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Sample records for active bismuth germanate

  1. IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Pynenkov, A A; Firstov, Sergei V; Panov, A A; Firstova, E G; Nishchev, K N; Bufetov, Igor' A; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2013-02-28

    We have studied the optical properties of lightly bismuth doped ({<=}0.002 mol %) germanate glasses prepared in an alumina crucible. The glasses are shown to contain bismuth-related active centres that have been identified previously only in bismuth-doped fibres produced by MCVD. With increasing bismuth concentration in the glasses, their luminescence spectra change markedly, which is attributable to interaction between individual bismuth centres. (optical fibres)

  2. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C.; Coldwell, R. L.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R.; Eichhorn, G.

    1990-01-01

    The GRAD (Gamma-Ray Advanced Detector) gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988, where it was used to make observations of SN 1987A. The performance of the bismuth germanate (BGO) active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined. The promised effectiveness of this shielding in the suppression of unwanted background has been demonstrated. The BGO-shielded GRAD spectrometer detected gamma-ray lines with fluxes of 0.002/sq cm sec from SN 1987A in a radiation background approximately a factor of 4 more intense than that over Alice Springs, Australia. This level of sensitivity indicates that BGO is at least as effective as CsI when used as active shielding. Isomerism is common, both in the bismuth and germanium regions of the nuclear chart, but is found to be less of a problem for background suppression in the latter region than in the former.

  3. Optical Properties of Bismuth Germanate (BGO)

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Auluck, S.; Singh, David J; Boatner, Lynn A

    2010-01-01

    The optical dielectric function of bismuth germanate Bi4Ge3O12 has been measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry and optical transmission. Analysis near the direct band edge indicates that there are at least three critical points at 4.44 low intensity and at 4.75 and 4.91 high intensity. Using transmission measurements, the band gap is determined to be 4.20 eV, which is likely determined by the defects in the material. Comparisons are made with relativistic electronic structure and optical calculations based on the Engel Vosko generalized gradient approximation. The near-absorption-edge critical points are associated with spin-orbit-split bands which significantly modify the conduction bands.

  4. Correlation between thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C.L.

    1985-02-01

    Thermoluminescence properties of bismuth germanate and their relationship to radiation damage characteristics have been investigated. Thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate display several similar properties including similar responses as a function of radiation dose, similar saturation levels, and similar decay times. Also a correlation was found between the thermoluminescence sensitivities and radiation damage sensitivities of four different crystals. The traps responsible for the radiation damage and those which store the thermoluminescence signal appear to be either closely related or actually the same traps. Four trapping centers can be seen in the thermoluminescence glow curves. The depth of the dominant trap is 1.1 eV. 10 references.

  5. Thermal degradation of ultrabroad bismuth NIR luminescence in bismuth-doped tantalum germanate laser glasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yanqi; Xu, Shanhui; Peng, Mingying

    2016-04-01

    Because of ultra-broadband luminescence in 1000-1700 nm and consequent applications in fiber amplifier and lasers in the new spectral range where traditional rare earth cannot work, bismuth-doped laser glasses have received rising interest recently. For long-term practical application, thermal degradation must be considered for the glasses. This, however, has seldom been investigated. Here we report the thermal degradation of bismuth-doped germanate glass. Heating and cooling cycle experiments at high temperature reveal strong dependence of the thermal degradation on glass compositions. Bismuth and tantalum lead to the reversible degradation, while lithium can produce permanent irreversible degradation. The degradation becomes worse as lithium content increases in the glass. Absorption spectra show this is due to partial oxidation of bismuth near-infrared emission center. Surprisingly, we notice the emission of bismuth exhibits blueshift, rather than redshift at a higher temperature, and the blueshift can be suppressed by increasing the lithium content. PMID:27192231

  6. Homogeneity of bismuth-distribution in bismuth-doped alkali germanate laser glasses towards superbroad fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanqi; Wondraczek, Lothar; Mermet, Alain; Peng, Mingying; Zhang, Qinyuan; Qiu, Jianrong

    2015-05-01

    Compared to rare-earth doped glasses, bismuth-doped glasses hold promise for super-broadband near-infrared (NIR) photoemission and potential applications in optical amplification. However, optically active bismuth centers are extremely sensitive to the properties of the surrounding matrix, and also to processing conditions. This is strongly complicating the exploitation of this class of materials, because functional devices require a very delicate adjustment of the redox state of the bismuth species, and its distribution throughout the bulk of the material. It also largely limits some of the conventional processing routes for glass fiber, which start from gas phase deposition and may require very high processing temperature. Here, we investigate the influence of melting time and alkali addition on bismuth-related NIR photoluminescence from melt-derived germanate glasses. We show that the effect of melting time on bismuth-related absorption and NIR photoemission is primarily through bismuth volatilization. Adding alkali oxides as fluxing agents, the melt viscosity can be lowered to reduce either the glass melting temperature, or the melting time, or both. At the same time, however, alkali addition also leads to increasing mean-field basicity, what may reduce the intensity of bismuth-related NIR emission. Preferentially using Li2O over Na2O or K2O presents the best trade-off between those above factors, because its local effect may be adverse to the generally assumed trend of the negative influence of more basic matrix composition. This observation provides an important guideline for the design of melt-derived Bi-doped glasses with efficient NIR photoemission and high optical homogeneity. PMID:25969328

  7. Photoelastic constants of germanate glasses containing lead and bismuth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Rabukhin, A.I.

    1995-07-01

    Regression equations which accurately approximate the concentration curves of the photoelastic constants of lead bismuth germanate glasses were obtained and the isolines of the photoelastic constants were plotted and graphically illustrate the change in the properties of the glasses in almost the entire glass-formation region of the PbO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GeO{sub 2} system. The partial values of the photoelastic constants of the oxides, components of these glasses, were determined and are in agreement with the values established for glasses of other systems. The data obtained can be used in planning the compositions of effective optical media for fabrication of light and acoustic lines for acousto-optic instruments and glasses with a zero optical stress coefficient.

  8. Energy levels scheme simulation of divalent cobalt doped bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Andreici, Emiliana-Laura; Petkova, Petya; Avram, Nicolae M.

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this paper is to simulate the energy levels scheme for Bismuth Germanate (BGO) doped with divalent cobalt, in order to give a reliable explanation for spectral experimental data. In the semiempirical crystal field theory we first modeled the Crystal Field Parameters (CFPs) of BGO:Cr{sup 2+} system, in the frame of Exchange Charge Model (ECM), with actually site symmetry of the impurity ions after doping. The values of CFPs depend on the geometry of doped host matrix and by parameter G of ECM. First, we optimized the geometry of undoped BGO host matrix and afterwards, that of doped BGO with divalent cobalt. The charges effect of ligands and covalence bonding between cobalt cations and oxygen anions, in the cluster approach, also were taken into account. With the obtained values of the CFPs we simulate the energy levels scheme of cobalt ions, by diagonalizing the matrix of the doped crystal Hamiltonian. Obviously, energy levels and estimated Racah parameters B and C were compared with the experimental spectroscopic data and discussed. Comparison of obtained results with experimental data shows quite satisfactory, which justify the model and simulation schemes used for the title system.

  9. Bismuth germanate's role in the new revolution in gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.R.; Baktash, C.; Lee, I.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the considerations on how to effectively incorporate bismuth germanate into complex detection systems are covered, and some of these new systems now in operation or under construction are discussed. Significant achievements in gamma ray spectroscopy are reviewed as well as some recent results based on data taken with coincidence arrays of germanium detectors and Compton-suppression spectrometers. Then the first impact of bismuth germanate detectors on our understanding of the properties of nuclei that have high energy and very high angular momentum states are addressed. (LEW)

  10. A bismuth germanate-shielded mercuric iodide X-ray detector for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Ricker, G. R.; Schnepple, W. S.; Ortale, C.

    1982-01-01

    The development of HgI2 for solid state X-ray detector applications over the past decade was carried out in connection with the ability of the crystal to operate as a detector at room temperature. In order to achieve the lowest background possible for HgI2 detectors in a space-like environment (balloon and/or satellite altitudes), attention was given to the design of a shielding system which actively vetoes nonaperture events such as gamma rays and charged particles that can mimic signal X-rays by partial deposition of energy in the main detector. The detector system consists of two HgI2 detectors mounted back to back and operated in anticoincidence. The two detectors are placed inside a bismuth germanate scintillating shield along with two hybrid charge-sensitive preamps. Monte Carlo simulations of detector performance are discussed.

  11. Improvements in the energy resolution and high-count-rate performance of bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Wender, S.A.; Kapustinsky, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for improving the energy resolution of bismuth germanate (BGO) have been investigated. It is shown that some of these methods resulted in a substantial improvement in the energy resolution. In addition, a method to improve the performance of BGO at high counting rates has been systematically studied. The results of this study are presented and discussed.

  12. The network modifier and former role of the bismuth ions in the bismuth-lead-germanate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rada, M.; Rus, L.; Rada, S.; Culea, E.; Rusu, T.

    2014-11-01

    The present work is focused on the enhancement of network former environment in lead-germanate glasses by bismuth ions doping. A series of bismuth-lead-germanate glasses with the xBi2O3·(100 - x)[7GeO2·3PbO] composition glass where 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 30 mol% Bi2O3 were synthesized by melt-quenching method. The FTIR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were conducted on these samples to evaluate the doping effect of structure of the host matrix network. Our results indicate that direct incorporation of Bi2O3 into the lead-germanate network modifies the lead-germanate network and the internal structure of glass network is rearranged. The structural flexibility of the lead-germanate network is possible due to its incapacity to accommodate with the excess of oxygen atoms and the creation of bridging oxygen ions. Optical gap energy and refractive index were obtained as a function of Bi2O3 content. Gap energy values decrease as Bi2O3 content increased from 0 to 10 mol%. Further increase of Bi2O3 concentration beyond 10 mol% increased the gap energy values. These behaviors of the glass system can be explained by two mechanisms: (i) for x ⩽ 10 mol% Bi2O3 - increase of degree of disorder of the host matrix because Bi2O3 is network modifier and (ii) for x > 10 mol% - Bi2O3 acts as a network former. Cyclic voltammetry measurements using the glass system with 10Bi2O3·90[7GeO2·3PbO] composition as working electrode show the mobility of the lead ions, in agreement with UV-VIS data.

  13. Enhanced low-level LSC performance for carbon-14 dating using a bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) quasi-active guard

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The Packard 2770TR/SL is a novel low-level liquid scintillation spectrometer which employs bismuth germanate (BGO - Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) as a quasi-active guard to reduce background count rates and improve limits of detection. The results of this study indicate that this system shows tremendous potential for radiocarbon dating. Its great advantage is that it can give exceptional performance using standard low {sup 40}K borosilicate glass vials costing only a few cents each. For example, in an optimized counting window, 4.6-mL {sup 14}C benzene contained in a standard 7-mL glass vial produced a background count rate of 0.49 cpm and an efficiency of 70.3%, yielding a figure of merit (E{sup 2}V{sup 2}/B) value of 213,000 {+-}9,000 (where B = background count rate in counts per minute [cpm], E = percentage efficiency, and V = volume of benzene). This performance is comparable to published data for low-level instruments which employ active coincidence guard detectors and standard glass vials. When the same vials were recounted in vial holders, specially fabricated from BGO, the corresponding optimum values for background, efficiency and figure of merit, respectively, were 0.24 cpm, 61.0% and 328,000 {+-} 19,000. This performance is comparable to that of other low-level counting instruments when they are used in combination with specialized Teflon and silica vials. The BGO vial holders were also used in previous generations of Packard instruments which employ time resolved liquid scintillation counting (TR-LSC) for electronic background reduction and this resulted in significant improvements in performance.

  14. Spectroscopic properties of bismuth-germanate glasses co-doped with erbium and holmium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragin, Tomasz; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Żmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    In the article an analysis of thermal and spectroscopic properties of heavy metal oxide glasses from the Bi2O3-Ga2O3- Na2O-Ge2O3 system doped with rare earth elements were presented. It has been focused on the elaboration of the glass composition in terms of low phonon energy, high transparency in the range of infrared region and high thermal stability (ΔT=160 °C) required in optical fiber technology. Fabricated glasses co-doped with Er3+/Ho3+ions under 980 nm laser diode excitation exhibit emission at 1.55 μm (Er3+: 4I 13/2 → 4I15/2) and 2.0 μm (Ho3+: 4I7 → 5I8). The emission at 2.0 μm results from the Er3+ → Ho3+energy transfer. Taking into account great thermal stability and good optical properties such as high transparency (up to 80%) or high refractive index (2.23), the fabricated bismuth-germanate glass co-doped with Er3+/Ho3+ is promising material for construction of active optical fibers operating in the range of mid-infrared.

  15. Preparation and elastic moduli of germanate glass containing lead and bismuth.

    PubMed

    Sidek, Hj A A; Bahari, Hamid R; Halimah, Mohamed K; Yunus, Wan M M

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the rapid melt quenching technique preparation for the new family of bismuth-lead germanate glass (BPG) systems in the form of (GeO(2))(60)-(PbO)(40-) (x)-(½Bi(2)O(3))(x) where x = 0 to 40 mol%. Their densities with respect of Bi(2)O(3) concentration were determined using Archimedes' method with acetone as a floatation medium. The current experimental data are compared with those of bismuth lead borate (B(2)O(3))(20)-(PbO)(80-) (x)-(Bi(2)O(3))(x). The elastic properties of BPG were studied using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique where both longitudinal and transverse sound wave velocities have been measured in each glass samples at a frequency of 15 MHz and at room temperature. Experimental data shows that all the physical parameters of BPG including density and molar volume, both longitudinal and transverse velocities increase linearly with increasing of Bi(2)O(3) content in the germanate glass network. Their elastic moduli such as longitudinal, shear and Young's also increase linearly with addition of Bi(2)O(3) but the bulk modulus did not. The Poisson's ratio and fractal dimensionality are also found to vary linearly with the Bi(2)O(3) concentration. PMID:22606000

  16. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1204 - Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated... § 520.1204 Kanamycin, bismuth subcarbonate, activated attapulgite. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 5 milliliters (mL) of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) kanamycin (as the sulfate), 250 mg...

  1. Efficiency of a bismuth-germanate scintillator: comparison of Monte Carlo calculations with measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H.H.; Dowdy, E.J.; Estes, G.P.; Lucas, M.C.; Mack, J.M.; Moss, C.E.; Hamm, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of a bismuth-germanate scintillator's efficiency agree closely with experimental measurements. For this comparison, we studied the absolute gamma-ray photopeak efficiency of a scintillator (7.62 cm long by 7.62 cm in diameter) at several gamma-ray energies from 166 to 2615 keV at distances from 0.5 to 152.4 cm. Computer calculations were done in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry with the Monte Carlo coupled photon-electron code CYLTRAN. For the experiment we measured 11 sources with simple spectra and precisely known strengths. The average deviation between the calculations and the measurements is 3%. Our calculated results also closely agree with recently published calculated results.

  2. Monte Carlo calculations of the optical coupling between bismuth germanate crystals and photomultiplier tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, S.E.; Riles, J.K.

    1981-10-01

    The high density and atomic number of bismuth germanate (Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/ or BGO) make it a very useful detector for positron emission tomography. Modern tomograph designs use large numbers of small, closely-packed crystals for high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. However, the low light output, the high refractive index (n=2.15), and the need for accurate timing make it important to optimize the transfer of light to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). We describe the results of a Monte Carlo computer program developed to study the effect of crystal shape, reflector type, and the refractive index of the PMT window on coupling efficiency. The program simulates total internal, external, and Fresnel reflection as well as internal absorption and scattering by bubbles.

  3. A positron tomograph with 600 BGO (bismuth germanate) crystals and 2. 6 mm resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Moses, W.W.; Uber, D.C.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1987-10-01

    We describe the imaging performance of the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph, a single 600 cm diam ring of 3 mm wide bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals coupled individually to 14 mm phototubes. With a pulse height threshold of 200 keV and a slice thickness of 5 mm, the sensitivity is 7024 eventssec per ..mu..Ciml in a 20 cm cyliner of water. The measured rates for 18 ..mu..Ciml are 95,000 truessec plus 20,000 randomsec. A 0.3 mm diam /sup 22/Na line source near the center of the tomograph has a circular point spread function (PSF) with a full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) of 2.6 mm. At 5 cm from the center the PSF is elliptical with a fwhm of 2.7 mm tangential )times) 3.2 mm radial. At 10 cm the PSF has a fwhm of 2.8 mm tangential )times) 4.8 mm radial. Attenuation data are accumulated with a 20 mCi /sup 68/Ge orbiting transmission source and 100 million coincident events are collected in 200 sec. 20 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Photofraction of a 5 cm x 2 cm BGO scintillator. [bismuth germanate crystal for use in cosmic gamma ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, P. P.; Forrest, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The photofraction of a 5.1 cm x 2.0 cm bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator was measured over a gamma-ray energy range of 0.2 to 6.1 MeV. Several methods, used to minimize the effect of room scattering on the measurement, are discussed. These include a gamma-gamma coincidence technique, a beta-gamma coincidence technique, and the use of sources calibrated with a standard 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm sodium iodide scintillator.

  5. Lead-Bismuth Activities at the Karlsruhe Lead Laboratory KALLA

    SciTech Connect

    Knebel, Joachim U.; Muller, Georg; Konys, Jurgen

    2002-07-01

    At Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) the characteristics of an accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) are evaluated, mainly with respect to the potential of transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products, to the feasibility and to safety aspects. All experimental activities, which are related to lead-bismuth as cooling fluid and spallation material, are performed in the Karlsruhe Lead Laboratory KALLA. This article gives an overview on KALLA, which has three stagnant experiments and three loop experiments. The stagnant experiments are concentrating on corrosion mechanisms, surface treatment, oxygen sensor development, and oxygen control system (OCS), the loop experiments are concentrating on thermalhydraulic measurement techniques, ADS-relevant component testing, and corrosion investigations in flowing lead-bismuth. A fourth loop experiment is planned to investigate the integral heat removal from a 4 MW spallation target for normal and decay heat removal conditions. Among others, latest results are presented of: characteristics of oxygen sensors in flowing liquid Pb-Bi, the oxygen control system (OCS) operating on a loop system, an ultrasonic flow meter applied to lead-bismuth at 400 deg. C. In addition, results are given on the improvement of the corrosion resistivity of steels in flowing lead-bismuth, using a special temperature treatment method (electron beam facility GESA) and alloying aluminium in the surface layer. (authors)

  6. Neutron detection and multiplicity counting using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator/bismuth germanate phoswich detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.C.

    1998-03-01

    Neutron detection and multiplicity counting has been investigated using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator/bismuth germanate phoswich detector array. Boron-loaded plastic combines neutron moderation (H) and detection ({sup 10}B) at the molecular level, thereby physically coupling increasing detection efficiency and decreasing die-away time with detector volume. Both of these characteristics address a fundamental limitation of thermal-neutron multiplicity counters, where {sup 3}He proportional counters are embedded in a polyethylene matrix. Separation of the phoswich response into its plastic scintillator and bismuth germanate components was accomplished on a pulse-by-pulse basis using custom integrator and timing circuits. In addition, a custom time-tag module was used to provide a time for each detector event. Analysis of the combined energy and time event stream was performed by calibrating each detector`s response and filtering based on the presence of a simultaneous energy deposition corresponding to the {sup 10}B(n,alpha) reaction products in the plastic scintillator (93 keV{sub ee}) and the accompanying neutron-capture gamma ray in the bismuth germanate (478 keV). Time-correlation analysis was subsequently performed on the filtered event stream to obtain shift-register-type singles and doubles count rates. Proof-of-principle measurements were conducted with a variety of gamma-ray and neutron sources including {sup 137}Cs, {sup 54}Mn, AmLi, and {sup 252}Cf. Results of this study indicate that a neutron-capture probability of {approximately}10% and a die-away time of {approximately}10 {micro}s are possible with a 4-detector array with a detector volume of 1600 cm{sup 3}. Simulations were performed that indicate neutron-capture probabilities on the order of 50% and die-away times of less than 4 {micro}s are realistically achievable. While further study will be required for practical application of such a detection system, the results obtained in this

  7. Bismuth-doped-glass optical fibers--a new active medium for lasers and amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Dvoyrin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Bulatov, L I; Bufetov, I A; Shubin, A V; Melkumov, M A; Kustov, E F; Dianov, E M; Umnikov, A A; Khopin, V F; Yashkov, M V; Guryanov, A N

    2006-10-15

    Optical fibers with bismuth-doped silicate and germanate glass cores were fabricated by the modified chemical vapor deposition technique (solution and vapor-phase Bi incorporation). The fibers revealed an efficient luminescence with a maximum in the 1050-1200 nm spectral range, FWHM up to 200 nm, and a lifetime of the order of 1 ms. PMID:17001368

  8. Surface plasmon resonance-enhanced 2 μm emission of bismuth germanate glasses doped with Ho3+/Tm3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Junzhou; Lu, Kelun; Zhang, Shaoqian; Zhang, Peiqing; Chen, Feifei; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Yinsheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report 2 μm emission in bismuth germanate glasses doped with Ho3+/Tm3+ ions enhanced by surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) under 800 nm laser excitation. We perform broadband mid-infrared emissions from 1700 nm to 2200 nm corresponding to Tm3+: 3F4 → 3H6 and Ho3+: 5I7 → 5I8 transitions. The energy transfer from Tm3+ to Ho3+ ions results in a strong 2030 nm emission. Results demonstrate that the emission intensity of the sample containing Ag NPs is much higher than that of the sample without Ag addition. For the best AgTH6 sample, the absorption and emission cross sections of Ho3+ transition (5I8 → 5I7) reach 0.5 × 10-20 cm2 at 1945 nm and 0.78 × 10-20 cm2 at 2030 nm, respectively. The comparative performances, i.e., σe × full width at half maximum and σe × τ, are approximately 129 × 10-20 cm2 nm and 24.8 × 10-24 cm2 s, respectively. Therefore, the glass has a potential application as 2.0 μm laser active media.

  9. Optical properties of active bismuth centres in silica fibres containing no other dopants

    SciTech Connect

    Bufetov, Igor' A; Semenov, S L; Vel'miskin, V V; Firstov, Sergei V; Dianov, Evgenii M; Bufetova, G A

    2010-09-10

    Optical fibre preforms and fibres with a bismuth-doped silica core containing no other dopants have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique. The optical loss has been measured for the first time in such fibres in a wide spectral range, from 190 to 1700 nm. We have studied the luminescence of active bismuth centres and the luminescence lifetime for some of their bands in both the preforms and the fibres drawn out from them. (optical fibres)

  10. Photocatalytic activities of various pentavalent bismuthates under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Takahiro; Haramoto, Rie; Dong, Qiang; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Yonesaki, Yoshinori; Kinomura, Nobukazu; Mano, Takayuki; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Michihiro

    2011-08-15

    LiBiO{sub 3}, NaBiO{sub 3}, MgBi{sub 2}O{sub 6}, KBiO{sub 3}, ZnBi{sub 2}O{sub 6}, SrBi{sub 2}O{sub 6}, AgBiO{sub 3}, BaBi{sub 2}O{sub 6} and PbBi{sub 2}O{sub 6} were synthesized by various processes such as hydrothermal treatment, heating and so on. These materials were examined for their photocatalytic activities in the decolorization of methylene blue and decomposition of phenol under visible light irradiation. For methylene blue decolorization, the presence of KBiO{sub 3} resulted in complete decoloration within 5 min. For phenol decomposition, NaBiO{sub 3} showed the highest activity, while LiBiO{sub 3}, SrBi{sub 2}O{sub 6} and BaBi{sub 2}O{sub 6} possessed almost comparable decomposition rates. Their decomposition rates were apparently higher than that by anatase (P25) under UV irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Nine pentavalent bismuthates were synthesized and were examined for their photocatalytic activities by decomposition of phenol under visible light irradiation. NaBiO{sub 3}, LiBiO{sub 3}, SrBi{sub 2}O{sub 6} and BaBi{sub 2}O{sub 6} indicated faster decomposition rate than that of anatase (P25) under UV-vis light irradiation. Highlights: > KBiO{sub 3} decolorize methylene blue aqueous solution immediately within 5 min. > NaBiO{sub 3}, LiBiO{sub 3}, SrBi{sub 2}O{sub 6} and BaBi{sub 2}O{sub 6} indicated high decomposition rate of phenol. > The d electron of Zn, Ag and Pb form broad conduction band. > The broad conduction band poses to diminish photocatalytic activity.

  11. Fabrication and testing of diamond-machined gratings in ZnSe, GaP, and bismuth germanate for the near-infrared and visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Little, Steve L.; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2008-07-01

    High quality immersion gratings for infrared applications have been demonstrated in silicon and germanium. To extend this technology to shorter wavelengths other materials must be investigated. We selected three materials, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide and bismuth germanate (Bi4Ge3O12), based on high refractive index, good visible transmission and commercial availability in useful sizes. Crystal samples were diamond turned on an ultra-precision lathe to identify preferred cutting directions. Using this information we diamond-flycut test gratings over a range of feed rates to determine the optimal cutting conditions. For both ZnSe and GaP good surface quality was achieved at feed rates up to 1.0 cm/minute using a special compound angle diamond tool with negative rake angles on both cutting surfaces. The surface roughness of the groove facets was about 4 nm. A Zygo interferometer measured grating wavefront errors in reflection. For the ZnSe the RMS error was < λ/20 @633nm. More extensive testing was performed with a HeNe laser source and a cooled CCD camera. These measurements demonstrated high relative diffraction efficiency (> 80%), low random groove error (2.0 nm rms), and Rowland ghost intensities at < 0.1%. Preliminary tests on bismuth germanate show high tool wear.

  12. Fabrication and testing of diamond-machined gratings in ZnSe, GaP, and bismuth germanate for the near infrared and visible

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N

    2008-06-22

    High quality immersion gratings for infrared applications have been demonstrated in silicon and germanium. To extend this technology to shorter wavelengths other materials must be investigated. We selected three materials, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide and bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}), based on high refractive index, good visible transmission and commercial availability in useful sizes. Crystal samples were diamond turned on an ultra-precision lathe to identify preferred cutting directions. Using this information we diamond-flycut test gratings over a range of feed rates to determine the optimal cutting conditions. For both ZnSe and GaP good surface quality was achieved at feed rates up to 1.0 cm/minute using a special compound angle diamond tool with negative rake angles on both cutting surfaces. The surface roughness of the groove facets was about 4 nm. A Zygo interferometer measured grating wavefront errors in reflection. For the ZnSe the RMS error was < {lambda}/20 at 633nm. More extensive testing was performed with a HeNe laser source and a cooled CCD camera. These measurements demonstrated high relative diffraction efficiency (> 80%), low random groove error (2.0 nm rms), and Rowland ghost intensities at < 0.1%. Preliminary tests on bismuth germanate show high tool wear.

  13. Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography [PET] in Man Using Small Bismuth Germanate Crystals

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.; Huesman, R. H.; Cahoon, J. L.

    1982-04-01

    Primary considerations for the design of positron emission tomographs for medical studies in humans are the need for high imaging sensitivity, whole organ coverage, good spatial resolution, high maximum data rates, adequate spatial sampling with minimum mechanical motion, shielding against out of plane activity, pulse height discrimination against scattered photons, and timing discrimination against accidental coincidences. We discuss the choice of detectors, sampling motion, shielding, and electronics to meet these objectives.

  14. Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Firstov, S V; Khopin, V F; Bufetov, I A; Firstova, E G; Guryanov, A N; Dianov, E M

    2011-09-26

    For the first time, 3-dimensional luminescence spectra (luminescence intensity as a function of the excitation and emission wavelengths) have been obtained for bismuth-doped optical fibers of various compositions in a wide spectral range (450-1700 nm). The bismuth-doped fibers investigated have the following core compositions: SiO(2), GeO(2), Al-doped SiO(2), and P-doped SiO(2). The measurements are performed at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. Based on the experimental results, the positions of the low-lying energy-levels of the IR bismuth active centers in SiO(2)- and GeO(2)-core fibers have been determined. Similarity of the energy-level schemes for the two core compositions has been revealed. PMID:21996896

  15. Promotional Effects of Bismuth on the Formation of Platinum-Bismuth Nanowires Network and the Electrocatalytic Activity toward Ethanol Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, W.; Su, D.; Wang, Q.; Frenkel, A.I.; Teng, X.

    2011-01-11

    Electrocatalytic activities of Pt and their alloys toward small organic molecules oxidation are highly dependent on their morphology, chemical composition, and electronic structure. Here, we report the synthesis of dendrite-like Pt{sub 95}Bi{sub 5}, Pt{sub 83}Bi{sub 17}, and Pt{sub 76}Bi{sub 24} nanowires network with a high aspect ratio (up to 68). The electronic structure and heterogeneous crystalline structure have been studied using combined techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Bismuth-oriented attachment growth mechanism has been proposed for the anisotropic growth of Pt/Bi. The electrochemical activities of Pt/Bi nanowires network toward ethanol oxidations have been tested. In particular, the as-made Pt{sub 95}Bi{sub 5} appears to have superior activity toward ethanol oxidation in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The reported promotional effect of Bi on the formation of Pt/Bi and electrochemical activities will be important to design effective catalysts for ethanol fuel cell application.

  16. Promotional Effects of Bismuth on the Formation of Platinum-Bismuth Nanowires Network and the Electrocatalytic Activity toward Ethanol Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    X Teng; W Du; D Su; Q Wang; A Frenkel

    2011-12-31

    Electrocatalytic activities of Pt and their alloys toward small organic molecules oxidation are highly dependent on their morphology, chemical composition, and electronic structure. Here, we report the synthesis of dendrite-like Pt{sub 95}Bi{sub 5}, Pt{sub 83}Bi{sub 17}, and Pt{sub 76}Bi{sub 24} nanowires network with a high aspect ratio (up to 68). The electronic structure and heterogeneous crystalline structure have been studied using combined techniques, including aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Bismuth-oriented attachment growth mechanism has been proposed for the anisotropic growth of Pt/Bi. The electrochemical activities of Pt/Bi nanowires network toward ethanol oxidations have been tested. In particular, the as-made Pt{sub 95}Bi{sub 5} appears to have superior activity toward ethanol oxidation in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The reported promotional effect of Bi on the formation of Pt/Bi and electrochemical activities will be important to design effective catalysts for ethanol fuel cell application.

  17. Bismuth coordination networks containing deferiprone: synthesis, characterisation, stability and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Andrew D; Jurcic, Monika; Mahon, Mary F; Pierrat, Sandrine; Roffe, Gavin W; Windle, Henry J; Spencer, John

    2015-08-21

    A series of bismuth-dicarboxylate-deferiprone coordination networks have been prepared and structurally characterised. The new compounds have been demonstrated to release the iron overload drug deferiprone on treatment with PBS and have also been shown to have antibacterial activity against H. pylori. PMID:26172618

  18. Bismuth Subsalicylate

    MedlinePlus

    Pink Bismuth® ... Bismuth subsalicylate is used to treat diarrhea, heartburn, and upset stomach in adults and children 12 years of age and older. Bismuth subsalicylate is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Mechanically Activated Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Powders of Ferroelectric Bismuth Vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantha, K.; Subbanna, G. N.; Varma, K. B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical milling of a stoichiometric mixture of Bi2O3and V2O5yielded nanosized powders of bismuth vanadate, Bi2VO5.5(BiV). Structural evolution of the desired BiV phase, through an intermediate product (BiVO4), was monitored by subjecting the powders, ball milled for various durations to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. XRD studies indicate that the relative amount of the BiV phase present in the ball-milled mixture increases with increase in milling time and its formation reaches completion within 54 h of milling. Assynthesized powders were found to stabilize in the high-temperature tetragonal (γ) phase. DTA analyses of the powders milled for various durations suggest that the BiV phase-formation temperature decreases with increase in milling time. The nanometric size (30 nm) of the crystallites in the final product was confirmed by TEM and XRD studies. TEM studies clearly demonstrate the growth of BiV onBi2O3crystallites.

  20. Mechanistic Studies of Bismuth(V)-Mediated Thioglycoside Activation Reveal Differential Reactivity of Anomers.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Manibarsha; Ashley, Daniel C; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2016-07-15

    The mechanism of bismuth(V)-mediated thioglycoside activation was examined using reaction kinetics and quantum chemical reaction models. NMR experiments show an unusual nonlinear growth/decay curve for the glycosylation reaction. Further studies suggest an anomeric inversion of the β-glycoside donor to the α-donor during its activation, even in the presence of a neighboring 2-position acetate. Interestingly, in situ anomerization was not observed in the activation of an α-glycoside donor, and this anomer also showed faster reaction times and higher product diastereoselectivites. Density functional theory calculations identify the structure of the promoter triphenyl bismuth ditriflate, [Ph3Bi(OTf)2, 1], in solution and map out the energetics of its interactions with the two thioglycoside anomers. These calculations suggest that 1 must bind the thiopropyl arm to induce triflate loss. The computational analyses also show that, unlike most O-glycosides, the β- and α-donor S-glycosides are similar in energy. One energetically reasonable anomerization pathway of the donors is an SN1-like mechanism promoted by forming a bismuth-sulfonium adduct with the Lewis acidic Bi(V) for the formation of an oxacarbenium intermediate. Finally, the computed energy compensations needed to form these α vs β Bi adducts is a possible explanation for the differential reactivity of these donors. PMID:27295299

  1. Bismuth titanate pyrochlore microspheres: Directed synthesis and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Jungang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin; Kumar, R.V.

    2011-01-15

    Bismuth titanates, Bi{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} (BIT), with well-defined spherical structures were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process without the use of any surfactant or template. XRD and SEM studies have shown that spheres could be fabricated in high yields by simply manipulating the concentrations of hydroxide ions. In this case, hydroxide ions seem to play a pivotal role in controlling the formation of seeds and growth rates of the BIT particles. On the basis of structural analysis of samples obtained at different concentrations of OH{sup -}, we also proposed a plausible mechanism to account for the formation of these distinctive morphologies under different conditions. The as-prepared BIT microspheres with good stability exhibited higher photocatalytic activities in the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation than that in commercial P25 TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the enhanced photocatalytic performance for RhB degradation was also investigated with assistance of a small amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. -- Graphical abstract: Bismuth titanate pyrochlore microspheres were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process without the use of any surfactant or template, and the effects of concentration of OH{sup -} on the diameter of microspheres, growth mechanism and photocatalytic properties were investigated. Display Omitted Research Highlights: Bismuth titanate pyrochlore microspheres with different diameters were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process without the use of any surfactant or template. The BIT microspheres with good stability exhibited higher photocatalytic activities in the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation than that in commercial P25 TiO{sub 2}. Further enhanced photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation was ascribed to the assistance of a small amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  2. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of porous bismuth oxychloride hexagonal prisms.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liyong; Chen, Huan; Wang, Qingqian; Zhou, Tengfei; Jiang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuhong; Li, Jinlin; Hu, Juncheng

    2016-01-18

    Porous BiOCl hexagonal prisms have been successfully prepared through a simple solvothermal route. These novel BiOCl HPs with porous structures are assembled from nanoparticles and exhibit high activity and selectivity toward the photocatalytic aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and degradation of methyl orange. PMID:26592759

  3. Narrowband random lasing in a Bismuth-doped active fiber.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Ivan A; Kablukov, Sergey I; Skvortsov, Mikhail I; Podivilov, Evgeniy V; Melkumov, Mikhail A; Babin, Sergey A; Dianov, Evgeny M

    2016-01-01

    Random fiber lasers operating via the Rayleigh scattering (RS) feedback attract now a great deal of attention as they generate a high-quality unidirectional laser beam with the efficiency and performance comparable and even exceeding those of fiber lasers with conventional cavities. Similar to other random lasers, both amplification and random scattering are distributed here along the laser medium being usually represented by a kilometers-long passive fiber with Raman gain. However, it is hardly possible to utilize normal gain in conventional active fibers as they are usually short and RS is negligible. Here we report on the first demonstration of the RS-based random lasing in an active fiber. This became possible due to the implementation of a new Bi-doped fiber with an increased amplification length and RS coefficient. The realized Bi-fiber random laser generates in a specific spectral region (1.42 μm) exhibiting unique features, in particular, a much narrower linewidth than that in conventional cavity of the same length, in agreement with the developed theory. Lasers of this type have a great potential for applications as Bi-doped fibers with different host compositions enable laser operation in an extremely broad range of wavelengths, 1.15-1.78 μm. PMID:27435232

  4. Narrowband random lasing in a Bismuth-doped active fiber

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, Ivan A.; Kablukov, Sergey I.; Skvortsov, Mikhail I.; Podivilov, Evgeniy V.; Melkumov, Mikhail A.; Babin, Sergey A.; Dianov, Evgeny M.

    2016-01-01

    Random fiber lasers operating via the Rayleigh scattering (RS) feedback attract now a great deal of attention as they generate a high-quality unidirectional laser beam with the efficiency and performance comparable and even exceeding those of fiber lasers with conventional cavities. Similar to other random lasers, both amplification and random scattering are distributed here along the laser medium being usually represented by a kilometers-long passive fiber with Raman gain. However, it is hardly possible to utilize normal gain in conventional active fibers as they are usually short and RS is negligible. Here we report on the first demonstration of the RS-based random lasing in an active fiber. This became possible due to the implementation of a new Bi-doped fiber with an increased amplification length and RS coefficient. The realized Bi-fiber random laser generates in a specific spectral region (1.42 μm) exhibiting unique features, in particular, a much narrower linewidth than that in conventional cavity of the same length, in agreement with the developed theory. Lasers of this type have a great potential for applications as Bi-doped fibers with different host compositions enable laser operation in an extremely broad range of wavelengths, 1.15–1.78 μm. PMID:27435232

  5. Bismuth Undecahydro-closo-dodecaborane: A Retainable Intermediate of B-H Bond Activation by Bismuth(III) Cations.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Lucas W; Van, Nguyen-Duc; Gudat, Dietrich; Schleid, Thomas

    2016-01-26

    The [B12 H12](2-) anion shows an extensive substitutional chemistry based on its three-dimensional aromaticity. The replacement of functional groups can be attained by electrophilically induced substitution caused by Brønsted or Lewis acidic electrophiles (e.g. Pt(2+)). Until now, it was impossible to structurally characterize a metal-substituted [B12 H12](2-) cage. When an aqueous solution containing both Bi(3+) cations and [B12 H12](2-) anions was heated, the charge-neutral bismuth undecahydro-closo-dodecaborane BiB12 H11 was obtained, representing a new class of metalated [B12 H12](2-) clusters. The title compound was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopic methods. Compared to the typical B-H bond, the short B-Bi single bond (230 pm) exhibits inverted polarity. PMID:26676462

  6. Facile and Efficient Synthesis of Bismuth Nanowires for Improved Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yawen; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Gongjuan; Zhao, Jingzhe

    2016-05-16

    An aqueous reduction method was reported for the synthesis of bismuth nanowires (Bi NWs) 5-10 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length under the guidance of PVP molecules. The reactions were performed at 80 °C by reducing bismuth chloride with sodium hypophosphite first in acid and then under neutral circumstances. The key to successful preparation of the Bi NWs is regulation of the reduction speed by control of the pH value. The morphology evolution of the samples was also found to have a strong dependence on the reaction parameters, including the introduction amount and molecular weight of PVP molecules. A solid-solution-solid (SSS) mechanism was proposed for the nucleation and growth of Bi NWs in our strategy. The as-prepared Bi NWs exhibit excellent visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of the organic pollutant Rhodamine B (RhB) and colorless bisphenol A (BPA). The good recyclability of the Bi NWs on RhB photodegradation demonstrates the possibility of their practical applications. PMID:27145289

  7. An Evaluation of Activated Bismuth Isotopes in Environmental Samples From the Former Western Pacific Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.

    2000-03-21

    {sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.

  8. Bismuth(III) 5-sulfosalicylate complexes: structure, solubility and activity against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Philip C; Deacon, Glen B; Ferrero, Richard L; Junk, Peter C; Karrar, Abdulgader; Kumar, Ish; MacLellan, Jonathan G

    2009-08-28

    Treatment of 5-sulfosalicylic acid (H(3)Ssal) with BiPh(3) results in the formation of the first dianionic carboxylate-sulfonate bismuth complex, [PhBi(HSsal)H(2)O](infinity) 1a, and its ethanol analogue [PhBi(HSsal)EtOH](infinity) 1b (space group P2(1)/c), while Bi(OAc)(3) gives the mixed monoanionic and dianionic complex, {[Bi(HSsal)(H(2)Ssal)(H(2)O)(3)](2) x 2 H(2)O}(infinity) 2 (space group P1). The three complexes are all polymeric in the solid state as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, with extended frameworks constructed from dimeric [Bi(HSsal)](2), 1a and 1b, or from [Bi(HSsal)(H(2)Ssal)](2) units, 2. The heteroleptic bismuth complexes 1a and 2 display remarkable aqueous solubility, 10 and 2.5 mg ml(-1) respectively, resulting in a clear solution of pH 1.5. In contrast, 1b is essentially insoluble in aqueous environments. All three complexes show significant activity against the bacterium Helicobacter pylori of <6.25 microg ml(-1). PMID:19655072

  9. Aqueous synthesis of hierarchical bismuth nanobundles with high catalytic activity to organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dechong; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Jingzhe; Li, Yawen; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Duijia

    2015-07-01

    Bundle-like bismuth (Bi) nanoarchitectures were successfully prepared on a large scale by an aqueous reducing strategy with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as directing agent at 90 °C for 55 min. The bundle-like Bi nanoarchitectures have a length of 4-5 μm and diameter of 0.5-1 μm with fairly uniform construction. Catalytic activities of the as-prepared hierarchical Bi nanobundles were investigated for degrading Rhodamine B (RhB) dye solution under visible-light irradiation. The Bi nanostructures extended excellent catalytic activity and good cycling performance toward photodegradation of RhB. Possible mechanism was proposed for Bi-assisted photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible-light.

  10. Manifestation of weak ferromagnetism and photocatalytic activity in bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.; Saravanan, P.; Jaisankar, S. N.

    2013-02-01

    Bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were synthesized by auto-ignition technique with and without adding ignition fuel such as citric acid. The presence of citric acid in the reaction mixture yielded highly-magnetic BFO/γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposite. When this composite was annealed to 650°C, a single phase BFO was formed with average crystallite size of 50 nm and showed weak ferromagnetic behavior. Conversely, the phase pure BFO prepared without adding citric acid exhibited antiferromagnetism because of its larger crystallite size of around 70 nm. The visible-light driven photocatalytic activity of both the pure BFO and BFO/γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposite were examined by degrading methyl orange dye. The pure BFO showed a moderate photocatalytic activity; while BFO/γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposite showed enhanced activity. This could be probably due to the optimal band gap ratio between BFO and γ-Fe2O3 phases reduced the recombination of electron-hole pairs which aided in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

  11. Manifestation of weak ferromagnetism and photocatalytic activity in bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.; Saravanan, P.; Jaisankar, S. N.

    2013-02-05

    Bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were synthesized by auto-ignition technique with and without adding ignition fuel such as citric acid. The presence of citric acid in the reaction mixture yielded highly-magnetic BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite. When this composite was annealed to 650 Degree-Sign C, a single phase BFO was formed with average crystallite size of 50 nm and showed weak ferromagnetic behavior. Conversely, the phase pure BFO prepared without adding citric acid exhibited antiferromagnetism because of its larger crystallite size of around 70 nm. The visible-light driven photocatalytic activity of both the pure BFO and BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite were examined by degrading methyl orange dye. The pure BFO showed a moderate photocatalytic activity; while BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite showed enhanced activity. This could be probably due to the optimal band gap ratio between BFO and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases reduced the recombination of electron-hole pairs which aided in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

  12. An ecotoxicological study on tin- and bismuth-catalysed PDMS based coatings containing a surface-active polymer.

    PubMed

    Pretti, Carlo; Oliva, Matteo; Mennillo, Elvira; Barbaglia, Martina; Funel, Marco; Reddy Yasani, Bhaskar; Martinelli, Elisa; Galli, Giancarlo

    2013-12-01

    Novel films were prepared by condensation curing reaction of a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix with bismuth neodecanoate and dibutyltin diacetate catalysts. An ecotoxicological study was performed on the leachates of the coatings using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the unicellular alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, the crustacean Artemia salina and the fish Sparus aurata (larvae) as testing organisms. A copper-based self-polishing commercial paint was also tested as reference. The results showed that the tin-catalysed coatings and the copper paint were highly toxic against at least two of the four test organisms, whereas bismuth-catalysed coatings did not show any toxic effect. Moreover, the same biological assessment was also carried out on PDMS coatings containing a surface-active fluorinated polymer. The toxicity of the entire polymeric system resulted only from the tin catalyst used for the condensation curing reaction, as the bismuth catalysed coatings incorporating the surface-active polymer remained atoxic toward all the tested organisms. PMID:24125869

  13. A binary palladium-bismuth nanocatalyst with high activity and stability for alkaline glucose electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Lan; Chen, Lin-Chi

    2015-08-01

    Binary palladium-bismuth nanocatalysts supported on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Pd-Bi/C) are synthesized using a one-pot polyol method. The prepared Pd-Bi/C catalysts have a metal particle range from 5.25 to 12.98 nm and are investigated for alkaline electrocatalytic glucose oxidation reaction (GOR). The physical properties of the catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical activities are determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), Tafel analysis and chronoamperomtry (CA) for comparing the electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), GOR onset potential, GOR peak current density, Tafel slope, poisoning rate and cycling stability of the Pd-Bi/C catalysts. It is found that Pd-Bi/C (1:0.14) can significantly enhance the electrocatalytic activity on GOR about 40% times higher than Pd/C and as well as has a 3.7-fold lower poisoning rate. The in-use stability of Pd-Bi/C (1:0.14) is also remarkably improved, according to the results of the 200 cycling CV test. The effects of the operating temperature and the concentration of glucose and NaOH electrolyte on Pd-Bi/C (1:0.14) are further studied in this work. The highest Pd-Bi/C catalyzed GOR current density of 29.5 mA cm-2 is attained in alkaline medium.

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of solubility and activity of iron, chromium, and nickel in lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossé, Stéphane

    2014-06-01

    Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) is a heavy liquid alloy used as a coolant for the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors and spallation target for Accelerator Driven Systems. LBE is also considered in sodium fast reactor designs as coolant in secondary circuit to avoid any occurrence of the reaction between sodium and water in steam generators. Even if this coolant presents many advantages due to its thermophysical properties, corrosion towards structural materials remains one of the major issues of LBE. Because corrosion in LBE is partly driven by dissolution processes, the solubility and chemical activity of the main elements of the alloy are the key parameters to model the related corrosion processes. Using the Calphad method and the Thermo-Calc software, a thermodynamic database was developed to assess the interaction between Cr-Ni-Fe alloys and LBE. The current thermodynamic data on the Cr-Fe-Ni + Bi-Pb quinary system was reviewed and the Bi-Cr and Cr-Pb binary phase diagrams were assessed. Fe, Cr and Ni solubilities (in at. fraction, T in K) at LBE composition were calculated: Fe solubility at LBE composition: log10 (SFe)=0.5719-4398.6T (399-1173 K) Cr solubility at LBE composition: log10 (SCr)=-0.2757-3056.1T (399-1173 K) Ni solubility at LBE composition: log10 (SNi)=2.8717-2932.9T (528-742 K) log10 (SNi)=0.2871-1006.3T (742-1173 K) Then, the thermodynamic assessment performed in this study was used to predict more accurately the Fe, Cr and Ni activities and solubilities in the case of four austenitic model alloys also studied in the framework of corrosion tests [1]. The calculated activities and solubilities provide thermodynamic data to better understand dissolution or precipitation phenomena observed during LBE corrosion processes.

  15. A simplified analytical method to estimate the bismuth build-up and the polonium activity in LiPb-bearing blankets of a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zimin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Although neutron-induced activation in a fusion reactor is a nonlinear problem whose solution requires the use of both neutron transport and activation codes, a simplified analytical approach to bismuth and polonium build-up in lead is proposed to estimate the polonium inventory and the related biological hazards of LiPb-bearing blankets. All neutronic reactions of polonium build-up in lead and in its bismuth impurities are surveyed and discussed. The contribution of the different possible chains to the build-up of polonium is evaluated. A set of differential equations for the densities of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 210}Po isotopes in the lead is worked into simplified, easy-to-use expressions. These analytical formulas obtained for the densities can be used for the estimation of both the bismuth and the polonium densities after any reactor operation time and allow identification of the build-up mechanisms of those isotopes. A simplified formula for polonium inventory estimations at any blanket zone is proposed as well. The polonium inventory evaluation takes into account the initial conditions (primarily bismuth impurity in the lead) and the reactor operation conditions, such as the average availability of a fusion reactor and the blanket operation scenario. 44 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Battery performance enhancement with additions of bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manders, J. E.; Lam, L. T.; de Marco, R.; Douglas, J. D.; Pillig, R.; Rand, D. A. J.

    1994-02-01

    Automotive and valve-regulated batteries (VRBs) of typical commercial design have been constructed using positive and negative plates produced from leady oxide that is doped with 0.06 wt.% bismuth. The doping is performed by adding bismuth (III) oxide powder during the paste-mixing stage. Both battery designs have been subjected to endurance tests (automotive batteries: JIS cycle-life test; VRBs: repetitive 3-h discharge) in parallel with batteries that are similar in all respects but do not contain bismuth. A strategy and necessary hardware have been developed to measure the gassing properties of the VRBs during both charge and discharge. The procedure involves monitoring the internal pressure with high-precision pressure transducers. For automotive batteries, doping with bismuth produces no significant differences in JIS cycle life. By contrast, both the endurance and the capacity of VRBs are found to be enhanced by the presence of bismuth. Furthermore, bismuth reduces the build-up in gas pressure (mainly oxygen) in VRBs during constant-current charging. These results suggest that future specifications for leady oxide should include a minimum - rather than a maximum - bismuth content. In this respect, although studies performed to date show that significant advantages can be achieved with 0.06 wt.% bismuth in the active material, the optimum bismuth level has yet to be established.

  17. The Practical Activities of German Intellectuals under the Influence of the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilli, Marita

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the activities of German intellectuals who became political activists in France and Germany during the French revolutionary period. Examines how literature became a means to revolutionize the philosophy of these writers. Describes the revolutionary continuum in Germany from the Mainz Republic to the 1848 revolution. (GEA)

  18. A facile and rapid room-temperature route to hierarchical bismuth oxyhalide solid solutions with composition-dependent photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Han, Qiaofeng; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The unique nanosheet-based flower-like BiOCl1-xBrx (x=0-1) hierarchical solid solutions have been prepared by the reaction of Bi2O3 and KCl/KBr in mixed solution of glacial acetic acid (HAc) and H2O in dozens of minutes under ambient conditions. During the preparation process, the intermediate bismuth oxide acetate (CH3COOBiO) plays a key role in the formation of BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions in such a short time. The as-prepared hierarchical BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions possess high specific surface areas and modified band structures, which exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and BiOBr under visible light irradiation, with the activity reaching the maximum at x=0.5. The photodegradation efficiency of the BiOCl0.5Br0.5 solid solution is twice and 12times higher than P25 TiO2 under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively. PMID:27236841

  19. Energetics of bismuth vanadate

    SciTech Connect

    Nagabhushana, G.P.; Tavakoli, A.H.; Navrotsky, A.

    2015-05-15

    Bismuth vanadate has gained considerable interest as a photoanode for water splitting reactions under visible light. It exists in four different polymorphs, out of which three of them have been synthesized. Thermodynamic properties of these three polymorphs are investigated using high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The monoclinic scheelite phase which exhibits photocatalytic activity under visible light is found to be the most stable polymorph, followed by tetragonal scheelite which exhibits activity under UV light. The photocatalytically inactive tetragonal zircon form is found to be the least stable polymorph. The small difference in enthalpy of formation between the two scheelite structures (−8 kJ/mol) is in accord with the reversibility of the transformation between them and the larger difference between the most stable monoclinic phase and the least stable tetragonal zircon phase (−23 kJ/mol) is in accord with the irreversible (monoclinic→tetragonal zircon) phase transformation. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of polymorphic transitions in BiVO{sub 4} along with their formation enthalpies. - Highlights: • Bismuth vanadate crystallizes in three different polymorphs. • High temperature calorimetric measurements were made to determine their formation enthalpies. • Enthalpy of formation decreases in the order BV-ms→BV-ts→BV-tz. • Photocatalytically active monoclinic-BiVO{sub 4} was found to be the most stable polymorph.

  20. γ irradiation induced effects on bismuth active centres and related photoluminescence properties of Bi/Er co-doped optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, D.; Mihai, L.; Neguţ, D.; Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the effects of γ irradiation on bismuth active centres (BACs) and related photoluminescence properties of bismuth/erbium co-doped silica fibre (BEDF), [Si] ~28, [Ge] ~1.60, [Al] ~0.10, [Er] ~ <0.10 and [Bi] ~0.10 atom%, fabricated by in-situ solution doping and Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD). The samples were irradiated at 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy doses, and dose rate of 5.5 kGy/h, at room temperature. The optical properties of BEDF samples are tested before and after γ irradiation. We found that high dose γ irradiation could significantly influence the formation and composition of BACs and their photoluminescence performance, as important changes in absorption and emission properties associated with the 830 nm pump produces the direct evidence of γ irradiation effects on BAC-Si. We notice that the saturable to unsaturable absorption ratio at pump wavelength could be increased with high dose γ irradiation, indicating that emission and pump efficiency could be increased by γ irradiation. Our experimental results also reveal good radiation survivability of the BEDF under low and moderate γ irradiation. Our investigation suggests the existence of irradiation related processing available for tailoring the photoluminescence properties and performance of bismuth doped/co-doped fibres.

  1. γ irradiation induced effects on bismuth active centres and related photoluminescence properties of Bi/Er co-doped optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Sporea, D; Mihai, L; Neguţ, D; Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of γ irradiation on bismuth active centres (BACs) and related photoluminescence properties of bismuth/erbium co-doped silica fibre (BEDF), [Si] ~28, [Ge] ~1.60, [Al] ~0.10, [Er] ~ <0.10 and [Bi] ~0.10 atom%, fabricated by in-situ solution doping and Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD). The samples were irradiated at 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy doses, and dose rate of 5.5 kGy/h, at room temperature. The optical properties of BEDF samples are tested before and after γ irradiation. We found that high dose γ irradiation could significantly influence the formation and composition of BACs and their photoluminescence performance, as important changes in absorption and emission properties associated with the 830 nm pump produces the direct evidence of γ irradiation effects on BAC-Si. We notice that the saturable to unsaturable absorption ratio at pump wavelength could be increased with high dose γ irradiation, indicating that emission and pump efficiency could be increased by γ irradiation. Our experimental results also reveal good radiation survivability of the BEDF under low and moderate γ irradiation. Our investigation suggests the existence of irradiation related processing available for tailoring the photoluminescence properties and performance of bismuth doped/co-doped fibres. PMID:27440386

  2. γ irradiation induced effects on bismuth active centres and related photoluminescence properties of Bi/Er co-doped optical fibres

    PubMed Central

    Sporea, D.; Mihai, L.; Neguţ, D.; Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of γ irradiation on bismuth active centres (BACs) and related photoluminescence properties of bismuth/erbium co-doped silica fibre (BEDF), [Si] ~28, [Ge] ~1.60, [Al] ~0.10, [Er] ~ <0.10 and [Bi] ~0.10 atom%, fabricated by in-situ solution doping and Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD). The samples were irradiated at 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy doses, and dose rate of 5.5 kGy/h, at room temperature. The optical properties of BEDF samples are tested before and after γ irradiation. We found that high dose γ irradiation could significantly influence the formation and composition of BACs and their photoluminescence performance, as important changes in absorption and emission properties associated with the 830 nm pump produces the direct evidence of γ irradiation effects on BAC-Si. We notice that the saturable to unsaturable absorption ratio at pump wavelength could be increased with high dose γ irradiation, indicating that emission and pump efficiency could be increased by γ irradiation. Our experimental results also reveal good radiation survivability of the BEDF under low and moderate γ irradiation. Our investigation suggests the existence of irradiation related processing available for tailoring the photoluminescence properties and performance of bismuth doped/co-doped fibres. PMID:27440386

  3. Ovicidal activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors when fed to adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1990-07-01

    Ovicidal activity was observed in four adult groups (virgin males; virgin females; newly gravid females; and inseminated, reproducing females) of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) at the LC50's and LC95's determined from fifth-stage nymphs. All compounds were active only when fed to reproducing females (including the feeding period in which the ootheca is developing). Hexafluron and triflumuron at the LC50 caused 100% inhibition of hatch in reproducing females. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 at the LC50 had similar ovicidal activity (45.8 and 50.0% hatch, respectively). Female German cockroaches fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors before mating and after the ootheca had protruded from the abdomen were not affected. Reproductive capabilities of males were not affected, and males did not effectively transfer the compounds to untreated females during mating. PMID:2388230

  4. German National Galileo Public Regulated Service (PRS) Testing Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habrich, Heinz; Söhne, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The European Global Navigation System (GNSS) Galileo is going to be established in the near future. Currently, four satellites are in place forming the In-Orbit-Testing (IOT) phase. Within the next years, the constellation will be filled. Full Operational Capability (FOC) will be reached 2019. Beside the Open Service (OS) which is comparable to other OS of existing GNSS, e.g., GPS C/A, there is a so-called Public Regulated Service (PRS) included in the IOT satellites already. The PRS will have improved robustness, i.e. robust signals which will be resistant against involuntary interferences, jamming and spoofing. The PRS signal is encrypted and there will be a restricted access to authorized users, e.g. safety and emergency services, authorities with security task, critical infrastructure organizations etc. The access to the PRS which will be controlled through a special key management will be managed and supervised within the European Union (EU) Member States (MS) by national authorities, the Competent PRS Authority (CPA). But a set of Common Minimum Standards (CMS) will define the minimum requirements applicable to each PRS participant. Nevertheless, each MS is responsible for its national key management. This presentation will inform about the testing activities for Galileo PRS in Germany. The coarse concept for the testing is explained, the schedule is outlined. Finally, the paper will formulate some expectations to the Galileo PRS, e.g. for international cooperation.

  5. Energetics of bismuth vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagabhushana, G. P.; Tavakoli, A. H.; Navrotsky, A.

    2015-05-01

    Bismuth vanadate has gained considerable interest as a photoanode for water splitting reactions under visible light. It exists in four different polymorphs, out of which three of them have been synthesized. Thermodynamic properties of these three polymorphs are investigated using high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The monoclinic scheelite phase which exhibits photocatalytic activity under visible light is found to be the most stable polymorph, followed by tetragonal scheelite which exhibits activity under UV light. The photocatalytically inactive tetragonal zircon form is found to be the least stable polymorph. The small difference in enthalpy of formation between the two scheelite structures (-8 kJ/mol) is in accord with the reversibility of the transformation between them and the larger difference between the most stable monoclinic phase and the least stable tetragonal zircon phase (-23 kJ/mol) is in accord with the irreversible (monoclinic→tetragonal zircon) phase transformation.

  6. Vacancy associates promoting solar-driven photocatalytic activity of ultrathin bismuth oxychloride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Guan, Meili; Xiao, Chong; Zhang, Jie; Fan, Shaojuan; An, Ran; Cheng, Qingmei; Xie, Junfeng; Zhou, Min; Ye, Bangjiao; Xie, Yi

    2013-07-17

    Crystal facet engineering of semiconductors is of growing interest and an important strategy for fine-tuning solar-driven photocatalytic activity. However, the primary factor in the exposed active facets that determines the photocatalytic property is still elusive. Herein, we have experimentally achieved high solar photocatalytic activity in ultrathin BiOCl nanosheets with almost fully exposed active {001} facets and provide some new and deep-seated insights into how the defects in the exposed active facets affect the solar-driven photocatalytic property. As the thickness of the nanosheets reduces to atomic scale, the predominant defects change from isolated defects V(Bi)‴ to triple vacancy associates V(Bi)‴V(O)••V(Bi)‴, which is unambiguously confirmed by the positron annihilation spectra. By virtue of the synergic advantages of enhanced adsorption capability, effective separation of electron–hole pairs and more reductive photoexcited electrons benefited from the V(Bi)‴V(O)••V(Bi)‴ vacancy associates, the ultrathin BiOCl nanosheets show significantly promoted solar-driven photocatalytic activity, even with extremely low photocatalyst loading. The finding of the existence of distinct defects (different from those in bulks) in ultrathin nanosheets undoubtedly leads to new possibilities for photocatalyst design using quasi-two-dimensional materials with high solar-driven photocatalytic activity. PMID:23782301

  7. Impact of Network Activity on the Spread of Infectious Diseases through the German Pig Trade Network

    PubMed Central

    Lebl, Karin; Lentz, Hartmut H. K.; Pinior, Beate; Selhorst, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The trade of livestock is an important and growing economic sector, but it is also a major factor in the spread of diseases. The spreading of diseases in a trade network is likely to be influenced by how often existing trade connections are active. The activity α is defined as the mean frequency of occurrences of existing trade links, thus 0 < α ≤ 1. The observed German pig trade network had an activity of α = 0.11, thus each existing trade connection between two farms was, on average, active at about 10% of the time during the observation period 2008–2009. The aim of this study is to analyze how changes in the activity level of the German pig trade network influence the probability of disease outbreaks, size, and duration of epidemics for different disease transmission probabilities. Thus, we want to investigate the question, whether it makes a difference for a hypothetical spread of an animal disease to transport many animals at the same time or few animals at many times. A SIR model was used to simulate the spread of a disease within the German pig trade network. Our results show that for transmission probabilities <1, the outbreak probability increases in the case of a decreased frequency of animal transports, peaking range of α from 0.05 to 0.1. However, for the final outbreak size, we find that a threshold exists such that finite outbreaks occur only above a critical value of α, which is ~0.1, and therefore in proximity of the observed activity level. Thus, although the outbreak probability increased when decreasing α, these outbreaks affect only a small number of farms. The duration of the epidemic peaks at an activity level in the range of α = 0.2–0.3. Additionally, the results of our simulations show that even small changes in the activity level of the German pig trade network would have dramatic effects on outbreak probability, outbreak size, and epidemic duration. Thus, we can conclude and recommend that the network activity

  8. Stability and toxicity of tris-tolyl bismuth(V) dicarboxylates and their biological activity towards Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Ong, Yih Ching; Blair, Victoria L; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Tuck, Kellie L; Andrews, Philip C

    2015-11-01

    A series of 29 tris-tolyl bismuth(v) di-carboxylato complexes of composition [Bi(Tol)3(O2CR)2] involving either ortho, meta or para substituted tolyl ligands have been synthesized and characterised. Of these 15 were assessed for their toxicity towards Leishmania promastigotes and human fibroblast cells, with ten then being subsequently assessed against parasite amastigotes. The carboxylate ligands are drawn from a series of substituted and biologically relevant benzoic acids which allow a comparison with earlier studies on [BiPh3(O2CR)2] and analogous Sb(v) [SbAr3(O2CR)2] (Ar = Ph and Tol) complexes. Twelve complexes have been structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and shown to adopt a typical trigonal bipyramidal geometry in which the three tolyl ligands occupy the equatorial plane. NMR studies on two illustrative examples indicate that the complexes are stable in D2O and DMSO but only have a half-life of 1.2 hours in culture medium, with glucose being a contributing factor in decomposition and reduction to Bi(Tol)3. Despite their short lifetime many complexes show significant toxicity towards promastigotes at low concentration (<6 μM) and at that concentration provide for good selectivity indices (parasite vs. mammalian cells), for example 114 for [Bi(o-Tol)3(O2CC6H3(2-OH,5-C6H3(2,4-F2)))2] and 838 for [Bi(m-Tol)3(O2CC6H4(2-OAc))2]. Best activity and selectivity is observed with complexes containing o- and m-tolyl ligands, and it appears the primary influence on fibroblast toxicity is the Ar ligand while the carboxylate influences promastigote toxicity. The complexes are less effective in vitro against the parasite amastigotes, where longer incubation times and harsher chemical and biological environments are encountered in the assay. Nevertheless, there were some statistically relevant differences at 1 μM against the positive controls with the best performing complexes being [Bi(o-Tol)3(O2CC6H4(2-EtO))2] and [Bi(m-Tol)3(O2CC6H4(2-OAc))2

  9. Effect of bismuth doping on the ZnO nanocomposite material and study of its photocatalytic activity under UV-light

    SciTech Connect

    Chandraboss, V.L.; Natanapatham, L.; Karthikeyan, B.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Prabha, S.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The hetero-junctions that are formed between the ZnO and the Bi provide an internal electric field that facilitates separation of the electron-hole pairs and induces faster carrier migration. Thus they often enhanced photocatalytic reaction. - Highlights: • Bi-doped ZnO nanocomposite material was prepared by precipitation method. • Characterized by XRD, HR-SEM with EDX, UV–visible DRS and FT-RAMAN analysis. • Bi-doped ZnO nanocomposite material was used to photodegradation of Congo red. • Mechanism and photocatalytic effect of nanocomposite material have been discussed. - Abstract: Bismuth (Bi)-doped ZnO nanocomposite material was prepared by precipitation method with doping precursors of bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and oxalic acid, characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, UV–visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV–visible DRS) and Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-RAMAN) analysis. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Bi-doped ZnO is demonstrated through photodegradation of Congo red under UV-light irradiation. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of Bi-doped ZnO nanocomposite material has been discussed.

  10. Physical activity is not associated with spirometric indices in lung-healthy German youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maia P; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffmann, Barbara; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-08-01

    In lung disease, physical activity improves lung function and reduces morbidity. However, healthy populations are not well studied. We estimate the relationship between spirometric indices and accelerometric physical activity in lung-healthy adolescents.895 nonsmoking German adolescents without chronic lung disease (45% male, mean±sd age 15.2±0.26 years) from the GINIplus and LISAplus cohorts completed questionnaires, spirometry, 7-day accelerometry and an activity diary. Physical activity was measured as minutes, quintiles and regularity of daily moderate, vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), participation in sport and active commuting to school. Primary outcomes were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC; they were separately correlated with physical activity and adjusted for confounders of respiratory function, including early-life exposures.Adolescents averaged 40 min MVPA per day, typical for European youth. 79% participated in sports and 51% commuted actively. An association was suggested between 3% higher FVC (∼100 mL) and either extreme MVPA quintile or percentage of days with >30 min MVPA (p<0.05). However, after Bonferroni correction all associations between spirometry, active lifestyle and physical activity were nonsignificant.Spirometric indices were not significantly associated with active lifestyle or measures of activity in lung-healthy adolescents after adjustment for confounding and multiple-comparison artefacts. PMID:27009173

  11. Effects of a neonicotinoid insecticide (acetamiprid) on acetylcholinesterase activity and cuticular hydrocarbons profil in German cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Morakchi, S; Maïza, A; Farine, P; Aribi, N; Soltani, N

    2005-01-01

    Acetamiprid was incorporated into the diet at 2% dose corresponding to the LD50 and orally administrated to newly emerged adults of the German cockroach Blattella germanica and investigated on acetylcholinesterase activity and cuticular hydrocarbons profil. Acetylcholinesterase specific activity was determined on adult males and females after 24, 48 and 72 hours of treatment. Pentanic extracts of cuticular hydrocarbons in males and females after 6 days of treatment were analysed by gas chromatography. Data revealed an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in both sexes from the control series. However, a significant inhibition in AChE was observed after treatment at 24, 48 and 72 hours especially in females. In addition, hydrocarbons profils were found qualitatively similar in all groups of insects. However, slight quantitative differences between sexes in control series were noted. Acetamiprid feminize the cuticular profil in males with significant reduction of cuticular compound, and these allowed separation of insects into two groups using multivariate analysis. PMID:16628926

  12. Metabolism of bismuth subsalicylate and intracellular accumulation of bismuth by Fusarium sp. strain BI.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Anthony G; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2005-02-01

    Enrichment cultures were conducted using bismuth subsalicylate as the sole source of carbon and activated sludge as the inoculum. A pure culture was obtained and identified as a Fusarium sp. based on spore morphology and partial sequences of 18S rRNA, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, and beta-tubulin genes. The isolate, named Fusarium sp. strain BI, grew to equivalent densities when using salicylate or bismuth subsalicylate as carbon sources. Bismuth nitrate at concentrations of up to 200 muM did not limit growth of this organism on glucose. The concentration of soluble bismuth in suspensions of bismuth subsalicylate decreased during growth of Fusarium sp. strain BI. Transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed that the accumulated bismuth was localized in phosphorus-rich granules distributed in the cytoplasm and vacuoles. Long-chain polyphosphates were extracted from fresh biomass grown on bismuth subsalicylate, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry showed that these fractions also contained high concentrations of bismuth. Enzyme activity assays of crude extracts of Fusarium sp. strain BI showed that salicylate hydroxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were induced during growth on salicylate, indicating that this organism degrades salicylate by conversion of salicylate to catechol, followed by ortho cleavage of the aromatic ring. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was not detected. Fusarium sp. strain BI grew with several other aromatic acids as carbon sources: benzoate, 3-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, gentisate, d-mandelate, l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, phenylacetate, 3-hydroxyphenylacetate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, and phenylpropionate. PMID:15691943

  13. National Report Germany: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Research Activities Supported by the German Space Programme in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, R.; Gritzner, C.; Friedrichs, D.

    2015-09-01

    Mainly sounding rockets but also stratospheric balloons have played a crucial role in implementing the German Space Programme since many years. Research activities were conducted in the fields of Microgravity Research, Space Science, Earth Observation, Space Technology Development, and Education. Currently, the mesosphere and ionosphere of the Earth and the photosphere and chromosphere of the Sun are in the focus of German research activities in the field of Space Science. Microgravity related topics are studied in the disciplines of Life and Physical Sciences during ballistic TEXUS and MAPHEUS rocket flights. A lot of student activities are currently supported by the agencies SNSB and DLR under the auspices of the Swedish-German programme REXUS/BEXUS.

  14. Tribochemistry of Bismuth and Bismuth Salts for Solid Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Pablo; van den Nieuwenhuijzen, Karin J H; Lette, Walter; Schipper, Dik J; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2016-03-23

    One of the main trends in the past decades is the reduction of wastage and the replacement of toxic compounds in industrial processes. Some soft metallic particles can be used as nontoxic solid lubricants in high-temperature processes. The behavior of bismuth metal particles, bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), bismuth sulfate (Bi2(SO4)3), and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) as powder lubricants was studied in a range of temperatures up to 580 °C. The mechanical behavior was examined using a high-temperature pin-on-disc setup, with which the friction force between two flat-contact surfaces was recorded. The bismuth-lubricated surfaces showed low coefficients of friction (μ ≈ 0.08) below 200 °C. Above the melting temperature of the metal powder at 271 °C, a layer of bismuth oxide developed and the friction coefficient increased. Bismuth oxide showed higher friction coefficients at all temperatures. Bismuth sulfide exhibited partial oxidation upon heating but the friction coefficient decreased to μ ≈ 0.15 above 500 °C, with the formation of bismuth oxide-sulfate, while some bismuth sulfate remained. All surfaces were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), confocal microscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). This study reveals how the partial oxidation of bismuth compounds at high temperatures affects their lubrication properties, depending on the nature of the bismuth compound. PMID:26936490

  15. Magnetometer uses bismuth-selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollman, J. A.; Spain, I. L.; Beale, H.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of bismuth-selenide magnetometer are described. Advantages of bismuth-selenide magnetometer over standard magnetometers are stressed. Thermal stability of bismuth-selenide magnetometer is analyzed. Linearity of output versus magnetic field over wide range of temperatures is reported.

  16. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  17. Bismuth-doped optical fibres: A new breakthrough in near-IR lasing media

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-09-30

    Recent results demonstrate that bismuth-doped optical fibres have considerable potential as near-IR active lasing media. This paper examines bismuth-doped fibres intended for the fabrication of fibre lasers and optical amplifiers and reviews recent results on the luminescence properties of various types of bismuth-doped fibres and the performance of bismuth-doped fibre lasers and optical amplifiers for the spectral range 1150 - 1550 nm. Problems are discussed that have yet to be solved in order to improve the efficiency of the bismuth lasers and optical amplifiers. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  18. U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP PHASE 3 ACTIVITIES-AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) de...

  19. Valley polarization in bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  20. Efficiency of the Activated Sludge Model no. 3 for German wastewater on six different WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Wichern, M; Lübken, M; Blömer, R; Rosenwinkel, K H

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, the Activated Sludge Model No. 3 by the IWA Task Group on Mathematical Modelling for the Design and Operation of Biological Wastewater Treatment was presented. The model is used for the simulation of nitrogen removal. The simulations in this paper were done on the basis of a new calibration of the ASM 3 by Koch et al., with the easily degradable COD measured by respiration. For modelling of EBPR the BioP-Module of Rieger et al., was used. Six German wastewater treatment plants were simulated during this research to test the existing set of parameters of the models on various large scale plants. It was shown that changes for nitrification and enhanced biological phosphorus removal in the set of biological parameters were necessary. Sensible parameters and recommended values are presented in this article. Apart from the values of the changed biological parameters, we will in our examination discuss the modelling of the different activated sludge systems and the influent fractioning of the COD. Two plants with simultaneous denitrification in the recirculation ditch (EBPR) are simulated, one with preliminary dentrification, one with intermittent denitrification (EBPR), one with cascade denitrification (EBPR), and one pilot plant according to the Johannesburg-process (EBPR) which was simulated over a period of three months. PMID:12906292

  1. Standardization of autoimmune diagnostics in Germany: activities of the German group in the European Autoimmune Standardization Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sack, Ulrich; Conrad, Karsten; Csernok, Elena; Frank, Ingrid; Haass, Michael; Krieger, Thorsten; Seyfarth, Michael; Schlosser, Udo; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Witte, Torsten

    2007-08-01

    The German Regional Group of EASI was established during the annual Meeting of the German Society of Immunology in Kiel in September 2005. Since this initial informative meeting, an active core group of about a dozen rheumatologists, immunologists, and laboratory specialists has been generating starter projects. In general, these projects do focus on clinically associated diagnostic questions, and do integrate a variety of specialists with profound knowledge in several related subjects. The aims of the German EASI group are to contribute to the definition of standards and to improve patient care. Therefore, the group is establishing guidelines for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, to standardize and improve their quality, combining the experience of clinical and laboratory specialists. The diagnostic activities focus currently on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and on rheumatoid arthritis. These activities include laboratory investigations and diagnosis through clinical manifestations. Standardized diagnostics cannot be based solely on vague symptoms and positive laboratory tests. In laboratory diagnostics, standardization and implementation of objective methods for the detection of autoantibodies has been identified as a central challenge. Here, immune fluorescence techniques and the evaluation of RibP are used as first parameters that could improve SLE diagnostics. Furthermore, guidelines and proposals from scientific medical organizations, and in particular from other national EASI groups will be adapted to the German health system. A cornerstone of implementation is the identification and logistic preparation of existing serum banks, the definition of gaps that should be bridged, and, particularly, the definition and collection of adequate control groups. Through these measures, the German EASI group will provide a standardized diagnostic model of autoimmune disorders throughout Europe starting in the field of rheumatology. Diagnostics may become more

  2. German cockroach proteases and protease-activated receptor-2 regulate chemokine production and dendritic cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Day, Scottie B; Ledford, John R; Zhou, Ping; Lewkowich, Ian P; Page, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that serine proteases in German cockroach (GC) feces (frass) decreased experimental asthma through the activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2. Since dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in the initiation of asthma, we queried the role of GC frass proteases in modulating CCL20 (chemokine C-C motif ligand 20) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production, factors that regulate pulmonary DCs. A single exposure to GC frass resulted in a rapid, but transient, increase in GM-CSF and a steady increase in CCL20 in the airways of mice. Instillation of protease-depleted GC frass or instillation of GC frass in PAR-2-deficient mice significantly decreased chemokine release. A specific PAR-2-activating peptide was also sufficient to induce CCL20 production. To directly assess the role of the GC frass protease in chemokine release, we enriched the protease from GC frass and confirmed that the protease was sufficient to induce both GM-CSF and CCL20 production in vivo. Primary airway epithelial cells produced both GM-CSF and CCL20 in a protease- and PAR-2-dependent manner. Finally, we show a decreased percentage of myeloid DCs in the lung following allergen exposure in PAR-2-deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. However, there was no difference in GC frass uptake. Our data indicate that, through the activation of PAR-2, allergen-derived proteases are sufficient to induce CCL20 and GM-CSF production in the airways. This leads to increased recruitment and/or differentiation of myeloid DC populations in the lungs and likely plays an important role in the initiation of allergic airway responses. PMID:21876326

  3. THORIUM DISPERSION IN BISMUTH

    DOEpatents

    Bryner, J.S.

    1961-07-01

    The growth of thorium bismutaide particles, which are formed when thorium is suspended in liquid bismuth, is inhibited when the liquid metal suspension is being flowed through a reactor and through a heat exchanger in sequence. It involves the addition of as little as 1 part by weight of tellurium to 100 parts of thorium. This addition is sufficient to inhibit particle growth and agglomeration.

  4. Development of a direct evaporation bismuth Hall thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Dean Richard

    Hall thrusters have been under active development around the world since the 1960's. Thrusters using traditional propellants such as xenon have been flown on a variety of satellite orbit raising and maintenance missions with an excellent record. To expand the mission envelope, it is necessary to lower the specific impulse of the thrusters but xenon and krypton are poor performers at specific impulses below 1,200 seconds. To enhance low specific impulse performance, this dissertation examines the development of a Hall-effect thruster which uses bismuth as a propellant. Bismuth, the heaviest non-radioactive element, holds many advantages over noble gas propellants from an energetics as well as a practical economic standpoint. Low ionization energy, large electron-impact cross-section and high atomic mass make bismuth ideal for low-specific impulse applications. The primary disadvantage lies in the high temperatures which are required to generate the bismuth vapors. Previous efforts carried out in the Soviet Union relied upon the complete bismuth vaporization and gas phase delivery to the anode. While this proved successful, the power required to vaporize and maintain gas phase throughout the mass flow system quickly removed many of the efficiency gains expected from using bismuth. To solve these problems, a unique method of delivering liquid bismuth to the anode has been developed. Bismuth is contained within a hollow anode reservoir that is capped by a porous metallic disc. By utilizing the inherent waste heat generated in a Hall thruster, liquid bismuth is evaporated and the vapors pass through the porous disc into the discharge chamber. Due to the high temperatures and material compatibility requirements, the anode was fabricated out of pure molybdenum. The porous vaporizer was not available commercially so a method of creating a refractory porous plate with 40-50% open porosity was developed. Molybdenum also does not respond well to most forms of welding so a

  5. Dielectric investigations of polycrystalline samarium bismuth ferrite ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Palaimiene, E.; Macutkevic, J.; Banys, J.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2015-01-05

    Results of broadband dielectric investigations of samarium doped bismuth ferrite ceramics are presented in wide temperature range (20–800 K). At temperatures higher than 400 K, the dielectric properties of samarium bismuth ferrite ceramics are governed by Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and electrical conductivity. The DC conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with samarium concentration. In samarium doped bismuth ferrite, the ferroelectric phase transition temperature decreases with samarium concentration and finally no ferroelectric order is observed at x = 0.2. At lower temperatures, the dielectric properties of ferroelectric samarium doped bismuth ferrite are governed by ferroelectric domains dynamics. Ceramics with x = 0.2 exhibit the relaxor-like behaviour.

  6. Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Firstov, Sergei V; Shubin, Aleksei V; Khopin, V F; Mel'kumov, Mikhail A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Medvedkov, O I; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2011-07-31

    We report the first cw bismuth - germanium codoped silica fibre laser with an output power above 20 W at 1460 nm and 50% optical efficiency. The laser operates on a transition between energy levels of bismuth-related active centres associated with silicon. The incorporation of a small amount ({approx}5 mol %) of germanium into the core of bismuth-doped silica fibre has little effect on its luminescence spectrum but reduces optical losses, which limit the laser efficiency. (letters)

  7. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  12. Investigation of CO2 induced biogeochemical reactions and active microorganisms of two German gas fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoth, N.; Kassahun, A.; Seifert, J.; Krüger, M.; Bretschneider, H.; Gniese, C.; Frerichs, J.; Simon, A.; Simon, E.; Muschalle, T.

    2009-04-01

    The BMBF-Geotechnologien project "RECOBIO 2" continues the investigation of the long-term biogeochemical transformation of stored CO2. In addition to the Upper Carboniferous gas reservoir Schneeren (Westphalian C) the almost depleted Altmark gas field (Permian - Upper Rotliegend) is also investigated. Both sandstone reservoirs belong to the North German Basin and are operated by the GDF SUEZ E&P Germany (GDF SUEZ). The reservoirs differ in depth, initial and current fluid pressure as well as reservoir temperature, which is a biogeochemical important parameter. While the uplifted horst structure of Schneeren (approx. depth 2700 m) has a temperature level of 80 - 90 °C, the Altmark gas field (approx. depth 3300 m) shows temperatures around 120 °C. The Altmark site is known to be favourable for underground CO2-storage by enhanced gas recovery (EGR). This EGR process is operated by GDF SUEZ at the small and hydraulic isolated reservoir block "Altensalzwedel". This pilot test is accompanied by the scientific large-scale project CLEAN. In addition the RECOBIO2 project characterises the biogeochemical situation of the both large reservoir blocks of the Altmark gas field - „Salzwedel/ Peckensen" and „Heidberg/ Mellin". The produced formation waters of these reservoir blocks were sampled on different wellheads. The redox potentials are partly very low (Eh up to -300 mV) with slightly acidic pH-values (5,5 to 6). The high saline and (nearly) sulphate free formation waters of Na/Ca-Cl type have very high loads of Zn, Pb, Hg and As. In combination to the analysed DOC levels the talk discusses the importance of metal organic complexes. Also results of fluid geochemical calculations will be presented. Furthermore the diversity of bacteria and archaea of the formation waters as well as the potentials of CH4-, CO2-formation and sulphate reduction will be shown. Therefore the cultivation experiments were carried out with different substrates (H2/CO2, acetate, methanol). It

  13. Bismuth ochers from San Diego Co., California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaller, W.T.

    1911-01-01

    The chief points brought out in this paper may be briefly summarized as follows: (1) The existence of natural Bi2O3 has not been established. (2) Natural bismite or bismuth ocher, when pure, is more probably a bismuth hydroxide. (3) The bismuth ochers from San Diego County, California, are either a bismuth hydroxide or bismuth vanadate, pucherite, or mixtures of these two. (4) Pucherite has been found noncrystallin and determined for the first time in the United States.

  14. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  15. Bismuth(III) deferiprone effectively inhibits growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774.

    PubMed

    Barton, Larry L; Lyle, Daniel A; Ritz, Nathaniel L; Granat, Alex S; Khurshid, Ali N; Kherbik, Nada; Hider, Robert; Lin, Henry C

    2016-04-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis in humans and there is an interest in inhibiting the growth of these sulfide-producing bacteria. This research explores the use of several chelators of bismuth to determine the most effective chelator to inhibit the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. For our studies, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was grown with nitrate as the electron acceptor and chelated bismuth compounds were added to test for inhibition of growth. Varying levels of inhibition were attributed to bismuth chelated with subsalicylate or citrate but the most effective inhibition of growth by D. desulfuricans was with bismuth chelated by deferiprone, 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-pyridone. Growth of D. desulfuricans was inhibited by 10 μM bismuth as deferiprone:bismuth with either nitrate or sulfate respiration. Our studies indicate deferiprone:bismuth has bacteriostatic activity on D. desulfuricans because the inhibition can be reversed following exposure to 1 mM bismuth for 1 h at 32 °C. We suggest that deferiprone is an appropriate chelator for bismuth to control growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria because deferiprone is relatively nontoxic to animals, including humans, and has been used for many years to bind Fe(III) in the treatment of β-thalassemia. PMID:26896170

  16. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants. PMID:25666499

  17. Boron-doped bismuth oxybromide microspheres with enhanced surface hydroxyl groups: Synthesis, characterization and dramatic photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, ZhangSheng; Liu, JinLong; Wang, HaiYang; Cao, Gang; Niu, JiNan

    2016-02-01

    B-doped BiOBr photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method with boric acid used as boron source. As-obtained products consist of novel hierarchical microspheres, whose nanosheet building units were formed by nanoparticles splicing. They showed dramatic photocatalytic efficiency toward the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under the visible-light irradiation and the highest activity was achieved by 0.075B-BiOBr. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the enriched surface hydroxyl groups on B-doped BiOBr samples, which not only improved the adsorption of pollutant on the photocatalyst but also promoted the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In addition, it was found that the main reactive species responsible for the degradation of organic pollutant were h(+) and O2(-) radicals, instead of OH radicals. PMID:26590875

  18. Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}co-doped bismuth molybdate nanosheets upconversion photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Cho, Sung Hun; Narro-García, R.; Sekino, Tohru; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, we report the microwave hydrothermal synthesis of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} upconversion photocatalyst. Crystal structure, morphology, elemental composition, optical properties and BET surface area were analyzed in detail. Infrared to visible upconversion luminescence at 532 nm and 546 nm of the co-doped samples was investigated under excitation at 980 nm. The results revealed that the co-doping of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the energy transfer between Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} and Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} via infrared to visible upconversion from Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} ion and higher surface area of the Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets. Therefore, this synthetic approach may exhibit a better alternative to fabricate upconversion photocatalyst for integral solar light absorption. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the upconversion photocatalysis. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} upconversion photocatalyst is successfully synthesized. • We obtained the nanosheets having high surface area. • Upconversion of IR to visible light was confirmed. • Upconversion phenomena can be utilized for effective photocatalysis.

  19. A facile one-step solvothermal synthesis of bismuth phosphate-graphene nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Gehong; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Miaomiao; Yan, Ming; Fan, Weiqiang; Shi, Weidong

    2014-12-01

    A facile one-step solvothermal approach was developed to synthesize BiPO4-graphene (BP-RGO) nanocomposites using ethylene glycol/water as the solvent and reducing agent. During the solvothermal reaction, both the effective reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and the growth of rod-shaped BiPO4 as well as its deposition on graphene occurred simultaneously. The as-obtained BP-2%RGO nanocomposite showed the highest photocatalytic activity toward the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO), which was about 2.0 and 1.5 times as high as that of pure BiPO4 and physical mixture of BiPO4 and graphene, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of BP-2%RGO nanocomposite is attributed to a larger surface area, much increased adsorption capacity, and more effective charge transportations and separations arisen from the introduction of graphene along with the intimate interfacial contact between BiPO4 and graphene. This work highlights the significant effect of solvothermal method and introduction of graphene on the photoactivity of graphene-based nanocomposites. It is expected that this method could aid to fabricate more efficient graphene-based photocatalysts with improved interfacial contact and photocatalytic performance for environmental remediation. PMID:25259660

  20. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-01

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:25664467

  1. Bismuth(III) complexes with 2-acetylpyridine- and 2-benzoylpyridine-derived hydrazones: Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities and effects on the clonogenic survival of human solid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabella P; Piló, Elisa D L; Recio-Despaigne, Angel A; Da Silva, Jeferson G; Ramos, Jonas P; Marques, Lucas B; Prazeres, Pedro H D M; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Rocha, Willian; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-07-01

    Complexes [Bi(2AcPh)Cl2]·0.5H2O (1), [Bi(2AcpClPh)Cl2] (2), [Bi(2AcpNO2Ph)Cl2] (3), [Bi(2AcpOHPh)Cl2]·2H2O (4), [Bi(H2BzPh)Cl3]·2H2O (5), [Bi(H2BzpClPh)Cl3] (6), [Bi(2BzpNO2Ph)Cl2]·2H2O (7) and [Bi(H2BzpOHPh)Cl3]·2H2O (8) were obtained with 2-acetylpyridine phenylhydrazone (H2AcPh), its -para-chloro-phenyl- (H2AcpClPh), -para-nitro-phenyl (H2AcpNO2Ph) and -para-hydroxy-phenyl (H2AcpOHPh) derivatives, as well as with the 2-benzoylpyridine phenylhydrazone analogues (H2BzPh, H2BzpClPh, H2BzpNO2Ph, H2BzpOHPh). Upon coordination to bismuth(III) antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains significantly improved except for complex (4). The cytotoxic effects of the compounds under study were evaluated on HL-60, Jurkat and THP-1 leukemia, and on MCF-7 and HCT-116 solid tumor cells, as well as on non-malignant Vero cells. In general, 2-acetylpyridine-derived hydrazones proved to be more potent and more selective as cytotoxic agents than the corresponding 2-benzoylpyridine-derived counterparts. Exposure of HCT-116 cells to H2AcpClPh, H2AcpNO2Ph and complex (3) led to 99% decrease of the clonogenic survival. The IC50 values of these compounds were three-fold smaller when cells were cultured in soft-agar (3D) than when cells were cultured in monolayer (2D), suggesting that they constitute interesting scaffolds, which should be considered in further studies aiming to develop new drug candidates for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27209169

  2. Growth mechanism and photocatalytic activity of self-organized N-doped (BiO)₂CO₃ hierarchical nanosheet microspheres from bismuth citrate and urea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fan; Xiong, Ting; Wang, Rui; Sun, Yanjuan; Jiang, Yanke

    2014-05-14

    Synthesis of nano-/microstructured functional materials with 3D hierarchical microspheres structure has provided new opportunities for optimizing their physical and chemical properties. This work revealed a new growth mechanism of self-organized N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres which were fabricated by hydrothermal treatment of bismuth citrate and urea without an additive. Based on time-dependent observation, several evolution processes were believed to account for the formation of the self-organized N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres. Initially, crystallized (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 particles were formed during the nucleation and crystallization processes. Subsequently, the intermediate (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 reacted with CO3(2-) to generate (BiO)2CO3 growth nuclei on the surface of the CO2 bubbles which can act as heterogeneous nucleation centers. Next, the (BiO)2CO3 growth nuclei aggregated together after the consumption of CO2 bubbles with the increased concentration of OH(-) and further grew to be nanosheets. The microspheres constructed by small nanosheets further grew with the consumption of small particles. Finally, all (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 transformed to the (BiO)2CO3 phase, accompanied by the doping of N element into the lattice of (BiO)2CO3, and thereby, the well-defined N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres were shaped. Depending on the distance between neighboring CO2 bubbles, the resulting microspheres can be linked or dispersed. Besides, the gradual release of CO2 bubbles and CO3(2-) played a crucial role in controlling the nucleation and growth process, resulting in different sizes of microspheres. The fabricated N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres displayed admirably efficient and durable photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light towards removal of NO, which is mainly attributed to the introduction of N element and the special hierarchical structure. This work provides new insights into the controlled synthesis of

  3. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Bismuth Precursor by Rapid Phase and Surface Transformation Using Structure-Guided Combustion Waves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Yeol; Hwang, Hayoung; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Wonjoon

    2016-02-10

    The development of an efficient method for manipulating phase and surface transformations would facilitate the improvement of catalytic materials for use in a diverse range of applications. Herein, we present the first instance of a submicrosecond time frame direct phase and surface transformation of Bi(NO3)3 rods to nanoporous β-Bi2O3 rods via structure-guided combustion waves. Hybrid composites of the prepared Bi(NO3)3·H2O rods and organic fuel were fabricated by a facile preparation method. The anisotropic propagation of combustion waves along the interfacial boundaries of Bi(NO3)3·H2O rods induced direct phase transformation to β-Bi2O3 rods in the original structure due to the rapid pyrolysis, while the release of gas molecules enabled the formation of nanoporous structures on the surfaces of rods. The developed β-Bi2O3 rods showed improved photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of rhodamine B in comparison with Bi(NO3)3·H2O rods and α-Bi2O3 rods due to the more suitable interdistance and the large contact areas of the porous surfaces. This new method of using structure-guided combustion waves for phase and surface transformation may contribute to the development of new catalysts as well as the precise manipulation of diverse micronanostructured materials. PMID:26765959

  4. Mineral resource of the month: bismuth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth compounds are most known for their soothing effects on the stomach, wounds and sores. These properties make the compounds an essential part of many medicinal and cosmetic preparations, which until 1930 accounted for about 90 percent of the bismuth used. The subsequent development of low-melting alloys and chemical catalysts containing bismuth, as well as its use as an additive to casting alloys, has resulted in a wider variety of industrial applications for bismuth.

  5. 21 CFR 73.1162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.1162 Section 73.1162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride is a synthetically prepared white or nearly white amorphous or...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.1162 Section 73.1162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride is a synthetically prepared white or nearly white amorphous or...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.1162 Section 73.1162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride is a synthetically prepared white or nearly white amorphous or...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.2162 Section 73.2162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.2162 Section 73.2162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.2162 Section 73.2162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.2162 Section 73.2162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.2162 Section 73.2162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.1162 Section 73.1162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride is a synthetically prepared white or nearly white amorphous or...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1162 - Bismuth oxychloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bismuth oxychloride. 73.1162 Section 73.1162 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1162 Bismuth oxychloride. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bismuth oxychloride is a synthetically prepared white or nearly white amorphous or...

  15. Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300 - 1500 K

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoretskii, D A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Zlenko, Alexander S; Khopin, V F; Semjonov, S L; Guryanov, Aleksei N; Denisov, L K; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-09-30

    The visible and near-IR absorption and luminescence bands of bismuth-doped silica and germanosilicate fibres have been measured for the first time as a function of temperature. The temperature-dependent IR luminescence lifetime of a bismuth-related active centre associated with silicon in the germanosilicate fibre has been determined. The Bi{sup 3+} profile across the silica fibre preform is shown to differ markedly from the distribution of IR-emitting bismuth centres associated with silicon. The present results strongly suggest that the IR-emitting bismuth centre comprises a lowvalence bismuth ion and an oxygen-deficient glass network defect. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  16. Determination of nanogram amounts of bismuth in rocks by substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L. Paul; Campbell, E.Y.

    1972-01-01

    A rapid procedure suitable for the routine determination of 1-10 ng of bismuth in a silicate rock matrix is described. Results for the U.S. Geological Survey standard rocks are presented. Rocks and minerals are dissolved in hydrofluoric-perchloric acid in the presence of 207Bi tracer and the silica is removed by evaporation. The perchloric acid residue is taken up in water and bismuth iodide is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone. After three acid-iodide washes, the bismuth is stripped into water and reacted with a substoichiometric amount of EDTA. Excess of bismuth is extracted as the iodide and the specific activity of the bismuth-EDTA complex is determined. ?? 1972.

  17. Bismuth-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers for a spectral region of 1600-1800  nm.

    PubMed

    Firstov, Sergei; Alyshev, Sergey; Melkumov, Mikhail; Riumkin, Konstantin; Shubin, Alexey; Dianov, Evgeny

    2014-12-15

    Bismuth-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers operating in 1625-1775 nm range have been developed for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Now the existing bismuth-doped lasers, including the result presented in this Letter, can cover O, E, S, C, L, and U telecommunication bands. In addition, new data on the nature of the bismuth-related active center were obtained and discussed. PMID:25503032

  18. Unusual anti-thermal degradation of bismuth NIR luminescence in bismuth doped lithium tantalum silicate laser glasses.

    PubMed

    Tan, Linling; Wang, Liping; Peng, Mingying; Xu, Shanhui; Zhang, Qinyuan

    2016-08-01

    For application of bismuth laser glasses in either fiber amplifier or laser, their performance stability in long run should be understood especially in extreme conditions. However, so far, there are few reports on it. Here, we found, after the cycle experiments on heating and cooling, that the proper increase of lithium content in lithium tantalum silicate laser glass can lead to unusual anti-thermal degradation of bismuth NIR luminescence, which completely differs from the scenario in germanate glass. FTIR, 29Si MAS NMR spectra, absorption and dynamic photoluminescence spectra are employed to unravel how this happens. The results illustrate that it should be due to the decrease of polymerization of silicate glass network, which in turn allows the regeneration at 250°C, and therefore, the content increase of bismuth NIR emission centers. In the meanwhile, we noticed though Bi luminescence can be thermally quenched its peak does not shift along with temperature, which seldom appears in laser materials. The unique property might guarantee the unshift of Bi fiber laser wavelength once such glass was made into fiber devices even as the environmental temperature changes. The role of lithium is discussed in the evolution of glass structures, the suppression of glass heterogeneity, and the thermal stability of Bi luminescence, and it should be helpful to design homogeneous silicate laser glass with outstanding thermal stability. PMID:27505827

  19. IR sensors and applications: an overview of activities sponsored by the German Ministry of Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Hartmut

    1998-10-01

    During the last ten years, the impact of infrared and laser devices on surveillance and weapon systems has rapidly increased. Compared to the technology used in the first generation of devices and systems, today's technology has reached a higher level of maturity, allowing such advanced infrared and laser devices to be integrated in a variety of military applications. In Germany, the definition of infrared and laser sensors has changed in the last 10 years, and is almost used synonymously with the complete integration of sensor hardware and sophisticated signal and image processing instead of just considering 'pure' device technologies. This new understanding shows the challenge for future applications and defines the basic methodology for planning the research efforts to improve the use of infrared and laser devices in military systems. This determines the basic elements for future research and development support by the German government: (1) Next generation of infrared detectors (quantum well and superlattices), (2) Thermal imagers, (3) Windows for IR and radar sensors, (4) Multifunction laser sensors, (5) Image processing and pattern recognition, (6) Demonstrators for sensors.

  20. Thermal, structural and electrical studies of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

    2013-06-01

    Bismuth Zinc Borate glasses with compositions xBi2O3-30ZnO-(70 - x)B2O3 (where x = 30, 35, 40 and 45 mol %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and Broad Band Dielectric Spectrometer (BDS). DTA and FTIR analysis reveals that Non-Bridging Oxygens (NBOs) increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Electrical data have been analyzed in the framework of impedance and modulus formalisms. The activation energy for dc conductivity decreases with increase of bismuth concentration. The imaginary part of modulus spectra has been fitted to non-exponential Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function and the value of the stretched exponent (β) is found to be almost independent of temperature but slightly dependent on composition.

  1. Anti-Stokes luminescence in bismuth-doped silica and germania-based fibers.

    PubMed

    Firstov, Sergei V; Khopin, Vladimir F; Velmiskin, Vladimir V; Firstova, Elena G; Bufetov, Igor A; Guryanov, Alexei N; Dianov, Evgeny M

    2013-07-29

    Luminescence excitation spectra of active centers in bismuth-doped vitreous SiO(2) and vitreous GeO(2) optical fibers under the two-step excitation have been obtained for the first time. The results revealed only one bismuth-related IR active center formed in each of these fibers. The observed IR luminescence bands at 1430 nm (1650 nm) and 830 nm (950 nm), yellow-orange (red) band at 580 nm (655 nm), violet (blue) band at 420 nm (480 nm) belong to this bismuth-related active center in the vitreous SiO(2) (vitreous GeO(2)), correspondingly. PMID:23938712

  2. Electrical and optical properties of gadolinium doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, A. Banerjee, M. Basu, S.; Pal, M.

    2014-04-24

    Multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BFO) and gadolinium (Gd) doped bismuth ferrite had been synthesized by a sol-gel method. Particle size had been estimated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found to decrease with Gd doping. We studied the temperature and frequency dependence of impedance and electric modulus and calculated the grain and grain boundary resistance and capacitance of the investigated samples. We observed that electrical activation energy increases for all the doped samples. Optical band gap also increases for the doped samples which can be used in photocatalytic application of BFO.

  3. Effects of Fertilization and Sampling Time on Composition and Diversity of Entire and Active Bacterial Communities in German Grassland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Sarah; Wemheuer, Franziska; Wemheuer, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria are major players in driving and regulating ecosystem processes. Thus, the identification of factors shaping the diversity and structure of these communities is crucial for understanding bacterial-mediated processes such as nutrient transformation and cycling. As most studies only target the entire soil bacterial community, the response of active community members to environmental changes is still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fertilizer application and sampling time on structure and diversity of potentially active (RNA-based) and the entire (DNA-based) bacterial communities in German grassland soils. Analysis of more than 2.3 million 16S rRNA transcripts and gene sequences derived from amplicon-based sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that fertilizer application and sampling time significantly altered the diversity and composition of entire and active bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the entire and the active bacterial community was correlated with environmental factors such as pH or C/N ratio, the active community showed a higher sensitivity to environmental changes than the entire community. In addition, functional analyses were performed based on predictions derived from 16S rRNA data. Genes encoding the uptake of nitrate/nitrite, nitrification, and denitrification were significantly more abundant in fertilized plots compared to non-fertilized plots. Hence, this study provided novel insights into changes in dynamics and functions of soil bacterial communities as response to season and fertilizer application. PMID:26694644

  4. Effects of Fertilization and Sampling Time on Composition and Diversity of Entire and Active Bacterial Communities in German Grassland Soils.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Sarah; Wemheuer, Franziska; Wemheuer, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria are major players in driving and regulating ecosystem processes. Thus, the identification of factors shaping the diversity and structure of these communities is crucial for understanding bacterial-mediated processes such as nutrient transformation and cycling. As most studies only target the entire soil bacterial community, the response of active community members to environmental changes is still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fertilizer application and sampling time on structure and diversity of potentially active (RNA-based) and the entire (DNA-based) bacterial communities in German grassland soils. Analysis of more than 2.3 million 16S rRNA transcripts and gene sequences derived from amplicon-based sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that fertilizer application and sampling time significantly altered the diversity and composition of entire and active bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the entire and the active bacterial community was correlated with environmental factors such as pH or C/N ratio, the active community showed a higher sensitivity to environmental changes than the entire community. In addition, functional analyses were performed based on predictions derived from 16S rRNA data. Genes encoding the uptake of nitrate/nitrite, nitrification, and denitrification were significantly more abundant in fertilized plots compared to non-fertilized plots. Hence, this study provided novel insights into changes in dynamics and functions of soil bacterial communities as response to season and fertilizer application. PMID:26694644

  5. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles. PMID:23637533

  6. Bismuth-ring-doped fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Zlenko, Aleksandr S; Dvoirin, Vladislav V; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A; Firstov, Sergei V; Akhmetshin, Ural G

    2009-11-30

    A new process for bismuth doping of optical fibres is proposed in which the dopant is introduced into a thin layer surrounding the fibre core. This enables bismuth stabilisation in the silica glass, with no limitations on the core composition. In particular, the GeO{sub 2} content of the fibre core in this study is 16 mol %. Spectroscopic characterisation of such fibres and optical gain measurements suggest that the proposed approach has considerable potential for laser applications. (optical fibres and fibreoptic sensors)

  7. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore, German departments must…

  8. Projected Effect of Increased Active Travel in German Urban Regions on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Brinks, Ralph; Hoyer, Annika; Kuss, Oliver; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Future transportation policy is likely to reduce emissions in the cities and urban regions by strengthening active travel. Increased walking and cycling are known to have positive effects on health outcomes. This work estimates effects of increased active travel on type 2 diabetes in Germany, where 64% of the population live in urban regions. Methods Based on the effect size of an increased active travel scenario reported from a recent meta-analysis, we project the change in the life time risk, the proportion of prevented cases and the change in diabetes free life time in a German birth cohort (born 1985) compared to business as usual. Results The absolute risk reduction of developing type 2 diabetes before the age of 80 is 6.4% [95% confidence interval: 3.7-9.7%] for men and 4.7% [2.2-7.7%] for women, respectively. Compared to business as usual, the increased active travel scenario prevents 14.0% [8.1-21.2%] of the future cases of diabetes in men and 15.8% [9.3-23.1%] in women. Diabetes free survival increases by 1.7 [1.0-2.7] years in men and 1.4 [0.6-2.3] in women. Conclusions Our projection predicts a substantial impact of increased active travel on the future burden of type 2 diabetes. The most striking effect may be seen in the number of prevented cases. In all urban regions with an increased active travel transport policy, about one out of seven male and one out of six female cases can be prevented. PMID:25849819

  9. The effect of aluminium on the post-anneal concentration of ion implanted bismuth in silica thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southern-Holland, R.; Halsall, M. P.; Crowe, I. F.; Yang, P.; Gwilliam, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of bismuth and aluminium co-implanted silica thin films and the effectiveness of post implantation annealing at activating Bismuth related photoluminescence. The only emission seen in photoluminescence from any of the samples was centred at 1160 nm and is of the kind generally reported as due to silicon dislocation loops. In particular, the layers did not exhibit the broad NIR emission in photoluminescence as reported by other authors in Bismuth doped silica fibres. In order to study the retention of the Bismuth in the layers after annealing Rutherford Backscattering measurements were conducted on the samples, these found that the concentration of bismuth in the samples was greatly reduced following the annealing process when compared to the concentration implanted and explains why we measured no emission from bismuth. The concentration of bismuth remaining in the sample post anneal depended on the initial implant doses of bismuth and aluminium. We propose that aluminium plays the role of increasing the solubility of bismuth in oxide but that this was not sufficient in our samples to observe the photoemission reported for fibre materials.

  10. Oxidation mechanism of formic acid on the bismuth adatom-modified Pt(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Perales-Rondón, Juan Victor; Ferre-Vilaplana, Adolfo; Feliu, Juan M; Herrero, Enrique

    2014-09-24

    In order to improve catalytic processes, elucidation of reaction mechanisms is essential. Here, supported by a combination of experimental and computational results, the oxidation mechanism of formic acid on Pt(111) electrodes modified by the incorporation of bismuth adatoms is revealed. In the proposed model, formic acid is first physisorbed on bismuth and then deprotonated and chemisorbed in formate form, also on bismuth, from which configuration the C-H bond is cleaved, on a neighbor Pt site, yielding CO2. It was found computationally that the activation energy for the C-H bond cleavage step is negligible, which was also verified experimentally. PMID:25188779

  11. Bismuth-based oxide semiconductors: Mild synthesis and practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmaji, Hari Krishna

    In this dissertation study, bismuth based oxide semiconductors were prepared using 'mild' synthesis techniques---electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. Potential environmental remediation and solar energy applications of the prepared oxides were evaluated. Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was prepared by electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. A two step electrosynthesis strategy was developed and demonstrated for the first time. In the first step, a Bi film was first electrodeposited on a Pt substrate from an acidic BiCl3 medium. Then, this film was anodically stripped in a medium containing hydrolyzed vanadium precursor, to generate Bi3+, and subsequent BiVO4 formation by in situ precipitation. The photoelectrochemical data were consistent with the in situ formation of n-type semiconductor films. In the solution combustion synthesis procedure, BiVO4 powders were prepared using bismuth nitrate pentahydrate as the bismuth precursor and either vanadium chloride or vanadium oxysulfate as the vanadium precursor. Urea, glycine, or citric acid was used as the fuel. The effect of the vanadium precursor on the photocatalytic activity of combustion synthesized BiVO 4 was evaluated in this study. Methyl orange was used as a probe to test the photocatalytic attributes of the combustion synthesized (CS) samples, and benchmarked against a commercial bismuth vanadate sample. The CS samples showed superior activity to the commercial benchmark sample, and samples derived from vanadium chloride were superior to vanadium oxysulfate counterparts. The photoelectrochemical properties of the various CS samples were also studied and these samples were shown to be useful both for environmental photocatalytic remediation and water photooxidation applications. Silver bismuth tungstate (AgBiW2O8) nanoparticles were prepared for the first time by solution combustion synthesis by using silver nitrate, bismuth nitrate, sodium tungstate as precursors for Ag, Bi, and W

  12. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  13. Aspects of the magmatic geochemistry of bismuth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.; Gottfried, D.; Campbell, E.Y.

    1973-01-01

    Bismuth has been determined in 74 rocks from a differentiated tholeiitic dolerite, two calc-alkaline batholith suites and in 66 mineral separates from one of the batholiths. Average bismuth contents, weighted for rock type, of the Great Lake (Tasmania) dolerite, the Southern California batholith and the Idaho batholith are, 32, 50 and 70 ppb respectively. All three bodies demonstrate an enrichment of bismuth in residual magmas with magmatic differentiation. Bismuth is greatly enriched (relative to the host rock) in the calcium-rich accessory minerals, apatite and sphene, but other mineral analyses show that a Bi-Ca association is of little significance to the magmatic geochemistry of bismuth. Most of the bismuth, in the Southern California batholith at least, occurs in a trace mineral phase (possibly sulfides) present as inclusions in the rock-forming minerals. ?? 1973.

  14. R2O3 (R = La, Y) modified erbium activated germanate glasses for mid-infrared 2.7 μm laser materials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Muzhi; Zhou, Beier; Wang, Fengchao; Wei, Tao; Tian, Ying; Zhou, Jiajia; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Er3+ activated germanate glasses modified by La2O3 and Y2O3 with good thermal stability were prepared. 2.7 μm fluorescence was observed and corresponding radiative properties were investigated. A detailed discussion of J–O parameters has been carried out based on absorption spectra and Judd–Ofelt theory. The peak emission cross sections of La2O3 and Y2O3 modified germanate glass are (14.3 ± 0.10) × 10−21 cm2 and (15.4 ± 0.10) × 10−21 cm2, respectively. Non-radiative relaxation rate constants and energy transfer coefficients of 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 levels have been obtained and discussed to understand the 2.7 μm fluorescence behavior. Moreover, the energy transfer processes of 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 level were quantitatively analyzed according to Dexter’s theory and Inokuti–Hirayama model. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the observed 2.7 μm fluorescence phenomena. Results demonstrate that the Y2O3 modified germanate glass, which possesses more excellent spectroscopic properties than La2O3 modified germanate glass, might be an attractive candidate for mid-infrared laser. PMID:26279092

  15. R2O3 (R = La, Y) modified erbium activated germanate glasses for mid-infrared 2.7 μm laser materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Muzhi; Zhou, Beier; Wang, Fengchao; Wei, Tao; Tian, Ying; Zhou, Jiajia; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Junjie

    2015-08-01

    Er3+ activated germanate glasses modified by La2O3 and Y2O3 with good thermal stability were prepared. 2.7 μm fluorescence was observed and corresponding radiative properties were investigated. A detailed discussion of J-O parameters has been carried out based on absorption spectra and Judd-Ofelt theory. The peak emission cross sections of La2O3 and Y2O3 modified germanate glass are (14.3 ± 0.10) × 10-21 cm2 and (15.4 ± 0.10) × 10-21 cm2, respectively. Non-radiative relaxation rate constants and energy transfer coefficients of 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 levels have been obtained and discussed to understand the 2.7 μm fluorescence behavior. Moreover, the energy transfer processes of 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 level were quantitatively analyzed according to Dexter’s theory and Inokuti-Hirayama model. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the observed 2.7 μm fluorescence phenomena. Results demonstrate that the Y2O3 modified germanate glass, which possesses more excellent spectroscopic properties than La2O3 modified germanate glass, might be an attractive candidate for mid-infrared laser.

  16. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  17. MERLIN : a Franco-German active space mission dedicated to atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, P.; Marshall, J.; Pierangelo, C.; Ehret, G.; Bacour, C.; Chevallier, F.; Gibert, F.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Edouart, D.; Esteve, F.; Chinaud, J.; Armante, R.; Berthier, S.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission (MERLIN), currently in phase B, is a joint cooperation between France and Germany on the development, launch and operation of a space LIDAR dedicated to the retrieval of total methane (CH4) atmospheric columns. Atmospheric methane is the second most anthropogenic gas, contributing 20% to climate radiative forcing but also plying an important role in atmospheric chemistry as a precursor of tropospheric ozone and low-stratosphere water vapour. For the first time, measurements of atmospheric composition will be performed from space thanks to an IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption) LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging), with a precision (target 20 ppb for a 50km aggregation along the trace) and accuracy (target 3 ppb) sufficient to improve the constraints on methane fluxes compared to current observation networks. The very low systematic error target is ambitious compared to current methane space mission, but achievable because of the differential active measurements of MERLIN, which guarantees almost no contamination by aerosols or water vapour cross-sensitivity. As an active mission, MERLIN will deliver data for all seasons and all altitudes, day and night. Here, we present the MERLIN mission and its objectives in terms of reduction of uncertainties on methane surface emissions. To do so, we propose an OSSE analysis (observing system simulation experiment) to estimate the uncertainty reduction brought by MERLIN. The originality of our system is to transfer both random and systematic errors from the observation space to the flux space, thus providing more realistic error reductions than currently provided in OSSE only using the random part of errors. To do so, a precise analysis of causes of errors has been done for the MERLIN mission and is also presented.

  18. MERLIN : a Franco-German active space mission dedicated to atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Philippe; Gibert, Fabien; Marshall, Julia; Pierangelo, Clémence; Ehret, Gerhard; Bacour, Cédric; Chevallier, Frédéric; Crevoisier, Cyril; Edouart, Dimitri; Esteve, Frédéric; Chinaud, Jordi; Armante, Raymond; Kiemle, Christoph; Alpers, Matthias; Tinto, Fransesc; Millet, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission (MERLIN), currently in phase B, is a joint cooperation between France and Germany on the development, launch and operation of a space LIDAR dedicated to the retrieval of total methane (CH4) atmospheric columns. Atmospheric methane is the second most anthropogenic gas, contributing 20% to climate radiative forcing but also plying an important role in atmospheric chemistry as a precursor of tropospheric ozone and low-stratosphere water vapour. For the first time, measurements of atmospheric composition will be performed from space thanks to an IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption) LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging), with a precision (target 20 ppb for a 50km aggregation along the trace) and accuracy (target 3 ppb) sufficient to improve the constraints on methane fluxes compared to current observation networks. The very low systematic error target is ambitious compared to current methane space mission, but achievable because of the differential active measurements of MERLIN, which guarantees almost no contamination by aerosols or water vapour cross-sensitivity. As an active mission, MERLIN will deliver data for all seasons and all altitudes, day and night. Here, we present the MERLIN mission and its objectives in terms of reduction of uncertainties on methane surface emissions. To do so, we propose an OSSE analysis (observing system simulation experiment) to estimate the uncertainty reduction brought by MERLIN. An analysis of causes of errors has been done for the MERLIN mission and is presented. The originality of our system is to transfer both random and systematic errors from the observation space to the flux space, thus providing more realistic error reductions than currently provided in OSSE only using the random part of errors. Error reductions are presented using two different atmospheric transport models, TM3 and LMDZ, and compared with error reductions achieved with the GOSAT passive mission.

  19. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Diaz, David; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Garza-Enriquez, Marianela; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam A; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities. Results Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM. Conclusion These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation. PMID:22619547

  20. Spectral behaviour of bismuth centres in different steps of the FCVD process

    SciTech Connect

    Zlenko, Alexander S; Mashinsky, Valerii M; Iskhakova, L D; Ermakov, R P; Semjonov, S L; Koltashev, V V

    2013-07-31

    The behaviour of bismuth ions in silica glass free of other dopants has been studied in different steps of the furnace chemical vapour deposition (FCVD) process. Porous layers annealed and consolidated in different atmospheres, a bismuth chloride solution in acetone for porous layer impregnation, the resultant glass preform and holey fibres drawn out under various conditions have been characterised by spectroscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction. Active bismuth centres present in the preform and luminescing in the visible and IR spectral regions persist during drawing under reducing conditions, whereas drawing under oxidising conditions eliminates such centres. Annealing under reducing conditions produces absorption bands of IR-emitting bismuth centres (IRBCs) in spectra of fibres drawn out under oxidising conditions and concurrently increases the background loss. Under the annealing conditions of this study (argon atmosphere, T{sub max} = 1100 Degree-Sign C, 30 min), the IRBC concentration reaches a maximum and then decreases, whereas the background loss increases monotonically. (fiber optics)

  1. Influence of electron irradiation on optical properties of Bismuth doped silica fibers.

    PubMed

    Kir'yanov, Alexander V; Dvoyrin, Vladislav V; Mashinsky, Valery M; Il'ichev, Nikolai N; Kozlova, Nina S; Dianov, Evgueny M

    2011-03-28

    We report a study of the attenuation spectra transformations for a series of Bismuth (Bi) doped silica fibers with various contents of emission-active Bi centers, which arise as the result of irradiation by a beam of high-energy electrons. The experimental data reveal a substantial decrease of concentration of the Bi centers, associated with the presence of Germanium in silica glass, at increasing the irradiation dose (the resonant-absorption bleaching effect in germano-silicate fiber). In contrast, the spectral changes that appear in Bi doped alumino-silicate fiber have through irradiation a completely different character, viz., weak growth of the resonant-absorption peaks ascribed to the Bi centers, associated with the presence of Aluminum in silica glass. These results demonstrating high susceptibility of Bi centers to electron irradiation while opposite routes of the irradiation-induced spectral changes in Bi doped germanate and aluminate fibers seem to be of worth notice for understanding the nature of these centers. PMID:21451687

  2. Influence of BaF2 and activator concentration on broadband near-infrared luminescence of Pr3+ ions in gallo-germanate glasses.

    PubMed

    Pisarska, Joanna; Kowal, Martyna; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Zmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Jan; Dorosz, Dominik; Pisarski, Wojciech A

    2016-02-01

    Thermal stability and broadband NIR luminescence of Pr(3+) doped gallo-germanate glasses with BaF2 have been studied. The thermal factors are larger for glass samples with low BaF2 content exhibiting good thermal stability against devitrification. Luminescence due to (1)D2 → (1)G4 transition of Pr(3+) was measured under 450 nm excitation. The (1)D2 measured lifetimes depend critically on activator concentration, but remain nearly unchanged with BaF2 content. The emission linewidth, the emission cross-section, the figure of merit (FOM) and the σem x FWHM product are relatively large, suggesting that Pr(3+)-doped gallo-germanate glasses with presence of BaF2 are promising as gain media for broadband near-infrared amplifiers. PMID:26906818

  3. Active microbial community in gas reservoirs in the North German Plain and the effects of high CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frerichs, Janin; Gniese, Claudia; Mühling, Martin; Krüger, Martin

    2010-05-01

    From the IPCC report on global warming, it is clear that large-scale solutions are needed immediately to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The CO2 capture and storage offers one option for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. Favourable CO2 storage sites are depleted gas and oil fields and thus, are currently investigated by the BMBF-Geotechnologien RECOBIO-2 project. Our study is focussing on the direct influence of high CO2 concentrations on the autochthonous microbial population and environmental parameters (e.g. availability of nutrients). The gas fields Schneeren in the 'North German Plain' is operated by Gaz de France SUEZ E&V Deutschland GmbH. The conditions in the reservoir formation waters of two bore wells differ in various geochemical parameters (pH, salinity and temperature). In previous studies the community of this gas field was described by Ehinger et al. 2009. Based on these results our study included cultivation and molecular biological approaches. Our results showed significant differences of the community structure in regional distinctions of the gas reservoir. The activity profiles of two wells differed clearly in the inducible activity after substrate addition. The fluids of well A showed a high methane production rate after the addition of methanol or acetate. Well B showed a high sulphide production after the addition of sulphate and hydrogen. The molecular biological analysis of the original fluids supports the activity profile for both sites. The community analysis via real-time PCR showed for the production well head A a higher abundances for Archaea than for B. The community at site B in contrast was dominated by Bacteria. Fluids of both wells were also incubated with high CO2 concentrations in the headspace. These enrichments showed a significant decrease of methane and sulphide production with increasing CO2 levels. Currently, the community composition is analysed to identify changes connected to increased CO2 concentrations. This

  4. Versatility of electrospinning in the fabrication of fibrous mat and mesh nanostructures of bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) and their magnetic and photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Bharathkumar, S; Sakar, M; K, Rohith Vinod; Balakumar, S

    2015-07-21

    This study demonstrates the fabrication of electrospun bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) fiber mat and fibrous mesh nanostructures consisting of aligned and random fibers respectively. The formation of these one dimensional (1D) nanostructures was mediated by the drum and plate collectors in the electrospinning process that yielded aligned and random nanofibers of BFO respectively. The single phase and rhombohedral crystal structure of the fabricated 1D BFO nanostructures are confirmed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies indicated that the fabricated fibers are stoichiometric BFO with native oxidation states +3. The surface texture and morphology are analyzed using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The average size of fibers in mat and mesh nanostructures is found to be 200 nm and 150 nm respectively. The band gap energy of BFO mat and mesh deduced from their UV diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS) was found to be 2.44 eV and 2.39 eV, respectively, which evidenced the improved visible light receptivity of BFO mesh compared to that of the mat. Magnetization studies using a super conducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer revealed the weak ferromagnetic properties of BFO mesh and mat nanostructures that could emerge due to the dimension induced suppression of cycloidal spin structures. The photocatalytic degradation properties of the fibrous mesh are found to be enhanced compared to that of the mat. This could be attributed to the reduced band gap energy and an improved semiconductor band-bending phenomenon in the mesh that favoured the transportation of excited charge carriers to the photocatalyst-dye interfaces and the production of more number of reactive species that lead to the effective degradation of the dye molecules. PMID:26083677

  5. Multiferroic bismuth ferrite material core based inductive displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, R.; Biswal, M. R.; Nanda, J.; Mishra, N. C.

    2012-07-01

    In this research, an inductive displacement sensor with multiferroic bismuth ferrite core has been realized. The bismuth ferrite sample is synthesized and its structural and dielectric properties are studied. A rod-shaped bismuth ferrite core is prepared and displaced through the inductor of a RLC circuit. The performance of the prepared bismuth ferrite core has been compared with a commercially available ferrite core.

  6. D-penicillamine does not increase urinary bismuth excretion in patients treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed Central

    Nwokolo, C U; Pounder, R E

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four urinary bismuth excretion was measured in five patients who had been treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, before and after single 1 g oral dose of D-penicillamine. Before dosing with D-penicillamine, the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 55 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 17-156 micrograms 24 h-1) and following dosing with D-penicillamine the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 53 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 12-156 micrograms 24 h-1). D-penicillamine does not facilitate the urinary excretion of bismuth, hence it is unsuitable for use as an oral chelator in patients with bismuth intoxication. PMID:2291879

  7. The effect and mechanism of bismuth doped lead oxide on the performance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Wu, L.; Ren, C.; Luo, Q. Z.; Xie, Z. H.; Jiang, X.; Zhu, S. P.; Xia, Y. K.; Luo, Y. R.

    Flooded automotive and motorcycle lead-acid batteries were manufactured from three kinds of lead oxides including electrolyzed pure lead (99.99 wt.% Pb) oxide, electrolyzed pure lead oxide doped with Bi 2O 3 (0.02 wt.% Bi 2O 3) and bismuth-bearing refined lead (0.02 wt.% Bi) oxide. The first cranking and cold cranking curves of the automotive batteries show that there is no obvious difference among the above lead oxides. Bismuth in lead oxide does not affect the water loss of flooded batteries. However, bismuth results in the improvement of capacity and charge-acceptance capability. In discharge, the positive voltage versus cadmium of plates with bismuth decreases more slowly than that of plates without bismuth. In order to investigate the mechanism of the function of bismuth, three other kinds of test electrodes were prepared from electrolyzed pure lead (99.99 wt.% Pb) oxide, electrolyzed pure lead oxide doped 0.02 wt.% Bi 2O 3 and electrolyzed pure lead oxide doped 0.06 wt.% Bi 2O 3. The cyclic voltammetry curve shows that bismuth has no significant influence on the electrochemical behavior of the positive active-material. There is an opposite result concerning the cathodic polarization curves between bismuth doped in the electrode and Bi 3+ ion doped in the electrolyte. Bismuth doped in the electrode results in a decrease of the hydrogen overpotential. Conversely, Bi 3+ ion doped in the electrolyte results is an increase. The chemical analysis confirms that a trace of Bi 3+ ion exists in sulfuric acid solution (e.g. plates soaking, after formation, after cycling). A higher porosity is observed in the positive active-material containing bismuth by SEM technique. SEM morphology shows that needle-like crystals begin to occur after a few cycles. X-ray diffraction phase analysis proves that the amount of α-PbO 2 is increased by doping bismuth in to lead oxide. The existing forms, chemical characteristics and electrochemical reactions of bismuth during manufacture

  8. PROCESS OF COATING METALS WITH BISMUTH OR BISMUTH-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Beach, J.G.

    1958-01-28

    A method is described for producing coatings of bismuth or bismuth alloys on a metal base. This is accomplished by electrodepositing the bismuth from an aqueous solution of BiCl/sub 3/, and by making the metal base alternately the cathode and the anode, the cathode periods being twice as long as the anode periods. In one embodiment a nickel coating is first electrodeposited in a known way, and this nickel plated piece is tae base upon which tae bismuth is deposited by the process of this patent. The coated piece is then heat treated to produce a homogeneous Ni--Bi alloy by diffusion.

  9. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  10. Induced electronic anisotropy in bismuth thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Albert D.; Yao, Mengliang; Opeil, Cyril; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Li, Mingda; Tang, Shuang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2014-08-11

    We use magneto-resistance measurements to investigate the effect of texturing in polycrystalline bismuth thin films. Electrical current in bismuth films with texturing such that all grains are oriented with the trigonal axis normal to the film plane is found to flow in an isotropic manner. By contrast, bismuth films with no texture such that not all grains have the same crystallographic orientation exhibit anisotropic current flow, giving rise to preferential current flow pathways in each grain depending on its orientation. Extraction of the mobility and the phase coherence length in both types of films indicates that carrier scattering is not responsible for the observed anisotropic conduction. Evidence from control experiments on antimony thin films suggests that the anisotropy is a result of bismuth's large electron effective mass anisotropy.

  11. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of lanthanide metals in liquid bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, Hajimu; Sheng, Jiawei; Souda, Naohiko; Moriyama, Hirotake

    2001-04-01

    Thermodynamic quantities of La, Gd, Tb, and Dy in liquid bismuth were experimentally determined by electromotive force (EMF) measurement using a cell consisting of molten alkaline chloride and liquid bismuth. Excess Gibbs energy changes and activity coefficients were determined at varying concentrations and temperatures. Through their temperature dependence, corresponding enthalpy changes and entropy changes were determined. The excess enthalpy changes of La, Gd, Tb, and Dy in liquid bismuth in a temperature range from 850 to 1100 K were evaluated to be, -221.54±2.31, -202.25±1.80, -199.83±0.55, and -193.80±0.99 kJ/mol, respectively. The systematic variation of excess enthalpy change of lanthanides along the 4f-series was discussed. As a result, it was found that the excess enthalpy changes of La, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er are likely to depend linearly on the 2/3 power of their metallic volume.

  13. Infrared surface polaritons on bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilzadeh-Rezaie, Farnood; Smith, Christian W.; Nath, Janardan; Nader, Nima; Shahzad, Monas; Cleary, Justin W.; Avrutsky, Ivan; Peale, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Optical constants for evaporated bismuth (Bi) films were measured by ellipsometry and compared with those published for single crystal and melt-cast polycrystalline Bi in the wavelength range of 1 to 40 μm. The bulk plasma frequency ωp and high-frequency limit to the permittivity ε∞ were determined from the long-wave portion of the permittivity spectrum, taking previously published values for the relaxation time τ and effective mass m*. This part of the complex permittivity spectrum was confirmed by comparing calculated and measured reflectivity spectra in the far-infrared. Properties of surface polaritons (SPs) in the long-wave infrared were calculated to evaluate the potential of Bi for applications in infrared plasmonics. Measured excitation resonances for SPs on Bi lamellar gratings agree well with calculated resonance spectra based on grating geometry and complex permittivity.

  14. German for Communication: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jens-Peter; Grittner, Frank M.

    This guide is designed to: (1) offer a rationale for German instruction and student enrollment; (2) give suggestions for proficiency-oriented lesson planning; and (3) provide classroom activities for students at various proficiency levels. A section on promoting the study of German discusses its role as a major world language, in tourism and world…

  15. Secondary German Guidelines: Levels I, II, III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klipple, Sitha; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist schools in developing their German curriculum and to assist teachers in planning courses, units of work, and daily classroom activities. These guidelines for the teaching of German in secondary schools are based on the premises that language is communication and that language and culture are interrelated. The…

  16. Monitoring and evaluating the quality consistency of Compound Bismuth Aluminate tablets by a simple quantified ratio fingerprint method combined with simultaneous determination of five compounds and correlated with antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Guoxiang; Wang, Yan; Ling, Junhong; Gao, Jiayue; Huang, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    A combination method of multi-wavelength fingerprinting and multi-component quantification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) was developed and validated to monitor and evaluate the quality consistency of herbal medicines (HM) in the classical preparation Compound Bismuth Aluminate tablets (CBAT). The validation results demonstrated that our method met the requirements of fingerprint analysis and quantification analysis with suitable linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). In the fingerprint assessments, rather than using conventional qualitative "Similarity" as a criterion, the simple quantified ratio fingerprint method (SQRFM) was recommended, which has an important quantified fingerprint advantage over the "Similarity" approach. SQRFM qualitatively and quantitatively offers the scientific criteria for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM)/HM quality pyramid and warning gate in terms of three parameters. In order to combine the comprehensive characterization of multi-wavelength fingerprints, an integrated fingerprint assessment strategy based on information entropy was set up involving a super-information characteristic digitized parameter of fingerprints, which reveals the total entropy value and absolute information amount about the fingerprints and, thus, offers an excellent method for fingerprint integration. The correlation results between quantified fingerprints and quantitative determination of 5 marker compounds, including glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), liquiritin (LQ), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), isoliquiritin (ILQ) and isoliquiritin apioside (ILA), indicated that multi-component quantification could be replaced by quantified fingerprints. The Fenton reaction was employed to determine the antioxidant activities of CBAT samples in vitro, and they were correlated with HPLC fingerprint components using the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. In

  17. Monitoring and Evaluating the Quality Consistency of Compound Bismuth Aluminate Tablets by a Simple Quantified Ratio Fingerprint Method Combined with Simultaneous Determination of Five Compounds and Correlated with Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Guoxiang; Wang, Yan; Ling, Junhong; Gao, Jiayue; Huang, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    A combination method of multi-wavelength fingerprinting and multi-component quantification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) was developed and validated to monitor and evaluate the quality consistency of herbal medicines (HM) in the classical preparation Compound Bismuth Aluminate tablets (CBAT). The validation results demonstrated that our method met the requirements of fingerprint analysis and quantification analysis with suitable linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). In the fingerprint assessments, rather than using conventional qualitative “Similarity” as a criterion, the simple quantified ratio fingerprint method (SQRFM) was recommended, which has an important quantified fingerprint advantage over the “Similarity” approach. SQRFM qualitatively and quantitatively offers the scientific criteria for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM)/HM quality pyramid and warning gate in terms of three parameters. In order to combine the comprehensive characterization of multi-wavelength fingerprints, an integrated fingerprint assessment strategy based on information entropy was set up involving a super-information characteristic digitized parameter of fingerprints, which reveals the total entropy value and absolute information amount about the fingerprints and, thus, offers an excellent method for fingerprint integration. The correlation results between quantified fingerprints and quantitative determination of 5 marker compounds, including glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), liquiritin (LQ), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), isoliquiritin (ILQ) and isoliquiritin apioside (ILA), indicated that multi-component quantification could be replaced by quantified fingerprints. The Fenton reaction was employed to determine the antioxidant activities of CBAT samples in vitro, and they were correlated with HPLC fingerprint components using the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method

  18. Gravimetric Analysis of Bismuth in Bismuth Subsalicylate Tablets: A Versatile Quantitative Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Eric; Cheung, Ken; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan; Roth, Elijah; Zalewski, Nicole; Veldhuizen, Christopher; Coeler, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, lower- and upper-division students dissolved bismuth subsalicylate tablets in acid and precipitated the resultant Bi[superscript 3+] in solution with sodium phosphate for a gravimetric determination of bismuth subsalicylate in the tablets. With a labeled concentration of 262 mg/tablet, the combined data from three…

  19. Comparison of Lead-Bismuth and Lead as Coolants for Accelerator Driven Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, F.; Mattioda, F.; Meloni, P.

    2002-07-01

    In the framework of the Italian research program TRASCO (TRAsmutazione SCOrie, namely transmutation of radioactive wastes) and of the European research program PDS-XADS (Preliminary Design Study on an eXperimental Accelerator Driven System) the feasibility and operability of gas or liquid metal cooled accelerator driven system prototypes are currently under investigation. Initially the attention of the thermal-hydraulics group of ENEA research centre in Bologna has been focussed toward a lead-bismuth cooled subcritical system under natural or enhanced natural circulation according to the prototype design proposed. The interest in using lead as a coolant, which is characterized by a higher melting point, is explained by the need to increase the plant efficiency for the economic competitiveness, though the higher temperatures pose some technological problems. Moreover, the amount of activation products should result significantly lower. Of course the results obtained and the experience gained analysing the dynamical behaviour of the lead-bismuth cooled system cannot be directly transferred to lead cooled systems. This paper aims at presenting a preliminary comparison of lead-bismuth and lead in a simplified liquid metal cooled subcritical system, mainly from the thermal-hydraulics and system dynamics points of view. By means of the modified RELAP5 version, the dynamical behavior of a lead-bismuth or lead cooled system, which is intended to be a quite accurate representation of the Italian accelerator driven prototype XADS, has been studied. Although a more exhaustive comparison should take into account the necessarily different structural characteristics of lead-bismuth and lead cooled systems, the neutronic feedback on reactor power and also the slightly different neutronic properties of lead-bismuth and lead, the purely thermal-hydraulic analysis presented in this paper has shown that the dynamical behaviour of the XADS does not differ noticeable when lead is used

  20. Effect of variable valence impurities on the formation of bismuth-related optical centres in a silicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Lili Hu; Sverchkov, S E; Shulman, I L; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-10-31

    We have studied the effect of variable valence impurities (cerium and iron) on the formation of bismuth-related IR luminescence centres and the optical loss between 1000 and 1300 nm in a magnesium aluminosilicate glass. The results demonstrate that additional doping of the glass with ceria leads to effective bleaching in a wide spectral range, including the luminescence range of the bismuth centres. At the same time, ceria reduces the concentration of luminescence centres. Gamma irradiation of the glass bleached by cerium restores the luminescence centres but leads to a background loss in a wide spectral range. Iron is shown to be a very harmful impurity in bismuth-doped active media: even trace levels of iron prevent the formation of bismuth-related active centres in the glass and produce a strong, broad absorption band centred near 1 {mu}m. (luminescence of glasses)

  1. Bismuth alloy potting seals aluminum connector in cryogenic application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, J. F.; Stafford, R. L.

    1966-01-01

    Bismuth alloy potting seals feedthrough electrical connector for instrumentation within a pressurized vessel filled with cryogenic liquids. The seal combines the transformation of high-bismuth content alloys with the thermal contraction of an external aluminum tube.

  2. Liquid Bismuth Propellant Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, B. J.; Korman, V.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the propellant mass flow rate in liquid bismuth-fed electric propulsion systems has two challenging facets. First, the flow sensors must be capable of providing a resolvable measurement at propellant mass flow rates on the order of 10 mg/see with and uncertainty of less that 5%. The second challenge has to do with the fact that the materials from which the flow sensors are fabricated must be capable of resisting any of the corrosive effects associated with the high-temperature propellant. The measurement itself is necessary in order to properly assess the performance (thrust efficiency, Isp) of thruster systems in the laboratory environment. The hotspot sensor[I] has been designed to provide the bismuth propellant mass flow rate measurement. In the hotspot sensor, a pulse of thermal energy (derived from a current pulse and associated joule heating) is applied near the inlet of the sensor. The flow is "tagged" with a thermal feature that is convected downstream by the flowing liquid metal. Downstream, a temperature measurement is performed to detect a "ripple" in the local temperature associated with the passing "hotspot" in the propellant. By measuring the time between the upstream generation and downstream detection of the thermal feature, the flow speed can be calculated using a "time of flight" analysis. In addition, the system can be calibrated by measuring the accumulated mass exiting the system as a-function of time and correlating this with the time it takes the hotspot to convect through the sensor. The primary advantage of this technique is that it doesn't depend on an absolute measurement of temperature but, instead, relies on the observation of thermal features. This makes the technique insensitive to other externally generated thermal fluctuations. In this paper, we describe experiments performed using the hotspot flow sensor aimed at quantifying the resolution of the sensor technology. Propellant is expelled onto an electronic scale to

  3. Template synthesis of bismuth telluride nanowires. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Sapp, S.A.; Lakshmi, B.B.; Martin, C.R.

    1998-12-01

    The authors report the fabrication of thermoelectric bismuth telluride nanowires using the template synthesis method. A simple electrodeposition procedure was used to produce the nanowires within the pores of an alumina filtration membrane. The resulting bismuth telluride/alumina composite membranes constitute an array of thermoelectric nanowires surrounded by a thermally and electrically insulating matrix. The individual bismuth telluride nanowires can be isolated by removal of the template membrane. These nanowires were characterized and found to be composed of stoichiometric bismuth telluride.

  4. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  5. Bismuth Oxide Thin Films Deposited on Silicon Through Pulsed Laser Ablation, for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Constantinescu, Catalin; Tigau, Nicolae; Praisler, Mirela

    2016-12-01

    Infrared detectors are used in many human activities, from industry to military, telecommunications, environmental studies and even medicine. Bismuth oxide thin films have proved their potential for optoelectronic applications, but their uses as infrared sensors have not been thoroughly studied so far. In this paper, pulsed laser ablation of pure bismuth targets within a controlled oxygen atmosphere is proposed for the deposition of bismuth oxide films on Si (100) substrates. Crystalline films were obtained, whose uniformity depends on the deposition conditions (number of laser pulses and the use of a radio-frequency (RF) discharge of the oxygen inside the deposition chamber). The optical analysis proved that the refractive index of the films is higher than 3 and that their optical bandgap is around 1eV, recommending them for infrared applications.

  6. Bismuth- and lithium-loaded plastic scintillators for gamma and neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Sanner, Robert D.; Beck, Patrick R.; Swanberg, Erik L.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Payne, Stephen A.; Hurlbut, Charles R.

    2015-04-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators based on polyvinyltoluene (PVT) have been fabricated with high loading of bismuth carboxylates for gamma spectroscopy, and with lithium carboxylates for neutron detection. When activated with a combination of standard fluors, 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and tetraphenylbutadiene (TPB), gamma light yields with 15 wt% bismuth tripivalate of 5000 Ph/MeV are measured. A PVT plastic formulation including 30 wt% lithium pivalate and 30 wt% PPO offers both pulse shape discrimination, and a neutron capture peak at ~400 keVee. In another configuration, a bismuth-loaded PVT plastic is coated with ZnS(6Li) paint, permitting simultaneous gamma and neutron detection via pulse shape discrimination with a figure-of-merit of 3.8, while offering gamma spectroscopy with energy resolution of R(662 keV)=15%.

  7. Electrodeposition and Characterization of Bismuth Telluride Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, C.; Stein, N.; Gravier, L.; Granville, S.; Boulanger, C.

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we report thermoelectric measurements on electroplated bismuth telluride nanowires. Porous polycarbonate membranes, obtained by ion-track irradiation lithography, were chosen as electroplating templates. Bismuth telluride nanowires were achieved in acidic media under potentiostatic conditions at -100 mV versus saturated silver chloride electrode. The filling ratio of the pores was increased to 80% by adding dimethyl sulfoxide to the electrolyte. Whatever the experimental conditions, the nanowires were polycrystalline in the rhombohedral phase of Bi2Te3. Finally, the power output of arrays of bismuth telluride nanowires was analyzed as a function of load resistance. The results were strongly dependent on the internal resistance, which can be significantly reduced by the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide during electroplating.

  8. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Beeler, Nadja; Pühse, Uwe; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs) are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods All psychiatric hospitals (N=55) in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%), sports therapy (97%), activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%), physiotherapy (85%), body therapies (59%), far-east techniques (57%), and hippotherapy (22%). Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not participate in PAEPs. Furthermore, those who do participate cannot continue to do so following discharge. PAEP providers need specific extended vocational trainings and believe that the potential of PA should be improved. PMID:27350748

  9. Liquid Bismuth Feed System for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Stanojev, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions. For example, the VHITAL project aims td accurately, experimentally assess the performance characteristics of 10 kW-class bismuth-fed Hall thrusters - in order to validate earlier results and resuscitate a promising technology that has been relatively dormant for about two decades. A critical element of these tests will be the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre/post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work was to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides real-time propellant mass flow rate measurement and control, enabling accurate thruster performance measurements. Additionally, our approach emphasizes the development of new liquid metal flow control components and, hence, will establish a basis for the future development of components for application in spaceflight. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described - reservoir, electromagnetic pump, hotspot flow sensor, and automated control system. Particular emphasis is given to material selection and high-temperature sealing techniques. Open loop calibration test results are reported, which validate the systems capability to deliver bismuth at mass flow rates ranging from 10 to 100 mg/sec with an uncertainty of less than +/- 5%. Results of integrated vaporizer/liquid PMS tests demonstrate all of the necessary elements of a complete bismuth feed system for electric propulsion.

  10. Burnout current density of bismuth nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelius, T. W.; Picht, O.; Müller, S.; Neumann, R.; Völklein, F.; Karim, S.; Duan, J. L.

    2008-05-01

    Single bismuth nanowires with diameters ranging from 100nmto1μm were electrochemically deposited in ion track-etched single-pore polycarbonate membranes. The maximum current density the wires are able to carry was investigated by ramping up the current until failure occurred. It increases by three to four orders of magnitude for nanowires embedded in the template compared to bulk bismuth and rises with diminishing diameter. Simulations show that the wires are heated up electrically to the melting temperature. Since the surface-to-volume ratio rises with diminishing diameter, thinner wires dissipate the heat more efficiently to the surrounding polymer matrix and, thus, can tolerate larger current densities.

  11. Translating the Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and assessing their concurrent validity with VAS measures of pain and activities in daily living

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires are three validated instruments to measure physical activity and limitations in daily living in patients with lower extremity disorders living at home of which no German equivalents are available. Our scope was to translate the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and to verify its concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Methods We translated the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 52 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the lower extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event were obtained. We assessed the concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Results We found that variability in the German Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires was largely explained by measures of pain and activities in daily living on the Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusion Our study shows that the domains pain and activities in daily living are properly represented in the German versions of the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Raising and Sitting Questionnaires. We would like to propagate their use in clinical practice and research alike. PMID:20515456

  12. Bismuth oxychloride modified titanium phosphate nanoplates: A new p-n type heterostructured photocatalyst with high activity for the degradation of different kinds of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ao, Yanhui; Bao, Jiaqiu; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun

    2016-08-15

    In this work, BiOCl modified titanium phosphate nanoplates (BiOCl/TP) composite photocatalysts with p-n heterojunctions were prepared by a in-situ growth method. The morphology, crystal structure and optical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS). Rhodamine B (RhB), reactive brilliant Red X-3B (X-3B), methylene blue (MB), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and phenol were used to investigate the photocatalytic performance of the prepared samples under ultraviolet light irradiation. Results showed that the BiOCl/TP exhibited much higher activity for the degradation of all these model organic pollutants than pure TP. The mechanism for the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance was established with the help of the results of photocurrent measurements and Photoluminescence spectra. The results illustrated that the enhanced activity could be attributed to the formation of p-n heterojunctions between p-type BiOCl and n-type titanium phosphate, which effectively suppressed the recombination of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the possible photocatalytic mechanisms on the degradation of the organic pollutants were also proposed. PMID:27209392

  13. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS). Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS) was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%). Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78). The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56). No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75). BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies. PMID:22032266

  14. Labour Market Trends and Active Labour Market Policy in the Eastern German Transformation Process 1990-1997. IAB Labour Market Research Topics no. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Hans-Uwe; Blaschke, Dieter; Blien, Uwe; Brinkmann, Christian; Fuchs, Johann; Gutsche, Matthias; Moeller, Ulrich; Kuhl, Jurgen; Spitznagel, Eugen; Steckel, Werner; Wiedemann, Eberhard; Wolfinger, Claudia

    After German unification in 1990, more than 3 million jobs disappeared in eastern Germany and the obsolescence of eastern German capital stock became apparent. Further escalation of mass unemployment was successfully held in check; however, it soon became clear that labor market policies appropriate for western Germany were not, in and of…

  15. German Language Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This guide presents the philosophy, goals, and objectives, as well as the scope and sequence of German instruction at four levels for the public schools of Hawaii. The emphasis is on cultural awareness and communicative competence in German. The goals, objectives, and performance expectations are presented as guides from which teachers can derive…

  16. Headstart German Program. Cumulative Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary lists the vocabulary words used in the ten modules of the German Headstart program. It is a German-English and English-German glossary. The module number in which each word first occurs is given. (AMH)

  17. Probing bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by hard x-ray photoemission: Anomalous occurrence of metallic bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Smita; Rajendra, Ranguwar; Ballav, Nirmalya; Kulkarni, Sulabha; Sarkar, Indranil; Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Jeng, U-Ser; Yeh, Yi-Qi

    2014-09-08

    We have investigated bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (∼75 nm and ∼155 nm) synthesized by a chemical method, using soft X-ray (1253.6 eV) and hard X-ray (3500, 5500, and 7500 eV) photoelectron spectroscopy. This provided an evidence for the variation of chemical state of bismuth in crystalline, phase pure nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis using Mg Kα (1253.6 eV) source showed that iron and bismuth were present in both Fe{sup 3+} and Bi{sup 3+} valence states as expected for bismuth ferrite. However, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles using variable photon energies unexpectedly showed the presence of Bi{sup 0} valence state below the surface region, indicating that bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are chemically inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Consistently, small-angle X-ray scattering reveals a core-shell structure for these radial inhomogeneous nanoparticles.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Walton, Richard I.

    2012-05-01

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO3·2H2O and anatase TiO2 in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 °C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 and Bi12TiO20, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi1.43Ti2O6(OH)0.29(H2O)0.66 is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO3 and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products.

  19. Catalytic oxidation of propylene--7. Use of temperature programmed reoxidation to characterize. gamma. -bismuth molybdate

    SciTech Connect

    Uda, T.; Lin, T.T.; Keulks, G.W.

    1980-03-01

    Temperature-programed reoxidation of propylene-reduced ..gamma..-Bi/sub 2/MoO/sub 6/ revealed a low-temperature peak (LTP) at 158/sup 0/C and a high-temperature peak (HTP) at 340/sup 0/C. Auger spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction of reduced and partially or completely reoxidized bismuth molybdate showed that at the LTP, molybdenum(IV) is oxidized to molybdenum(VI) and bismuth, from the metallic state to an oxidation state between zero and three, and that the HTP is associated with the complete oxidation of bismuth to bismuth(III). Activity tests for propylene oxidation showed lower acrolein formation on the catalyst, on which only the LTP was reoxidized than on catalysts on which both peaks were reoxidized. The reoxidation kinetics of the catalyst under conditions corresponding to the LTP showed an activation energy of 22.9 kcal/mole below 170/sup 0/C and near zero above 170/sup 0/C; the break in the Arrhenius plot of reoxidation of the catalyst under conditions corresponding to the HTP was at 400/sup 0/C, with activation energies of 46 kcal/mole at lower and near zero at higher temperatures. Propylene oxidation was apparently rate-limited by the HTP reoxidation process below 400/sup 0/C and by allylic hydrogen abstraction above 400/sup 0/C.

  20. Emergent Literacy Activities in the Final Preschool Year in the German Federal States of Bavaria and Hesse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Wilfried K.; Lehrl, Simone; Anders, Yvonne; Pohlmann-Rother, Sanna; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Emergent literacy activities are considered to be important for promoting children's emergent literacy skills. However, little research exists, especially in Germany, regarding how often such activities occur and in what context. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of emergent literacy activities occurring in the final preschool…

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Walton, Richard I.

    2012-05-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

  2. Bismuth pyrochlore thin films for dielectric energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Elizabeth K. Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-08-07

    Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate were fabricated using chemical solution deposition. This family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities between 55 ± 2 and 145 ± 5 for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 ± 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum end member increased the dielectric breakdown strength. For example, at 10 kHz, the room temperature breakdown strength of bismuth zinc niobate was 5.1 MV/cm, while that of bismuth zinc tantalate was 6.1 MV/cm. This combination of a high breakdown strength and a moderate permittivity led to a high discharged energy storage density for all film compositions. For example, at a measurement frequency of 10 kHz, bismuth zinc niobate exhibited a maximum recoverable energy storage density of 60.8 ± 2.0 J/cm{sup 3}, while bismuth zinc tantalate exhibited a recoverable energy storage density of 60.7 ± 2.0 J/cm{sup 3}. Intermediate compositions of bismuth zinc niobate tantalate offered higher energy storage densities; at 10 mol. % tantalum, the maximum recoverable energy storage density was ∼66.9 ± 2.4 J/cm{sup 3}.

  3. The antimicrobial effects and metabolomic footprinting of carboxyl-capped bismuth nanoparticles against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nazari, P; Dowlatabadi-Bazaz, R; Mofid, M R; Pourmand, M R; Daryani, N E; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Shahverdi, A R

    2014-01-01

    Organic salts of bismuth are currently used as antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of elemental bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) using a serial agar dilution method for the first time against different clinical isolates and a standard strain of H. pylori. The Bi NPs were biologically prepared and purified by a recently described method and subjected to further characterization by infrared spectroscopy and anti-H. pylori evaluation. Infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of carboxyl functional groups on the surface of biogenic Bi NPs. These biogenic nanoparticles showed good antibacterial activity against all tested H. pylori strains. The resulting MICs varied between 60 and 100 μg/ml for clinical isolates of H. pylori and H. pylori (ATCC 26695). The antibacterial effect of bismuth ions was also tested against all test strains. The antimicrobial effect of Bi ions was lower than antimicrobial effect of bismuth in the form of elemental NPs. The effect of Bi NPs on metabolomic footprinting of H. pylori was further evaluated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Exposure of H. pylori to an inhibitory concentration of Bi NPs (100 μg/ml) led to release of some metabolites such as acetate, formic acid, glutamate, valine, glycine, and uracil from bacteria into their supernatant. These findings confirm that these nanoparticles interfere with Krebs cycle, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism and shows anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:24104691

  4. Instrumental photon activation analysis using the linear accelerator at the Naval Postgraduate School. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.A.

    1982-10-01

    Charcoal, charcoal residue, potting soil, aluminum foil, bismuth germanate, and petroleum samples have been investigated using instrumental photon activation analysis (i.e., no radiochemistry). The major and minor elements routinely observed by this nondestructive method were: C, C1, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si, and K. A compreshensive review of the principles of IPAA was also included in the study. The principles were applied to a theroetical analysis of an oil sample in which the trace element concentrations were known. It was concluded that IPAA is a highly sensitive technique which could be used to fingerprint oils.

  5. Instrumental photon activation analysis using the linear accelerator at the Naval Postgraduate School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, W. A.

    1982-10-01

    Charcoal, charcoal residue, potting soil, aluminum foil, bismuth germanate, and petroleum samples have been investigated using instrumental photon activation analysis (i.e., no radiochemistry). The major and minor elements routinely observed by this nondestructive method were: C, C1, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si, and K. A comprehensive review of the principles of IPAA was also included in the study. The principles were applied to a theoretical analysis of an oil sample in which the trace element concentrations were known. It was concluded that IPAA is a highly sensitive technique which could be used to fingerprint oils.

  6. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  7. Developing Outdoor and Adventurous Activities for Co-Existence and Reconciliation in Israel: An Anglo-German Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidder, Gary; Haasner, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Conflict resolution between different social groups is an issue that has continued to gain high profile news coverage both nationally and in a global context. In this respect, it has been shown that carefully designed and managed physical activity programmes can make a small but nonetheless invaluable contribution to reconciliation and…

  8. The active participation of German-speaking countries in conferences of the Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) between 2005 and 2013: A reflection of the development of medical education research?

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Patricia; Bauer, Daniel; Schöppe, Franziska; Fischer, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Medical education is gaining in significance internationally. A growing interest in the field has been observed in German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, Switzerland) since the early 2000s. This interest is not, however, reflected in an increase in the number of publications on medical education of German-speaking authors in international professional journals. The following investigation examines the potential use of active participant numbers of German-speaking researchers at AMEE conferences as a means of measuring said development. Methods: The AMEE conference proceedings from the categories poster presentations, short communications, research papers and plenary presentations from the years 2005-2013 were examined for evidence of Austrian, German and Swiss participation. The abstracts were subsequently analysed in terms of content and categorised according to study design, methodology, object of study, and research topic. Results: Of the 9,446 analysed abstracts, 549 contributions show at least one first, last or co-author from Austria, Germany or Switzerland. The absolute number of contributions per conference varied between 44 in 2010 and 77 in 2013. The percentage fluctuated between 10% in 2005 and 4.1% in 2010. From the year 2010 onwards, however, participation increased continually. The research was predominantly descriptive (62.7%). Studies on fundamental questions of teaching and learning (clarification studies) were less frequent (4.0%). For the most part, quantitative methods (51.9%) were implemented in addressing subjects such as learning and teaching methods (33%), evaluation and assessment (22.4%) or curriculum development (14.4%). The study population was usually comprised of students (52.5%). Conclusions: The number of contributions from Austria, Germany and Switzerland peak at the beginning and at the end of the evaluated period of time. A continual increase in active participation since 2005 was not observed. These observations

  9. Improvements to a Flow Sensor for Liquid Bismuth-Fed Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonds, Kevin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest in using bismuth metal as a propellant in Hall Thrusters [1, 2]. Bismuth offers some considerable cost, weight, and space savings over the traditional propellant--xenon. Quantifying the performance of liquid metal-fed Hall thrusters requires a very precise measure of the low propellant flow rates [1, 2]. The low flow rates (10 mg/sec) and the temperature at which free flowing liquid bismuth exists (above 300 C) preclude the use of off-the-shelf flow sensing equipment [3]. Therefore a new type of sensor is required. The hotspot bismuth flow sensor, described in Refs. [1-5] is designed to perform a flow rate measurement by measuring the velocity at which a thermal feature moves through a flow chamber. The mass flow rate can be determined from the time of flight of the thermal peak, [4, 5]. Previous research and testing has been concerned mainly with the generation of the thermal peak and it's subsequent detection. In this paper, we present design improvements to the sensor concept; and the results of testing conducted to verify the functionality of these improvements. A ceramic material is required for the sensor body (see Fig. 1), which must allow for active heating of the bismuth flow channel to keep the propellant in a liquid state. The material must be compatible with bismuth and must be bonded to conductive elements to allow for conduction of current into the liquid metal and measurement of the temperature in the flow. The new sensor requires fabrication techniques that will allow for a very small diameter flow chamber, which is required to produce useful measurements. Testing of various materials has revealed several that are potentially compatible with liquid bismuth. Of primary concern in the fabrication and testing of a robust, working prototype, is the compatibility of the selected materials with one another. Specifically, the thermal expansion rates of the materials relative to the ceramic body cannot expand so

  10. Magnetoconductance fluctuations in open bismuth quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, B.; Minet, J. P.; Farhi, G.; Crahay, A.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Bayot, V.

    2002-03-01

    We investigate the low temperature (300 mK - 10 K) magnetoconductance of open circular bismuth quantum dots (diameter: 500 nm). The structures are fabricated using a combination of electron beam lithography, lift off and plasma etching techniques on bismuth thin films evaporated on heated SiO2 substrates. We observe reproducible magnetoconductance fluctuations (UCFs) up to 5T, qualitatively similar to conductance fluctuations evidenced in open quantum dots patterned in high mobility semiconductor heterostructures. In our samples, UCFs are superposed on a slowly varying negative magnetoconductance background. We also observe a sharp conductance maximum centered in B=0, which is reminescent of the spin-orbit induced anti-localisation phenomenon. The behavior of UCFs and of the conductance maximum is discussed as a function of the temperature, thickness and degree of cristallinity of the cavity.

  11. Phase transitions of Dirac electrons in bismuth.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Checkelsky, J G; Hor, Y S; Uher, C; Hebard, A F; Cava, R J; Ong, N P

    2008-07-25

    The Dirac Hamiltonian, which successfully describes relativistic fermions, applies equally well to electrons in solids with linear energy dispersion, for example, in bismuth and graphene. A characteristic of these materials is that a magnetic field less than 10 tesla suffices to force the Dirac electrons into the lowest Landau level, with resultant strong enhancement of the Coulomb interaction energy. Moreover, the Dirac electrons usually come with multiple flavors or valley degeneracy. These ingredients favor transitions to a collective state with novel quantum properties in large field. By using torque magnetometry, we have investigated the magnetization of bismuth to fields of 31 tesla. We report the observation of sharp field-induced phase transitions into a state with striking magnetic anisotropy, consistent with the breaking of the threefold valley degeneracy. PMID:18653888

  12. Stress-driven growth of bismuth nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Weiner, Anita M.; Wong, Curtis A.; Balogh, Michael P.; Lukitsch, Michael J.

    2003-03-01

    We recently reported that compressive stresses in thin films can be exploited to grow nanowires (Ref.1). Nanowires of bismuth (Bi) with diameters ranging from 30 to 200 nm and lengths up to several millimeters were formed spontaneously at the rate of a few micrometers per second at room temperature on surfaces of freshly grown composite thin films consisting of Bi and chrome-nitride (CrN). The high compressive stress in the composite thin films was shown to be the driving force responsible for the nanowire formation. In this presentation, the effects of stress, composition, and temperature on the growth and structure of bismuth nanowires will be discussed. This method of growing nanowires can also be extended to other material systems. Ref. 1. Yang-Tse Cheng, Anita M. Weiner, Curtis A. Wong, Michael P. Balogh, and Michael J. Lukitsch, Applied Physics Letters 81, 3248 (2002).

  13. Bismuth film electrodes for heavy metals determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehacek, Vlastimil; Hotovy, Ivan; Vojs, Marian; Mika, Fedor

    2007-05-01

    Bismuth film electrodes (BiFEs) have a potential to replace toxic mercury used most frequently for determination of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) by anodic stripping voltammetry. We prepared a graphite disc electrode (0.5 mm in diameter) from a pencil-lead rod and developed a nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (NDLC) microelectrode array consisting of 50 625 microdiscs with 3 μm in diameter and interelectrode distances of 20 μm on a highly conductive silicon substrate as a support for BiFEs. The disc graphite BiFE was used for simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) by square wave voltammetry (SWV) in an aqueous solution. We found the optimum bismuth-to-metal concentration ratio in the solution to be 20. The dependence of the stripping responses on the concentration of target metals was linear in the range from 1×10 -8 to 1.2×10 -7 mol/L. Detection limits 2.4×10 -9 mol/L for Pb(II), 2.9×10 -9 mol/L for Cd(II) and 1.2×10 -8 mol/L for Zn(II) were estimated. A bismuth-plated NDLC microelectrode array was used for Pb(II) determination by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in an aqueous solution. We found that the stripping current for bismuth-plated NDLC array was linear in the concentration range of Pb(II) from 2×10 -8 to 1.2×10 -7 mol/L. The detection limit 2.2×10 -8 mol/L was estimated from a calibration plot.

  14. Ultrafast broadband spectroscopy of crystalline bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nikov, A A; Misochko, Oleg V; Chekalin, Sergei V

    2013-04-30

    Femtosecond spectroscopy in the wavelength range 0.4 - 2.3 {mu}m has been used to probe ultrafast electronic and lattice processes in bismuth. The photoresponse of a bismuth crystal is shown to comprise components with relaxation times of 1 ps, 7 ps, and {approx}1 ns. The electron-hole and electron-phonon interaction strengths in bismuth are found to depend significantly on the wave vector in the {Gamma}-T direction of the Brillouin zone. Comparison of the spectral dependences of the amplitudes of coherent E{sub g} and A{sub 1g} phonons and the corresponding dependences of the Raman scattering cross sections indicates that these phonon modes differ in generation mechanism. The generation of coherent A{sub 1g} phonons is mainly due to displacement of the equilibrium position of atoms in the crystal lattice in a nonequilibrium state. This process differs fundamentally from resonance Raman scattering responsible for the coherent excitation of low-symmetry phonon modes. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  15. German uranium miner study--historical background and available histopathological material.

    PubMed

    Wesch, H; Wiethege, T; Spiethoff, A; Wegener, K; Müller, K M; Mehlhorn, J

    1999-12-01

    Mining activities in the former German Democratic Republic were documented as early as 1168 in the ore mountains (Erzgebirge) of Saxony. Silver, bismuth, cobalt, nickel and tungsten were mined from then up to the end of the 19th century. After the Second World War, the Soviet Occupation Authorities reopened the old silver mines in Saxony to mine uranium for the Soviet nuclear industry. About 400, 000 workers produced a total of 220,000 tons of uranium during the years 1946 to 1990. After the reunification of Germany, the archive of the Institute of Pathology of the mining area was opened for research. It contains protocols of 28,975 autopsy cases and about 400,000 slides collected from 1957 to 1992, about 66,000 tissue blocks, and 238 whole lungs. From the autopsy cases, 17,466 could be identified as workers of the uranium mining company. The remainder of the cases were in the population of the mining area. A comparison of the frequencies of malignancies of male workers older than 15 years with those of the population of the mining area for the years 1957 to 1989 demonstrates a significantly higher percentage of lung cancer among the uranium miners. There was no significant difference for other solid cancers and leukemias. PMID:10564936

  16. Evaluation of colloidal bismuth (De-Nol) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer employing endoscopic selection and follow up

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, P. R.; Brown, P.; Williams, R.; Read, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of colloidal bismuth (De-Nol) was performed on 20 patients with active duodenal ulceration employing endoscopic selection and follow up after a treatment period of 28 days. By these means it was shown that healing of ulcers was significant in those patients treated with the active compound. In addition a greater number (9/10) of patients treated with colloidal bismuth showed symptomatic improvement than those receiving placebo (6/10) but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The results of endoscopic and symptomatic assessment of the patients receiving colloidal bismuth were in complete agreement although there was a poor correlation between these results in those receiving the placebo. This supports the results from a previous study that endoscopic assessment of duodenal ulcer healing provides a more objective assessment than do clinical methods. PMID:4601523

  17. Spin dynamics of complex oxides, bismuth-antimony alloys, and bismuth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Cuneyt

    The emerging field of spintronics relies on the manipulation of electron spin in order to use it in spin-based electronics. Such a paradigm change has to tackle several challenges including finding materials with sufficiently long spin lifetimes and materials which are efficient in generating pure spin currents. This thesis predicts that two types of material families could be a solution to the aforementioned challenges: complex oxides and bismuth based materials. We derived a general approach for constructing an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian which is applicable to all nonmagnetic materials. This formalism is useful for calculating spin-dependent properties near an arbitrary point in momentum space. We also verified this formalism through comparisons with other approaches for III-V semiconductors, and its general applicability is illustrated by deriving the spin-orbit interaction and predicting spin lifetimes for strained strontium titanate (STO) and a two-dimensional electron gas in STO (such as at the LAO/STO interface). Our results suggest robust spin coherence and spin transport properties in STO related materials even at room temperature. In the second part of the study we calculated intrinsic spin Hall conductivities for bismuth-antimony (BISb) semimetals with strong spin-orbit couplings, from the Kubo formula and using Berry curvatures evaluated throughout the Brillouin zone from a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Nearly crossing bands with strong spin-orbit interaction generate giant spin Hall conductivities in these materials, ranging from 474 ((h/e)O--1cm--1) for bismuth to 96((h/e)O--1cm --1) for antimony; the value for bismuth is more than twice that of platinum. The large spin Hall conductivities persist for alloy compositions corresponding to a three-dimensional topological insulator state, such as Bi0.83Sb0.17. The spin Hall conductivity could be changed by a factor of 5 for doped Bi, or for Bi0.83Sb0.17, by changing the chemical potential by 0.5 e

  18. E-H (E = B, Si, Ge) bond activation of pinacolborane, silanes, and germanes by nucleophilic palladium carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Comanescu, Cezar C; Iluc, Vlad M

    2016-07-12

    The reactivity of two nucleophilic palladium carbenes, [PC(sp(2))P]Pd(PMe3) and [PC(sp(2))P]Pd(PPh3), where [PC(sp(2))P] = bis[2-(di-iso-propylphosphino)phenyl]methylene, toward the E-H bond activation of Ph4-nEHn (E = Si, Ge; n = 1-3) and pinacolborane (HBpin) is discussed. Unlike previous reports, both types of isomer species, hydride [PC(EHn-1Ph4-n)P]PdH or [PC(Bpin)P]PdH and silyl/germyl [PC(H)P]Pd(EHn-1Ph4-n), were observed depending on the substrate and the phosphine ligand, showing that the polarity of the Pd-C bond can be tuned by the phosphine substituents. PMID:26830660

  19. Activity concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn, and their decay products in german dwellings, dose calculations and estimate of risk.

    PubMed

    Keller, G; Folkerts, K H; Muth, H

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of 222Rn, its short-lived decay products and of 212Pb - 212Bi were performed in 150 dwellings and in the open air in the Federal Republic of Germany. The concentrations of 222Rn was measured by electrostatic deposition of 218Po. The concentration of the short-lived decay products were measured by air sampling and alpha-spectroscopy. It was found that inside dwellings the average potential alpha-energy concentration of the short-lived daughters is about three times higher than in the open air. The total potential alpha-energy concentration indoors amounts to 2.6 . 10(-3) Working Level (W.L.). Direct measurements of the equilibrium factor inside dwellings gave a mean value of 0.3. A strong dependence of the potential alpha energy concentration on the ventilation rate in dwellings has been observed. These ventilation effects exceed the effects caused by differences in the activity concentrations due to different building materials. The dose calculation results in an average dose to the whole lung due to the inhalation of short-lived radon daughters of about 0.05-0.2 m/Gy/a. An estimate of risk - based on the risk factors for uranium miners - shows an average lifetime risk of about 6 . 10(-4) for the incidence of lung cancer caused by inhalation of radon and thoron daughters in dwellings in the Federal Republic of Germany. PMID:7146318

  20. Polonium problem in lead-bismuth flow target

    SciTech Connect

    Pankratov, D.V.; Yefimov, E.I.; Bugreev, M.I.

    1996-06-01

    Alpha-active polonium nuclides Po198 - Po210 are formed in a lead-bismuth target as results of reactions Bi{sup 209}(n,{gamma})Bi{sup 210} {yields} Po{sup 210}, Bi{sup 209}(p,xn)Po{sup 210} {yields} Po{sup 210 {minus} x} (x = 1-12), Pb{sup 208}({alpha},xn) {yields} Po{sup 210 {minus} x + 2} (x = 2-14). The most important nuclides are Po-210 (T{sub {1/2}}=138.4 day), Po-209 (T{sub {1/2}}=102 years) and Po-208 (T{sub {1/2}}=2.9 years). Polonium activity of the circuit for SINQ - conditions is about 15,000 Ci after 1-year operation. Polonium radiation hazard is connected with its output from the coolant and formation of aerosol and surface alpha-activity after the circuit break-down for repair works or in accidents. One of the important issues of polonium removal system creation is containing and storing polonium removed. Its storage in solidified alkaline is not expedient because of secondary neutron formation as a result of ({alpha},n) - reaction on oxygen and sodium nucleus. The estimations carried out demonstrated that by polonium concentration {approx} 100 Ci/l neutron current on the container surface can reach {approx} 10{sup 4}n/(cm{sup 2}s). Concentration and storage of polonium in solidified lead-bisumth seems the most convenient. The calculations demonstrated that in a 100 l container 50,000 Ci of polonium can be stored (as much as 3 times more than 1-year polonium product in SINQ-conditions) under temperature in the container less than melting point of lead bismuth (the wall temperature is about 100{degrees}C).

  1. Correlation between near infrared emission and bismuth radical species of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing aluminoborate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Masai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2009-11-15

    A strong correlation between bismuth radical species and emission in the near infrared (NIR) region of SnO-doped bismuth-containing aluminoborate glass, (CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}) (CaBBAT), was observed. Since the activation energy of the NIR emission was similar to that of electron spin resonance signal, it is expected that bismuth radical species in the CaBBAT glass is an origin of the NIR emission. Compared to the observed emission spectra with energy diagram of previous data, we have confirmed that bismuth ion possessing low valence is the origin of broad emission in the NIR region.

  2. History of German pediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Heintzen, P

    2002-01-01

    pediatric and adult cardiologists were brought together in "Heart Centers" with cardiovascular surgeons. The first of these Heart Centers was founded in 1974 in Munich under the directorship of K. Bühlmeyer and comparable centers were later established in Bad Oeynhausen (1985) and Berlin (1986). Following reunification in 1990, pediatric cardiologists from the east and west came together. Thus, within the last three to four decades German pediatric cardiology gradually caught up with international standards and in some fields of cardiovascular research even assumed a leading role. The care of the growing numbers of surviving patients with congenital heart disease has become a new challenge that has to be met by experienced cardiologists. To maintain the level of competence, future activities should however, not only concentrate on the optimal care of patients with congenital heart disease but also be responsible for cardiovascular research. PMID:12436756

  3. German for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  4. Investigation of the dielectric properties of bismuth pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cann, David P.; Randall, Clive A.; Shrout, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dielectric properties of polycrystalline bismuth-based pyrochlores of the general chemical form Bi 2(B {2}/{3}2+B {4}/{3}5+)O 7 and Bi 2(B 3+B 5+)O 7 where B 2+ = Mg, Cu, Zn and Ni, B 3+ = Sc and In, and B 5+ = Nb and Ta, were investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. At low temperatures ( T ˜ 100-150 K), a dielectric dispersion was universally observed within these systems. The dielectric dispersion was analyzed using phenomenological models often used for describing dipolar glass systems. Similar activation energies and pre-exponential damping frequencies are found to exist with dipolar glasses such as RADP (Rb xH 2PO 4(NH 4) 1- xH 2PO 4), K 1- xLi xTaO 3, KBr 1- xCN x and KI 1- x(NO 2) x.

  5. Hall-Effect Thruster Utilizing Bismuth as Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James; Gasdaska, Charles; Hruby, Vlad; Robin, Mike

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-model Hall-effect spacecraft thruster was developed that utilizes bismuth as the propellant. Xenon was used in most prior Hall-effect thrusters. Bismuth is an attractive alternative because it has a larger atomic mass, a larger electron-impact-ionization cross-section, and is cheaper and more plentiful.

  6. Bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates: Facile single source precursors for the preparation of bismuth sulfide nanorods and bismuth phosphate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Garje, Shivram S.; Nuwad, Jitendra; Pillai, C.G.S.

    2013-08-15

    Two different phase pure materials (Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) have been prepared under different conditions using the same single source precursors. Solvothermal decomposition of the complexes, Bi(S{sub 2}P(OR){sub 2}){sub 3} [where, R=Methyl (Me) (1), Ethyl (Et) (2), n-Propyl (Pr{sup n}) (3) and iso-Propyl (Pr{sup i}) (4)] in ethylene glycol gave orthorhombic bismuth sulfide nanorods, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) of the same precursors deposited monoclinic bismuth tetraphosphate (Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) thin films on glass substrates. Surface study of the thin films using SEM illustrated the formation of variety of nanoscale morphologies (spherical-, wire-, pendent-, doughnut- and flower-like) at different temperatures. AFM studies were carried out to evaluate quality of the films in terms of uniformity and roughness. Thin films of average roughness as low as 1.4 nm were deposited using these precursors. Photoluminescence studies of Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films were also carried out. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal decomposition of bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates in ethylene glycol gave Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition of these single source precursors deposited Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Preparation of phase pure orthorhombic Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and monoclinic Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. • Use of single source precursors for deposition of bismuth phosphate thin films. • Use of solvothermal decomposition and AACVD methods. • Morphology controlled synthesis of Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. • Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films using same single source precursors.

  7. Heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of bismuth niobate and bismuth tantalate

    SciTech Connect

    Hampl, M.; Strejc, A.; Sedmidubsky, D.; Ruzicka, K.; Hejtmanek, J.; Leitner, J. . E-mail: jindrich.leitner@vscht.cz

    2006-01-15

    The heat capacity and the heat content of bismuth niobate BiNbO{sub 4} and bismuth tantalate BiTaO{sub 4} were measured by the relaxation method and Calvet-type heat flux calorimetry. The temperature dependencies of the heat capacities in the form C{sub p} {sub m}=128.628+0.03340 T-1991055/T {sup 2}+136273131/T {sup 3} (J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) and 133.594+0.02539 T-2734386/T {sup 2}+235597393/T {sup 3} (J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) were derived for BiNbO{sub 4} and BiTaO{sub 4}, respectively, by the least-squares method from the experimental data. Furthermore, the standard molar entropies at 298.15 K S {sub m}(BiNbO{sub 4})=147.86 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} and S {sub m}(BiTaO{sub 4})=149.11 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} were assessed from the low temperature heat capacity measurements. To complete a set of thermodynamic data of these mixed oxides an attempt was made to estimate the values of the heat of formation from the constituent binary oxides. -- Graphical abstract: Heat content of bismuth niobate and bismuth tantalate-experimental points determined by the drop method and temperature dependencies obtained by the simultaneous fit of heat capacity and heat content data.

  8. Das Bin Ich. Ein Buch von mir uber mich (It's Me! A Book By and About Myself). Communicative Activities for German Immersion and Second Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Mariele; Wicke, Rainer

    This workbook is intended as a text for the learner of German as a foreign language. The workbook is complete with exercises that require students to provide information about themselves. Students provide information by reading questions and filling in the blanks. Questions are asked about families, friends, likes and dislikes, hobbies, and even…

  9. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  10. German Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehme, Robert; And Others

    This guide delineates the scope and sequence of German instruction in both junior and senior high schools indicating instructional goals in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school philosophy and a discussion of the design of the foreign language behavioral objectives in the guide, the manual…

  11. A kinetic study of jack-bean urease denaturation by a new dithiocarbamate bismuth compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, D. C.; Borges, E.; Torres, M. F.; Braga, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    A kinetic study concerning enzymatic inhibitory effect of a new bismuth dithiocarbamate complex on jack-bean urease is reported. A neural network approach is used to solve the ill-posed inverse problem arising from numerical treatment of the subject. A reaction mechanism for the urease denaturation process is proposed and the rate constants, relaxation time constants, equilibrium constants, activation Gibbs free energies for each reaction step and Gibbs free energies for the transition species are determined.

  12. Bismuth-based perovskites as multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guennou, Mael; Viret, Michel; Kreisel, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This review devoted to multiferroic properties of bismuth-based perovskites is divided into two parts. The first one focuses on BiFeO3 and summarizes the recent progress made in the studies of its pressure-temperature phase diagram and magnetoelectric coupling phenomena. The second part discusses in a more general way the issue of polar-and multiferroic-phases in Bi BO3 perovskites and the competition between ferroelectricity and other structural instabilities, from an inventory of recently synthesized compounds.

  13. Deterministic Switching in Bismuth Ferrite Nanoislands.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Alessio; Johann, Florian; Burns, Stuart R; Douglas, Alan; Gregg, J Marty

    2016-08-10

    We report deterministic selection of polarization variant in bismuth BiFeO3 nanoislands via a two-step scanning probe microscopy procedure. The polarization orientation in a nanoisland is toggled to the desired variant after a reset operation by scanning a conductive atomic force probe in contact over the surface while a bias is applied. The final polarization variant is determined by the direction of the inhomogeneous in-plane trailing field associated with the moving probe tip. This work provides the framework for better control of switching in rhombohedral ferroelectrics and for a deeper understanding of exchange coupling in multiferroic nanoscale heterostructures toward the realization of magnetoelectric devices. PMID:27454612

  14. Asthma and Rhinitis Are Associated with Less Objectively-Measured Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity, but Similar Sport Participation, in Adolescent German Boys: GINIplus and LISAplus Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target. Methods PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis. Results 8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active. Conclusions We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation. PMID:27560942

  15. Binding and killing of bacteria by bismuth subsalicylate.

    PubMed Central

    Sox, T E; Olson, C A

    1989-01-01

    Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) is a compound without significant aqueous solubility that is widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. BSS was able to bind bacteria of diverse species, and these bound bacteria were subsequently killed. A 4-log10 reduction of viable bacteria occurred within 4 h after a 10 mM aqueous suspension of BSS was inoculated with 2 x 10(6) Escherichia coli cells per ml. Binding and killing were dependent on the levels of inoculated bacteria, and significant binding but little killing of the exposed bacteria occurred at an inoculum level of 2 x 10(9) E. coli per ml. Intracellular ATP decreased rapidly after exposure of E. coli to 10 mM BSS and, after 30 min, was only 1% of the original level. Extracellular ATP increased after exposure to BSS, but the accumulation of extracellular ATP was not sufficient to account for the loss of intracellular ATP. The killing of bacteria exposed to BSS may have been due to cessation of ATP synthesis or a loss of membrane integrity. Bactericidal activity of BSS was also investigated in a simulated gastric juice at pH 3. Killing of E. coli at this pH was much more rapid than at pH 7 and was apparently due to salicylate released by the conversion of BSS to bismuth oxychloride. It is proposed that the binding and killing observed for BSS contribute to the efficacy of this compound against gastrointestinal infections such as traveler's diarrhea. PMID:2694949

  16. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Thermally Treated Bismuth Subgallate

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Complex of bismuth, an anti-inflammatory drug, was studied by EPR spectroscopy. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations and properties of free radicals formed during thermal sterilization of bismuth subgallate according to pharmacopoeia norms to optimize its sterilization process. Different temperatures (160°C, 170°C, and 180°C) and times (120 minutes, 60 minutes, and 30 minutes) of sterilization were used. Interactions of bismuth subgallate with DPPH, the model free radical reference, were checked. g-Factors, amplitudes (A), integral intensities (I), and linewidths (ΔBpp) were obtained. Integral intensities were obtained by double integration of the first-derivative EPR lines. The influence of microwave power in the range of 2.2–70 mW on shape and parameters of the EPR spectra was examined. Thermal sterilization produced free radicals in bismuth subgallate in all tested cases. Strong interactions with free radicals were pointed out for all the analysed samples containing bismuth independent of sterilization conditions. Optimal conditions of thermal sterilization for bismuth subgallate with the lowest free radical formation are temperature 170°C and time of heating 60 minutes. Strong dipolar interactions exist in thermally sterilized bismuth subgallate. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examination of thermal sterilization conditions. PMID:25525421

  17. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of thermally treated bismuth subgallate.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Complex of bismuth, an anti-inflammatory drug, was studied by EPR spectroscopy. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations and properties of free radicals formed during thermal sterilization of bismuth subgallate according to pharmacopoeia norms to optimize its sterilization process. Different temperatures (160°C, 170°C, and 180°C) and times (120 minutes, 60 minutes, and 30 minutes) of sterilization were used. Interactions of bismuth subgallate with DPPH, the model free radical reference, were checked. g-Factors, amplitudes (A), integral intensities (I), and linewidths (ΔB pp) were obtained. Integral intensities were obtained by double integration of the first-derivative EPR lines. The influence of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on shape and parameters of the EPR spectra was examined. Thermal sterilization produced free radicals in bismuth subgallate in all tested cases. Strong interactions with free radicals were pointed out for all the analysed samples containing bismuth independent of sterilization conditions. Optimal conditions of thermal sterilization for bismuth subgallate with the lowest free radical formation are temperature 170°C and time of heating 60 minutes. Strong dipolar interactions exist in thermally sterilized bismuth subgallate. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examination of thermal sterilization conditions. PMID:25525421

  18. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  19. Synthesis of α-Bismuth oxide using solution combustion method and its photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Y.; Fauziyah, A.; Nurhayati, S.; Wulansari, A. D.; Andianingrum, R.; Hakim, A. R.; Bhaduri, G.

    2016-02-01

    The monoclinic bismuth oxide was prepared by the solution combustion method using bismuthyl nitrate as the raw material and citric acid as fuel. The synthesis process consisted of the formation of a clear transparent solution and the formation of white powder after heating the mixture at 250 °C for 2 hours. The yellow pale crystalline materials were obtained after calcination of the white powder at 600 °C for 80 minutes. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the product was also studied using methyl orange as a model pollutant. The result showed that the coral reef-like bismuth oxide was able to degrade 50 mL methyl orange (5 ppm) by 37.8% within 12 hours irradiation using 75-watt tungsten lamp.

  20. Dielectric properties of Bismuth Titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) synthesized using solution combustion route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subohi, Oroosa; Kumar, G. S.; Malik, M. M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2012-09-01

    Ferroelectric Bismuth Titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) was prepared by solution combustion route with glycine as fuel. The single phase Bismuth Titanate was obtained after calcination at 800 °C, which was confirmed with the help of X-ray diffraction studies and EDS analysis. SEM micrographs of the calcined powders show agglomerated particles, which is typical of combustion synthesis. Behavior of dielectric constant and dielectric loss as a function of temperature of as prepared sample are reported here. Ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition occurs at the temperature Tc∼650 °C. Impedance studies were made in the frequency range from 1 KHz to 1 MHz. The semicircles observed in the complex impedance diagrams indicate deviation from the Debye behavior. Activation energy of the sample around Tc is found to be ∼0.35 eV and below Tc is ∼0.13 eV, which was calculated using the Arrhenius plots.

  1. Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstov, S. V.; Firstova, E. G.; Alyshev, S. V.; Khopin, V. F.; Riumkin, K. E.; Melkumov, M. A.; Guryanov, A. N.; Dianov, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the luminescent properties of bismuth-doped fibers bleached by 532 nm laser radiation was investigated. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed in pristine and photobleached samples which were thermally annealed at various temperatures ranging from 100 to 900 °C and slowly cooled. We observed that the intensity of the PL band at 1700 nm in the photobleached fibers recovered its pre-bleached level. Moreover, it was shown that a significant increase of the PL level could be achieved using the special annealing regime. Thereby, we obtained the experimental evidence of a thermally activated recovery process of the PL intensity showing that photoinduced changes of PL in bismuth-doped fibers are completely reversible. The mechanism of the thermal recovery of the PL is discussed.

  2. Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants.

    PubMed

    Bufetov, Igor A; Melkumov, Mikhail A; Firstov, Sergey V; Shubin, Alexey V; Semenov, Sergey L; Vel'miskin, Vladimir V; Levchenko, Andrey E; Firstova, Elena G; Dianov, Evgeny M

    2011-01-15

    Luminescence emission and excitation spectra of bismuth-doped silica optical fibers free of other dopants have been obtained to construct an emission-excitation map in a wide wavelength range of 400-1600 nm. The main low-lying energy levels of the bismuth active centers in such fibers have been determined. For the first time (to our knowledge), optical gain and lasing have been obtained in such fibers. A gain of 8 dB has been achieved with a pump power of 340 mW, and a cw fiber laser emitting at 1460 nm with an output power of 40 mW and an efficiency of ≈3% has been created. PMID:21263488

  3. Ground deformation associated with post-mining activity at the French-German border revealed by novel InSAR time series method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, Sergey; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Smets, Benoît

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel methodology for integration of multiple InSAR data sets for computation of two dimensional time series of ground deformation. The proposed approach allows combination of SAR data acquired with different acquisition parameters, temporal and spatial sampling and resolution, wavelength and polarization. Produced time series have combined coverage, improved temporal resolution and lower noise level. We apply this methodology for mapping coal mining related ground subsidence and uplift in the Greater Region of Luxembourg along the French-German border. For this we processed 167 Synthetic Aperture Radar ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images acquired between 1995 and 2009 from one ascending (track 29) and one descending (track 337) tracks and created over five hundred interferograms that were used for time series analysis. Derived vertical and east-west linear deformation rates show with remarkable precision a region of localized ground deformation located above and caused by mining and post-mining activities. Time series of ground deformation display temporal variability: reversal from subsidence to uplift and acceleration of subsidence in the vertical component, and horizontal motion toward the center of the subsidence on the east-west component. InSAR results are validated by leveling measurements collected by the French Geological Survey (BRGM) during 2006-2008. We determined that deformation rate changes are mainly caused by water level variations in the mines. Due to higher temporal and spatial resolution the proposed space-borne method detected a larger number of subsidence and uplift areas in comparison to leveling measurements restricted to annual monitoring of benchmark points along roads. We also identified one deformation region that is not precisely located above the mining sites. Comparison of InSAR measurements with the water levels measured in the mining pits suggest that part of the water that filled the galleries after termination of the

  4. Ground Deformation Associated With Post-Mining Activity at the French-German Border Revealed by Multidimensional Time Series Analysis of SAR Data Acquired in Various Orbital Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, B.; Samsonov, S. V.; d'Oreye, N.

    2012-12-01

    We present the application of an innovative methodology for producing multidimensional time series of ground deformation from satellite radar data acquired by sensors with various acquisition geometry, ground resolution, and wave band (Samsonov and d'Oreye, Resubmitted). This technique is based on the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method that is modified to produce horizontal and vertical time series of ground deformation. Produced time series have combined coverage, improved temporal resolution and lower noise level. We apply this methodology for mapping coal mining related ground subsidence and heave in the Greater Region of Luxembourg along the French-German border. For this we processed 167 Synthetic Aperture Radar ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images acquired between 1995 and 2009 from one ascending (track 29) and one descending (track 337) tracks and created over five hundred interferograms that were used for time series analysis. Produced vertical and east-west linear deformation rates show with remarkable precision region of localized ground deformation located above and caused by mining and post-mining activities. Time series of ground de- formation display temporal variability: reversal from subsidence to uplift and acceleration of subsidence on the vertical component and horizontal motion towards the center of the subsidence on the east-west component. InSAR results are successfully validated by leveling measurements performed by the French Geological Survey (BRGM) during 2006-2008. We determined that deformation rate changes are mainly caused by water level variations in the mines. Due to higher temporal and spatial resolution the proposed space-born method detected a larger number of subsidence and uplift areas in comparison to leveling measurements restricted to annual monitoring of benchmark points along roads. We also identified deformation regions that are not precisely located above the mining sites. Comparison of InSAR measurements with the water levels

  5. In-situ measurements of chlorine activation, nitric acid redistribution and ozone depletion in the Antarctic lower vortex aboard the German research aircraft HALO during TACTS/ESMVal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Ziereis, Helmut; Hoor, Peter; Bozem, Heiko; Müller, Stefan; Zahn, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Oelhaf, Hermann; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In-situ measurements of stratospheric chlorine compounds are rare and exhibit the potential to gain insight into small scale mixing processes where stratospheric air masses of different origin and history interact. In addition, the relationship with chemically stable trace gases helps to identify regions that have been modified by chemical processing on polar stratospheric clouds. To this end, in-situ measurements of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, NOy, N2O and O3 have been performed in the Antarctic Polar Vortex in September 2012 aboard the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Rang research aircraft) during the TACTS/ESMVal (Transport and Composition in the UTLS/Earth System Model Validation) mission. With take-off and landing in Capetown, HALO sampled vortex air with latitudes down to 65°S, at altitudes between 8 and 14.3 km and potential temperatures between 340 and 390 K. Before intering the vortex at 350 K potential temperature, HALO additionally sampled mid-latitude stratospheric air. The trace gas distributions at the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex show distinct signatures of processed upper stratospheric vortex air and chemically different lower stratospheric / upper tropospheric air. Diabatic descend of the vortex transports processed air into the lower stratosphere. Here small scale filaments of only a few kilometers extension form at the lower vortex boundary due to shear stress, ultimately leading to transport and irreversible mixing. Comparison of trace gas relationships with those at the beginning of the polar winter reveals substantial chlorine activation, ozone depletion de- and renitrification with high resolution. Furthermore, the measurements are compared to the chemistry climate models EMAC and supported by ECMWF analysis. Finally, we compare the Antarctic measurements with new measurements of ClONO2, HCl and HNO3 aboard HALO obtained during the Arctic mission POLSTRACC (POLar STratosphere in a Changing Climate) based in Kiruna (Sveden

  6. Activities in German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) to transform school education with the objective of increasing student awareness of animal welfare issues.

    PubMed

    Luy, Joerg; Grune, Barbara

    2004-06-01

    While harmful live-animal procedures in primary and secondary schools are illegal in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and classroom dissections are either illegal or at least unpopular, there is a relatively new trend in German-speaking schools to handle animal welfare issues by means of voluntary animal welfare lessons. This began in the 1980s, and there is now a growing number of (at this point, more than ten) organisations in German-speaking countries offering such classes and/or well-prepared teaching aids. Apart from outlining the legal situation for animal use in education and training, the different educational concepts for animal welfare as a subject in schools are presented. PMID:23581123

  7. Luminescent properties of bismuth centres in aluminosilicate optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Bulatov, Lenar I; Mashinskii, Valerii M; Dvoirin, Vladislav V; Dianov, Evgenii M; Kustov, Evgenii F

    2010-02-28

    The shape and spectral position of the luminescence bands of bismuth-doped aluminosilicate glass fibres are shown to depend on excitation power and wavelength. This indicates that the red and IR luminescence bands are composed of several components. The absorption and radiative transitions involved are identified, and a diagram of energy levels and transitions is obtained for four modifications of a bismuth centre in different environments in the aluminosilicate glass network. The effect of local environment on the optical properties of the bismuth centres is examined. (optical fibres and waveguides)

  8. Photoluminescence of Bismuth Germanate Phosphors with a Silica-shell Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviedo, M. J.; Han, J. K.; Contreras, O.; Macedo, Z. S.; Hirata, G. A.; McKittrick, J.

    An intense bluish-white emitting phosphor Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) was synthesized by tartaric acid-assisted solgel method and covered with a SiO2 nanolayer by the sol-gel method. The cubic crystal structure of BGO was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the particle size to be in the range of 6-20 nm. Under excitation with 4.3 eV photons the BGO powders showed a PL contribution centered at 2.43 eV that corresponds to the typical BGO luminescence associated with 3P1à1S0 of Bi3+ electron transitions. Radioluminescence measurements showed the predominant emission centered at 2.43 eV due to the intra-ionic Bi3+ transitions. The PL emission of the silica coated BGO nanoparticles presented a luminescence enhancement of more than 200% compared with the uncoated nanoparticles. This enhancement in photoluminescence is proposed to be related to the reflectivity (refractive index) between air-silica-BGO layers.

  9. Bismuth breast and thyroid shield implementation for pediatric CT.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Melinda; Ahmed, Renee; Patrick, L Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that infants and children are as much as ten times more susceptible to carcinogenesis from radiation than adults. Because data show bismuth breast and thyroid shields decrease radiation dose to sensitive areas without changes in image quality, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta implemented the use of bismuth shields in all patients undergoing CTexaminations. Staff education regarding the use of bismuth shielding was key to the success of this program.Their understanding of the benefits would ultimately assist in their support of shield use in the CT department. This program was made possible through a grant from the AHRA & Toshiba Putting Patients First Program. Otherwise, the cost of bismuth shielding would be supported by the operating budget of the organization and, with the decline in CT volume reported at many healthcare institutions,this cost may be too high for many hospitals. PMID:21366141

  10. LiBi3S5-A lithium bismuth sulfide with strong cation disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhal, Suliman; Wiedemann, Dennis; Stanje, Bernhard; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Wilkening, Martin; Lerch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Among chalcogenide semiconductors for thermoelectric applications, alkali-metal bismuth compounds occur in many complex compositions favorable for high performance. Although LiBi3S5 had been announced in 1977, the potential 1D lithium-ion conductor has hitherto eluded selective synthesis and structure determination. In this study, we present a solid-state route to phase-pure LiBi3S5 powder starting from LiBiS2 and Bi2S3. Neutron diffractograms and lithium NMR spectra reveal its crystal structure to be a cation-disordered variety of the AgBi3S5 type (synthetic pavonite; monoclinic, C2/m). Topological analyses and lithium NMR relaxometry suggest that correlated lithium-ion diffusion with activation energies up to 0.66(2) eV occurs along the channels in b direction including tetrahedral voids. Because of cation disorder, immobile bismuth(III) ions clog these pathways, making LiBi3S5 a moderate to poor ionic conductor. The synthesis route reported is nonetheless promising for new lithium bismuth sulfides with, possibly ordered, structure types of the pavonite homologous series.

  11. Bismuth electrodes, an alternative in stripping voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barón-Jaimez, J.; Joya, M. R.; Barba-Ortega, J.

    2013-11-01

    The heavy metals are known as highly toxic contaminants, the processes carried out in industry contribute that finally they remain dispersed in effluents and sewage, doing part of the food chain. The importance of controlling the levels of these heavy metals has become an international policy, so it has generated interest in developing new analytical methodologies for its determination [1, 2, 3, 4]. The stripping voltammetry has been considered as a family of electro-sensitive analytical techniques useful for the determination of trace levels of many metals in environmental, clinical and industrial samples [3, 4]. This work presents an overview of these bismuth-based electrodes which were introduced around 2000, which have interesting characteristics for detection of heavy metals and which represent an alternative to mercury electrodes.

  12. OPTICAL FIBRES AND FIBREOPTIC SENSORS: Bismuth-ring-doped fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlenko, Aleksandr S.; Akhmetshin, Ural G.; Dvoirin, Vladislav V.; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A.; Firstov, Sergei V.

    2009-11-01

    A new process for bismuth doping of optical fibres is proposed in which the dopant is introduced into a thin layer surrounding the fibre core. This enables bismuth stabilisation in the silica glass, with no limitations on the core composition. In particular, the GeO2 content of the fibre core in this study is 16 mol %. Spectroscopic characterisation of such fibres and optical gain measurements suggest that the proposed approach has considerable potential for laser applications.

  13. Effect of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane on Methylation of Bismuth by Methanosarcina barkeri

    PubMed Central

    Michalke, Klaus; Meyer, Jörg; Hensel, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), a common constituent of household products, triggers the transformation of bismuth to the volatile toxic derivative trimethylbismuth by Methanosarcina barkeri, which is a representative member of the sewage sludge microflora. Comparative studies with the ionophores monensin and lasalocid, which induce effects similar to those observed for OMCTS, indicated that the stimulation of bismuth methylation is not specific for the siloxane and suggested that the stimulation observed is mainly due to facilitated membrane permeation of the metal ion. PMID:17021235

  14. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  15. Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    The agenda book for the Fifth German-American Frontiers of Engineering Symposium contains abstracts of the 16 presentations as well as information on the program, bios of the speakers, contact information for all attendees, and background on the activity.

  16. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  17. Morphology modulated growth of bismuth tungsten oxide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Shushan; Wei, Jiyong; Huang Baibiao Feng Shengyu; Zhang Xiaoyang; Qin Xiaoyan; Wang Peng; Wang Zeyan; Zhang Qi; Jing Xiangyang; Zhan Jie

    2009-02-15

    Two kinds of bismuth tungsten oxide nanocrystals were prepared by microwave hydrothermal method. The morphology modulation of nanocrystals synthesized with precursor suspension's pH varied from 0.25 (strong acid) to 10.05 (base) was studied. The 3D flower like aggregation of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoflakes was synthesized in acid precursor suspension and the nanooctahedron crystals of Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} were synthesized in alkalescent precursor. The dominant crystal is changed from Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} to Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} when the precursor suspension changes from acid to alkalescence. The growth mechanisms of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} were attributed to the different solubility of WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and [Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+} in precursor suspensions with various pH. For the decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation ({lambda}>400 nm), different morphology of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} crystal samples obtained by microwavesolvothermal process showed different photocatalytic activity. - Graphical abstract: The morphology modulation of bismuth tungsten oxide nanocrystals synthesized by microwave hydrothermal method with precursor suspension's pH varied from 0.25 (strong acid) to 10.05 (base) was studied. The 3D flower like aggregation of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoflakes and nanooctahedron crystals of Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} were prepared. The growth mechanisms of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} were attributed to the different precipitation ability and solubility of H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Bi(OH){sub 3} in precursor suspensions with various pH. The photocatalytic evaluation, via the decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation ({lambda}>420 nm), reveals that nanocrystalline Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} samples obtained in different condition exhibit different photocatalytic activities which depend on pH value of the precursor suspensions.

  18. Preparation and crystal structure of a new bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 3.33}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kumada, N.; Takei, T.; Haramoto, R.; Yonesaki, Y.; Dong, Q.; Kinomura, N.; Nishimoto, S.; Kameshima, Y.; Miyake, M.

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Bi{sub 3.33}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}O{sub 2}. Solid lines indicate the unit cell. Highlights: {yields} We can prepare a new bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 3.33}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}O{sub 2} by hydrothermal reaction using a hydrated sodium bismuthate. {yields} We clarify that the crystal structure is composed by four bismuth atoms with the coordination number of 6 or 8 and two VO{sub 4} tetrahedra. {yields} This compound exhibited photocatalytic behavior for decomposition of phenol under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: Single crystals of a new bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 3.33}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}O{sub 2} was prepared by hydrothermal reaction using a hydrated sodium bismuthate, NaBiO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O as one of the starting compounds. The crystal structure was determined by using single crystal X-ray diffraction data. This compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1{sup -bar} (no. 2) with a = 7.114(1), b = 7.844(2), c = 9.372(2) A, {alpha} = 106.090(7), {beta} = 94.468(7) and {gamma} = 112.506(8){sup o}, Z = 2 and the final R factors are R1 = 0.052 and wR2 = 0.14 for 2085 unique reflections. The crystal structure is composed by four bismuth atoms with the coordination number of 6 or 8 and two VO{sub 4} tetrahedra, and one of four bismuth atoms is statistically distributed in the splitting sites with the distance of 0.83 A. This compound exhibited photocatalytic behavior for decomposition of phenol under visible light irradiation and its activity was less than that of monoclinic BiVO{sub 4}.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of High-Purity Bismuth Nanowires via Seed-Assisted Growth Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xin; Zhao, Wen-Yu; He, Dan-Qi; Zhou, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Qing-Jie

    2015-06-01

    Nanowires are considered as high-performance thermoelectric materials with large Seebeck coefficients due to quantum confinement and low thermal conductivity because of enhanced boundary scattering of phonons. In this work, a seed-assisted growth method has been developed to synthesize high-purity bismuth nanowires. The bismuth seeds were first synthesized by reducing BiCl3 in the ice water with NaBH4. The high-purity bismuth nanowires about 40-50 nm in diameter and several tens of micrometers in length were then grown on bismuth seeds by reducing NaBiO3 with ethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to characterize the crystal structure, microstructure, and growth direction of the bismuth seeds and nanowires. The effects of temperature, reductant, and bismuth seeds template on the microstructures of the bismuth nanowires were also investigated. The synthesis conditions of bismuth seeds and nanowires were optimized. The selected area electron diffraction pattern confirms that the growth direction of bismuth nanowires is parallel to [] direction. It was discovered that high-purity bismuth nanowires with high aspect ratio can be synthesized by precisely controlling the temperature to adjust the nucleation rate of the bismuth nuclei, selecting the appropriate reductant to maintain a low nucleation rate, and using bismuth seeds as the template of the epitaxial growth of the bismuth nuclei.

  20. Persistent conductive footprints of 109° domain walls in bismuth ferrite films

    SciTech Connect

    Stolichnov, I.; Iwanowska, M.; Colla, E.; Setter, N.; Ziegler, B.; Gaponenko, I.; Paruch, P.; Huijben, M.; Rijnders, G.

    2014-03-31

    Using conductive and piezoforce microscopy, we reveal a complex picture of electronic transport at weakly conductive 109° domain walls in bismuth ferrite films. Even once initial ferroelectric stripe domains are changed/erased, persistent conductive paths signal the original domain wall position. The conduction at such domain wall “footprints” is activated by domain movement and decays rapidly with time, but can be re-activated by opposite polarity voltage. The observed phenomena represent true leakage conduction rather than merely displacement currents. We propose a scenario of hopping transport in combination with thermionic injection over interfacial barriers controlled by the ferroelectric polarization.

  1. Surface structure and hole localization in bismuth vanadate: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweon, Kyoung E.; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2013-09-01

    The monoclinic and tetragonal phases of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) have been found to exhibit significantly different photocatalytic activities for water splitting. To assess a possible surface effect on the phase-dependent behavior, we calculate and compare the geometries and electronic structures of the monoclinic and tetragonal BiVO4 (001) surfaces using hybrid density functional theory. The relaxed atomic configurations of these two surfaces are found to be nearly identical, while an excess hole shows a relatively stronger tendency to localize at the surface than the bulk in both phases. Possible factors for the phase-dependent photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 are discussed.

  2. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  3. Headstart German Program. Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the seventh module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use all the services of a German post-office, such as…

  4. BASIC (SPOKEN) GERMAN IDIOM LIST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PFEFFER, J. ALAN

    THIRD IN A SERIES OF RELATED STUDIES UNDERTAKEN TO ARRIVE AT THE CORE ELEMENTS OF SPOKEN GERMAN, THIS LIST IS BASED ON THE LATEST COMPUTER TECHNIQUES IN FREQUENCY ANALYSIS. AN INTRODUCTION EXAMINES AND REDEFINES THE CONCEPT OF IDIOMATIC PATTERNS. THE BODY OF THE TEXT LISTS, BY FREQUENCY AND RANGE, 1,100 OF THE MOST COMMON IDIOMS IN SPOKEN GERMAN.…

  5. Bismuth Oxide: A New Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuling; Trujillo, Matthias A.; Fu, Engang; Patterson, Brian; Fei, Ling; Xu, Yun; Deng, Shuguang; Smirnov, Sergei; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Bismuth oxide directly grown on nickel foam (p-Bi2O3/Ni) was prepared by a facile polymer-assisted solution approach and was used directly as a lithium-ion battery anode for the first time. The Bi2O3 particles were covered with thin carbon layers, forming network-like sheets on the surface of the Ni foam. The binder-free p-Bi2O3/Ni shows superior electrochemical properties with a capacity of 668 mAh/g at a current density of 800 mA/g, which is much higher than that of commercial Bi2O3 powder (c-Bi2O3) and Bi2O3 powder prepared by the polymer-assisted solution method (p-Bi2O3). The good performance of p-Bi2O3/Ni can be attributed to higher volumetric utilization efficiency, better connection of active materials to the current collector, and shorter lithium ion diffusion path. PMID:24416506

  6. Clinical forensic medicine and its main fields of activity from the foundation of the German Society of Legal Medicine until today.

    PubMed

    Pollak, S

    2004-09-10

    The fields mainly covered by clinical forensic medicine are subject to time-related changes which are described on the basis of the German literature of the 20th century. Some fields of forensic sexual medicine (diagnosis of virginity, proof of criminal abortion, potentia coeundi, potentia generandi, potentia concipiendi) have become less important in the daily work of medicolegal institutes, whereas victims of rape and sexual abuse continue to form a major part of the forensic examination material in the German-speaking countries. The evaluation of suspected physical child abuse has grown in importance since the 60s, and it is essentially the merit of Elisabeth Trube-Becker that this problem is now dealt with also in scientific medicine. More recently, medicolegal experts are increasingly confronted with further groups of persons: victims of domestic violence, abused/neglected seniors, refugees from countries where torture is used. A new special field, which established itself only in the 90s, is the estimation of age with regard to the criminal responsibility of suspects who have no identity papers or pretend to have none. A phenomenon frequently observed in the last two decades is the non-accidental self-infliction of injuries. Whereas in the first half of the 20th century the motive for self-mutilation was typically to evade military service, this category of injury was later mainly seen in the context of insurance fraud; more recently most forensically relevant self-inflicted injuries refer to simulated offenses (fictitious sexual offenses and robbery, attacks allegedly having a political background). One of the traditional fields of clinical forensic medicine continues to be the evaluation of victims and suspects following bodily harm and attempted homicides. In the field of civil law medicolegal experts are particularly often concerned with controversial consequences of traffic accidents (e.g. alleged whiplash injuries after rear-end collisions at low

  7. [Haeckel: a German Darwinian?].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) is often considered the most renowned Darwinian in his country since, as early as 1862, he declared that he accepted the conclusions Darwin had reached three years before in On the Origin of Species, and afterwards, he continuously proclaimed himself a supporter of the English naturalist and championed the evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, if we examine carefully his books, in particular his General Morphology (1866), we can see that he carries on a tradition very far from Darwin's thoughts. In spite of his acceptance of the idea of natural selection, that he establishes as an argument for materialism, he adopts, indeed, a conception of evolution that is, in some respects, rather close to Lamarck's views. He is, thus, a good example of the ambiguities of the reception of Darwinism in Germany in the second part of the 19th century. PMID:19281944

  8. Ultrasonication of Bismuth Telluride Nanocrystals Fabricated by Solvothermal Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Sang-Hyon; Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; King, Glen C.; Elliott, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of ultrasonication on bismuth telluride nanocrystals prepared by solvothermal method. In this study, a low dimensional nanocrystal of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was synthesized by a solvothermal process in an autoclave at 180 C and 200 psi. During the solvothermal reaction, organic surfactants effectively prevented unwanted aggregation of nanocrystals in a selected solvent while controlling the shape of the nanocrystal. The atomic ratio of bismuth and tellurium was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The cavitational energy created by the ultrasonic probe was varied by the ultrasonication process time, while power amplitude remained constant. The nanocrystal size and its size distribution were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and a dynamic light scattering system. When the ultrasonication time increased, the average size of bismuth telluride nanocrystal gradually increased due to the direct collision of nanocrystals. The polydispersity of the nanocrystals showed a minimum when the ultrasonication was applied for 5 min. Keywords: bismuth telluride, nanocrystal, low-dimensional, ultrasonication, solvothermal

  9. Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype bismuth propellant feed and control system was constructed and tested. An electromagnetic pump was used in this system to provide fine control of the hydrostatic pressure, and a new type of in-line flow sensor was developed to provide an accurate, real-time measurement of the mass flow rate. High-temperature material compatibility was a driving design requirement for the pump and flow sensor, leading to the selection of macor for the main body of both components. Post-test inspections of both components revealed no cracks or leaking in either. In separate proof-of-concept experiments, the pump produced a linear pressure rise as a function of current that compared favorably with theoretical pump pressure predictions, with a pressure of 10 kPa at 30 A. Flow sensing was successfully demonstrated in a bench-top test using gallium as a substitute liquid metal. A real-time controller was successfully used to control the entire system, simultaneously monitoring all power supplies and performing data acquisition duties.

  10. Ultrasound in lead-bismuth eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Dierckx, M.; Van Dyck, D.

    2011-07-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) is in the process of designing MYRRHA, a new multi-purpose irradiation facility to replace the ageing BR2. MYRRHA is a fast spectrum reactor cooled with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). As liquid metal is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are selected to fulfill essential tasks that, according to our assessment, will be demanded by licensing authorities, in particular: fuel assembly identification and localization of a lost fuel assembly. To that end, a considerable research effort at SCK.CEN is devoted to study ultrasonic propagation in LBE. As ultrasonic experiments in LBE are elaborate and expensive to set up, we are particularly interested in to what extent experiments in water can be extrapolated to LBE - one of the main focuses of this article. We describe and present results of a first experiment with this goal which shows that the signal to noise ratio is better in LBE and that we even see small diffuse reflections up to 40 deg. off normal. On the other hand, we do not see internal reflections in stainless steel objects in LBE which we do in water. Therefore, we conclude that experiments in water can be used to validate algorithms for LBE on the condition that they do not rely on internal reflections. We also present solutions to tackle the essential tasks: fuel assembly identification and lost object localization. The requirements for the ultrasonic equipment implementing these solutions are also discussed. (authors)

  11. Local and global superconductivity in bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Luis A.; da Silva, Robson R.; Kopelevich, Yakov

    2011-10-01

    We performed magnetization M(H, T) and magnetoresistance R(T, H) measurements on powdered (grain size ˜149 μm) as well as highly oriented rhombohedral (A7) bismuth (Bi) samples consisting of single crystalline blocks of size ˜1 × 1 mm in the plane perpendicular to the trigonal c axis. The obtained results revealed the occurrence of (1) local superconductivity in powdered samples with Tc(0) = (8.75 ± 0.05) K, and (2) global superconductivity at Tc(0) = (7.3 ± 0.1) K in polycrystalline Bi triggered by low-resistance ohmic contacts with silver (Ag) normal metal. The results provide evidence that the superconductivity in Bi is localized in a tiny volume fraction, probably at intergrain or Ag/Bi interfaces. On the other hand, the occurrence of global superconductivity observed for polycrystalline Bi can be accounted for by enhancement of the superconducting order parameter phase stiffness induced by the normal metal contacts, the scenario proposed in the context of "pseudogap regime" in cuprates [E. Berg et al., Phys. Rev. B 78, 094509 (2008)].

  12. LMO dielectronic resonances in highly charged bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiga, Joseph; Gillaspy, John; Podpaly, Yuri; Ralchenko, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    Dielectronic resonances from high-Z elements are important for the analysis of high temperature plasmas. Thus, the extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly charged bismuth were measured using the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at beam energies ranging from 8.7 keV to 9.2 keV. The measured intensity ratios between forbidden magnetic-dipole lines in Bi64+ and Bi63+ show strong resonance features. The experimental data were compared to theoretical predictions from a large-scale collisional-radiative model with the code NOMAD, and good agreement was found that allowed the identification of observed resonance features as the LMO inner-shell dielectronic resonances. It is common practice in EBIT experiments that ions are periodically dumped from the trap and replaced. However, in this particular experiment, the contents of the trap were not dumped for the duration of each 10 minute sampling. The effects of trap stability were studied and a small but noticeable shift in beam energy over time was observed. Potential explanations for this are considered.

  13. Nonlinear optical properties of bismuth selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, Derek; Babakiray, Sercan; Stanescu, Tudor; Lederman, David; Bristow, Alan

    Bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is a topological insulator with many interesting photonic properties. Much research has been done involving various types of photocurrents in an attempt to highlight the differences between the bulk electronic states and massless conducting surface states. Here, Bi2Se3 films varying in thickness from 6 to 40 quintuple layers have been produced via molecular beam epitaxy as a means to vary the relative contributions of bulk and surface. On these samples, optical measurements were performed at around 1.6 eV, which is enough energy to stimulate transitions from the Fermi level to a region near the second Dirac cone. Z-scan was used to measure saturable absorption, time-resolved two-color pump-probe was used to measure two-photon absorption, and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to measure linear absorption. Results were examined and analyzed with respect to thickness. Thickness-dependent band structures were produced using a tight-binding model and used to compare with experimental results.

  14. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  15. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  16. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants...

  17. Luminescence properties of IR-emitting bismuth centres in SiO2-based glasses in the UV to near-IR spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstova, E. G.; Bufetov, I. A.; Khopin, V. F.; Vel'miskin, V. V.; Firstov, S. V.; Bufetova, G. A.; Nishchev, K. N.; Gur'yanov, A. N.; Dianov, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied UV excitation spectra of IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses of various compositions and obtained energy level diagrams of IR-emitting bismuth-related active centres (BACs) associated with silicon and germanium atoms up to ~5.2 eV over the ground level. A possible energy level diagram of the BACs in phosphosilicate glass has been proposed. The UV excitation peaks for the IR luminescence of the BACs in the glasses have been shown to considerably overlap with absorption bands of the Bi3+ ion, suggesting that Bi3+ may participate in BAC formation.

  18. Luminescence properties of IR-emitting bismuth centres in SiO{sub 2}-based glasses in the UV to near-IR spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Firstova, E G; Vel'miskin, V V; Firstov, S V; Dianov, E M; Bufetov, I A; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, A N; Bufetova, G A; Nishchev, K N

    2015-01-31

    We have studied UV excitation spectra of IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses of various compositions and obtained energy level diagrams of IR-emitting bismuth-related active centres (BACs) associated with silicon and germanium atoms up to ∼5.2 eV over the ground level. A possible energy level diagram of the BACs in phosphosilicate glass has been proposed. The UV excitation peaks for the IR luminescence of the BACs in the glasses have been shown to considerably overlap with absorption bands of the Bi{sup 3+} ion, suggesting that Bi{sup 3+} may participate in BAC formation. (optical fibres)

  19. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of bismuth titanate with different structures via oxidant peroxo method (OPM).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, André E; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R; Camargo, Emerson R

    2014-02-01

    Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 and Bi12TiO20) powders were synthesized by the Oxidant Peroxide Method (OPM), and the effect of temperatures on physical and chemical properties of particles was investigated. The results showed that the morphology and average particle size of materials can be successfully controlled by adjusting the temperature. The samples after calcination were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and BET isotherms. The photocatalytic activity of materials was also evaluated by studying the degradation of 10ppm aqueous rhodamine B dye under ultraviolet radiation. PMID:24267334

  20. Effects of diamagnetic Ga dilution on the Faraday response of bismuth-doped iron garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzarella, A.; Shinn, M. A.; Wu, Dong Ho

    2016-06-01

    In bismuth-doped iron garnets, diamagnetic dilution of Fe with Ga is a well-known method to increase the Faraday rotation response under externally applied magnetic fields. It is found, however, that while this method improves responsivity at larger field strengths, the responsivity under smaller fields (which are more typical in sensing applications) is generally unaffected by Ga doping. The data indicate that the low-field responsivity is limited by anomalous pinning effects in the rotational magnetization process of the ferromagnetic domains. To overcome this, a magnetic biasing technique was developed, which enhances responsivity by activating Barkhausen steps in the films to free the domains from their pinning sites.

  1. STS-55 German payload specialists Walter and Schlegel work in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, wearing special head gear, conducts Tissue Thickness and Compliance Along Body Axis salt-water balance experiment in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Walter's activities in front of Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) are monitored by German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel. Walter uses intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints. Walter and Schlegel represent the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  2. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts. PMID:26709727

  3. Mixed-phase bismuth ferrite nanoflake electrodes for supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Vijaykumar V.; Zate, Manohar K.; Liu, Shude; Naushad, Mu.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Hui, K. N.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Nanoflake bismuth ferrite thin film was synthesized by means of electrodeposition technique at room temperature. The morphology and phase evaluation of the synthesized electrode were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and surface wettability techniques. Specifically, the bismuth ferrite nanoflake electrode exhibited high specific capacitance of 72.2 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1, and high rate capability with 37 % retention of capacitance even up to 20A g-1, and excellent cycling stability with 82.8 % retention of the initial capacitance after 1500 charge/discharge cycles, supporting that the bismuth ferrite thin-film electrode could be a potential candidate for supercapacitor application.

  4. Characterization of bismuth nanospheres deposited by plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M.; Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M.; Mrad, O.

    2015-02-14

    A new method for producing thin layer of bismuth nanospheres based on the use of low energy plasma focus device is demonstrated. Various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the morphology and the composition of the nanospheres. Experimental parameters may be adjusted to favour the formation of bismuth nanospheres instead of microspheres. Therefore, the formation of large surface of homogeneous layer of bismuth nanospheres with sizes of below 100 nm can be obtained. The natural snowball phenomenon is observed to be reproduced in nanoscale where spheres roll over the small nanospheres and grow up to bigger sizes that can reach micro dimensions. The comet-like structure, a reverse phenomenon to snowball is also observed.

  5. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 from radium

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Friedman, Arnold M.; Hines, John

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  6. Phase transitions in the Hubbard model for the bismuth nickelate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Shoya; Nasu, Joji; Koga, Akihisa

    2016-07-01

    We study low temperature properties of the Hubbard model for the bismuth nickelate, where degenerate orbitals in the nickel ions and a single orbital in the bismuth ions are taken into account, combining dynamical mean-field theory with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. We discuss the effect of the attractive interactions to mimic the valence skipping phenomenon in the bismuth ions. We demonstrate how the charge and magnetically ordered states are stable against thermal fluctuations. It is furthermore clarified that the ferromagnetically ordered and orbital ordered states are stabilized due to the presence of the orbital degeneracy at low temperatures. The crossover between metallic and insulating states is also discussed.

  7. Characterization of bismuth nanospheres deposited by plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M.; Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M.; Mrad, O.

    2015-02-01

    A new method for producing thin layer of bismuth nanospheres based on the use of low energy plasma focus device is demonstrated. Various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the morphology and the composition of the nanospheres. Experimental parameters may be adjusted to favour the formation of bismuth nanospheres instead of microspheres. Therefore, the formation of large surface of homogeneous layer of bismuth nanospheres with sizes of below 100 nm can be obtained. The natural snowball phenomenon is observed to be reproduced in nanoscale where spheres roll over the small nanospheres and grow up to bigger sizes that can reach micro dimensions. The comet-like structure, a reverse phenomenon to snowball is also observed.

  8. Sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode: a promising alternative to other bismuth modifications in the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Velia; Serrano, Núria; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-02-01

    A commercially available sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode (BispSPE) has been pioneeringly applied for the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in a certified groundwater sample by means of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) as an alternative to more conventional bismuth screen-printed carbon electrodes (BiSPCEs). BispSPEs can be used for a large set of measurements without any previous plating or activation. The obtained detection and quantification limits suggest that BispSPEs produce a better analytical performance as compared to In-situ BiSPCE for Pb(II) and Cd(II) determination, but also to Ex-situ BiSPCE for Cd(II) determination. The results confirm the applicability of these devices for the determination of low level concentrations of these metal ions in natural samples with very high reproducibility (0.7% and 2.5% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively), and good trueness (0.3% and 2.4% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively). PMID:24401424

  9. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  10. Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of

  11. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  12. Design of Material Strength Test in Lead-Bismuth Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Masatoshi Kondo; Minoru Takahashi; Koji Hata

    2002-07-01

    Liquid lead and lead-bismuth have drawn the attention as one of the candidate coolants of the fast breeder reactors (FBRs), and the accelerator driven transmutation systems (ADSs). In order to use the coolant to the systems, the physical and chemical characteristics of the heavy metals are necessary. This plan has been proposed for the strength test of materials in the liquid metal surroundings. The lead-bismuth circulation loop with the strength test has been designed, and the strength test of candidate materials has been planned. (authors)

  13. Lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Kapernick, R. J.; McClure, P. R.; Trapp, T. J.

    2013-10-01

    A small lead-bismuth eutectic-cooled reactor concept (referred to as the Hyperion reactor concept) is being studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Hyperion Power Generation. In this report, a critical assessment of the lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor is presented based on currently available knowledge. Included are: material compatibility, oxygen control, thermal hydraulics, polonium control. The key advances in the technology and their applications to Hyperion reactor design are analyzed. Also, the near future studies in main areas of the technology are recommended for meeting the design requirements.

  14. Inexpensive laser-induced surface modification in bismuth thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, A. Reyes; Hautefeuille, M.; García, A. Esparza; Mejia, O. Olea; López, M. A. Camacho

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present results on texturing a 500 nm thick bismuth film, deposited by sputtering onto a glass slide using a low-cost homemade, near-infrared pulsed laser platform. A 785 nm laser diode of a CD-DVD pickup head was precisely focused on the sample mounted on a motorized two-axis translation stage to generate localized surface microbumps on the bismuth films. This simple method successfully transferred desired micropatterns on the films in a computer-numerical control fashion. Irradiated zones were characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that final results are strongly dependent on irradiation parameters.

  15. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part I: Case of aquaculture water from earthen-ponds farming.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive analyses were accomplished to explore the odorous molecules responsible for off-odour development in earthen-ponds rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture farming in Germany. In this part of the study, water odorants were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE); then, extracts were analysed by one- and two- dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry using two columns with different polarity (DB-FFAP and DB-5). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extract samples revealed 54 odorants, and 47 of them were identified. In this study, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture water including, amongst others, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), 5α-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone), and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Moreover, the sensory experiment indicated that (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, and 1-octen-3-one are the main contributors to the metallic, cucumber, and mushroom notes of the samples. PMID:27211690

  16. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described. (Author/VWL)

  17. The Demand for Business German: A Survey of German-American Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    1997-01-01

    Reports the results of a large-scale survey on the demand for business German in German-American companies. Results showed German proficiency was not considered a key qualification, but a significant portion of oral communication in these companies took place in German. German proficiency was most needed in management and marketing departments.…

  18. Novel 3D bismuth-based coordination polymers: Synthesis, structure, and second harmonic generation properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wibowo, Arief C.; Smith, Mark D.; Yeon, Jeongho; Halasyamani, P. Shiv; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur

    2012-11-15

    Two new 3D bismuth containing coordination polymers are reported along with their single crystal structures and SHG properties. Compound 1: Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}(pydc) (pydc=pyridine-2, 5-dicarboxylate), crystallizes in the monoclinic, polar space group, P2{sub 1} (a=9.6479(9) A, b=4.2349(4) A, c=11.9615(11) A, {beta}=109.587(1) Degree-Sign ), which contains Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2} chains that are connected into a 3D structure via the pydc ligands. Compound 2: Bi{sub 4}Na{sub 4}(1R3S-cam){sub 8}(EtOH){sub 3.1}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3.4} (1R3S cam=1R3S-camphoric acid) crystallizes in the monoclinic, polar space group, P2{sub 1} (a=19.0855(7) A, b=13.7706(5) A, c=19.2429(7) A, {beta}=90.701(1) Degree-Sign ) and is a true 3D coordination polymer. These are two example of SHG compounds prepared using unsymmetric ligands (compound 1) or chiral ligands (compound 2), together with metals that often exhibit stereochemically-active lone pairs, such as Bi{sup 3+}, a synthetic approach that resulted in polar, non-centrosymmetric, 3D metal-organic coordination polymer. - Graphical Abstract: Structures of two new, polar, 3D Bismuth(III)-based coordination polymers: Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}(pydc) (compound 1), and Bi{sub 4}Na{sub 4}(1R3S-cam){sub 8}(EtOH){sub 3.1}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3.4} (compound 2). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New, polar, 3D Bismuth(III)-based coordination polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First polar bismuth-based coordination polymers synthesized via a 'hybrid' strategy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of stereochemically-active lone pairs and unsymmetrical or chiral ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of class C-SHG materials based on Kurtz-Perry categories.

  19. Bismuth-Loaded Polymer Scintillators for Gamma Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, B L; Cherepy, N J; Sturm, B W; Sanner, R D; Dai, Z; Payne, S A

    2011-04-11

    We synthesize a series of polyvinylcarbazole monoliths containing varying loadings of triphenyl bismuth as a high-Z dopant and varying fluors, either organic or organometallic, in order to study their use as scintillators capable of gamma ray spectroscopy. A trend of increasing bismuth loading resulting in a better-resolved photopeak is observed. For PVK parts with no fluor or a standard organic fluor, diphenylanthracene, increasing bismuth loading results in decreasing light yield while with samples 1 or 3 % by weight of the spin-orbit coupling organometallic fluor FIrpic, which emits light from both singlet and triple excitons, show increasing light yield with increasing bismuth loading. Our best performing PVK/ BiPh{sub 3}/FIrpic scintillator with 40 wt % BiPh3 and 3 wt % FIrpic has an emission maximum of 500 nm, a light yield of {approx}30,000 photons/MeV, and energy resolution better than 7% FWHM at 662 keV. Replacing the Ir complex with an equal weight of diphenylanthracene produces a sample with a light yield of {approx}6,000 photons/MeV, with an emission maximum at 420 nm and energy resolution of 9% at 662 keV. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the BiPh{sub 3} forms small clusters of approximately 5 nm diameter.

  20. ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

  1. REMOVAL OF CERTAIN FISSION PRODUCT METALS FROM LIQUID BISMUTH COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, O.E.; Howe, H.E.; Avrutik, E.R.

    1959-11-24

    A method is described for purifying a solution of urarium in liquid bismuth containing at least one metal from the group consisting of selenium, tellurium, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, niobium, and zirconium. The solution is contacted with zinc in an inert atmosphere to form a homogeneous melt, a solid zinc phase is formed, and the zinc phase containing the metal is separated from the melt.

  2. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.; Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2013-12-28

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30ZnO-(70-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 30, 35, 40, and 45 mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (σ{sub e}) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  3. Ab initio energetics of lanthanum substitution in ferroelectric bismuth titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. H.; Bristowe, P. D.

    2011-04-01

    Using first principles calculations and atomistic thermodynamics the bulk and defect properties of orthorhombic bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) and bismuth lanthanum titanate (Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12) have been investigated. Heats of formation, valid chemical conditions for synthesis, lanthanum substitution energies and oxygen and bismuth vacancy formation energies have been computed. The study improves our understanding of how native point defects and substitutional impurities influence the ferroelectric properties of these layered perovskite materials. It is found that lanthanum incorporation could occur on either of the two distinct bismuth sites in the structure and that the effect of substitution is to increase the formation energy of nearby native oxygen vacancies. The results provide direct atomistic evidence over a range of chemical conditions supporting the suggestion that lanthanum incorporation reduces the oxygen vacancy concentration. Oxygen vacancies contribute to ferroelectric fatigue by interacting strongly with domain walls, and therefore a decrease in their concentration is beneficial. The conditions that favor the greatest reduction in oxygen vacancy concentration are described.

  4. Discovery of the thallium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-05-01

    Forty-two thallium, forty-two lead, forty-one bismuth, and forty-two polonium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.; Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2013-12-01

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi2O3-30ZnO-(70-x) B2O3 (where x = 30, 35, 40, and 45 mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (σe) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  6. New German abortion law agreed.

    PubMed

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit. PMID:7613423

  7. An Inexpensive Bismuth-Petrolatum Dressing for Treatment of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Chang, Kathleen; Nguyen, Khoa; Galvez, Michael G.; Legrand, Anais; Davis, Christopher; McGoldrick, Rory; Long, Chao; Pham, Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xeroform remains the current standard for treating superficial partial-thickness burns but can be prohibitively expensive in developing countries with prevalent burn injuries. This study (1) describes the production of an alternative low-cost dressing and (2) compares the alternative dressing and Xeroform using the metrics of cost-effectiveness, antimicrobial activity, and biocompatibility in vitro, and wound healing in vivo. Methods: To produce the alternative dressing, 3% bismuth tribromophenate powder was combined with petroleum jelly by hand and applied to Kerlix gauze. To assess cost-effectiveness, the unit costs of Xeroform and components of the alternative dressing were compared. To assess antimicrobial properties, the dressings were placed on agar plated with Escherichia coli and the Kirby-Bauer assay performed. To assess biocompatibility, the dressings were incubated with human dermal fibroblasts and cells stained with methylene blue. To assess in vivo wound healing, dressings were applied to excisional wounds on rats and the rate of re-epithelialization calculated. Results: The alternative dressing costs 34% of the least expensive brand of Xeroform. Antimicrobial assays showed that both dressings had similar bacteriostatic effects. Biocompatibility assays showed that there was no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in the cytotoxicity of Xeroform, alternative dressing, and Kerlix gauze. Finally, the in vivo healing model showed no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in mean re-epithelialization time between Xeroform (13.0 ± 1.6 days) and alternative dressing (13.5 ± 1.0 days). Conclusions: Xeroform is biocompatible, reduces infection, and enhances healing of burn wounds by preventing desiccation and mechanical trauma. Handmade petrolatum gauze may be a low-cost replacement for Xeroform. Future studies will focus on clinical trials in burn units. PMID:27482485

  8. Electrical properties of niobium doped barium bismuth-titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Bobić, J.D.; Vijatović Petrović, M.M.; Banys, J.; Stojanović, B.D.

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Pure and doped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} were prepared via the solid-state reaction method. ► The grain size was suppressed in Nb-doped samples. ► The diffuseness of the dielectric peak increased with dopant concentration. ► Niobium affected on relaxor behavior of barium bismuth titanate ceramics. ► The conductivity change was noticed in doped samples. -- Abstract: BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4–5/4x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 15} (BBNTx, x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.30) ceramics have been prepared by solid state method. XRD data indicate the formation of single-phase-layered perovskites for all compositions. SEM micrographs suggest that the grain size decreases with Nb doping. The effect of niobium doping on the dielectric and relaxor behavior of BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics was investigated in a wide range of temperatures (20–777 °C) and frequencies (1.21 kHz to 1 MHz). Nb doping influences T{sub c} decrease as well as the decrease of dielectric permittivity at Curie temperature. At room temperature, undoped BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} exhibits dielectric constant of ∼204 at 100 kHz, that slightly increases with Nb doping. The conductivity of BBNT5 ceramics is found to be lower than that of other investigated compositions. The value of activation energy of σ{sub DC} was found to be 0.89 eV, 1.01 eV, 0.93 eV and 0.71 eV for BBT, BBNT5, BBNT15 and BBNT30, respectively.

  9. Bismuth tri-iodide radiation detector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Sasmit S.

    Bismuth tri-iodide is an attractive material for room temperature radiation detection. BiI3 demonstrates a number of properties that are apt for semiconductor radiation detection, especially gamma ray spectroscopy. The high atomic number (ZBi = 83 and ZI = 53) and the relatively high density (5.78 g/cm3) cause the material to have good photon stopping power, while the large band-gap (1.67 eV ) allows it to function as a room temperature radiation detector without any cooling mechanism. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of BiI3 radiation detectors. For the purpose of this research detectors were fabricated by cutting BiI3 crystal boules, followed by mechanical and chemical surface treatments. Detectors with various electrode geometries enabling single polarity charge sensing were fabricated. The electrical characteristics and the radiation response of the detectors were measured. The radiation response measurement was performed at room temperature using a 241Am alpha particle source and a 241Am sealed gamma-ray source. The spectral resolutions of the detectors varied from 2.09% - 6.1% for 59.5 keV gamma-rays and between 26% - 40% for 5.48 MeV alpha particles. Charge carrier properties such as the electron and hole mobility and lifetime were also estimated. The electron mobility for an ultrapure BiI 3 detector was estimated to be approximately 433 cm 2/Vs while that for antimony doped BiI3 was estimated to be around 956 cm2/Vs and the mobility-lifetime product for electrons was estimated to be around 5.44 x 10-4 cm 2/V. Detector simulation was performed using the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP5. A Matlab script which incorporates charge carrier trapping and statistical variation was written to generate a gamma-ray spectrum from the simulated energy deposition spectra. Measured and simulated spectra were compared to extract the charge carrier mobility-lifetime products, which for electrons and holes were estimated to be 5 x 10-3 cm2/V and 1.3 x

  10. Effect of B-site isovalent doping on electrical and ferroelectric properties of lead free bismuth titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subohi, Oroosa; Kumar, G. S.; Malik, M. M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, zirconium modified bismuth titanate ceramics have been studied as potential lead-free ferroelectric materials over a broad temperature range (RT - 800 °C). Polycrystalline samples of Bi4Ti3-xZrxO12 (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6) (BZrT) with high electrical resistivity were prepared using the solution combustion technique. The effect of Zr doping on the crystalline structure, ferroelectric properties and electrical conduction characteristics of BZrT ceramics were explored. Addition of zirconium to bismuth titanate enhances its dielectric constant and reduces the loss factor as it introduces orthorhombic distortion in bismuth titanate lattice which is exhibited by the growth along (00_10) lattice plane. Activation energy due to relaxation is found to be greater than that due to conduction thus confirming that electrical conduction in these ceramics is not due to relaxation of dipoles. Remanent polarization of the doped samples increases as the Zirconium content increases.

  11. Toxicity of Methylated Bismuth Compounds Produced by Intestinal Microorganisms to Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a Member of the Physiological Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bialek, Beatrix; Diaz-Bone, Roland A.; Pieper, Dominik; Hollmann, Markus; Hensel, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Methanoarchaea have an outstanding capability to methylate numerous metal(loid)s therefore producing toxic and highly mobile derivatives. Here, we report that the production of methylated bismuth species by the methanoarchaeum Methanobrevibacter smithii, a common member of the human intestine, impairs the growth of members of the beneficial intestinal microbiota at low concentrations. The bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which is of great importance for the welfare of the host due to its versatile digestive abilities and its protective function for the intestine, is highly sensitive against methylated, but not against inorganic, bismuth species. The level of methylated bismuth species produced by the methanoarchaeum M. smithii in a coculture experiment causes a reduction of the maximum cell density of B. thetaiotaomicron. This observation suggests that the production of methylated organometal(loid) species in the human intestine, caused by the activity of methanoarchaea, may affect the health of the host. The impact of the species to reduce the number of the physiological intestinal microbiota brings an additional focus on the potentially harmful role of methanoarchaea in the intestine of a higher organism. PMID:21966291

  12. Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Capacity Building Activity: Fostering Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness in the German Mulde Region (project RISK MAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.

    2012-04-01

    ended in September 2011, focussing on the participatory aspects in one of the German case studies (the Mulde River in Saxony). In short, different map users such as strategic planners, emergency managers or the (affected) public require different maps, with varying information density and complexity. The purpose of participation may therefore have a substantive rationale (i.e. improving the content, including local knowledge) or a more instrumental rationale (i.e. building trust, raising awareness, increasing legitimacy). The degree to which both rationales are accommodated depends on the project objectives and determines the participants and process type. In the Mulde case study, both the process of collaborating with each other and considering the (local) knowledge and different experiences as well as the results were highly appreciated. Hazard and risk maps are thus not an end-product that could be complemented e.g. by emergency management information on existing or planned defences, evacuation routes, assembly points, but they should be embedded into a participatory maintenance/updating framework. Map visualisation could be enhanced by using more common and/or self-explanatory symbols, text and a limited number of colour grades for hazard and risk information. Keywords: Flood mapping, hazard and risk maps, participation, risk communication, flood risk awareness, emergency management

  13. Implanted bismuth donors in 28-Si: Process development and electron spin resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, C. D.; Lo, C. C.; Lang, V.; George, R. E.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Bokor, J.; Lyon, S. A.; Morton, J. J. L.; Schenkel, T.

    2012-02-01

    Spins of donor atoms in silicon are excellent qubit candidates. Isotope engineered substrates provide a nuclear spin free host environment, resulting in long spin coherence times [1,2]. The capability of swapping quantum information between electron and nuclear spins can enable quantum communication and gate operation via the electron spin and quantum memory via the nuclear spin [2]. Spin properties of donor qubit candidates in silicon have been studied mostly for phosphorous and antimony [1-3]. Bismuth donors in silicon exhibit a zero field splitting of 7.4 GHz and have attracted attention as potential nuclear spin memory and spin qubit candidates [4,5] that could be coupled to superconducting resonators [4,6]. We report on progress in the formation of bismuth doped 28-Si epi layers by ion implantation, electrical dopant activation and their study via pulsed electron spin resonance measurements showing narrow linewidths and good coherence times. [4pt] [1] A. M. Tyryshkin, et al. arXiv: 1105.3772 [2] J. J. L. Morton, et al. Nature (2008) [3] T. Schenkel, et al APL 2006; F. R. Bradbury, et al. PRL (2006) [4] R. E. George, et al. PRL (2010) [5] G. W. Morley, et al. Nat Mat (2010) [6] M. Hatridge, et al. PRB (2011), R. Vijay, et al. APL (2010) This work was supported by NSA (100000080295) and DOE (DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  14. The Chemical Kinetics of Alkaline Extraction of Tellurium from Lead-Bismuth Eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence E. Auman; Eric P. Loewen; Thomas F. Gesell; Shuji Ohno

    2005-07-01

    Polonium-210 is an important radioactive product of neutron activation of molten lead-bismuth eutectic, a promising candidate coolant for advanced fast nuclear reactors. The radiological hazard potential associated with polonium can be significantly reduced by continuous online removal of polonium from the coolant. The removal method under investigation in this research is alkaline extraction. Chemical kinetic measurements were made to determine first and second order rate constants, activation energy, and heat of reaction at various temperatures using tellurium as a surrogate. First and second order alkaline extraction rate constants were measured to be: k1 = 10.05 e –52,274/RT and k2 = 167 e –97,224/RT. Alkaline extraction is dependent on temperature and was found to follow the Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy (Ea) ranged between 52,274 – 97,224 J mol-1. With a strong foundation of surrogate work completed, this work should be validated using polonium-210.

  15. Bismuth(III) benzohydroxamates: powerful anti-bacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori and hydrolysis to a unique Bi34 oxido-cluster [Bi34O22(BHA)22(H-BHA)14(DMSO)6].

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amita; Blair, Victoria L; Ferrero, Richard L; Mehring, Michael; Andrews, Philip C

    2014-12-14

    Reaction of BiPh3 or Bi(O(t)Bu)3 with benzohydroxamic acid (H2-BHA) results in formation of novel mono- and di-anionic hydroxamato complexes; [Bi2(BHA)3]∞ 1, [Bi(H-BHA)3] 2, [Bi(BHA)(H-BHA)] 3, all of which display nM activity against Helicobacter pylori. Subsequent dissolution of [Bi2(BHA)3]∞ in DMSO/toluene results in hydrolysis to the first structurally authenticated {Bi34} oxido-cluster [Bi34O22(BHA)22(H-BHA)14(DMSO)6] 4. PMID:25341969

  16. Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Graben is the southernmost expressions of the Mesozoic North Sea rift system that includes the Viking Graben, Moray Firth-Witch Ground grabens and the Horda-Egersund half graben. In the southern North Sea the Central Graben extends across the Dutch and the German exclusive economic zones. The structure of the Central Graben in German territorial waters was mapped in great detail in 2D and 3D seismic data and the stratigraphy has been constraint by borehole data. We provide a detailed review of the rifting activity in the German North Sea sector both in time and space and the link between rifting and salt movement. Major rifting activity started in the Central Graben during the Late Triassic and peaked during the Late Jurassic when extensive rift grabens formed, further influenced by halokinetic movements. First subsidence in the Central Graben area appears in the Early Triassic. This is documented by thickness variations in the sedimentary strata from the Triassic to the Jurassic. Remarkably thick sediments were deposited during the Late Triassic along the eastern border fault of the Central Graben and in the Late Jurassic sediments accumulated along graben-wide extensional faults and in rim-synclines of salt-structures. A basin inversion commenced in the Late Cretaceous resulting in an erosion of wide portions of Lower Cretaceous rocks or even complete removal in some parts. The area to the east of the Central Graben faced a completely different evolution. In this area major rifting activity initiated already in the Early to Middle Triassic. This is evident from huge packages of Middle Buntsandstein to Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) sediments in the Horn Graben. Jurassic doming, forming the Mid-North Sea High, resulted in almost complete erosion of Lower and Middle Jurassic sediments in the central German North Sea. Sedimentation continued during the Early and Late Cretaceous. The Glückstadt Graben, which is a structure located farther east has a

  17. METHOD OF PREPARING URANIUM, THORIUM, OR PLUTONIUM OXIDES IN LIQUID BISMUTH

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, J.K.; Robb, W.L.; Salmon, O.N.

    1960-11-22

    A method is given for forming compositions, as well as the compositions themselves, employing uranium hydride in a liquid bismuth composition to increase the solubility of uranium, plutonium and thorium oxides in the liquid bismuth. The finely divided oxide of uranium, plutonium. or thorium is mixed with the liquid bismuth and uranium hydride, the hydride being present in an amount equal to about 3 at. %, heated to about 5OO deg C, agitated and thereafter cooled and excess resultant hydrogen removed therefrom.

  18. Dielectric spectra of bismuth vanadate Bi4V2O11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V. N.; Pashkov, V. M.; Poplavko, Iu. M.; Avakian, P. B.; Osipian, V. G.

    1990-06-01

    Results of a study of the temperature-frequency dependence of the behavior of the dielectric parameters of bismuth vanadate, Bi4V2O11, in the frequency range 1-100 GHz are reported. It is shown that bismuth vanadate is characterized by a large number of phase transitions. Yet another, previously unknown, phase transition in bismuth vanadate, masked by a relaxation process, has been observed in the temperature range 410-420 K.

  19. Headstart German Program. Module 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the sixth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to familiarize the student with expressions connected with various kinds of…

  20. A Functional Syntax of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Edward G.

    Students in intermediate language courses, especially conversational courses, can benefit from a simple set of instructions for combining words and phrases into sentences. A description of the basic concepts determining word order in German--the fundamental sequence of clause elements, the "infrastructure," and the movement rules by which the…

  1. Saving German Studies, via Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, William Collins; Kagel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    By most accounts, the position of German studies in the American academy is no longer secure. To a large extent, that is due to reasons beyond the control of individual faculty or departments, including the general crisis faced by the humanities and the diminished importance in the eyes of the public of literary criticism, a vital part of the…

  2. Headstart German Program. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the fifth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 3 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use and understand: (1) courtesy expressions; (2) time…

  3. Headstart German Program. Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the ninth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. The single unit in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to familiarize the student with some of the terminology used by military personnel in…

  4. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  5. Foreign Language: German for Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This short course in conversational German is designed to teach a student to speak simply for his own pleasure. Through games and songs, short dialogues, and basic phrases and sentences, the student learns to tell time, to count, and to ask and answer various questions about the weather, school, family, friends, and special interests. Basic…

  6. From Business to Technological German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, H. M.

    Because many of the Georgia Institute of Technology students taking business German come from the sciences and engineering, the business language textbook used has been supplemented with more technologically oriented instructional materials. Highly technical texts are too advanced at the second year language learning stage, so one teacher selected…

  7. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  8. Worlds Apart? English in German Youth Cultures and in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grau, Maike

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on German teenagers and their contact with English in two different contexts: in free-time activities typically involving the mass media, and in institutionalised language learning settings at school. It draws on an empirical study carried out in German secondary schools. Its mixed methods approach combines a questionnaire study…

  9. Parenting Practices and Pre-Schoolers' Cognitive Skills in Turkish Immigrant and German Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyendeckera, Birgit; Jakel, Julia; Kademoglu, Sinem Olcay; Yagmurlu, Bilge

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the association between parenting behaviours, children's daily activities and their cognitive development. Participants were 52 Turkish-German and 65 German pre-school children and their mothers, who were matched in terms of education level (10-12 years of schooling). Children's cognitive skills were assessed…

  10. The Germans from Russia: Documenting the Immigrant Experience in Northern Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastian, Dawn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Sidney Heitman Germans from Russia Collection at the Colorado State University Libraries is named in honor of the late Dr. Heitman's years of research and teaching about Colorado's second largest ethnic group. Created to support his Germans from Russia in Colorado Study Project, active at the university in the late 1970s, the collection's…

  11. Chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide microcrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Gao, Guanhua; Yu, Runnan; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2011-02-01

    Uniform chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide (Bi 2S 3) microcrystals assembled from nanosheet building blocks were successfully synthesized via a convenient hydrothermal synthetic route under mild conditions in which hydrated bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were employed to supply Bi and S source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-Na 2) was employed as chelating agent. The influences of reaction temperatures and time on the morphologies of final products were investigated. The phase structures, morphologies, and properties of as-prepared products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, and photoluminescence spectra. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of chrysanthemum-like Bi 2S 3 microcrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  12. Coexistence of multiple metastable polytypes in rhombohedral bismuth

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yu; Hu, Wentao; Liu, Zhongyuan; Shen, Guoyin; Xu, Bo; Zhao, Zhisheng; He, Julong; Wang, Yanbin; Tian, Yongjun; Yu, Dongli

    2016-01-01

    Derivative structural polytypes coexisting with the rhombohedral A7 structure of elemental bismuth (Bi) have been discovered at ambient condition, based on microstructure analyses of pure Bi samples treated under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Three structures with atomic positions close to those of the A7 structure have been identified through first-principles calculations, showing these polytypes energetically comparable to the A7 structure under ambient condition. Simulated diffraction data are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. We argue that previously reported some variations of physical properties (e.g., density, electrical conductivity, and magnetism) in bismuth could be due to the formation of these polytypes. The coexistence of metastable derivative structural polytypes may be a widely occurring phenomenon in other elemental materials. PMID:26883895

  13. The Design and Fabrication of Bismuth Hall Effect Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigillito, A. J.; Rudolph, M.; Soghomonian, V.; Heremans, J. J.

    2011-03-01

    Because of their high sensitivity, accuracy, and low cost, the use of Hall biosensors promises to be an effective diagnostic technique that may aid in the early diagnosis of diseases. In this research, Hall sensors were fabricated from thermally evaporated bismuth thin films. The bismuth films were deposited under high vacuum onto heated Si/ Si O2 substrates using a two layer deposition technique. The films varied in thickness from 60 nm to 75 nm and were etched into Hall bar geometries using photolithography and wet chemical etching. Magnetoresistance and Hall measurements were taken from 4 K to 300 K. The data indicate that the sensors may be characterized using a two carrier model with high mobility, low density holes and low mobility, high density electrons. Additionally, the sensors were exposed to magnetite nanoparticles and characterized using atomic force microscopy. The results will be reported. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF Grant DMR-0851662).

  14. The Design and Fabrication of Bismuth Hall Effect Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigillito, Anthony; Rudolph, Martin; Soghomonian, Vicki; Heremans, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    Because of their high sensitivity, accuracy, and low cost, the use of Hall biosensors promises to be an effective diagnostic technique that may aid in the early diagnosis of diseases. In this research, Hall sensors were fabricated from thermally evaporated bismuth thin films. The bismuth films were deposited under high vacuum onto heated Si/SiO2 substrates using a two layer deposition technique. The films varied in thickness from 60 nm to 75 nm and were etched into Hall bar geometries using photolithography and wet chemical etching. Magnetoresistance and Hall measurements were taken from 4 K to 300 K. The data indicate that the sensors may be characterized using a two carrier model with high mobility, low density holes and low mobility, high density electrons. Additionally, the sensors were exposed to magnetite nanoparticles and characterized using atomic force microscopy. The results will be reported. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF Grant DMR-0851662).

  15. Shape-controlled solvothermal synthesis of bismuth subcarbonate nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gang; Yang, Hanmin; Rong, Kaifeng; Lu, Zhong; Yu, Xianglin; Chen, Rong

    2010-08-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the synthesis of novel nanostructured materials because of their unique properties and potential applications. Bismuth subcarbonate ((BiO) 2CO 3) is one of commonly used antibacterial agents against Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori). Different (BiO) 2CO 3 nanostructures such as cube-like nanoparticles, nanobars and nanoplates, were fabricated from bismuth nitrate via a simple solvothermal method. The nanostructures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that the solvents and precursors have an influence on the morphologies of (BiO) 2CO 3 nanostructures. The possible formation mechanism of different (BiO) 2CO 3 nanostructures fabricated under different conditions was also discussed.

  16. Bismuth shielding during CT exams: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Morford, Kyle; Watts, Lynette K

    2012-01-01

    Dose-reducing techniques and patients' radiation protection are of more concern today than in the past with the increased dose used in multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) compared to single detector scanners. Companies that produce MDCT scanners can, and most often do, apply software that complies with the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle and decreases the dose used for the imaging. New ways have been discovered to reduce the dose to patients' radiosensitive organs through in-plane bismuth shielding. Different sizes and thicknesses of the shields are available to cover patients more radiosensitive organs. This literature review describes the uses, benefits, and some concerns of in-plane bismuth shielding. PMID:22720541

  17. Tin-silver-bismuth solders for electronics assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.

    1995-08-08

    A lead-free solder alloy is disclosed for electronic assemblies composed of a eutectic alloy of tin and silver with a bismuth addition, x, of 0bismuth added to the eutectic tin-silver alloy as determined by DSC analysis, 10 C/min. A preferred alloy composition is 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (weight percent based on total alloy weight). 4 figs.

  18. Tin-silver-bismuth solders for electronics assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vianco, Paul T.; Rejent, Jerome A.

    1995-01-01

    A lead-free solder alloy for electronic assemblies composed of a eutectic alloy of tin and silver with a bismuth addition, x, of 0bismuth added to the eutectic tin-silver alloy as determined by DSC analysis, 10.degree. C./min. A preferred alloy composition is 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (weight percent based on total alloy weight).

  19. METHOD OF SEPARATING FISSION PRODUCTS FROM FUSED BISMUTH-CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for removing metal selectively from liquid metal compositions. The method effects separation of flssion product metals selectively from dilute solution in fused bismuth, which contains uraniunn in solution without removal of more than 1% of the uranium. The process comprises contacting the fused bismuth with a fused salt composition consisting of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, adding to fused bismuth and molten salt a quantity of bismuth chloride which is stoichiometrically required to convert the flssion product metals to be removed to their chlorides which are more stable in the fused salt than in the molten metal and are, therefore, preferentially taken up in the fused salt phase.

  20. Open Syllable Lengthening in West Germanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Aditi; Dresher, B. Elan

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to show that open syllable lengthening (OSL) was part of the grammar of the West Germanic languages: Middle English, Middle Dutch, and Middle High German. Claims that all three languages endeavored to maintain and maximize the Germanic foot, and OSL contributed in different ways to do so. (Author/VWL)

  1. The Foreign Workers and Foreign Workers' German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackshire-Belay, Carol

    Foreign Workers' German (FWG) refers to the acquired German language skills of workers from various countries who were recruited to West Germany between 1955 and 1973 to fill menial, undesirable jobs. Contact between these workers and native German speakers was limited because of the nature of the foreigners' work, the tendency toward residential…

  2. The German Speaking Test: Utility and Caveats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the utility of the German Speaking Test (GST) as a general test of German foreign-language proficiency, examining whether it can be used effectively in classroom and institutional foreign-language settings and how proficiency ratings based on the GST relate to examinees' real-world German communicative abilities. Caveats regarding the…

  3. Verbal Aspects in Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Alfred

    1949-01-01

    This study examines the theory of Prokosch concerning the Germanic-Slavic-Baltic tense and aspect systems. The interrelatedness and influence of languages and dialects in Slavic (Russian and Old Church Slavic), Baltic (Lithuanian), and Germanic (Old High German and Gothic) are demonstrated. Examples illustrating the use of the perfective present…

  4. Physical activity and screen-based media use: cross-sectional associations with health-related quality of life and the role of body satisfaction in a representative sample of German adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Emily; Bucksch, Jens; Lampert, Thomas; Kolip, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although it is widely accepted that physical activity (PA) positively, and screen-based media use (SBM) negatively, affects well-being, there is a lack of studies relating PA and SBM to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents. We examined these associations in German adolescents for different HRQoL subdomains and explored the role of body satisfaction as a possible mediator. Methods: The 11–17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (2003–2006) was analysed (N = 6813; 51.3% male). Cross-sectional associations of self-reported PA frequency and amount of daily SBM with HRQoL subscale scores (according to KINDL-R) were examined by hierarchical linear regression models, adjusting for the clustering of the sample and for a variety of possible confounders. The size and significance of indirect effects via body (dis)satisfaction (BDS) were examined by mediation analyses. Results: Higher PA frequency was significantly associated with higher HRQoL on nearly all subscales and dose–response-relationships were observable. Variations were greatest in terms of social well-being in boys (effect size d = 0.59) and physical well-being in girls (d = 0.43). Higher SBM was related to lower HRQoL on all subscales in girls and on some subscales in boys, with the largest effects for school functioning in both genders (d = 0.31 and 0.37, respectively). The mediated effects for PA and SBM were significant in both genders, but the sizes and the proportions of total effects mediated by body satisfaction were rather small. Conclusions: Higher PA frequency was associated with higher self-reported HRQoL, and higher SBM was associated with lower self-reported HRQoL in both genders, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. The results support the assumption of independent health impacts of both behaviours, although no causal relationship can be confirmed with these cross-sectional data. Mechanisms other than body satisfaction must

  5. Modern Languages for Communication. Teaching the Curriculum: Checkpoint A, Grades K-6. Topics, Objectives, Activities in French, German, Italian, and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonkers City School District, NY.

    The modern language curriculum guide for grades K-6 is designed to correlate with Checkpoint A of the New York State Syllabus. It presents major topics, listing instructional objectives, functions, skill areas, suggested instructional materials, suggested activities, cultural content, and games, songs, and puzzles. Introductory sections outline…

  6. Individual and Contextual Factors Influencing Engagement in Learning Activities after Errors at Work: A Replication Study in a German Retail Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leicher, Veronika; Mulder, Regina H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this replication study is to identify relevant individual and contextual factors influencing learning from errors at work and to determine if the predictors for learning activities are the same for the domains of nursing and retail banking. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional replication study was carried out in…

  7. Bismuth-based Superconducting Wires for Actual Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi; Nakashima, Takayoshi; Yamazaki, Kohei; Sato, Ken-Ichi

    The bismuth-based superconducting wires (Bi-2223) have been produced as commercial products since 2004. Bi-2223 superconducting wires have been applied to cables, motors, magnets, and current leads. In particular, current leads have been used in a large accelerator, and magnets have been used in a B-H curve tracer for permanent magnets and magnetic billet heaters for hot extrusion. Motors and cables have been developed and evaluated as real sized apparatus.

  8. Weak antilocalization and UCFs in an open bismuth quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, B.; Minet, J. P.; Farhi, G.; Faniel, G.; Gustin, C.; Bayot, V.

    2003-04-01

    We report on the observation of weak antilocalization and universal conductance fluctuations in the magnetoconductance of an open quasi-ballistic bismuth nano-cavity. The electron decoherence length is comparable to sample dimensions at low temperature, while the spin-orbit coupling length is smaller. The temperature dependence of both the conductance and the dephasing length are consistent with two-dimensional electron-electron interactions being the dominant decoherence process.

  9. Solid solutions based on bismuth and antimony tellurides andbismuth selenides

    SciTech Connect

    Abrikosov, N.K.; Stasova, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    The phase diagrams of the systems Bi-Te, Bi-Se, and Sb-Te serve as a basis for constructing multiphase diagrams of ternary semiconductor systems. This paper studies layered structures with large unit-cell parameters in the regions of the solid solutions to explain the ordering processes in the solid solutions of semiconductor and intermetallic systems. The laws governing the formation and structral features of bismuth and antimony chalcogenides are studied to obtain thermoelectric materials and identification of minerals.

  10. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface structure and hole localization in bismuth vanadate: A first principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Kyoung E.; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2013-09-23

    The monoclinic and tetragonal phases of bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) have been found to exhibit significantly different photocatalytic activities for water splitting. To assess a possible surface effect on the phase-dependent behavior, we calculate and compare the geometries and electronic structures of the monoclinic and tetragonal BiVO{sub 4} (001) surfaces using hybrid density functional theory. The relaxed atomic configurations of these two surfaces are found to be nearly identical, while an excess hole shows a relatively stronger tendency to localize at the surface than the bulk in both phases. Possible factors for the phase-dependent photocatalytic activity of BiVO{sub 4} are discussed.

  12. Bismuth iron titanate pyrochlores: Thermostability, structure and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Piir, I.V.; Koroleva, M.S.; Ryabkov, Yu.I.; Korolev, D.A.; Chezhina, N.V.; Semenov, V.G.; Panchuk, V.V.

    2013-08-15

    Iron containing bismuth titanates with pyrochlore structure Bi{sub 1.6}Fe{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ}, where 0.08≤x≤0.4, were obtained by ceramic procedure. The results of bough pycnometric density of the pyrochlores and of X-ray powder diffraction structure refinement points to the preference for iron atoms to occupy the Bi{sup 3+}-sites. Electric and magnetic properties were studied for single phase pyrochlores based on bismuth titanates. The magnetic ordering was studied by the methods of Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The ideal crystal structure of pyrochlore A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 6}O' (A—Bi{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}; B—Ti{sup 4+}, Fe{sup 3+}). Highlights: • Bismuth titanate pyrochlores stable over a wide temperature range were obtained. • The distribution of Fe{sup 3+} over various sites was determined. • The obtained systems were characterized by magnetic susceptibility, Mössbauer spectroscopy and conductivity.

  13. Shape-controlled solvothermal synthesis of bismuth subcarbonate nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Gang; Yang Hanmin; Rong Kaifeng; Lu Zhong; Yu Xianglin; Chen Rong

    2010-08-15

    Much effort has been devoted to the synthesis of novel nanostructured materials because of their unique properties and potential applications. Bismuth subcarbonate ((BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) is one of commonly used antibacterial agents against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Different (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanostructures such as cube-like nanoparticles, nanobars and nanoplates, were fabricated from bismuth nitrate via a simple solvothermal method. The nanostructures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that the solvents and precursors have an influence on the morphologies of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanostructures. The possible formation mechanism of different (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanostructures fabricated under different conditions was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Different bismuth subcarbonate ((BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. It was found that the solvents and precursors have an influence on the morphologies of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanostructures.

  14. Oxide layer stability in lead-bismuth at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, F. J.; Soler, L.; Hernández, F.; Gómez-Briceño, D.

    2004-11-01

    Materials protection by 'in situ' oxidation has been studied in stagnant lead-bismuth, with different oxygen levels (H 2/H 2O ratios of 0.3 and 0.03), at temperatures from 535 °C to 600 °C and times from 100 to 3000 h. The materials tested were the martensitic steels F82Hmod, EM10 and T91 and the austenitic stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 304L. The results obtained point to the existence of an apparent threshold temperature above which corrosion occurs and the formation of a protective and stable oxide layer is not possible. This threshold temperature depends on material composition, oxygen concentration in the liquid lead-bismuth and time. The threshold temperature is higher for the austenitic steels, especially for the AISI 304L, and it increases with the oxygen concentration in the lead-bismuth. The oxide layer formed disappear with time and, after 3000 h all the materials, except AISI 304L, suffer corrosion, more severe for the martensitic steels and at the highest temperature tested.

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    PubMed

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting. PMID:27246652

  16. Bismuth pyrochlore-based thin films for dielectric energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Elizabeth K.

    The drive towards the miniaturization of electronic devices has created a need for dielectric materials with large energy storage densities. These materials, which are used in capacitors, are a critical component in many electrical systems. Here, the development of dielectric energy storage materials for pulsed power applications, which require materials with the ability to accumulate a large amount of energy and then deliver it to the system rapidly, is explored. The amount of electrostatic energy that can be stored by a material is a function of the induced polarization and the dielectric breakdown strength of the material. An ideal energy storage dielectric would possess a high relative permittivity, high dielectric breakdown strength, and low loss tangent under high applied electric fields. The bismuth pyrochlores are a compositionally tunable family of materials that meet these requirements. Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate, were fabricated using a novel solution chemistry based upon the Pechini method. This solution preparation is advantageous because it avoids the use of teratogenic solvents, such as 2-methoxyethanol. Crystalline films fabricated using this solution chemistry had very small grains that were approximately 27 nm in lateral size and 35 nm through the film thickness. Impedance measurements found that the resistivity of the grain boundaries was two orders of magnitude higher than the resistivity of the grain interior. The presence of many resistive grain boundaries impeded conduction through the films, resulting in high breakdown strengths for these materials. In addition to high breakdown strengths, this family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities of between 55 +/- 2 and 145 +/- 5, for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 +/- 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum

  17. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  18. Phonological Working Memory of Children in Two German Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselhorn, Marcus; Mahler, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    In two studies, 10-year-olds from 2 German special schools as well as typically developing children of the same chronological age (CA controls) or the same mental age (MA controls) were compared on several aspects of working memory functions (i.e., size and input quality of the phonological store, speed and automatic activation of the subvocal…

  19. Teacher's Guide to the German/American Heritage Radio Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselriis, Peter

    The guide suggests teaching methods and learning activities related to German Americans and their heritage in Missouri. Intended for upper elementary and secondary ethnic studies or history courses, the material outlines and supports 13 radio programs. The objective is to increase awareness and understanding of the various facets of the German…

  20. International space research perspectives of commercialization for German industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of space flight activities is presented. West German contributions to satellite mapping, communication satellites, navigation, Spacelab, diffusion under weightlessness, crystal growth in space, metal bonding, and biochemistry are described. The future of the research in the space station is analyzed.

  1. Jews in Nazi Germany: What West German Textbooks Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Hildegund M.

    1984-01-01

    This review of current German history textbooks shows that the documentation of anti-Semitism, Jewish persecution, and the Holocaust has improved since the 1960s. However, there are still weak areas. Necessary additions to all books should include documentation on medical experiments and ghettos and improved discussion concerning activities of…

  2. Bismuth Propellant Feed System Development at NASA-MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA-MSFC has been developing liquid metal propellant feed systems capable of delivering molten bismuth at a prescribed mass flow rate to the vaporizer of an electric thruster. The first such system was delivered to NASA-JPL as part of the Very High Isp Thruster with Anode Layer (VHITAL) program. In this system, the components pictured were placed in a vacuum chamber and heated while the control electronics were located outside the chamber. The system was successfully operated at JPL in conjunction with a propellant vaporizer, and data was obtained demonstrating a new liquid bismuth flow sensing technique developed at MSFC. The present effort is aimed at producing a feed-system for use in conjunction with a bismuth-fed Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Developing this system is more ambitious, however, in that it is designed to self-contain all the control electronics inside the same vacuum chamber as an operating bismuth-fed thruster. Consequently, the entire system, including an on-board computer, DC-output power supplies, and a gas-pressurization electro-pneumatic regulator, must be designed to survive a vacuum environment and shielded to keep bismuth plasma from intruding on the electronics and causing a shortcircuit. In addition, the hot portions of the feed system must be thermally isolated from the electronics to avoid failure due to high heat loads. This is accomplished using a thermal protection system (TPS) consisting of multiple layers of aluminum foil. The only penetrations into the vacuum chamber are an electrically isolated (floating) 48 VDC line and a fiberoptic line. The 48 VDC provides power for operation of the power supplies and electronics co-located with the system in the vacuum chamber. The fiberoptic Ethernet connection is used to communicate user-input control commands to the on-board computer and transmit real-time data back to the external computer. The partially assembled second-generation system is shown. Before testing at Busek, a

  3. Experience in Remote Demolition of the Activated Biological Shielding of the Multi Purpose Research Reactor (MZFR) on the German Karlsruhe Site - 12208

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenmann, Beata; Fleisch, Joachim; Prechtl, Erwin; Suessdorf, Werner; Urban, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, WAK Decommissioning and Waste Management GmbH (WAK) became owner and operator of the waste treatment facilities of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) as well as of the prototype reactors, the Compact Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (KNK) and Multi-Purpose Reactor (MZFR), both being in an advanced stage of dismantling. Together with the dismantling and decontamination activities of the former WAK reprocessing facility since 1990, the envisaged demolishing of the R and D reactor FR2 and a hot cell facility, all governmentally funded nuclear decommissioning projects on the Karlsruhe site are concentrated under the WAK management. The small space typical of prototype research reactors represented a challenge also during the last phase of activated dismantling, dismantling of the activated biological shield of the MZFR. Successful demolition of the biological shield required detailed planning and extensive testing in the years before. In view of the limited space and the ambient dose rate that was too high for manual work, it was required to find a tool carrier system to take up and control various demolition and dismantling tools in a remote manner. The strategy formulated in the concept of dismantling the biological shield by means of a modified electro-hydraulic demolition excavator in an adaptable working scaffolding turned out to be feasible. The following boundary conditions were essential: - Remote exchange of the dismantling and removal tools in smallest space. - Positioning of various supply facilities on the working platform. - Avoiding of interfering edges. - Optimization of mass flow (removal of the dismantled mass from the working area). - Maintenance in the surroundings of the dismantling area (in the controlled area). - Testing and qualification of the facilities and training of the staff. Both the dismantling technique chosen and the proceeding selected proved to be successful. Using various designs of universal cutters developed on the basis of

  4. Solvothermal synthesis and study of nonlinear optical properties of nanocrystalline thallium doped bismuth telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Molli, Muralikrishna; Parola, Sowmendran; Avinash Chunduri, L.A.; Aditha, Saikiran; Sai Muthukumar, V; Mimani Rattan, Tanu; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2012-05-15

    Nanocrystalline Bismuth telluride and thallium (4 mol %) doped Bismuth telluride were synthesized through hydrothermal method. The as-prepared products were characterized using Powder X-ray Diffraction, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Powder XRD results revealed the crystalline nature of the obtained phases. HRTEM showed the particle-like morphology of the products. The decrease in the absorption coefficient due to thallium doping was observed in FTIR spectra. The intensity dependent nonlinear optical properties of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride and thallium doped bismuth telluride were studied using the Z-scan technique in open-aperture configuration. Bismuth telluride doped with thallium showed enhanced nonlinear optical response compared to pristine bismuth telluride and hence could be used as a potential candidate for optical power limiting applications. - Graphical Abstract: Nonlinear transmission (Z-scan) curves of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride ({Delta}) and thallium doped bismuth telluride ({open_square}). Thallium doped bismuth telluride showed enhanced nonlinear absorption compared to bismuth telluride. Inset: TEM micrograph of bismuth telluride nanocrystallites. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Thallium doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} through solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduced absorption coefficient due to thallium doping found from IR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open-aperture Z-scan technique for nonlinear optical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two photon absorption based model for theoretical fitting of Z-scan data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced nonlinear absorption in Thallium doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} - potential candidate for optical power limiting applications.

  5. The accurate determination of bismuth in lead concentrates and other non-ferrous materials by AAS after separation and preconcentration of the bismuth with mercaptoacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Howell, D J; Dohnt, B R

    1982-05-01

    A method for determining 0.0001% and upwards of bismuth in lead, zinc or copper concentrates, metals or alloys and other smelter residues is described. Bismuth is separated from lead, iron and gangue materials with mercaptoacetic acid after reduction of the iron with hydrazine. Large quantities of tin can be removed during the dissolution. An additional separation is made for materials high in copper and/or sulphate. The separated and concentrated bismuth is determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry using the Bi line at 223.1 nm. The proposed method also allows the simultaneous separation and determination of silver. PMID:18963145

  6. Surface morphology and Raman spectroscopy of thin layers of antimony and bismuth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk'yanova, L. N.; Bibik, A. Yu.; Aseev, V. A.; Usov, O. A.; Makarenko, I. V.; Petrov, V. N.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Kutasov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The phonon spectra in thin layers of bismuth telluride and solid solutions of Bi2- x Sb x Te3- y Se y of different composition, belonging to three-dimensional topological insulators, have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy, and the morphology of an interlayer van der Waals (0001) surface in them has been studied by semicontact atomic force microscopy at room temperature. The analysis of the Raman spectra and the intensity ratio of active and inactive longitudinal optical modes depending on the composition, morphology of the interlayer surface, and thickness of the layers enabled the estimation of the effect of topological surface states of Dirac fermions, associated with the strengthening of the electron-phonon interaction as a result of resonance Raman scattering, and the identification of the compositions, in which the contribution of topological surface states becomes dominant.

  7. Giant enhancement of Kerr rotation in two-dimensional Bismuth iron garnet/Ag photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hong; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Shu-Fang; Zhou, Sheng; Wang, Xuan-Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Kerr effects of two-dimensional (2D) Bismuth iron garnet (BIG)/Ag photonic crystals (PCs) combined magnetic and plasmonic functionalities is investigated with the effective medium theory. An analytical expression of Kerr rotation angles is derived, in which the effects of the surface pasmons polaritons (SPP) on magneto-optical (MO) activities are reflected. The largest enhancement of Kerr rotation up to now is demonstrated, which is improved three orders of magnitude compared with that of BIG film. When λ < 750 nm all of the reflection are over 10% for the arbitrary filling ratio f1, in addition, the enhancement of Kerr rotation angles are at least one order of magnitude. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11104050, 10947168, 11204056, and 11304068).

  8. Method of Creating Micro-scale Silver Telluride Grains Covered with Bismuth Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided is a method of enhancing thermoelectric performance by surrounding crystalline semiconductors with nanoparticles by contacting a bismuth telluride material with a silver salt under a substantially inert atmosphere and a temperature approximately near the silver salt decomposition temperature; and recovering a metallic bismuth decorated material comprising silver telluride crystal grains.

  9. Experimental investigation of forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of lead-bismuth eutectic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubarsky, Bernard

    1951-01-01

    The forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of lead-bismuth eutectic were experimentally investigated. Experimental values of Nusselt number for lead-bismuth fell considerably below predicted values. The addition of a wetting agent did not change the heat transfer characteristics.

  10. Inclusive measurement of (p,. pi. /sup -/xn) double charge exchange reactions on bismuth from threshold to 800 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Dombsky, M.; D'Auria, J.M.; Kelson, I.; Yavin, A.I.; Ward, T.E.; Clark, J.L.; Ruth, T.; Sheffer, G.

    1985-07-01

    The energy dependence of the total angle-integrated cross section for the production of astatine isotopes from (p,..pi../sup -/xn) double charge exchange reactions on bismuth (/sup 209/Bi) was measured from 120 to 800 MeV using activation and radiochemical techniques. Chemical yields were estimated by direct radioassaying of /sup 211/At activity in thin (approx.1 mg/cm/sup 2/), irradiated bismuth targets. Calculations of the contributions of secondary (two-step) reactions to these measured astatine yields were performed, based partially upon the observed /sup 211/At activity although even at the highest energies, the contribution to products lighter than /sup 207/At was negligible. These data for products with as many as seven neutrons removed from the doubly coherent product (/sup 210/At) display nearly Gaussian shapes for the mass distributions of the astatine residues, with the maximum occurring for about /sup 204/At. The most probable momentum transfer deduced from these distributions for the initial ..pi../sup -/ production step was 335 MeV/c. The observed excitation functions display a behavior similar to that observed for the yield of /sup 210/Po from a (p,..pi../sup 0/) reaction on /sup 209/Bi, but radically different from that observed for inclusive ..pi../sup -/ reactions on a heavy nucleus. These data are discussed in terms of recent theoretical approaches to negative pion production from bismuth. In addition, a simple, schematic model is developed to treat the rapidly decreasing percentage of the total inclusive ..pi../sup -/ emission which is observed for this double charge exchange reaction. This model reflects the opacity of a nucleus to a source of internal energetic protons.

  11. Petrophysical characterization of first ever drilled core samples from an active CO2 storage site, the German Ketzin Pilot Site - Comparison with long term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. These parameters may change during and/or after the CO2 injection due to geochemical reactions in the reservoir system that are triggered by the injected CO2. Here we present petrophysical data of first ever drilled cores from a newly drilled well at the active CO2 storage site - the Ketzin pilot site in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. By comparison with pre-injection baseline data from core samples recovered prior to injection, the new samples provide the unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of CO2 on pore size related properties of reservoir and cap rocks at a real injection site under in-situ reservoir conditions. After injection of 61 000 tons CO2, an additional well was drilled and new rock cores were recovered. In total 100 core samples from the reservoir and the overlaying caprock were investigated by NMR relaxation. Permeability of 20 core samples was estimated by nitrogen and porosity by helium pycnometry. The determined data are comparable between pre-injection and post-injection core samples. The lower part of the reservoir sandstone is unaffected by the injected CO2. The upper part of the reservoir sandstone shows consistently slightly lower NMR porosity and permeability values in the post-injection samples when compared to the pre-injection data. This upper sandstone part is above the fluid level and CO2 present as a free gas phase and a possible residual gas saturation of the cores distorted the NMR results. The potash-containing drilling fluid can also influence these results: NMR investigation of twin samples from inner and outer parts of the cores show a reduced fraction of larger pores for the outer core samples together with lower porosities and T2 times. The drill mud penetration depth can be controlled by the added fluorescent tracer. Due to the heterogeneous character of the

  12. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  13. Bismuth-induced phase control of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhenyu; Chen, Pingping E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Shi, Suixing; Yao, Luchi; Zhou, Xiaohao; Lu, Wei E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Zhang, Zhi; Zhou, Chen; Zou, Jin

    2014-10-20

    In this work, the crystal structure of GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been tailored only by bismuth without changing the growth temperature and V/III flux ratio. The introduction of bismuth can lead to the formation of zinc-blende GaAs nanowires, while the removal of bismuth changes the structure into a 4H polytypism before it turns back to the wurtzite phase eventually. The theoretical calculation shows that it is the steadiest for bismuth to adsorb on the GaAs(111){sub B} surface compared to the liquid gold catalyst surface and the interface between the gold catalyst droplet and the nanowire, and these adsorbed bismuth could decrease the diffusion length of adsorbed Ga and hence the supersaturation of Ga in the gold catalyst droplet.

  14. Bismuth citrate in the quantification of inorganic phosphate and its utility in the determination of membrane-bound phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Cariani, L; Thomas, L; Brito, J; del Castillo, J R

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and sensitive method to determine inorganic phosphate, even in the presence of labile organic phosphate compounds and large quantities of proteins. The method eliminates the use of sodium arsenite, a highly toxic compound, substituting bismuth citrate for it to stabilize the phosphomolybdic acid complex formed during the interaction of inorganic phosphate and molybdate reduced by ascorbic acid. This method has also been adapted to microplates and has been used to determine the activities of Na/K ATPase and alkaline phosphatase of intestinal basolateral and luminal plasma membranes. PMID:14654048

  15. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. PMID:25422517

  16. Cytotoxic Effect of Lipophilic Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol Nanoparticles on Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Rene, Hernandez-Delgadillo; Badireddy, Appala Raju; José, Martínez-Sanmiguel Juan; Francisco, Contreras-Cordero Juan; Israel, Martinez-Gonzalez Gustavo; Isela, Sánchez-Nájera Rosa; Chellam, Shankararaman; Claudio, Cabral-Romero

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth nanoparticles have many interesting properties to be applied in biomedical and medicinal sectors, however their safety in humans have not been comprehensively investigated. The objective of this research was to determine the cytotoxic effect of bismuth dimercaptopropanol nanoparticles (BisBAL NPs) on epithelial cells. The nanoparticles are composed of 18.7 nm crystallites on average and have a rhombohedral structure, agglomerating into chains-like or clusters of small nanoparticles. Based on MTT viability assay and fluorescence microscopy, cytotoxicity was not observed on monkey kidney cells after growing with 5 µM of BisBAL NPs for 24 h. Employing same techniques, identical results were obtained with human epithelial cells (HeLa), showing a not strain-dependent phenomenon. The absence of toxic effects on epithelial cells growing with BisBAL NPs was corroborated with long-time experiments (24-72 hrs.), showing no difference in comparison with growing control (cells without nanoparticles). Further, genotoxicity assays, comet assay and fluorescent microscopy and electrophoresis in bromide-stained agarose gel revealed no damage to genomic DNA of MA104 cells after 24 h. of exposition to BisBAL NPs. Finally, the effect of bismuth nanoparticles on protein synthesis was studied in cells growing with BisBAL NPs for 24 h. SDS-PAGE assays showed no difference between treated and untreated cells, suggesting that BisBAL NPs did not interfere with protein synthesis. Hence BisBAL NPs do not appear to exert cytotoxic effects suggesting their biological compatibility with epithelial cells. PMID:27398446

  17. Modeling astatine production in liquid lead-bismuth spallation targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, J. C.; Boudard, A.; Cugnon, J.; Ghali, S.; Leray, S.; Mancusi, D.; Zanini, L.

    2013-03-01

    Astatine isotopes can be produced in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic targets through proton-induced double charge exchange reactions on bismuth or in secondary helium-induced interactions. Models implemented into the most common high-energy transport codes generally have difficulties to correctly estimate their production yields as was shown recently by the ISOLDE Collaboration, which measured release rates from a lead-bismuth target irradiated by 1.4 and 1 GeV protons. In this paper, we first study the capability of the new version of the Liège intranuclear cascade model, INCL4.6, coupled to the deexcitation code ABLA07 to predict the different elementary reactions involved in the production of such isotopes through a detailed comparison of the model with the available experimental data from the literature. Although a few remaining deficiencies are identified, very satisfactory results are found, thanks in particular to improvements brought recently on the treatment of low-energy helium-induced reactions. The implementation of the models into MCNPX allows identifying the respective contributions of the different possible reaction channels in the ISOLDE case. Finally, the full simulation of the ISOLDE experiment is performed, taking into account the likely rather long diffusion time from the target, and compared with the measured diffusion rates for the different astatine isotopes, at the two studied energies, 1.4 and 1 GeV. The shape of the isotopic distribution is perfectly reproduced as well as the absolute release rates, assuming in the calculation a diffusion time between 5 and 10hours. This work finally shows that our model, thanks to the attention paid to the emission of high-energy clusters and to low-energy cluster induced reactions, can be safely used within MCNPX to predict isotopes with a charge larger than that of the target by two units in spallation targets, and, probably, more generally to isotopes created in secondary reactions induced by composite

  18. Bismuth oxide nanotubes-graphene fiber-based flexible supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Xu, Zhen; Zheng, Bingna; Huang, Tieqi; Kou, Liang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Chao

    2014-07-01

    Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics.Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Equations and characterization. SEM images of GGO, XRD and XPS of Bi2O3 NTs, HRTEM images and EDX Spectra of Bi2O3 NT5-GF, CV curves of Bi2O3NT5-GF, Bi2O3 NTs and bismuth nitrate in three-electrode system (vs. Ag/AgCl). CV and GCD curves of Bi2O3 NT1-GF and Bi2O3 NT3-GF. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02615b

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of sodium bismuth titanate and titanate nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Animesh

    A hydrothermal processing method was developed for the synthesis of sodium bismuth titanate powders and thin films from suitable precursors at 150°C. Oxide precursors were best suited for preparing pure phase materials. The sodium bismuth titanate powders consisted of cube shaped crystals. A modified solution-reprecitation model involving partial dissolution of the precursors was proposed to explain the growth of these particles. The thin films were prepared on strontium titanate (100) substrate. A sample holder was specially designed and fabricated to secure the substrates in the reaction vessel. The result was a relatively smooth film of thickness ≤550 nm. The films were essentially single crystalline and had strong epitaxial relationship with the substrate. Titanate nanofibers (NaxH yTinO2n+1° zH2O) were known to form under similar hydrothermal conditions as sodium bismuth titanate powders. Detail research revealed that the pure hydroxide and oxide precursors tend to form sodium bismuth titanate powders or thin films. Titanate nanofibers were the predominant product when any other ions or organics were present in the precursor. Much faster reaction kinetics for the formation of nanofibers was observed when certain organic compounds were added deliberately with the precursors. Accordingly, a hydrothermal process was developed for converting the precursors to titanate nanofibers in a significantly shorter time than reported in the literature. A thin film consisting of vertically aligned nanofibers was prepared on titanium substrate at 150°C in as little as 30 minutes. Complete conversion of starting precursors to free standing nanofibers was achieved in ˜8 hours at 150°C. The as-prepared nanofibers were some form of sodium titanate. They were converted to hydrogen titanate by ion exchange. Differential Scanning calorimetric experiments were performed to understand the thermal evolution of the fibers. The hydrogen titanate fibers underwent structural

  20. Kinetics of Propagating Phase Transformation in Compressed Bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, M; Bastea, S; Emig, J; Springer, P; Reisman, D

    2004-08-18

    The authors observed dynamically driven phase transitions in isentropically compressed bismuth. By changing the stress loading conditions they explored two distinct cases one in which the experimental signature of the phase transformation corresponds to phase-boundary crossings initiated at both sample interfaces, and another in which the experimental trace is due to a single advancing transformation front in the bulk of the material. They introduce a coupled kinetics-hydrodynamics model that for this second case enables them, under suitable simplifying assumptions, to directly extract characteristic transition times from the experimental measurements.

  1. Lattice dynamics study of bismuth III V compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbes, A.; Zaoui, A.; Ferhat, M.

    2008-10-01

    We present first-principles calculations of the structural and lattice-dynamical properties for cubic bismuth III-V compounds: BBi, AlBi and GaBi. The ground-state properties, i.e., the lattice constant and the bulk modulus, are calculated using a plane wave pseudopotential method within density functional theory. A linear-response approach to density functional theory is used to derive the phonon frequencies. The effect of pressure on the dynamical charges and the longitudinal optical-transverse optical splitting is also examined.

  2. Growth and Characterization of Bismuth and Antimony Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, A.; Berrios, A. R.; Collazo, R.; Garcia, J. L.; Ducoudray, G. O.

    1996-03-01

    We have grown thin films of bismuth and antimony using hot wall epitaxy. The polycrystalline films were grown onto (111)-silicon substrates. The chemical integrity of the films was established using Auger electron spectroscopy. The crystallographical properties of the films were assessed using x-ray diffraction techniques. We will report on the results of these characterization efforts, as well as, on the growth apparatus and process. Work supported in part by NSWC-CRADA 93-01 and EPSCoR-NSF Grant EHR-9108775

  3. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in polycrystalline bismuth telluride nanofilm

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Lin; Ma, Weigang; Zhang, Xing

    2014-06-16

    In this study, the dynamics of energy carriers in polycrystalline bismuth telluride nanofilm are investigated by the ultrafast pump-probe method. The energy relaxation processes are quantitatively analyzed by using the numerical fitting models. The extracted hot carrier relaxation times of photon excitation, thermalization, and diffusion are around sub-picosecond. The initial reflectivity recovery is found to be dominantly determined by the carrier diffusion, electron-phonon coupling, and photo-generated carriers trapping processes. High-frequency and low-frequency oscillations are both observed and attributed to coherent optical phonons and coherent acoustic phonons, respectively.

  4. Thermoelectric and structural characterizations of individual electrodeposited bismuth telluride nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrokefalos, Anastassios; Moore, Arden L.; Pettes, Michael T.; Shi, Li; Wang, Wei; Li, Xiaoguang

    2009-05-01

    The thermoelectric properties and crystal structure of individual electrodeposited bismuth telluride nanowires (NWs) were characterized using a microfabricated measurement device and transmission electron microscopy. Annealing in hydrogen was used to obtain electrical contact between the NW and the supporting Pt electrodes. By fitting the measured Seebeck coefficient with a two-band model, the NW samples were determined to be highly n-type doped. Higher thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity were observed in a 52 nm diameter monocrystalline NW than a 55 nm diameter polycrystalline NW. The electron mobility of the monocrystalline NW was found to be about 19% lower than that of bulk crystal at a similar carrier concentration and about 2.5 times higher than that of the polycrystalline NW. The specularity parameter for electron scattering by the NW surface was determined to be about 0.7 and partially specular and partially diffuse, leading to a reduction in the electron mean-free path from 61 nm in the bulk to about 40 nm in the 52 nm NW. Because of the already short phonon mean-free path of about 3 nm in bulk bismuth telluride, diffuse phonon-surface scattering is expected to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity of the 52-55 nm diameter NWs by only about 20%, which is smaller than the uncertainty in the extracted lattice thermal conductivity based on the measured total thermal conductivity and calculated electron thermal conductivity. Although the lattice thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline NW is likely lower than the bulk values, the lower thermal conductivity observed in this polycrystalline sample is mainly caused by the lower electron concentration and mobility. For both samples, the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) increases with temperature and is about 0.1 at a temperature of 400 K. The low ZT compared to that of bulk crystals is mainly caused by a high doping level, suggesting the need for better control of the chemical composition in

  5. German Videos with German Subtitles: A New Approach to Listening Comprehension Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jurgen

    1988-01-01

    Adding German subtitles to German videos that are specifically aimed at aural comprehension development assists learners in acquiring new vocabulary and developing listening comprehension, and also facilitates the transition from reading to comprehending the spoken language. (Author/CB)

  6. Conductivity and modulus formulation in lithium modified bismuth zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, Sajjan; Punia, R.; Murugavel, S.; Maan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The conductivity and modulus formulation in lithium modified bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xLi2O-(50-x) Bi2O3-10ZnO-40B2O3 has been studied in the frequency range 0.1 Hz-1.5 × 105 Hz in the temperature range 573 K-693 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the studied compositions, the dc conductivity (σdc), crossover frequency (ωH), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of the experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating centre (Hf) and enthalpy of migration (Hm) have been estimated. It has been observed that number of charge carriers and ac conductivity in the lithium modified bismuth zinc borate glasses increases with increase in Li2O content. Further, the conduction mechanism in the glass sample with x = 0 may be due to overlapping large polaron tunneling, whereas, conduction mechanism in other studied glass samples more or less follows diffusion controlled relaxation model. The ac conductivity is scaled using σdc and ωH as the scaling parameter and is found that these are suitable scaling parameter for conductivity scaling. Non-Debye type relaxation is found prevalent in the studied glass system. Scaling of ac conductivity as well as electric modulus confirms the presence of different type of conduction mechanism in the glass samples with x = 0 and 5 from other studied samples. The activation energy of relaxation (ER) and dc conductivity (Edc) are almost equal, suggesting that polarons/ions have to overcome same barrier while relaxing and conducting.

  7. Temperature and frequency dependent conductivity of bismuth zinc vanadate semiconducting glassy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punia, R.; Kundu, R. S.; Dult, Meenakshi; Murugavel, S.; Kishore, N.

    2012-10-01

    The ac conductivity of bismuth zinc vanadate glasses with compositions 50V2O5. xBi2O3. (50-x) ZnO has been studied in the frequency range 10-1 Hz to 2 MHz and in temperature range 333.16 K to 533.16 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the compositions of bismuth zinc vanadate glass system. The dc conductivity (σdc), crossover frequency (ωH), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating center (Hf) and enthalpy of migration (Hm) have also been estimated. It has been observed that mobility of charge carriers and ac conductivity in case of zinc vanadate glass system increases with increase in Bi2O3 content. In order to determine the conduction mechanism, the ac conductivity and its frequency exponent have been analyzed in the frame work of various theoretical models based on classical hopping over barriers and quantum mechanical tunneling. The ac conduction takes place via tunneling of overlapping large polarons in all the compositions of presently studied vanadate glasses. The fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with overlapping large polarons tunneling model has also been done. The parameters; density of states at Fermi level (N(EF)), activation energy associated with charge transfer between the overlapping sites (WHO), inverse localization length (α) and polaron radius (rp) obtained from fitting of this model with experimental data are reasonable.

  8. Solvothermal synthesis of uniform bismuth nanospheres using poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) as a reducing agent

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Uniform bismuth nanospheres were successfully prepared from bismuth nitrate in the presence of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) by solvothermal process. The product was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray. PVP plays a critical role both as a reducing agent and a capping agent in the formation of bismuth nanospheres. Shape and size of bismuth nanospheres could be tuned by changing the employed PVP/bismuth salt ratio. It was also found the solvent had an effect on the morphologies of bismuth nanomaterials. The possible formation and growth mechanism of bismuth nanospheres were also discussed and proposed to explain the reduction step. PMID:21711606

  9. Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Daniel Joseph

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,…

  10. Deutschunterricht und deutsche Hochlautung (German Instruction and the High German Pronunciation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelz, Heinrich P.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the questions of which pronunciation model should be used in German courses and how closely students should be expected to duplicate it. After a short history of efforts to standardize German, it is suggested that the new "Aussprache Duden" is a good basis for teaching pronunciation. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  11. Business German: The Use of Simulations in a Total Immersion German Business Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Ellen

    At Concordia College's Institute of German Studies (Minnesota), an immersion program, a 1-month course entitled "German in the Business World" concentrates on development of written and oral communication skills needed in firms dealing with German-speakers. As part of its emphasis on banking, insurance, and business, the course includes…

  12. German adaptations of ICD-10.

    PubMed

    Graubner, B; Brenner, G

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of the ICD-10, published by WHO 1992-94 in English and by DIMDI 1994/95 in German, is a very slow process. Some states introduced ICD-10 for the preparation of statistics of mortality, but only few use it for morbidity. ICD-9 is in Germany only in hospitals still in use. Much effort was put into the improvement of the official ICD-10 and the development of additional aids for more simple and better encoding of diagnoses. Thus a revision especially for ambulatory health care (ICD-10-SGBV with the incorporated ICD-10-Basisschlüssel) and a collection of German terms and expressions of diagnoses that are not at all part of the official ICD-10 (ICD-10-Diagnosenthesaurus) were published. Three years ago a conversion table ICD-9/-10 was developed which can now be harmonised with WHO's Translator. The experiences with all these instruments are satisfying. The development of methods for automatic encoding of free-text phrases of diagnoses has now been started. PMID:10725032

  13. Field-induced polarization of Dirac valleys in bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnia, Kamran; Zhu, Zengwei; Callaudin, Aurelie; Fauque, Benoit; Kang, Woun

    2012-02-01

    The principal challenge in the field of ``valleytronics'' is to lift the valley degeneracy of electrons in a controlled way. In graphene, a number of methods to generate a valley-polarized flow of electrons have been proposed, which are yet to be experimentally realized. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high-symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. We present a study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth which shows that a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. The effect is visible even at room temperature. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. At high temperature and low magnetic field, the three valleys are interchangeable and the three-fold symmetry of the underlying lattice is respected. As the temperature is decreased or the magnetic field increased, this symmetry is spontaneously lost. This loss may be an experimental manifestation of the recently proposed valley-nematic Fermi liquid state.

  14. Structural and electronic properties of III-V bismuth compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferhat, M.; Zaoui, A.

    2006-03-01

    We have performed ab initio self-consistent calculations based on the full potential linear augmented plane-wave method with the generalized gradient approximation to investigate the structural and the electronic properties of the less known bismuth III-V compounds: BBi, AlBi, GaBi, and InBi. Ground state parameters are computed and compared with available theoretical and experimental works. The zinc-blende phase is found to be the most stable for BBi, AlBi, and GaBi, while InBi prefers the tetragonal PbO structure. The relativistic contraction of the 6s orbital of Bi has strong effect on the band structure of III-Bi compounds, which exhibits some features that differ considerably from those of typical III-V semiconductors. In particular, we found an inverted band gap, which reflects a semimetallic character of these systems. Their bonding nature is analyzed in terms of valence charge density transfer, showing three different natures of the bond. Besides, the calculated valence charge density for BBi shows an anomalous behavior characterized by a charge transfer toward the cation B atom, while the others III-Bi behave as the typical III-V compounds with a small charge transfer to the anion bismuth atom.

  15. Superconductivity in Bismuth. A New Look at an Old Problem

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between atomic topology, vibrational and electronic properties and superconductivity of bismuth, a 216-atom amorphous structure (a-Bi216) was computer-generated using our undermelt-quench approach. Its pair distribution function compares well with experiment. The calculated electronic and vibrational densities of states (eDOS and vDOS, respectively) show that the amorphous eDOS is about 4 times the crystalline at the Fermi energy, whereas for the vDOS the energy range of the amorphous is roughly the same as the crystalline but the shapes are quite different. A simple BCS estimate of the possible crystalline superconducting transition temperature gives an upper limit of 1.3 mK. The e-ph coupling is more preponderant in a-Bi than in crystalline bismuth (x-Bi) as indicated by the λ obtained via McMillan’s formula, λc = 0.24 and experiment λa = 2.46. Therefore with respect to x-Bi, superconductivity in a-Bi is enhanced by the higher values of λ and of eDOS at the Fermi energy. PMID:26815431

  16. Electronic band structure calculations of bismuth-antimony nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Andrei; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2012-02-01

    Alloys of bismuth and antimony received initial interest due to their unmatched low-temperature thermoelectric performance, and have drawn more recent attention as the first 3D topological insulators. One-dimensional bismuth-antimony (BiSb) nanowires display interesting quantum confinement effects, and are expected to exhibit even better thermoelectric properties than bulk BiSb. Due to the small, anisotropic carrier effective masses, the electronic properties of BiSb nanowires show great sensitivity to nanowire diameter, crystalline orientation, and alloy composition. We develop a theoretical model for calculating the band structure of BiSb nanowires. For a given crystalline orientation, BiSb nanowires can be in the semimetallic, direct semiconducting, or indirect semiconducting phase, depending on nanowire diameter and alloy composition. These ``phase diagrams'' turn out to be remarkably similar among the different orientations, which is surprising in light of the anisotropy of the bulk BiSb Fermi surface. We predict a novel direct semiconducting phase for nanowires with diameter less than ˜15 nm, over a narrow composition range. We also find that, in contrast to the bulk and thin film BiSb cases, a gapless state with Dirac dispersion cannot be realized in BiSb nanowires.

  17. New Bismuth-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Bargan, Ana Maria; Luca, Constantin

    2015-11-01

    New bismuth-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca10- x Bi x (PO4)6(OH)2 where x = 0-2.5] nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method from aqueous solutions. The structural properties of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with x-ray analysis, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. The results confirm that bismuth ions have been incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The prepared nanocrystalline powders consisted of hydroxyapatite as single phase with hexagonal structure, crystal sizes smaller than 60 nm and (Bi + Ca)/P atomic ratio of around 1.67. The hydroxyapatite samples doped with Bi have mesoporous textures with pores size of around 2 nm and specific surface area in the range of 12-25 m2/g. The Bi-substituted hydroxyapatite powders are more effective against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria than Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  18. Superconductivity in Bismuth. A New Look at an Old Problem.

    PubMed

    Mata-Pinzón, Zaahel; Valladares, Ariel A; Valladares, Renela M; Valladares, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between atomic topology, vibrational and electronic properties and superconductivity of bismuth, a 216-atom amorphous structure (a-Bi216) was computer-generated using our undermelt-quench approach. Its pair distribution function compares well with experiment. The calculated electronic and vibrational densities of states (eDOS and vDOS, respectively) show that the amorphous eDOS is about 4 times the crystalline at the Fermi energy, whereas for the vDOS the energy range of the amorphous is roughly the same as the crystalline but the shapes are quite different. A simple BCS estimate of the possible crystalline superconducting transition temperature gives an upper limit of 1.3 mK. The e-ph coupling is more preponderant in a-Bi than in crystalline bismuth (x-Bi) as indicated by the λ obtained via McMillan's formula, λc = 0.24 and experiment λa = 2.46. Therefore with respect to x-Bi, superconductivity in a-Bi is enhanced by the higher values of λ and of eDOS at the Fermi energy. PMID:26815431

  19. Radiopacity in bone cements using an organo-bismuth compound.

    PubMed

    Deb, S; Abdulghani, S; Behiri, J C

    2002-08-01

    In a joint replacement surgery it is vital for bone cement to be radiologically detectable. Consequently, heavy metal salts of barium and zirconia are incorporated as a contrast medium for this purpose. The addition of such particulate additives, however, can be detrimental to some of the physical, mechanical and biological properties. The present study reports the feasibility of using an organo-bismuth compound, namely. triphenyl bismuth (TPB) as a radiopaque agent for orthopaedic bone cements. TPB was incorporated in the bone cement matrix by two methods, (i) blending: TPB was added to the polymer phase of the bone cement and (ii) dissolution: by dissolving TPB in the monomer phase methylmethacrylate. The results showed that the inclusion of TPB at concentrations of 15% and 25% by weight of the polymer, in the bone cement matrix did not affect the polymerisation exotherm temperature and setting time. Furthermore, the addition of TPB via the dissolution method provided a statistically significant increase in the strain to failure in comparison to commercial acrylic cements containing barium sulphate, thus reducing the brittleness of the cement. The detrimental effects on the mechanical properties post conditioning in water, was also much less pronounced in the homogeneous TPB cements in comparison to barium sulphate containing cements. These observations can be attributed to the formation of a homogeneous and continuous matrix of the resultant bone cement with a much lower porosity. PMID:12099281

  20. Angle Dependence of the Orbital Magnetoresistance in Bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaudin, Aurélie; Fauqué, Benoît; Fuseya, Yuki; Kang, Woun; Behnia, Kamran

    2015-04-01

    We present an extensive study of angle-dependent transverse magnetoresistance in bismuth, with a magnetic field perpendicular to the applied electric current and rotating in three distinct crystallographic planes. The observed angular oscillations are confronted with the expectations of semiclassic transport theory for a multivalley system with anisotropic mobility and the agreement allows us to quantify the components of the mobility tensor for both electrons and holes. A quadratic temperature dependence is resolved. As Hartman argued long ago, this indicates that inelastic resistivity in bismuth is dominated by carrier-carrier scattering. At low temperature and high magnetic field, the threefold symmetry of the lattice is suddenly lost. Specifically, a 2 π /3 rotation of magnetic field around the trigonal axis modifies the amplitude of the magnetoresistance below a field-dependent temperature. By following the evolution of this anomaly as a function of temperature and magnetic field, we map the boundary in the (field, temperature) plane separating two electronic states. In the less symmetric state, confined to low temperature and high magnetic field, the three Dirac valleys cease to be rotationally invariant. We discuss the possible origins of this spontaneous valley polarization, including a valley-nematic scenario.

  1. Layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials for highly efficient tumor photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu; Shi, Zhenzhi; Zhang, Ling'e.; Brown, Eric Michael Bratsolias; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    Layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials have received much more interest as promising photocatalysts because of their unique layered structures and high photocatalytic performance, which can be used as potential inorganic photosensitizers in tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT). In recent years, photocatalytic materials have been widely used in PDT and photothermal therapy (PTT) as inorganic photosensitizers. This investigation focuses on applying layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials toward cancer PDT, an application that has never been reported so far. The results of our study indicate that the efficiency of UV-triggered PDT was highest when using BiOCl nanoplates followed by BiOCl nanosheets, and then TiO2. Of particular interest is the fact that layered BiOCl nanomaterials showed excellent PDT effects under low nanomaterial dose (20 μg mL-1) and low UV dose (2.2 mW cm-2 for 10 min) conditions, while TiO2 showed almost no therapeutic effect under the same parameters. BiOCl nanoplates and nanosheets have shown excellent performance and an extensive range of applications in PDT.

  2. Layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials for highly efficient tumor photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Shi, Zhenzhi; Zhang, Ling'e; Brown, Eric Michael Bratsolias; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-07-01

    Layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials have received much more interest as promising photocatalysts because of their unique layered structures and high photocatalytic performance, which can be used as potential inorganic photosensitizers in tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT). In recent years, photocatalytic materials have been widely used in PDT and photothermal therapy (PTT) as inorganic photosensitizers. This investigation focuses on applying layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials toward cancer PDT, an application that has never been reported so far. The results of our study indicate that the efficiency of UV-triggered PDT was highest when using BiOCl nanoplates followed by BiOCl nanosheets, and then TiO2. Of particular interest is the fact that layered BiOCl nanomaterials showed excellent PDT effects under low nanomaterial dose (20 μg mL(-1)) and low UV dose (2.2 mW cm(-2) for 10 min) conditions, while TiO2 showed almost no therapeutic effect under the same parameters. BiOCl nanoplates and nanosheets have shown excellent performance and an extensive range of applications in PDT. PMID:26287933

  3. Effect of O-vacancies on magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by solution evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, A. M.; Umair, M.; Dastgeer, G.; Rizwan, M.; Yaqoob, M. Z.; Rashid, R.; Munir, H. S.

    2016-02-01

    Bismuth ferrite is a multiferroic material which shows high magnetization and polarization at room temperature. In present work, the effect of Oxygen (O) vacancies on magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles is studied. Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BiFeO3) were synthesized by solution evaporation method (SEM) at room temperature. The sample was annealed under two different atmospheres such as in air and oxygen, to check the effect of O-vacancies on magnetic properties. The average crystallite size of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) as calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) falls in the range of 23-32 nm and 26-39 nm for the case of air and oxygen respectively. The crystallite size of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles increases as the temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C. Further the influence of annealing temperature on the magnetic properties of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles was also observed. It was concluded that the magnetic properties of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are directly interconnected to annealing atmosphere and annealing temperature. The magnetic properties were increased in the case of oxygen annealing, which actually leads in our case to an improvement of the crystallinity.

  4. Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Mackinnon, Ian D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Platey grains of cubic Bi2O3, alpha-Bi2O3, and Bi2O(2.75), nanograins were associated with chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles W7029C1, W7029E5, and 2011C2 that were collected in the stratosphere at 17-19 km altitude. Similar Bi oxide nanograins were present in the upper stratosphere during May 1985. These grains are linked to the plumes of several major volcanic eruptions during the early 1980s that injected material into the stratosphere. The mass of sulfur from these eruptions is a proxy for the mass of stratospheric Bi from which we derive the particle number densities (p/cu m) for "average Bi2O3 nanograins" due to this volcanic activity and those necessary to contaminate the extraterrestrial chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles via collisional sticking. The match between both values supports the idea that Bi2O3 nanograins of volcanic origin could contaminate interplanetary dust particles in the Earth's stratosphere.

  5. Measurement of partial L fluorescence yields of bismuth using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Ménesguen, Yves; Boyer, Bruno; Rodrigues, Matias; Lépy, Marie-Christine

    2016-03-01

    Tunable monochromatic photon radiation was used to measure transmission of a bismuth target in the energy range from 7keV to 20keV. Partial L fluorescence yields of bismuth were obtained by combining measurement of the fluorescence induced by photoionization of the bismuth target and X-rays from the radioactive decay of (210)Pb. Several photon energies have been used to successively ionize the L subshells, which allowed detailed analysis of the rearrangement spectra and determination of the X-ray relative intensities of the L1, L2 and L3 series. PMID:26651165

  6. Increased InAs quantum dot size and density using bismuth as a surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Dasika, Vaishno D.; Krivoy, E. M.; Nair, H. P.; Maddox, S. J.; Park, K. W.; Yu, E. T.; Bank, S. R.; Jung, D.; Lee, M. L.

    2014-12-22

    We have investigated the growth of self-assembled InAs quantum dots using bismuth as a surfactant to control the dot size and density. We find that the bismuth surfactant increases the quantum dot density, size, and uniformity, enabling the extension of the emission wavelength with increasing InAs deposition without a concomitant reduction in dot density. We show that these effects are due to bismuth acting as a reactive surfactant to kinetically suppress the surface adatom mobility. This mechanism for controlling quantum dot density and size has the potential to extend the operating wavelength and enhance the performance of various optoelectronic devices.

  7. Exploiting Chemistry to Improve Performance of Screen-Printed, Bismuth Film Electrodes (SP-BiFE).

    PubMed

    Dossi, Carlo; Monticelli, Damiano; Pozzi, Andrea; Recchia, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Mercury substitution is a big issue in electroanalysis, and the search for a suitable, and less toxic, replacement is still under development. Of all the proposed alternatives, bismuth films appear to be the most viable solution, although they are still suffering some drawbacks, particularly the influence of deposition conditions and linearity at low concentrations. In this paper, the most promising strategies for bismuth film deposition on screen-printed electrodes (surface modifications, polymeric film deposition, insoluble salt precursors) will be evaluated for trace metal analysis. Particular attention will be devoted to bismuth chemistry, aiming to rationalize their electroanalytic performance. PMID:27455338

  8. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FLUORIDE FROM BISMUTH PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATE CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating plutonium from fission products present on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The dried carrier is first treated with hydrogen fluoride at between 500 and 600 deg C whereby some fission product fluorides volatilize away from plutonium tetrafluoride, and nonvolatile fission product fluorides are formed then with anhydrous fluorine at between 400 and 500 deg C. Bismuth and plutonium distill in the form of volatile fluorides away from the nonvolatile fission product fluorides. The bismuth and plutonium fluorides are condensed at below 290 deg C.

  9. Structural and optical characterization of thermally evaporated bismuth and antimony films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srimathy, N.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this present study, the thin film of bismuth and antimony is coated by thermal evaporation system equipped with the inbuilt ultra high vacuum system. XRD analysis confirmed the rhombohedral structure of Bismuth and Antimony on the prepared film. The surface roughness and physical appearance is analyzed by Atomic force microscopy. The results of Raman Spectroscopy show the wave functions and the spectrum of electrons. The preparation technique and conditions strongly influence the crystalline structure and the phase composition of bismuth and antimony thin films. The electrical and optical properties for the prepared film are analyzed. The results show a great interest and promising applications in Photovoltaic devices.

  10. Determination of nanogram amounts of bismuth in rocks by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Bismuth concentrations as low as 10 ng g-1 in 100-mg samples of geological materials can be determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization. After HF-HClO4 decomposition of the sample, bismuth is extracted as the iodide into methyl isobutyl ketone and is then stripped with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid into the aqueous phase. Aliquots of this solution are pipetted into the graphite furnace and dried, charred, and atomized in an automated sequence. Atomic absorbance at the Bi 223.1-nm line provides a measure of the amount of bismuth present. Results are presented for 14 U.S. Geological Survey standard rocks. ?? 1979.

  11. Bismuth nano-droplets for group-V based molecular-beam droplet epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zeng, Z. Q.; Fan, D. S.; Hirono, Y.; Wu, J.; Morgan, T. A.; Hu, X.; Yu, S. Q.; Wang, Zh. M.; Salamo, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Self-assembly of bismuth droplets at nanoscale on GaAs(100) surface using molecular beam epitaxy was demonstrated. Fine control of density and size was achieved by varying growth temperature and total bismuth deposition. Droplet density was tuned by roughly 3 orders of magnitude, and the density-temperature dependence was found to be consistent with classical nucleation theory. These results may extend the flexibility of droplet epitaxy by serving as templates for group V based droplet epitaxy, which is in contrast to conventional group III based droplet epitaxy and may encourage nanostructure formation of bismuth-containing materials.

  12. Synthesis and materials chemistry of bismuth tris-(di-i-propylcarbamate): deposition of photoactive Bi2O3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Cosham, Samuel D; Hill, Michael S; Horley, Graeme A; Johnson, Andrew L; Jordan, Laura; Molloy, Kieran C; Stanton, David C

    2014-01-01

    The bismuth carbamate Bi(O2CNPr(i)2)3, a tetramer in the solid-state, has been synthesized and used to deposit mixtures of bismuth oxides by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The nature of the deposited oxide is a function of both temperature and run-time. Initially, δ-Bi2O3 is deposited, over which grows a thick layer of β-Bi2O3 nanowires, the latter having an increasing degree of preferred orientation at higher deposition temperatures. The photocatalytic activity of a thin film of δ-Bi2O3 for the degradation of methylene blue dye was found to be similar to that of a commercial TiO2 film on glass, while the film overcoated with β-Bi2O3 nanowires was less active. Exposure of Bi(O2CNPr(i)2)3 to controlled amounts of moist air affords the novel oxo-cluster Bi8(O)6(O2CNPr(i)2)12, whose structure has also been determined. PMID:24387747

  13. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  14. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  15. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  16. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  17. The Hypermetric Line in Germanic Alliterative Verse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation undertakes a complete study of the stress patterns, syntactic construction, and rhetorical style of hypermetric verse in Germanic alliterative poetry. This project allows me to fill a gap in the study of Germanic meter while simultaneously investigating the connection between metrical and literary scholarship. Hypermetric meter…

  18. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures Based…

  19. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  20. Functional Categories in Early Child German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the representation of phrase structure in early child German through the investigation of longitudinal data from seven German-speaking toddlers with respect to verb placement, verb inflection, negation, /wh/ pronouns, and complementizers. It is argued that children construct phrase-structure trees in a gradual fashion, on the basis of…

  1. German Noun Gender: A Matter of Memorization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Mark

    1976-01-01

    Determining the gender of German nouns is an awesome task for the beginning student of German. This article lists rules which might facilitate this task. The gender can sometimes be inferred from the ending of a word, sometimes by the meaning, but sometimes only through memorization. (Author/TL)

  2. Teaching German for Musicians: A Practical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Explores the opportunities for teaching German for musicians and offers it as an approach to teaching beginning German in general. A short theoretical discussion of the impact of music on foreign language learning precedes the presentation of various teaching tools and ideas that map the territory in which musical foreign language teaching can…

  3. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  4. Swiss Themes in Three "Pluricentric" German Language Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Examines three current textbooks for German as a foreign language with regard to their coverage of Switzerland as a German-speaking nation. Concludes by suggesting that pluricentric German language textbooks for beginners are rare. (Author/VWL)

  5. Teuton vs Slav: The Great War Sinks Chicago's German "Kultur."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holli, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the fervent political and cultural nationalism of German Americans in Chicago during World War I. Discusses how this nationalism, combined with ethnic conflict between Germans and Slavs, helped to sway public opinion against Chicago's German community. (GC)

  6. Health Information in German (Deutsch): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use ...

  7. 9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  8. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  9. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING T-8100. BUNKER, BUILDING T-8104, IN FOREGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  10. 4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  11. Analysis of activity of German Society of Photogrammetry, Remote sensing and Geoinformatics. <span id="translatedtitle">Deutsche Feste. Sitten und Brauche mit Liedern Gedichten Ratseln. (<span class="hlt">German</span> Festivities. Habits and Customs Using Songs and Stories).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hawrysz, Ilse, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This teacher's guide of supplemental cultural materials includes descriptions of major celebrations and cultural <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the <span class="hlt">German</span> people. The text includes songs, poems, and stories about the New Year, carnival, springtime, Easter, fall festivals, and Christmas, as well as a traditional <span class="hlt">German</span> wedding. (TR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753867"><span id="translatedtitle">[The <span class="hlt">German</span> Environmental Specimen Bank].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The main objective of the <span class="hlt">German</span> Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first <span class="hlt">German</span> Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public. PMID:26753867</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21504042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21504042"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of ternary <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> tantalum oxides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leitner, J.; Jakes, V.; Sofer, Z.; Sedmidubsky, D.; Ruzicka, K.; Svoboda, P.</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>Heat capacity and enthalpy increments of ternary <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> tantalum oxides Bi{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 11}, Bi{sub 7}Ta{sub 3}O{sub 18} and Bi{sub 3}TaO{sub 7} were measured by the relaxation time method (2-280 K), DSC (265-353 K) and drop calorimetry (622-1322 K). Temperature dependencies of the molar heat capacity in the form C{sub pm}=445.8+0.005451T-7.489x10{sup 6}/T{sup 2} J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, C{sub pm}=699.0+0.05276T-9.956x10{sup 6}/T{sup 2} J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} and C{sub pm}=251.6+0.06705T-3.237x10{sup 6}/T{sup 2} J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} for Bi{sub 3}TaO{sub 7}, Bi{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 11} and for Bi{sub 7}Ta{sub 3}O{sub 18}, respectively, were derived by the least-squares method from the experimental data. The molar entropies at 298.15 K, S{sup o}{sub m}(298.15 K)=449.6{+-}2.3 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} for Bi{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 11}, S{sup o}{sub m}(298.15 K)=743.0{+-}3.8 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} for Bi{sub 7}Ta{sub 3}O{sub 18} and S{sup o}{sub m}(298.15 K)=304.3{+-}1.6 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} for Bi{sub 3}TaO{sub 7}, were evaluated from the low-temperature heat capacity measurements. -- Graphical Abstract: Temperature dependence of {Delta}{sub ox}C{sub pm} for <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> tantalum mixed oxides. Display Omitted Research highlights: > Heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of ternary <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> tantalum oxides Bi{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 11}, Bi{sub 7}Ta{sub 3}O{sub 18} and Bi{sub 3}TaO{sub 7}. > Heat capacity by DSC calorimetry and heat-pulsed calorimetry. > Enthalpy increments by drop calorimetry. > Einstein-Debye model for low-temperature dependence of the heat capacity. > Application of Neumann-Kopp rule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS055-106-096&hterms=German&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGerman','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS055-106-096&hterms=German&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGerman"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-55 <span class="hlt">German</span> Payload Specialist Walter at the SL-D2 Fluid Physics Module</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>STS-55 <span class="hlt">German</span> Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter conducts an experiment using the advanced fluid physics module located in Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) Rack 8 Werkstofflabor (WL) (Material Sciences Laboratory) aboard Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Walter uses intravehicular <span class="hlt">activity</span> (IVA) foot restraints to position himself in front of the rack. Walter represents the <span class="hlt">German</span> Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPL...591..126D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPL...591..126D"><span id="translatedtitle">Facile synthesis and shape control of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanoflowers induced by surfactants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, Yunrong; Song, Yonghui</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Several nano-sized <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> materials with different shapes were fabricated using ionic/nonionic surfactant as a synthesis agent. Ionic surfactants brought about the formation of irregular nanoparticles while nonionic surfactants directed the synthesis of uniform hexagonal nanoprisms. Among them, the nonionic surfactant Pluronic P123 (poly(ethyleneoxide)-poly(propyleneoxide)-poly(ethyleneoxide), PEO20PPO70PEO20) could act as the reductant/shape-directing bifunctional agent for successfully reducing Bi3+ to Bi0 and inducing many hexagonal nanoprisms to grow from one crystal seed and finally form the graceful <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanoflowers. The molding mechanism of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanoflowers might be attributed to the accommodation, stabilization and induction effects of P123 micelles for <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> crystal seeds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956606','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956606"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span>: experimental results review and analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jinsuo</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> as heat transfer media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4077890','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4077890"><span id="translatedtitle">METHOD FOR RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION USING A <span class="hlt">BISMUTH</span> HYDROXIDE CARRIER PRECIPITATE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Faris, B.F.</p> <p>1961-04-25</p> <p>Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions are described. In accordance with the invention a <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> hydroxide precipitate is formed in the plutonium-containing solution, thereby carrying plutonium values from the solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20889808','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20889808"><span id="translatedtitle">Low temperature synthesis of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> ferrite nanoparticles by a ferrioxalate precursor method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Sushmita; Dasgupta, Subrata . E-mail: sdasgupta@cgcri.res.in; Sen, Amarnath; Maiti, Himadri Sekhar</p> <p>2005-12-08</p> <p>The synthesis of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> ferrite by solid-state reaction of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} results in the formation of multiphase products. Even coprecipitation followed by calcination leads to the formation of impurity phases. Here, we report the synthesis of magnetoelectric <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> ferrite by a ferrioxalate precursor method. In this process, <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> ferrite, synthesized through solutions of some specific salts led to the formation of phase pure (perovskite) nanocrystalline powder (11-22 nm as evident from X-ray diffraction analysis) at a temperature of 600 deg. C. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis route is simple, energy saving and cost-effective. Such nanosized <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> ferrite powder may have a potential application in making lead free piezoelectric materials for actuators as well as magnetoelectric sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JLTP..176..610R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JLTP..176..610R"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Large <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Absorbers for Magnetic Calorimeters Applied to Hard X-ray Spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, M.; Loidl, M.; Pies, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> is an interesting material for magnetic calorimeter absorbers applied to high energy resolution X-ray spectrometry; it has a low specific heat and high atomic number. However, past detector developments with Bi absorbers were confronted with the low thermal conductivity of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> that degraded the energy resolution and deformed the detector response function (non-Gaussian energy peak). In the present study, we have investigated the performances of large bulk <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> absorbers ( mm) thermally coupled to metallic magnetic sensors. Despite a very good baseline energy resolution, detectors with monolithic <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> absorbers have degraded FWHM energy resolutions with any type of thermal coupling between the absorber and the sensor tested. In comparison tests with BiCu and BiAg bilayer absorbers demonstrated much better performances.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/107341','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/107341"><span id="translatedtitle">The experience in handling of lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> coolant contaminated by Polonium-210</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pankratov, D.V.; Gromov, B.F.; Solodjankin, M.A.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>During exploitation of lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> cooled reactors a wide experience in handling of radioactive coolant containing polonium has been gained. By 1990 total time of this reactor operation has reached approximately 60 reactor years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/381047','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/381047"><span id="translatedtitle">Compatibility of structural materials with liquid <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>, lead, and mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weeks, J.R.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975687','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975687"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen concentration measurement in liquid lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Darling, T. W.; Li, N.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Liquid lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> (Pb-Bi) eutectic (LBE) may see extensive use as a coolant fluid, and perhaps also as a spallation target, in next generation nuclear energy systems. While it is not as reactive as alkali metal liquids, it does present a long term corrosion problem with some materials, notably stainless steels. Mitigation of the corrosion problem may be achieved by producing and maintaining a protective oxide on exposed surfaces, through control of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the LBE. We have developed an oxygen sensor based on available zirconia-based solid electrolytes used in the automotive industry, which represents a relatively inexpensive source of reproducible and reliable components. We will present the design considerations and characteristics of our sensor unit, and describe its use in the LBE test loop at Los Alamos for measurement and control of dissolved oxygen concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6092384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6092384"><span id="translatedtitle">Solubility of gallium arsenide in <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-gallium melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yakusheva, N.A.; Chikichev, S.I.</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>The solubility of GaAs in melts of the system Bi-Ga at 700, 800, and 850/degree/C was determined. For all isotherms of the liquids the existence of a maximum for a Bi concentration in the solvent of approx. 85 at. % and a maximum in the case of a <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> concentration of approx. 10 at. % are characteristic. The experimental data do not agree with calculations based on the model of regularly associated solutions. For the quasibinary system Bi-GaAs the solubility of As in the interval 600-900/degree/C is described by the expression C/sub As/ = 1.1 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ /times/ exp (9.45 /times/ 10/sup /minus/3/ /times/ t) atomic fractions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNuM..448..276A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNuM..448..276A"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaporation of mercury impurity from liquid lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aerts, A.; Danaci, S.; Gonzalez Prieto, B.; Van den Bosch, J.; Neuhausen, J.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The equilibrium evaporation of mercury from dilute solutions in liquid lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic (LBE) was studied in argon atmosphere. Mercury present as impurity in LBE was evaporated and detected by atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. A method which could accurately simulate the experimental data was developed. Coefficients of the Henry constant temperature correlation for mercury dissolved in LBE were determined. Experiments with samples from several different batches of LBE revealed that mercury at mole fractions between 10-6 and 10-12 and temperatures between 150 and 350 °C evaporated from liquid LBE close to ideal behavior. Evaporation of mercury from solid LBE on the other hand was unexpectedly high. These results are important for safety evaluations of LBE based spallation targets and accelerator driven systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93f4301M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93f4301M"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale mechanisms for the reduction of heat transport in <span class="hlt">bismuth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markov, Maxime; Sjakste, Jelena; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Vast, Nathalie</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Hand-on routes to reduce lattice thermal conductivity (LTC) in <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> have been explored by employing a combination of Boltzmann's transport equation and ab initio calculations of phonon-phonon interaction within the density functional perturbation theory. We have first obtained the temperature dependence of the bulk LTC in excellent agreement with available experiments. A very accurate microscopic description of heat transport has been achieved and the electronic contribution to thermal conductivity has been determined. By controlling the interplay between phonon-phonon interaction and phonon scattering by sample boundaries, we predict the effect of size reduction for various temperatures and nanostructure shapes. The largest heat transport reduction is obtained in polycrystals with grain sizes smaller than 100 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27302907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27302907"><span id="translatedtitle">High thermoelectric performance of the distorted <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>(110) layer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, L; Liu, H J; Zhang, J; Wei, J; Liang, J H; Jiang, P H; Fan, D D; Sun, L; Shi, J</p> <p>2016-07-14</p> <p>The thermoelectric properties of the distorted <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>(110) layer are investigated using first-principles calculations combined with the Boltzmann transport equation for both electrons and phonons. To accurately predict the electronic and transport properties, the quasiparticle corrections with the GW approximation of many-body effects have been explicitly included. It is found that a maximum ZT value of 6.4 can be achieved for n-type systems, which essentially stemmed from the weak scattering of electrons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the distorted Bi layer retains high ZT values in relatively broad regions of both temperature and carrier concentration. Our theoretical work emphasizes that the deformation potential constant characterizing the electron-phonon scattering strength is an important paradigm for searching high thermoelectric performance materials. PMID:27302907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22066647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22066647"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span>-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses and fibres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Sverchkov, S E; Semjonov, S L; Firstov, Sergei V; Shulman, I L; Dianov, Evgenii M</p> <p>2012-09-30</p> <p>This paper compares the optical properties of bulk <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses prepared in an iridium crucible to those of optical fibres prepared by the powder-in-tube method and having a core identical in composition to the glasses. The bulk glasses and fibres are shown to be similar in luminescence properties. The optical loss in the fibres in their IR luminescence band is about one order of magnitude lower than that in the crucible-melted glasses. The level of losses in the fibres and their luminescence properties suggest that such fibres can be made to lase near 1.15 {mu}m. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010JNuM..398..104K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010JNuM..398..104K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ni-rich precipitates in a lead <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic loop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kikuchi, K.; Saito, S.; Hamaguchi, D.; Tezuka, M.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Solidified LBE was sampled from the specimens, electro-magnetic pump, filter, drain valve and oxygen sensor at the JAEA Lead <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Loop-1 (JLBL-1) where the structural material was made of SS316. The concentration of Ni, Fe and Cr in LBE were analyzed by the Inductive Coupled Plasma atomic emission spectrometer. It was concluded that the solution of Ni into LBE was not saturated although the concentration of Fe and Cr almost achieved to the values in the literature. A needle-type structure appeared on the surface of solidified LBE inside the tube specimens. It was found to be Ni-rich precipitates by X-ray analyses (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, FE-SEM). LBE samples collected from a circulating loop after discharging did not show the amount of impurities equivalent to the LBE bulk property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1728b0372B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1728b0372B"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural investigation of Zn doped sodium <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> borate glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhatia, V.; Kumar, D.; Singh, D.; Singh, S. P.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A series of <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Borate Oxide Glass samples with composition x(ZnO):(15-x)Na2O:15Bi2O3:70B2O3 (variation in x is from 6 to 12 mole %) have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. All the chemicals used were of Analytical Grade. In order to verify the amorphous nature of the prepared samples the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was done. The physical and structural properties have been explored by using the techniques such as density, molar volume and FTIR in order to understand the effect of alkali and transition metal ions on the structure of these glasses. The results obtained by these techniques are in good agreement to one another and with literature as well. With the increase in the content of ZnO, the increase in density and some variations in structural coordination (ratio of BO3 & BO4 structural units) have been observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22271027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22271027"><span id="translatedtitle">Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> titanate ceramic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S.</p> <p>2014-04-24</p> <p>Barium Modified Strontium <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1−xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba{sup 2+} ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba{sup 2+} ion in SBT lattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034303&hterms=Bismuth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBismuth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034303&hterms=Bismuth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DBismuth"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural properties of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-bearing semiconductor alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berding, M. A.; Sher, A.; Chen, A.-B.; Miller, W. E.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The structural properties of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-bearing III-V semiconductor alloys InPBi, InAsBi, and InSbBi were studied theoretically. Bond energies, bond lengths, and strain coefficients were calculated for pure AlBi, GaBi, and InBi compounds and their alloys, and predictions were made for the mixing enthalpies, miscibility gaps, and critical metastable-to-stable material transition temperatures. Miscibility calculations indicate that InSbBi will be the most miscible, and the InPBi will be the the most difficult to mix. However, calculations of the hardness of the Bi compounds indicate that, once formed, the InPBi alloy will be harder than the other Bi alloys and substantially harder than the currently favored narrow-gap semiconductor HgCdTe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21054648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21054648"><span id="translatedtitle">EXAFS Study of Semimetal-Semiconductor Transition of <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ikemoto, H.; Yoshida, S.; Sogoh, J.; Miyanaga, T.</p> <p>2007-02-02</p> <p>Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> clusters in the temperature range of 23 -300 K have been performed using synchrotron radiation in order to investigate the size dependent phase transition. The inter-atomic distances around 3.0 A and 3.6 A are attributed to the nearest neighbors within the layer and between layers, respectively. EXAFS functions were analysed by the curve fitting method within a symmetric distribution approximation. The nearest neighbor distance of the 0.5 nm thick films is shorter than that of the 300 nm thick films at all the temperatures, which is related to the reduction of the inter-layer correlation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARS51013C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARS51013C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Bound excitons at nitrogen and <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> isoelectronic impurities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christian, Theresa; Alberi, Kirstin; Beaton, Daniel; Fluegel, Brian; Mascarenhas, Angelo</p> <p></p> <p>When nitrogen and <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> dopants are simultaneously incorporated into a host lattice such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium phosphide (GaP), each dopant species contributes to the evolution of the electronic structure. Bound excitons in these systems luminescence from localized states whose distinctive radiative signatures provide invaluable clues into the nature of impurity clustering and inter-impurity interactions within the host lattice. Spectroscopic studies of these states will be presented for a series of samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Research was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308 and by the Department of Energy Office of Science Graduate Fellowship Program (DOE SCGF), made possible in part by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, administered by ORISE-ORAU under Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23100.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARV28008M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARV28008M"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum interferences and edge states in <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> based Josephson junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murani, Anil; Sengupta, Shamashis; Kasumov, Alik; Gueron, Sophie; Bouchiat, Hélène; MESO group Team</p> <p></p> <p>We have investigated proximity induced superconductivity in single crystal <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanowires connected to superconducting electrodes with a high critical field. I will specially report recent results on nanowires whose crystalline orientation could be determined by electron diffraction. At low temperature a supercurrent is measured which persists up to the critical field of the electrodes and exhibits sample dependent fast squid-like oscillations (period one to few hundred gauss) modulated by slower (few thousand Gauss) oscillations. We attribute this striking result to the appearance of 1D topological edge channels on special surfaces of Bi due to its strong spin-orbit coupling, in addition to a strong Zeeman effect caused by an unusually high g-factor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..414..221H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..414..221H"><span id="translatedtitle">Alkaline extraction of polonium from liquid lead <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The production of highly radiotoxic polonium isotopes poses serious safety concerns for the development of future nuclear systems cooled by lead <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic (LBE). In this paper it is shown that polonium can be extracted efficiently from LBE using a mixture of alkaline metal hydroxides (NaOH + KOH) in a temperature range between 180 and 350 °C. The extraction ratio was analyzed for different temperatures, gas blankets and phase ratios. A strong dependence of the extraction performance on the redox properties of the cover gas was found. While hydrogen facilitates the removal of polonium, oxygen has a negative influence on the extraction. These findings open new possibilities to back up the safety of future LBE based nuclear facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977676','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977676"><span id="translatedtitle">Lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic as advanced reactor collant : operational experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Woloshun, K. A.; Watts, V.; Li, N.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Some proposed advanced reactor concepts would be cooled by lead or lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic (LBE). An LBE test loop was designed and built at Los Alamos to develop the engineering and materials technology necessary to successfully implement LBE as a coolant (Fig. 1). Operational since December 2001, this test loop has been used to develop and demonstrate safe operation, oxygen concentration and metal corrosion control, instrumentation, thermal-hydraulic performance of heat exchangers and recuperators, and free convection and forced pumping. This paper discusses the technology development and lessons learned from the operation of this facility. A LBE test loop has been operational since December 2001. Using procedures, training, and engineering controls, this loop has operated without an accident. Continuous improvements in operation procedures and instrumentation over these years have resulted in a facility of high reliability, providing the groundwork for the use of LBE as a reactor coolant for temperatures up to 550 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072863','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072863"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei</p> <p>2013-02-04</p> <p>The selection of electrode materials plays a great role in improving performances of all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs). Low-cost graphite felt (GF) as traditional electrode material has to be modified to address its issue of low electrocatalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span>. In our paper, low-cost and highly conductive <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanoparticles, as a powerful alternative electrocatalyst to noble metal, are proposed and synchronously electro-deposited onto the surface of GF while running flow cells employing the electrolytes containing suitable Bi3+. Although <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> is proved to only take effect on the redox reaction of V(II)/V(III) and present at negative half-cell side, the whole cell electrochemical performances are significantly improved. In particular, the energy efficiency is increased by 11% owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi at high charge/discharge rate of 150 mA/cm2, which is prone to reduce stack size, thus dramatically reducing the cost. The excellent results show great promise of Bi nano-catalysts in the commercialization of VRBs in terms of product cost as well as electrochemical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003CPL...378..244L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003CPL...378..244L"><span id="translatedtitle">A route to fabricate single crystalline <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanowire arrays with different diameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Liang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Guanghai; Zhang, Lide</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Single crystalline <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanowire arrays in anodic alumina membrane have been fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition. The nanowires of different diameters were obtained by changing the electrical parameter of the pulsed electrodeposition using anodic alumina membrane as template with the same pore size. X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis show that the <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanowires are single crystalline with highly preferential orientation, and the diameter of nanowires increases with increasing the relaxation time of pulse. The growth mechanism of nanowires was discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015REDS..170..651C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015REDS..170..651C"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of radiation shielding ratios of nano-sized <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> trioxide and molybdenum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, J. H.; Kim, M. S.; Rhim, J. D.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In this study, radiation shielding fibers using non-hazardous nano-sized <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> trioxide and molybdenum instead of lead were developed and evaluated. Among the elements with high densities and atomic numbers, non-hazardous elements such as <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> trioxide and molybdenum were chosen as a shielding element. Then, <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> trioxide (Bi2O3) with average particle size 1-500 µm was ball milled for 10 min to produce a powdered form of nanoparticles with average particle size of 10-100 nm. <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> trioxide nanoparticles were dispersed to make a colloidal suspension, followed by spreading and hardening onto one or two sides of fabric, to create the radiation shielding fabric. The thicknesses of the shielding sheets using nano-sized <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> and molybdenum were 0.4 and 0.7 mm. According to the lead equivalent test of X-ray shielding products suggested by KS, the equivalent dose was measured, followed by calculation of the shielding rate. The shielding rate of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> with 0.4 mm thickness and at 50 kVp was 90.5%, which is comparable to lead of 0.082 mm thickness. The shielding rate of molybdenum was 51.89%%, which is comparable to lead of 0.034 mm. At a thickness of 0.7 mm, the shielding rate of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> was 98.73%, equivalent to 0.101 mm Pb, whereas the shielding rate of molybdenum was 74.68%, equivalent to 0.045 mm Pb. In conclusion, the radiation shielding fibers using nano-sized <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> developed in this study are capable of reducing radiation exposure by X-ray and its low-dose scatter ray.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19881653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19881653"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of cooling on a <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-doped fiber laser and amplifier performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalita, Mridu P; Yoo, Seongwoo; Sahu, Jayanta K</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We characterize <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-doped fibers under different excitation wavelengths. The fiber laser performance at 1179 nm was investigated, incorporating different cooling arrangements. Effective heat extraction can reduce the temperature-dependent unsaturable loss in fiber, resulting in increased laser performance. The operation of a <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-doped fiber amplifier at 1179 nm, at both low and high input signals, is also examined. The amplifier efficiency and the saturation power both depend on effective fiber cooling. PMID:19881653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18981168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18981168"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of trimethylbismuth in the human body after ingestion of colloidal <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> subcitrate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boertz, Jens; Hartmann, Louise Michele; Sulkowski, Margareta; Hippler, Joerg; Mosel, Frank; Diaz-Bone, Roland Arturo; Michalke, Klaus; Rettenmeier, Albert Wolfgang; Hirner, Alfred Vitalis</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Biological methylation and hydride formation of metals and metalloids are ubiquitous environmental processes that can lead to the formation of chemical species with significantly increased mobility and toxicity. Whereas much is known about the interaction of metal(loid)s with microorganisms in environmental settings, little information has been gathered on respective processes inside the human body as yet. Here, we studied the biotransformation and excretion of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> after ingestion of colloidal <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> subcitrate (215 mg of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>) to 20 male human volunteers. <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> absorption in the stomach and upper intestine was very low, as evidenced by the small quantity of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eliminated via the renal route. Total <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> concentrations in blood increased rapidly in the first hour after ingestion. Most of the ingested <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> was excreted via feces during the study period. Trace levels of the metabolite trimethylbismuth [(CH(3))(3)Bi] were detected via low temperaturegas chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in blood samples and in exhaled air samples. Concentrations were in the range of up to 2.50 pg/ml (blood) and 0.8 to 458 ng/m(3) (exhaled air), with high interindividual variation being observed. Elimination routes of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> were exhaled air (up to 0.03 per thousand), urine (0.03-1.2%), and feces. The site of (CH(3))(3)Bi production could not be identified in the present study, but the intestinal microflora seems to be involved in this biotransformation if accompanying ex vivo studies are taken into consideration. PMID:18981168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhSS...58...50G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhSS...58...50G"><span id="translatedtitle">Ferroelectric properties of niobium-doped strontium <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> tantalate films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Golosov, D. A.; Zavadski, S. M.; Kolos, V. V.; Turtsevich, A. S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The characteristics of ferroelectric thin films of strontium <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> tantalate (SBT) and niobium-doped strontium <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> tantalate (SBTN) deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates were investigated. For the formation of the structure of the ferroelectric material, the deposited films were subjected to a subsequent annealing at temperatures of 970-1070 K in an O2 atmosphere. The results of the X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that, in contrast to SBT films, in which the Aurivillius phase is formed only at annealing temperatures of 1050-1070 K, the formation of this phase in SBTN films is observed already at a temperature of 970 K. The dependences of the dielectric permittivity, remanent polarization, and coercive force of the SBT and SBTN films on the subsequent annealing conditions were determined. It was found that, upon doping of the SBT films with niobium, the remanent polarization increases by a factor of approximately three, the Curie temperature increases by 50 K, and the dielectric permittivity also increases. It was revealed that, in contrast to the SBT films, the polarization of the SBTN films is observed already at an annealing temperature of approximately 970 K. It was shown that the replacement of SBT films by SBTN films in the manufacture of high-density nonvolatile ferroelectric randomaccess memory (FeRAM) capacitor modules makes it possible to decrease the synthesis temperature from 1070 to 990-1000 K, which improves the compatibility with the planar technology of semiconductor devices. However, it turned out that an increase in the coercive field makes niobium-doped SBT films less attractive for the use in FeRAM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21511329','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21511329"><span id="translatedtitle">Devitfrification Properties Of <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Borate Glasses Doped With Trivalent Ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khanna, Atul; Bajaj, Anu</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> borate glasses and crystalline phases have outstanding luminescent and nonlinear optical properties; therefore there is lot of interest in their preparation and characterization. In this study we report the crystallization properties of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> borate glasses doped with trivalent ions. Glasses of the composition: xBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-(100-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 20, 25, 30, 37.5, 40, 50, 60 and 66 mol %) and 40Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-1Tv{sub 2}O{sub 3}-59B{sub 2}O{sub 3}(where Tv = Al, Nd and Eu) were prepared by melt quench technique and devitrified by heat treatment above their glass transition temperatures for several hours. The crystalline phases produced were characterized by FTIR absorption spectroscopy, DTA and X-ray diffraction. Bi{sub 3}B{sub 5}O{sub 12} was found to be the predominant phase in all crystallized samples containing Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of {<=}40 mol %, at higher Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, we observed the formation of Bi{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase. Glasses with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of {<=}37.5 mol % produced Bi{sub 2}B{sub 8}O{sub 15} phase on crystallization. The metastable BiBO{sub 3}-I phase was formed by short duration heat treatment (less than 5 hours) of the initial glass sample. Doping with rare earth ions like Eu{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+} promotes the formation of BiBO{sub 3}-II phase while Al{sup 3+} doping suppresses it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107f1901Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107f1901Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous solution-based generation and characterization of crystalline <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> thin film by femtosecond laser spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Liangdong; Saha, Sumit; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Yanli; Keszler, Douglas A.; Fang, Chong</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We demonstrate generation and characterization of crystalline <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> thin film from triphenyl <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> in methanol. Upon ultraviolet (267 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation of the solution, a thin film of elemental <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> forms on the inner side of the sample cuvette, confirmed by detection of the coherent A1g optical phonon mode of crystalline <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> at ˜90 cm-1. Probe pulses at 267 and 400 nm are used to elucidate the excited state potential energy surface and photochemical reaction coordinate of triphenyl <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> in solution with femtosecond resolution. The observed phonon mode blueshifts with increasing irradiation time, likely due to the gradual thickening of nascent <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> thin film to ˜80 nm in 90 min. From transient absorption with the 400 nm probe, we observe a dominant ˜4 ps decay time constant of the excited-state absorption signal, which is attributed to a characteristic metal-ligand bond-weakening/breaking intermediate enroute to crystalline metallic thin film from the solution precursor molecules. Our versatile optical setup thus opens an appealing avenue to characterize the laser-induced crystallization process in situ and prepare high-quality thin films and nanopatterns directly from solution phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489081','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489081"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous solution-based generation and characterization of crystalline <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> thin film by femtosecond laser spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhu, Liangdong; Keszler, Douglas A.; Fang, Chong; Saha, Sumit; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Yanli</p> <p>2015-08-10</p> <p>We demonstrate generation and characterization of crystalline <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> thin film from triphenyl <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> in methanol. Upon ultraviolet (267 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation of the solution, a thin film of elemental <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> forms on the inner side of the sample cuvette, confirmed by detection of the coherent A{sub 1g} optical phonon mode of crystalline <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> at ∼90 cm{sup −1}. Probe pulses at 267 and 400 nm are used to elucidate the excited state potential energy surface and photochemical reaction coordinate of triphenyl <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> in solution with femtosecond resolution. The observed phonon mode blueshifts with increasing irradiation time, likely due to the gradual thickening of nascent <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> thin film to ∼80 nm in 90 min. From transient absorption with the 400 nm probe, we observe a dominant ∼4 ps decay time constant of the excited-state absorption signal, which is attributed to a characteristic metal-ligand bond-weakening/breaking intermediate enroute to crystalline metallic thin film from the solution precursor molecules. Our versatile optical setup thus opens an appealing avenue to characterize the laser-induced crystallization process in situ and prepare high-quality thin films and nanopatterns directly from solution phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.........9J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.........9J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Viability of <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> as a Green Substitute for Lead in Jacketed .357 Magnum Revolver Bullets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jenkins, Joel</p> <p></p> <p>In seeking to develop environmentally friendly lead-free non-toxic bullets, the research ballistically evaluated the performance of copper-jacketed handgun bullets containing a pure <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> core. The lead was first removed from 140 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM bullets of 38 caliber (.357 diameter) by melting. The empty jackets were then refilled with pure <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>, including the forming of a correctly sized hollow-point cavity. Due to the lower density of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> as compared to lead, the <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-cored bullets consistently weighed 125 gains. Conveniently this allowed direct comparison to commercially available 125 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM lead-cored bullets of 38 caliber. Both <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-cored and lead-cored versions of the 125 grain bullets had identical nose dimensions and jacket material, the only dimensional difference being the bullet length below the cannelure. Shooting took place at an outdoor range using a 357 Magnum Ruger(TM) SP101RTM revolver with 3" barrel as the test weapon. FBI protocols were followed when firing through clothing, wallboard, plywood, steel plates and laminated glass. Wound paths and bullets were captured in ballistic gelatin, with data collected for velocity, penetration, expansion, and weight retention. <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> compared favorably with lead in all but the laminated glass test, where it under penetrated due to jacket separation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7848E..2KJ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7848E..2KJ"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel structure photonic crystal fiber based on <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-oxide for optical parametric amplification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Cang; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Chongxiu</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The heavy metal oxide glasses containing <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> such as <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> sesquioxide show unique high refractive index. In addition, the <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-oxide based glass does not include toxic elements such as Pb, As, Se, Te, and exhibits well chemical, mechanical and thermal stability. Hence, it is used to fabricate high nonlinear fiber for nonlinear optical application. Although the <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-oxide based high nonlinear fiber can be fusion-spliced to conventional silica fibers and have above advantages, yet it suffers from large group velocity dispersion because of material chromatic dispersion which restricts its utility. In regard to this, the micro-structure was introduced to adjust the dispersion of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-oxide high nonlinear fiber in the 1550nm wave-band. In this paper, a hexagonal solid-core micro-structure is developed to balance its dispersion and nonlinearity. Our simulation and calculation results show that the <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-oxide based photonic crystal fiber has near zero dispersion around 1550nm where the optical parametric amplification suitable wavelength is. Its dispersion slop in the communication wavelength range is also relatively flat. Moreover, both nonlinear coefficient and model filed distribution were simulated, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....13134I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....13134I"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">German</span> energy market</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ihrig, D. F.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>It would be helpful in political discussions to get quickly and transparent assessments of the consequences of political actions on the energy market of a national economy. Computer models of any national energy market normally are written using a computer high language. But such a tool could not be transparent and the integration of actual data is complex. For this reason a transparent model concerning the <span class="hlt">German</span> energy market was written to calculate the impact of alternative strategies of energy supply. The end energy consumption will be recorded in 4 sectors (households, low consumer, industries, traffic) and 4 service arrays (room heating, process heat, mechanical energy and light) specified for primary energy sources. To assess the primary energy requirement it is necessary to deal with more than 125 end primary energy consumption data each year. The model is based on data of the study-group of energy balances at the VDEW (Organization of <span class="hlt">German</span> energy supplier). The data sets of the years 1993 and 1997 to 2001 are available. It is possible to define over 20 years objectives on higher energy saving in the most service arrays of each end energy consumption sector. The effects on CO2-emission of several strategies of energy saving will be calculated including commercial data and socioeconomic aspects (investment, foreign trade, energy prizes, jobs etc.). It is possible to modeling regional energy markets, too. This tool allows to assess the local impact of new strategies of energy supply on the regional economics. Of course regional calculations work with lower precision because several data have to be estimated. The model calculates over 40 years. It's possible to have a time lag and to calculate the time after realizing the objectives. The typical phases of realizing social objectives are modeled. The model is written using the tabular calculation program EXCEL. This makes the model very transparent. It is not necessary to be a computer programmer to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412190P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412190P"><span id="translatedtitle">Sediment budgeting of <span class="hlt">German</span> waterways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Promny, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Waterways today rarely have a sustainable sediment budget. Supply from upstream and lateral sources is blocked by barrages in many places. The transport capacity is strongly modified by means of planform and cross-section alterations. Many free-flowing river sections are subject to bed degradation, while impoundments tend to aggrade. This has consequences for the usability of navigation facilities, stability of structures (like bridge foundations and dykes) and groundwater levels. Consequently, sediment managements operations are commonplace, being challenging in economic and ecologic terms. A first step towards an improved sediment management is to establish the current sediment budget of a river. There are different methods to gain information about the sediment budget: - measurements of bed-load and suspended load transport - deductions from temporal development of bed-level development - deductions from temporal development of streamwise water-level measurements - deductions from temporal development of water-levels at gauges - bed-load tracer analyses - numerical modelling An overview of the methods used in sediment budgeting of <span class="hlt">German</span> waterways at the Federal Institute of Hydrology will be given. Ongoing research based on the above mentioned methodology will be presented, with a special focus on the possible influence of climate change on sediment budgets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nando&id=EJ489625','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nando&id=EJ489625"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">German</span> Model of Bilingual Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Masch, Nando</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">German</span> model of bilingual education is described in terms of its history, syllabus, rationale, and aims and objectives. The essential features of the model are contrasted with other forms of bilingual education. (Contains 23 references.) (JL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Mp8v3lfqtw','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Mp8v3lfqtw"><span id="translatedtitle">First <span class="hlt">German</span> Astronomy Ambassadors Fly On SOFIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">German</span> educators, Wolfgang Vieser and Jörg Trebs, were the first to represent their country as SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors. They flew aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004PhT....57l..52H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004PhT....57l..52H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">German</span> Physical Society Under National Socialism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The history of the <span class="hlt">German</span> Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCrGr.300..347F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCrGr.300..347F"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface analysis of different oriented GaAs substrates annealed under <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fitouri, H.; Moussa, I.; Rebey, A.; El Jani, B.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Several orientations of GaAs substrates, including (1 0 0), (4 1 1), (1 1 1) and (5 1 1) have been annealed in a metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) horizontal reactor at different annealing temperatures and under different trimethyl-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> (TMBi) flux. Surface morphology of the annealed GaAs substrates was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show islands formation on all the studied samples. The density and size of Bi islands vary greatly with annealing temperature and TMBi flow. For different substrate orientations, the <span class="hlt">activation</span> energies were deduced from Arrhenius plot of island density. Except for (5 1 1) oriented GaAs, all the studied orientations show the same <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy of 1.8 eV. For low annealing temperature 420 °C, and under different Bi flux, each oriented substrate shows a specific behaviour. For higher temperatures 700 °C and above Bi islands are totally removed and the substrates are smooth. Surface change of (1 0 0) oriented GaAs substrate was in situ monitored by laser reflectometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/912210','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/912210"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies of Polonium Removal from Molten Lead-<span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> for Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacopo Buongiorno; Ken Czerwinski; Eric Loewen; Chris Larson</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>The isotope 210Po is the main product of neutron <span class="hlt">activation</span> in fast reactors cooled by molten lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic (LBE). The isotope 210Po is a pure alpha emitter with a half-life of 138.38 days. For typical values of the neutron flux the 210Po concentration in the coolant can reach 1-10 Ci/kg. While exposure of plant personnel to Po is prevented under normal operating conditions because the primary system is sealed, Po does pose a radiological hazard during maintenance <span class="hlt">activities</span> for which access to submerged structures is required as well as during accidents resulting in breach of the primary-system barrier. Obviously, continuous removal of Po from the LBE reduces this hazard. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which Po is formed in and released from the LBE. We summarize research performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to investigate the basic chemistry of four mechanisms of Po release, which could serve as the basis for a coolant cleanup system in LBE-cooled reactors. The mechanisms explored are lead polonide evaporation, formation of polonium hydride, rare-earth filtering, and alkaline extraction. For the key chemical species involved expressions are given for useful quantities such as formation energy, release, and deposition rates. It is concluded that the most promising removal mechanism is alkaline extraction, although a more systematic investigation of this mechanism is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20840216','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20840216"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies of Polonium Removal from Molten Lead-<span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> for Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buongiorno, Jacopo; Loewen, Eric P.; Czerwinski, Kenneth; Larson, Christopher</p> <p>2004-09-15</p> <p>The isotope {sup 210}Po is the main product of neutron <span class="hlt">activation</span> in fast reactors cooled by molten lead-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> eutectic (LBE). The isotope {sup 210}Po is a pure alpha emitter with a half-life of 138.38 days. For typical values of the neutron flux the {sup 210}Po concentration in the coolant can reach 1-10 Ci/kg. While exposure of plant personnel to Po is prevented under normal operating conditions because the primary system is sealed, Po does pose a radiological hazard during maintenance <span class="hlt">activities</span> for which access to submerged structures is required as well as during accidents resulting in breach of the primary-system barrier. Obviously, continuous removal of Po from the LBE reduces this hazard. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which Po is formed in and released from the LBE. We summarize research performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to investigate the basic chemistry of four mechanisms of Po release, which could serve as the basis for a coolant cleanup system in LBE-cooled reactors. The mechanisms explored are lead polonide evaporation, formation of polonium hydride, rare-earth filtering, and alkaline extraction. For the key chemical species involved expressions are given for useful quantities such as formation energy, release, and deposition rates. It is concluded that the most promising removal mechanism is alkaline extraction, although a more systematic investigation of this mechanism is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=German&id=EJ884425','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=German&id=EJ884425"><span id="translatedtitle">USA: <span class="hlt">German</span> in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tatlock, Lynne</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article identifies recent indicators of the state of <span class="hlt">German</span> Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in <span class="hlt">German</span>. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of <span class="hlt">German</span> as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of <span class="hlt">German</span> Studies in the life of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=German+AND+language&pg=5&id=EJ624194','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=German+AND+language&pg=5&id=EJ624194"><span id="translatedtitle">African Americans Who Teach <span class="hlt">German</span> Language and Culture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fikes, Robert Jr.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the <span class="hlt">German</span> language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the <span class="hlt">German</span> language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied <span class="hlt">German</span> over the years. Presents data on African Americans in <span class="hlt">German</span> graduate programs and examines…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hip+AND+hop&pg=6&id=ED563271','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hip+AND+hop&pg=6&id=ED563271"><span id="translatedtitle">Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the <span class="hlt">German</span> Hip Hop Community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garley, Matthew E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The influence of English on <span class="hlt">German</span> has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the <span class="hlt">German</span> sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a <span class="hlt">German</span> language context--in the <span class="hlt">German</span> hip hop community, where the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+travel&pg=5&id=ED034464','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+travel&pg=5&id=ED034464"><span id="translatedtitle">Selected List of <span class="hlt">German</span> Reference Books for Secondary School Libraries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sinnema, John R., Comp.</p> <p></p> <p>Compiled with secondary school teachers of <span class="hlt">German</span> in mind who are asked to recommend books for a school library, this 52-item annotated bibliography lists encyclopedias, dictionaries (<span class="hlt">German</span>-English, English-<span class="hlt">German</span>, all-<span class="hlt">German</span>, and specialty dictionaries), the Duden series, grammars, histories, travel books, anthologies (poetry, prose, and drama),…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsr.book...27T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsr.book...27T"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">German</span> Perspective on Security Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit</p> <p></p> <p>Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the <span class="hlt">German</span> Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect <span class="hlt">German</span> citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2281452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2281452"><span id="translatedtitle">[The <span class="hlt">German</span> occupation and health services].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gogstad, A C</p> <p>1990-12-10</p> <p>It was of considerable importance for the <span class="hlt">German</span> occupants and their Norwegian collaborators, and for the Resistance Movement, to maintain a satisfactory status of health in the civilian population. Thus it was of common interest to keep the health services intact. Health aspects were also important elements of the nazi ideology. Recent studies of <span class="hlt">German</span> archives reveal that the <span class="hlt">German</span> civilian administration, Reichskommissariat, played a central role in the nazi revolution of the health services. But certain disagreements arose at an early stage between the <span class="hlt">German</span> and Norwegian occupation administration concerning strategies of health policy. The collaborator party, Nasjonal Samling, tried to gain control over the professional organizations, but met great resistance. The Norwegian Medical Association lost 85% of its members and was reduced to an appendix of the Ministry. However, the health services were still kept under strict <span class="hlt">German</span> control. A deterioration of the health services took place from 1944, mainly due to lack of resources because of increased <span class="hlt">German</span> military needs. PMID:2281452</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AN....323..548W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AN....323..548W"><span id="translatedtitle">Early <span class="hlt">German</span> plans for southern observatories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolfschmidt, G.</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were <span class="hlt">active</span> in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving <span class="hlt">German</span> astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=German&pg=2&id=EJ969692','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=German&pg=2&id=EJ969692"><span id="translatedtitle">Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented <span class="hlt">German</span> by Native <span class="hlt">German</span> Speakers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native <span class="hlt">German</span> speakers and native English learners of <span class="hlt">German</span> produced <span class="hlt">German</span> sentences, which were presented to 12 native <span class="hlt">German</span> speakers in accentedness…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......123J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......123J"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrical transport measurements of individual <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanowires and carbon nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jang, Wan Young</p> <p></p> <p>Nanostructures are defined by reducing dimensions. When the reduced size of materials is comparable to the Fermi wavelength, quantum size effect occurs. Dimensionality plays a critical role in determining the electronic properties of materials, because the density of states of materials is quite different. Nanowires have attracted much attention recently due to their fundamental interest and potential applications. A number of materials have been tried. Among them, <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> has unique properties. <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> has the smallest effective mass as small as 0.001me. This small effective mass of Bi nanowires allows one to observe the quantum confinement effect easily. Also Bi nanowires are good candidates for a low-dimensional transport study due to long mean free path. Because of these remarkable properties of Bi nanowires, many efforts have been made to study Bi nanowires. However, because <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> is extremely sensitive to the oxide, it is very difficult to make a reliable device. So far, array measurements of Bi nanowires have been reported. The study is focused on the synthesis and electric transport measurements of individual Bi nanowires. Bi nanowires are synthesized by electrodeposition using either anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates or commercially available track etched polycarbonate membranes (PCTE). The desired nanowire has a heterostructure of Au - Bi - Au. Au wires on both sides serve as contact electrodes with Bi. To extract nanowires from PCTE or AAO, several attempts have been made. Devices consisting of single Bi nanowires grown by hydrothermal method are fabricated and electrical measurements have been carried out after in-situ deposition of Pt electrodes. The temperature dependence of resistance of majority of nanowires increases with decreasing temperature, showing polycrystalline nature of nanowires. However, some nanowires show resistance peaks at low temperature, suggesting quantum size effect (QSE). Magnetoresistance (MR) has also been measured. We</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4251562','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4251562"><span id="translatedtitle">Dextran coated <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-iron oxide nanohybrid contrast agents for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Naha, Pratap C.; Zaki, Ajlan Al; Hecht, Elizabeth; Chorny, Michael; Chhour, Peter; Blankemeyer, Eric; Yates, Douglas M.; Witschey, Walter R. T.; Litt, Harold I.; Tsourkas, Andrew; Cormode, David P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> nanoparticles have been proposed as a novel CT contrast agent, however few syntheses of biocompatible <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanoparticles have been achieved. We herein report the synthesis of composite <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-iron oxide nanoparticles (BION) that are based on a clinically approved, dextran-coated iron oxide formulation; the particles have the advantage of acting as contrast agents for both CT and MRI. BION were synthesized and characterized using various analytical methods. BION CT phantom images revealed that the X-ray attenuation of the different formulations was dependent upon the amount of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> present in the nanoparticle, while T2-weighted MRI contrast decreased with increasing <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> content. No cytotoxicity was observed in Hep G2 and BJ5ta cells after 24 hours incubation with BION. The above properties, as well as the yield of synthesis and <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> inclusion efficiency, led us to select the Bi-30 formulation for in vivo experiments, performed in mice using a micro-CT and a 9.4 T MRI system. X-ray contrast was observed in the heart and blood vessels over a 2 hour period, indicating that Bi-30 has a prolonged circulation half-life. Considerable signal loss in T2-weighted MR images was observed in the liver compared to pre-injection scans. Evaluation of the biodistribution of Bi-30 revealed that <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> is excreted via the urine, with significant concentrations found in the kidneys and urine. In vitro experiments confirmed the degradability of Bi-30. In summary, dextran coated BION are biocompatible, biodegradable, possess strong X-ray attenuation properties and also can be used as T2-weighted MR contrast agents. PMID:25485115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16025629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16025629"><span id="translatedtitle">[Pharmaceutical industry and "New <span class="hlt">German</span> Medicine" ("Neue Deutsche Heilkunde")].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meyer, Ulrich</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>THe so-called "New <span class="hlt">German</span> Medicine", initially propagated in the health policy of the National Socialist Party, promoted greater use of phytotherapeutic and homeopathic drugs by the medical community. In response, the "Reichsfachschaft der pharmazeutischen Industrie e. V." (Association of Pharmaceutical Industry of the Reich") was obliged to pursue a carefully chosen double strategy, given that the members of the Association were both manufacturers of natural remedies and manufacturers of allopathic drugs.However, the fact that I.G. Farben completely ignored the "New <span class="hlt">German</span> Medicine" suggests that the large chemical-pharmaceutical manufacturers did not take this policy very seriously. The only documents pertaining to increased research in the area of natural remedies stem from the medium-sized manufacturers Knoll and Schering. In the case of both companies it is noteworthy that they worked towards obtaining a scientific foundation for the developed preparates, and that they employed conventional methods of chemical analysis and proof of <span class="hlt">activity</span>. THe growth of the classical manufacturers of natural remedies, such as the company Willmar Schwabe was, as far as any growth at all could be observed, significantly smaller than had been theoretically postulated. There is no casual relationship between any commercial success during the period in which the Nazis were in power and today's commercial prosperity.Moreover, from the viewpoint of the pharmaceutical industry, the "New <span class="hlt">German</span> Medicine" seems to have passed its zenith before 1936, when the 4-year plan for war preparation entered into force. PMID:16025629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27321252','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27321252"><span id="translatedtitle">Jehovah's Witness patients within the <span class="hlt">German</span> medical landscape.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rajtar, Małgorzata</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Blood transfusions belong to standard and commonly utilised biomedical procedures. Jehovah's Witnesses' transfusion refusals are often referred to in bioethical and medical textbooks. Members of this globally <span class="hlt">active</span> religious organisation do not, however, challenge biomedical diagnosis and treatment as such. A result of both their trust in and their interpretation of the Bible, they question only this medical treatment. In spite of the global presence of this religious community and its uniformly practised teachings, including those pertaining to blood, experiences and choices of Jehovah's Witness patients have been understudied. Drawing on a nine-month fieldwork with Jehovah's Witnesses and physicians in Germany (mainly in Berlin) between 2010 and 2012, the paper addresses treatment choices made by Witness patients and their relationship with physicians. In light of the long tradition of 'medical heterodoxy' established in <span class="hlt">German</span> culture and society, Germany constitutes an ideal point of departure for such a study. By utilising the concept of 'medical landscape' it is argued that Jehovah's Witnesses in my field site find themselves at the intersection of different medical landscapes: in the 'immediate' surroundings of the <span class="hlt">German</span> healthcare system that is open to different 'treatment modalities', and that of the United States, which favours biomedicine. The paper also argues that Jehovah's Witnesses' position towards blood transfusions can further be used as a lens to shed light on the <span class="hlt">German</span> (bio)medical landscape itself. PMID:27321252</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/946622','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/946622"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopic Characterization of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens: Suppression using Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Thiols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Badireddy, Appala R.; Korpol, Bhoom Reddy; Chellam, Shankararaman; Gassman, Paul L.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Rosso, Kevin M.</p> <p>2008-10-21</p> <p>Free and capsular EPS produced by Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens were characterized in detail using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Total EPS production decreased upon treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of lipophilic <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> thiols (<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> dimercaptopropanol, BisBAL; <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> ethanedithiol, BisEDT; and <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> pyrithione, BisPYR), BisBAL being most effective. <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> thiols also influenced acetylation and carboxylation of polysaccharides in EPS from S. marcescens. Extensive homology between EPS samples in the presence and absence of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> was observed with proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids varying predominantly only in the total amount expressed. Second derivative analysis of the amide I region of FTIR spectra revealed decreases in protein secondary structures in the presence of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> thiols. Hence, anti-fouling properties of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> thiols appear to originate in their ability to suppress O-acetylation and protein secondary structures in addition to total EPS secretion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...517558M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...517558M"><span id="translatedtitle">Single Layer <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Iodide: Computational Exploration of Structural, Electrical, Mechanical and Optical Properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Fengxian; Zhou, Mei; Jiao, Yalong; Gao, Guoping; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Layered graphitic materials exhibit new intriguing electronic structure and the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer is of importance for the fabrication of next generation miniature electronic and optoelectronic devices. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we investigated in detail the structural, electronic, mechanical and optical properties of the single-layer <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> iodide (BiI3) nanosheet. Monolayer BiI3 is dynamically stable as confirmed by the computed phonon spectrum. The cleavage energy (Ecl) and interlayer coupling strength of bulk BiI3 are comparable to the experimental values of graphite, which indicates that the exfoliation of BiI3 is highly feasible. The obtained stress-strain curve shows that the BiI3 nanosheet is a brittle material with a breaking strain of 13%. The BiI3 monolayer has an indirect band gap of 1.57 eV with spin orbit coupling (SOC), indicating its potential application for solar cells. Furthermore, the band gap of BiI3 monolayer can be modulated by biaxial strain. Most interestingly, interfacing electrically <span class="hlt">active</span> graphene with monolayer BiI3 nanosheet leads to enhanced light absorption compared to that in pure monolayer BiI3 nanosheet, highlighting its great potential applications in photonics and photovoltaic solar cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667189','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667189"><span id="translatedtitle">Single Layer <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Iodide: Computational Exploration of Structural, Electrical, Mechanical and Optical Properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ma, Fengxian; Zhou, Mei; Jiao, Yalong; Gao, Guoping; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Layered graphitic materials exhibit new intriguing electronic structure and the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer is of importance for the fabrication of next generation miniature electronic and optoelectronic devices. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we investigated in detail the structural, electronic, mechanical and optical properties of the single-layer <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> iodide (BiI3) nanosheet. Monolayer BiI3 is dynamically stable as confirmed by the computed phonon spectrum. The cleavage energy (Ecl) and interlayer coupling strength of bulk BiI3 are comparable to the experimental values of graphite, which indicates that the exfoliation of BiI3 is highly feasible. The obtained stress-strain curve shows that the BiI3 nanosheet is a brittle material with a breaking strain of 13%. The BiI3 monolayer has an indirect band gap of 1.57 eV with spin orbit coupling (SOC), indicating its potential application for solar cells. Furthermore, the band gap of BiI3 monolayer can be modulated by biaxial strain. Most interestingly, interfacing electrically <span class="hlt">active</span> graphene with monolayer BiI3 nanosheet leads to enhanced light absorption compared to that in pure monolayer BiI3 nanosheet, highlighting its great potential applications in photonics and photovoltaic solar cells. PMID:26626797</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5105322','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5105322"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidative dehydrogenation dimerization of propylene over <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> oxide: kinetic and mechanistic studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>White, M.G.; Hightower, J.W.</p> <p>1983-07-01</p> <p>Classical kinetic experiments together with pulse microreactor studies involving deuterium and carbon-13-labeled isotopic tracers were used to investigate the oxidative dehydrogenation dimerization (OXDD) of propylene to 1,5-hexadiene and benzene over <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> oxide between 748 and 898/sup 0/K. The kinetic data, which indicated that the OXDD reaction is of variable order with respect to oxygen and propylene concentrations, could be fit to rate equations based on either the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model or the Mars-van Krevelen model, although the former gave more linear Arrhenius plots. A significant kinetic isotope effect (k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.7 at 873/sup 0/K) shows that the rate-limiting step for the OXDD reaction involves C-H cleavage, and there is only a small amount of H/D scrambling among reactant and product molecules. Analysis of liquid products by infrared spectroscopy indicated that both 1,5-hexadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene are stable reaction intermediates; microreactor results involving unlabeled propylene, 1,5-hexadiene, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene as reactants confirmed the infrared findings. Pulse microreactor experiments with /sup 13/C-labeled propylene clearly showed that deep oxidation (complete combustion) occurs via a consecutive-parallel network involving the partially oxidized intermediates as well as the starting propylene. Changes in the particle size do not alter the overall <span class="hlt">activity</span>, although larger particles have lower selectivities for C/sub 6/ products than do smaller particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...512320Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...512320Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-broadband and high-responsive photodetectors based on <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> film at room temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yao, J. D.; Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> (Bi) has undergone researches for dozens of years on account of its abundant physics including the remarkably high mobility, exceptional large positive magnetoresistance and the coexistence of an insulating interior as well as metallic surfaces. Very recently, two-dimensional topologically-protected surface states immune to nonmagnetic perturbation such as surface oxidation and impurity scattering were experimentally demonstrated through systematic magnetotransport measurements, e.g. weak antilocalization effect and angular dependent Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. Such robust metallic surface states, which are efficient in carrier transportation, along with its small bulk gap (14 meV) make Bi favored for high-responsive broadband photodetection. Here, we for the first time demonstrate the stable ultra-broadband photoresponse from 370 nm to 1550 nm with good reproducibility at room temperature based on a Bi photodetector. The fabricated device’s responsivity approaches 250 mA/W, accompanied with a rise time of 0.9 s and a decay time of 1.9 s. The photocurrent is linear dependent on the voltage and incident power, offering good tunability for multi-purpose applications. Thickness-dependent conductance and photocurrent reveal that the bulk is the optically <span class="hlt">active</span> layer while the surface channel is responsible for carrier transportation. These findings pave an avenue to develop ultra-broadband Bi photodetectors for the next-generation multifunctional optoelectronic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JEMat..40.1046V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JEMat..40.1046V"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanostructure Characterization of <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Telluride-Based Powders and Extruded Alloys by Various Experimental Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasilevskiy, D.; Bourbia, O.; Gosselin, S.; Turenne, S.; Masut, R. A.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations of mechanically alloyed powders and bulk extruded alloys give experimental evidence of nanosized grains in <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> telluride-based materials. In this study we combine HRTEM observations and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, of both mechanically alloyed powders and extruded samples, with mechanical spectroscopy (MS) of extruded rods. Both HRTEM and XRD show that nanostructures with an average grain size near 25 nm can be achieved within 2 h of mechanical alloying from pure elements in an attritor-type milling machine. Residual strain orthogonal to the c-axis of powder nanoparticles has been evaluated at about 1.2% by XRD peak broadening. In contrast, XRD has been found unreliable for evaluation of grain size in highly textured extruded materials for which diffraction conditions are similar to those of single crystals, while MS appears promising for study of bulk extruded samples. Nanostructured extruded alloys at room temperature exhibit an internal friction (IF) background that is one order of magnitude higher than that of conventional zone-melted material with a grain size of several millimeters. IF as a function of sample temperature gives <span class="hlt">activation</span> energies that are also different between bulk materials having nano- and millimeter-size grains, a result that is attributed to different creep mechanisms. Nanograin size, as well as orientation and volumetric proportion, provide valuable information for optimization of technological parameters of thermoelectric alloys and should be carefully cross-examined by various independent methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4508833','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4508833"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-broadband and high-responsive photodetectors based on <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> film at room temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yao, J. D.; Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> (Bi) has undergone researches for dozens of years on account of its abundant physics including the remarkably high mobility, exceptional large positive magnetoresistance and the coexistence of an insulating interior as well as metallic surfaces. Very recently, two-dimensional topologically-protected surface states immune to nonmagnetic perturbation such as surface oxidation and impurity scattering were experimentally demonstrated through systematic magnetotransport measurements, e.g. weak antilocalization effect and angular dependent Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. Such robust metallic surface states, which are efficient in carrier transportation, along with its small bulk gap (14 meV) make Bi favored for high-responsive broadband photodetection. Here, we for the first time demonstrate the stable ultra-broadband photoresponse from 370 nm to 1550 nm with good reproducibility at room temperature based on a Bi photodetector. The fabricated device’s responsivity approaches 250 mA/W, accompanied with a rise time of 0.9 s and a decay time of 1.9 s. The photocurrent is linear dependent on the voltage and incident power, offering good tunability for multi-purpose applications. Thickness-dependent conductance and photocurrent reveal that the bulk is the optically <span class="hlt">active</span> layer while the surface channel is responsible for carrier transportation. These findings pave an avenue to develop ultra-broadband Bi photodetectors for the next-generation multifunctional optoelectronic devices. PMID:26197433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1731g0018D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1731g0018D"><span id="translatedtitle">Appearance of small polaron hopping conduction in iron modified cobalt lithium <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> borate glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dahiya, M. S.; Khasa, S.; Yadav, Arti; Agarwal, A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Lithium <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> borate glasses containing different amounts of cobalt and iron oxides having chemical composition xFe2O3•(20-x)CoO•30Li2O•10Bi2O3•40B2O3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol% abbreviated as CFLBB1-5 respectively) prepared via melt quench technique have been investigated for their dc electrical conductivity. The amorphous nature of prepared glasses has been confirmed through X-ray diffraction measurements. The dc electrical conductivity has been analyzed by applying Mott's small polaron hopping model. <span class="hlt">Activation</span> energies corresponding to lower and higher temperature region have been evaluated. The iron ion concentration (N), mean spacing between iron ions (R) and polaron radius (Rp) has been evaluated using the values of phonon radius (Rph) and Debye temperature (θD). The glass sample without iron (CFLBB1) shows ionic conductivity but the incorporation of iron in the glass matrix results in the appearance of electronic conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.819...25D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.819...25D"><span id="translatedtitle">Compensated <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-loaded plastic scintillators for neutron detection using low-energy pseudo-spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Bertrand, Guillaume H. V.; Normand, Stéphane; Méchin, Laurence; Hamel, Matthieu</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Gadolinium-covered modified plastic scintillators show a high potential for the deployment of cost-effective neutron detectors. Taking advantage of the low-energy photon and electron signature of thermal neutron captures in gadolinium-155 and gadolinium-157 however requires a background correction. In order to display a trustable rate, dual compensation schemes appear as an alternative to Pulse Shape Discrimination. This paper presents the application of such a compensation scheme to a two-<span class="hlt">bismuth</span> loaded plastic scintillator system. A detection scintillator interacts with incident photon and fast neutron radiations and is covered with a gadolinium converter to become thermal neutron-sensitive as well. In the meantime, an identical compensation scintillator, covered with terbium, solely interacts with the photon and fast neutron part of incident radiations. After the acquisition and the treatment of the counting signals from both sensors, a hypothesis test determines whether the resulting count rate after subtraction falls into statistical fluctuations or provides a robust image of neutron <span class="hlt">activity</span>. A laboratory prototype is tested under both photon and neutron radiations, allowing us to investigate the performance of the overall compensation system. The study reveals satisfactory results in terms of robustness to a cesium-137 background and in terms of sensitivity in presence of a californium-252 source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626797"><span id="translatedtitle">Single Layer <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> Iodide: Computational Exploration of Structural, Electrical, Mechanical and Optical Properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Fengxian; Zhou, Mei; Jiao, Yalong; Gao, Guoping; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Layered graphitic materials exhibit new intriguing electronic structure and the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer is of importance for the fabrication of next generation miniature electronic and optoelectronic devices. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we investigated in detail the structural, electronic, mechanical and optical properties of the single-layer <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> iodide (BiI3) nanosheet. Monolayer BiI3 is dynamically stable as confirmed by the computed phonon spectrum. The cleavage energy (Ecl) and interlayer coupling strength of bulk BiI3 are comparable to the experimental values of graphite, which indicates that the exfoliation of BiI3 is highly feasible. The obtained stress-strain curve shows that the BiI3 nanosheet is a brittle material with a breaking strain of 13%. The BiI3 monolayer has an indirect band gap of 1.57 eV with spin orbit coupling (SOC), indicating its potential application for solar cells. Furthermore, the band gap of BiI3 monolayer can be modulated by biaxial strain. Most interestingly, interfacing electrically <span class="hlt">active</span> graphene with monolayer BiI3 nanosheet leads to enhanced light absorption compared to that in pure monolayer BiI3 nanosheet, highlighting its great potential applications in photonics and photovoltaic solar cells. PMID:26626797</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCo...4E2195A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCo...4E2195A"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient solar water splitting by enhanced charge separation in a <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> vanadate-silicon tandem photoelectrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdi, Fatwa F.; Han, Lihao; Smets, Arno H. M.; Zeman, Miro; Dam, Bernard; van de Krol, Roel</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Metal oxides are generally very stable in aqueous solutions and cheap, but their photochemical <span class="hlt">activity</span> is usually limited by poor charge carrier separation. Here we show that this problem can be solved by introducing a gradient dopant concentration in the metal oxide film, thereby creating a distributed n+-n homojunction. This concept is demonstrated with a low-cost, spray-deposited and non-porous tungsten-doped <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> vanadate photoanode in which carrier-separation efficiencies of up to 80% are achieved. By combining this state-of-the-art photoanode with an earth-abundant cobalt phosphate water-oxidation catalyst and a double- or single-junction amorphous Si solar cell in a tandem configuration, stable short-circuit water-splitting photocurrents of ~4 and 3 mA cm-2, respectively, are achieved under 1 sun illumination. The 4 mA cm-2 photocurrent corresponds to a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 4.9%, which is the highest efficiency yet reported for a stand-alone water-splitting device based on a metal oxide photoanode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSSCh.222...12E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSSCh.222...12E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> zinc vanadate, BiZn2VO6: New crystal structure type and electronic structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eliziario Nunes, Sayonara; Wang, Chun-Hai; So, Karwei; Evans, John S. O.; Evans, Ivana Radosavljević</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We report a combined experimental and computational study of the crystal structure and electronic properties of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> zinc vanadate, BiZn2VO6, known for its visible light photocatalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The crystal structure has been solved from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data using the repeated minimisations from random starting values method. BiZn2VO6 adopts a new structure type, based on the following building blocks: corner- and edge-sharing ZnO4 tetrahedra, ZnO6 octahedra and VO4 tetrahedra, and Bi2O12 dimers. It is the only known member of the BiM2AO6 (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family which does not appear to be structurally closely related to others. The electronic structure of BiZn2VO6, calculated by DFT methods, shows that it is an indirect gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.6 eV, which compares favourably to the experimentally measured value of 2.4 eV.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87t5202K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87t5202K"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural phase-dependent hole localization and transport in <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> vanadate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kweon, Kyoung E.; Hwang, Gyeong S.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We present theoretical evidence for the phase dependence of hole localization and transport in <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> vanadate (BiVO4). Our hybrid density-functional theory calculations predict that, in the tetragonal phase [tetragonal scheelite BiVO4 (ts-BiVO4)], an excess hole tends to localize around a BiO8 polyhedron with strong lattice distortion, whereas, in the monoclinic phase [monoclinic scheelite BiVO4 (ms-BiVO4)], it spreads over many lattice sites. The phase-dependent behavior is likely related to the higher structural stability of ms-BiVO4 than ts-BiVO4, which may suppress hole-induced lattice distortions. Our study also demonstrates that the relatively weakly localized hole in ms-BiVO4 undergoes faster diffusion compared to the case of ts-BiVO4, irrespective of the fact that the degrees of localization and mobility vary depending on the choice of exchange-correlation functional. The mobility difference may provide an explanation for the enhanced photocatalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> of ms-BiVO4 over ts-BiVO4 for water oxidation, considering that the increased mobility would lead to an increase in the hole current to the catalyst surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25179434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25179434"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of structural, electronic and optical properties of tungsten doped <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> oxychloride by DFT calculations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Wenjuan; Wen, Yanwei; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Dawen; Shan, Bin</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>First-principle calculations have been carried out to investigate structural stabilities, electronic structures and optical properties of tungsten doped <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> oxychloride (BiOCl). The structures of substitutional and interstitial tungsten, and in the form of WO6-ligand-doped BiOCl are examined. The substitutional and interstitial tungsten doping leads to discrete midgap states within the forbidden band gap, which has an adverse effect on the photocatalytic properties. On the other hand, the WO6-ligand-doped BiOCl structure induces a continuum of hybridized states in the forbidden gap, which favors transport of electrons and holes and could result in enhancement of visible light <span class="hlt">activity</span>. In addition, the band gap of WO6-BiOCl decreases by 0.25 eV with valence band maximum (VBM) shifting upwards compared to that of pure BiOCl. By calculating optical absorption spectra of pure BiOCl and WO6-ligand-doped BiOCl structure, it is found that the absorption peak of the WO6-ligand-doped BiOCl structure has a red shift towards visible light compared with that of pure BiOCl, which agrees well with experimental observations. These results reveal the tungsten doped BiOCl system as a promising material in photocatalytic decomposition of organics and water splitting under sunlight irradiation. PMID:25179434</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italian&pg=7&id=EJ1016355','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=italian&pg=7&id=EJ1016355"><span id="translatedtitle">Gender in Italian-<span class="hlt">German</span> Bilinguals: A Comparison with <span class="hlt">German</span> L2 Learners of Italian</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bianchi, Giulia</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-<span class="hlt">German</span> bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult <span class="hlt">German</span> highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED193911.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED193911.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">German</span> Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. <span class="hlt">German</span>-English.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.</p> <p></p> <p>This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in <span class="hlt">German</span>. In each entry the <span class="hlt">German</span> word is listed first followed by the English word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED193912.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED193912.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">German</span> Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. English-<span class="hlt">German</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.</p> <p></p> <p>This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in <span class="hlt">German</span>. In each entry the English word is listed first followed by the <span class="hlt">German</span> word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Priming&pg=3&id=EJ1068551','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Priming&pg=3&id=EJ1068551"><span id="translatedtitle">Do Lemmas Speak <span class="hlt">German</span>? A Verb Position Effect in <span class="hlt">German</span> Structural Priming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. <span class="hlt">German</span> syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how <span class="hlt">German</span> speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=deutsch&pg=6&id=ED450561','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=deutsch&pg=6&id=ED450561"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">German</span> Teaching: The <span class="hlt">German</span> Journal of the Association for Language Learning, 1994-1997.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brien, Alistair, Ed.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>This journal focuses on teaching and learning <span class="hlt">German</span> as a foreign language. Selected articles include the following: "Give Students Autonomy!" <span class="hlt">German</span> in Great Britain"; "Open Access and Listening Skills"; "Communication with Computers"; "The Quest for Fluency and Accuracy"; "Binational Problem Solving"; "Foreign Language Instruction in England…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......501K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......501K"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and characterization of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> telluride based nanostructured thermoelectric composite materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keshavarz Khorasgani, Mohsen</p> <p></p> <p> single phase alloy. Scanning electron microscope images show that the average grain size of p-type (Bi0.2Sb 0.8)2Te3 composites containing 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 wt% MoS2 nano-particles, under otherwise identical extrusion conditions, is reduced by a factor around four. Scherer's formula applied to x-ray diffraction data indicates that after the hot extrusion process, the average crystallite size in composites increases only by 10% (˜ 18 nm) compared to about 400% growth (˜ 80 nm) observed in the single phase <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> telluride based alloy. Smaller crystallites, as expected, lead to a reduction of the thermal conductivity in these nanocomposites (˜1.4 W/m˙K at 450 K for 0.4 wt.% MoS2) when compared to the conventional alloy (˜1.8 W/m˙K). The structural changes in the nanocomposites characterized by mechanical spectroscopy in the temperature range 293-540 K show an increase of the internal friction accompanied by a systematic reduction of its <span class="hlt">activation</span> energy with increase in MoS2 content, which is an indication of higher density of crystal defects in the nanocomposites that largely contribute to the internal friction background. Investigation of TE properties shows a reduction of the room temperature figure of merit (ZT values) from 0.9 to 0.7 due to a lower power factor. However, once above 370 K, the figure of merit of alloys containing MoS2 nano-particles surpasses that of single phase (Bi0.2Sb0.8)2Te3, due to a more pronounced reduction in the thermal conductivity at temperatures above the cross point of the ZT values. Remarkably, we have demonstrated that adding nano-particles of MoS 2 to <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> telluride based alloys is an approach to significantly reduce the grain size of the matrix resulting in an important thermal conductivity decrease. The enhanced ZT values above 370 K in nanocomposites show the preeminent achievement of this approach, although further study is required to obtain optimum transport properties, and boost up the ZT more effectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=early+AND+stimulation&pg=7&id=EJ270439','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=early+AND+stimulation&pg=7&id=EJ270439"><span id="translatedtitle">Early Motor Stimulation and Personal Development. A Study of Four- to Six-Year-Old <span class="hlt">German</span> Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Diem, Liselott</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A study of 165 West <span class="hlt">German</span> preschool children participating in a motor program which included swimming as an important <span class="hlt">activity</span> showed that early motor stimulation affected the children's motor, social, and individual development. (CJ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26f5011L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26f5011L"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of filling <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> for x-ray absorption gratings through the enhancement of wettability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lei, Yaohu; Liu, Xin; Li, Ji; Guo, Jinchuan; Niu, Hanben</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Filling materials with high x-ray linear absorption coefficients in high aspect-ratio (HAR) structures is a key process for the fabrication of absorption gratings used in x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging. <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> has been chosen as an effective filling material in micro-casting technology, because of its low cost both in price and facility use. However, repellence on structure surfaces against molten <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> leads to an obstacle in terms of completely filling <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> into the small-aperture and HAR microstructure formed by photo-assisted electrochemical etching in 5 inch silicon wafers. We propose and implement a novel method of surface modification to completely fill <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> into these structures with periods of 3 μm and 42 μm, respectively, and as deep as 150 μm. The modified surface with a Bi2O3 layer covering the structure surface, including the side walls, induces an enhanced <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> filling ratio. The superiority of the method is demonstrated by micrographs which show filled microstructures compared to the previously used method, where only a layer of 100 nm SiO2 was covered. Furthermore, we have observed that the improved micro-casting makes the absorption gratings clean surfaces, and no post treatment is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.565a2019P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.565a2019P"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron excitation and autoionisation cross sections for elements of chemically peculiar stars: Study of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Predojević, B.; Pejčev, V.; Šević, D.; Marinković, B. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Electron impact excitation from the ground state of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> atoms has been studied. A beam of electrons was scattered from a beam of atoms and the intensity of scattered electrons was measured for scattering angles up to 150° and incident electron energies of 40 and 60 eV. Obtained intensities were used for the calculation of relative differential cross sections (DCS). In addition, we recorded the energy loss-spectra at different incident electron energies and scattering angles. These spectra were analysed in order to identify the energy levels of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> atom below and above (autoionisation) the first ionization limit in electron spectroscopy. The presence of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> was confirmed in spectra of the chemically peculiar (CP) magnetic Ap 73 Dra and HR 465 and nonmagnetic Hg-Mn HR 7775 and χ Lupi stars. The obtained results for relative DCS and identified autoionised energy levels of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> were analysed and compared with previous experimental and theoretical data. The connection between our investigations of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> and astrophysical measurements are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21212133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21212133"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced thermoelectric properties of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> sulfide polycrystals prepared by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhao Lidong; Zhang Boping Liu Weishu; Zhang Hailong; Li Jingfeng</p> <p>2008-12-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> sulfide powders were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) and then consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. In order to improve the electrical transport properties of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> sulfides, the carrier concentration was optimized by modifying chemical composition of sulfur through producing sulfur vacancies, and the carrier mobility was enhanced by a two-step SPS as a hot-forging process through increasing grain orientation. The electrical resistivity of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> sulfides was reduced to 10{sup -4} from 10{sup -2} {omega} m by optimizing sulfur content, and further lowered by hot-forging, whereby the power factor was significantly increased from 91 to 254 {mu}W/mK{sup 2}. The hot-forged Bi{sub 2}S{sub 2.90} sample showed the highest ZT=0.11 (at 523 K), which is higher than the reported value. The present work revealed that <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> sulfide compounds as a promising candidate of thermoelectric materials can be synthesized by a simple process. - Abstract: Electrical properties of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> sulfides were improved by optimizing carrier concentration through modifying compositions of sulfur and enhancing carrier mobility through SPSed hot-forging. The ZT value of 0.11 was obtained, which is the maximum reported so far . Display Omitted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26848181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26848181"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> in improving Helicobacter pylori eradication with triple therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dore, Maria Pina; Lu, Hong; Graham, David Y</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In most regions of the world, antimicrobial resistance has increased to the point where empirical standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylorieradication is no longer recommended. The treatment outcome in a population is calculated as the sum of the treatment success in the subpopulation with susceptible infections plus treatment success in the subpopulation with resistant infections. The addition of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> (i.e., 14-day triple therapy plus <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>) can improve cure rates despite a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. The major <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> effect is to add an additional 30%-40% to the success with resistant infections. The overall result is therefore dependent on the prevalence of resistance and the treatment success in the subpopulation with resistant infections (eg, with proton-pump inhibitor-amoxicillin dual therapy). Here, we explore the contribution of each component and the mechanisms of how <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> might enhance the effectiveness of triple therapy. We also discuss the limitations of this approach and provide suggestions how triple therapy plus <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> might be further improved. PMID:26848181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC29001G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC29001G"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy on <span class="hlt">Bismuth</span>-Chalcogenide Topological Insulators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Granstrom, C. R.; Fridman, I.; Liang, R. X.; Lei, H.; Petrovic, C.; Yang, Shuo; Wu, K. H.; Wei, J. Y. T.</p> <p></p> <p>Andreev reflection (AR) is the basic mechanism underlying the superconducting proximity effect which, at the interface between a topological insulator (TI) and a spin-singlet superconductor, can induce chiral p-wave pairing in the TI. Despite this novel importance, it is not well understood how AR is affected by the unique attributes of a three-dimensional TI, namely the Dirac dispersion and helical spin-polarization of its surface states. In this work, we use both s-wave and d-wave superconducting tips to perform AR spectroscopy at 4.2 K on flux-grown Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 single crystals, as well as epitaxial Bi2Se3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. These AR measurements are complemented by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, in order to characterize the superconducting tip as well as the doping level and surface condition of the TI sample. Our data are analyzed using BTK theory, in light of the characteristic band structure of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> chalcogenides, to elucidate how the band structure affects the AR process. Work supported by: NSERC, CFI-OIT, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, and the Department of Energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E7086N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E7086N"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust surface state transport in thin <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> nanoribbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ning, Wei; Kong, Fengyu; Han, Yuyan; Du, Haifeng; Yang, Jiyong; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>While a two-dimensional (2D) metallic surface state in <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> has been proposed, experimental 2D evidence of quantum transport, e.g., angular dependent Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations is still lacking. Here, we report the angular-dependent magnetoresistance measurements in single-crystal Bi nanoribbons, and found that both the low-field weak antilocalization behavior and the high-field angle-dependent SdH oscillations follow exactly the 2D character, indicative of the 2D metallic surface states which dominate the transport properties of thin Bi nanoribbons. Moreover, by controllable exposing the ribbons to ambient environment (1 atm and room temperature), the metallic surface states were found to be robust to the oxidation although the carrier density in the surface states are modified after the exposures. These results suggest that the metallic surface states in Bi nanoribbons should be topologically protected which can provide key information in understanding the surface properties of Bi in nanometer scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22305834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22305834"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of solution-processed <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-niobium-oxide films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Inoue, Satoshi; Ariga, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Shin; Onoue, Masatoshi; Miyasako, Takaaki; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya; Chinone, Norimichi; Cho, Yasuo</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>The characteristics of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span>-niobium-oxide (BNO) films prepared using a solution process were investigated. The BNO film annealed at 550°C involving three phases: an amorphous phase, Bi₃NbO₇ fluorite microcrystals, and Nb-rich cubic pyrochlore microcrystals. The cubic pyrochlore structure, which was the main phase in this film, has not previously been reported in BNO films. The relative dielectric constant of the BNO film was approximately 140, which is much higher than that of a corresponding film prepared using a conventional vacuum sputtering process. Notably, the cubic pyrochlore microcrystals disappeared with increasing annealing temperature and were replaced with triclinic β-BiNbO₄ crystals at 590°C. The relative dielectric constant also decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Therefore, the high relative dielectric constant of the BNO film annealed at 550°C is thought to result from the BNO cubic pyrochlore structure. In addition, the BNO films annealed at 500°C contained approximately 6.5 atm.% carbon, which was lost at approximately 550°C. This result suggests that the carbon in the BNO film played an important role in the formation of the cubic pyrochlore structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1731e0075W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1731e0075W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ferroelectric and photocatalytic behavior of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> ferrite nano wire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>William, R. V.; Marikani, A.; Madhavan, D.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Multiferroic <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> ferrite nanowires are prepared through polyol method with an average diameter of 35 nm with a narrow size distribution. The band gap was determined to be 2.10 eV, indicating their potential application as visible-light-response photo catalyst. The magnificent photocatalytic behaviors of BiFeO3 nanowires are understood from the methyl violet degradation under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the nano-wire takes only a lesser time for the diffusion of electron-hole pair from the surface of the sample. Further the BiFeO3 nano-wire was characterized using XRD, SEM, and U-V. The ferroelectric studies of BiFeO3 nano-wire show a frequency dependent property and maximum coercivity of 2.7 V/cm were achieved with a remanent polarization at 0.5 µC/cm2 at the frequency 4 kHz. The coercivity of BiFeO3 nano wire changes with variation of frequency from 1 kHz to 4 kHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015FrMS..tmp...16A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015FrMS..tmp...16A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> telluride nanostructures: preparation, thermoelectric properties and topological insulating effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ashalley, Eric; Chen, Haiyuan; Tong, Xin; Li, Handong; Wang, Zhiming M.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> telluride is known to wield unique properties for a wide range of device applications. However, as devices migrate to the nanometer scale, significant amount of studies are being conducted to keep up with the rapidly growing nanotechnological field. Bi2Te3 possesses distinctive properties at the nanometer level from its bulk material. Therefore, varying synthesis and characterization techniques are being employed for the realization of various Bi2Te3 nanostructures in the past years. A considerable number of these works have aimed at improving the thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit (ZT) of the Bi2Te3 nanostructures and drawing from their topological insulating properties. This paper reviews the various Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3-based nanostructures realized via theoretical and experimental procedures. The study probes the preparation techniques, TE properties and the topological insulating effects of 0D, 1D, 2D and Bi2Te3 nanocomposites. With several applications as a topological insulator (TI), the topological insulating effect of the Bi2Te3 is reviewed in detail with the time reversal symmetry (TRS) and surface state spins which characterize TIs. Schematics and preparation methods for the various nanostructural dimensions are accordingly categorized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010PhRvB..82x5203K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010PhRvB..82x5203K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasiparticle electronic structure of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> telluride in the GW approximation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Tiago, Murilo L.; Louie, Steven G.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The quasiparticle band structure of <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> telluride (Bi2Te3) , an important thermoelectric material that exhibits topologically insulating surface states, is calculated from first principles in the GW approximation. The quasiparticle energies are evaluated in fine detail in the first Brillouin zone using a Wannier-function interpolation method, allowing the accurate determination of the location of the band extrema (which is in the mirror plane) as well as the values of the quasiparticle band gap (0.17 eV) and effective-mass tensors. Spin-orbit interaction effects were included. The valence band exhibits two distinct maxima in the mirror plane that differ by just 1 meV, giving rise to one direct and one indirect band gap of very similar magnitude. The effective-mass tensors are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The Wannier interpolation coefficients can be used for the tight-binding parametrization of the band structure. Our work elucidates the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 and sheds light on its exceptional thermoelectric and topologically insulating properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015Nanos...7.6683T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015Nanos...7.6683T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoelectric characterization of individual <span class="hlt">bismuth</span> selenide topological insulator nanoribbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Hao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Xiong, Yucheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Yin; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Juekuan; Xu, Dongyan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bismuth</span> selenide (Bi2Se3) nanoribbons have attracted tremendous research interest recently to study the properties of topologically protected surface states that enable new opportunities to enhance the thermoelectric performance. However, the thermoelectric characterization of individual Bi2Se3 nanoribbons is rare due to the technological challenges in the measurements. One challenge is to ensure good contacts between the nanoribbon and electrodes in order to determine the thermal and electrical properties accurately. In this work, we report the thermoelectric characterization of individual Bi2Se3 nanoribbons via a suspended microdevice method. Through careful measurements, we have demonstrated that contact thermal resistance is negligible after the electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) of platinum/carbon (Pt/C) composites at the contacts between the nanoribbon and electrodes. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of the Bi2Se3 nanoribbons is less than 50% of the bulk value over the whole measurement temperature range, which can be attributed to enhanced phonon boundary scattering. Our results indicate that intrinsic Bi2Se3 nanoribbons prepared in this work are highly doped n-type semiconductors, and therefore the Fermi level should be in the conduction band and no topological transport behavior can be observed in the intrinsic system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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