4 Hz) band oscillations in the temporal lobes of patients; of the 10 studies that examined the relationship between oscillatory activity and symptomatology, 8 found a positive correlation between temporal lobe theta activity and positive schizophrenic symptoms. Abnormally high frontal delta activity was not seen. These findings are analyzed in comparison with the electroencephalogram literature on schizophrenics, and possible confounds (e.g., medication effects) are discussed. In the future, magnetoencephalography might be used to assist in diagnosis or might be fruitfully used in conjunction with new neuroscience research approaches such as computational modeling, which may be able to link oscillatory activity and cellular-level pathology.

  9. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Gedikbasi, Asuman; Akalin, Nilgul; Gunaldi, Meral; Yilmaz, Deniz; Mert, Meral; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Soylu, Aliye; Karakaya, Pinar; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study we aimed to detect paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity in iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to compare it with healthy controls by observing the change after iron therapy. Material and methods In this study, 50 adult patients with IDA and 40 healthy subjects were enrolled. All patients were analyzed at the beginning and after treatment according to laboratory assessments. Results Mean paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in the iron deficiency anemia group were significantly lower than mean activities of the control group (102.4 ±19.2 U/l and 163.3 ±13.68 U/l, respectively and 157.3 ±26.4 U/l and 256.1 ±24.6 U/l, respectively; p = 0.0001 for both). Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities significantly increased after treatment for IDA (143.2 ±13.9 and 197.6 ±27.9 U/l, respectively, p = 0.0001). Mean activities after treatment with iron were significantly lower than mean activities in the control group (p = 0.002; p = 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with IDA significantly increased after treatment with iron therapy. In adults IDA may also be one of the factors associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27478448

  10. Active rehabilitation in a pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patient.

    PubMed

    Zebuhr, Carleen; Sinha, Amit; Skillman, Heather; Buckvold, Shannon

    2014-05-01

    Decreased intensive care unit (ICU) mortality has led to an increase in ICU morbidity. ICU-induced immobilization plays a major role in this morbidity. Recently, ICU mobility has been shown to be safe and effective in adolescent and adult patients. We report the successful rehabilitation of an 8-year-old boy with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A child who is critically ill may safely perform active rehabilitation while on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The gains achieved through active rehabilitation and optimal nutrition can facilitate recovery from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in select pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  11. Alteration of spontaneous brain activity in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Ji; Yu, Qian; Fan, Cunxiu; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in a decrease in oxygen transport to the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity induced by hypoxia in patients with COPD. Patients and methods Twenty-five stable patients with COPD and 25 matching healthy volunteers were investigated. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal at resting state in the brain was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Whole-brain analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant decreases in ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus of patients with COPD. After controlling for SaO2, patients with COPD only showed an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus. Region of interest analysis showed a decrease in ALFF in the left precentral gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left caudate nucleus of patients with COPD. In all subjects, ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus showed positive correlations with visual reproduction. Conclusion We demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activity of patients with COPD, which may have a pathophysiologic meaning. PMID:27555761

  12. [Baroreflex behavior in patients with vasovagal syncope during active standing].

    PubMed

    Malamud-Kessler, Caroline; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno; Infante-Vázquez, Óscar; Campos-Sánchez, Miguel; Chiquete, Erwin

    2013-09-01

    INTRODUCTION. Neurally-mediated syncope, also known as vasovagal syncope, is defined as sudden and transient loss of consciousness due to a sudden and deep fall in arterial pressure. AIM. To determine the differences on the hemodynamic parameters mediating the baroreflex during active standing in patients with clinical diagnosis of vasovagal syncope as well as in healthy subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional, observational and comparative study. We included 20 patients diagnosed with neurally-mediated syncope and 30 controls, who underwent active orthostatic test, recording by finometry the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (interbeat interval) in a continuous (beat to beat) and noninvasive fashion. RESULTS. Patients with syncope had a mean supine baseline SBP significantly higher than that of the healthy controls. The measured values of SBP from baseline showed a significant difference between groups, being also lower in the control group. No differences were found between groups in the fall of SBP from the first peak of heart rate to the trough. The recovery time of the SBP to the baseline was no different in controls and in patients. CONCLUSIONS. The baseline SBP and SBP drop measured from baseline in supine position was higher in patients than in healthy subjects. The magnitude of the elevation of heart rate has a tendency to be higher in the patient group compared with the control group. This suggests a sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with syncope.

  13. Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 by transgenic sugar beet DNA.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, F; Smalla, K

    1998-04-01

    The ability of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413(pFG4 delta nptII) to take up and integrate transgenic plant DNA based on homologous recombination was studied under optimized laboratory conditions. Restoration of nptII, resulting in kanamycin-resistant transformants, was observed with plasmid DNA, plant DNA, and homogenates carrying the gene nptII. Molecular analysis showed that some transformants not only restored the 317-bp deletion but also obtained additional DNA.

  14. Assessment of TRAC-BD1/MOD1 using FIST data

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J.H.; Connell, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This report is concerned with the assessment of the TRAC-BD1/MOD1 Code, developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The assessment was conducted using data from the FIST (Full Integral Simulation Test) facility, which is a BWR safety test facility which was built to investigate small break LOCA and operational transients in BWR's and to complement earlier large break LOCA test results from TLTA (Two-Loop Test Apparatus). 21 figs.

  15. The Mysterious sdO X-ray Binary BD+37°442

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.; Geier, S.; Irrgang, A.; Schneider, D.; Barbu-Barna, I.; Mereghetti, S.; La Palombara, N.

    2014-04-01

    Pulsed X-ray emission in the luminous, helium-rich sdO BD +37°442 has recently been discovered (La Palombara et al. 2012). It was suggested that the sdO star has a neutron star or white dwarf companion with a spin period of 19.2 s. After HD 49798, which has a massive white dwarf companion spinning at 13.2 s in an 1.55 day orbit, this is only the second O-type subdwarf from which X-ray emission has been detected. We report preliminary results of our ongoing campaign to obtain time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using the CAFE instrument at Calar Alto observatory and SARG at the Telescopio Nationale Galileo. Atmospheric parameters were derived via a quantitative NLTE spectral analysis. The line fits hint at an unusually large projected rotation velocity. Therefore it seemed likely that BD +37°442 is a binary similar to HD 49798 and that the orbital period is also similar. The level of X-ray emission from BD +37°442 could be explained by accretion from the sdO wind by a neutron star orbiting at a period of less than ten days. Hence, we embarked on radial velocity monitoring in order to derive the binary parameters of the BD+37°442 system and obtained 41 spectra spread out over several month in 2012. Unlike for HD 49798, no radial velocity variations were found and, hence, there is no dynamical evidence for the existence of a compact companion yet. The origin of the pulsed X-ray emission remains as a mystery.

  16. The size, shape, density, and albedo of Ceres from its occultation of BD+8 deg 471

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Nye, R. A.; Oliver, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of BD+8 deg 471's November 13, 1984 occultation by Ceres show Ceres to be an oblate spheroid with a 479.6 + or - 2.4 km equatorial radius and 453.4 + or - 4.5 km polar radius. Despite the global appearance of a surface in hydrostatic equilibrium, real limb irregularities are distincly noticeable in the data. Visual geometric albedo is 0.073, and mean density 2.7 (+ or - 5 percent) g/cu cm.

  17. Reduced Arylsulfatase B Activity in Leukocytes from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Girish; Burke, Jenifer; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Sharma, Neha; Katyal, Shivani; Park, R. Lucy; Tobacman, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Summary The enzyme Arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase) removes 4-sulfate groups from chondroitin-4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and is required for the degradation of these sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Since these GAGs accumulate in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), we investigated the activity of ARSB in leukocytes of patients with CF, to consider if reduced activity of ARSB might contribute to the pathophysiology of CF. Previous cell-based experiments had demonstrated that when the deficiency of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) was corrected in bronchial epithelial cells, the ARSB activity increased significantly. De-identified, citrated blood samples were collected from 16 children with cystic fibrosis and 31 control subjects, seen in the Pediatric Clinic at Rush University Medical Center. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear cell (MC) populations were separated by density gradient, and blinded determinations of ARSB activity were performed using the exogenous substrate 4-methylumbilliferyl sulfate. Interleukin-6 was measured in the plasma samples by ELISA. ARSB activity was significantly less in the PMN and MC from the CF patients than controls (p<0.0001, unpaired t-test, two-tailed). Interleukin-6 levels in plasma were significantly greater in the CF population (p<0.001). Mean age, age range, and male:female ratio of CF patients and controls were similar, and no association of ARSB activity with age, gender, or CFTR genotype was evident. Since recombinant human ARSB is used successfully for replacement therapy in Mucopolysaccharidosis VI, it may be useful to restore ARSB activity to normal levels and increase degradation of sulfated GAGs in CF patients. PMID:22550062

  18. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus vitulinus by the BD phoenix automated microbiology system.

    PubMed

    Cirković, Ivana; Hauschild, Tomasz; Jezek, Petr; Dimitrijević, Vladimir; Vuković, Dragana; Stepanović, Srdjan

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the BD Phoenix system for the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Staphylococcus vitulinus. Of the 10 S. vitulinus isolates included in the study, 2 were obtained from the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, 5 from the environment, 2 from human clinical samples, and 1 from an animal source. The results of conventional biochemical and molecular tests were used for the reference method for ID, while antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations and PCR for the mecA gene were the reference for AST. Three isolates were incorrectly identified by the BD Phoenix system; one of these was incorrectly identified to the genus level, and two to the species level. The results of AST by the BD Phoenix system were in agreement with those by the reference method used. While the results of susceptibility testing compared favorably, the 70% accuracy of the Phoenix system for identification of this unusual staphylococcal species was not fully satisfactory.

  19. FUV, UV, and Optical Observations of the He-sdO Star BD+39 3226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayer, Pierre; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-01-01

    Based on observations carried out with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, the MMT Observatory, and the Keck telescope HIRES spectrograph, we present a spectral analysis of the He-sdO star BD+39 3226. By fitting the MMT spectrum we obtain a gravity that is 0.7 dex higher than the one reported in the literature. The new atmospheric parameters will have an impact on the measurement of the HI column density toward BD+39 3226, and by this very fact on the deuterium abundance. The high-resolution spectra show stellar absorption lines coming from C, N, O, Si, P, S, Fe, and Ni. The spectra also show lines from heavy elements such as Ge, As, and Sn. On the other hand, neither Zr nor Pb absorption lines are detected. The non-detection of lead in BD+39 3226 indicates that the star does not belong to the newly discovered group of lead-rich He-sdO stars. P.C. is supported by the Canadian Space Agency under a Public Works and Government Services of Canada contract.

  20. High content kinetic assays of neuronal signaling implemented on BD pathway HT.

    PubMed

    Chan, Grace K Y; Richards, Gillian R; Peters, Marco; Simpson, Peter B

    2005-12-01

    A great deal of information can be gained from kinetic fluorescence-based measurement of cellular responses; however, until recently the use of such approaches has been limited by the manual nature of the instrumentation available. Higher-throughput kinetic studies of signaling pathways are greatly facilitated by new confocal, liquid handling-enabled, high content screening (HCS) platforms. In the present work, we have implemented one such instrument, the BD(TM) Pathway HT bioimager (BD Biosciences, Rockville, MD), for studying regulation of neuronal signaling pathways. We have established a neuronal calcium oscillation model, whereby rate of oscillation, amplitude of oscillation, and level of synchronicity across the culture can be measured. We have implemented membrane potential measurement using fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based dyes, for single cell characterization on this platform, showing the benefits of a truly flexible excitation and recording system; this dye combination cannot be readily implemented on all HCS platforms because of constraints of excitation wavelengths. We have validated long-term intracellular calcium imaging experiments, using innovative dyes and BD Pathway HT's spinning disk-based confocal excitation. To maximize both throughput and reproducibility, walk-away automation integration of this bioimaging technology has been implemented, producing an affordable, compact platform for fully automated kinetic HCS.

  1. Down-regulation of BdBRI1, a putative brassinosteroid receptor gene produces a dwarf phenotype with enhanced drought tolerance in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ying; Yin, Yanhai; Fei, Shuizhang

    2015-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in plant growth, development and responses to a range of environmental cues. Although the mechanism of how BRs regulate growth and development is well-understood in Arabidopsis, the effect of BRs on stress tolerance, particularly drought tolerance remains unknown. We isolated a BRI1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1) homologous gene, BdBRI1 from Brachypodium distachyon, a model for temperate grasses and cereals, created and characterized RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown mutants for BdBRI1 in Brachypodium. The loss-of-function BdBRI1-RNAi mutants exhibited reduced plant height, shortened internodes, narrow and short leaf, and reduced expression of BR signaling genes, BdBES1, BdBZR1, BdBLE2, and enhanced expression of BR biosynthesis genes BdD2, BdCPD and BdDWF4. More importantly, BdBRI1 RNAi mutants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance, accompanied by highly elevated expression of drought-responsive genes, BdP5CS, BdCOR47/BdRD17, together with BdERD1 and BdRD26, two putative targets of the transcription factors BES1 and BZR1 that are key components of the BR signaling pathway. Our results suggest that BR signaling and biosynthesis are largely conserved among Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium, and that BR signaling plays an important role in drought tolerance by directly regulating expression of key drought-responsive genes. The effect of BR biosynthesis or crosstalks between BR and other hormones or components of stress signaling pathways on drought tolerance is discussed.

  2. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Dialyzed Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Simona; Masola, Valentina; Zoratti, Elisa; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Baruzzi, Anna; Messa, Michele; Sallustio, Fabio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Lupo, Antonio; Zaza, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multiprotein complex that mediates the activation of caspase-1 (CASP-1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IL-1β, could be involved in the chronic inflammatory state observed in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment (CKD-HD), we employed several biomolecular techniques including RT-PCR, western blot, FACS analysis, confocal microscopy and microarray. Interestingly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 CKD-HD patients showed higher mRNA levels of NLRP3, CASP-1, ASC, IL-1β, IL-18 and P2X7receptor compared to 15 healthy subjects. Western blotting analysis confirmed the above results. In particular, active forms of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 resulted significantly up-regulated in CKD-HD versus controls. Additionally, elevated mitochondrial ROS level, colocalization of NLRP3/ASC/mitochondria in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CKD-HD patients and down-regulation of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 protein levels in immune-cells of CKD-HD patients stimulated with LPS/ATP in presence of mitoTEMPO, inhibitor of mitochondrial ROS production, suggested a possible role of this organelle in the aforementioned CKD-associated inflammasome activation. Then, microarray analysis confirmed, in an independent microarray study cohort, that NLRP3 and CASP-1, along with other inflammasome-related genes, were up-regulated in 17 CKD-HD patients and they were able to clearly discriminate these patients from 5 healthy subjects. All together these data showed, for the first time, that NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in uremic patients undergoing dialysis treatment and they suggested that this unphysiological condition could be possibly induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25798846

  3. Basophil Activation Test identifies the patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria suffering the most active disease

    PubMed Central

    Curto‐Barredo, Laia; Yelamos, Jose; Gimeno, Ramon; Mojal, Sergi; Pujol, Ramon M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The basophil activation test showing CD63 up regulation could be a specific and sensitive in vitro complementary text to the in vivo autologous serum skin test for the activity assessment of the patients suffering autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria. The aim of this study is to define the basophil activation test as a useful tool in clinical practice in order to identify those patients with more active disease. Methods We screened 139 patients (96 women) diagnosed of chronic spontaneous urticaria using simultaneously autologous serum skin test and basophil activation test and their relationship with disease activity. Results Positive autologous serum skin test was found in 56.8%; from them, 31.6% were basophil activation test positive. Negative autologous serum skin test result was found in the 43.2% of the sample that showed negative CD63 expression results in all cases, except one. Patients with positive autologous serum skin test and positive CD63 by basophil activation test showed significant higher Urticaria Activity Score of 7 days (P = 0.004) and of 3 weeks (P = 0.001) than patients with positive autologous serum skin test and negative CD63 (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 26.57 ± 10.56 versus 18.40 ± 12.05 for the Urticaria Activity Score of 7 days and 56.47 ± 23.78 versus 39.88 ± 25.44 for the Urticaria Activity Score of 3 weeks). Conclusions The CD63 expression on basophils appears as a reliable in vitro marker, useful in clinical practice in combination with autologous serum skin test to define chronic spontaneous urticaria patients with the highest urticaria activity that impairs a normal life. PMID:27980778

  4. Active cytomegalovirus infection in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Shereen F; Shehata, Iman H; Abdel Aziz, Ghada A; Kamal, Mahmoud M

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex immunologic skin disorder that is expressed when genetically predisposed individuals are exposed to certain environmental stimuli. Inspite of the high prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and its potent immunomodulatory activities, the relation of CMV to AD is still poorly understood and is still to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of active CMV infection in patients with AD and its possible etiologic role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Also, we tried to find if a relation between active CMV infection and disease severity exists. The present study was carried on 31 patients with AD with various degrees of disease severity. Ten apparently healthy subjects were enrolled in the study as a control group. Anti CMV IgG antibodies were estimated by quantitative enzyme immunoassay to discriminate between recent CMV infection and CMV reactivation. Active CMV infection was diagnosed by using nested PCR to detect CMV DNA in the sera of the studied subjects. The detection rate of CMV genome was higher in patients with AD in comparison to the control group. Cytomegalovirus genome was detected in the sera of 52% (16/31) of patients with AD (87.5% of them were seropositive for anti-CMV IgG antibodies). On the other hand no CMV DNA was detected in any of the serum samples of the control subjects. The difference was statistically significant. No significant relation was found between active CMV infection and disease severity. Also, no significant statistical difference was found between the two studied groups as regards the prevalence of latent CMV infection. In addition, no significant difference was detected between anti-CMV IgG antibody levels in all seropositive subjects. Our results denote that active subclinical CMV infection is more frequent in patients with AD and may have possible immunomodulatory role in the etiopathogenesis of AD but it is not related to disease severity.

  5. Demoralization, Patient Activation, and the Outcome of Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Block, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that psychosocial factors can adversely impact the outcome of spine surgery. This article discusses in detail one such recently-identified “risk” factor: demoralization. Several studies conducted by the author indicate that demoralization, an emotional construct distinct from depression, is associated with poorer pain reduction, less functional improvement and decreased satisfaction among spine surgery patients. However, there are indications that the adverse impact of risk factors such as demoralization can be mitigated by psychosocial “maximizing” factors—characteristics that propel the patient towards positive surgical results. One of these maximizing factors, patient activation, is discussed in depth. The patient activation measure (PAM), an inventory assessing the extent to which patients are active and engaged in their health care, is associated not only with improved spine surgery results, but with better outcomes across a broad range of medical conditions. Other maximizing factors are discussed in this article. The author concludes that the past research focus on psychosocial risk factors has limited the value of presurgical psychological screening, and that future research, as well as clinical assessment, should recognize that the importance of evaluating patients’ strengths as well as their vulnerabilities. PMID:27417599

  6. Exercise in Treating Hypertension: Tailoring Therapies for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chintanadilok, Jirayos

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,…

  7. Levan-Producing Leuconostoc citreum Strain BD1707 and Its Growth in Tomato Juice Supplemented with Sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin; Xu, Xiaofen; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Zhenmin

    2015-01-01

    A levan-producing strain, BD1707, was isolated from Tibetan kefir and identified as Leuconostoc citreum. The effects of carbon sources on the growth of L. citreum BD1707 and levan production in tomato juice were measured. The changes in pH, viable cell count, sugar content, and levan yield in the cultured tomato juice supplemented with 15% (wt/vol) sucrose were also assayed. L. citreum BD1707 could synthesize more than 28 g/liter of levan in the tomato juice-sucrose medium when cultured at 30°C for 96 h. Based on the monosaccharide composition, molecular mass distribution, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the levan synthesized by L. citreum BD1707 was composed of a linear backbone consisting of consecutive β-(2→6) linked d-fructofuranosyl units, with an estimated average molecular mass of 4.3 × 106 Da. PMID:26682858

  8. Interleukin-19 impairment in active Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Elisabet; Garcia Planella, Esther; Zamora-Atenza, Carlos; Nieto, Juan Camilo; Gordillo, Jordi; Ortiz, Ma Angels; Metón, Isidoro; Serrano, Elena; Vegas, Esteban; García-Bosch, Orlando; Juárez, Cándido; Vidal, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    The exact function of interleukin-19 (IL-19) on immune response is poorly understood. In mice, IL-19 up-regulates TNFα and IL-6 expression and its deficiency increases susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. In humans, IL-19 favors a Th2 response and is elevated in several diseases. We here investigate the expression and effects of IL-19 on cells from active Crohn's disease (CD) patient. Twenty-three active CD patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included. mRNA and protein IL-19 levels were analyzed in monocytes. IL-19 effects were determined in vitro on the T cell phenotype and in the production of cytokines by immune cells. We observed that unstimulated and TLR-activated monocytes expressed significantly lower IL-19 mRNA in active CD patients than in HC (logFC = -1.97 unstimulated; -1.88 with Pam3CSK4; and -1.91 with FSL-1; p<0.001). These results were confirmed at protein level. Exogenous IL-19 had an anti-inflammatory effect on HC but not on CD patients. IL-19 decreased TNFα production in PBMC (850.7 ± 75.29 pg/ml vs 2626.0 ± 350 pg/ml; p<0.01) and increased CTLA4 expression (22.04 ± 1.55% vs 13.98 ± 2.05%; p<0.05) and IL-4 production (32.5 ± 8.9 pg/ml vs 13.5 ± 2.9 pg/ml; p<0.05) in T cells from HC. IL-10 regulated IL-19 production in both active CD patients and HC. We observed that three of the miRNAs that can modulate IL-19 mRNA expression, were up-regulated in monocytes from active CD patients. These results suggested that IL-19 had an anti-inflammatory role in this study. Defects in IL-19 expression and the lack of response to this cytokine could contribute to inflammatory mechanisms in active CD patients.

  9. Evidence for B cell activation in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Youinou, P Y; Irving, W L; Shipley, M; Hayes, J; Lydyard, P M

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes and in some cases synovial eluate cells from 51 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), were analysed for the percentages of cells bearing surface light chains (total B cells), IgM and IgD. In addition, their capacity to form rosettes with mouse erythrocytes (mRFC)--a property of a B cell subpopulation--was determined. Activity of the disease was assessed by clinical and laboratory criteria and classified as very active, moderately active and inactive. Normal, age and sex matched individuals and a group of patients with a variety of other rheumatological disorders, were used as control populations. Although there was no significant difference in percentages of total B cells in any of the groups compared with normal controls, there was a small but significant increase in the ratio of cells bearing IgM to those bearing IgD in patients with very active disease. This was paralleled by a significant decrease in the mRFC in this disease activity group. Patients with inactive disease showed no change in their proportions of IgM:IgD, but did show a significant increase in mRFC. These results are discussed in terms of the presence of activated B cells in patients with very active RA. PMID:6607144

  10. SUBSTELLAR-MASS COMPANIONS TO THE K-DWARF BD+14 4559 AND THE K-GIANTS HD 240210 AND BD+20 2457

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Adamow, M.; Wolszczan, A. E-mail: Grzegorz.Nowak@astri.uni.torun.p E-mail: alex@astro.psu.ed

    2009-12-10

    We present the discovery of substellar-mass companions to three stars by the ongoing Penn State-Torun Planet Search conducted with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The K2-dwarf, BD+14 4559, has a 1.5 M{sub J} minimum mass companion with the orbital period of 269 days and shows a non-linear, long-term radial velocity (RV) trend, which indicates a possible presence of another planet-mass body in the system. The K3-giant, HD 240210, exhibits RV variations that require modeling with multiple orbits, but the available data are not yet sufficient to do it unambiguously. A tentative, one-planet model calls for a 5.2 M{sub J} minimum mass planet in a 502 day orbit around the star. The most massive of the three stars, the K2-giant, BD+20 2457, whose estimated mass is 2.8 +- 1.5 M {sub sun}, has two companions with the respective minimum masses of 21.4 M{sub J} and 12.5 M{sub J} and orbital periods of 380 and 622 days. Depending on the unknown inclinations of the orbits, the currently very uncertain mass of the star, and the dynamical properties of the system, it may represent the first detection of two brown dwarf-mass companions orbiting a giant. The existence of such objects will have consequences for the interpretation of the so-called brown dwarf desert known to exist in the case of solar-mass stars.

  11. Brain activation induced by psychological stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Castro, M N; Villarreal, M F; Bolotinsky, N; Papávero, E; Goldschmidt, M G; Costanzo, E Y; Drucaroff, L; Wainsztein, A; de Achával, D; Pahissa, J; Bär, K-J; Nemeroff, C B; Guinjoan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Environmental influences are critical for the expression of genes putatively related to the behavioral and cognitive phenotypes of schizophrenia. Among such factors, psychosocial stress has been proposed to play a major role in the expression of symptoms. However, it is unsettled how stress interacts with pathophysiological pathways to produce the disease. We studied 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls aged 18 to 50years with 3T-fMRI, in which a period of 6min of resting state acquisition was followed by a block design, with three blocks of 1-min control-task, 1-min stress-task and 1-min rest after-task. Self-report of stress and PANSS were measured. Limbic structures were activated in schizophrenia patients by simple tasks and remained active during, and shortly after stress. In controls, stress-related brain activation was more time-focused, and restricted to the stressful task itself. Negative symptom severity was inversely related to activation of anterior cingulum and orbitofrontal cortex. Results might represent the neurobiological aspect of hyper-reactivity to normal stressful situations previously described in schizophrenia, thus providing evidence on the involvement of limbic areas in the response to stress in schizophrenia. Patients present a pattern of persistent limbic activation probably contributing to hypervigilance and subsequent psychotic thought distortions.

  12. Patient activation and advocacy: which literacy skills matter most?

    PubMed

    Martin, Laurie T; Schonlau, Matthias; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Buka, Stephen L; Rudd, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Attention to the effect of a patient's literacy skills on health care interactions is relatively new. So, too, are studies of either structural or personal factors that inhibit or support a patient's ability to navigate health services and systems and to advocate for their own needs within a service delivery system. Contributions of the structural environment, of interpersonal dynamics, and of a variety of psychological and sociological factors in the relationship between patients and providers have long been under study. Less frequently examined is the advocacy role expected of patients. However, the complex nature of health care in the United States increasingly requires a proactive stance. This study examined whether four literacy skills (reading, numeracy, speaking, and listening) were associated with patient self-advocacy--a component of health literacy itself--when faced with a hypothetical barrier to scheduling a medical appointment. Although all literacy skills were significantly associated with advocacy when examined in isolation, greater speaking and listening skills remained significantly associated with better patient advocacy when all four skills were examined simultaneously. These findings suggest that speaking and listening skills and support for such skills may be important factors to consider when developing patient activation and advocacy skills.

  13. Novel Anti-bacterial Activities of β-defensin 1 in Human Platelets: Suppression of Pathogen Growth and Signaling of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

    PubMed Central

    Schwertz, Hansjörg; Cody, Mark J.; Franks, Zechariah; Tolley, Neal D.; Kahr, Walter H. A.; Lindemann, Stephan; Seizer, Peter; Yost, Christian C.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2011-01-01

    Human β-defensins (hBD) are antimicrobial peptides that curb microbial activity. Although hBD's are primarily expressed by epithelial cells, we show that human platelets express hBD-1 that has both predicted and novel antibacterial activities. We observed that activated platelets surround Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), forcing the pathogens into clusters that have a reduced growth rate compared to S. aureus alone. Given the microbicidal activity of β-defensins, we determined whether hBD family members were present in platelets and found mRNA and protein for hBD-1. We also established that hBD-1 protein resided in extragranular cytoplasmic compartments of platelets. Consistent with this localization pattern, agonists that elicit granular secretion by platelets did not readily induce hBD-1 release. Nevertheless, platelets released hBD-1 when they were stimulated by α-toxin, a S. aureus product that permeabilizes target cells. Platelet-derived hBD-1 significantly impaired the growth of clinical strains of S. aureus. hBD-1 also induced robust neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation by target polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), which is a novel antimicrobial function of β-defensins that was not previously identified. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hBD-1 is a previously-unrecognized component of platelets that displays classic antimicrobial activity and, in addition, signals PMNs to extrude DNA lattices that capture and kill bacteria. PMID:22102811

  14. Plasma ADAMTS13 activity and von Willebrand Factor Antigen and Activity In Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Monisha; Cao, Wenjing; McDaniel, Jenny K.; Pham, Huy P.; Raju, Dheeraj; Nawalinski, Kelsey; Frangos, Suzanne; Kung, David; Zager, Eric E.; Kasner, Scott E.; Levine, Joshua M.; Zheng, X. Long

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Increased von Willebrand factor (VWF) and reduced ADAMTS13 activity are associated with arterial thrombosis. This may also be the culprit mechanism implicated in delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Objective To determine plasma VWF and ADAMTS13 in patients with SAH and healthy subjects; and to explore the levels of those markers and outcome after SAH. Methods 40 consecutive patients were enrolled between September 2007 and April 2014 in a pilot study. Plasma samples were collected from SAH patients on post-bleed day (PBD) 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 and healthy controls. VWF antigen (VWFAg) and VWF activity (VWFAc) were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay and collagen binding assay, respectively. ADAMTS13 activity was determined by the cleavage of a fluorescent substrate. Univariate descriptive statistics and cluster analyses were performed based on outcomes in the group with SAH only. Results Mean age of SAH patients was 52.4 years (26–84 years) and 30 (75%) were women. 12/40 (30%) had a high Hunt and Hess grade (IV–V) and 25 (62.5%) were treated with coil embolization. Plasma VWFAg and VWFAc were significantly higher in SAH patients than those in healthy subjects on each PBD (p<0.0001). Concurrently, plasma ADAMTS13 activity in SAH patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (p<0.0001). Among those with SAH, cluster analysis demonstrated that patients with higher VWFAg and VWFAc and/or lower ADAMTS13 activity might be at risk of increased mortality. Conclusions The relative deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity in SAH patients may associate with worse outcome. PMID:28102428

  15. Plasma ADAMTS13 activity and von Willebrand factor antigen and activity in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Monisha; Cao, Wenjing; McDaniel, Jenny K; Pham, Huy P; Raju, Dheeraj; Nawalinski, Kelsey; Frangos, Suzanne; Kung, David; Zager, Eric; Kasner, Scott E; Levine, Joshua M; Zheng, X Long

    2017-01-19

    Increased von Willebrand factor (VWF) and reduced ADAMTS13 activity are associated with arterial thrombosis. This may also be the culprit mechanism implicated in delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). It was our objective to determine plasma VWF and ADAMTS13 in patients with SAH and healthy subjects; and to explore the levels of those markers and outcome after SAH. Forty consecutive patients were enrolled between September 2007 and April 2014 in a pilot study. Plasma samples were collected from SAH patients on post-bleed day (PBD) 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 and healthy controls. VWF antigen (VWFAg) and VWF activity (VWFAc) were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay and collagen binding assay, respectively. ADAMTS13 activity was determined by the cleavage of a fluorescent substrate. Univariate descriptive statistics and cluster analyses were performed based on outcomes in the group with SAH only. Mean age of SAH patients was 52.4 years (26-84 years) and 30 (75 %) were women. 12/40 (30 %) had a high Hunt and Hess grade (IV-V) and 25 (62.5 %) were treated with coil embolisation. Plasma VWFAg and VWFAc were significantly higher in SAH patients than those in healthy subjects on each PBD (p<0.0001). Concurrently, plasma ADAMTS13 activity in SAH patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (p<0.0001). Among those with SAH, cluster analysis demonstrated that patients with higher VWFAg and VWFAc and/or lower ADAMTS13 activity might be at risk of increased mortality. In conclusion, the relative deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity in SAH patients may associate with worse outcome.

  16. Barriers associated with reduced physical activity in COPD patients*

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Priscila Batista; Stelmach, Rafael; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Cukier, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of COPD patients to perform activities of daily living (ADL); to identify barriers that prevent these individuals from performing ADL; and to correlate those barriers with dyspnea severity, six-minute walk test (6MWT), and an ADL limitation score. METHODS: In COPD patients and healthy, age-matched controls, the number of steps, the distance walked, and walking time were recorded with a triaxial accelerometer, for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire regarding perceived barriers and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale were used in order to identify the factors that prevent the performance of ADL. The severity of dyspnea was assessed with two scales, whereas submaximal exercise capacity was determined on the basis of the 6MWT. RESULTS: We evaluated 40 COPD patients and 40 controls. In comparison with the control values, the mean walk time was significantly shorter for COPD patients (68.5 ± 25.8 min/day vs. 105.2 ± 49.4 min/day; p < 0.001), as was the distance walked (3.9 ± 1.9 km/day vs. 6.4 ± 3.2 km/day; p < 0.001). The COPD patients also walked fewer steps/day. The most common self-reported barriers to performing ADL were lack of infrastructure, social influences, and lack of willpower. The 6MWT distance correlated with the results obtained with the accelerometer but not with the LCADL scale results. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COPD are less active than are healthy adults of a comparable age. Physical inactivity and the barriers to performing ADL have immediate implications for clinical practice, calling for early intervention measures. PMID:25410838

  17. Characteristics of physical activity in patients with critical limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Satoko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Junichi; Kubo, Kasuya; Matsumoto, Takuya; Hishinuma, Ryo; Terabe, Yuuta; Ando, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of physical activity of the patients with critical limb ischemia consecutively in order to clarify the characteristics of physical activity of critical limb ischemia. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients who were eligible for the 2 months of consecutive evaluation of the amount of physical activity were enrolled in the study (men: 11; woman: 1; mean age: 64.4 [range: 44–80]). A pedometer with an accelerometer was used for the measurement of the number of steps walked as an index of the amount of physical activity. Participants were asked to lead a regular life and no instruction was given as to the number of steps. [Results] The average number of daily steps walked was 2,323 steps (range: 404–6,505). There was no clear tendency in the number of amputation site-specific steps walked. There was also no correlation between the number of steps walked and age as well as the maximum strength of the knee-extension muscle, skin perfusion pressure of the sole and the dorsum, and QOL scores. [Conclusion] The number of steps walked of the patients with critical limb ischemia was remarkably low and no significant association with health-related QOL. PMID:28174472

  18. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  19. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  20. [Activity of antioxidant enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Czeczot, Hanna; Scibior, Dorota; Skrzycki, Michał; Podsiad, Małgorzata

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our studies was the estimation of activities of antioxidant enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis. We investigated activities of superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD, MnSOD), catalase (CAT), selenium dependent GSH peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), selenium independent GSH peroxidase (non-Se-GSH-Px), GSH-S-transferase (GST), GSH reductase (GSHR) and the level ofreduced gutathione (GSH) in cirrhotic and healthy liver tissues. The activities of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT and GSH-dependent enzymes (except GSHR) were found to be lower in cirrhotic tissue compared to healthy liver. Those changes were associated with decrease of GSH level in cirrhotic tissue compared with control liver tissue. Our results show that antioxidant barrier in liver cirrhosis is impaired. It is associated with decrease of glutathione level and changes of activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSHPx, GST, GSHR) in liver cirrhosis compared with healthy liver.

  1. Neutrophil activation in ivermectin-treated onchocerciasis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Njoo, F L; Hack, C E; Oosting, J; Stilma, J S; Kijlstra, A

    1993-01-01

    Ivermectin is a safe and effective drug for onchocerciasis treatment. In certain individuals, however, therapy is accompanied by adverse reactions. The mechanisms underlying these reactions are not yet known. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether neutrophils are involved in the development of these adverse reactions. Elastase and lactoferrin, two markers for the release of neutrophil azurophilic and specific granule contents respectively, were measured by radioimmunoassays in plasma of onchocerciasis patients with varying degrees of side effects, as well as in control subjects before and 1 and 2 days after ivermectin treatment. A considerable increase of elastase levels after treatment was observed, whereas lactoferrin levels did not change. The percentage of patients with elevated elastase levels was significantly correlated with the degree of side effects. These findings suggest that neutrophil activation may be involved in the development of adverse reactions in these patients. PMID:8222324

  2. Paraoxonase Activity and Oxidative Status in Patients with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Akyüz, Servet; Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Soyalic, Harun; Yılmaz, Beyhan; Taskin, Abdullah; Bilinc, Hasan; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxanase-1 (PON) activity, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and the oxidative stress index (OSI) in tinnitus; and to compare the results with data from healthy subjects. Subjects and Methods A total of 114 subjects-54 patients with tinnitus and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum PON activity, TOS, TAS, and OSI levels were measured. Results In the tinnitus group, TAS, and PON were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001). However, the TOS, and OSI levels were significantly higher in the tinnitus group than in the control group (p<0.001). Conclusions According to the data obtained from the present study, patients with tinnitus were exposed to potent oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be the key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of tinnitus. PMID:27144229

  3. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  4. Comparison of the BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR Assay to Culture by Use of BBL CHROMagar MRSA for Detection of MRSA in Nasal Surveillance Cultures from Intensive Care Unit Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, James W.; Munier, Gina K.; Johnson, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the BD GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) real-time PCR assay to culture by the use of BBL CHROMagar MRSA for the detection of MRSA in 627 nasal surveillance specimens collected from intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The PCR assay had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 96.7%, 70.3%, and 100%, respectively. Nine of 19 false-positive PCR specimens grew methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from broth enrichment culture, of which two demonstrated evidence of mecA gene dropout. Compared to culture by the use of BBL CHROMagar MRSA, the BD GeneOhm MRSA PCR assay demonstrated sensitivity and specificity above 95% for the detection of MRSA nasal colonization and provided shorter turnaround time in generating positive and negative final results. PMID:20181916

  5. The Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1 Genome Sequence Reflects Its Genetic Adaptation to the Human Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca; Zomer, Aldert; Foroni, Elena; Giubellini, Vanessa; Bottacini, Francesca; Canchaya, Carlos; Claesson, Marcus J.; He, Fei; Mantzourani, Maria; Mulas, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Gao, Beile; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Oggioni, Marco; Gupta, Radhey S.; Zhang, Ziding; Beighton, David; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; O'Toole, Paul W.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2009-01-01

    Bifidobacteria, one of the relatively dominant components of the human intestinal microbiota, are considered one of the key groups of beneficial intestinal bacteria (probiotic bacteria). However, in addition to health-promoting taxa, the genus Bifidobacterium also includes Bifidobacterium dentium, an opportunistic cariogenic pathogen. The genetic basis for the ability of B. dentium to survive in the oral cavity and contribute to caries development is not understood. The genome of B. dentium Bd1, a strain isolated from dental caries, was sequenced to completion to uncover a single circular 2,636,368 base pair chromosome with 2,143 predicted open reading frames. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed multiple ways in which B. dentium has adapted to the oral environment through specialized nutrient acquisition, defences against antimicrobials, and gene products that increase fitness and competitiveness within the oral niche. B. dentium Bd1 was shown to metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates, consistent with genome-based predictions, while colonization and persistence factors implicated in tissue adhesion, acid tolerance, and the metabolism of human saliva-derived compounds were also identified. Global transcriptome analysis demonstrated that many of the genes encoding these predicted traits are highly expressed under relevant physiological conditions. This is the first report to identify, through various genomic approaches, specific genetic adaptations of a Bifidobacterium taxon, Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1, to a lifestyle as a cariogenic microorganism in the oral cavity. In silico analysis and comparative genomic hybridization experiments clearly reveal a high level of genome conservation among various B. dentium strains. The data indicate that the genome of this opportunistic cariogen has evolved through a very limited number of horizontal gene acquisition events, highlighting the narrow boundaries that separate commensals from opportunistic pathogens. PMID

  6. Muscular activity may improve in edentulous patients after implant treatment.

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Schimmel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Data sourcesMedline via Pubmed and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1980 to September 2013. This was complemented by a manual search of the magazines Deutsche Zahnaerztliche Zeitung, Quintessenz, Zeitschrift für Zahnärztliche Implantologie, Schweizerische Monatszeitschrift and Implantologie. Additionally, the list of reference s of all selected full-text articles and related reviews were further scrutinised for potential included studies in English or German.Study selectionThree review authors independently searched for clinical trials that assessed the muscular activity in the intervention groups: edentulous patients treated with implant-overdentures (IODs) and implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (ISFDPs) and the comparison groups: dentates and edentulous patients treated with mucosa-borne complete removable dental prostheses (CRDPs).Data extraction and synthesisThe primary outcome was the muscular activity (measured by electromyography [EMG]) in masseter or temporalis muscle of the participants during clenching and chewing. The data extraction of each included study consisted of author, year, age range, treatment, number of participants, number of implants inserted, arch treated, opposite jaw, kind and side of the muscles that were measured. EMG gain or loss (unit measured: volt) was considered by using the effect size. For the meta-analyses only the studies that included masseter muscle measured separately from temporalis were considered. Concerning the side of measurement (right and left side measured together or right and left side measured separately), only the dominant type in each category was included.ResultsSixteen articles, out of the initial 646 retrieved abstracts, were analysed. The muscular activity of edentulous subjects increased after implant support therapy during clenching (effect size [ES]: 2.18 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14, 3.23]) and during chewing (ES: 1.45 [95 % CI: 1.21, 1.69]). In addition, the pooled EMG

  7. ISO spectroscopy of young intermediate-mass stars in the BD+40deg4124 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, M. E.; Wesselius, P. R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2000-03-01

    We present the results of ISO SWS and LWS grating scans towards the three brightest members of the BD+40deg4124 group in the infrared: BD+40deg4124 (B2Ve), LkHα 224 (A7e) and the embedded source LkHα 225. Emission from the pure rotational lines of H_2, from ro-vibrational transitions of CO, from PAHs, from H i recombination lines and from the infrared fine structure lines of [Fe ii], [Si ii], [S i], [O i], [O iii] and [C ii] was detected. These emission lines arise in the combination of a low-density (~ 102 cm-3) H ii region with a clumpy PDR in the case of BD+40deg4124. The lower transitions of the infrared H i lines observed in BD+40deg4124 are optically thick; most likely they arise in either a dense wind or a circumstellar disk. This same region is also responsible for the optical H i lines and the radio continuum emission. In the lines of sight towards LkHα 224 and LkHα 225, the observed emission lines arise in a non-dissociative shock produced by a slow (~ 20 km s-1) outflow arising from LkHα 225. Toward LkHα 225 we also observe a dissociative shock, presumably located closer to the outflow source than the non-dissociative shock. In the line of sight towards LkHα 225 we observed absorption features due to solid water ice and amorphous silicates, and due to gas-phase H_2O, CO and CO_2. No solid CO_2 was detected towards LkHα 225, making this the first line of sight where the bulk of the CO_2 is in the gas-phase. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  8. Measurement of the branching fraction and polarization for the decay B--->D*0K*-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Shen, B C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-04-09

    We present a study of the decay B--->D(*0)K(*-) based on a sample of 86 x 10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BBmacr; decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We measure the branching fraction B(B--->D(*0)K(*-))=(8.3+/-1.1(stat)+/-1.0(syst)) x 10(-4), and the fraction of longitudinal polarization in this decay to be Gamma(L)/Gamma=0.86+/-0.06(stat)+/-0.03(syst).

  9. BD-22deg3467, a DAO-type Star Exciting the Nebula Abell 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, M.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Koppen, J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral analyses of hot, compact stars with non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmosphere techniques allow the precise determination of photospheric parameters such as the effective temperature (T(sub eff)), the surface gravity (log g), and the chemical composition. The derived photospheric metal abundances are crucial constraints for stellar evolutionary theory. Aims. Previous spectral analyses of the exciting star of the nebula A35, BD-22deg3467, were based on He+C+N+O+Si+Fe models only. For our analysis, we use state-of-the-art fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres that consider opacities of 23 elements from hydrogen to nickel. We aim to identify all observed lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of BD-22deg3467 and to determine the abundances of the respective species precisely. Methods. For the analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) far-ultraviolet (FUSE) and UV (HST/STIS) observations, we combined stellar-atmosphere models and interstellar line-absorption models to fully reproduce the entire observed UV spectrum. Results. The best agreement with the UV observation of BD-22deg3467 is achieved at T(sub eff) = 80 +/- 10 kK and log g = 7.2 +/- 0.3. While T(sub eff) of previous analyses is verified, log g is significantly lower. We re-analyzed lines of silicon and iron (1/100 and about solar abundances, respectively) and for the first time in this star identified argon, chromium, manganese, cobalt, and nickel and determined abundances of 12, 70, 35, 150, and 5 times solar, respectively. Our results partially agree with predictions of diffusion models for DA-type white dwarfs. A combination of photospheric and interstellar line-absorption models reproduces more than 90% of the observed absorption features. The stellar mass is M approx. 0.48 Solar Mass. Conclusions. BD.22.3467 may not have been massive enough to ascend the asymptotic giant branch and may have evolved directly from the extended horizontal branch

  10. The size, shape, density, and albedo of Ceres from its occultation of BD+8 deg 471

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Nye, R. A.; Oliver, R. C.; Kreidl, T. J.; Jones, S. E.; Hubbard, W.; Lebofsky, L.; Goff, R.

    1986-01-01

    The occultation of BD+8 degrees 471 by Ceres on 13 November 1984 was observed photoelectrically at 13 sites in Mexico, Florida, and the Caribbean. These observations indicate that Ceres is an oblate spheroid having an equatorial radius of 479.6 + or - 2.4 km and a polar radius of 453.4 + or - 4.5 km. The mean density of this minor planet is 2.7 gm/cubic cm + or - 5%, and its visual geometric albedo is 0.070. While the surface appears globally to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, firm evidence of real limb irregularities is seen in the data.

  11. Nitrite Reductase NirBD Is Induced and Plays an Important Role during In Vitro Dormancy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Shamim; Khan, Arshad; Sohaskey, Charles D.; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the strongest reducers of nitrate among all mycobacteria. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite, mediated by nitrate reductase (NarGHJI) of M. tuberculosis, is induced during the dormant stage, and the enzyme has a respiratory function in the absence of oxygen. Nitrite reductase (NirBD) is also functional during aerobic growth when nitrite is the sole nitrogen source. However, the role of NirBD-mediated nitrite reduction during the dormancy is not yet characterized. Here, we analyzed nitrite reduction during aerobic growth as well as in a hypoxic dormancy model of M. tuberculosis in vitro. When nitrite was used as the sole nitrogen source in the medium, the organism grew and the reduction of nitrite was evident in both hypoxic and aerobic cultures of M. tuberculosis. Remarkably, the hypoxic culture of M. tuberculosis, compared to the aerobic culture, showed 32- and 4-fold-increased expression of nitrite reductase (NirBD) at the transcription and protein levels, respectively. More importantly, a nirBD mutant of M. tuberculosis was unable to reduce nitrite and compared to the wild-type (WT) strain had a >2-log reduction in viability after 240 h in the Wayne model of hypoxic dormancy. Dependence of M. tuberculosis on nitrite reductase (NirBD) was also seen in a human macrophage-based dormancy model where the nirBD mutant was impaired for survival compared to the WT strain. Overall, the increased expression and essentiality of nitrite reductase in the in vitro dormancy models suggested that NirBD-mediated nitrite reduction could be critical during the persistent stage of M. tuberculosis. PMID:23935045

  12. Opsonic activity of blister fluid from burn patients.

    PubMed Central

    Deitch, E A

    1983-01-01

    The combination of skin loss and immune depression after thermal injury predisposes burn patients to an increased risk of infection. Since the commonest site of infection in the burn patient is the burn wound itself, we elected to study the opsonic activity of locally produced blister fluid, from 18 thermally injured patients, for the two most common organisms colonizing the burn wound (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). Blister fluid was as good an opsonin source for staphylococcus as normal serum. In contrast, the blister fluid did not support either the phagocytosis of the intracellular killing of P. aeruginosa. The poor opsonic activity of blister fluid for P. aeruginosa did not appear to be due to the presence of an inhibitory factor(s) since the addition of normal serum restored the opsonic activity of the blister fluid to normal. The concentrations of immunoglobulins and the complement components C3 and C4 in the blister fluid samples were less than half the level of those in normal serum. The opsonic activity of the blister fluid could not be restored to normal by the addition of either immunoglobulin or heat-inactivated serum (56 degrees C for 30 min). Thus, the opsonic factor(s) missing from the blister fluid was heat labile and thus probably represents complement components. That blister fluid had impaired opsonic activity for P. aeruginosa but not for S. aureus indicated that a local humoral defect may be responsible, at least in part, for the high incidence of gram-negative organisms, especially pseudomonads, colonizing the burn wound after thermal injury. PMID:6411619

  13. Variables associated with physical health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients presenting for deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Alexandre Paim; Freitas, Fernando Cini; de Oliveira Thais, Maria Emília; da Silva Areas, Fernando Zanela; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Debona, Rodrigo; Nunes, Jean Costa; Guarnieri, Ricardo; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Wagle Shukla, Aparna; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Walz, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) benefits Parkinson's disease (PD) patient's quality of life specially in domains as mobility, activities of daily living (ADL) and bodily discomfort (BD), but little is known about the variables associated with these HRQOL domains in patients presenting for DBS. The objective is to evaluate variables associated with of HRQOL in a Brazilian sample of PD patients presenting for DBS treatment, specifically in the domains related with motor symptoms. In a cross-sectional study of 59 PD patients evaluated at outpatient Unit for Movement Disorders, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables associated with mobility, ADL and BD domains of the 39-item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39). UPDRS III "on" scores, duration of the disease, age, presence of comorbidities and anxiety and depressive symptoms quantified by hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), were the independent variables. In our results, HADS scores were independently associated to mobility domain: β coefficient 1.36 (95 % CI 0.55-2.15) and BD domain: β coefficient 1.57 (95 % CI 0.67-2.48). UPDRS III "on" scores were independently associated to mobility domain: 0.42 (95 % CI 0.03-0.81). The model of each multiple linear regression analysis explains 25 % of the mobility domain variability (p < 0.01) and 24 % of the BD domain variability (p < 0.01). Psychiatric symptoms were at least as relevant to quality of life as motor symptoms in PD patients presenting for DBS treatment. The effect of treating these psychiatric symptoms on patients' HRQOL deserves further investigation.

  14. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Chonde, Daniel B; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D; Zürcher, Nicole R; Albrecht, Daniel S; Vangel, Mark G; Rosen, Bruce R; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-03-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand (11)C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for (11)C-PBR28, nine patient-control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29-63 for patients and 28-65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions.

  15. Comparing BRIN-BD11 culture producing insulin using different type of microcarriers

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Mohamed Ismail Abdul; Yusuf, Siti Aisyah Mohd; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Ahmad Nor, Yusilawati

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the growth profile, growth kinetics, and insulin-secretory responsiveness of BRIN-BD11 cells grown in optimized medium on different types of microcarriers (MCs). Comparisons were made on modified polystyrene (Hillex® II) and crosslinked polystyrene Plastic Plus (PP) from Solohill Engineering. The cell line producing insulin was cultured in a 25 cm2 T-flask as control while MCs based culture was implemented in a stirred tank bioreactor with 1 L working volume. For each culture type, the viable cell number, glucose, lactate, glutamate, and insulin concentrations were measured and compared. Maximum viable cell number was obtained at 1.47 × 105 cell/mL for PP microcarrier (PPMCs) culture, 1.35 × 105 cell/mL Hillex® II (HIIMCs) culture and 0.95 × 105 cell/mL for T-flask culture, respectively. The highest insulin concentration has been produced in PPMCs culture (5.31 mg/L) compared to HIIMCs culture (2.01 mg/L) and T-flask culture (1.99 mg/L). Therefore overall observation suggested that PPMCs was likely preferred to be used for BRIN-BD11 cell culture as compared with Hillex® II MCs. PMID:20953703

  16. DOE to ship 20,000 b/d of Elk Hills oil to SPR

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the U.S. department of Energy has decided to ship 20,000 b/d of its Elk Hills field production in California to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve on the Gulf Coast. DOE says prices are too low to sell the high quality Elk Hills Stevens zone oil on the California market. It had warned local buyers it might divert the oil to the Gulf Coast. It says shipping the Elk Hills crude to the SPR site at Big Hill, Tex., will save $2/bbl under the price of comparable crude delivered there for storage in the SPR. Pipeline shipments are to begin June 1 and continue for 4 months, totaling about 2.4 million bbl. DOE may or may not continue the shipments, depending on results of the semiannual Elk Hills crude oil sale in September. Reductions in the existing 12 sales contracts will be prorated among buyers. The 20,000 b/d volume is the most that can be shipped from the West Coast to the Gulf Coast through available pipelines.

  17. [Gallbladder motor activity in patients with virus hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Mamos, Arkadiusz; Wichan, Paweł; Chojnacki, Jan; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof

    2003-12-01

    In acute stage of virus hepatitis B patients often complain of dyspeptic discomfort. They may be a consequence of alimentary tract motor activity disorders including these of gallbladder. Routine ultrasonography in an early phase of virus hepatitis often reveals gallbladder wall thickening what may confirm the above thesis. Thus, a group of 15 patients in an acute phase of virus hepatitis B was subjected to examinations. Gallbladder motor activity was assessed by ultrasonographic method determining its total volume and ejection fraction and volume after test meal stimulus. First examination was performed in the first week since the appearance of yellowing of the walls, successive in 4 and 8 week of the disease. Obtained results were compared to the values obtained in the group of 25 healthy volunteers. It was found out that gallbladder volume was significantly decreased and ejection fraction increased in the acute phase of virus hepatitis B than in the controls. This may speak for gallbladder hyperreactivity in patients in the course of virus hepatitis B. These disorders decreased during two-month observation but even in the 8 week the investigated parameters differed from those found in the control group.

  18. Reduced killer cell activity of lymphocytes from patients with asbestosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, M; Kagamimori, S; Yokoyama, K; Okada, A

    1985-01-01

    Immunological abnormalities in 30 patients with asbestosis were investigated by examining the cytoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity by killer (K) cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes; the effects of interferon on NK activity was also examined. Fifteen men and 15 women (mean age 58; range 40-72) with asbestosis but who were free of complications such as tuberculosis, carcinoma, or steroid treatment were the subjects for study. There were nine cases of type 1, 19 cases of type 2, and two cases of type 3 disease as described in the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. They were all textile workers with a mean duration of 18 years (3-40 years) since first exposure to chrysotile. Controls matched for age and sex were selected from a population without occupational exposure to asbestos. The activity of the NK and K cells in patients with asbestosis was significantly lower than in the control group, but the populations of NK and K cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes were not significantly different in the two groups. An in vitro experiment showed that the increase in the cytotoxicity of the NK cell after treatment with interferon-alpha was significantly lower in the subjects than in the controls. These results indicate that one of the defence mechanisms in relation to cancer is deficient in patients with asbestosis. PMID:3978049

  19. Memory mood congruency phenomenon in bipolar I disorder and major depression disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, V.B.; Kapczinski, F.; Chaves, M.L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon) in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and major depression disorder (MDD) and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight participants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent). Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression). Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002). No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment. PMID:22714812

  20. Active core rewarming avoids bioelectrical impedance changes in postanesthetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative hypothermia is a common cause of complications in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hypothermia is known to elicit electrophysiological, biochemical, and cellular alterations thus leading to changes in the active and passive membrane properties. These changes might influence the bioelectrical impedance (BI). Our aim was to determine whether the BI depends on the core temperature. Methods We studied 60 patients (52 female and 8 male) age 40 to 80 years with an ASA I-II classification that had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy under balanced inhalation anesthesia. The experimental group (n = 30) received active core rewarming during the transanesthetic and postanesthesic periods. The control group (n = 30) received passive external rewarming. The BI was recorded by using a 4-contact electrode system to collect dual sets of measurements in the deltoid muscle. The body temperature, hemodynamic variables, respiratory rate, blood-gas levels, biochemical parameters, and shivering were also measured. The Mann-Whitney unpaired t-test was used to determine the differences in shivering between each group at each measurement period. Measurements of body temperature, hemodynamics variables, respiratory rate, and BI were analyzed using the two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The gradual decrease in the body temperature was followed by the BI increase over time. The highest BI values (95 ± 11 Ω) appeared when the lowest values of the temperature (35.5 ± 0.5°C) were reached. The active core rewarming kept the body temperature within the physiological range (over 36.5°C). This effect was accompanied by low stable values (68 ± 3 Ω) of BI. A significant decrease over time in the hemodynamic values, respiratory rate, and shivering was seen in the active core-rewarming group when compared with the controls. The temporal course of shivering was different from those of body temperatue and BI. The control patients showed a

  1. Switching bipolar disorder patients treated with clozapine to another antipsychotic medication: a mirror image study

    PubMed Central

    Ifteni, Petru; Teodorescu, Andreea; Moga, Marius Alexandru; Pascu, Alina Mihaela; Miclaus, Roxana Steliana

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with periodic symptom exacerbations, leading to functional impairment, and increased risk of suicide. Although clozapine has never been approved for the treatment of BD, it is occasionally used in severe mania. The aim of the study is to evaluate the risks and benefits of switching clozapine in remitted BD patients. This is an observational, mirror image study of 62 consecutive remitted BD outpatients treated with clozapine. Twenty-five patients were switched to another antipsychotic following a change in a drug reimbursement rule, while 37 continued on clozapine. The mean time in remission was shorter for the switched group (9.2±4 months vs 13±6 months, P=0.018), and the number of patients who relapsed was larger (n=21 vs n=8, P<0.0001). The results suggest that switching from clozapine to another antipsychotic may increase the risk of relapses in remitted patients with BD. PMID:28182153

  2. [Spontaneous activity of cutaneous nociceptors in patients with painful polyneuropathy. Report of three patients].

    PubMed

    Campero, Mario; Campero, Sebastián

    2012-11-01

    Painful polyneuropathy may result from selective impairment of small diameter nerve fibers, while tactile and motor functions are preserved. In these patients clinical and electrophysiological assessment is usually unrevealing. We report three patients with a pure painful polyneuropathy. One of them had neurogenic pruritus additionally. Quantitative sensory analysis disclosed a slight warm hypoesthesia (3/3) and paradoxical hot sensation (2/3) in the feet. Intraneural recordings from the peroneal nerve demonstrated abnormal spontaneous activity in 8 of 17 nociceptive afferents. One of them displayed double firing reflecting impulse multiplication. These results support the notion that patients with pain or pruritus with a distal distribution similar to a polyneuropathy, could have small diameter afferent fiber damage, despite normal function of large diameter fibers.

  3. Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Genetic Organization of the 210-Kilobase Linear Plasmid of Rhodococcus erythropolis BD2

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, Christiane; Johann, Andre; Herzberg, Christina; Averhoff, Beate; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the linear plasmid pBD2 from Rhodococcus erythropolis BD2 comprises 210,205 bp. Sequence analyses of pBD2 revealed 212 putative open reading frames (ORFs), 97 of which had an annotatable function. These ORFs could be assigned to six functional groups: plasmid replication and maintenance, transport and metalloresistance, catabolism, transposition, regulation, and protein modification. Many of the transposon-related sequences were found to flank the isopropylbenzene pathway genes. This finding together with the significant sequence similarities of the ipb genes to genes of the linear plasmid-encoded biphenyl pathway in other rhodococci suggests that the ipb genes were acquired via transposition events and subsequently distributed among the rhodococci via horizontal transfer. PMID:12923100

  4. Reduction of spinal sensory transmission by facilitation of 5-HT1B/D receptors in noninjured and spinal cord-injured humans

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Jessica M.; Li, Yaqing; Bennett, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of receptors by serotonin (5-HT1) and norepinephrine (α2) on primary afferent terminals and excitatory interneurons reduces transmission in spinal sensory pathways. Loss or reduction of descending sources of serotonin and norepinephrine after spinal cord injury (SCI) and the subsequent reduction of 5-HT1/α2 receptor activity contributes, in part, to the emergence of excessive motoneuron activation from sensory afferent pathways and the uncontrolled triggering of persistent inward currents that depolarize motoneurons during muscle spasms. We tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether facilitating 5-HT1B/D receptors with the agonist zolmitriptan reduces the sensory activation of motoneurons during an H-reflex in both noninjured control and spinal cord-injured participants. In both groups zolmitriptan, but not placebo, reduced the size of the maximum soleus H-reflex with a peak decrease to 59% (noninjured) and 62% (SCI) of predrug values. In SCI participants we also examined the effects of zolmitriptan on the cutaneomuscular reflex evoked in tibialis anterior from stimulation to the medial arch of the foot. Zolmitriptan, but not placebo, reduced the long-latency, polysynaptic component of the cutaneomuscular reflex (first 200 ms of reflex) by ∼50%. This ultimately reduced the triggering of the long-lasting component of the reflex (500 ms poststimulation to end of reflex) known to be mediated by persistent inward currents in the motoneuron. These results demonstrate that facilitation of 5-HT1B/D receptors reduces sensory transmission in both monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex pathways to ultimately reduce long-lasting reflexes (spasms) after SCI. PMID:23221401

  5. Clinical significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in patients with exercise-induced ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A. )

    1990-10-01

    To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01).

  6. Optical Photometry and X-Ray Monitoring of the ``Cool Algol'' BD +05°706: Determination of the Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Guillermo; Mader, Jeff A.; Marschall, Laurence A.; Neuhäuser, Ralph; Duffy, Alaine S.

    2003-06-01

    We present new photometric observations in the BVRI bands of the double-lined eclipsing binary BD +05°706 conducted over three observing seasons, as well as new X-ray observations obtained with ROSAT covering a full orbital cycle (P=18.9 days). A detailed light-curve analysis of the optical data shows the system to be semidetached, confirming indications from an earlier analysis by Torres et al. (published in 1998), with the less massive and cooler star filling its Roche lobe. The system is a member of the rare class of cool Algol systems, which are different from the ``classical'' Algol systems in that the mass-gaining component is also a late-type star rather than a B- or A-type star. By combining the new photometry with a reanalysis of the spectroscopic observations reported by Torres et al., we derive accurate absolute masses for the components of M1=2.633+/-0.028 Msolar and M2=0.5412+/-0.0093 Msolar, radii of R1=7.55+/-0.20 Rsolar and R2=11.02+/-0.21 Rsolar, as well as effective temperatures of 5000+/-100 and 4640+/-150 K, for the primary and secondary, respectively. There are obvious signs of activity (spottedness) in the optical light curve of the binary. Our X-ray light curve clearly shows the primary eclipse but not the secondary eclipse, suggesting that the primary star is the dominant source of the activity in the system. The depth and duration of the eclipse allow us to infer some of the properties of the X-ray-emitting region around that star.

  7. Recoding of the stop codon UGA to glycine by a BD1-5/SN-2 bacterium and niche partitioning between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria in a tidal sediment microbial community naturally selected in a laboratory chemostat

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Anna; Hamann, Emmo; Sharma, Ritin; Geelhoed, Jeanine S.; Hargesheimer, Theresa; Kraft, Beate; Meyer, Volker; Lenk, Sabine; Osmers, Harald; Wu, Rong; Makinwa, Kofi; Hettich, Robert L.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.; Strous, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sandy coastal sediments are global hotspots for microbial mineralization of organic matter and denitrification. These sediments are characterized by advective porewater flow, tidal cycling and an active and complex microbial community. Metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities sampled from such sediments showed that potential sulfur oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and members of the enigmatic BD1-5/SN-2 candidate phylum were abundant in situ (>10% and ~2% respectively). By mimicking the dynamic oxic/anoxic environmental conditions of the sediment in a laboratory chemostat, a simplified microbial community was selected from the more complex inoculum. Metagenomics, proteomics and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that this simplified community contained both a potential sulfur oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria (at 24 ± 2% abundance) and a member of the BD1-5/SN-2 candidate phylum (at 7 ± 6% abundance). Despite the abundant supply of organic substrates to the chemostat, proteomic analysis suggested that the selected gammaproteobacterium grew partially autotrophically and performed hydrogen/formate oxidation. The enrichment of a member of the BD1-5/SN-2 candidate phylum enabled, for the first time, direct microscopic observation by fluorescent in situ hybridization and the experimental validation of the previously predicted translation of the stop codon UGA into glycine. PMID:24904545

  8. Recoding of the stop codon UGA to glycine by a BD1-5/SN-2 bacterium and niche partitioning between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria in a tidal sediment microbial community naturally selected in a laboratory chemostat

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, Anna; Hamann, Emmo; Sharma, Ritin; Geelhoed, Jeanine; Hargesheimer, Theresa; Kraft, Beate; Meyer, Volker; Lenk, Sabine; Osmers, Harald; Wu, Rong; Makinwa, Kofi; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.; Tegetmeyer, Halina; Strouss, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sandy coastal sediments are global hot spots for microbial mineralization of organic matter and denitrification. These sediments are characterized by advective pore water flow, tidal cycling and an active and complex microbial community. Metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities sampled from such sediments showed that potential sulfuroxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and members of the enigmaticBD1-5/ SN-2 candidatephylumwereabundantinsitu (>10% and 2% respectively). By mimicking the dynamic oxic/anoxic environmental conditions of the sedimentin a laboratory chemostat, a simplified microbial community was selected from the more complex inoculum. Metagenomics, proteomics and fluorescenceinsituhybridization showed that this simplified community contained both a potential sulfuroxidizing Gamma proteobacteria (at 24 2% abundance) and a member of the BD1-5 / SN-2candidatephylum (at 7 6%abundance). Despite the abundant supply of organic substrates to the chemostat, proteomic analysis suggested that the selected gamma proteobacterium grew partially auto trophically and performed hydrogen/formate oxidation. The enrichment of a member of the BD1-5/SN-2candidatephylum enabled, for the first time, direct microscopic observation by fluorescent insitu hybridization and the experimental validation of the previously predicted translation of the stop codon UGA into glycine.

  9. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and…

  10. Complement factor B activation in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Velickovic, Ivan; Dalloul, Mudar; Wong, Karen A; Bakare, Olufunke; Schweis, Franz; Garala, Maya; Alam, Amit; Medranda, Giorgio; Lekovic, Jovana; Shuaib, Waqas; Tedjasukmana, Andreas; Little, Perry; Hanono, Daniel; Wijetilaka, Ruvini; Weedon, Jeremy; Lin, Jun; Toledano, Roulhac d'Arby; Zhang, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Bb, the active fragment of complement factor B (fB), has been reported to be a predictor of preeclampsia. However, conflicting results have been found by some investigators. We hypothesized that the disagreement in findings may be due to the racial/ethnic differences among various study groups, and that fB activation is significant in women of an ethnic minority with preeclampsia. We investigated the maternal and fetal levels of Bb (the activated fB fragment) in pregnant women of an ethnic minority with or without preeclampsia. We enrolled 291 pregnant women (96% of an ethnic minority, including 78% African-American). Thirteen percent of these were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Maternal venous blood was collected from all participants together with fetal umbilical cord blood samples from 154 deliveries in the 291 women. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and multivariate analyses. Maternal Bb levels were significantly higher in the preeclamptic group than in the nonpreeclamptic group. Levels of Bb in fetal cord blood were similar in both groups. Subgroup analyses of African-American patients' results confirmed the study hypothesis that there would be a significant increase in Bb in the maternal blood of the preeclamptic group and no increase in Bb in the fetal cord blood of this group. These results suggest that a maternal immune response through complement fB might play a role in the development of preeclampsia, particularly in African-American patients.

  11. Near-Earth Asteroids 2006 RH120 AND 2009 BD: Proxies for Maximally Accessible Objects?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Chodas, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) has identified over 1,400 of the approximately 12,800 currently known near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as more astrodynamically accessible, round-trip, than Mars. Hundreds of those approximately 1,400 NEAs can be visited round-trip for less change-in-velocity than the lunar surface, and dozens can be visited round-trip for less change-in-velocity than low lunar orbit. How accessible might the millions of undiscovered NEAs be? We probe that question by investigating the hypothesis that NEAs 2006 RH120 and 2009 BD are proxies for the most accessible NEAs we would expect to find, and describing possible future NEA population model studies.

  12. The 13 November 1984 occultation of BD +08 deg 0471 by (1) Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserman, L. H.; Millis, R. L.; Franz, O. G.; Ahearn, M. F.; Osborn, W.; Klemola, A.

    1985-01-01

    The 13 November 1984 occultation of BD +08 deg 0471 was discovered during a photographic search carried out with the 0.5 meter Carnegie Double Astrograph at Lick Observatory and the Lowell Observatory PDS microdensitometer. Such a search was stimulated by the curious fact that few favorably located occultations of AGK3 or SAO catalog starts by Ceres will occur during the 1980s. The occultation on 13 November, however, is a particularly good event. The star is 1000 cubic M in V, yielding a predicted drop at occultation of about 10%. Such a drop can be detected by small telescopes equipped with photoelectric photometers, but is too small to be seen visually. The track was predicted to cross the Caribbean, Florida, southern Texas, and Mexico. Based on this prediction, preparations were made to observe the event in Mexico using four portable occultation data systems.

  13. PLANETS AROUND THE K-GIANTS BD+20 274 AND HD 219415

    SciTech Connect

    Gettel, S.; Wolszczan, A.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Adamow, M.; Zielinski, P.; Maciejewski, G. E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu

    2012-09-01

    We present the discovery of planet-mass companions to two giant stars by the ongoing Penn State-Torun Planet Search conducted with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The less massive of these stars, K5-giant BD+20 274, has a 4.2 M{sub J} minimum mass planet orbiting the star at a 578 day period and a more distant, likely stellar-mass companion. The best currently available model of the planet orbiting the K0-giant HD 219415 points to a {approx}> Jupiter-mass companion in a 5.7 year, eccentric orbit around the star, making it the longest period planet yet detected by our survey. This planet has an amplitude of {approx}18 m s{sup -1}, comparable to the median radial velocity 'jitter', typical of giant stars.

  14. BD+48 740-Li OVERABUNDANT GIANT STAR WITH A PLANET: A CASE OF RECENT ENGULFMENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Adamow, M.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.

    2012-07-20

    We report the discovery of a unique object, BD+48 740, a lithium overabundant giant with A(Li) = 2.33 {+-} 0.04 (where A(Li) = log n{sub Li}/n{sub H} + 12), that exhibits radial velocity (RV) variations consistent with a 1.6 M{sub J} companion in a highly eccentric, e = 0.67 {+-} 0.17, and extended, a 1.89 AU (P = 771 days), orbit. The high eccentricity of the planet is uncommon among planetary systems orbiting evolved stars and so is the high lithium abundance in a giant star. The ingestion by the star of a putative second planet in the system originally in a closer orbit could possibly allow for a single explanation to these two exceptional facts. If the planet candidate is confirmed by future RV observations, it might represent the first example of the remnant of a multiple planetary system recently affected by stellar evolution.

  15. A new quick algorithm for GPS/Galileo/BD satellite selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Qin, Yong

    2007-11-01

    There will be 70-90 navigation satellites in the sky at the same time when GALILEO and BD reach full operation capability, and the visible satellite number can reach 30. Then satellite selection will be very important to decrease computing time for many applications whose processing capability and time are limited such as aviation. The classical optimal algorithm selects a n-satellite subset from m visible satellites with the minimum GDOP. It requires a long time for computing especially for much many satellites. This paper proposes a quickly satellite selection algorithm which is more adaptive when the number of visible satellites is very large. The computer simulation results show that the quickly satellite selection algorithm has much lower computation load, shortens the computation time greatly than the optimal algorithm and the increased GDOP is less than 10%.

  16. Multicenter evaluation of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sandra S; Howard, Wanita J; Weinstein, Melvin P; Bruckner, David A; Hindler, Janet F; Saubolle, Michael; Doern, Gary V

    2007-09-01

    This multicenter study evaluated the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System STREP panel (BD Diagnostic Systems). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) with 13 agents was performed on 2,013 streptococci (938 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates; 396 group B streptococci [GBS]; 369 viridans group streptococci [VGS]; 290 beta-hemolytic streptococcus groups A, C, and G; and 20 other streptococci) with the Phoenix system and a broth microdilution reference method. Clinical and challenge isolates were tested against cefepime, cefotaxime (CTX), ceftriaxone (CTR), clindamycin (CLI), erythromycin (ERY), gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, linezolid, meropenem, penicillin (PEN), tetracycline (TET), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Clinical isolates with major errors or very major errors (VMEs) were retested in duplicate by both methods. The final results for clinical isolates showed the following trends. For all of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested, categorical agreement (CA) was 92 to 100%, with one exception-VGS-PEN (87% CA; all errors were minor). For S. pneumoniae, there was one major error with CLI (0.1%) and one or two VMEs with CTX (4%), CTR (4.5%), ERY (0.9%), and TET (0.7%). For groups A, C, and G, the CA was 97 to 100% and the only VMEs were resolved by additional reference laboratory testing. For GBS, there was only one VME (TET, 0.3%) and D-zone testing of 23 isolates with CLI major errors (one isolate unavailable) revealed inducible CLI resistance. For VGS, the major error rates were 0 to 3% and VMEs occurred with seven agents (3.5 to 7.1%). The mean times required for organism groups to generate results ranged from 8.4 to 9.4 h. The Phoenix system provided reliable and rapid AST results for most of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested.

  17. PHOTOIONIZATION MODELS OF THE INNER GASEOUS DISK OF THE HERBIG BE STAR BD+65 1637

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, P.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2016-01-20

    We attempt to constrain the physical properties of the inner, gaseous disk of the Herbig Be star BD+65 1637 using non-LTE, circumstellar disk codes and observed spectra (3700–10500 Å) from the ESPaDOnS instrument on the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope. The photoionizing radiation of the central star is assumed to be the sole source of input energy for the disk. We model optical and near-infrared emission lines that are thought to form in this region using standard techniques that have been successful in modeling the spectra of classical Be stars. By comparing synthetic line profiles of hydrogen, helium, iron, and calcium with the observed line profiles, we try to constrain the geometry, density structure, and kinematics of the gaseous disk. Reasonable matches have been found for all line profiles individually; however, no disk density model based on a single power law for the equatorial density was able to simultaneously fit all of the observed emission lines. Among the emission lines, the metal lines, especially the Ca ii IR triplet, seem to require higher disk densities than the other lines. Excluding the Ca ii lines, a model in which the equatorial disk density falls as 10{sup −10} (R{sub *}/R){sup 3} g cm{sup −3} seen at an inclination of 45° for a 50 R{sub *} disk provides reasonable matches to the overall line shapes and strengths. The Ca ii lines seem to require a shallower drop-off as 10{sup −10} (R{sub *}/R){sup 2} g cm{sup −3} to match their strength. More complex disk density models are likely required to refine the match to the BD+65 1637 spectrum.

  18. Atomoxetine Induced Hypomania in a Patient with Bipolar Disorder and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijaya; Varambally, Shivarama

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequent. The management of comorbid ADHD and BD is complicated by the risk of induction of (hypo) mania by the medications used for ADHD treatment. Earlier reports in children and adolescents with ADHD-BD suggest that the possibility of (hypo) mania induction is low when atomoxetine is used along mood stabilizers or antipsychotics. Here, we report induction of hypomania by atomoxetine when used for the treatment of comorbid ADHD in a BD patient while on prophylactic treatment with mood stabilizers. This report indicates that atomoxetine carries the risk of induction of (hypo) mania even in stabilized BD patients. Clinicians should closely monitor such patients for (hypo) mania symptoms. PMID:28250566

  19. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  20. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  1. Alterations in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Patients with Bipolar Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Dominique; Dersch, Rick; Hottenrott, Tilman; Perlov, Evgeniy; Maier, Simon; van Calker, Dietrich; Hochstuhl, Benedikt; Venhoff, Nils; Stich, Oliver; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and lifelong condition. Primary endogenic polygenetic forms are common. Secondary organic forms have received increasing interest recently due to the detection of immunological encephalopathies that mimic various psychiatric syndromes, including BD. However, only limited data about routine findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses in BD are available. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of alterations in the CSF in patients with BD and the association with autoantibodies, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography findings. CSF samples of patients with BD collected from January 1998 until December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with preexisting causes for alterations in the CSF (e.g., patients with obvious past or current neurological disorders) were excluded. In total, 63 patients with BD fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study. In 1.6% of the patients with BD, an increased white blood cell count was found in the CSF. Increased albumin quotients were found in 12.9% of the patients, oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in 1.6%, and increased immunoglobulin (Ig) G indices in 3.2% (OCBs were not measured in case of increased IgG indices). No significant differences in CSF findings were found between patients with manic and depressive episodes. The main findings of this open uncontrolled study are that alterations in the CSF may be found in a small, but potentially relevant, subgroup of patients with BD. These findings are discussed in light of the new concepts of mild encephalitis and immunological encephalopathy. The detection of patients with possibly secondary organic bipolar syndromes could open up new causal treatment options with immunomodulatory medication. PMID:28008318

  2. Affect recognition across manic and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder in Han-Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi-Ju; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Liu, Shi-Kai

    2013-11-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have affect recognition deficits. Whether affect recognition deficits constitute a state or trait marker of BD has great etiopathological significance. The current study aims to explore the interrelationships between affect recognition and basic neurocognitive functions for patients with BD across different mood states, using the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy-2, Taiwanese version (DANVA-2-TW) as the index measure for affect recognition. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining affect recognition deficits of BPD across mood states in the Han Chinese population. Twenty-nine manic patients, 16 remitted patients with BD, and 40 control subjects are included in the study. Distinct association patterns between affect recognition and neurocognitive functions are demonstrated for patients with BD and control subjects, implicating alternations in emotion associated neurocognitive processing. Compared to control subjects, manic patients but not remitted subjects perform significantly worse in the recognition of negative emotions as a whole and specifically anger, after adjusting for differences in general intellectual ability and basic neurocognitive functions. Affect recognition deficit may be a relatively independent impairment in BD rather than consequences arising from deficits in other basic neurocognition. The impairments of manic patients in the recognition of negative emotions, specifically anger, may further our understanding of core clinical psychopathology of BD and have implications in treating bipolar patients across distinct mood phases.

  3. 13 CFR 124.305 - What is suspension and how is a Participant suspended from the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... suspended from the 8(a) BD program? (a) Except as set forth in paragraph (h) of this section, at any time... lifted or the firm is not terminated. (c) The Participant may appeal a Notice of Suspension by filing a... length of the suspension will be added to the concern's program term. (h)(1) SBA will suspend...

  4. 13 CFR 124.503 - How does SBA accept a procurement for award through the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under the 8(a) BD program. (g) Basic Ordering Agreements (BOAs). A Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) is not a contract under the FAR. See 48 CFR 16.703(a). Each order to be issued under the BOA is an... BOA in addition to offering and accepting the BOA itself. (1) SBA will not accept for award on a...

  5. 13 CFR 124.503 - How does SBA accept a procurement for award through the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... under the 8(a) BD program. (g) Basic Ordering Agreements (BOAs). A Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) is not a contract under the FAR. See 48 CFR 16.703(a). Each order to be issued under the BOA is an... BOA in addition to offering and accepting the BOA itself. (1) SBA will not accept for award on a...

  6. 13 CFR 124.503 - How does SBA accept a procurement for award through the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under the 8(a) BD program. (g) Basic Ordering Agreements (BOAs). A Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) is not a contract under the FAR. See 48 CFR 16.703(a). Each order to be issued under the BOA is an... BOA in addition to offering and accepting the BOA itself. (1) SBA will not accept for award on a...

  7. Detection of Group B Streptococcus Directly from Collected ESwab Samples by Use of the BD Max GBS Assay

    PubMed Central

    Rocchetti, Talita T.; Gostnell, Alicia; Kubasek, Carly; Widen, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus detection directly from Copan ESwab collected samples, using the BD Max GBS assay, was evaluated on receipt in the laboratory and after 24 h at room temperature. Results were compared to those using Lim broth enrichment PCR and culture. No significant difference was observed between 24 h ESwab and Lim broth PCRs. PMID:27053670

  8. Analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS using RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1 codes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.J.; Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of a typical BWR/4 Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) has been performed using two advanced, best-estimate computer codes, namely, RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1. The transient was initiated by an inadvertant closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) with subsequent failure to scram the reactor. However, all other safety features namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure coolant injection and the standby liquid (boron) control system were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. It has been found that both RAMONA-3B (with three-dimensional neutron kinetics) and TRAC-BD1 (with point kinetics) yielded similar results for the global parameters such as reactor power, system pressure and the suppression pool temperature. Both calculations showed that the reactor can be brought to hot shutdown in approximately twenty to twenty-five minutes with borated water mass flow rate of 2.78 kg/s (43 gpm) with 23800 ppM of boron. The suppression pool water temperature (assuming no pool cooling) at this time could be in the range of 170 to 205/sup 0/F. An additional TRAC-BD1 calculation with RAMONA-3B reactor power indicates that the thermal-hydraulic models in RAMONA-3B, although simpler than those in TRAC-BD1, can adequately represent the system behavior during the ATWS-type transient.

  9. Factors affecting the response of the bubble detector BD-100 and a comparison of its response to CR-39

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.E.; Busick, D.D.; Pollock, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    The BD-100 is a bubble detector available commercially from Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Canada for neutron dosimetry. According to the manufacturer, the BD-100 detects neutrons over an energy range of 100 keV to 14 MeV and the dose equivalent response is independent of energy. The sensitivity of the detector is dependent upon its temperature at the time of irradiation. The sensitized detector self-nucleates upon sharp impact and when heated to temperatures of 48/sup 0/C or greater. The BD-100 is insensitive to low energy gamma rays but responds to 6 MeV photons. The sensitivity (bubbles/..mu..Sv) of the BD-100 was found to be energy dependent when exposed to standard neutron sources with average energies ranging from 0.5 to 4.5 MeV. The bubbles formed upon irradiation continued to grow in size with time. The response of electrochemically etched CR-39 to the same neutron sources is also reported for comparison.

  10. Working Effectively with Students with BD in a General Education Classroom: The Case for Universal Design for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Harris, Kimberly M.; Mundschenk, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    To one degree or another, inclusion is the word of the day in public schools across the country, and as a result many general education teachers find themselves face-to-face in their classrooms with students who have been diagnosed with behavior disorders (BD). While the behavior of these students is frequently (and euphemistically) referred to as…

  11. 13 CFR 124.203 - What must a concern submit to apply to the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to, financial statements, Federal personal and business tax returns, and personal history statements... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must a concern submit to apply to the 8(a) BD program? 124.203 Section 124.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  12. 13 CFR 124.207 - Can an applicant reapply for admission to the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can an applicant reapply for admission to the 8(a) BD program? 124.207 Section 124.207 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a)...

  13. Sodium cromoglycate inhibits absorption of the major soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30K, in mice and human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Weangsripanaval, Thanakorn; Murota, Kaeko; Murakami, Yoko; Kominami, Masaru; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ogawa, Tadashi; Kawada, Teruo

    2006-11-01

    Our previous data showed that Gly m Bd 30K was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and circulated in blood in mice. This study was conducted to determine the mechanism and identify the inhibitor of such absorption. Using sandwich ELISA and immunoblotting, we found that intact Gly m Bd 30K was absorbed from apical to basolateral solutions and intracellularly accumulated by Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The absorption and intracellular accumulation of Gly m Bd 30K were significantly suppressed when Caco-2 cells were treated with sodium cromoglycate (SCG) (0-50 mmol/L) in a dose-dependent manner. In 24-d-old mice orally treated with SCG (10-1000 mg/kg body weight), plasma Gly m Bd 30K concentration decreased significantly 30-120 min after Gly m Bd 30K (2000 mg/kg body weight) administration. Moreover, inhibitors that suppress the clathrin-dependent endocytosis dansylcadaverine, the caveolae-dependent endocytosis nystatin and clathrin, and the caveolae-dependent endocytosis methyl-beta-cyclodextrin had inhibitory effects on the absorption and intracellular accumulation of Gly m Bd 30K by Caco-2 cells. These data indicate that Gly m Bd 30K is absorbed and intracellularly accumulated in Caco-2 cells via clathrin- or caveolae-dependent endocytosis. We propose that the absorption and intracellular accumulation of Gly m Bd 30K are inhibited by SCG via clathrin- or caveolae-dependent endocytosis.

  14. 13 CFR 124.111 - Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? 124.111 Section 124.111... 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.111 Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? (a) Concerns owned at least 51 percent by CDCs (or...

  15. 13 CFR 124.111 - Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? 124.111 Section 124.111... 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.111 Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? (a) Concerns owned at least 51 percent by CDCs (or...

  16. 13 CFR 124.111 - Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? 124.111 Section 124.111... 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.111 Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? (a) Concerns owned at least 51 percent by CDCs (or...

  17. 13 CFR 124.111 - Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? 124.111 Section 124.111... 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.111 Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? (a) Concerns owned at least 51 percent by CDCs (or...

  18. 13 CFR 124.111 - Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? 124.111 Section 124.111... 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.111 Do Community Development Corporations (CDCs) have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? (a) Concerns owned at least 51 percent by CDCs (or...

  19. 13 CFR 121.603 - How does SBA determine whether a Participant is small for a particular 8(a) BD subcontract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determine whether a Participant is small for a particular 8(a) BD subcontract? (a) Self certification by... agency. The Participant also must submit a copy of its offer, including its self-certification as to size... Participant's size self-certification for a particular 8(a) BD subcontract, the SBA district office...

  20. 13 CFR 121.603 - How does SBA determine whether a Participant is small for a particular 8(a) BD subcontract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determine whether a Participant is small for a particular 8(a) BD subcontract? (a) Self certification by... agency. The Participant also must submit a copy of its offer, including its self-certification as to size... Participant's size self-certification for a particular 8(a) BD subcontract, the SBA district office...

  1. Isolated star-forming regions containing Herbig Ae/Be stars. 1: The young stellar aggregate associated with BD +40deg 4124

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Meyer, Michael R.; Strom, Stephen E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.

    1995-01-01

    We use optical and infrared photometry in combination with red optical spectra to study the star-forming region associated with the two Herbig Ae/Be stars BD + 40 deg 4124 and V1686 Cyg. We identify a partially embedded, dense, isolated cluster of pre-main sequence stars concentrated within 0.15 pc of the two young high-mass stars. The cluster is isolated in that it is separated by approximately 0.7 pc from a surrounding H alpha-bright rim and lies at the center of a molecular core with peak column density corresponding to 45 mag of visual extinction. The fraction of the stellar population with evidence for circumsteller activity is 100% amongst the optically visible cluster members and at least 50% amongst the embedded sources. This small region is characterized by an apparent age spread of approximately 3 Myr with evidence for both high-and low-mass stars forming relatively simultaneously (within several hundred thousand years). Comparison of the derived stellar mass distribution to that expected from Monte-Carlo sampling of the solar neighborhood mass spectrum reveals that this region is producing an unusually large number of intermediate-and high-mass stars. Our result suggests that not all star formation sites yield identical mass spectra, and that universal mass functions may be produced only when integrating over large spatial areas and/or over many star formation epochs. Futhermore, our data appear to exclude for the BD +40 deg 4124 region, the popular senario that low-mass star formation proceeds quietly and stochastically for several to ten Myr until the birth of an early type star, and its subsequent dynamical interaction with the cloud, ends all starformation processes in the core. Instead, we consider the hypothesis that star formation was induced in this region by the propagation of an external shock wave into the cloud core. This picture is similar to that invoked for other star-forming sites displaying a bright-rim morphology on optical images and

  2. Two-Center Collaborative Evaluation of the Performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, Anne-Marie; Eigner, Ulrich; Armbrust, Martina; Caganic, Alexandra; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo; Bertoncini, Luca; Benecchi, Magda; Menozzi, Maria Grazia

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) was assessed for identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for the majority of clinically encountered bacterial isolates in a European collaborative two-center trial. A total of 469 bacterial isolates of the genera Staphylococcus (275 isolates), Enterococcus (179 isolates), and Streptococcus (15 isolates, for ID only) were investigated; of these, 367 were single patient isolates, and 102 were challenge strains tested at one center. Sixty-four antimicrobial drugs were tested, including the following drug classes: aminoglycosides, beta-lactam antibiotics, beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, cephems, folate antagonists, quinolones, glycopeptides, macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLS), and others. Phoenix ID results were compared to those of the laboratories' routine ID systems (API 32 Staph, API 32 Strep, and VITEK 2 [bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France]); Phoenix AST results were compared to those of frozen standard broth microdilution (SBM) panels according to NCCLS guidelines (NCCLS document M 100-S 9, approved standard M 7-A 4). Discrepant results were repeated in duplicate. Concordant IDs of 97.1, 98.9, and 100% were observed for staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci, respectively. For AST results the overall essential agreement was 93.3%; the category agreement was 97.3%; and the very major error rate, major error rate, and minor error rate were 1.2, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. In conclusion, the Phoenix ID results showed high agreement with results of the systems to which they were being compared; the AST performance was highly equivalent to that of the SBM reference method. PMID:12624042

  3. Detection of Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Zinc in the Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Star BD+44 493

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-06-01

    The carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44°493 ([Fe/H] = -3.9) has been proposed as a candidate second-generation star enriched by metals from a single Pop III star. We report the first detections of P and S and the second detection of Zn in any extremely metal-poor carbon-enhanced star, using new spectra of BD+44°493 collected by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive [P/Fe] = -0.34 ± 0.21, [S/Fe] = +0.07 ± 0.41, and [Zn/Fe] = -0.10 ± 0.24. We increase by 10-fold the number of Si i lines detected in BD+44°493, yielding [Si/Fe] = +0.15 ± 0.22. The [S/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios exclude the hypothesis that the abundance pattern in BD+44°493 results from depletion of refractory elements onto dust grains. Comparison with zero-metallicity supernova (SN) models suggests that the stellar progenitor that enriched BD+44°493 was massive and ejected much less than 0.07 M ⊙ of 56Ni, characteristic of a faint SN. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14231.

  4. The sigma-receptor antagonist BD-1063 decreases ethanol intake and reinforcement in animal models of excessive drinking.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro; Zhao, Yu; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Conti, Bruno; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2009-05-01

    Sigma-Receptors (SigRs) have been implicated in behavioral and appetitive effects of psychostimulants and may also modulate the motivating properties of ethanol. This study tested the hypothesis that SigRs modulate ethanol reinforcement and contribute to excessive ethanol intake. The effects of subcutaneous treatment with the potent, selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on operant ethanol self-administration were studied in two models of excessive drinking-Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats and acutely withdrawn ethanol-dependent Wistar rats-and compared to ethanol self-administration in nondependent Wistar controls. To assess the specificity of action, the effects of BD-1063 on self-administration of an equally reinforcing saccharin solution were determined in Wistar and sP rats. Gene expression of Sig-1R in reward-related brain areas implicated in ethanol reinforcement was compared between ethanol-naive sP and Wistar rats and withdrawn ethanol-dependent Wistar rats. BD-1063 dose dependently reduced ethanol self-administration in sP rats (3.3-11 mg/kg) and withdrawn, dependent Wistar rats (4-11 mg/kg) at doses that did not modify mean ethanol self-administration in nondependent Wistar controls. BD-1063 did not reduce concurrent water self-administration and did not comparably suppress saccharin self-administration, suggesting selectivity of action. BD-1063 also reduced the breakpoints of sP rats to work for ethanol under a progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule. Ethanol-naive sP rats and 24-h withdrawn, dependent Wistar rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens. The results suggest that SigR systems may contribute to innate or ethanol-induced increases in susceptibility to self-administer high ethanol levels, identifying a potential neuroadaptive mechanism contributing to excessive drinking and a therapeutic target for alcohol abuse and dependence.

  5. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  6. The subclinic autonomic dysfunction in patients with Behçet disease: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Borman, Pınar; Tuncay, Figen; Kocaoğlu, Seher; Okumuş, Müyesser; Güngör, Emel; Ekşioğlu, Meral

    2012-01-01

    Studies that have evaluated autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in Behçet disease (BD) are rare and have indicated conflicting results with different degrees of involvement. The aim of this study was to investigate ANS function by using electrophysiological tests in patients with BD and to determine the relationship between the disease activity parameters and the indicators of autonomic activity. We included 70 BD patients and 50 healthy controls. Demographic characteristics including age, sex, and disease duration were recorded. A detailed neurological examination was performed, and clinical autonomic symptoms were recorded. The Behçet Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF) was used to determine the disease activity. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined for laboratory activity. The electrophysiological assessments of ANS function were performed by sympathetic skin response (SSR) and R-R interval variation (RRIV) tests. The mean values of sympathetic (SSR latency and amplitude) and parasympathetic (RRIV at rest [R%] and deep breathing [D%], D% - R%, and D%/R%) parameters were compared, and any correlations between ANS parameters and clinical disease characteristics were determined. Seventy BD patients (23 males, 47 females) with a mean age of 41.2 ± 10.01 years and 50 control subjects (18 males, 32 females) with a mean age of 39.5 ± 8.94 years were included in the study. All the subjects were totally symptom free with respect to ANS involvement, and the subjects in both groups had normal neurological examination findings. The demographic characteristics were similar between the groups. The mean latency of SSR was increased (1.4 ± 0.4 vs 0.7 ± 0.8), and R% (0.3 ± 0.3 vs 0.5 ± 0.4) and D% (0.3 ± 0.3 vs 0.6 ± 0.5) values were decreased in BD patients compared to control subjects. No correlation was found between BDCAF scores and ANS variables. However, there was a

  7. In vitro activity of human beta-defensin 2 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of tear fluid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling C; Redfern, Rachel L; Narayanan, Srihari; Reins, Rose Y; McDermott, Alison M

    2007-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes vision-threatening keratitis and is difficult to treat due to emerging resistance. Human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide expressed by ocular surface epithelia with broad-spectrum activity against various pathogens, including P. aeruginosa. The activity of hBD-2 against P. aeruginosa in the presence of human tears or NaCl was studied. In some experiments, tears were heat-inactivated, filtered, and separated into cationic/anionic fractions or mucin MUC5AC was removed by immunoprecipitation before use. Immunoprecipitation was performed to study the interaction between hBD-2 and MUC5AC. hBD-2 activity was reduced by 40 to 90% in the presence of 17.5 to 70% (vol/vol) tears. NaCl reduced hBD-2 activity, but at most it could account for only 36% of the inhibitory effect of tears. Heat inactivation and filtration attenuated the ability of tears to inhibit hBD-2 activity by 65 and 68%, respectively. Anionic tear fractions significantly reduced (86%) the activity of hBD-2, whereas only a 22% reduction was observed with the cationic fractions. In the absence of MUC5AC, the activity of hBD-2 was restored by 64%. Immunoprecipitation studies suggested that the loss of hBD-2 activity in tears is due to a direct binding interaction with MUC5AC. Our data showed that the antimicrobial activity of hBD-2 is sensitive to the presence of human tears and that this is partly due to the salt content and also the presence of MUC5AC. These data cast doubt on the effectiveness of hBD-2 as an antimicrobial peptide, and additional studies are required to conclusively elucidate its role in innate immunity at the ocular surface in vivo.

  8. Cancer Prehabilitation for Patients Starting from Active Treatment to Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Shun, Shiow-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this brief summary is to introduce the concept of cancer prehabilitation and the role of oncology nurses in prehabilitation care. Cancer prehabilitation has been defined by Sliver and Baima (2013) as “a process on the cancer continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of acute treatment.” The evidence supports the notion that prehabilitation programs can improve physical and psychological health outcomes and decrease overall health care costs. The care model for cancer prehabilitation should include timely and efficient assessment throughout the care continuum with a focus on improving outcomes in cancer at every stage. During the cancer journey, three types of assessment with different aims are included: (1) prehabilitation assessment pretreatment, (2) rehabilitation assessment at early post treatment, and (3) health promotion assessment at the end of treatment. Specific prehabilitation assessment and interventions for treatment-related complications or major side-effects should be considered. Teaching, counseling, discharge planning, and coordination should also be part of an oncology nurse's role in cancer prehabilitation. It is suggested that cancer care managers or navigators be trained in the assessment of their patients’ physical and psychological status once the cancer diagnosis has been identified and the patient has decided to receive active treatment, especially for those waiting for surgery at home. Oncology nurses could increase their competence with prehabilitation care by gaining knowledge about cancer-related treatments and their outcomes for specific cancers and by strengthening the ability to assess the functional status and psychological distress of their patients. PMID:27981135

  9. Patient Activation in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Differ between Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aim was to investigate whether the degree of patient activation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is different between men and women. Furthermore, we investigated which factors are associated with patient activation in men and women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1615 patients with T2D from general practices. Patient activation was measured with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between gender and patient activation. Stratified analyses according to gender were performed to investigate which factors are associated with patient activation. Results. No association between gender and PAM score was found after adjustment for all selected confounders (p = 0.094). In men, lower age (p = 0.001), a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.001), and a lower BMI (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher PAM score. In women, a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.017) and the absence of macrovascular complications (p < 0.031) were associated with a higher PAM score. Conclusion. There is no difference in the degree of patient activation of men and women with T2D. Age, well-being, and BMI were found to be associated with patient activation in men, whereas well-being and macrovascular complications were found to be associated with patient activation in women. PMID:27656658

  10. Phenomenological correlates of metabolic activity in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Van Gelder, P.; Brodie, J.D.; Overall, J.E.; Cancro, R.; Gomez-Mont, F.

    1987-02-01

    Using (11C)-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography (PET), the authors measured brain metabolism in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia to assess which of the metabolic measures from two test conditions was more closely related to the patients' differing clinical characteristics. The two conditions were resting and activation, and an eye tracking task was used. Patients with more negative symptoms showed lower global metabolic rates and more severe hypofrontality than did the patients with fewer negative symptoms. Differences among the patients were distinguished by the task: sicker patients failed to show a metabolic activation response. These findings suggest that cerebral metabolic patterns reflect clinical characteristics of schizophrenic patients.

  11. Effect of hospitalization on rest-activity rhythm and quality of life of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Parganiha, Arti; Taj, Saba; Chandel, Priyanka; Sultan, Armiya; Choudhary, Vivek

    2014-05-01

    Rest-activity rhythm and quality of life (QoL) in three cohorts, namely (1) cancer in-patients, (2) out-patients, and (3) control subjects were studied. The patients of the former two groups were chosen randomly from the Regional Cancer Center, Raipur, India. All patients received chemotherapy for 3-4 consecutive days. The in-patients remained hospitalized for the entire period of chemotherapy plus one day post treatment. The out-patients, unlike the in-patients, went to their homes daily after treatment. Rest-activity rhythm of the patients was monitored using Actical. Quality of life (QoL) and psychological status of patients were assessed using EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, respectively. Each subject exhibited significant circadian rhythm in rest-activity. The average values for Mesor, amplitude, peak activity, autocorrelation coefficient and dichotomy index of all three groups varied significantly between one group to the other in the following order: in-patient < out-patient < control. Further, quality of life, measured from responses on functional and symptom scales, was better off in cancer out-patients compared to the in-patients. It is concluded that hospitalization alters rest-activity rhythm parameters markedly and deteriorates QoL in cancer patients. Nevertheless, further extensive investigation is desirable to support the above speculation and to ascertain if hospitalization produces similar effects on patients suffering from diseases other than cancer.

  12. [Shall we report the carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains detected by BD Phoenix system?].

    PubMed

    Oğünç, Dilara; Ongüt, Gözde; Ozen, Nevgün Sepin; Baysan, Betil Ozhak; Günseren, Filiz; Dağlar, Duygu; Demirbakan, Hadiye; Gültekin, Meral

    2010-04-01

    Imipenem and meropenem are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that are especially useful in the treatment of nosocomially acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. infections. Previous reports have noted that susceptibility tests could show false resistance to imipenem. For this reason, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that all carbapenem resistant or intermediate resistant isolates should be tested with an additional method to verify the results. This study was aimed to evaluate the imipenem and meropenem susceptibilities by disk diffusion, E-test and broth microdilution in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains found to be resistant or intermediate to imipenem-meropenem by BD Phoenix automated susceptibility testing system. Between January 2006-January 2007, 85 non-duplicate isolates of A. baumannii and 51 non-duplicate isolates of P. aeruginosa which were determined as resistant or intermediate resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem by BD Phoenix automated identification and susceptibility system (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA) were collected in Akdeniz University Hospital Central Laboratory. All strains were tested by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden), disk diffusion and reference broth microdilution (BMD) method following CLSI recommendations. All 51 isolates of P. aeruginosa determined as imipenem and/or meropenem resistant or intermediate resistant by BD Phoenix, were found to be imipenem and/or meropenem resistant or intermediate resistant by the reference BMD method. Minor error rates were same for all testing systems (1.9%) except for the meropenem results of BD Phoenix system (5.9%). No major errors were produced by any system. For A. baumannii, only one very major error was detected for meropenem by BD Phoenix system. Number of minor errors determined for meropenem by all testing systems compared to the reference test, ranged from 2 (2.4%) to 3 (3.5%). It was concluded that carbapenem susceptibility test

  13. Modified electrochemical parameter estimation of NCR18650BD battery using implicit finite volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwin, T. R.; McGordon, A.; Widanage, W. D.; Jennings, P. A.

    2017-02-01

    The Pseudo Two Dimensional (P2D) porous electrode model is less preferred for real time calculations due to the high computational expense and complexity in obtaining the wide range of electro-chemical parameters despite of its superior accuracy. This paper presents a finite volume based method for re-parametrising the P2D model for any cell chemistry with uncertainty in determining precise electrochemical parameters. The re-parametrisation is achieved by solving a quadratic form of the Butler-Volmer equation and modifying the anode open circuit voltage based on experimental values. Thus the only experimental result, needed to re-parametrise the cell, reduces to the measurement of discharge voltage for any C-rate. The proposed method is validated against the 1C discharge data and an actual drive cycle of a NCR18650BD battery with NCA chemistry when driving in an urban environment with frequent accelerations and regenerative braking events. The error limit of the present model is compared with the electro-chemical prediction of LiyCoO2 battery and found to be superior to the accuracy of the model presented in the literature.

  14. Longevity Tests of High-Sensitivity BD-PND Bubble Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R; Carlberg, E

    2002-07-09

    Medium- and very-high-sensitivity neutron bubble dosimeters (BD-PNDs) made by Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) were used to study the life span of such dosimeters in a standard setup with a {sup 252}Cf source. Although data on the longevity of bubble dosimeters with low and medium sensitivity exist, such data for dosimeters with high and very high sensitivity are not readily available. The manufacturer guarantees optimum dosimeter performance for 3 months after receipt. However, it is important to know the change in the dosimeters' characteristics with time, especially after the first 3 months. The long-term performance of four sets of very high sensitivity and one set of medium-sensitivity bubble dosimeters was examined for periods of up to 13 months. During that time, the detectors were exposed and reset more than 20 times. Although departures from initial detection sensitivity were observed in several cases, the detectors indicated a significantly longer life span than stated in the manufacturer's warranty. In addition, the change in the number of bubbles and in evaluated neutron dose as a function of the time from the end of exposure until the dosimeters were read was investigated.

  15. Research of smoothing pseudo-range algorithm by Doppler based on GPS/BD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chuanli; Zhou, Yanliu

    2015-12-01

    GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) technology not only in the general field of surveying and mapping, geology, mining, water and electricity, and in particular in the field of public security, fire protection, tourism, search and rescue, adventure have been more widely used. These special areas require real-time and high positioning accuracy. Currently, GNSS precision positioning technology has become a hot research direction. This paper introduced an algorithm of smoothing pseudo range by Doppler based GPS/BD to improve GNSS positioning precision. This algorithm decoded the pseudo range data and ephemeris data, and then designed algorithm of smoothing pseudo range by Doppler according principle of Doppler smoothing pseudo range. This algorithm was realized by C++ and proved its efficiency. At last, this algorithm has proved its correctness through calculating and analyzing practical Doppler and pseudo range data, and then a conclusion has been obtained: the Doppler value precision is sub-meter, far better than the pseudo-range accuracy, so that if the two data are combined to calculate position that can help to improve the positioning accuracy.

  16. 75 FR 32539 - Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activities Under OMB Review... Form 10-0503).'' Title: Survey of Healthcare Experiences, Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA...

  17. 76 FR 56504 - Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request... spinal cord patients' satisfaction with VA rehabilitation and health care system. Affected Public... of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title:...

  18. Detection of Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium abscessus Group, and Mycobacterium fortuitum Complex by a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Directly from Clinical Samples Using the BD MAX System.

    PubMed

    Rocchetti, Talita T; Silbert, Suzane; Gostnell, Alicia; Kubasek, Carly; Campos Pignatari, Antonio C; Widen, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    A new multiplex PCR test was designed to detect Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium abscessus group, and Mycobacterium fortuitum complex on the BD MAX System. A total of 197 clinical samples previously submitted for mycobacterial culture were tested using the new protocol. Samples were first treated with proteinase K, and then each sample was inoculated into the BD MAX Sample Buffer Tube. Extraction and multiplex PCR were performed by the BD MAX System, using the BD MAX ExK TNA-3 extraction kit and BD TNA Master Mix, along with specific in-house designed primers and probes for each target. The limit of detection of each target, as well as specificity, was evaluated. Of 197 clinical samples included in this study, 133 were positive and 60 were negative for mycobacteria by culture, and another 4 negative samples were spiked with M. chelonae ATCC 35752. The new multiplex PCR on the BD MAX had 97% concordant results with culture for M. abscessus group detection, 99% for M. chelonae, and 100% for M. fortuitum complex. The new multiplex PCR test performed on the BD MAX System proved to be a sensitive and specific test to detect M. chelonae, M. abscessus group, and M. fortuitum complex by real-time PCR on an automated sample-in results-out platform.

  19. BdVIL4 regulates flowering time and branching through repressing miR156 in ambient temperature dependent way in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    An, Yanrong; Guo, Yuyu; Liu, Chengcheng; An, Hailong

    2015-04-01

    Responsing to environmental signals, Vernalization Insensitive 3 (VIN3) family proteins are involved in plant development control by repressing the target genes epigenecticly together with Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) complex. BdVIL4 is a VIN3 like gene in Brachypodium distachyon, preferentially expressed in young tissues spatially. The RNAi plants were constructed to study the function of BdVIL4 on the development process. The plants with BdVIL4 RNA interferenced (BdVIL4 RNAi plants) had no obvious difference from the wild at 23 °C, but flowered significantly later and had more branches than the control at l6 °C. In BdVIL4 RNAi plants the expression of miR156 were upregulated, and much more at low temperature (l6 °C). Coincidentally, similar to the BdVIL4 RNAi plants, the miR156 overexpressors also showed late flowering and more branches, and the late flowering phynotype just only performanced at lower temperature. The results suggested that BdVIL4 are involved in the regulation of branching and flowering responsing to the ambient temperature by repressing the expression of miR156.

  20. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multilevel activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms and how they affect patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and value-based purchasing, patient-centered medical homes, and the community health benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients' abilities to manage their health, helping patients express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making.

  1. False-negative BD MGIT™ TBc Identification Test results in routine tuberculosis diagnosis: a New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed

    Basu, I; Bower, J E; Henderson, G K; Lowe, O; Newton, S; Vaughan, R; Roberts, S A

    2015-09-01

    >We previously reported on a comparison of the AccuProbe(®) Gen-Probe(®) MTBC assay (AccuProbe) (BioMérieux, Marcy L'Etoile, France) with the Becton Dickinson (BD) MGIT™ TBc Identification (TBc) Test (BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) in our laboratory. In the period following the shift from the AccuProbe assay to the TBc test, we obtained six false-negative results. On sequencing the mpt64 gene, we found that these false-negative cases had mutations in the mpt64 gene due to deletion, insertion or substitution. Despite the occurrence of false-negative results, we found that the reduced cost and minimal technical expertise, combined with a new testing algorithm, still make this test the preferred option for rapidly identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in MGIT cultures in a low TB burden country such as New Zealand.

  2. Determination of the chemical structures of tandyukisins B-D, isolated from a marine sponge-derived fungus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takeshi; Umebayashi, Yoshihide; Kawashima, Maiko; Sugiura, Yuma; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-05-21

    Tandyukisins B-D (1-3), novel decalin derivatives, have been isolated from a strain of Trichoderma harzianum OUPS-111D-4 originally derived from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai, and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. In addition, their chemical structures were established by chemical transformation. They exhibited weak cytotoxicity, but selective growth inhibition on panel screening using 39 human cancer cell lines.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44493 EWs (Roederer+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, I. U.; Placco, V. M.; Beers, T. C.

    2016-08-01

    We have obtained new observations of portions of the UV spectrum of BD+44493 using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on HST (13000

  4. The Orbit and Properties of the BD+60 73 + IGRJ00370+612 Supergiant X-Ray Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, C. T.; Grunhut, J. H.

    2007-08-01

    Spectrograms of the blue and H alpha regions of BD+60 73 obtained with the Cassegrain spectrograph on the David Dunlap Observatory 1.88 m telescope have been measured for radial velocities. These measures confirm that BD+60 73 is a single-line spectroscopic binary with the same period, 15.665 d, as the x-ray flux variations of IGRJ00370+612. The x-ray maxima occur at or just after the time of periastron passage, even though the eccentricity e=0.37 does not seem large enough to produce a large increase in the mass flux at the position of the compact object at the time of periastron passage. The mass function combined with a plausible range of possible masses for a neutron star companion yields primary masses within the range expected for the spectral type of BD+60 73. The compact companion cannot be a black hole unless the supergiant has an exceptionally high mass for its B1Ib spectral type or the inclination of the orbit is very low. The H alpha line shows weak, variable emission, but we have insufficient data to test whether these variations are correlated with orbital phase. We note, as have other authors, that BD+60_73 is projected on the sky within the bounds of Cas OB5. It also lies close to the "adolescent" supernova remnant CTB1. However, the binary system has a radial velocity of approximately -40 km/s with respect to Cas OB5.

  5. NEW ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 3248 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Cowan, John J.

    2010-05-01

    We report the detection of Cd I (Z = 48), Lu II (Z = 71), and Os II (Z = 76) in the metal-poor star BD +17 3248. These abundances are derived from an ultraviolet spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This is the first detection of these neutron-capture species in a metal-poor star enriched by the r process. We supplement these measurements with new abundances of Mo I, Ru I, and Rh I derived from an optical spectrum obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph on Keck. Combined with previous abundance derivations, 32 neutron-capture elements have been detected in BD +17 3248, the most complete neutron-capture abundance pattern in any metal-poor star to date. The light neutron-capture elements (38 {<=} Z {<=} 48) show a more pronounced even-odd effect than expected from current solar system r-process abundance predictions. The age for BD +17 3248 derived from the Th II/Os II chronometer is in better agreement with the age derived from other chronometers than the age derived from Th II/Os I. New Hf II abundance derivations from transitions in the ultraviolet are lower than those derived from transitions in the optical, and the lower Hf abundance is in better agreement with the scaled solar system r-process distribution.

  6. Influence of DGKH variants on amygdala volume in patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kittel-Schneider, S; Wobrock, T; Scherk, H; Schneider-Axmann, T; Trost, S; Zilles, D; Wolf, C; Schmitt, A; Malchow, B; Hasan, A; Backens, M; Reith, W; Falkai, P; Gruber, O; Reif, A

    2015-03-01

    The diacylglycerol kinase eta (DGKH) gene, first identified in a genome-wide association study, is one of the few replicated risk genes of bipolar affective disorder (BD). Following initial positive studies, it not only was found to be associated with BD but also implicated in the etiology of other psychiatric disorders featuring affective symptoms, rendering DGKH a cross-disorder risk gene. However, the (patho-)physiological role of the encoded enzyme is still elusive. In the present study, we investigated primarily the influence of a risk haplotype on amygdala volume in patients suffering from schizophrenia or BD as well as healthy controls and four single nucleotide polymorphisms conveying risk. There was a significant association of the DGKH risk haplotype with increased amygdala volume in BD, but not in schizophrenia or healthy controls. These findings add to the notion of a role of DGKH in the pathogenesis of BD.

  7. Over-optimistic patient expectations of recovery and leisure activities after arthroscopic meniscus surgery.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Kenneth; Roos, Ewa M; Nissen, Nis; JøRgensen, Uffe; Schjerning, Jeppe; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2016-12-01

    Background and purpose - Patients' expectations of outcomes following arthroscopic meniscus surgery are largely unknown. We investigated patients' expectations concerning recovery and participation in leisure-time activities after arthroscopic meniscus surgery and the postoperative fulfillment of these. Patients and methods - The study sample consisted of 491 consecutively recruited patients (mean age 50 (SD 13) years, 55% men) who were assigned for arthroscopy on suspicion of meniscus injury and later verified by arthroscopy. Before surgery, patients completed questionnaires regarding their expectations of recovery time and postoperative participation in leisure activities. 3 months after surgery, the patients completed questionnaires on their actual level of leisure activity and their degree of satisfaction with their current knee function. We analyzed differences between the expected outcome and the actual outcome, and between fulfilled/exceeded expectations and satisfaction with knee function. Results - 478 patients (97%) completed the follow-up. 91% had expected to be fully recovered within 3 months. We found differences between patients' preoperative expectations of participation in leisure activities postoperatively and their actual participation in these, with 59% having unfulfilled expectations (p < 0.001). Satisfaction with current knee function was associated with expectations of leisure activities being fulfilled/exceeded. Interpretation - In general, patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscus surgery were too optimistic regarding their recovery time and postoperative participation in leisure activities. This highlights the need for shared decision making which should include giving the patient information on realistic expectations of recovery time and regarding participation in leisure-time activities after meniscal surgery.

  8. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  9. Do active patients seek higher quality prenatal care?: A panel data analysis from Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jessica; Golub, Ginger; Kruk, Margaret E; McConnell, Margaret

    2016-11-01

    Despite poverty and limited access to health care, evidence is growing that patients in low-income countries are taking a more active role in their selection of health care providers. Urban areas such as Nairobi, Kenya offer a rich context for studying these "active" patients because of the large number of heterogeneous providers available. We use a unique panel dataset from 2015 in which 402 pregnant women from peri-urban (the "slums" of) Nairobi, Kenya were interviewed three times over the course of their pregnancy and delivery, allowing us to follow women's care decisions and their perceptions of the quality of care they received. We define active antenatal care (ANC) patients as those women who switch ANC providers and explore the prevalence, characteristics and care-seeking behavior of these patients. We analyze whether active ANC patients appear to be seeking out higher quality facilities and whether they are more satisfied with their care. Women in our sample visit over 150 different public and private ANC facilities. Active patients are more educated and more likely to have high risk pregnancies, but have otherwise similar characteristics to non-active patients. We find that active patients are increasingly likely to pay for private care (despite public care being free) and to receive a higher quality of care over the course of their pregnancy. We find that active patients appear more satisfied with their care over the course of pregnancy, as they are increasingly likely to choose to deliver at the facility providing their ANC.

  10. Evaluation of the BD BACTEC FX blood volume monitoring system as a continuous quality improvement measure.

    PubMed

    Coorevits, L; Van den Abeele, A-M

    2015-07-01

    The yield of blood cultures is proportional to the volume of blood cultured. We evaluated an automatic blood volume monitoring system, recently developed by Becton Dickinson within its BACTEC EpiCenter module, that calculates mean volumes of negative aerobic bottles and generates boxplots and histograms. First, we evaluated the filling degree of 339 aerobic glass blood cultures by calculating the weight-based volume for each bottle. A substantial amount of the bottles (48.3%) were inadequately filled. Evaluation of the accuracy of the monitoring system showed a mean bias of -1.4 mL (-15.4%). Additional evaluation, using the amended software on 287 aerobic blood culture bottles, resulted in an acceptable mean deviation of -0.3 mL (-3.3%). The new software version was also tested on 200 of the recently introduced plastic bottles, which will replace the glass bottles in the near future, showing a mean deviation of +2.8 mL (+26.7%). In conclusion, the mean calculated volumes can be used for the training of a single phlebotomist. However, filling problems appear to be masked when using them for phlebotomist groups or on wards. Here, visual interpretation of boxplots and histograms can serve as a useful tool to observe the spread of the filling degrees and to develop a continuous improvement program. Re-adjustment of the software has proven to be necessary for use with plastic bottles. Due to our findings, BD has developed further adjustments to the software for validated use with plastic bottles, which will be released soon.

  11. A business case for on-site generation: The BD biosciences pharmingen project

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Creighton, Charles; Bailey, Owen; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Deregulation is haltingly changing the United States electricity markets. The resulting uncertainty and/or rising energy costs can be hedged by generating electricity on-site and other benefits, such as use of otherwise wasted heat, can be captured. The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 first invited relatively small-scale generators ({ge} 1 MW) into the electricity market. The advent of efficient and reliable small scale and renewable equipment has spurred an industry that has, in recent years, made even smaller (business scale) electricity generation an economically viable option for some consumers. On-site energy capture and/or conversion, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as economic savings and price predictability, improved reliability, control over power quality, and emissions reductions. Despite these benefits, DER adoption can be a daunting move to a customer accustomed to simply paying a monthly utility bill. San Diego is in many ways an attractive location for DER development: It has high electricity prices typical of California and a moderate climate i.e. energy loads are consistent throughout the year. Additionally, the price shock to San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) customers during the summer of 2000 has interested many in alternatives to electricity price vulnerability. This report examines the business case for DER at the San Diego biotechnology supply company, BD Biosciences Pharmingen, which considered DER for a building with 200-300 kW base-load, much of which accommodates the refrigerators required to maintain chemicals. Because of the Mediterranean climate of the San Diego area and the high rate of air changes required due to on-site use of chemicals, modest space heating is required throughout the year. Employees work in the building during normal weekday business hours, and daily peak loads are typically about 500 kW.

  12. A comprehensive overview of grain development in Brachypodium distachyon variety Bd21.

    PubMed

    Guillon, F; Larré, C; Petipas, F; Berger, A; Moussawi, J; Rogniaux, H; Santoni, A; Saulnier, L; Jamme, F; Miquel, M; Lepiniec, L; Dubreucq, B

    2012-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive understanding of seed reserve accumulation is of great importance for agriculture and crop improvement strategies. This work is part of a research programme aimed at using Brachypodium distachyon as a model plant for cereal grain development and filling. The focus was on the Bd21-3 accession, gathering morphological, cytological, and biochemical data, including protein, lipid, sugars, starch, and cell-wall analyses during grain development. This study highlighted the existence of three main developmental phases in Brachypodium caryopsis and provided an extensive description of Brachypodium grain development. In the first phase, namely morphogenesis, the embryo developed rapidly reaching its final morphology about 18 d after fertilization (DAF). Over the same period the endosperm enlarged, finally to occupy 80% of the grain volume. During the maturation phase, carbohydrates were continuously stored, mainly in the endosperm, switching from sucrose to starch accumulation. Large quantities of β-glucans accumulated in the endosperm with local variations in the deposition pattern. Interestingly, new β-glucans were found in Brachypodium compared with other cereals. Proteins (i.e. globulins and prolamins) were found in large quantities from 15 DAF onwards. These proteins were stored in two different sub-cellular structures which are also found in rice, but are unusual for the Pooideae. During the late stage of development, the grain desiccated while the dry matter remained fairly constant. Brachypodium exhibits some significant differences with domesticated cereals. Beta-glucan accumulates during grain development and this cell wall polysaccharide is the main storage carbohydrate at the expense of starch.

  13. Influence of family history of major depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide on clinical features in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Serretti, Alessandro; Chiesa, Alberto; Calati, Raffaella; Linotte, Sylvie; Sentissi, Othman; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; De Ronchi, Diana; Mendlewicz, Julien; Amital, Daniela; Montgomery, Stuart; Souery, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The extent to which a family history of mood disorders and suicide could impact on clinical features of patients suffering from major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) has received relatively little attention so far. The aim of the present work is, therefore, to assess the clinical implications of the presence of at least one first- and/or second-degree relative with a history of MD, BD and suicide in a large sample of patients with MD or BD. One thousand one hundred and fifty-seven subjects with MD and 686 subjects with BD were recruited within the context of two large projects. The impact of a family history of MD, BD, and suicide-considered both separately and together-on clinical and socio-demographic variables was investigated. A family history of MD, BD, and suicide was more common in BD patients than in MD patients. A positive family history of mood disorders and/or suicide as well as a positive family history of MD and BD separately considered, but not a positive history of suicide alone, were significantly associated with a comorbidity with several anxiety disorders and inversely associated with age of onset. The clinical implications as well as the limitations of our findings are discussed.

  14. Detecting asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis in females using the BD ProbeTec™ Trichomonas vaginalis Q(x) nucleic acid amplification test.

    PubMed

    Lord, Emily; Newnham, Tana; Dorrell, Lucy; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Clarke, Lorraine; Jeffery, Katie; Sherrard, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) rates in women are increasing and many are asymptomatic. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are becoming the 'gold standard' for diagnosis. We aimed to establish our asymptomatic TV rates by testing all women attending Oxfordshire's Sexual Health service, regardless of symptoms, using the BD ProbeTec™ TV Q(x) NAATs (BDQ(x)). During BDQ(x)'s verification process, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated using results of 220 endocervical samples from symptomatic women, compared with culture. BDQ(x) was subsequently implemented and prospectively evaluated over 6 months in female attendees. Wet mount microscopy was also performed in symptomatics. Demographic and clinical characteristics of those diagnosed were analysed. From 220 samples tested by BDQ(x) and culture: 5 were positive on both and one solely using BDQ(x), giving a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.53%, respectively. In the prospective cohort, of 5775 BDQ(x) tests, 33 (0.57%) were positive. 11/33 (33%) patients were asymptomatic. All patients diagnosed had risk factors: age >25 years (85%), residence in a deprived area (79%) and black ethnicity (21%). Despite BDQ(x) being highly sensitive and specific, with our low TV prevalence universal screening may not be justified. Targeted screening using local demographic data merits further investigation.

  15. Active Patient Participation in the Development of an Online Intervention

    PubMed Central

    van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Snippe, Harm Wouter; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background An important and challenging part of living with cancer relates to the repeated visits to the hospital. Since how patients cope between these post-diagnostic visits depends partly on the information and support received from their physician during the visits, it is important to make the most of them. Recent findings reinforce the importance of training not only the health care professionals in communication skills, but providing patients with support in communication as well. Delivering such supportive interventions online can have potential benefits in terms of accessibility, cost-effectiveness, and ability to tailor information to personal needs. However, problems with attrition (dropout, non-usage) during the test phase and poor uptake after implementation are frequently reported. The marginal level of engagement of the patient as end user seems to play a role in this. Therefore, recent research suggests integrating theory-based development methods with methods that promote involvement of the patient at an early stage. This paper describes a participatory protocol, used to let patients guide a theory-informed development process. Objective The objective of this project was to apply a bottom-up inspired procedure to develop a patient-centered intervention with corresponding evaluation and implementation plan. Methods The applied development protocol was based on the intervention mapping framework, combined with patient participatory methods that were inspired by the participation ladder and user-centred design methods. Results The applied protocol led to a self-directed online communication intervention aimed at helping patients gain control during their communications with health care professionals. It also led to an evaluation plan and an implementation plan. The protocol enabled the continuous involvement of patient research partners and the partial involvement of patient service users, which led to valuable insights and improvements. Conclusions

  16. Active Student Participation May Enhance Patient Centeredness: Patients' Assessments of the Clinical Education Ward for Integrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Valk-Draad, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the impact of active student participation on quality of care in an integrative inpatient setting. Methods. Over a two-year period, we surveyed all patients treated on the Clinical Education Ward for Integrative Medicine (CEWIM), where final-year medical students are integrated into an internal medicine ward complementing conventional medicine with anthroposophic medicine. Patients treated on the regular wards of the same internal medicine department served as the control group (CG). General quality of care was studied with the Picker Inpatient Questionnaire, physician empathy with the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure, and patient enablement with the Patient Enablement Index. ANCOVA was used to control for covariates while examining significant differences between both patient groups. Results. Comparison of the CG wards and the CEWIM revealed no significant differences in medical treatment success. The CEWIM, however, achieved better results for physician-patient interaction, physician empathy, and patient enablement. Eighty Percent of the CEWIM patients rated student participation as positively impacting quality of care. Conclusion. Our results indicate that incorporating students in an integrative healthcare setting may result in greater patient centeredness. Further studies are needed to determine whether this is due to organizational advantages, students' empathic activity, the impact of teaching, or learner-teacher interaction. PMID:23573149

  17. Study Protocol: A randomized controlled trial of patient navigation-activation to reduce cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer health disparities affecting low-income and minority patients are well documented. Root-causes are multifactorial, including diagnostic and treatment delays, social and financial barriers, and poor communication. Patient navigation and communication coaching (activation) are potential interventions to address disparities in cancer treatment. The purpose of this clinical trial is to test the effectiveness of an intervention combining patient navigation and activation to improve cancer treatment. Methods/Design The Rochester Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, patient-level randomized trial (RCT) of patient navigation and activation, targeting newly-diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients in Rochester, NY. The goal of the program is to decrease cancer health disparities by addressing barriers to receipt of cancer care and promoting patient self-efficacy. The intervention uses trained, paraprofessional patient navigators recruited from the target community, and a detailed training and supervisory program. Recruited patients are randomly assigned to receive either usual care (except for baseline and follow-up questionnaires and interviews) or intervention. The intervention patients receive tailored assistance from their patient navigators, including phone calls, in-person meetings, and behind-the-scenes coordination of care. A total of 344 patients have been recruited. Outcomes measured at three month intervals include timeliness of care, patient adherence, patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, health literacy, and cancer knowledge. Discussion This unique intervention combining patient navigation and patient activation is designed to address the multifactorial problem of cancer health disparities. If successful, this study will affect the design and implementation of patient navigation programs. Trials Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00496678 PMID:20939928

  18. The relative effect of health literacy and patient activation on provider choice in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rademakers, Jany; Nijman, Jessica; Brabers, Anne E M; de Jong, Judith D; Hendriks, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    Active provider choice by patients has become an important policy theme in western, countries over the last decades. However, not many patients and consumers exercise their right to, choose. Both health literacy and patient activation are likely to have an impact on the choice process. In, this article the relative effect of health literacy and patient activation on provider choice in the, Netherlands is studied. A questionnaire was sent to a representative sample of 2000 Dutch citizens. The questionnaire, included a measure of functional health literacy, the Dutch version of the Patient Activation Measure, and questions assessing active provider choice, reasons not to engage in it and other ways of provider, selection. The majority of respondents (59.6%) would not search for information on the basis of which they, could select the best provider or hospital. Most people rely on their general practitioner's advice. Both, low literacy and lower patient activation levels were negatively associated with active provider choice. In a regression analysis gender, education and patient activation proved the most important, predictors. The policy focus on active provider choice might result in inequity, with men, less educated, and less activated people being at a disadvantage.

  19. 13 CFR 124.110 - Do Native Hawaiian Organizations have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the applicant is seeking 8(a) BD certification, or demonstrate potential for success as set forth in... Organization has the potential for success, SBA will look at a number of factors including, but not limited...

  20. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Designing culturally-sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients’ involvement in their treatment, and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multi-level activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health, and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms, and how they impact patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and Value Based Purchasing, Patient Centered Medical Homes, and the Community Health Benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable, and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients’ abilities to manage their health, helping patients to express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making. PMID:25845376

  1. [Measurement of physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Helgo; Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik

    2009-04-15

    Physical activity is an important parameter related to morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome/diabetes, mental disorders, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In COPD, lower levels of physical activity as reported by the patients are associated with a faster annual lung function decline, increased number of hospitalizations, and higher risk of mortality. Self-reported physical activity, however, correlates only poorly with objectively quantified physical activity in patients with COPD. Recent data show that physical activity can reliably be measured in a substantial number of patients with COPD. Extrapulmonary effects of COPD are associated with reduced physical activity. Clinical characteristics commonly used to assess disease severity like the forced expiratory volume in 1 s or the 6-min walk distance only incompletely reflect the physical activity of patients with COPD.

  2. Systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Marieke J; Fransen, Jaap; Kievit, Wietske; van Riel, Piet LCM

    2016-01-01

    Patient assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be useful in clinical practice, offering a patient-friendly, location independent, and a time-efficient and cost-efficient means of monitoring the disease. The objective of this study was to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess disease activity in RA and to evaluate the measurement properties of these measures. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles reporting on clinimetric development or evaluation of PROM-based instruments to monitor disease activity in patients with RA. 2 reviewers independently selected articles for review and assessed their methodological quality based on the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. A total of 424 abstracts were retrieved for review. Of these abstracts, 56 were selected for reviewing the full article and 34 articles, presenting 17 different PROMs, were finally included. Identified were: Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), RADAI-5, Patient-based Disease Activity Score (PDAS) I & II, Patient-derived Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (Pt-DAS28), Patient-derived Simplified Disease Activity Index (Pt-SDAI), Global Arthritis Score (GAS), Patient Activity Score (PAS) I & II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID) 2–5, Patient Reported Outcome-index (PRO-index) continuous (C) & majority (M), Patient Reported Outcome CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA). The quality of reports varied from poor to good. Typically 5 out of 10 clinimetric domains were covered in the validations of the different instruments. The quality and extent of clinimetric validation varied among PROMs of RA disease activity. The Pt-DAS28, RADAI, RADAI-5 and RAPID 3 had the strongest and most extensive validation. The measurement properties least reported and in need of more evidence were: reliability

  3. Course of illness in comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Amerio, A; Tonna, M; Odone, A; Stubbs, B; Ghaemi, S N

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is extremely common. One of the most common and difficult to manage comorbid conditions is the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We updated our recent systematic review searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to investigate course of illness in BD-OCD patients. We identified a total of 13 relevant papers which found that the majority of comorbid OCD cases appeared to be related to mood episodes. OC symptoms in comorbid patients appeared more often during depressive episodes, and comorbid BD and OCD cycled together, with OC symptoms often remitting during manic/hypomanic episodes.

  4. 75 FR 16912 - Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request... measure patients' satisfaction with VA's dental services. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on..., Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10-0503. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0503)....

  5. 78 FR 79079 - Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey); Activities under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey); Activities under OMB Review... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900- 0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any correspondence....gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in...

  6. Clinicians' and Patients' Assessment of Activity Overuse and Underuse and Its Relation to Physical Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Annemieke Bonny; Preuper, Henrica R. Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2012-01-01

    To explore clinicians' and patients' (self)-assessment of activity overuse and underuse, and its relationship with physical capacity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Study design was cross-sectional. Participants included patients with CMP, admitted to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain rehabilitation program. The main…

  7. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  8. Physical Activity of Depressed Patients and Their Motivation to Exercise: Nordic Walking in Family Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…

  9. Validity of a Questionnaire to Assess the Physical Activity Level in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…

  10. [Activation of caspases in lymphocytes of patients with depression and anxiety].

    PubMed

    Gerasimovich, E S; Yakovlev, A A; Druzhkova, T A; Grishkina, M N; Guekht, A B; Gulyaeva, N V

    2016-01-01

    The processes in the nervous and immune systems are closely interrelated. In particular, increased apoptosis was reported in lymphocytes of patients with depression. The aim of this study was to assess activities of proteases associated with cell death in lymphocytes of patient with personality disorders accompanied by depression and anxiety. In patients with personality disorders associated with organic brain dysfunction caspase activities were reduced in patients with depression and increased in patients with anxiety. The results may be useful for elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms of personality disorders and in search of new biomarkers of these diseases.

  11. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY OF STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID AND MASTICATORY MUSCLES IN PATIENTS WITH VESTIBULAR LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Barozzi, Stefania; Marin, Federico; Cesarani, Antonio; Ferrario, Virgilio F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the electromyographic characteristics of masticatory and neck muscles in subjects with vestibular lesions. Surface electromyography of the masseter, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles was performed in 19 patients with Ménière's disease, 12 patients with an acute peripheral vestibular lesion, and 19 control subjects matched for sex and age. During maximum voluntary clenching, patients with peripheral vestibular lesions had the highest co-contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (analysis of covariance, p=0.02), the control subjects had the smallest values, and the patients with Ménière's disease had intermediate values. The control subjects had larger standardized muscle activities than the other patient groups (p=0.001). In conclusion, during maximum voluntary tooth clenching, patients with vestibular alterations have both more active neck muscles, and less active masticatory muscles than normal controls. Results underline the importance of a more inclusive craniocervical assessment of patients with vestibular lesions. PMID:19082397

  12. Using the Pharmacist Interaction Tracking Tool for Capturing Student-Patient Interactions in Direct and Simulated Patient Care Activities

    PubMed Central

    Schonder, Kristine S.; Pater, Karen S.; McGivney, Melissa S.; Meyer, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To create and implement a standardized data collection tool for capturing student-patient interactions in direct and simulated patient care activities. Design. Faculty members and students determined key elements, design, and an implementation plan for the tool, which was to be used by students across professional years to quantify numbers and types of interactions with patients for tracking student progression toward achievement of curricular outcomes. Assessment. During the 2013-2014 academic year, 27 778 entries were completed, with 17 767 (64%) advanced pharmacy practice experiences, 7272 (26%) introductory pharmacy practice experiences, and 2739 (10%) simulation. Direct patient care interactions occurred with 11 090 patients and 10 983 providers, with 14 252 drug-related problems identified. Data was used by students for their professional portfolios, by administrators for curricular assessment, and to student impact on patient care. Conclusion. The PITT Form enabled the collection of data from actual and simulated patient care activities, allowed for curricular assessment of activities across years, and was used by individual students. PMID:27667842

  13. Using the Pharmacist Interaction Tracking Tool for Capturing Student-Patient Interactions in Direct and Simulated Patient Care Activities.

    PubMed

    Hall, Deanne L; Schonder, Kristine S; Pater, Karen S; McGivney, Melissa S; Meyer, Susan M

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To create and implement a standardized data collection tool for capturing student-patient interactions in direct and simulated patient care activities. Design. Faculty members and students determined key elements, design, and an implementation plan for the tool, which was to be used by students across professional years to quantify numbers and types of interactions with patients for tracking student progression toward achievement of curricular outcomes. Assessment. During the 2013-2014 academic year, 27 778 entries were completed, with 17 767 (64%) advanced pharmacy practice experiences, 7272 (26%) introductory pharmacy practice experiences, and 2739 (10%) simulation. Direct patient care interactions occurred with 11 090 patients and 10 983 providers, with 14 252 drug-related problems identified. Data was used by students for their professional portfolios, by administrators for curricular assessment, and to student impact on patient care. Conclusion. The PITT Form enabled the collection of data from actual and simulated patient care activities, allowed for curricular assessment of activities across years, and was used by individual students.

  14. High-density lipoprotein of patients with breast cancer complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes cancer cells adhesion to vascular endothelium via ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqin; He, Dan; Ming, Jia; He, Yubin; Zhou, Champion; Ren, Hui; He, Xin; Wang, Chenguang; Jin, Jingru; Ji, Liang; Willard, Belinda; Pan, Bing; Zheng, Lemin

    2016-02-01

    Adhesion of disseminating tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal starting point in the metastasis cascade. We have shown previously that diabetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has the capability of promoting breast cancer metastasis, and this report summarizes our more recent work studying the role of abnormal HDL in facilitating the adhesion of the circulating tumor cells to the endothelium. This is an initiating step in breast cancer metastasis, and this work assesses the role of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in this process. MDA-MB-231, MCF 7, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with normal HDL from healthy controls (N-HDL), HDL from breast cancer patients (B-HDL), or HDL from breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (BD-HDL), and the cell adhesion abilities were determined. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as the protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. The effect of PKC inhibitor and PKC siRNA on adhesion was also studied. The immunohistochemical staining of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin from breast cancer patients and breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were examined. Our results indicate that BD-HDL promoted an increase in breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and stimulated higher ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the cells surface of both breast cancer and HUVEC cells, along with the activation of PKC. Increased tumor cell (TC)-HUVEC adhesion, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression induced by BD-HDL, could be inhibited by staurosporine and PKC siRNA. In addition, a Db/db type 2 diabetes mouse model has more TC-Vascular Endothelium adhesion compared to a normal model. However, BD patients have a lower expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in their tumor tissues. BD-HDL facilitates the adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium by upregulating the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, thereby promoting the initial progression of breast cancer metastasis

  15. Epitope mapping and identification of amino acids critical for mouse IgG-binding to linear epitopes on Gly m Bd 28K.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; Yan, Huili

    2016-10-01

    Gly m Bd 28K is one of the major allergens in soybeans, but there is limited information on its IgG-binding epitopes. Thirty-four overlapping peptides that covered the entire sequence of Gly m Bd 28K were synthesized, and 3 monoclonal antibodies against Gly m Bd 28K were utilized to identify the IgG-binding regions of Gly m Bd 28K. Three dominant peptides corresponding to (28)GDKKSPKSLFLMSNS(42)(G28-S42), (56)LKSHGGRIFYRHMHI(70)(L56-I70), and (154)ETFQSFYIGGGANSH(168)(E154-H168) were recognized. L56-I70 is the most important epitope, and a competitive ELISA indicated that it could inhibit the binding of monoclonal antibody to Gly m Bd 28K protein. Alanine scanning of L56-I70 documented that F64, Y65, and R66 were the critical amino acids of this epitope. Two bioinformatics tools, ABCpred and BepiPred, were used to predict the epitopes of Gly m Bd 28K, and the predictions were compared with the epitopes that we had located by monoclonal antibodies.

  16. Validation of a reference gene (BdFIM) for quantifying transgene copy numbers in Brachypodium distachyon by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Wen, Feng; Li, Peng; Liu, Xiang; Cao, Jianmei; Jiang, Min; Ming, Feng; Chu, Zhaoqing

    2014-03-01

    Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as a new model system for gramineous plants with a sequenced genome and an efficient transformation system. Many transgenic B. distachyon plants have been generated in recent years. To develop a reliable fast method for detecting transgenic B. distachyon and quantifying its transgene copy numbers, a species-specific reference gene is of great priority to be validated both in qualitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR detection. In this study, we first proved that the BdFIM (B. distachyon fimbrin-like protein) gene is a suitable reference gene in qualitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR for B. distachyon. Fourteen different B. distachyon varieties were tested by both qualitative and quantitative PCRs, and identical amplification products of BdFIM were obtained with all of them, while no amplification products were observed with samples from 14 other plant species, suggesting that BdFIM gene was specific to B. distachyon. The results of Southern blot analysis revealed that the BdFIM gene was low copy number in seven tested B. distachyon varieties. In conclusion, the BdFIM gene can be used as a reference gene, since it had species specificity, low heterogeneity, and low copy number among the tested B. distachyon varieties. Furthermore, the copy number of inserted sequences from transgenic B. distachyon obtained by real-time PCR methods and Southern blot confirmed that the BdFIM gene was an applicable reference gene in B. distachyon.

  17. Physical activity attenuates neuropsychiatric disturbances and caregiver burden in patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; Oliani, Merlyn Mércia; Bucken-Gobbi, Lílian Teresa; Gobbi, Sebastião; Beinotti, Fernanda; Stella, Florindo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A significant benefit from physical activity has recently been described in some patients who suffer from neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of physical activity on neuropsychiatric disturbances in demented patients and on the mental burden of their caregivers. METHODS: Assisted by a public geriatric psychiatry clinical unit, we studied 59 patients with dementia. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and level of physical activity. Data were assessed through a semi-structured interview. Patients were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire and the Baecke Questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Patients with Alzheimer's or vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms than those who did not. When compared to the control group, the caregivers of patients with vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had a reduced burden. CONCLUSION: The regular practice of physical activity seems to contribute to a reduction in neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients and to attenuate the burden of the caregivers of those patients. PMID:21655755

  18. Plasma chitotriosidase activity in patients with beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Altarescu, G; Rudensky, B; Abrahamov, A; Goldfarb, A; Rund, D; Zimran, A; Elstein, D

    2002-09-01

    Variable increases in chitotriosidase levels have been reported in Italian patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia. We measured plasma chitotriosidase levels in Israeli patients with beta-thalassemia to ascertain its use as a universal marker of disease and/or response to therapy. Chitotriosidase levels in 39 adults (16-53 years; 30 with beta-thalassemia major, 9 with intermedia), and in 14 children (0.7-15 years; 12 with beta-thalassemia major, 2 with intermedia) were compared with other measures of disease, such as ferritin, hemoglobin, liver function tests, and genotype. Plasma chitotriosidase levels were normal (0.37 +/- 0.04 mU/mL) in all children. Twelve adults (31%) had elevated levels (>1.33 mU/mL): 11 patients (37%) with thalassemia major and 1 patient (11%) with thalassemia intermedia. A significant correlation was only found between plasma chitotriosidase levels and ferritin levels, and with mean number of transfusions per year. The patient with the highest chitotriosidase (1,440 nmol/mL/hr) had the highest ferritin (5,175 microg/L), required the most transfusions per year (40), and had abnormal liver tests. Normal chitotriosidase levels in the pediatric cohort and increased levels in only some adults may reflect status of iron overload in macrophages; thus there may be a role for monitoring chitotriosidase in patients with beta-thalassemia. Our results confirm results of the Italian cohort; however, in the latter, a more universal correlation was noted and chitotriosidase levels were much higher.

  19. Effective Teachers for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Active Ingredients Leading to Positive Teacher and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) have varied skills and abilities. Within the field there are some teachers, who teach students with E/BD by actively engaging them in learning tasks and who have few behavior problems in comparison to other teachers, who struggle with classroom management. Many researchers have found…

  20. Effect of steroids on the activation status of platelets in patients with Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

    PubMed

    Bhoria, Preeti; Sharma, Saniya; Varma, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash; Luthra-Guptasarma, Manni

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of platelets in Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients--which is still somewhat controversial--is of potential interest, because activated platelets tend to aggregate (leading to excessive clotting or thromboembolic events) but cannot do so when platelet numbers are low, as in ITP. Although corticosteroids are the first line of therapy in ITP, the effect of steroids on activation of platelets has not been evaluated so far. We examined the status of platelet activation (with and without stimulation with ADP) in ITP patients, at the start of therapy (pre-steroid treatment, naive) and post-steroid treatment (classified on the basis of steroid responsiveness). We used flow cytometry to evaluate the levels of expression of P-selectin, and PAC-1 binding to platelets of 55 ITP patients and a similar number of healthy controls, treated with and without ADP. We found that platelets in ITP patients exist in an activated state. In patients who are responsive to steroids, the treatment reverses this situation. Also, the fold activation of platelets upon treatment with ADP is more in healthy controls than in ITP patients; treatment with steroids causes platelets in steroid-responsive patients to become more responsive to ADP-activation, similar to healthy controls. Thus steroids may cause changes in the ability of platelets to get activated with an agonist like ADP. Our results provide new insights into how, and why, steroid therapy helps in the treatment of ITP.

  1. Two-center collaborative evaluation of performance of the BD phoenix automated microbiology system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Menozzi, Maria Grazia; Eigner, Ulrich; Covan, Silvia; Rossi, Sabina; Somenzi, Pietro; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo; Fahr, Anne-Marie

    2006-11-01

    The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD) was assessed for identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the majority of clinically encountered bacterial isolates in a European collaborative two-center trial. A total of 494 bacterial isolates including various species of the Enterobacteriaceae and 110 nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria were investigated: of these, 385 were single patient isolates, and 109 were challenge strains tested at one center. The performance of the Phoenix extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) test was also evaluated for 203 strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca included in the study. Forty-two antimicrobial drugs were tested, including members of the following drug classes: aminoglycosides, beta-lactam antibiotics, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, cephems, monobactams, folate antagonists, quinolones, and others. Phoenix system ID results were compared to those of the laboratories' routine ID systems (API 20E and API CHE, ATB ID32E, ID32GN, and VITEK 2 [bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France]); Phoenix AST results were compared to those of frozen standard broth microdilution (SBM) panels according to NCCLS (now CLSI) guidelines (NCCLS document M100-S9, approved standard M7-A4). Discrepant results were repeated in duplicate. Concordant IDs of 98.4 and 99.1% were observed for the Enterobacteriaceae and the nonfermentative group, respectively. For AST results, the overall essential agreement was 94.2%; the category agreement was 97.3%; and the very major error rate, major error rate, and minor error rate were 1.6, 0.6, and 1.9%, respectively. In terms of ESBL detection, Phoenix results were 98.5% concordant with those of the reference system, with 98.0% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity. In conclusion, the Phoenix ID results showed high agreement with results of the systems to which they were being

  2. Patient Engagement and Activation in Three Underserved Beacon Communities.

    PubMed

    Jardins, Terrisca Des; Drone, Shenetta A; Hashisaka, Susan; Hazzard, Jobyna; Hunt, Susan B; Massey, Kimberly; Rein, Alison; Schachter, Abigail; Turske, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Whether the setting is urban, rural, or somewhere in between, engagement strategies for the underserved require a great deal of flexibility and sensitivity to the socioeconomic, cultural, and geographic conditions of the patient population. The following report details how three unique communities designed specific strategies to engage underserved populations in the management of their chronic conditions.

  3. Characterization of physical activity and sitting time among patients on hemodialysis using a new physical activity instrument

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Kirsten L.; Painter, Patricia; Delgado, Cynthia; Doyle, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physical activity questionnaires usually focus on moderate to vigorous activities and may not accurately capture physical activity or variation in levels of activity among extremely inactive groups like dialysis patients. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Three dialysis facilities in the San Francisco Bay Area Subjects 68 prevalent hemodialysis patients Intervention We administered a new physical activity questionnaire designed to capture activity in the lower end of the range, the Low Physical Activity Questionnaire (LoPAQ). Main Outcome Measure Outcome measures were correlation with a validated physical activity questionnaire, the Minnesota Leisure Time Activity (LTA) questionnaire and with self-reported physical function (Physical Function score of the SF-36) and physical performance (gait speed, chair stand, balance, and Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB]) . We also determined whether patients who were frail or reported limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) were less active on the LoPAQ. Results 68 participants (mean age 59 ± 14 years, 59% men) completed the study. Patients were inactive according to the LoPAQ, with a median (IQR) of 517 (204 – 1190) kcal/week of physical activity. Although activity from the LTA was lower than on the LoPAQ (411 (61 – 902) kcal/week), the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.20), and results from the two instruments were strongly correlated (rho =0.62, p < 0.001). In addition, higher physical activity measured by the LoPAQ was correlated with better self-reported functioning (rho = 0.64, p < 0.001), better performance on gait speed (rho = 0.32, p=0.02), balance (rho = 0.45, p < 0.001), and chair rising (rho = −0.32, p=0.03) tests and with higher SPPB total score (rho = 0.51, p < 0.001). Frail patients and patients with ADL limitations were less active than those who were not frail or limited. Conclusion The LoPAQ performed similarly to the Minnesota LTA questionnaire in our

  4. Selective DNA methylation of BDNF promoter in bipolar disorder: differences among patients with BDI and BDII.

    PubMed

    D'Addario, Claudio; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Palazzo, Maria Carlotta; Benatti, Beatrice; Lietti, Licia; Cattaneo, Elisabetta; Galimberti, Daniela; Fenoglio, Chiara; Cortini, Francesca; Scarpini, Elio; Arosio, Beatrice; Di Francesco, Andrea; Di Benedetto, Manuela; Romualdi, Patrizia; Candeletti, Sanzio; Mari, Daniela; Bergamaschini, Luigi; Bresolin, Nereo; Maccarrone, Mauro; Altamura, A Carlo

    2012-06-01

    The etiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still poorly understood, involving genetic and epigenetic mechanisms as well as environmental contributions. This study aimed to investigate the degree of DNA methylation at the promoter region of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, as one of the candidate genes associated with major psychoses, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 94 patients with BD (BD I=49, BD II=45) and 52 healthy controls. A significant BDNF gene expression downregulation was observed in BD II 0.53±0.11%; P<0.05), but not in BD I (1.13±0.19%) patients compared with controls (CONT: 1±0.2%). Consistently, an hypermethylation of the BDNF promoter region was specifically found in BD II patients (CONT: 24.0±2.1%; BDI: 20.4±1.7%; BDII: 33.3±3.5%, P<0.05). Of note, higher levels of DNA methylation were observed in BD subjects on pharmacological treatment with mood stabilizers plus antidepressants (34.6±4.2%, predominantly BD II) compared with those exclusively on mood-stabilizing agents (21.7±1.8%; P<0.01, predominantly BD I). Moreover, among the different pharmacological therapies, lithium (20.1±3.8%, P<0.05) and valproate (23.6±2.9%, P<0.05) were associated with a significant reduction of DNA methylation compared with other drugs (35.6±4.6%). Present findings suggest selective changes in DNA methylation of BDNF promoter in subjects with BD type II and highlight the importance of epigenetic factors in mediating the onset and/or susceptibility to BD, providing new insight into the mechanisms of gene expression. Moreover, they shed light on possible mechanisms of action of mood-stabilizing compounds vs antidepressants in the treatment of BD, pointing out that BDNF regulation might be a key target for their effects.

  5. Patient Mood and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Alzheimer Disease: Relationship Between Patient and Caregiver Reports.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study investigated the relationship between self-reports and caregiver perceptions of patients' depressive symptoms and the respective ability of these reports to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond what is accounted for by cognitive abilities in 71 patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Patients completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, and caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia assessing their perception of patients' depressive symptoms. Caregivers also completed IADL items from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale III, and Trail Making Test, Part B. The relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and caregiver report of patients' depressive symptoms showed a trend toward significance (r = .22, P = .06). Measures of depressive symptoms significantly predicted 12.5% of the variance in IADLs performance, beyond that accounted for by patient demographics and cognitive functioning. Interestingly, patients' reports, rather than caregivers', were particularly useful in this prediction.

  6. Motor imagery evokes increased somatosensory activity in Parkinson's disease patients with tremor.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Rick C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is surprisingly heterogeneous: some patients have a prominent resting tremor, while others never develop this symptom. Here we investigate whether the functional organization of the voluntary motor system differs between PD patients with and without resting tremor, and whether these differences relate to the cerebral circuit producing tremor. We compared 18 PD patients with marked tremor, 20 PD patients without tremor, and 19 healthy controls. Subjects performed a controlled motor imagery task during fMRI scanning. We quantified imagery-related cerebral activity by contrasting imagery of biomechanically difficult and easy movements. Tremor-related activity was identified by relating cerebral activity to fluctuations in tremor amplitude, using electromyography during scanning. PD patients with tremor had better behavioral performance than PD patients without tremor. Furthermore, tremulous PD patients showed increased imagery-related activity in somatosensory area 3a, as compared with both healthy controls and to nontremor PD patients. This effect was independent from tremor-related activity, which was localized to the motor cortex, cerebellum, and thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM). The VIM, with known projections to area 3a, was unique in showing both tremor- and imagery-related responses. We conclude that parkinsonian tremor influences motor imagery by modulating central somatosensory processing through the VIM. This mechanism may explain clinical differences between PD patients with and without tremor.

  7. Evaluation of Prognostic Values of Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Yunus; Ozturk, Baris; Tutuncu, Emin Ediz; Sencan, Irfan; Cicek Senturk, Gonul; Altay, Fatma Aybala

    2015-01-01

    Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread disease in Turkey, and was responsible for many deaths in endemic regions during the last decade. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood yet. Objectives: In this study we aimed to determine the levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as predictors of prognosis in CCHF. Patients and Methods: Patients who were diagnosed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgM positivity in the reference laboratory were included in this study. Tissue Plasminogen activator and PAI-1 levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a commercial kit (human t-PA ELISA and human PAL-1 ELISA; BioVendor research and diagnostic products, BioVendor-Laboratorni medicina a.s., Brno, Czech Republic). Results: A total of 46 patients participated in this study. The significant differences between recovering patients and the patients who died, regarding Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombocyte and fibrinogen levels, were consistent with many clinical studies in the literature. The fatal cases were found to have higher tPA and PAI-1 levels in contrast to the patients who completely recovered. Conclusions: We think that these findings may help the progress of understanding of CCHF pathogenesis. PMID:26587219

  8. Effects of far infrared acupoint stimulation on autonomic activity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Ling-Hwa; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lee, Li-Shan; Wang, Harrison; Liu, Chi-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving regular hemodialysis sessions have been known to suffer from fatigue and depression. This experiment was designed to determine the effects of far infrared ray (FIR) stimulation on acupoints of patients suffering from renal failure who are receiving regular hemodialysis. Patients receiving long-term and regular hemodialysis who volunteered for this procedure were randomly selected to undergo either FIR or heat pad (HP) therapy to determine the impact of FIR treatment on these patients. Both the activities of the autonomic nervous system and changes in quality of life were measured before and after treatment to determine the effectiveness of the FIR treatment. Results from this study show that FIR therapy decreases both stress and fatigue levels of these patients. It also stimulates autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in patients who are diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are receiving regular hemodialysis (HD). Therefore, benefits of FIR stimulation on these patients are clearly demonstrated in this preliminary study.

  9. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Peihai; Pan, Junjie; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guangsen; Qin, Wei; You, Yaodong; Yu, Xujun; Sun, Jinbo; Dong, Minghao; Gong, Qiyong; Guo, Jun; Chang, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and middle cingulate cortex (MCC). Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP), the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP) showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P < 0.005). Conclusions. The ED patients with different TCM patterns showed different brain activities. The differences in cerebral activity between LSSDP and KDP were mainly in the emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex. PMID:26180534

  10. Physical Activity and Reported Barriers to Activity Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kaabi, Juma; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Afandi, Bachar; Parkar, Hasratali; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the physical activity practice among type 2 diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients who participated in the outpatient clinics in Al-Ain District, during 2006. The patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and measurements of blood pressure, body mass index, body fat, abdominal circumference, glycemic control (HbA1c), and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: Of the 390 patients recruited, only 25% reported an increase in their physical activity levels following the diagnosis of diabetes, and only 3% reported physical activity levels that meet the recommended guidelines. More than half of the study subjects had uncontrolled hypertension (53%) and unacceptable lipid profiles; 71% had a high low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 73% had low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and 59% had hypertriglyceridemia. Forty-four percent were obese and a further 34% were overweight. Abdominal obesity was also common (59%). Only 32% had an acceptable glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: The physical activity practice of type 2 diabetic patients in the UAE is largely inadequate to meet the recommended level necessary to prevent or ameliorate diabetic complications. Interventions aiming at overcoming the barriers to physical activity are urgently needed. PMID:20043039

  11. [Vaccines and preventive activities in patients with inflammatory arthritis].

    PubMed

    Casals-Sánchez, J L; Casals Vázquez, C; Vázquez Sánchez, M Á; Giménez Basallote, S

    2013-10-01

    Patients with inflammatory arthritis and eligible for immunosuppressive therapy account for more than 1% of general population, and represents a significant workload on family doctors. They are prone to other comorbidities, with an increased cardiovascular risk and a higher incidence of infections than the general population, especially skin infections and pneumonitis. This comorbidity can be considered vulnerable to a prevention program-prevention of cardiovascular risk, cancer screening, vaccination schedule for adults. As for prevention through vaccination, importance should be given to pneumococcal infection - significant in adults aged 50 or over, especially amongst immunosuppressed patients. The 13-valent conjugate vaccine, which has been recently approved for adults, must be considered. An attempt has been made to write a simple, applicable document on preventive measures that should be implemented both at primary and secondary care level for those adults.

  12. Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients' preferences for and beliefs about physical activity prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Vallance, Jeff; Walker, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity has been found to have a number of benefits for lung cancer patients yet very little information is available concerning physical activity beliefs and preferences for this population. The purpose of the study was to explore physical activity programming and counseling preferences and beliefs about physical activity in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. A total of 43 new diagnosed lung cancer patients completed a researcher-administered survey prior to commencing chemotherapy. Results indicated that only 7 participants (17%) reported meeting public health recommendations for physical activity yet the majority of participants (n = 28) indicated interest or possible interest in physical activity counseling. Many participants also indicated interest or possible interest in an exercise program (n = 29) for lung cancer survivors, preferring it to start during chemotherapy (n = 20), for it to be home based (n = 21), and moderate in intensity (n = 22). The most common behavioral belief (advantage) of physical activity was to build/maintain strength (n = 26) and the most common control belief (barrier) was fatigue (n = 11). These data suggest that physical activity counseling and programming may be well received by newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Information about physical activity and programming preferences and beliefs from this study may be useful for the design of optimal physical activity interventions for lung cancer patients.

  13. Noninvasive Imaging of the High Frequency Brain Activity in Focal Epilepsy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yunfeng; Worrell, Gregory A.; Zhang, Huishi Clara; Yang, Lin; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Nelson, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    High frequency (HF) activity represents a potential biomarker of the epileptogenic zone in epilepsy patients, the removal of which is considered to be crucial for seizure-free surgical outcome. We proposed a high frequency source imaging (HFSI) approach to noninvasively image the brain sources of scalp recorded high frequency EEG activity. Both computer simulation and clinical patient data analysis were performed to investigate the feasibility of using the HFSI approach to image the sources of HF activity from noninvasive scalp EEG recordings. The HF activity was identified from high-density scalp recordings after high-pass filtering the EEG data and the EEG segments with HF activity were concatenated together to form repetitive HF activity. Independent component analysis was utilized to extract the components corresponding to the HF activity. Noninvasive EEG source imaging using realistic geometric boundary element head modeling was then applied to image the sources of the pathological HF brain activity. Five medically intractable focal epilepsy patients were studied and the estimated sources were found to be concordant with the surgical resection or intracranial recordings of the patients. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that source imaging from the scalp HF activity could help to localize the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and provide a novel noninvasive way of studying the epileptic brain in humans. This study also indicates the potential application of studying HF activity in the pre-surgical planning of medically intractable epilepsy patients. PMID:24845275

  14. Hubble space telescope near-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the bright cemp-no star BD+44°493

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Smith, Verne V.; Roederer, Ian U.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Filler, Dan; Ivans, Inese I.; Lawler, James E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Aoki, Wako

    2014-07-20

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the extremely metal-poor star BD+44°493 a ninth magnitude subgiant with [Fe/H] =–3.8 and enhanced carbon, based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This star is the brightest example of a class of objects that, unlike the great majority of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, does not exhibit over-abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements (CEMP-no). In this paper, we validate the abundance determinations for a number of species that were previously studied in the optical region, and obtain strong upper limits for beryllium and boron, as well as for neutron-capture elements from zirconium to platinum, many of which are not accessible from ground-based spectra. The boron upper limit we obtain for BD+44°493, log ε (B) <–0.70, the first such measurement for a CEMP star, is the lowest yet found for very and extremely metal-poor stars. In addition, we obtain even lower upper limits on the abundances of beryllium, log ε (Be) <–2.3, and lead, log ε (Pb) <–0.23 ([Pb/Fe] <+1.90), than those reported by previous analyses in the optical range. Taken together with the previously measured low abundance of lithium, the very low upper limits on Be and B suggest that BD+44°493 was formed at a very early time, and that it could well be a bona-fide second-generation star. Finally, the Pb upper limit strengthens the argument for non-s-process production of the heavy-element abundance patterns in CEMP-no stars.

  15. Valued Life Activities, Smoking Cessation, and Mood in Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Srour, John Fani; Arrighi, James A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continued engagement in valued life activities is a protective factor for depression and has been linked to readiness to quit smoking in medical populations, but has never been examined among Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationships among valued life activities, mood, and smoking post-ACS. Methods Participants were 54 post-ACS patients who were smoking before ACS hospitalization. Data on mood, smoking status, engagement in valued activities, restriction of valued activities, and satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was collected 1-12 months post-ACS. Results Depressive symptoms were associated with both less valued activity engagement and greater valued activity restriction. Positive affect was associated with greater valued activity engagement and negative affect was associated with greater valued activity restriction. Satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was associated with greater positive affect, fewer depressive symptoms, and quitting smoking post-ACS. The majority of these relationships remained significant after controlling for relevant covariates, including physical functioning. Conclusions Valued activity restriction and engagement may contribute to depressed mood and failure to quit smoking in ACS patients. Psychotherapies that target greater engagement in valued life activities deserve further investigation in ACS patients. PMID:25471466

  16. Beyond demographics: differences in patient activation across new immigrant, diverse language subgroups.

    PubMed

    Lubetkin, Erica I; Zabor, Emily C; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M Margaret; Hay, Jennifer L

    2014-02-01

    The federal government promotes "patient-centered medical homes" to plan care with respect to patients' cultures and values and support patients' self-care efforts. To promote self-care, the medical home would be best utilized by activated, engaged patients. The objective of this study was to measure and compare patient activation scores in English-, Spanish-, and Haitian Creole-speaking patients seen at an inner-city hospital ambulatory care practice. Patient activation was measured using the patient activation measure (PAM). Mean PAM scores and activation levels differed according to survey language (p < 0.001). US-born participants had higher mean PAM scores than persons born outside of the US. Participants living in the US longer had higher mean PAM scores than participants newer to the US. Levels of activation and mean PAM scores increased with greater comfort reading, speaking, and thinking in English. The mean PAM (SD) score of 61.5 (16.5) for Haitian Creole-speaking Caribbean Blacks was significantly lower than the mean PAM score of 68.8 (15.6) for English-speaking Caribbean Blacks (p value = 0.006). Although mean PAM scores did not significantly differ between Haitian Creole and Spanish speakers, PAM stages differed according to language of survey completion (p < 0.001), with a greater percentage of Haitian Creole speakers being categorized as stage 1 (least activated) as well as stage 4 (most activated). Spanish and Haitian Creole speakers have lower mean PAM scores than English speakers. Mean PAM scores did not differ between Hispanics and non-Hispanics or according to race, illustrating the need to examine the role of language and culture on patient activation.

  17. Effect of radiotherapy on the natural killer (NK)-cell activity of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnes, K.; Florence, J.; Penny, R.

    1987-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of radiotherapy on peripheral blood natural killer (NK)-cell number and activity in 15 patients with cancer, prior to the commencement and at the completion of radiotherapy. The following observations were made. Prior to radiotherapy NK activity could not be correlated with the stage of malignancy. In all patients with advanced disease and with subnormal baseline NK activity, the outcome of radiotherapy was unfavorable. Following radiotherapy to sites including the mediastinum, patients had decreased NK activity compared with those receiving treatment to other sites. This decrease was not related to the dose of radiotherapy or stage of malignancy. The tumor response was favorable in most patients whose NK activity decreased as a result of radiotherapy. The decrease in NK activity may be associated with a decrease in the percentage of NK (N901) cells in the peripheral blood. The reduction in NK activity in those patients receiving mediastinal irradiation may be due to the large volume of blood which transits the field, so that the NK cells, or their more radiosensitive precursors, may be damaged and/or differentiation inhibited. Thus, these new observations show that radiotherapy does indeed affect the NK activity in cancer patients predominantly when the irradiation site includes the mediastinum.

  18. Evidence from stellar rotation of enhanced disc dispersal. I. The case of the triple visual system BD-21 1074 in the β Pictoris association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.; Monard, B.; Biazzo, K.; Melo, C. H. F.; Frasca, A.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The early stage of stellar evolution is characterized by a magnetic coupling between a star and its accretion disc, known as a star-disc locking mechanism. The disc-locking prevents the star to spin its rotation up, and its timescale depends on the disc lifetime, which should not be longer than about 10 Myr. Some mechanisms can significantly shorten this lifetime, allowing a few stars to start spinning up much earlier than other stars and increasing the observed rotation period dispersion among coeval stars. Aims: In the present study, we aim to investigate how the properties of the circumstellar environment can shorten the disc lifetime, more specifically the presence of a close stellar companion. Methods: We have identified a few multiple stellar systems, composed of stars with similar masses, which belong to associations with a known age. Since all parameters that are responsible for the rotational evolution, with the exception of environment properties and initial stellar rotation, are similar for all components, we expect that significant differences among the rotation periods can only arise from differences in the disc lifetimes. A photometric timeseries allowed us to measure the rotation periods of each component, while high-resolution spectra provided us with the fundamental parameters, v sin i and chromospheric line fluxes. Results: In the present study, we have collected timeseries photometry of BD-21 1074, a member of the 21 Myr old β Pictoris association, and measured the rotation periods of its brightest components A and B. They differ significantly, and the component B, which has a closer companion C, rotates faster than the more distant and isolated component A. It also displays a slightly higher chromospheric activity level. Conclusions: Since components A and B have similar mass, age, and initial chemical composition, we can ascribe the rotation period difference to either different initial rotation periods or different disc

  19. Suzaku Reveals He-burning Products in the X-ray Emitting Planetary Nebula BD +30deg 3639

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murashima, M.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Kotoku, J.; Murakami, H.; Matsushita, K.; Hayashida, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    BD +30deg 3639, the brightest planetary nebula at X-ray energies, was observed with Suzaku, an X-ray observatory launched on 2005 July 10. Using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer, the K-lines from C VI, O VII, and O VIII were resolved for the first time, and C/O, N/O, and Ne/O abundance ratios determined. The C/O abundance ratio exceeds the solar value by nearly two orders of magnitude, and that of Ne/O by at least a factor of 5. These results indicate that the X-rays are emitted mainly by helium shell-burning products.

  20. Ghrelin and adipokines as circulating markers of disease activity in patients with Takayasu arteritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The current markers of disease activity in Takayasu arteritis (TA) are insufficient for proper assessment. We investigated circulating levels of unacylated and acylated ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin and their relationships with disease activity in patients with TA. Methods This study included 31 patients with TA and 32 sex-, age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Disease activity was assessed in TA patients using various tools, including Kerr's criteria, disease extent index-Takayasu, physician's global assessment, radiological parameters, and laboratory markers. Plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin, and serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels were found to be significantly lower in TA patients than that in healthy controls. Patients with active disease had lower unacylated ghrelin levels than those with inactive disease and had lower acylated ghrelin levels than healthy controls. Ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with various parameters of disease activity. The leptin/ghrelin ratio was significantly higher in TA patients than controls. It was positively correlated with disease activity. There was a positive correlation between unacylated and acylated ghrelin and a negative correlation between leptin and ghrelin. There was no statistical difference in adiponectin levels between TA patients and controls. The radiological activity markers were positively correlated with other parameters of disease activity. Conclusions This study suggests that plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels may be useful in monitoring disease activity and planning treatment strategies for patients with TA. The serum leptin level and leptin/ghrelin ratio may also be used to help assess the disease activity. PMID:23259466

  1. Cardiovascular symptoms in patients with systemic mast cell activation disease.

    PubMed

    Kolck, Ulrich W; Haenisch, Britta; Molderings, Gerhard J

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, mast cell activation disease (MCAD) has been considered as just one rare (neoplastic) disease, mastocytosis, focused on the mast cell (MC) mediators tryptase and histamine and the suggestive, blatant symptoms of flushing and anaphylaxis. Recently another form of MCAD, the MC activation syndrome, has been recognized featuring inappropriate MC activation with little to no neoplasia and likely much more heterogeneously clonal and far more prevalent than mastocytosis. Increasing expertise and appreciation has been established for the truly very large menagerie of MC mediators and their complex patterns of release, engendering complex, nebulous presentations of chronic and acute illness best characterized as multisystem polymorbidity of generally inflammatory ± allergic theme. We describe the pathogenesis of MCAD with a particular focus on clinical cardiovascular symptoms and the therapeutic options for MC mediator-induced cardiovascular symptoms.

  2. Age at onset, course of illness and response to psychotherapy in bipolar disorder: results from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD)

    PubMed Central

    Peters, A.; Sylvia, L. G.; da Silva Magalhães, P. V.; Miklowitz, D. J.; Frank, E.; Otto, M. W.; Hansen, N. S.; Dougherty, D. D.; Berk, M.; Nierenberg, A. A.; Deckersbach, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The course of bipolar disorder progressively worsens in some patients. Although responses to pharmacotherapy appear to diminish with greater chronicity, less is known about whether patients’ prior courses of illness are related to responses to psychotherapy. Method Embedded in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) was a randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression comparing the efficacy of intensive psychotherapy with collaborative care (a three-session psycho-educational intervention). We assessed whether the number of previous mood episodes, age of illness onset, and illness duration predicted or moderated the likelihood of recovery and time until recovery from a depressive episode in patients in the two treatments. Results Independently of treatment condition, participants with one to nine prior depressive episodes were more likely to recover and had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more prior depressive episodes. Participants with fewer than 20 prior manic episodes had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more episodes. Longer illness duration predicted a longer time to recovery. Participants were more likely to recover in intensive psychotherapy than collaborative care if they had 10–20 prior episodes of depression [number needed to treat (NNT)=2.0], but equally likely to respond to psychotherapy and collaborative care if they had one to nine (NNT=32.0) or >20 (NNT=9.0) depressive episodes. Conclusions Number of previous mood episodes and illness duration are associated with the likelihood and speed of recovery among bipolar patients receiving psychosocial treatments for depression. PMID:25066366

  3. Assessment of global disease activity in RA patients monitored in the METEOR database: the patient's versus the rheumatologist's opinion.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Koevoets, Rosanne; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Allaart, Cornelia F; Landewé, Robert B M

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the patient's (PtGDA) and physician's (PhGDA) assessment of global disease activity and to identify factors that might influence these differences as well as factors that may influence the patient's and the physician's scores separately. Anonymous data were used from 2,117 Dutch patients included in the Measurement of efficacy of Treatment in the Era of Rheumatology database. PtGDA and PhGDA were scored independently on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) with 0 and 100 as extremes. The agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), was calculated and a Bland-Altman plot was created to visualize the differences between PtGDA and PhGDA. Linear mixed model analysis was used to model PtGDA and PhGDA. Logistic repeated measurements were used to model the difference in PtGDA and PhGDA (PtGDA > PhGDA versus PtGDA ≤ PhGDA). Gender patient, gender physician, age, swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count, VAS pain, disease duration, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were considered as possible determinants in both models. Mean (standard deviation) age was 57 (15) years and 67 % of the patients were female. Agreement between PtGDA and PhGDA was moderate (ICC, 0.57). Patients scored on average 11 units higher (worse) than rheumatologists (95 % limits of agreement, -25.2 to 47.6). Patient's perception of pain (VAS) was positively associated with a PtGDA being higher than PhGDA. Similarly, ESR and swollen joint counts were positively associated with a PtGDA being lower or equal to the PhGDA. Patients rate global disease activity consistently higher than their rheumatologists. Patients base their judgment primarily on the level of pain, physicians on the level of SJC and ESR.

  4. Medical student stories of participation in patient care-related activities: the construction of relational identity.

    PubMed

    Warmington, Sally; McColl, Geoffrey

    2017-03-01

    Professional identity formation is acknowledged as one of the fundamental tasks of contemporary medical education. Identity is a social phenomenon, constructed through participation in everyday activities and an integral part of every learning interaction. In this paper we report from an Australian ethnographic study into how medical students and patients use narrative to construct their identities. The dialogic narrative analysis employed focused on the production of meaning through the use of language devices in a given context, and the juxtaposition of multiple perspectives. Two stories told by students about their participation in patient care-related activities reveal how identities are constructed in this context through depictions of the relationships between medical students, patients and clinical teachers. These students use the rhetorical functions of stories to characterise doctors and patients in certain ways, and position themselves in relation to them. They defend common practices that circumvent valid consent processes, justified by the imperative to maximise students' participation in patient care-related activities. In doing so, they identify patients as their adversaries, and doctors as allies. Both students are influenced by others' expectations but one reveals the active nature of identity work, describing subtle acts of resistance. These stories illustrate how practices for securing students' access to patients can influence students' emerging identities, with implications for their future disclosure and consent practices. We argue that more collaborative ways of involving medical students in patient care-related activities will be facilitated if students and clinical teachers develop insight into the relational nature of identity work.

  5. Hyperferritinaemia in Dengue Virus Infected Patients Is Associated with Immune Activation and Coagulation Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Pannuti, Cláudio S.; Brouns, Rosalba M.; van den Berg, Riemsdijk W. A.; van den Ham, Henk-Jan; Martina, Byron E. E.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Netea, Mihai G.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2014-01-01

    Background During a dengue outbreak on the Caribbean island Aruba, highly elevated levels of ferritin were detected in dengue virus infected patients. Ferritin is an acute-phase reactant and hyperferritinaemia is a hallmark of diseases caused by extensive immune activation, such as haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hyperferritinaemia in dengue patients was associated with clinical markers of extensive immune activation and coagulation disturbances. Methodology/Principal Findings Levels of ferritin, standard laboratory markers, sIL-2R, IL-18 and coagulation and fibrinolytic markers were determined in samples from patients with uncomplicated dengue in Aruba. Levels of ferritin were significantly increased in dengue patients compared to patients with other febrile illnesses. Moreover, levels of ferritin associated significantly with the occurrence of viraemia. Hyperferritinaemia was also significantly associated with thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and coagulation disturbances. The results were validated in a cohort of dengue virus infected patients in Brazil. In this cohort levels of ferritin and cytokine profiles were determined. Increased levels of ferritin in dengue virus infected patients in Brazil were associated with disease severity and a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, we provide evidence that ferritin can be used as a clinical marker to discriminate between dengue and other febrile illnesses. The occurrence of hyperferritinaemia in dengue virus infected patients is indicative for highly active disease resulting in immune activation and coagulation disturbances. Therefore, we recommend that patients with hyperferritinaemia are monitored carefully. PMID:25299654

  6. Myeloperoxidase activity and the oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov-Luchanskiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Kolesnikova, Yevgeniya

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of our investigation was to study myeloperoxidase activity and concentration of oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with ambulant pneumonia and secondary pneumonia which has arisen on a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients were divided into 2 groups. 17 patients with ambulant pneumonia moderate severity and respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 1-st group. 20 COPD patients with secondary pneumonia moderate severity and with respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 2-nd group. The control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. The reactive protein carbonyl derivates, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and myeloperoxidase activity were detected in neutrophils. In neutrophils of 1-st group patients the augmentation of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the slight decrease of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones (by 17%). In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the significant increasing AOPP in comparison with healthy ones (p <0.01) and 1 group patients (p <0.05) was fixed. Myeloperoxidase activity was higher in neutrophils of 1-th group patients in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients myeloperoxidase activity was higher in comparison with the same of 1 group patients (by 67%, p <0.05). Our results showed the different direction of oxidized proteins formation neutrophils of patients with primary and secondary pneumonia. Besides that the varied degree of myeloperoxidase activity was fixed. Our results require more detailed understanding because they can reflect peculiar mechanisms of pneumonia development and determine the characteristics of their progression.

  7. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other.

  8. Altered activity of the serratus anterior during unilateral arm elevation in patients with cervical disorders.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, H; Kristjansson, E; Einarsson, E; Karduna, A; Jonsson, H

    2011-12-01

    Altered activity in the axioscapular muscles is considered to be an important feature in patients with neck pain. The activity of the serratus anterior (SA) and trapezius muscles during arm elevation has not been investigated in these patients. The objectives of this study was to investigate whether there is a pattern of altered activity in the SA and trapezius in patients with insidious onset neck pain (IONP) (n=22) and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) (n=27). An asymptomatic group was selected for baseline measurements (n=23). Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity of the SA as well as the upper, middle, and lower trapezius during unilateral arm elevation in the three subject groups. Both arms were tested. With no interaction, the main effect for the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity for serratus anterior was statistically significant among the groups. Post hoc comparison revealed a significantly delayed onset of muscle activation and less duration of muscle activity in the IONP group, and in the WAD group compared to the asymptomatic group. There were no group main effects or interaction effects for upper, middle and lower trapezius. This finding may have implications for scapular stability in these patients because the altered activity in the SA may reflect inconsistent or poorly coordinated muscle activation that may reduce the quality of neuromuscular performance and induce an increased load on the cervical and the thoracic spine.

  9. Promotion and support of physical activity in elderly patients on hemodialysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Kotomi; Hashimoto, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the optimum strategy for implementing a physical activity intervention in patients on hemodialysis by investigating the physical characteristics of elderly patients on hemodialysis, and their attitude to physical activity and level of daily activity. [Subjects] The Subject were 10 elderly patients on hemodialysis. [Methods] They wore a physical activity monitor for 1 week. Data obtained were analyzed for hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days, and two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the number of steps and activity levels. A questionnaire was administered to investigate the stage of psychological preparedness for exercise and attitudes toward/awareness of exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the number of steps or exercise levels on hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days. However, on both types of days, subjects spent long periods not engaged in any activity. Most of their activity was either inactivity or sedentary behavior. [Conclusion] Patients on hemodialysis with low physical activity levels are considered to have poor physical function and exercise tolerance. To maintain and improve the physical function of patients on hemodialysis, it will be necessary to reduce their time spent in inactive, and comprehensive care that covers psychosocial aspects should be provided to promote the proactive improvement of physical activity and their attitudes to exercise.

  10. Promotion and support of physical activity in elderly patients on hemodialysis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Kotomi; Hashimoto, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the optimum strategy for implementing a physical activity intervention in patients on hemodialysis by investigating the physical characteristics of elderly patients on hemodialysis, and their attitude to physical activity and level of daily activity. [Subjects] The Subject were 10 elderly patients on hemodialysis. [Methods] They wore a physical activity monitor for 1 week. Data obtained were analyzed for hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days, and two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the number of steps and activity levels. A questionnaire was administered to investigate the stage of psychological preparedness for exercise and attitudes toward/awareness of exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the number of steps or exercise levels on hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days. However, on both types of days, subjects spent long periods not engaged in any activity. Most of their activity was either inactivity or sedentary behavior. [Conclusion] Patients on hemodialysis with low physical activity levels are considered to have poor physical function and exercise tolerance. To maintain and improve the physical function of patients on hemodialysis, it will be necessary to reduce their time spent in inactive, and comprehensive care that covers psychosocial aspects should be provided to promote the proactive improvement of physical activity and their attitudes to exercise. PMID:27190487

  11. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  12. Impact of thermal processing and the Maillard reaction on the basophil activation of hazelnut allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Bridts, Chris; Devreese, Bart; Ebo, Didier

    2012-05-01

    Food allergy, an abnormal immunological response due to sensitization to a food component, has become an important health problem, especially in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thermal processing and glycation on the basophil activation by hazelnut proteins using a basophil activation test. Patients with systemic allergic reactions (SR; n=6) to hazelnut as well as patients with an isolated oral allergy syndrome (OAS; n=4) were investigated. Thermal processing of hazelnut proteins either in the presence or absence of wheat proteins did not result in major changes in the stimulatory activity of the basophils for patients with SR or OAS. For the patients with OAS, incubation of hazelnut proteins with glucose led to complete depletion of the stimulatory activity of the basophils. An increase in stimulatory activity of the basophils for two out of six patients with SR was observed. For the other four patients slight or complete abolition of the stimulatory activity was observed. These results indicate that some patients with SR to hazelnut are at risk when exposed to hazelnut proteins, even in processed foods.

  13. Altered Error-Related Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Schultz, Christoph; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Nenadic, Igor; Axer, Martina; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlosser, Ralf G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and executive cognitive control are core features of schizophrenia. However, findings regarding functional activation strengths are heterogeneous, partly due to differences in task demands and behavioral performance. Previous investigators proposed integrating these heterogeneous findings into a comprehensive model…

  14. Hematologic and surgical management of the dental patient with plasminogen activator deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scheitler, L E; Hart, N; Phillips, G; Weinberg, J B

    1988-12-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is used to treat patients with a variety of hemostatic disorders in an attempt to prevent thrombus formation. A thorough understanding of the patient's medical history is essential before dental treatment that may require alteration of this anticoagulation therapy. Alteration of anticoagulation therapy should be undertaken only after consultation with the patient's physician because some patients are at greater risk than others for thrombus formation or hemorrhage. This case of a 29-year-old man with plasminogen activator deficiency illustrates how consultation can result in a coordinated treatment plan for medical and dental management formulated to help ensure safe surgical treatment for these medically compromised patients.

  15. Thrombotic risk of reduced ADAMTS13 activity in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-12-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease in which antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are generated. Previous studies show concurrence of APS and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; therefore it is plausible to assume that anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibody is also involved in the pathophysiology of APS. We investigated the clinical significance of ADAMTS13 activity and anti-ADAMTS13 antibody in patients with aPLs. Two hundred and sixteen patients with positive lupus anticoagulant and/or anticardiolipin antibody were included. ADAMTS13 activity and anti-ADAMTS13 antibody were measured using fluorescence resonance energy-transfer technology and ELISA, respectively. Reduced ADAMTS13 activity was observed in 40.3% (87/216) of patients with aPLs. Although 33.8% (73/216) of patients were positive for anti-ADAMTS13 antibody, 41 of these 73 patients had normal levels of ADAMTS13 activity. Reduced ADAMTS13 activity was a significant risk factor for thrombotic events. Thrombotic events and age contributed to the reduced level of ADAMTS13 activity. Presence of anti-ADAMTS13 antibody did not show any association with the level of ADAMTS13 activity. Patients with autoimmune diseases tended to show higher levels of anti-ADAMTS13 antibody. Our findings suggest that reduced ADAMTS13 activity is a significant thrombotic risk factor in patients with aPLs irrespective of the presence of anti-ADAMTS13 antibody. Presence of anti-ADAMTS13 antibody is not seen with reduced activity and it tends to be increased in patients with autoimmune diseases.

  16. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; Cardia, Patricia Prando; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding.

  17. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; Cardia, Patricia Prando; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26811556

  18. Why Patients Do Not Participate in Sports Activities After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Moon Jong; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Chung, Byung June; Chang, Chong Bum; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important to identify the reasons or factors preventing patients from participating in sports activities after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to improve patient satisfaction and general health that can be gained from regular sports activities. Purpose To determine the reasons for lack of participation in regular sports activities after TKA as perceived by patients and to identify specific factors involved. Study Design Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A total of 369 patients with a follow-up longer than 1 year after TKA were included in this retrospective study. A postal survey regarding sports activities was conducted using a questionnaire gathering information such as sociodemographic data, activity levels, and sports activities after TKA. The reasons perceived by patients for not participating in sports activities were determined. Patients unable to participate in sports activities were compared with patients able to do so in terms of sociodemographic data and pre- and postoperative outcomes. Results Of the 369 patients, 88 (24%) replied that they could not participate in a sports activity. Among the perceived reasons, reasons not related to the replaced knee were more frequent than those related to the replaced knee (76% vs 24%). Symptoms related to the spine or other joints composed 25% of the total perceived reasons. The presence of medical comorbidities accounted for 16%, while symptoms in the nonreplaced knee represented 8% of the reasons. In terms of patient factors, multivariate logistic regression revealed that male sex, a floor-based (ie, non-Western) lifestyle with greater demands on knee flexion, and worse postoperative University of California at Los Angeles activity scale were associated with nonregular sports activity levels. Conclusion The perceived reasons and patient factors hindering regular sports activities after TKA were not restricted to problems with the replaced knee. Nonetheless, orthopaedic surgeons may have a

  19. The relationship between hope and patient activation in consumers with schizophrenia: Results from longitudinal analyses.

    PubMed

    Oles, Sylwia K; Fukui, Sadaaki; Rand, Kevin L; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-08-30

    Hope (goal-directed thinking) and patient activation (knowledge and skills to manage one's illness) are both important in managing chronic conditions like schizophrenia. The relationship between hope and patient activation has not been clearly defined. However, hope may be viewed as a foundational, motivating factor that can lead to greater involvement in care and feelings of efficacy. The purpose of the present study was to understand the prospective relationship between hope and patient activation in a sample of adults with schizophrenia (N=118). This study was a secondary data analysis from a study on Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) - a curriculum-based approach to schizophrenia self-management. Data were collected at baseline (prior to any intervention), and at 9 and 18-month follow-up. As predicted, hope and patient activation were significantly related with each other, showing large positive concurrent correlations. Demographics and background characteristics were not significantly related to patient activation or hope. Longitudinal analyses found no specific directional effect, yet suggested that hope and patient activation mutually influence each other over time. Our findings add flexibility in designing recovery-based interventions - fostering hope may not be a pre-requisite for activating consumers to be more involved in their own care.

  20. Isolation and characterization of two new lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5 isolated from water from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Janek, Tomasz; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Rezanka, Tomas; Krasowska, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The arctic freshwater bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5 produces biosurfactants when grown on 2% glucose. Crude biosurfactants were extracted from a cell-free culture supernatant with ethyl acetate and purified by preparative reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The chemical structure of the purified biosurfactants, pseudofactin I and II, was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI TOF) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Both compounds are novel cyclic lipopeptides with a palmitic acid connected to the terminal amino group of eighth amino acid in peptide moiety. The C-terminal carboxylic group of the last amino acid (Val or Leu) forms a lactone with the hydroxyl of Thr3. Pseudofactin II reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 31.5 mN/m at a concentration of 72 mg/l. Its emulsification activity and stability was greater than that of the synthetic surfactants Tween 20 and Triton X-100; pseudofactins thus have a great potential for application in industrial fields such as bioremediation or biomedicine.

  1. Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Patients during Medical Treatment and in the Aftercare - a Review.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Freerk T; Bloch, Wilhelm; Weissen, Anke; Brockhaus, Marie; Beulertz, Julia; Zimmer, Philipp; Streckmann, Fiona; Zopf, Eva M

    2013-10-01

    Most scientific studies regarding physical activity in cancer patients involve breast cancer patients. It is apparent that physical activity during medical treatment and aftercare is not only feasible and safe but also effective. Current studies clearly show that regular and specific endurance and/or resistance training can reduce a number of side effects caused by medical treatment. Among others, improvements in physical performance, body composition, and quality of life as well as a reduction in fatigue, have been observed. Since inactivity appears to exacerbate lymphedema, patients with lymphedema are also encouraged to exercise. Few studies have been carried out regarding physical exercise in metastatic patients. However, experts in the field also recommend regular physical activity for patients with advanced-stage breast cancer.

  2. Impacts of physically active and under-active on clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer patients undergoing esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Cong; Guan, Shanghui; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has been reported to positively influence quality of life and survival in certain cancers. However, the associations between them in esophageal cancer are previously undefined. The aims of this study are to investigate whether physically active esophageal cancer patients have improved quality of life and lower risk of recurrence as well as death compared with physically inactive patients. We evaluated the relationships between postoperative leisure time physical activity and quality of life and recurrence and death among patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer. We respectively used generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional regression to analysis quality of life and survival, adjusting for known potential confounding factors. Comparing esophageal cancer patients reporting more than 9 MET hours per week of postoperative leisure time physical activity with those reporting less, we found improved quality of life. Additionally, we also found that postoperative leisure time physical activity ≥9 MET hours per week, compared with less, was associated with a 23% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.666; 95% CI, 0.481-0.921; P=0.014) and a 53% lower risk of recurrence (HR, 0.306; 95% CI 0.218-0.429; P<0.001). Leisure time physical activity was significantly associated with quality of life and risk of recurrence and death of esophageal cancer patients. Clinicians should consider increasing physical activity, regardless of previous behaviors, as a part of primary cancer treatment. The ultimate goal is to improve quality of life and prolong survival of cancer survivors. PMID:27508099

  3. Sports activity following total knee arthroplasty in patients older than 60 years.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Hermann O; Reinhold, Maik; Bernstein, Anke; Suedkamp, Norbert P; Stoehr, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    In a retrospective study with a population over 65 years, sports activity was conducted 6 years after cruciate retaining (CR) total condylar knee arthroplasty (TKA) with rotating platform (RP). Eighty-one Patients (71.8±5.4years) were examined at follow-up 6.4±0.9 years postoperative. Sport was practiced 5.3 hours every week in mean. Patients were active in sports 3.5times per week. Twenty-five percent performed high impact sports, 47% medium impact sports and 52% low impact sports at follow-up. In KOOS sports 60±28 was reached, in WOMAC 12.1±15.1. It can be concluded that in this population 50% of patients were active in medium and low impact sport 6 years after surgery. However, a quarter of patients were also active in high impact sports.

  4. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  5. Striatal Activity is Associated with Deficits of Cognitive Control and Aberrant Salience for Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ceaser, Alan E.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown that a large dopamine abnormality exists in the striatum when comparing patients with schizophrenia and controls, and this abnormality is thought to contribute to aberrant salience assignment (or a misattribution of relevance to irrelevant stimuli). This abnormality may also disrupt striatal contributions to cognitive control processing. We examined the relationship between striatal involvement in cognition and aberrant salience symptoms using a task of cognitive control that involves updating, interference control, and simple maintenance. The current study included a sample of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls and used a slow event-related fMRI design. We predicted that (1) aberrant salience symptoms would be greater for patient's, (2) patients would demonstrate increased errors during interference control trials, given that patients may be inappropriately assigning salience to distracters, and (3) striatal activity during those errors would be correlated with aberrant salience symptoms. We found a trend toward a significant difference between patients and controls on aberrant salience symptoms, and a significant difference between groups on select task conditions. During interference control trials, patients were more likely to inappropriately encode distracters. For patients, both prefrontal and striatal activity was significantly greater when patients inappropriately identified the distracter as correct compared to activity during distracter rejection. During updating, patient prefrontal and striatal activity was significantly lower for incorrect than correct updating trials. Finally, as predicted, for patients the increase of activity during incorrect distracter trials was positively correlated with aberrant salience symptoms, but only for the striatal region. These relationships may have implications for treatments that improve cognitive function and reduce symptom expression. PMID:26869912

  6. Patient's Perception of Symptoms Related to Morning Activity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The SYMBOL Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Jae; Lee, Byung Ki; Jung, Chi Young; Jeon, Young June; Hyun, Dae Sung; Kim, Kyung Chan; Yu, Sung Ken; Choi, Hye Sook; Shin, Won Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience more problematic respiratory symptoms and have more trouble performing daily activities in the morning. The aim of this study was to assess the perception of COPD symptoms related to morning activities in patients with severe airflow limitation. Methods Data of 133 patients with severe airflow limitation were analyzed in a prospective, non-interventional study. A clinical symptom questionnaire was completed by patients at baseline. In patients having morning symptoms, defined by at least one or more prominent or aggravating symptom during morning activities, a morning activity questionnaire was also completed at baseline and following 2 months of COPD treatment. Results The most frequently reported COPD symptom was breathlessness (90.8%). Morning symptoms were reported in 76 (57%) patients; these had more frequent and severe clinical COPD symptoms. The most frequently reported morning activity was getting out of bed (82.9%). The long acting muscarinic antagonist (odds ratio [OR], 6.971; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.317 to 11.905) and chest tightness (OR, 0.075; 95% CI, 0.011 to 0.518) were identified as significantly related to absence of morning symptoms. There was no significant correlation between the degree of forced expiratory volume in 1 second improvement and severity score differences of all items of morning activity after 2-month treatment. Conclusions Fifty-seven percent of COPD patients with severe airflow limitation have morning symptoms that limit their morning activities. These patients also have more prevalent and severe COPD symptoms. The results of this study therefore provide valuable information for the development of patient-reported outcomes in COPD. PMID:23269884

  7. Diet and physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Iafusco, Dario

    2006-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes require adequate amounts of macronutrients to support their training and sustain performance during regular exercise and during competitions. A frequent goal in competitive sports is to improve performance, and athletes may resort to a number of practices that can adversely affect blood glucose control and health in general in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage. These may include unsafe dietary patterns, and the use of nutritional supplements, other ergogenic aids and illegal substances. In this paper we review data on the relationship between insulin therapy and needs of single macronutrients before, during and after regular and competitive exercise in young subjects and athletes with type 1 diabetes. We also list nutrition integrators, available in the gymnasium or as over-the-counter drugs, which are increasingly being used by athletes, and describe their interactions with diabetes.

  8. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Polkey, Michael I.; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagaña, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A.; Karlsson, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised, two-way cross-over, multicentre study using PROactive draft questionnaires (daily and clinical visit versions) and two activity monitors. Item reduction followed an iterative process including classical and Rasch model analyses, and input from patients and clinical experts. 236 COPD patients from five European centres were included. Results indicated the concept of physical activity in COPD had two domains, labelled “amount” and “difficulty”. After item reduction, the daily PROactive instrument comprised nine items and the clinical visit contained 14. Both demonstrated good model fit (person separation index >0.7). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the bidimensional structure. Both instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α>0.8), test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.9) and exhibited moderate-to-high correlations (r>0.6) with related constructs and very low correlations (r<0.3) with unrelated constructs, providing evidence for construct validity. Daily and clinical visit “PROactive physical activity in COPD” instruments are hybrid tools combining a short patient-reported outcome questionnaire and two activity monitor variables which provide simple, valid and reliable measures of physical activity in COPD patients. PMID:26022965

  9. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Polkey, Michael I; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagaña, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A; Karlsson, Niklas; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2015-10-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD.Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised, two-way cross-over, multicentre study using PROactive draft questionnaires (daily and clinical visit versions) and two activity monitors. Item reduction followed an iterative process including classical and Rasch model analyses, and input from patients and clinical experts.236 COPD patients from five European centres were included. Results indicated the concept of physical activity in COPD had two domains, labelled "amount" and "difficulty". After item reduction, the daily PROactive instrument comprised nine items and the clinical visit contained 14. Both demonstrated good model fit (person separation index >0.7). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the bidimensional structure. Both instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α>0.8), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.9) and exhibited moderate-to-high correlations (r>0.6) with related constructs and very low correlations (r<0.3) with unrelated constructs, providing evidence for construct validity.Daily and clinical visit "PROactive physical activity in COPD" instruments are hybrid tools combining a short patient-reported outcome questionnaire and two activity monitor variables which provide simple, valid and reliable measures of physical activity in COPD patients.

  10. Molecular cloning, expression of a big defensin gene from bay scallop Argopecten irradians and the antimicrobial activity of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianmin; Song, Linsheng; Li, Chenghua; Ni, Duojiao; Wu, Longtao; Zhu, Ling; Wang, Hao; Xu, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the host innate immune responses by exerting broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against pathogenic microbes. The first mollusk big defensin (designated AiBD) cDNA was cloned from bay scallop Argopecten irradians by expressed sequence tag (EST) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The scallop AiBD consisted of 531 nucleotides with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly(A) tail, encoding a polypeptide of 122 amino acids. The high similarity of AiBD deduced amino acid sequence with big defensin from Tachypleus tridentatus and Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese indicated that AiBD should be a member of big defensin family. The expression of AiBD in various tissues was measured by using Northern blotting analysis. mRNA transcripts of AiBD could be detected in haemocytes of unchallenged scallops. The temporal expression of AiBD in haemolymph after Vibrio anguilarum challenge was recorded by quantitative real time PCR. The relative expression level of AiBD in haemolymph was up-regulated evenly in the first 8 h, followed by a drastic increase, and increased 131.1-fold at 32 h post-injection. These results indicated that AiBD could be induced by bacterial challenge, and it should participate in the immune responses of A. irradians. Biological activity assay revealed that recombinant AiBD could inhibit the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also showed strong fungicidal activity towards the expression host. Recombinant expression of AiBD made it possible to further characterize its functions involved in immune responses, and also provided a potential therapeutic agent for disease control in aquaculture.

  11. Bilateral Knee Pain Associated with Bone Infarction in a Patient with Behcet's Disease.

    PubMed

    Oktayoglu, Pelin; Cevik, Figen; Tahtasiz, Mehmet; Em, Serda; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Nas, Kemal

    2012-01-01

    We describe a 31-years-old female patient with severe pain in both knees who had been diagnosed as Behcet's disease (BD) for 12 years. She had had a history of complications due to BD including superior vena cava thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, uveitis, and erythema nodosum and has reported the administration of corticosteroid therapy irregularly. After radiologic evaluation, she has been diagnosed with bone infarction of both left and right knee with the existance of lupus anticoagulants (LA) positivity. Severe joint pain without the evidence of arthritis must alert the clinician to the possibility of bone necrosis of the extremity, although those may rarely occur bilateral in BD.

  12. Bd oxidase homologue of photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum is co-transcribed with a nitrogen fixation related gene.

    PubMed

    Dincturk, H Benan; Demir, Volkan; Aykanat, Tutku

    2011-02-01

    Purple sulfur bacteria, which are known to be the most ancient among anoxygenic phototrophs, play an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Allochromatium vinosum oxidizes reduced sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and thiosulfide. At low oxygen concentrations, A. vinosum can grow chemotrophically using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Being also a nitrogen fixer, A. vinosum is faced with the paradox of co-existence of aerobic metabolism and nitrogen fixation. Due to growth difficulties, only a few studies have dealt with the aerobic metabolism of the organism and, until now, there has been no information about the genes involved in the respiratory metabolism of purple sulfur bacteria. In this article we show the first terminal oxidase gene for A. vinosum. The presence of a Bd type of quinol oxidase is necessary to protect nitrogenases against the inhibitory effects of oxygen. In this case, a nitrogen fixation related gene is part of the cyd operon and this gene is co-transcribed with cydAB genes. Bd oxidase of A. vinosum may be the earliest form of oxidase where the function of the enzyme is to scavenge the contaminant oxygen during nitrogen fixation. This may be an important clue about the early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, perhaps as a protective mechanism for nitrogen fixation.

  13. BdBRD1, a brassinosteroid C-6 oxidase homolog in Brachypodium distachyon L., is required for multiple organ development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xia; Li, Qi; Cheng, Zhiyuan; Lou, Haijuan; Ge, Lei; An, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), known as a kind of phytohormones, play essential roles in plant growth and development. Although the studies on the BR biosynthesis and signaling are extensive in Arabidopsis, little is known in temperate cereals. In this study, bdbrd1-1, a T-DNA insertion mutant from Brachypodium distachyon, was isolated and characterized in details. The bdbrd1-1 mutant showed lots of cellular and morphogenetic defects, including shortened cell shapes, severe dwarfing, twisted leaves and sterile spikes. Sequencing the flanking fragment of the T-DNA and complementation by genomic DNA in the mutant, confirmed that the developmental defects are caused by the T-DNA insertion in BdBRD1, a possible brassinosteroid C-6 oxidase gene. Application of 24-epicastasterone could partly rescue the bdbrd1-1 dwarfing phenotype. Expression analysis of BdBRD1 suggested that bdbrd1-1 is probably a null mutant and its wild type transcript is expressed in various tissues and highest in the leaf sheaths. Meanwhile, measurements on leaf numbers of the main stems or days to the emergence of the inflorescences suggested that bdbrd1-1 is late-flowering. The late-flowering phenotype could be converted by vernalization treatment, although there lacks a typical FLC gene in B. distachyon. The current data provide an insight into the relationship between BRs biosynthesis and individual development in B. distachyon, an emerging model plant for the temperate cereals.

  14. The "Cool Algol" BD+05 706 : Photometric observations of a new eclipsing double-lined spectroscopic binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, L. A.; Torres, G.; Neuhauser, R.

    1998-05-01

    BVRI Observations of the star BD+05 706, carried out between January, 1997, and April 1998 using the 0.4m reflector and Photometrics CCD camera at the Gettysburg College Observatory, show that the star is an eclipsing binary system with a light curve characteristic of a class of semi-detached binaries known as the "cool Algols". These results are in good agreement with the previous report of BD+05 706 as a cool Algol by Torres, Neuhauser, and Wichmann,(Astron. J., 115, May 1998) who based their classification on the strong X-ray emission detected by Rosat and on a series of spectroscopic observations of the radial velocities of both components of the system obtained at the Oak Ridge Observatory, the Fred L. Whipple Observatory, and the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Only 10 other examples of cool Algols are known, and the current photometric light curve, together with the radial velocity curves obtained previously, allows us to derive a complete solution for the physical parameters of each component, providing important constraints on models for these interesting systems.

  15. Web-Based Self-Management in Chronic Care: A Study of Change in Patient Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Web-based self-management interventions (W-SMIs) are designed to help a large number of chronically ill people become more actively engaged in their health care. Despite the potential to engage more patients in self-managing their health, the use of W-SMIs by patients and their clinicians is low. Using a self-management conceptual model based on…

  16. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  17. Activating Community Health Center Patients in Developing Question-Formulation Skills: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Deen, Darwin; Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Gold, Marthe R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed and delivered a brief patient activation intervention (PAI) that sought to facilitate physician-patient communication. The intervention was designed to assist low-income, racial/ethnic minority users of community health centers in building skills and confidence asking questions. The PAI takes 8 to 10 minutes to deliver and…

  18. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…

  19. Interrogation of Patient Smartphone Activity Tracker to Assist Arrhythmia Management.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Joshua; McDougall, Carol; Sailam, Vivek; Smith, Monika; Sacchetti, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    A 42-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation of unknown duration. Interrogation of the patient's wrist-worn activity tracker and smartphone application identified the onset of the arrhythmia as within the previous 3 hours, permitting electrocardioversion and discharge of the patient from the ED.

  20. Telemetry Option in the Measurement of Physical Activity for Patients with Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melczer, Csaba; Melczer, László; Oláh, András; Sélleyné-Gyúró, Mónika; Welker, Zsanett; Ács, Pongrác

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity among patients with heart failure typically requires a special approach due to the patients' physical status. Nowadays, a technology is already available that can measure the kinematic movements in 3-D by a pacemaker and implantable defibrillator giving an assessment on software. The telemetry data can be…

  1. Corpus callosum area in patients with bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features: an international multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Samuel; d’Albis, Marc-Antoine; McDonald, Colm; Linke, Julia; Wessa, Michèle; Phillips, Mary; Delavest, Marine; Emsell, Louise; Versace, Amelia; Almeida, Jorge; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Le Dudal, Katia; Daban, Claire; Hamdani, Nora; Leboyer, Marion; Houenou, Josselin

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported MRI abnormalities of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), although only a few studies have directly compared callosal areas in psychotic versus nonpsychotic patients with this disorder. We sought to compare regional callosal areas in a large international multicentre sample of patients with BD and healthy controls. Methods We analyzed anatomic T1 MRI data of patients with BD-I and healthy controls recruited from 4 sites (France, Germany, Ireland and the United States). We obtained the mid-sagittal areas of 7 CC subregions using an automatic CC delineation. Differences in regional callosal areas between patients and controls were compared using linear mixed models (adjusting for age, sex, handedness, brain volume, history of alcohol abuse/dependence, lithium or antipsychotic medication status, symptomatic status and site) and multiple comparisons correction. We also compared regional areas of the CC between patients with BD with and without a history of psychotic features. Results We included 172 patients and 146 controls in our study. Patients with BD had smaller adjusted mid-sagittal CC areas than controls along the posterior body, the isthmus and the splenium of the CC. Patients with a positive history of psychotic features had greater adjusted area of the rostral CC region than those without a history of psychotic features. Limitations We found small to medium effect sizes, and there was no calibration technique among the sites. Conclusion Our results suggest that BD with psychosis is associated with a different pattern of interhemispheric connectivity than BD without psychosis and could be considered a relevant neuroimaging subtype of BD. PMID:26151452

  2. B cells from African American lupus patients exhibit an activated phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Laurence C.; Habte, Sium; Gonsiorek, Waldemar; Lee, Deborah; Banas, Dana; Holloway, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Mark; Stetsko, Dawn; Casano, Francesca; Kansal, Selena; Davis, Patricia M.; Carman, Julie; Zhang, Clarence K.; Abidi, Ferva; Furie, Richard; Nadler, Steven G.; Suchard, Suzanne J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune cells. African Americans tend to present with more severe disease at an earlier age compared with patients of European ancestry. In order to better understand the immunological differences between African American and European American patients, we analyzed the frequencies of B cell subsets and the expression of B cell activation markers from a total of 68 SLE patients and 69 normal healthy volunteers. We found that B cells expressing the activation markers CD86, CD80, PD1, and CD40L, as well as CD19+CD27–IgD– double-negative B cells, were enriched in African American patients vs. patients of European ancestry. In addition to increased expression of CD40L, surface levels of CD40 on B cells were lower, suggesting the engagement of the CD40 pathway. In vitro experiments confirmed that CD40L expressed by B cells could lead to CD40 activation and internalization on adjacent B cells. To conclude, these results indicate that, compared with European American patients, African American SLE patients present with a particularly active B cell component, possibly via the activation of the CD40/CD40L pathway. These data may help guide the development of novel therapies. PMID:27699274

  3. Physical activity referrals in Swedish primary health care – prescriber and patient characteristics, reasons for prescriptions, and prescribed activities

    PubMed Central

    Leijon, ME; Bendtsen, P; Nilsen, P; Ekberg, K; Ståhle, A

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, practitioners in primary health care (PHC) settings in many countries have issued written prescriptions to patients to promote increased physical activity or exercise. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse a comprehensive physical activity referral (PAR) scheme implemented in a routine PHC setting in Östergötland County. The study examines characteristics of the PARs recipients and referral practitioners, identifies reasons why practitioners opted to use PARs with their clients, and discusses prescribed activities and prescriptions in relation to PHC registries. Methods Prospective prescription data were obtained for 90% of the primary health care centres in Östergötland County, Sweden, in 2004 and 2005. The study population consisted of patients who were issued PARs after they were deemed likely to benefit from increased physical activity, as assessed by PHC staff. Results During the two-year period, a total of 6,300 patients received PARs. Two-thirds of the patients were female and half of the patients were 45–64 years. Half of the patients (50.8%) who received PARs were recommended a home-based activity, such as walking. One third (33%) of the patients issued PARs were totally inactive, reporting no days of physical activity that lasted for 30 minutes, and 29% stated that they reached this level 1–2 days per week. The number of PARs prescribed per year in relation to the number of unique individuals that visited primary health care during one year was 1.4% in 2004 and 1.2% in 2005. Two-thirds of the combined prescriptions were issued by physicians (38%) and nurses (31%). Physiotherapists and behavioural scientists issued the highest relative number of prescriptions. The most common reasons for issuing PARs were musculoskeletal disorders (39.1%) and overweight (35.4%), followed by high blood pressure (23.3%) and diabetes (23.2%). Conclusion Östergötland County's PAR scheme reached a relatively high proportion

  4. [The contribution of Web 2.0 technologies to the empowerment of active patients].

    PubMed

    Oliver-Mora, Martí; Iñiguez-Rueda, Lupicinio

    2017-03-01

    The Spanish health system has recently been marked by the emergence of more active patients who are characterized as being better informed about their disease, having a more participatory attitude, wanting to have a greater influence in making decisions about their health and asserting their rights as patients. Therefore, this article aims to report on how the introduction of Web 2.0 technologies can contribute to the empowering of more active patients. To achieve this, 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients and representatives of patient associations who have used Web 2.0 technologies to interact with other patients or to communicate with health professionals. From the results obtained, we highlight the fact that Web 2.0 technologies provide greater access to health-related information, improve communication between patients and health professionals, and enable the creation of new spaces of interaction among patients. All of the facts above contribute to the formation of a more active role on the part of patients.

  5. Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Physical Activity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Martijn A; Pitta, Fabio; McAuley, Edward; ZuWallack, Richard L; Nici, Linda

    2015-10-15

    Physical inactivity is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with age-matched healthy individuals or patients with other chronic diseases. Physical inactivity independently predicts poor outcomes across several aspects of this disease, but it is (at least in principle) treatable in patients with COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation has arguably the greatest positive effect of any current therapy on exercise capacity in COPD; as such, gains in this area should facilitate increases in physical activity. Furthermore, because pulmonary rehabilitation also emphasizes behavior change through collaborative self-management, it may aid in the translation of increased exercise capacity to greater participation in activities involving physical activity. Both increased exercise capacity and adaptive behavior change are necessary to achieve significant and lasting increases in physical activity in patients with COPD. Unfortunately, it is readily assumed that this translation occurs naturally. This concise clinical review will focus on the effects of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program on physical activity in patients with COPD. Changing physical activity behavior in patients with COPD needs an interdisciplinary approach, bringing together respiratory medicine, rehabilitation sciences, social sciences, and behavioral sciences.

  6. Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Budulgan, Mahmut; Dilek, Banu; Dağ, Şevin Buluttekin; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Yıldız, İsmail; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Çevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A total of 60 subjects (30 controls and 30 patients) were included. The inflammatory markers and leptin levels were evaluated and body mass index (BMI) was measured for both groups. The assessment of the skin involvement was performed based on the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Disease activity was evaluated according to the Valentini scleroderma disease activity index. There was a significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of BMI (p < 0.05); however there was no difference with regards to age and gender (p > 0.05). Valentini scores and mRSS were determined to be significantly higher in active patients (n = 14) than in inactive patients (n = 16) (p < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between groups in terms of leptin levels (p > 0.05). However, leptin levels were significantly lower in active patients than in inactive patients (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between serum leptin and BMI (p < 0.05), and leptin and serum C3 levels (p < 0.05); no relationship was detected between leptin and other parameters. Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc. Further studies, including larger series, should be carried out to clarify this relationship.

  7. Raising low 'patient activation' rates among Hispanic immigrants may equal expanded coverage in reducing access disparities.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Peter J; Hibbard, Judith; Gibbons, Claire B

    2011-10-01

    There is a growing consensus that activating consumers to become better managers of their health is an essential component of US health care reform. We measured how activated blacks, whites, and Hispanics are-that is, how confident, skillful, and knowledgeable they are about taking an active role in improving their health and health care. We found that patient activation among blacks and Hispanics was low, relative to that of whites. For example, 24.8 percent of Hispanics were at the highest level of patient activation, compared to 39.5 percent of blacks and 45.3 percent of whites. Among Hispanic immigrants, low acculturation and lack of familiarity with the US health care system contribute to low activation. The findings indicate that increasing activation levels among Hispanic immigrants may be as important as expanding insurance coverage in reducing disparities in unmet medical need.

  8. Patient-Provider Communication: Understanding the Role of Patient Activation for Latinos in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Fortuna, Lisa; Reinfeld, Sarah; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights results from the Right Question Project-Mental Health (RQP-MH), an intervention designed to teach skills in question formulation and to increase patients' participation in decisions about mental health treatment. Of participants in the RQP-MH intervention, 83% were from a Latino background, and 75% of the interviews were…

  9. Enhanced neutrophil activity is associated with shorter time to tumor progression in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Afsar; Cederarv, Madeleine; Wolmer-Solberg, Nina; Tammik, Charlotte; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Peredo, Inti; Fornara, Olesja; Xu, Xinling; Dzabic, Mensur; Taher, Chato; Skarman, Petra; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant tumor with a poor outcome that is often positive for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). GBM patients often have excessive numbers of neutrophils and macrophages near and within the tumor. Here, we characterized the cytokine patterns in the blood of GBM patients with and without Valganciclovir treatment. Furthermore, we determined whether neutrophil activation is related to HCMV status and patient outcome. Blood samples for analyses of cytokines and growth factors were collected from 42 GBM patients at the time of diagnosis (n = 42) and at weeks 12 and 24 after surgery. Blood neutrophils of 28 GBM patients were examined for CD11b expression. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines—including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon-γ, interferon-α, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1were analyzed with a bead-based flow cytometry assay. During the first six months after surgery, neutrophil activity was increased in 12 patients and was unchanged or decreased in 16. Patients with increased neutrophil activity had enhanced IL-12p70, high grade HCMV and a shorter time to tumor progression (TTP) than patients without or decreased neutrophil activity (median TTP; 5.4 vs. 12 months, 95% confidence interval; 1.6–10 vs. 0.1–0.6, hazard ratio = 3 vs. 0.4, p = 0.004). The levels of IL-12p70 were significantly decreased in Valganciclovir treated patients (n = 22, T 12W vs. T 24W, p = 0.03). In conclusion, our findings suggest that neutrophil activation is an early sign of tumor progression in GBM patients. PMID:27057448

  10. HBD-2 is downregulated in oral carcinoma cells by DNA hypermethylation, and increased expression of hBD-2 by DNA demethylation and gene transfection inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Yoshitaka; Kurashige, Yoshihito; Uehara, Osamu; Sato, Jun; Nishimura, Michiko; Yoshida, Koki; Arakawa, Toshiya; Nagayasu, Hiroki; Saitoh, Masato; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2014-08-01

    Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is a type of epithelial antimicrobial peptide. The expression level of hBD-2 mRNA is lower in oral carcinoma cells (OCCs) than in healthy oral epithelium. Yet, it is still unknown how hBD-2 expression is downregulated in OCCs. The present study investigated DNA hypermethylation of hBD-2 in OCCs and the effect of the demethylation and increased expression of hBD-2 on cell proliferation and invasion. Six different types of oral carcinoma cell lines (OSC-19, BSC-OF, SAS, HSC-2, HSC-4 and HSY) and normal oral keratinocytes (NOKs) were used. The expression levels of hBD-2 in all OCCs were significantly lower than that in the NOKs. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-dC, at the concentration of 50 µM significantly induced upregulation of expression of hBD-2 in the OCCs. Using methylation-specific PCR, DNA hypermethylation was observed in all OCCs. These results suggest that DNA hypermethylation is, at least in part, involved in the decreased expression of hBD-2 in OCCs. We examined the effect of 5-aza-dC on the cell proliferation and invasive ability of OCCs. The cell invasion assays showed that the number of OCCs treated with 5-aza-dC on the filters was significantly lower than that of the controls. We examined whether increased expression of hBD-2 generated by gene transfection inhibited the proliferation and invasion of SAS cells. The number of SAS cells exhibiting increased expression of hBD-2 on the filters in the invasion assay were significantly lower on day 7 when compared with the control. hBD-2 may function as a tumor suppressor. Increased expression of hBD-2 induced by demethylation or increased expression generated by gene transfection may be useful therapeutic methods for oral carcinoma.

  11. Leisure time activities of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Asgari, Ali; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Yazdani, Farzaneh; Mazdeh, Mehrdokht

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leisure time is one of the most important aspects of life, especially for people with chronic diseases. The concept and types of leisure have frequently been evaluated in different socio-cultural populations. The aim of this study was to identify the nature of leisure activities among a sample of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and classify the identified types of activities in the context of Iranian culture. Methods: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interview was applied to gather data from 34 MS patients that were selected through purposive sampling. The interviews were continued up to the point of saturation. Content analysis was used to explore experiences of the interviewees regarding their leisure activities. Results: Six categories of leisure activities were extracted for the studied patients with MS i.e.physical, social, individual, art/cultural, educational and spiritual/religious. Conclusion: The results represented the range and heterogeneity of leisure activities amongst the MS patients. Considering participation in spiritual/religious and social activities as leisure time undertaking might reflect cultural diversity in the perception and use of time for recreation. For mental health promotion purposes, paying special attention to the types of activities that people of different socio-cultural background choose for their refreshment could help health care providers in giving tailored advice for patients with MS and other chronic debilitating disease. PMID:27123437

  12. Chitotriosidase Activity and Gene Polymorphism in Iranian Patients with Gaucher Disease and Sibling Carriers

    PubMed Central

    MOZAFARI, Hadi; TAGHIKHANI, Mohammad; KHATAMI, Shohreh; ALAEI, Mohammad Reza; VAISI-RAYGANI, Asad; RAHIMI, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chitotriosidase (CT) activity is a useful biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of Gaucher disease (GD). Its application is limited by some variants in the CT gene. Two main polymorphisms are 24 bp duplication and G102S led to reduce CT activity. The aim of this study was to determine these variants influencing on plasma CT activity. Materials & Methods Blood samples were collected from 33 patients with GD, 15 sibling carriers and 105 healthy individuals serving as controls. CT activity was measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N′,N″triacetylchitotrioside substrate in plasma samples. The CT genotypes of 24 bp duplication and G102S variants were determined using PCR and PCR-RFLP. Results Untreated GD patients had a significantly higher CT activity compared to treated patients (P = 0.021). In addition, chitotriosidase activity in carriers was higher rather than controls. Allele frequencies of 24 bp duplication in GD patients, sibling carriers and controls were 0.21, 0.266 and 0.29 and for G102S were 0.318, 0.366 and 0.219, respectively. Different G102S genotypes had not significant effect on CT activity. Chitotriosidase activity has a positive correlation with age in normal group, carriers, and negative correlation with hemoglobin in GD patients. Using cut-off level of 80.75 nmol/ml/h, sensitivity and specificity of CT activity were 93.9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion Chitotriosidase activity is a suitable biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of GD. Determination of 24 bp duplication is helpful for more accurate monitoring the GD patient’s therapy. However, it seems that, specifying of the G102S polymorphism is not required for Iranian GD patients. PMID:27843468

  13. ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrane in patients with trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Xue, Q M; Shen, D G; Dong, W

    1984-11-01

    ATPase activity of crythroyte membranes was determined in 25 cases of Down's syndrome verified by cytological and psychological examinations. The age range of the patients was 8-25 years; 16 males and 9 females. Thirty health male volunteers were selected as the control group. There was a marked reduction of total ATPase, Na+, K+-ATPase, Mg++ATPase activities and rate of ouabain inhibition in the patients with Down's syndrome. The authors suggest that there might exist transport defects in the red cell membranes in such patients.

  14. Physical activity in patients with venous leg ulcer – between engagement and avoidance. A patient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Biguet, Gabriele; Elfving, Britt

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe the qualitative variations in how physical activity is perceived and understood by individuals with current or previous venous leg ulcer. Design: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Method: Twenty-two individuals aged 60–85 years were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by three researchers using a phenomenographic research approach. A set of categories of descriptions and their internal relationships were constructed based on the essential features of the variation in patients’ perceptions of physical activity. Results: Four categories of descriptions were identified: (i) ‘self-management’, (ii) ‘instructions and support’, (iii) ‘fear of injury’ and (iv) ‘a wish to stay normal’. The categories could be interpreted by a two-dimensional construct: (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. Chronicity and behaviour combined together formed a 2 × 2 square housing the four qualitatively different categories. Irrespective of category, the participants reported that information given by caregivers regarding leg ulcer and physical activity was insufficient or contradictory. Written information or exercise programmes were not obtained regularly and not at all in primary care. Conclusion: A dichotomous view emerged from participants’ experiences of physical activity based on (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. PMID:21148268

  15. Assessment of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Demir, Halit; Turan, Mahfuz; Bozan, Nazım; Kozan, Ahmet; Belli, Şeyda Bayel; Arslan, Ayşe; Cankaya, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    To emphasize the effectiveness of adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme, which has important roles in the differentiation of lymphoid cells, and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis. Serum and tissue samples were obtained from 25 patients who underwent tonsillectomy due to recurrent episodes of acute tonsillitis. In the control group, which also had 25 subjects, only serum samples were taken as obtaining tissue samples would not have been ethically appropriate. ADA enzyme activity, catalase (CAT), carbonic anhydrase (CA), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the serum and tissue samples of patients and control group subjects. The serum values of both groups were compared. In addition, the tissue and serum values of patients were compared. Serum ADA activity and the oxidant enzymes MDA and NO values of the patient group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.001), the antioxidant enzymes CA and CAT values of the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.001). In addition, while CA, CAT and NO enzyme levels were found to be significantly higher in the tonsil tissue of the patient group when compared to serum levels (p < 0.05), there was no difference between tissue and serum MDA and ADA activity (p > 0.05). Elevated ADA activity may be effective in the pathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis both by impairing tissue structure and contributing to SOR formation.

  16. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Delikanaki-Skaribas, Evangelia; Trail, Marilyn; Wong, William Wai-Lun; Lai, Eugene C

    2009-04-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (PA) energy expenditure (PAEE), are elevated in WL compared with weight stable (WS) PD patients. We measured DEE in 10 PD WL patients and 10 PD WS patients using doubly labeled water (DLW). PAEE was estimated with DLW, activity monitors, and activity questionnaires. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry. We evaluated energy intake (EI) with a patient's 3-day food diary. Data was assessed employing SPSS, Spearman correlation coefficients, and Bland and Altman plots. There was no difference in DEE between the WL and WS groups measured with DLW. There were no differences in REE and EI between groups. DEE (r = 0.548, P < 0.05) and PAEE (r = 0.563, P < 0.01) are related with caloric intake. The WL group had higher PA than the WS group (P < 0.042) only when measured with wrist activity monitors. Results suggest that WL in PD patients cannot be fully explained by an increase in DEE. Large longitudinal studies to examine multiple relationships between variables might provide us with a better understanding of WL among PD patients.

  17. Indomethacin augments lymphokine-activated killer cell generation by patients with malignant mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, L.S.; Bowman, R.V.; Davis, M.R.; Musk, A.W.; Robinson, B.W. )

    1989-10-01

    Human malignant mesothelioma (MM) cells are resistant to natural killer (NK) cell lysis but susceptible to lysis by lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from control individuals. The present study was performed to determine the capacity of patients with MM (n = 22) and individuals occupationally exposed to asbestos (the major population at risk of developing this disease, n = 52) to generate LAK cells capable of effectively lysing human mesothelioma cells. Compared to controls (n = 20), both patient groups demonstrated significantly depressed LAK cell activity against mesothelioma tumor cell targets (55 +/- 3% lysis by controls vs 34 +/- 3% lysis by patients with MM, P less than 0.005; and 45 +/- 3% lysis by asbestos-exposed individuals, P less than 0.025). Addition of 10 micrograms/ml indomethacin during LAK cell generation restored normal LAK cell activity for patients with MM (52 +/- 6% lysis of cultured human MM cells, P = NS compared to controls), suggesting that the defective cytolytic cell function observed in some patients with MM is a result of prostaglandin-induced immunosuppression. The ability of indomethacin to restore suppressed LAK cell activity in patients with MM suggests that the concomitant use of this agent in ex vivo LAK cell generation and in patients undergoing interleukin/LAK cell therapy may be beneficial.

  18. Arginase activity in peripheral blood of patients with intestinal schistosomiasis, Wonji, Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, A; Tamrat, A; Tadesse, K

    2015-07-01

    Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis usually results from immunopathology. But the underlying mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Th2-type immune response is thought to be dominant during chronic schistosomiasis, and upregulation of arginase-I is one component of this milieu. A cohort study was conducted to assess arginase activity in peripheral blood of humans with intestinal schistosomiasis in Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estate, Central Ethiopia. Laboratory-confirmed 30 Schistosoma mansoni-infected patients and 18 apparently healthy controls were recruited. Faecal egg count was carried out by Kato-Katz technique. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood. Activity of arginase in plasma and PBMC lysates was measured, and results were compared with that of controls. Twenty-one of 30 patients had light infection, whereas moderate and heavy intensity infections were observed in eight and only one patient(s), respectively. A significant increase in both PBMC (patients: 59.96 + 82.99, controls: 25.44 + 24.6 mU/mg protein, P < 0.0001) and plasma (patients: 1.61 + 2.19, controls: 0.31 + 0.73 mU/mL plasma, P < 0.0001) arginase activity was observed during human S. mansoni infection. Arginase activity increases in peripheral blood of patients with intestinal schistosomiasis.

  19. Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis in Egyptian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and Its Relation to Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Elshereef, Rawhya R.; Darwish, Aymen; Ali, Amal; Abdel-kadar, Mohammed; Hamdy, Lamiaa

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To detect the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients without clinically evident atherosclerosis and to correlate its presence with the disease activity. Patients and Methods. Our study includes 112 RA patients (group 1) and 40 healthy controls (group 11). All patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations. Carotid intima media wall thickness (IMT) and carotid plaques were measured in both groups by B-mode ultrasonography; also color duplex Doppler ultrasound of the brachial artery was done to detect endothelial function. Results. There is atherosclerosis in 31.3% of asymptomatic RA patients compared with only 5% in controls (P = 0.003**). A significant difference was detected in patients with and without atherosclerosis regarding duration of the disease (P = 0.0001***) and patient's age (P = 0.01*). There is highly statistical significant correlation between atherosclerosis and disease activity index. Conclusion. The frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis was high in long-term active RA patients. PMID:25737726

  20. Carotid Artery Stenting for Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients after Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Ichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Neki, Hiroaki; Yamane, Fumitaka; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Tanahashi, Norio; Takao, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We herein report three ischemic stroke patients who underwent emergency carotid artery stenting after receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment. All patients received antiplatelet medications immediately before stent placement for loading as well as dual antiplatelet therapy after stenting. Under high-dose and dual antiplatelet therapy, none of the three patients showed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhaging. However, one case showed reocclusion of the placed stent after acute thrombosis. As a result, new treatment strategies for the use of antiplatelet agents during emergency stent placement must be developed, particularly for patients who have received intravenous t-PA therapy. PMID:27725550

  1. The changing face(book) of psychiatry: can we justify 'following' patients' social media activity?

    PubMed

    Cox-George, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with mental health issues may post information on social networking sites that can provide an insight into their mental health status. It could be argued that doctors (and specifically psychiatrists) should understand the way in which social media is used by their patients to gain a better insight into their illnesses. However, choosing to actively monitor a patient's social media activity raises important questions about the way in which medical students, qualified clinicians and other healthcare professionals obtain information about patients. While this may be framed as a mere form of 'collateral history-taking', there are obvious practical and ethical problems with doing so. Here, a case is made against monitoring the social media activity of patients involved with psychiatric services.

  2. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles

    PubMed Central

    Varn, Frederick S.; Andrews, Erik H.; Mullins, David W.; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage