Science.gov

Sample records for active boundary zone

  1. 77 FR 52680 - Foreign-Trade Zone 242-Boundary County, ID, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, AREVA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 242--Boundary County, ID, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC, (Gas Centrifuge Production Equipment), Bonneville County, ID Boundary County, grantee of FTZ 242, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf...

  2. Climatically-Active Gases in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, C.; Garçon, V.; Butz, A.; Yahia, H.; Sudre, J.; Illig, S.; Dewitte, B.; Paulmier, A.; Dadou, I.

    2012-04-01

    The EBUS (Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems) and OMZs (Oxygen Minimum Zone) contribute very significantly to the gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, notably with respect to the greenhouse gases (hereafter GHG). From in-situ ocean measurements, the uncertainty of the net global ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes is between 20 and 30%, and could be much higher in the EBUS-OMZ. Off Peru, very few in-situ data are available presently, which justifies alternative approaches for assessing these fluxes. GHG air-sea fluxes determination can be inferred from inverse modeling applied to Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) from GOSAT, using state of the art modeling, at low spatial resolution. For accurately linking sources of GHGs to EBUS and OMZs, the resolution of the source regions needs to be increased. This task develops on new non-linear and multiscale processing methods for complex signals to infer a higher spatial resolution mapping of the fluxes and the associated sinks and sources between the atmosphere and the ocean. The use of coupled satellite data (e.g. SST and/or Ocean colour) that carry turbulence information associated to ocean dynamics is taken into account at unprecedented detail level to incorporate turbulence effects in the evaluation of the air-sea fluxes. We will present a framework as described above for determining sources and sinks of GHG from satellite remote sensing with the Peru OMZ as a test bed.

  3. Linking mantle dynamics, plate tectonics and surface processes in the active plate boundary zones of eastern New Guinea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S.; Moucha, R.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Hoke, G. D.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Braun, J.; Rowley, D. B.; Insel, N.; Abers, G. A.; Wallace, L. M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Eastern New Guinea lies within the rapidly obliquely converging Australian (AUS)- Pacific (PAC) plate boundary zone and is characterized by transient plate boundaries, rapidly rotating microplates and a globally significant geoid high. As the AUS plate moved northward in the Cenozoic, its leading edge has been a zone of subduction and arc accretion. The variety of tectonic settings in this region permits assessment of the complex interplay among mantle dynamics, plate tectonics, and surface processes. Importantly, the timescale of tectonic events (e.g., subduction, (U)HP exhumation, seafloor spreading) are within the valid bounds of mantle convection models. A record of changes in bathymetry and topography are preserved in high standing mountain belts, exhumed extensional gneiss domes and core complexes, uplifted coral terraces, and marine sedimentary basins. Global seismic tomography models indicate accumulation of subducted slabs beneath eastern New Guinea at the bottom of the upper mantle (i.e., <660km depth). Some of the deeply subducted material may indeed be buoyant subducted AUS continental margin (to depths of ~250-300 km), as well as subducted continental material that has reached the point of no return (i.e., > 250-300 km). Preliminary global-scale backward advected mantle convection models, driven by density inferred from joint seismic-geodynamic tomography models, exhibit large-scale flow associated with these subducted slab remnants and predict the timing and magnitude (up to 1500 m) of dynamic topography change (both subsidence and uplift) since the Oligocene. In this talk we will explore the effects of large-scale background mantle flow and plate tectonics on the evolution of topography and bathymetry in eastern New Guinea, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain basin subsidence and surface uplift in the region.

  4. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones. (a... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  5. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  6. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  7. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  8. Mixing materials within zone boundaries using shape overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.

    1997-04-22

    Shape overlays provide a means of statically imposing a physical region containing specified material properties onto a zoned mesh. In the most general case, material interface boundaries are unrelated to mesh zone boundaries, causing zones to contain a mixture of materials, and the mesh itself is not uniform in physical space. We develop and apply an algorithm for shape overlays on nonorthogonal, nonuniform meshes in two dimensions. Examples of shape generation in a multiblock uid dynamics code are shown.

  9. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  10. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boundary line between central and mountain zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.7 Boundary line between central and mountain zones. (a) Montana-North Dakota. Beginning at... upon the zone boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone,...

  11. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... zone boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  12. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... zone boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  13. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  14. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  15. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  16. A new type of migrating zone boundary in electrophoresis: 2. Transient sample zone shapes.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Petr; Malá, Zdena; Bocek, Petr

    2006-02-01

    A new type of migrating zone boundary in electrophoresis is presented theoretically and evidenced experimentally. This type of the boundary (called hybrid boundary) shows simultaneously a steady-state part with self-sharpening properties and an unsteady-state part with time-dependent electromigration dispersion. It is shown that a sample zone may possess a hybrid boundary both as its front and rear one simultaneously. In such a case, the evolution of a sample zone injected originally as a rectangular pulse exhibits very complex transient shapes before it reaches the well-known fronting or tailing triangular shape. Depending on the stage at which detection of such a sample zone occurs, variable and peculiar-shape peaks may appear in the electropherogram. Based on theoretical predictions, experimental examples of the above-mentioned phenomena are presented in this contribution for direct and indirect UV absorbance detection of sample zones. Excellent agreement of theoretical predictions with the experiments has been found. The knowledge of hybrid boundaries is of key significance for correct interpretation of records of CE analyses in practice.

  17. Measuring Transient Signals in Plate Boundary Faults Zones with Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, Dave; Phillips, David; Henderson, Brent; Gottlieb, Mike; Gallaher, Warren; Johnson, Wade; Pyatt, Chad; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Fox, Otina; Mattioli, Glen; Meertens, Chuck

    2014-05-01

    One of the fundamental goals the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Earthscope program was to provide a high-quality, continuous geodetic data set that would allow the scientific community to study the evolution of plate boundary zones. Of particular importance was enabling investigation of the role aseismic transient deformation plays in the release of accumulated stress. For example, to allow the comparison of the amount of strain released through Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events to that released in subduction zone earthquakes or, provide the ability to geodetically illuminate the kinematics of fault creep in strike-slip fault zones. The ability to easily integrate these measurements with compatible geophysical data sets was also an essential objective. With goals such as these in mind NSF funded the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to record the continuous deformation field across the western US Plate Boundary. PBO, built and operated by UNAVCO, now consists of over 1100 GPS stations, 76 co-located borehole strain and seismic sites, 6 long baseline strainmeters, Depending on the scientific questions being addressed sites may also have tiltmeter, meteorological, pore pressure and meteorological instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the transient deformation signals recorded by the PBO strainmeter network. PBO strainmeters, which excel in recording signals on the order of nanostrain over hours, have provided unprecedented temporal resolution of aseismic transients such as ETS events in the Cascadia subduction zone, creep signals along the central section of the San Andreas fault system and tsunami generated strain waves. UNAVCO is responsible not only for the ongoing operation of PBO but also the generation of data products associated with each instrument type. In this presentation we will highlight some of the transient signals these instruments have captured, outline the processing steps required to extract these signals data and

  18. MOLA Topography of the Crustal Dichotomy Boundary Zone, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.; E. H., Susan; H., James

    1998-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) profiles frequently cross the crustal dichotomy boundary where the transition zone (TZ) between cratered highland terrain (CT) and lowland smooth plains (SP) is marked by mesas and knobby terrain. The detailed topographic character of the boundary zone is longitudinally variable, as is the geomorphology of the TZ. Some portions of the boundary are associated with an outer ring of the Utopia impact basin; MOLA topography is consistent with this. The regional character of the boundary topography is a 2-4 km step function from nearly flat SP to almost as flat CT. This rise has a regional slope of 1-2 degrees, 50-100 times that of the Cr and SP away from TZ, which suggests a significant change in crustal properties (thickness, composition or both) across the TZ. The overall topography is very similar to that at some passive continent-oceanic crustal margins on the Earth, with the seafloor allowed to adjust upward after removal of the overlying water. A possible temporal constraint on the CT/SP elevation difference comes from two MOLA profiles which pass through two large (150 km diameter) craters located at the boundary in Aeolis. The N and S rims of the more degraded crater are at the same elevation; north of the N rim the topography drops by greater than 2 km to the floor of the TZ. This crater predates the elevation offset between CT and TZ floor. The better preserved crater (Gale) has a N rim 2 km lower than its S rim, and appears to have been emplaced on a pre-existing regional slope of about I degree. Gale probably post- dates the elevation difference between CT and TZ floor. Based on the stratigraphy of the units in which these craters are found, the elevation difference appears to have been in place in the Mid to Late Noachian.

  19. Swash zone boundary conditions derived from optical remote sensing of swash zone flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, H. E.; Holman, R. A.; Baldock, T. E.

    2011-06-01

    Optical remote sensing is used to measure flow patterns in the swash zone. Timestack images are analyzed to measure the asymmetry and the relative duration of the inflow into the swash zone. This varies significantly between individual swashes, contrary to the classical analytical swash model for runup induced by bores, which predicts a similar flow pattern for all events. For swash forced by breaking bores, the gradient of the x-t locus of flow reversal varies over a wide range and flow reversal can occur simultaneously across the whole swash zone. This variation of the gradient of the locus of flow reversal in x-t space can be parameterized in terms of a single free variable in recent solutions to the nonlinear shallow water equations, which fully defines the swash boundary inflow condition. Consistent with the theory, the horizontal runup, the swash period, and the swash similarity parameter were observed to be independent of the swash inflow conditions but the flow asymmetry is not. Only a weak correlation was observed between the swash boundary condition and the Iribarren number and beach slope. Conversely, the analysis suggests that the degree of swash-swash interaction does influence the swash boundary condition and the resulting internal flow kinematics. The variation in inflow conditions is expected to influence the magnitudes of the velocity moments within the swash zone and therefore sediment transport rates.

  20. Grey zone simulations of the morning convective boundary layer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, G. A.; Beare, R. J.; Osborne, S.; Lock, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Numerical simulations of two cases of morning boundary layer development are conducted to investigate the impact of grid resolution on mean profiles and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) partitioning from the large eddy simulation (LES) to the mesoscale limit. Idealized LES, using the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme, is shown to be capable of reproducing the boundary layer evolution when compared against measurements. However, increasing grid spacing results in the damping of resolved TKE and the production of superadiabatic temperature profiles in the boundary layer. Turbulence initiation is significantly delayed, exhibiting an abrupt onset at intermediate resolutions. Two approaches, the bounding of vertical diffusion coefficient and the blending of the 3-D Smagorinsky with a nonlocal 1D scheme, are used to model subgrid diffusion at grey zone resolutions. Simulations are compared against the coarse-grained fields from the validated LES results for each case. Both methods exhibit particular strengths and weaknesses, indicating the compromise that needs to be made currently in high-resolution numerical weather prediction. The blending scheme is able to reproduce the adiabatic profiles although turbulence is underestimated in favor of the parametrized heat flux, and the spin-up of TKE remains delayed. In contrast, the bounding approach gives an evolution of TKE that follows the coarse-grained LES very well, relying on the resolved motions for the nonlocal heat flux. However, bounding gives unrealistic static instability in the early morning temperature profiles (similar to the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme) because model dynamics are unable to resolve TKE when the boundary layer is too shallow compared to the grid spacing.

  1. Sea ice drift and deformation in the coastal boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikkonen, Annu; Haapala, Jari; Lensu, Mikko; Karvonen, Juha

    2016-10-01

    Small-scale sea ice deformation was studied in the coastal boundary zone (CBZ). Sequences of coastal radar images from the northern Baltic Sea (13 February to 13 May 2011) were used and trajectories of identifiable objects calculated. Average drift velocities in CBZ are small (<0.01 m/s), and events of high drift speeds are short and local. Deformations follow power law scaling but with an exponent of greater magnitude than in the Arctic. We discovered a connection between air temperature and sea ice deformation on a short time scale. During warm days, the mean deformation rate was significantly higher in all length scales than during cold days. This cannot be explained by changes in ice thickness or concentration, which suggests that the ice pack strength responds to air temperature faster than previously assumed. However, we cannot quantify how much this response is enhanced by lower ice thickness compared to the Arctic.

  2. The memory of the accreting plate boundary and the continuity of fracture zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed aeromagnetic anomaly map of the Mesozoic seafloor-spreading lineations southwest of Bermuda reveals the dominant magnetic grain of the oceanic crust and the character of the accreting boundary at the time of crustal formation. The magnetic anomaly pattern is that of a series of elongate lobes perpendicular to the fracture zone (flowline) trends. The linear sets of magnetic anomaly peaks and troughs have narrow regions of reduced amplitude anomalies associated with the fracture zones. During the period of Mesozoic geomagnetic polarity reversals (when 1200 km of central North Atlantic seafloor formed), the Atlantic accreting boundary consisted of stationary, elongate, spreading center cells that maintained their independence even though sometimes only minor spatial offsets existed between cells. Normal oceanic crustal structure was formed in the spreading center cells, but structural anomalies and discontinuities characteristic of fracture zones were formed at their boundaries, which parallel flowlines of Mesozoic relative plate motion in the central North Atlantic. We suggest that the memory for a stationary pattern of independent spreading center cells resides in the young brittle lithosphere at the accreting boundary where the lithosphere is weakest; here, each spreading center cell independently goes through its cylce of stress buildup, stress release, and crustal accretion, after which its memory is refreshed. The temporal offset between the peaks of the accretionary activity that takes place within each cell may provide the mechanism for maintaining the independence of adjacent spreading center cells through times when no spatial offset between the cells exists.

  3. Kinematics to dynamics in the New Zealand plate-boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plate, with a transition from subduction of Pacific oceanic lithosphere beneath North Island, to oblique continental collision in South Island. Cenozoic relative plate motion has resulted in a complex pattern of faulting and block rotation in a zone up to 250 km wide, with displacements on individual faults up to 100s of kilometres. Active deformation must be driven by a combination of plate-boundary forces and internal buoyancy forces. I use a compilation of seismic reflection/refraction studies and high quality receiver function analyses, together with simple Airy isostasy, to determine regional crustal and mantle structure. Integration of the vertical normal stress to the base of the deforming layer yields the buoyancy stress. Horizontal gradients of this can be compared with horizontal gradients of strain rate, using the method of England & Molnar (1997), in the context of a simple thin sheet model of deformation. Thus, if deformation is that of a Newtonian fluid, then appropriate combinations of the horizontal gradients of vorticity and dilatation are related to gradients of buoyancy stress by the fluid viscosity. However, the short term geodetic deformation is strongly biased by elastic strain accumulation related to locking on the plate interface, and cannot be used to determine the plate-boundary velocity field averaged over many seismic cycles (see Lamb & Smith 2013). Therefore, I derive here a velocity field for the plate-boundary zone, which is representative of deformation over tens of thousands of years. This is based on an inversion of fault slip, strain rate azimuth and paleomagnetic data, in the context of the short term relative plate motions, solved in a network of triangles spanning the plate-boundary, using the method of Lamb (2000). A comparison of gradients of buoyancy stress with the appropriate combinations of gradients of vorticity and dilatation shows that deformation in

  4. GPS and seismological constraints on active tectonics and arc-continent collision in Papua New Guinea: Implications for mechanics of microplate rotations in a plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Laura M.; Stevens, Colleen; Silver, Eli; McCaffrey, Rob; Loratung, Wesley; Hasiata, Suvenia; Stanaway, Richard; Curley, Robert; Rosa, Robert; Taugaloidi, Jones

    2004-05-01

    The island of New Guinea is located within the deforming zone between the Pacific and Australian plates that converge obliquely at ˜110 mm/yr. New Guinea has been fragmented into a complex array of microplates, some of which rotate rapidly about nearby vertical axes. We present velocities from a network of 38 Global Positioning System (GPS) sites spanning much of the nation of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The GPS-derived velocities are used to explain the kinematics of major tectonic blocks in the region and the nature of strain accumulation on major faults in PNG. We simultaneously invert GPS velocities, earthquake slip vectors on faults, and transform orientations in the Woodlark Basin for the poles of rotation of the tectonic blocks and the degree of elastic strain accumulation on faults in the region. The data are best explained by six distinct tectonic blocks: the Australian, Pacific, South Bismarck, North Bismarck, and Woodlark plates and a previously unrecognized New Guinea Highlands Block. Significant portions of the Ramu-Markham Fault appear to be locked, which has implications for seismic hazard determination in the Markham Valley region. We also propose that rapid clockwise rotation of the South Bismarck plate is controlled by edge forces initiated by the collision between the Finisterre arc and the New Guinea Highlands.

  5. Grain Boundary Plane Orientation Fundamental Zones and Structure-Property Relationships.

    PubMed

    Homer, Eric R; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.

  6. Grain Boundary Plane Orientation Fundamental Zones and Structure-Property Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries. PMID:26498715

  7. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.

  8. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    DOE PAGES

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to themore » strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.« less

  9. Joining the Great Plains in Space, Place, and Time: Questioning a Time Zone Boundary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuper, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Standard time zone boundaries are invisible in the landscape, yet they abruptly delineate a temporal difference of one hour between two large areas located relative to one another on Earth. In most cases, standard time zone boundaries follow political ones and define areas within which daylight saving time (DST)--the seasonal advancement of…

  10. Multiscale Modeling of Grain-Boundary Fracture: Cohesive Zone Models Parameterized From Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Phillips, Dawn R.; Yamakov, Vesselin

    2006-01-01

    A multiscale modeling strategy is developed to study grain boundary fracture in polycrystalline aluminum. Atomistic simulation is used to model fundamental nanoscale deformation and fracture mechanisms and to develop a constitutive relationship for separation along a grain boundary interface. The nanoscale constitutive relationship is then parameterized within a cohesive zone model to represent variations in grain boundary properties. These variations arise from the presence of vacancies, intersticies, and other defects in addition to deviations in grain boundary angle from the baseline configuration considered in the molecular dynamics simulation. The parameterized cohesive zone models are then used to model grain boundaries within finite element analyses of aluminum polycrystals.

  11. Habitable Zone Boundaries: Implications for our Solar System and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Kopparapu, R.; Harman, C.; Batalha, N. E.; Haqq-Misra, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The successful completion of NASA's Kepler Mission has led to renewed interest in the definition and boundaries of the circumstellar habitable zone (HZ), where liquid water can be stable on a planet's surface. Goldblatt et al. [1] showed that the runaway greenhouse effect, which defines the inner edge of the HZ, depends critically on absorption coefficients of H2O obtained from the new HITEMP database. Kopparapu et al. [2,3] followed up on this observation by recalculating HZ boundaries using HITEMP coefficients. This caused the inner edge to move out to 0.99 AU in their (fully saturated, cloud-free) 1-D climate model. Leconte et al. [4] then used a 3-D climate model to show that the inner edge moves back in to 0.95 AU when relative humidity and clouds are taken into account. In their model, however, the upper stratosphere remained cold and dry, making it difficult to explain how Venus lost its water. But Leconte et al. only looked at surface temperatures up to ~330 K. At somewhat higher surface temperatures (350 K), our own 1-D model predicts that the stratosphere should indeed become wet [5]. Towards the outer edge of the HZ, it now appears that planets should undergo limit cycles involving global glaciation, CO2 buildup from volcanism, and CO2 drawdown from weathering [6,7]. If supplemented with volcanic H2 [8], such cycles could explain how early Mars could have been cold much of the time and yet have experienced enough warm periods to carve the observed fluvial features. Results from a new model of this process will be discussed. Refs: 1. Goldblatt, C., Robinson, T. D., Zahnle, K. J., & Crisp, D. 2013, Nature Geoscience, 6, 661 2. Kopparapu, R. K., et al. 2013, Astrophysical Journal, 765 3. ---. 2013, Astrophysical Journal, 770 4. Leconte, J., Forget, F., Charnay, B., Wordsworth, R., & Pottier, A. 2013, Nature, 504, 268 5. Kasting, J. F., Chen, H., & Kopparapu, R. K. in prep., Ap J Lett 6. Kadoya, S., & Tajika, E. 2014, Astrophysical Journal, 790 7. Menou, K

  12. Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary (Methane filter, 732 nm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator. The images that make up the four quadrants of this mosaic were taken within a few minutes of each other and show Jupiter's appearance at 732 nanometers (nm). Sunlight at 732 nm is weakly absorbed by atmospheric methane. This absorption lowers the total amount of scattered light detected by the Galileo spacecraft while enhancing the fraction that comes from higher in Jupiter's atmosphere where less methane is present. The features of the lower ammonia cloud deck that are seen at 756 nm remain visible, but features in the higher, diffuse cloud are made more apparent.

    The bowed shape of the clouds in the center of the image is created by a combination of stretching in the eastward direction by strong winds and stretching in the north-south direction by weaker winds. The precise shape of the bow and the eastward wind speeds can be measured. The north-south wind speeds, too small to be directly measured, then can be calculated. These images may provide the first indirect measurement of Jupiter's north-south winds.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  13. Tectonic lineaments in the cenozoic volcanics of southern Guatemala: Evidence for a broad continental plate boundary zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltuck, M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.

  14. Modeling the Philippine Mobile Belt: Tectonic blocks in a deforming plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, G. A.; Hamburger, M. W.; McCaffrey, R.; Bacolcol, T. C.; Aurelio, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Philippine Mobile Belt, a seismically active, rapidly deforming plate boundary zone situated along the convergent Philippine Sea/Eurasian plate boundary, is examined using geodetic and seismological data. Oblique convergence between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian plate is accommodated by nearly orthogonal subduction along the Philippine Trench and the Manila Trench, as well as by strike-slip faulting along the Philippine Fault system. We develop a model of active plate boundary deformation in this region, using elastic block models constrained by known fault geometries, published GPS observations and focal mechanism solutions. We then present an estimate of block rotations, fault coupling, and intra-block deformation, based on the best-fit model that minimizes the misfit between observed and predicted geodetic vectors and earthquake slip vectors. Slip rates along the Philippine fault vary from ~22 - 36 mm/yr in the Central Visayas and about 10 to 40 mm/yr in Luzon, trending almost parallel to the fault trace. In northern Luzon, Philippine Fault splays accommodate transpressional strain. The Central Visayas block experiences convergence with the Sundaland block along the Negros Trench and the Mindoro-Palawan collision zone. On the eastern side of Central Visayas, sinistral strike-slip faulting occurs along the NNW-SSE-trending Philippine Fault. Mindanao Island in southern Philippines is dominated by east-verging subduction along the Cotabato Trench, and strain partitioning (strike- slip faulting with west-verging subduction) in eastern Mindanao along the southern Philippine Fault and Philippine Trench, respectively. Oblique active sinistral strike slip faults in Central and Eastern Mindanao that were hypothesized to be responsible for basin formation are obvious boundaries for tectonic blocks. Located south of Mindanao Island we define an adjoining oceanic block defined by the N-S trending complex dual subduction zone of Sangihe and Halmahera

  15. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  16. The Role of the Zone of Dependence Concept in Three-Dimensional Boundary-Layer Calculations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    solution which simulates the essential features of the boundary layer on such a body is used as a test case. The zone of dependence concept places a...various wall speeds and mesh aspect ratios. Error growth occurs when the zone of dependence rule is not satisfied. The sensitivity and manner of error...zone of dependence are not the same. Our numerical experiments partly contradict the stability analyses.

  17. Surface plasmons at the Brillouin zone boundary of an oblique lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, Thomas J. Vukusic, Pete; Hibbins, Alastair P.; Sambles, J. Roy

    2015-03-02

    In periodic systems of low-symmetry, the Bragg condition for the complete interference of waves along the contour of the Brillouin zone (BZ) boundary is not generally satisfied. As a result, band-gaps do not necessarily occur at this boundary. This letter demonstrates this experimentally by recording the iso-frequency contours for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) supported on a diffraction grating with an underlying 2D oblique Bravias lattice. It is shown that these contours do not intersect the BZ boundary perpendicularly, as the symmetry operations of the lattice place no conditions on the surface wave interference at this boundary.

  18. The control of float zone interfaces by the use of selected boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. M.; Mcintosh, J.

    1983-01-01

    The main goal of the float zone crystal growth project of NASA's Materials Processing in Space Program is to thoroughly understand the molten zone/freezing crystal system and all the mechanisms that govern this system. The surface boundary conditions required to give flat float zone solid melt interfaces were studied and computed. The results provide float zone furnace designers with better methods for controlling solid melt interface shapes and for computing thermal profiles and gradients. Documentation and a user's guide were provided for the computer software.

  19. Immersed Boundary Simulations of Active Fluid Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Rhoda J.

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of active fluid droplets immersed in an external fluid in 2-dimensions using an Immersed Boundary method to simulate the fluid droplet interface as a Lagrangian mesh. We present results from two example systems, firstly an active isotropic fluid boundary consisting of particles that can bind and unbind from the interface and generate surface tension gradients through active contractility. Secondly, a droplet filled with an active polar fluid with homeotropic anchoring at the droplet interface. These two systems demonstrate spontaneous symmetry breaking and steady state dynamics resembling cell motility and division and show complex feedback mechanisms with minimal degrees of freedom. The simulations outlined here will be useful for quantifying the wide range of dynamics observable in these active systems and modelling the effects of confinement in a consistent and adaptable way. PMID:27606609

  20. A numerical model of the atmospheric boundary layer over a marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantha, Lakshmi H.; Mellor, George L.

    1989-04-01

    A two-dimensional, multilevel model for simulating changes in the atmospheric boundary layer across a marginal ice zone is described and applied to off-ice, on-ice, and along-ice edge wind conditions. The model incorporates a second-moment closure for parameterizing the intensification and suppression of turbulent mixing in the boundary layer due to stratification effects. For off-ice winds, as the atmospheric boundary layer passes from cold smooth ice onto warm open water, the onset of intense convection raises the inversion. Over the transition zone of rough rafted ice with open leads, the shear stress on the ice cover increases significantly before dropping down to the downstream values over water. Such nonmonotonic surface stress could be the cause of divergence of sea ice near the ice edge in a marginal ice zone. These results are in agreement with the one-layer model simulations of off-ice winds by Overland et al. (1983). For on-ice wind conditions, as the warm flow in the boundary layer encounters the cold ice conditions, the resulting stable stratification could rapidly suppress the turbulence in the boundary layer, leading to the development of a shallow inversion and an associated jet. When the wind is predominantly along the ice edge, the temperature contrast between the open water and the ice could produce a thermal front at the ice edge in the boundary layer with strong associated turbulence. More observations are needed to verify these model predictions. Nevertheless, these model results suggest that it is important to account for the changes in the characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer across the marginal ice zone in our attempts to understand the behavior of the ice cover in these regions.

  1. Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazard of the Sierran Nevada Great Basin Boundary Zone and Yucca Mountain Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K.; von Seggern, D.; Biasi, G. P.; Depolo, D.

    2003-12-01

    Geodetic data indicate that the Sierra Nevada block is moving at about 14 mm/yr N40-450W relative to stable North America. This motion accounts for about 20-25% of the current western North American plate motion budget and is oblique to active faults along the Sierra Nevada-Great Basin boundary zone and Walker Lane belt in a transtensional deformation field. Faulting over the past few million years has been concentrated along faults of the Eastern California shear zone, and the Walker Lane belt. Linear strike-slip faults of the Eastern California shear zone terminate near the Long Valley Caldera region marking an abrupt transition in the deformational style between the southern and northern western Great Basin. These tectonic transitions are reflected in the distribution and character of the historical and instrumental seismicity. North of Long Valley, through going strike-slip faulting is concentrated outboard from the Sierran Range front in the Central Walker Lane belt, whereas normal faulting in a series of left-stepping range bounding faults exhibiting E-W extension characterizes the Sierra Great Basin Boundary region from Long Valley to about the latitude of Reno-Lake Tahoe. Seismicity in the Lake Tahoe region is primarily concentrated in the transition between left-stepping normal faults in zones of high-angle conjugate strike-slip faulting. These observations suggest potential shortening as a mechanism of slip transfer between normal fault systems along the range front. Also, these slip transition zones show different recurrence behavior, activity rates and maximum magnitudes than the adjacent primary normal fault systems. One important kinematic problem is how to reconcile extension directions observed from instrumental seismicity and Sierran motion in the central western Great Basin. An upgrade to a digital seismic network in southern Nevada under the DOE Yucca Mountain Project has increased the detection threshold by about 1 magnitude unit (the catalog is

  2. Time-evolution of uniform momentum zones in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskari, Angeliki; Hearst, R. Jason; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2016-11-01

    Time-resolved planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to analyse the organisation and evolution of uniform momentum zones (UMZs) in a turbulent boundary layer. Experiments were performed in a recirculating water tunnel on a streamwise-wall-normal plane extending approximately 0 . 5 δ × 1 . 8 δ , in x and y, respectively. In total 400,000 images were captured and for each of the resulting velocity fields, local peaks in the probability density distribution of the streamwise velocity were detected, indicating the instantaneous presence of UMZs throughout the boundary layer. The main characteristics of these zones are outlined and more specifically their velocity range and wall-normal extent. The variation of these characteristics with wall normal distance and total number of zones are also discussed. Exploiting the time information available, time-scales of zones that have a substantial coherence in time are analysed and results show that the zones' lifetime is dependent on both their momentum deficit level and the total number of zones present. Conditional averaging of the flow statistics seems to further indicate that a large number of zones is the result of a wall-dominant mechanism, while the opposite implies an outer-layer dominance.

  3. Heat Transfer at the Reattachment Zone of Separated Laminar Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Paul M.; Viegas, John R.

    1961-01-01

    The flow and heat transfer are analyzed at the reattachment zone of two-dimensional separated laminar boundary layers. The fluid is considered to be flowing normal to the wall at reattachment. An approximate expression is derived for the heat transfer in the reattachment region and a calculated value is compared with an experimental measurement.

  4. 77 FR 23425 - Revisions of Boundaries, Regulations and Zoning Scheme for Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 1 Revisions of Boundaries, Regulations and Zoning Scheme for Florida...

  5. Boundary control of a Timoshenko beam system with input dead-zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Meng, Tingting; Liu, Jin-Kun; Qin, Hui

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, boundary control is designed for a Timoshenko beam system with the input dead-zone. By the Hamilton's principle, the dynamics of the Timoshenko beam system is represented by a distributed parameter model with two partial differential equations and four ordinary differential equations. The bounded part is separated from the input dead-zone and then forms the disturbance-like term together with the boundary disturbance, which finally acts on the Timoshenko beam system. Boundary control, based on the Lyapunov's direct method, is proposed to ensure the Timoshenko beam converge into a small neighbourhood of zero, where stability of the system is also analysed. Besides, the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the Timoshenko beam system are proved. Simulations are provided to reveal the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  6. Presynaptic active zones in invertebrates and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Frauke; Waites, Clarissa L; Garner, Craig C

    2015-01-01

    The regulated release of neurotransmitter occurs via the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane called active zones (AZs). These regions are defined by a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at AZs (CAZ), which functions to direct SVs toward docking and fusion sites and supports their maturation into the readily releasable pool. In addition, CAZ proteins localize voltage-gated Ca2+ channels at SV release sites, bringing the fusion machinery in close proximity to the calcium source. Proteins of the CAZ therefore ensure that vesicle fusion is temporally and spatially organized, allowing for the precise and reliable release of neurotransmitter. Importantly, AZs are highly dynamic structures, supporting presynaptic remodeling, changes in neurotransmitter release efficacy, and thus presynaptic forms of plasticity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the study of active zones, highlighting how the CAZ molecularly defines sites of neurotransmitter release, endocytic zones, and the integrity of synapses. PMID:26160654

  7. Neotectonic map of Syria and some aspects of Late Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern boundary zone of the Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukieh, M.; Trifonov, V. G.; Dodonov, A. E.; Minini, H.; Ammar, O.; Ivanova, T. P.; Zaza, T.; Yusef, A.; Al-Shara, M.; Jobaili, Y.

    2005-09-01

    The neotectonic map of Syria, 1:500,000, was compiled by the authors in 2003-2004. The map shows tectonic features formed or continued to develop during the Neogene and Quaternary in Syria and adjacent territories, including the Mediterranean realm. The neotectonic structure of the region was formed as a result of three phases of deformation. During the Early Miocene first phase, the Arabian plate moved along the Dead Sea-Jordan segments of the Levant (Dead Sea) transform fault zone, Roum fault and its continuation in the continental slope of the Mediterranean. The chain of the coastal anticlines in the "Arabian" side of the transform zone and the Lattaqie oblique (sinistral-thrust) boundary fault zone in the north were formed under the NNW-trending compression. The Lattaqie zone continued by the Cyprus arc in the west and by the Taurus (Bitlis) thrust in the east and further by the Main Thrust of the Zagros. After "quiet" (for Syria) epoch of the Middle Miocene when the Arabian plate moved to the NE, during the Late Miocene second phase of deformation, the Arabian plate moved again to the NNW along the same transform boundary. But a part of the Late Miocene plate motion (up to 20 km) resulted by shortening in the Anti-Leban-Palmyride fold-thrust belt that separated the Aleppo block from the main part of the Arabian plate. During the Pliocene-Quaternary third phase of deformation, the recent structural pattern of the Levant zone was formed in Lebanon and the northwestern Syria. At the same time, the Serghaya and smaller sinistral faults branched out the Levant zone and the system of the W-E-trending convex to the south dextral faults ruptured the Palmyrides and the stable part of the Arabian plate. The total Pliocene-Quaternary sinistral offset on the young Levant zone segments and the associated faults has reached 35-40 km, like on the Dead Sea-Jordan segments of the Levant fault zone. The faults, demonstrating the Pliocene-Quaternary activity are still active now

  8. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  9. Viscoelastic deformation near active plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Model deformations near the active plate boundaries of Western North America using space-based geodetic measurements as constraints are discussed. The first six months of this project were spent gaining familarity with space-based measurements, accessing the Crustal Dynamics Data Information Computer, and building time independent deformation models. The initial goal was to see how well the simplest elastic models can reproduce very long base interferometry (VLBI) baseline data. From the Crustal Dynamics Data Information Service, a total of 18 VLBI baselines are available which have been surveyed on four or more occasions. These data were fed into weighted and unweighted inversions to obtain baseline closure rates. Four of the better quality lines are illustrated. The deformation model assumes that the observed baseline rates result from a combination of rigid plate tectonic motions plus a component resulting from elastic strain build up due to a failure of the plate boundary to slip at the full plate tectonic rate. The elastic deformation resulting from the locked plate boundary is meant to portray interseismic strain accumulation. During and shortly after a large interplate earthquake, these strains are largely released, and points near the fault which were previously retarded suddenly catch up to the positions predicted by rigid plate models. Researchers judge the quality of fit by the sum squares of weighted residuals, termed total variance. The observed baseline closures have a total variance of 99 (cm/y)squared. When the RM2 velocities are assumed to model the data, the total variance increases to 154 (cm/y)squared.

  10. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase maintains active zone structure by stabilizing Bruchpilot

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Shaoyun; Ali, Yousuf O; Ruan, Kai; Zhai, R Grace

    2013-01-01

    Active zones are specialized presynaptic structures critical for neurotransmission. We show that a neuronal maintenance factor, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT), is required for maintaining active zone structural integrity in Drosophila by interacting with the active zone protein, Bruchpilot (BRP), and shielding it from activity-induced ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation. NMNAT localizes to the peri-active zone and interacts biochemically with BRP in an activity-dependent manner. Loss of NMNAT results in ubiquitination, mislocalization and aggregation of BRP, and subsequent active zone degeneration. We propose that, as a neuronal maintenance factor, NMNAT specifically maintains active zone structure by direct protein–protein interaction. PMID:23154466

  11. Extension and transtension in the plate boundary zone of the northeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C. ); Larue, D.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose that the Caribbean (Ca)-North American (NA) plate boundary zone (pbz) from the Puerto Rico Trench to the Venezuelan Basin from Mona Canyon east has been in left-transtension over the last 15-20 ma. A boundary-normal component of extension occurs throughout the pbz and is a principal cause of the Puerto Rico Trench. Such extension is due to WNW velocity of NA-Ca and the northward pullaway of NA from its S-dipping slab, which is below Puerto Rico. Strike slip motion may be taken up among terranes in the pbz by rigid CCW rotation and by oblique slip at their boundaries. Rotation of the largest terrane, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI), has caused such major structures as the Muertos thrust and Anegada Passage. The model implies NA-Ca velocity estimated from Cayman transforms is more accurate than that from slip vectors from seisms in the NA slab.

  12. Boundaries steer the contraction of active gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuppler, Matthias; Keber, Felix C.; Kröger, Martin; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2016-10-01

    Cells set up contractile actin arrays to drive various shape changes and to exert forces to their environment. To understand their assembly process, we present here a reconstituted contractile system, comprising F-actin and myosin II filaments, where we can control the local activation of myosin by light. By stimulating different symmetries, we show that the force balancing at the boundaries determine the shape changes as well as the dynamics of the global contraction. Spatially anisotropic attachment of initially isotropic networks leads to a self-organization of highly aligned contractile fibres, being reminiscent of the order formation in muscles or stress fibres. The observed shape changes and dynamics are fully recovered by a minimal physical model.

  13. Boundaries steer the contraction of active gels

    PubMed Central

    Schuppler, Matthias; Keber, Felix C.; Kröger, Martin; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2016-01-01

    Cells set up contractile actin arrays to drive various shape changes and to exert forces to their environment. To understand their assembly process, we present here a reconstituted contractile system, comprising F-actin and myosin II filaments, where we can control the local activation of myosin by light. By stimulating different symmetries, we show that the force balancing at the boundaries determine the shape changes as well as the dynamics of the global contraction. Spatially anisotropic attachment of initially isotropic networks leads to a self-organization of highly aligned contractile fibres, being reminiscent of the order formation in muscles or stress fibres. The observed shape changes and dynamics are fully recovered by a minimal physical model. PMID:27739426

  14. ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY AT DEAD ZONE BOUNDARIES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL GLOBAL MODELS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org

    2012-09-01

    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the {alpha} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.

  15. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kittel, Robert J.; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention. PMID:27148040

  16. Decoupled active contour (DAC) for boundary detection.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Akshaya Kumar; Fieguth, Paul W; Clausi, David A

    2011-02-01

    The accurate detection of object boundaries via active contours is an ongoing research topic in computer vision. Most active contours converge toward some desired contour by minimizing a sum of internal (prior) and external (image measurement) energy terms. Such an approach is elegant, but suffers from a slow convergence rate and frequently misconverges in the presence of noise or complex contours. To address these limitations, a decoupled active contour (DAC) is developed which applies the two energy terms separately. Essentially, the DAC consists of a measurement update step, employing a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Viterbi search, and then a separate prior step, which modifies the updated curve based on the relative strengths of the measurement uncertainty and the nonstationary prior. By separating the measurement and prior steps, the algorithm is less likely to misconverge; furthermore, the use of a Viterbi optimizer allows the method to converge far more rapidly than energy-based iterative solvers. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed approach is robust to noise, can capture regions of very high curvature, and exhibits limited dependence on contour initialization or parameter settings. Compared to five other published methods and across many image sets, the DAC is found to be faster with better or comparable segmentation accuracy.

  17. The Evolution of Deformation-Induced Grain-Boundary Porosity and Dynamic Permeability in Crustal Fault Zones: Insights From the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, K. M.; Toy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Fluids and minor phases have an important influence on the bulk rheology of a deforming rock mass, but they are not uniformly distributed at any scale within fault zones. Additionally, exhumed ductile shear zones show little interconnected porosity or static permeability, requiring a dynamic process at depth to allow fluids to access the deforming rock mass. It was recently recognized that reactive fluids interact with high-strain sites to generate cavities on quartz grain boundaries, increasing the grain-scale porosity and dynamic permeability of the rock and allowing for additional fluids to infiltrate the shear zone along interlinking cavities, stimulating further reaction and cavitation. Grain-boundary cavities and fine-grained secondary phases impede grain-boundary mobility and cause a transition in deformation mechanisms from grain-size insensitive dislocation creep to grain-size sensitive creep, which is recognized as a weakening mechanism that promotes strain localisation. At present, it is unclear how the distribution of grain-boundary pores within fault rocks reflects the bulk mineralogy and phase arrangement, which is a function of shear strain. We have used micro-computed x-ray tomography (μ-CT), SEM imaging, and EDS analyses to examine how the distribution of grain-boundary pores varies in relation to the arrangement of secondary phases in exhumed protomylonites, mylonites, and ultramylonites within the actively-deforming Alpine Fault zone, and in samples acquired from the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP). Additionally, EBSD is coupled with µ-CT and EDS analyses to characterise the evolution of microstructures in three dimensions across a finite strain gradient. Here we examine the relationship and competition between grain-boundary cavitation and microstructural processes during deformation in a high-strain shear zone, and discuss the implications of these grain-scale deformation processes on strain localisation and continental fault zone dynamics.

  18. Inside-out Planet Formation. III. Planet-Disk Interaction at the Dead Zone Inner Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tan, Jonathan C.; Chatterjee, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 4000 exoplanet candidates. Many of them are in systems with tightly packed inner planets. Inside-out planet formation (IOPF) has been proposed as a scenario to explain these systems. It involves sequential in situ planet formation at the local pressure maximum of a retreating dead zone inner boundary (DZIB). Pebbles accumulate at this pressure trap, which builds up a pebble ring and then a planet. The planet is expected to grow in mass until it opens a gap, which helps to both truncate pebble accretion and also induce DZIB retreat that sets the location of formation of the next planet. This simple scenario may be modified if the planet undergoes significant migration from its formation location. Thus, planet-disk interactions play a crucial role in the IOPF scenario. Here we present numerical simulations that first assess the degree of migration for planets of various masses that are forming at the DZIB of an active accretion disk, where the effective viscosity is undergoing a rapid increase in the radially inward direction. We find that torques exerted on the planet by the disk tend to trap the planet at a location very close to the initial pressure maximum where it formed. We then study gap opening by these planets to assess at what mass a significant gap is created. Finally, we present a simple model for DZIB retreat due to penetration of X-rays from the star to the disk midplane. Overall, these simulations help to quantify both the mass scale of first (“Vulcan”) planet formation and the orbital separation to the location of second planet formation.

  19. INSIDE-OUT PLANET FORMATION. III. PLANET–DISK INTERACTION AT THE DEAD ZONE INNER BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiao; Tan, Jonathan C.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 4000 exoplanet candidates. Many of them are in systems with tightly packed inner planets. Inside-out planet formation (IOPF) has been proposed as a scenario to explain these systems. It involves sequential in situ planet formation at the local pressure maximum of a retreating dead zone inner boundary (DZIB). Pebbles accumulate at this pressure trap, which builds up a pebble ring and then a planet. The planet is expected to grow in mass until it opens a gap, which helps to both truncate pebble accretion and also induce DZIB retreat that sets the location of formation of the next planet. This simple scenario may be modified if the planet undergoes significant migration from its formation location. Thus, planet–disk interactions play a crucial role in the IOPF scenario. Here we present numerical simulations that first assess the degree of migration for planets of various masses that are forming at the DZIB of an active accretion disk, where the effective viscosity is undergoing a rapid increase in the radially inward direction. We find that torques exerted on the planet by the disk tend to trap the planet at a location very close to the initial pressure maximum where it formed. We then study gap opening by these planets to assess at what mass a significant gap is created. Finally, we present a simple model for DZIB retreat due to penetration of X-rays from the star to the disk midplane. Overall, these simulations help to quantify both the mass scale of first (“Vulcan”) planet formation and the orbital separation to the location of second planet formation.

  20. Adrenal activity in maned wolves is higher on farmlands and park boundaries than within protected areas.

    PubMed

    Spercoski, Katherinne M; Morais, Rosana N; Morato, Ronaldo G; de Paula, Rogério C; Azevedo, Fernanda C; May-Júnior, Joares A; Santos, Jean P; Reghelin, Angela L; Wildt, David E; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2012-11-01

    In this study we measured excreted fecal corticoid metabolites (FCM) in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) living within a protected reserve, on farmlands or in a boundary zone between the two habitats, and determined the impacts of season and reproductive status on adrenal activity. Feces were collected within a national park (n=191 samples), a park boundary zone (n=39) and on nearby farmlands (n=27), processed and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. FCM amounts from samples collected on farmlands were higher (P<0.05) than in those collected inside the reserve and from the boundary zone. In relation to seasonality, FCM were elevated (P<0.05) in spring (September-November) when wolf pairs were raising young. We then divided the samples collected during breeding season (March-August) into cycling females and male/non-cycling females based on fecal progesterone: fecal testosterone ratio. FCM concentrations of the former collected inside the park were higher than (P<0.05) than the latter group. However, there were no differences in FCM levels between the two groups for samples collected in the boundary zone and on farmlands. Furthermore, FCM concentrations of male/non-cycling females samples collected on farmlands were 2- to 5-fold higher (P<0.05) than in counterparts collected inside the park. The consistently high FCM concentrations in samples collected on farmlands indicate that, in addition to seasonality, gender and reproductive status, anthropogenic pressures also contribute to elevating adrenal steroid for individuals living in altered habitat.

  1. Air Flow Path Dynamics In The Vadose Zone Under Various Land Surface Climate Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Sakaki, T.; Schulte, P. E.; Cihan, A.; Christ, J.

    2010-12-01

    Vapor intrusion (VI) refers to the transport of volatile chemical vapors from subsurface sources to surface and subsurface structures through the vadose zone. Because of the difference in pressure between the inside of the building and the subsurface soil pores, vapor can enter the building through cracks in the foundation, slab and walls and utility openings. The processes that govern the vapor transport in the heterogeneous subsurface “outside the home” are complex, and the sampling to assess potential pathways is subjected to spatial and temporal variability. Spatial variability is a result of a number of factors that include changing soil and soil moisture conditions. Temporal variability is a result of transient heat, wind, ambient pressure and a water flux boundary conditions at the land-atmospheric interface. Fluctuating water table conditions controlled by recharge, pumping, and stream-aquifer interactions will also contribute to the transient vapor flux generation at the sources. When the soil moisture changes as a result of precipitation events and other soil surface boundary conditions, the soil moisture content changes and hence the air permeability. Therefore, the primary pathways for the vapor are preferential channels that change with the transient soil moisture distribution. Both field and laboratory studies have shown that heterogeneity has a significant influence on soil moisture conditions in unsaturated soils. Uncertainties in vapor transport predictions have been attributed to heterogeneity and spatial variability in hydraulic properties. In this study, our goal was to determine the role of soil moisture variability on vapor transport and intrusion as affected by the climate driven boundary conditions on the land surface. A series of experiments were performed to generate a comprehensive data set to understand and evaluate how the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture affected by the mass and heat flux boundary conditions on the

  2. Transpression, displacement partitioning, and exhumation in the eastern Caribbean / South American plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avé Lallemant, Hans G.

    1997-04-01

    The Caribbean/South American plate boundary zone in northeastern Venezuela is a transpressive orogenic belt consisting from north to south of a nascent subduction zone (South Caribbean deformed belt), a volcanic arc (Leeward Antilles arc), a "hinterland" with high-pressure (P)/low temperature (T) metamorphic rocks (Cordillera de la Costa belt), and a southern nonmetamorphic, foreland fold and thrust belt (Serranía del Interior). The geometry, style, and orientation of mid-Cretaceous to Tertiary synmetamorphic deformation structures (D1) in the hinterland are compatible with formation in a right-oblique subduction or collision zone in which displacement partitioning has occurred. Late Oligocene to Recent right-oblique convergence resulted in the emplacement of the arc and hinterland on the passive South American margin and the formation of the foreland fold and thrust belt (D2); the displacements between the Caribbean and South American plates are partitioned as well. Both D1 and D2 deformations are diachronous: they are older in the west and younger in the east and related to the eastward passage of the Caribbean plate with respect to South America. The ascent, decompression, and exhumation of the high-P/low-T metamorphic rocks occurred in two stages: the first in the Cretaceous by arc-parallel extension (D1) and the second in Neogene time by thrusting (D2) and subsequent erosion.

  3. Boundary Breakers: A Team Building Guide for Student Activity Advisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, John

    Boundary breakers, the modern term for "icebreakers," tear down barriers that sometimes form within student groups and organizations, and offer a low-risk way for group members to become better acquainted. This document is a "hands on" booklet that covers such boundary-breaking activities as "Send a Letter,""The Lap Game,""One-Minute Interview,"…

  4. New approach to the boundary-parallel plastic / viscous diapiric flow patterns in the curvilinear boundary zones: an implication for structural geology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil

    2010-05-01

    New approach to the boundary-parallel plastic / viscous diapiric flow patterns in the curvilinear boundary zones: an implication for structural geology studies Khalil Sarkarinejad and Abdolreza Partabian Department of Earth Sciences, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (Sarkarinejad@geology.susc.ac.ir). In the oceanic diverging away plates, the asthenospheric flow at solidus high-temperature conditions typically produces mineral foliations and lineations in peridotites. Foliation and lineation of mantle are defined by preferred flattening and alignment of olivine, pyroxene and spinel. In the areas with steep foliations trajectories which are associated with the steeply plunging stretching lineation trajectories, reflecting localized vertical flow and has been related to mantle diapir. The mantle flow patterns are well documented through detail structural mapping of the Neyriz ophiolite along the Zagros inclined dextral transpression and Oman ophiolite. Such models of the diverging asthenaspheric mantle flow and formation of mantle diapir are rarely discussed and paid any attention in the mathematical models of transpressional deformation in converging continental crusts. Systematic measurements of the mineral preferred orientations and construction of the foliation and lineation trajectories of the Zagros high-strain zone reveal two diapers with the shape of the inclined NW-SE boundary-parallel semi-ellipses shape and one rotated asymmetric diapir. These diapers made of quartzo-feldspathic gneiss and garnet amphibolite core with phyllite, phyllonite, muscovite schist and deformed conglomerate as a cover sequences. These boundary-parallel and rotated diapirs are formed by the interaction of Afro-Arabian lower to middle continental detachment and hot subdacting Tethyan oceanic crust, due to increasing effective pressure and temperature. The plastic/viscous gneissic diapers were squeezed between in Zagros transpression curvilinear boundary zones in an

  5. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  6. The Inner Boundary of the Habitable Zone: Loss Processes of Liquid Water from Terrestrial Planet Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stracke, B.; Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; von Paris, P.; Patzer, B.; Rauer, H.

    2012-04-01

    The question of habitability is very important in the context of terrestrial extrasolar planets. Generally, the Habitable Zone (HZ) is defined as the orbital region around a star, in which life-supporting (habitable) planets can exist. Taking into account that liquid water is a commonly accepted, fundamental requirement for the development of life - as we know it - the habitable region around a star is mainly determined by the stellar insolation of radiation, which is sufficient to maintain liquid water at the planetary surface. This study focuses on different processes that can lead to the complete loss of a liquid water reservoir from the surface of a terrestrial planet to determine the inner boundary of the HZ. The investigated criteria are, for example, reaching the temperature of the critical point of water at the planetary surface, the runaway greenhouse effect and the diffusion-limited escape of water from the atmosphere, which could lead to the loss of the complete water reservoir within the lifetime of a planet. We investigate these criteria, which determine the inner boundary of the HZ, with a one-dimensional radiative-convective model of a planetary atmosphere, which extends from the surface to the mid-mesosphere. Our modelling approach involves the step-by-step increase of the incoming stellar flux and the subsequent iterative calculation of resulting changes in the temperature profiles, the atmospheric water vapour content and the radiative properties. Therefore, this climate model had to be adapted to account for high temperatures and water mixing ratios. For example, the infrared radiative transfer scheme was improved to be suitable for such high temperature and pressure conditions. Modelling results are presented determining the inner boundary of the HZ affected by these processes, which can result in no liquid water on the planetary surface. In this context, especially the role of the runaway greenhouse effect is discussed in detail.

  7. Active Boundary Layer Trip for Supersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloegel, F.; Panigua, G.; Tirtey, S.

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has been full of excitement and success for the hypersonic community thanks to various Scramjet ground tests and launches. These studies have shown promising potentials but the viability to perform commercial flights at Mach 8 is still to be demonstrated. An ideal Scramjet is one which is capable of self- starting over a wide range of angles of attack and Mach number. The Scramjet designer has to ensure that the boundary layer over the inlet ramp is fully turbulent where shocks impact, hence reducing the risks of chocked flow conditions. Most studies have issued the efficiency of roughness trip to trigger the boundary layer transition. At hypersonic speed, heat transfer and drag dramatically increase resulting in skin friction averaging at 40% of the overall drag. This study investigates the possibility of triggering transition using perpendicular air jets on a flat plate place in a hypersonic cross-flow. Experiments were conducted in the von Karman Institute hypersonic blow down wind tunnel H3. This facility is mounted with a Mach 6 contoured nozzles and provides flows with Reynolds number in the range of 10x106/m to 30x106/m. The model consist of a flat plate manufactured with a built -in settling chamber, equipped with a pressure tap and a thermocouple to monitor the jet conditions. A first flat plate was manufactured with a black-coated Plexiglas top, for surface heat transfer measurement using an infrared camera. On the second model, a Upilex sheet equipped with 32 thin film gages was glued, time dependent heat transfer measurements up to 60kHz. The jet injection conditions have been varied and a Mach number of 5.5 kept constant. The flow topology was investigated using fast schlieren techniques and oil flow, in order to gain a better understanding.

  8. Thinking and meddling with boundaries: Critical reflections on Matthew Weinstein's narrative of street medics, red-zones and glop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-03-01

    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and `sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism'. My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the essay performs with respect to three dialectics: (1) technical and political; (2) disciplinarily and multidisciplinarities; and (3) structures and agencies. I conclude with reflections on my boundary labour as a researcher, writer and pedagogue and how such cultural work might learn to live better with difference, ambiguities, hybrids and cross-hybrid learning.

  9. Consolidation patterns during initiation and evolution of a plate-boundary decollement zone: Northern Barbados accretionary prism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.C.; Klaus, A.; Bangs, N.L.; Bekins, B.; Bucker, C.J.; Bruckmann, W.; Erickson, S.N.; Hansen, O.; Horton, T.; Ireland, P.; Major, C.O.; Moore, Gregory F.; Peacock, S.; Saito, S.; Screaton, E.J.; Shimeld, J.W.; Stauffer, P.H.; Taymaz, T.; Teas, P.A.; Tokunaga, T.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole logs from the northern Barbados accretionary prism show that the plate-boundary decollement initiates in a low-density radiolarian claystone. With continued thrusting, the decollement zone consolidates, but in a patchy manner. The logs calibrate a three-dimensional seismic reflection image of the decollement zone and indicate which portions are of low density and enriched in fluid, and which portions have consolidated. The seismic image demonstrates that an underconsolidated patch of the decollement zone connects to a fluid-rich conduit extending down the decollement surface. Fluid migration up this conduit probably supports the open pore structure in the underconsolidated patch.

  10. 75 FR 60004 - Relocation of Standard Time Zone Boundary in the State of North Dakota: Mercer County

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Regulation and Enforcement, U.S. Department of Transportation, Room W94-302, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE... a century, time zone boundaries in North Dakota have had an interesting and varied history... cluster of counties in the southwest corner of the State. Congress transferred the ICC's time...

  11. The Force on a Boundary in Active Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, John; Yan, Wen

    2015-11-01

    We present a general theory for determining the force (and torque) exerted on a boundary (or body) in active matter. The theory extends the description of passive Brownian colloids to self-propelled active particles and applies for all ratios of the thermal energy kB T to the swimmer's activity ksTs = ζU02τR / 6 , where ζ is the Stokes drag coefficient, U0 is the swim speed and τR is the reorientation time of the active particles. The theory has a natural microscopic length scale over which concentration and orientation distributions are confined near boundaries, but the microscopic length does not appear in the force. The swim pressure emerges naturally and dominates the behavior when the boundary size is large compared to the swimmer's run length l =U0τR . The theory is used to predict the motion of bodies of all sizes immersed in active matter.

  12. Estimates of dynamic parameters and boundaries of habitable zones of selected stars of the Pulkovo program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakht, N. A.; Romanenko, L. G.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Vasilkova, O. O.

    2016-01-01

    A list of selected binary stars is presented that have been observed for several decades using a 26-inch refractor at the Pulkovo Observatory. These stars are at a distance from 3.5 to 25 pc from the Sun. They belong to spectral classes F, G, K, and M. Their masses range from 0.3 to 1.5 solar masses. We have analyzed them as possible parent stars for exoplanets taking into account the physical characteristics of these stars. In view of dynamic parameters and orbital elements that we have obtained by Pulkovo observations, ephemerides of positions for the coming years are calculated. The boundaries of the habitable zones around these stars are calculated. The astrometric signal that depends on the gravitational influence of hypothetical planets is estimated. Space telescopes for astrometric observations with microsecond accuracy can be used to detect Earth-like planets near the closest stars of this program. This paper presents an overview of astrometric programs of searches for exoplanets.

  13. Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones

    SciTech Connect

    Desjouy, C. Ollivier, S.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Marsden, O.

    2015-10-28

    The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular – also called Von Neumann – regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.

  14. Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjouy, C.; Ollivier, S.; Marsden, O.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.

    2015-10-01

    The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular - also called Von Neumann - regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.

  15. Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories. PMID:26627125

  16. Continuity of subsurface fault structure revealed by gravity anomaly: the eastern boundary fault zone of the Niigata plain, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Shigeki; Sawada, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Nayuta; Okada, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Honda, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated gravity anomalies around the Niigata plain, which is a sedimentary basin in central Japan bounded by mountains, to examine the continuity of subsurface fault structures of a large fault zone—the eastern boundary fault zone of the Niigata plain (EBFZNP). The features of the Bouguer anomaly and its first horizontal and vertical derivatives clearly illustrate the EBFZNP. The steep first horizontal derivative and the zero isoline of the vertical derivative are clearly recognized along the entire EBFZNP over an area that shows no surface topographic features of an active fault. Two-dimensional density structure analyses also confirm a relationship between the two first derivatives and the subsurface fault structure. Therefore, we conclude that the length of the EBFZNP as an active fault extends to 56 km, which is longer than previously estimated. This length leads to an estimation of a moment magnitude of 7.4 of an expected earthquake from the EBFZNP.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Geodetic constraints on areal changes in the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone: What controls Basin and Range extension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.

    2007-10-01

    Using ˜1500 geodetic velocities we model the present-day spatial patterns of areal changes inside the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone. From this model we show that between the central Gulf of California and the Queen Charlotte Islands there is no significant net change in surface area. This zero net areal-change result allows us to relate regions of areal growth to areas of equivalent contraction elsewhere within the plate boundary zone. We find that areal growth of the Basin and Range province (BRP) and its eastern margin (˜5.2 ± 0.1 × 103 m2/yr) is balanced by areal reduction near northwestern California between 38°N and 42°N. The San Andreas fault system south of 38°N and the plate boundary zone north of ˜42°N (including the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridge systems) each have no significant net areal change. Our results suggest a kinematic relationship between extension in the BRP and contraction near the northern California Coast Ranges and Klamath Mountains. From these observations we propose that, although BRP extension may be caused by internal forces, the southernmost Cascadia subduction zone provides a “window of escape” that acts as a stress guide to BRP extension as well as northwestward Sierra Nevada motion. Such a dynamic model is consistent with independent findings that (1) the least principal horizontal stress orientations in the BRP are toward northern California, (2) extension directions in the BRP have changed orientation to track the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, and (3) the southernmost Cascadia subduction zone is a relatively weak plate boundary.

  18. Using Paleoseismic Trenching and LiDAR Analysis to Evaluate Rupture Propagation Through Segment Boundaries of the Central Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. E. K.; DuRoss, C. B.; Reitman, N. G.; Devore, J. R.; Hiscock, A.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Personius, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoseismic data near fault segment boundaries constrain the extent of past surface ruptures and the persistence of rupture termination at segment boundaries. Paleoseismic evidence for large (M≥7.0) earthquakes on the central Holocene-active fault segments of the 350-km-long Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) generally supports single-segment ruptures but also permits multi-segment rupture scenarios. The extent and frequency of ruptures that span segment boundaries remains poorly known, adding uncertainty to seismic hazard models for this populated region of Utah. To address these uncertainties we conducted four paleoseismic investigations near the Salt Lake City-Provo and Provo-Nephi segment boundaries of the WFZ. We examined an exposure of the WFZ at Maple Canyon (Woodland Hills, UT) and excavated the Flat Canyon trench (Salem, UT), 7 and 11 km, respectively, from the southern tip of the Provo segment. We document evidence for at least five earthquakes at Maple Canyon and four to seven earthquakes that post-date mid-Holocene fan deposits at Flat Canyon. These earthquake chronologies will be compared to seven earthquakes observed in previous trenches on the northern Nephi segment to assess rupture correlation across the Provo-Nephi segment boundary. To assess rupture correlation across the Salt Lake City-Provo segment boundary we excavated the Alpine trench (Alpine, UT), 1 km from the northern tip of the Provo segment, and the Corner Canyon trench (Draper, UT) 1 km from the southern tip of the Salt Lake City segment. We document evidence for six earthquakes at both sites. Ongoing geochronologic analysis (14C, optically stimulated luminescence) will constrain earthquake chronologies and help identify through-going ruptures across these segment boundaries. Analysis of new high-resolution (0.5m) airborne LiDAR along the entire WFZ will quantify latest Quaternary displacements and slip rates and document spatial and temporal slip patterns near fault segment boundaries.

  19. Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary in Near-Infrared and Violet Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaics of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator in violet (top panel) and near-infrared (bottom panel) light. The four images that make up each of these mosaics were taken within a few minutes of each other. Sunlight at 757 nanometers (near-infrared) penetrates deep into Jupiter's troposphere before being absorbed or scattered by clouds to the Galileo spacecraft. This wavelength reveals the features of the lower visible cloud deck. Sunlight at 415 nanometers (violet) is a scattered or absorbed to varying degrees in different parts of Jupiter's atmosphere depending on the types and concentrations of cloud particles and chemicals that color Jupiter's atmosphere. The near-infrared mosaic primarily shows cloud features. The violet mosaic has three distinct regions: it is brightest at the latitude of the jet (horizontally across the center of the mosaic), moderately bright north of the jet, and dark and patchy south of the jet.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 282 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on November 5th, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  20. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-12-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ˜90 to ˜87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70-60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85-80 Ma and 55-45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ˜65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55-45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene-early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene-recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  1. Development of Grain Boundary Precipitate-Free Zones in a Ni-Mo-Cr-W Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Field, Robert; Konitzer, Doug; Kaufman, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the morphology and development of precipitate-free zones (PFZs) near grain boundaries (GBs) in low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) Ni-Mo-Cr-W alloys (based on Haynes 244) have been investigated as a function of thermal history and composition using electron microscopy techniques. It is shown that the formation of wide, continuous PFZs adjacent to GBs can be largely attributed to a vacancy depletion mechanism. It is proposed that variations in the vacancy distributions that develop after solution heat treatment (SHT) and subsequent quenching and aging greatly influence the development of the γ'-Ni2(Mo,Cr) precipitates during the aging process and result in the development of PFZs of varying sizes. The relatively large (5 to 10 μm) PFZs are distinct from the smaller, more common PFZs that result from solute depletion due to GB precipitation that are typically observed after prolonged aging. During the course of this investigation, heat treatment parameters, such as aging time, SHT temperature, cooling rate after SHT, and heating rate to the aging temperature—all of which change vacancy concentration and distribution adjacent to GBs—were investigated and observed to have significant influence on both the size and morphology of the observed PFZs. In contrast to results from other Ni-based alloys studied previously, PFZ development in the current alloys was observed across a broad range of aging temperatures. This appears to be due to the high misfit strain energy of the γ' precipitates, resulting in a nucleation process that is sensitive to vacancy concentration. It is also shown that a slightly modified alloy with higher Mo concentrations develops smaller, more typical PFZs; this is presumably due to an increased driving force for γ' precipitation which overshadows the influence of misfit strain energy, thereby decreasing the sensitivity of precipitation on vacancy concentration.

  2. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  3. Inverse Thermal Analysis of Ti-6Al-4V Laser Welds Using Solidification and Heat-Affected Zone Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.

    2017-03-01

    Temperature histories of Ti-6Al-4V laser welds are presented, which are calculated using numerical-analytical basis functions and boundary constraints based on measured solidification and heat-affected zone cross sections. These weld temperature histories can be adopted as input data to various types of computational procedures, which include numerical models for prediction of solid-state phase transformations and mechanical response. In addition, these temperature histories can be used parametrically for inverse thermal analysis of welds corresponding to other welding processes whose process conditions are within similar regimes. The present study applies an inverse thermal analysis procedure that uses three-dimensional constraint conditions whose two-dimensional projections are mapped within transverse cross sections of experimentally measured solidification and heat-affected zone boundaries.

  4. Inverse Thermal Analysis of Ti-6Al-4V Laser Welds Using Solidification and Heat-Affected Zone Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    Temperature histories of Ti-6Al-4V laser welds are presented, which are calculated using numerical-analytical basis functions and boundary constraints based on measured solidification and heat-affected zone cross sections. These weld temperature histories can be adopted as input data to various types of computational procedures, which include numerical models for prediction of solid-state phase transformations and mechanical response. In addition, these temperature histories can be used parametrically for inverse thermal analysis of welds corresponding to other welding processes whose process conditions are within similar regimes. The present study applies an inverse thermal analysis procedure that uses three-dimensional constraint conditions whose two-dimensional projections are mapped within transverse cross sections of experimentally measured solidification and heat-affected zone boundaries.

  5. Analysis of chromatin boundary activity in Drosophila cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mo; Belozerov, Vladimir E; Cai, Haini N

    2008-01-01

    Background Chromatin boundaries, also known as insulators, regulate gene activity by organizing active and repressive chromatin domains and modulate enhancer-promoter interactions. However, the mechanisms of boundary action are poorly understood, in part due to our limited knowledge about insulator proteins, and a shortage of standard assays by which diverse boundaries could be compared. Results We report here the development of an enhancer-blocking assay for studying insulator activity in Drosophila cultured cells. We show that the activities of diverse Drosophila insulators including suHw, SF1, SF1b, Fab7 and Fab8 are supported in these cells. We further show that double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown of SuHw and dCTCF factors disrupts the enhancer-blocking function of suHw and Fab8, respectively, thereby establishing the effectiveness of using RNA interference in our cell-based assay for probing insulator function. Conclusion The novel boundary assay provides a quantitative and efficient method for analyzing insulator mechanism and can be further exploited in genome-wide RNAi screens for insulator components. It provides a useful tool that complements the transgenic and genetic approaches for studying this important class of regulatory elements. PMID:19077248

  6. Recharge and Lateral Groundwater Flow Boundary Conditions for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    S. James

    2004-10-06

    This analysis is designed to use existing modeling and analysis results as the basis for estimated groundwater flow rates into the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale model domains, both as recharge (infiltration) at the upper boundary (water table), and as underflow at the lateral boundaries. Specifically, this work compiles information on the recharge boundary conditions supplied to the base-case and alternate SZ site-scale flow models taken from (1) distributed recharge from the 1997 (D'Agnese et al. 1997 [DIRS 100131]) or 2001 (D'Agnese et al. 2002 [DIRS 158876]) SZ regional-scale (Death Valley Regional Flow System [DVRFS]) model; (2) recharge below the area of the 1997 (Wu et al. 1997 [DIRS 156453]) or 2003 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale flow model; and (3) focused recharge along Fortymile Wash. In addition, this analysis includes extraction of the groundwater flow rates simulated by the 1997 and 2001 DVRFS models coincident with the lateral boundaries of the SZ site-scale flow models. The fluxes from the 1997 DVRFS were used to calibrate the base-case SZ site-scale flow model. The 2001 DVRFS fluxes are used in the alternate SZ site-scale flow model.

  7. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... southerly along the Montana-North Dakota boundary to the Missouri River; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of that river to the midpoint of the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of the Yellowstone River to the north boundary of T. 150...

  8. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... southerly along the Montana-North Dakota boundary to the Missouri River; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of that river to the midpoint of the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of the Yellowstone River to the north boundary of T. 150...

  9. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... southerly along the Montana-North Dakota boundary to the Missouri River; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of that river to the midpoint of the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of the Yellowstone River to the north boundary of T. 150...

  10. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... southerly along the Montana-North Dakota boundary to the Missouri River; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of that river to the midpoint of the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of the Yellowstone River to the north boundary of T. 150...

  11. [Spatial pattern of soil moisture at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kun; Mi, Jia; Xie, Ying-Zhong

    2010-03-01

    By the methods of classic statistics and geostatistics, this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at 0-50 cm depth in different sampling grain sizes (1 m x 1 m and 2 m x 2 m) at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China. In study area, the soil moisture at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, and 40-50 cm depths of cropland, grassland, and cropland-grassland boundary presented moderate variance, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of grassland was higher than that of cropland. The CV increased with soil depth, and a significant linear regression relation (P < 0.05) was observed between them in sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m. In sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m, the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at different depths was obviously higher at cropland-grassland boundary than in cropland and grassland, which had a moderate to strong spatial dependency, and the range (A0) was 7.65-30.99 m; whereas in sampling grain size 2 m x 2 m, the spatial distribution of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary had both the moderate to strong spatial dependency and the pure nugget effect, and the A0 was 4.16-18.86 m, suggesting that there existed ecological edge effect of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary.

  12. Relationship of quartz LPO fabrics in mylonites near the Alpine Fault, New Zealand to the attitude of the shear zone boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, T. A.; Prior, D. J.; Toy, V.

    2015-12-01

    The active Alpine fault self-exhumes its own ductile shear zone roots and has known kinematics. Within ~1 km of the fault, the foliation is subparallel to the shear zone boundary in which it formed at amphibolite-facies conditions. Using EBSD, we analysed quartz Lattice Preferred Orientations (LPOs) of mylonites along a central part of the fault. The samples were mostly taken from naturally outcropping rocks, complemented by a few sections from core from the DFDP-2B hole—rocks that accommodated a range of finite strains and that have diverse quartz contents. All the LPOs feature a single (or strongest) girdle of c-axes hat is inclined ~28 ±4° away from the pole to the shear zone boundary (SZB) in a sense that is synthetic to the bulk shear. A point maximum of a-axes is inclined at the same angle relative to the shearing direction. This girdle is perpendicular to C' extensional shear bands in the rock, not to the bulk shear zone boundary, whereas the maximum is parallel to the slip direction of the shear bands. These relationships prevail across large variations in quartz content and finite shear strain magnitude. We infer that quartz LPOs are not always reliable indicators of SZB attitude, and they do not necessarily undergo an obvious rotation relative to the SZB as a function of increasing finite strain. Both the C' shears and the LPOs formed as late-incremental features at orientations controlled by the instantaneous geometry of a non-simple shear flow. We suggest that that the C' planes were aligned to planes of maximum shear-strain-rate. The data can be explained by flow in a thinning and stretching shear zone that deforms in plane strain at a Wk of ~0.7 to ~0.85. In support of this, inversions of seismic focal mechanism data yield an orientation of σ1 for the brittle crust of the central Southern Alps "natural laboratory" that approximately coincides with the predicted orientation of the contractional instantaneous stretching axis for the above

  13. Distribution and mechanism of Neogene to present-day vertical axis rotations, Pacific-Australian Plate Boundary Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    1997-01-01

    Remarkably little knowledge exists about mechanisms of vertical axis rotation in continental crust. Steeply dipping basement rocks in South Island, New Zealand, provide an opportunity to map the distribution of rotations across the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone, and to delineate boundaries of rotated blocks in unusual detail. We synthesize new structural data with new and existing paleomagnetic data, with geodetic data, and with patterns of Neogene-Quaternary faulting in the strike-slip Marlborough fault system. For the past 20 m.y., vertical axis rotations have been hinged about two crustal-scale boundaries near the east coast. The NE hinge accommodated ˜50° of early-middle Miocene clockwise rotation, which caused deformation of the eastern ends of the Alpine-Wairau and Clarence strike-slip faults. The SW hinge has accommodated a further 30°-50° of finite clockwise rotation since ˜4 Ma and deflects active fault traces. The locus of rotation has shifted southwestward astride a subduction margin that is lengthening in that direction. Rotating rocks are pinned to the south against a locked collision zone where the continental Chatham Rise impinges against the margin. Slip on inland strike-slip faults is transformed seaward across a zone of fault termination into rigid body rotation of a large continental block that has been thrust eastward over the downgoing subducted slab of the Pacific plate. The rotation mechanism is a "migrating hinge," which resembles a flexed telephone book. Strike-slip faults are translated through a brecciated hinge region that does not coincide with a fixed material line in the rock.

  14. A synthesis and review of geomorphic surfaces of the boundary zone Mt. Taylor to Lucero uplift area, West-Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor volcanic field and Lucero uplift of west-central New Mexico occur in a transitional-boundary zone between the tectonically active Basin-and Range province (Rio Grande rift) and the less tectonically active Colorado plateau. The general geomorphology and Cenozoic erosional history has been discussed primarily in terms of a qualitative, descriptive context and without the knowledge of lithospheric processes. The first discussion of geomorphic surfaces suggested that the erosional surface underlying the Mt. Taylor volcanic rocks is correlative with the Ortiz surface of the Rio Grande rift. In 1978 a study supported this hypothesis with K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks within each physiographic province. The correlation of this surface was a first step In the regional analysis of the boundary zone; however, little work has been done to verify this correlation with numerical age dates and quantitatively reconstruct the surface for neotectonic purposes. Those geomorphic surfaces inset below and younger than the ``Ortiz`` surface have been studied. This report provides a summary of this data as well as unpublished data and a conceptual framework for future studies related to the LANL ISR project.

  15. Crustal Structure of the Caribbean-South American Diffuse Plate Boundary: Subduction Zone Migration and Polarity Reversal Along BOLIVAR Profile 64W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. A.; Levander, A.; Magnani, M.; Zelt, C. A.; Sawyer, D. S.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.

    2005-12-01

    The BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) project is an NSF funded, collaborative seismic experiment in the southeast Caribbean region. The purpose of the project is to understand the diffuse plate boundary created by the oblique collision between the Caribbean and South American plates. Profile 64W of the BOLIVAR experiment, a 450 km-long, N-S transect onshore and offshore Venezuela located at ~64°W longitude, images the deep crustal structures formed by this collision. The active source components of profile 64W include 300 km of MCS reflection data, 33 coincident OBSs, and 344 land seismic stations which recorded 7500 offshore airgun shots and 2 explosive land shots. Results from the reflection and refraction seismic data along 64W show complex crustal structure across the entire span of the diffuse plate boundary. The onshore portion of 64W crosses the fold and thrust belt of the Serrania del Interior, which formed at ~16 Ma by collision of the Caribbean forearc with the northern South American passive margin. Underlying the Serrania del Interior is a south-vergent, remnant Lesser Antillean subduction zone. As this Lesser Antilles subduction impinged on continental crust, it caused a polarity reversal and jump offshore to the north. Convergence was initially localized in the closure and inversion of the Grenada Basin. However, subduction could not develop because of the ~20-km-thick crust of the Aves Ridge; instead, north-vergent subduction initiated further to the north, where ~12-km-thick Caribbean oceanic crust of the Venezuela Basin began to subduct beneath the Aves Ridge in the Pliocene (~4 Ma) and appears to continue subducting today. Between the remnant subduction zone and the modern one, the El Pilar and Coche dextral strike-slip faults accommodate most of the transform motion of the plate boundary. From the Serrania del Interior to the Aves Ridge, ~260 km of accreted orogenic float comprises the diffuse

  16. Non-local sub-characteristic zones of influence in unsteady interactive boundary-layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothmayer, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of incompressible, unsteady, interactive, boundary layers are examined for a model hypersonic boundary layer and internal flow past humps or, equivalently, external flow past short-scaled humps. Using a linear high frequency analysis, it is shown that the domains of dependence within the viscous sublayer may be a strong function of position within the sublayer and may be strongly influenced by the pressure displacement interaction, or the prescribed displacement condition. Detailed calculations are presented for the hypersonic boundary layer. This effect is found to carry over directly to the fully viscous problem as well as the nonlinear problem. In the fully viscous problem, the non-local character of the domains of dependence manifests itself in the sub-characteristics. Potential implications of the domain of dependence structure on finite difference computations of unsteady boundary layers are briefly discussed.

  17. Propulsion by passive filaments and active flagella near boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur A.; Lauga, Eric

    2010-10-01

    Confinement and wall effects are known to affect the kinematics and propulsive characteristics of swimming microorganisms. When a solid body is dragged through a viscous fluid at constant velocity, the presence of a wall increases fluid drag, and thus the net force required to maintain speed has to increase. In contrast, recent optical trapping experiments have revealed that the propulsive force generated by human spermatozoa is decreased by the presence of boundaries. Here, we use a series of simple models to analytically elucidate the propulsive effects of a solid boundary on passively actuated filaments and model flagella. For passive flexible filaments actuated periodically at one end, the presence of the wall is shown to increase the propulsive forces generated by the filaments in the case of displacement-driven actuation, while it decreases the force in the case of force-driven actuation. In the case of active filaments as models for eukaryotic flagella, we demonstrate that the manner in which a solid wall affects propulsion cannot be known a priori, but is instead a nontrivial function of the flagellum frequency, wavelength, its material characteristics, the manner in which the molecular motors self-organize to produce oscillations (prescribed activity model or self-organized axonemal beating model), and the boundary conditions applied experimentally to the tethered flagellum. In particular, we show that in some cases, the increase in fluid friction induced by the wall can lead to a change in the waveform expressed by the flagella, which results in a decrease in their propulsive force.

  18. Thinking and Meddling with Boundaries: Critical Reflections on Matthew Weinstein's Narrative of Street Medics, Red-Zones and Glop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and "sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism". My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the…

  19. STRIKE SLIP ON REACTIVATED TRIASSIC(? ) BASIN BOUNDARY FAULT ZONES AS SOURCES OF EARTHQUAKES NEAR CHARLESTON, S. C.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.; Yuan, Annette

    1986-01-01

    Interpretation of several thousand kilometers of multifold seismic reflection data supports the old theory that earthquakes in the Charleston, S. C. area are associated with reactivated Triassic(? ) basin boundary extensional fault zones. The Gants-Cooke fault zone associated with the Jedburg basin in the 1886 meizoseismal area, an unnamed fault along the margin of the Branchville basin in the Bowman earthquake area and the offshore Helena Banks fault zone (no observed seismicity) along the margin of the Kiawah basin show evidence of reactivation of Triassic(? ) normal faults zones in a compressional, probably strike slip sense. The previously reported reverse separation of these faults observed on the seismic profiles in the late Cretaceous-Cenozoic Coastal Plain sediments is possibly produced by oblique slip with the horizontal component possibly 10 to 100 times the vertical. Earthquake recurrence intervals of several thousand years reported in the Charleston area appear consistent with ranges of magnitude of strike slip displacement inferred from the seismic reflection data, and are constrained by aeromagnetic data.

  20. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  1. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  2. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  3. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  4. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  5. LAR, liprin alpha and the regulation of active zone morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Emily; Johnson, Karl G

    2007-11-01

    Active zones are protein-rich regions of neurons that act as sites of synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release at the pre-synaptic terminus. Although the discovery that the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR and its cytoplasmic binding partner liprin alpha are essential for proper active zone formation is nearly a decade old, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Recent studies have identified a number of binding partners for both LAR and liprin alpha, several of which play key roles in active zone assembly. These include nidogen, dallylike and syndecan--extracellular ligands for LAR that regulate synapse morphogenesis. In addition, liprin-alpha-interacting proteins such as ERC2, RIM and the MALS/Veli-Cask-Mint1 complex cooperate to form a dense molecular scaffold at the active zone that is crucial for proper synaptic function. These studies allow us to propose testable models of LAR and liprin alpha function, and provide insights into the fundamental molecular mechanisms of synapse formation and stabilization.

  6. The Proteome of the Murine Presynaptic Active Zone

    PubMed Central

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Volknandt, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The proteome of the presynaptic active zone controls neurotransmitter release and the short- and long-term structural and functional dynamics of the nerve terminal. The proteinaceous inventory of the presynaptic active zone has recently been reported. This review will evaluate the subcellular fractionation protocols and the proteomic approaches employed. A breakthrough for the identification of the proteome of the presynaptic active zone was the successful employment of antibodies directed against a cytosolic epitope of membrane integral synaptic vesicle proteins for the immunopurification of synaptic vesicles docked to the presynaptic plasma membrane. Combining immunopurification and subsequent analytical mass spectrometry, hundreds of proteins, including synaptic vesicle proteins, components of the presynaptic fusion and retrieval machinery, proteins involved in intracellular and extracellular signaling and a large variety of adhesion molecules, were identified. Numerous proteins regulating the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton are indicative of the functional and structural dynamics of the presynapse. This review will critically discuss both the experimental approaches and prominent protein candidates identified. Many proteins have not previously been assigned to the presynaptic release sites and may be directly involved in the short- and long-term structural modulation of the presynaptic compartment. The identification of proteinaceous constituents of the presynaptic active zone provides the basis for further analyzing the interaction of presynaptic proteins with their targets and opens novel insights into the functional role of these proteins in neuronal communication. PMID:28250380

  7. Radiocarbon evidence for extensive plate-boundary rupture about 300 years ago at the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, A.R.; Atwater, B.F.; Bobrowsky, P.T.; Bradley, L.-A.; Clague, J.J.; Carver, G.A.; Darienzo, M.E.; Grant, W.C.; Krueger, H.W.; Sparks, R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Stuiver, M.

    1995-01-01

    THE Cascadia subduction zone, a region of converging tectonic plates along the Pacific coast of North America, has a geological history of very large plate-boundary earthquakes1,2, but no such earthquakes have struck this region since Euro-American settlement about 150 years ago. Geophysical estimates of the moment magnitudes (Mw) of the largest such earthquakes range from 8 (ref. 3).to 91/2 (ref. 4). Radiocarbon dating of earthquake-killed vegetation can set upper bounds on earthquake size by constraining the length of plate boundary that ruptured in individual earthquakes. Such dating has shown that the most recent rupture, or series of ruptures, extended at least 55 km along the Washington coast within a period of a few decades about 300 years ago5. Here we report 85 new 14C ages, which suggest that this most recent rupture (or series) extended at least 900 km between southern British Columbia and northern California. By comparing the 14C ages with written records of the past 150 years, we conclude that a single magnitude 9 earthquake, or a series of lesser earthquakes, ruptured most of the length of the Cascadia subduction zone between the late 1600s and early 1800s, and probably in the early 1700s.

  8. Subducted banded iron formations as a source of ultralow-velocity zones at the core-mantle boundary.

    PubMed

    Dobson, David P; Brodholt, John P

    2005-03-17

    Ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs) are regions of the Earth's core-mantle boundary about 1-10 kilometres thick exhibiting seismic velocities that are lower than radial-Earth reference models by about 10-20 per cent for compressional waves and 10-30 per cent for shear waves. It is also thought that such regions have an increased density of about 0-20 per cent (ref. 1). A number of origins for ULVZs have been proposed, such as ponding of dense silicate melt, core-mantle reaction zones or underside sedimentation from the core. Here we suggest that ULVZs might instead be relics of banded iron formations subducted to the core-mantle boundary between 2.8 and 1.8 billion years ago. Consisting mainly of interbedded iron oxides and silica, such banded iron formations were deposited in the world's oceans during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eras. We argue that these layers, as part of the ocean floor, would be recycled into the Earth's interior by subduction, sink to the bottom of the mantle and may explain all of the observed features of ULVZs.

  9. Structural Analysis of Active North Bozgush Fault Zone (NW Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, R.; Isik, V.; Caglayan, A.

    2013-12-01

    NW Iran is one of the seismically active regions between Zagros Thrust Belt at the south and Caucasus at the north. Not only large magnitude historical earthquakes (Ms>7), but also 1987 Bozgush, 1997 Ardebil (Mw 6.1) and 2012 Ahar-Varzagan (Mw 6.4) earthquakes reveal that the region is seismically active. The North Bozgush Fault Zone (NBFZ) in this region has tens of kilometers in length and hundreds of meters in width. The zone has produced some large and destructive earthquakes (1593 M:6.1 and 1883 M:6.2). The NBFZ affects the Cenozoic units and along this zone Eocene units thrusted over Miocene and/or Plio-Quaternary sedimentary units. Together with morphologic features (stream offsets and alluvial fan movements) affecting the young unites reveal that the zone is active. The zone is mainly characterized by strike-slip faults with reverse component and reverse faults. Reverse faults striking N55°-85°E and dip of 40°-50° to the SW while strike-slip faults show right lateral slip with N60°-85°W and N60°-80°E directions. Our structural data analysis in NBFZ indicates that the axis direction of σ2 principal stress is vertical and the stress ratio (R) is 0.12. These results suggest that the tectonic regime along the North Bozgush Fault Zone is transpressive. Obtained other principal stresses (σ1, σ3) results are compatible with stress directions and GPS velocity suggested for NW Iran.

  10. Conservation Beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Buffer Zones on Deforestation and Mining Concessions in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Mikaela J; Naughton-Treves, Lisa C

    2016-08-01

    Many researchers have tested whether protected areas save tropical forest, but generally focus on parks and reserves, management units that have internationally recognized standing and clear objectives. Buffer zones have received considerably less attention because of their ambiguous rules and often informal status. Although buffer zones are frequently dismissed as ineffective, they warrant attention given the need for landscape-level approaches to conservation and their prevalence around the world-in Peru, buffer zones cover >10 % of the country. This study examines the effectiveness of buffer zones in the Peruvian Amazon to (a) prevent deforestation and (b) limit the extent of mining concessions. We employ covariate matching to determine the impact of 13 buffer zones on deforestation and mining concessions from 2007 to 2012. Despite variation between sites, these 13 buffer zones have prevented ~320 km(2) of forest loss within their borders during the study period and ~1739 km(2) of mining concessions, an outcome associated with the special approval process for granting formal concessions in these areas. However, a closer look at the buffer zone around the Tambopata National Reserve reveals the difficulties of controlling illegal and informal activities. According to interviews with NGO employees, government officials, and community leaders, enforcement of conservation is limited by uncertain institutional responsibilities, inadequate budgets, and corruption, although formal and community-based efforts to block illicit mining are on the rise. Landscape-level conservation not only requires clear legal protocol for addressing large-scale, formal extractive activities, but there must also be strategies and coordination to combat illegal activities.

  11. Conservation Beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Buffer Zones on Deforestation and Mining Concessions in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, Mikaela J.; Naughton-Treves, Lisa C.

    2016-08-01

    Many researchers have tested whether protected areas save tropical forest, but generally focus on parks and reserves, management units that have internationally recognized standing and clear objectives. Buffer zones have received considerably less attention because of their ambiguous rules and often informal status. Although buffer zones are frequently dismissed as ineffective, they warrant attention given the need for landscape-level approaches to conservation and their prevalence around the world—in Peru, buffer zones cover >10 % of the country. This study examines the effectiveness of buffer zones in the Peruvian Amazon to (a) prevent deforestation and (b) limit the extent of mining concessions. We employ covariate matching to determine the impact of 13 buffer zones on deforestation and mining concessions from 2007 to 2012. Despite variation between sites, these 13 buffer zones have prevented ~320 km2 of forest loss within their borders during the study period and ~1739 km2 of mining concessions, an outcome associated with the special approval process for granting formal concessions in these areas. However, a closer look at the buffer zone around the Tambopata National Reserve reveals the difficulties of controlling illegal and informal activities. According to interviews with NGO employees, government officials, and community leaders, enforcement of conservation is limited by uncertain institutional responsibilities, inadequate budgets, and corruption, although formal and community-based efforts to block illicit mining are on the rise. Landscape-level conservation not only requires clear legal protocol for addressing large-scale, formal extractive activities, but there must also be strategies and coordination to combat illegal activities.

  12. Strain localization along the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) zone in the Eastern Himalaya: insights from field and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir

    2016-04-01

    The southward tapering Himalayan tectonic wedge is sliding over the upper boundary of the subducting Indian crust that act as the basal low angle detachment fault, known as the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). It is now established that at least four crustal-scale south verging thrust faults, such as Main Central Thrust (MCT), Daling Thrust (~ Ramgarh Thrust ~ Shumar Thrust) (DT), Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), have emerged from the MHT, striking the entire length of Himalayan mountain belts. These structures accommodated hundreds of kilometers of crustal shortening since India-Asia collision and eventually, juxtaposed different tectono-metamorphic rocks in their hanging wall. Field investigations reveal increased number of thrust faults towards the frontal Himalayan mountain belts and their spacing between the successive thrusts are relatively small in contrast to the hinterland part of the mountain belt. For example, in the Eastern Himalayan belt the MBT zone in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence is marked by several such closely spaced thrusts. The present work is aimed to delineate factors that likely to have influenced for the development of such high frequency thrusting. Employing the model of Coulomb Wedge Theory (CWT), several researchers have shown that spacing between two consecutive thrusts is a function of basal friction and pore fluid pressure ratio. However, this model does not explain the cause of closely spaced thrust localization towards the frontal mountain belts during the wedge growth. Our present study using field relations and physical modeling shows that relative strength difference between the basal low angle detachment fault and the interface-strength of the varying lithology of the cover rocks has a major role for such thrust localization with narrow thrust spacing. Moreover, our findings may become useful for structural interpretation for the localization of Main Boundary Thrust zone in the frontal Himalayan mountain

  13. Earthquake source parameters at the sumatran fault zone: Identification of the activated fault plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmolan, Madlazim; Santosa, Bagus Jaya; Lees, Jonathan M.; Utama, Widya

    2010-12-01

    Fifteen earthquakes (Mw 4.1-6.4) occurring at ten major segments of the Sumatran Fault Zone (SFZ) were analyzed to identify their respective fault planes. The events were relocated in order to assess hypocenter uncertainty. Earthquake source parameters were determined from three-component local waveforms recorded by IRIS-DMC and GEOFON broadband lA networks. Epicentral distances of all stations were less than 10°. Moment tensor solutions of the events were calculated, along with simultaneous determination of centroid position. Joint analysis of hypocenter position, centroid position, and nodal planes produced clear outlines of the Sumatran fault planes. The preferable seismotectonic interpretation is that the events activated the SFZ at a depth of approximately 14-210 km, corresponding to the interplate Sumatran fault boundary. The identification of this seismic fault zone is significant to the investigation of seismic hazards in the region.

  14. Diffusion of hydrogen in olivine grain boundaries and implications for the survival of water-rich zones in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    2010-06-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) of Earth's mantle can contain hydrogen as atomic impurity in their crystal structures. This hydrogen substantially modifies many physical properties of Earth's mantle rocks. Also, the Earth's deep interior is made of rocks where minerals are separated by nanometer-scale interfaces call grain boundaries and interphase boundaries. These grain boundaries should carefully be considered as a potential hydrogen reservoir as well. I report here an experimental investigation of hydrogen diffusion through grain boundaries in olivine polycrystalline aggregates. Hot-press and diffusion experiments were performed using a gas-medium high-pressure vessel at a confining pressure of 300 MPa, over a temperature range of 1000-1200 °C. The diffusion assembly consisted of a dense polycrystalline cylinder of natural olivine from San Carlos (Arizona) mixed with olivine singles crystals of millimeter size. This mixture was couple with a talc cylinder. Ni capsule were used to buffer the oxygen fugacity at Ni-NiO level. Experiment durations varied from 3 min to 4 h. The presence of hydrogen in the sample was quantified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The calculation of the diffusion coefficients was based on the estimation of the length of polycrystalline solid affected by the diffusion of hydrogen. The absence or presence of hydrogen was recorded by the large olivines behaving here as “hydrogen sensor”, which are implanted in the aggregate. The results indicate that effective hydrogen diffusivity which includes grain boundaries effect in olivine aggregate is barely one order of magnitude faster than hydrogen diffusion in an olivine single crystal with a diffusivity ∼ 8.5 × 10- 10 m2 s- 1 at 1000 °C and only twice faster ∼ 2.1 × 10- 9 m2 s- 1 at 1200 °C. Calculations of the diffusion data in relation to the Arrhenius Law, yield an activation energy of ∼ 70 ± 10 kJ mol- 1. From these effective diffusivities and combined with

  15. Entrainment Zone Characteristics and Entrainment Rates in Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers from DYCOMS-II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    method . With this method , one must measure the mean ascent/descent of the atmosphere at the interface, , alongside the time rate of change of the...using a new method based on turbulence perturbations from high-rate turbulence samplings taken during the Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine...properties and the cloud-top entrainment rates using in situ aircraft measurements . The entrainment zone is defined objectively using a new method based

  16. Visualizing Life Zone Boundary Sensitivities Across Climate Models and Temporal Spans

    SciTech Connect

    Sisneros, Roberto R; Huang, Jian; Ostrouchov, George; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2011-01-01

    Life zones are a convenient and quantifiable method for delineating areas with similar plant and animal communities based on bioclimatic conditions. Such ecoregionalization techniques have proved useful for defining habitats and for studying how these habitats may shift due to environmental change. The ecological impacts of climate change are of particular interest. Here we show that visualizations of the geographic projection of life zones may be applied to the investigation of potential ecological impacts of climate change using the results of global climate model simulations. Using a multi-factor classification scheme, we show how life zones change over time based on quantitative model results into the next century. Using two straightforward metrics, we identify regions of high sensitivity to climate changes from two global climate simulations under two different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Finally, we identify how preferred human habitats may shift under these scenarios. We apply visualization methods developed for the purpose of displaying multivariate relationships within data, especially for situations that involve a large number of concurrent relationships. Our method is based on the concept of multivariate classification, and is implemented directly in VisIt, a production quality visualization package.

  17. Refined Views of Strike-slip Fault Zones, Seismicity, and State of Stress Associated With the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, E.; Nicholson, C.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Shearer, P. M.; Sandwell, D. T.; Yang, W.

    2013-12-01

    The mostly strike-slip plate boundary in southern California is expressed as a system of late Quaternary faults or principal slip zones (PSZs), with numerous adjacent smaller slip surfaces. It is complex, even after large cumulative displacements, and consists of major fault systems with multi-stranded, non-planar fault geometry, including some in close proximity to each other. There are also secondary cross faults and low-angle detachments that interact with the PSZs accommodating main plate boundary motion. The loading of plate-tectonic strain causes the largest earthquakes along PSZs, moderate-sized events in their immediate vicinity, and small earthquakes across the whole region. We apply relocated earthquake and refined focal mechanism (1981-2013) catalogs, as well as other geophysical datasets to provide refined views of the 3D fault geometry of these active fault systems. To determine properties of individual fault zones, we measure the Euclidian distance from every hypocenter to the nearest PSZ. In addition, we assign crustal geophysical parameters such as heat flow value and shear or dilatation strain rates to each epicenter. We investigate seismogenic thickness and fault zone width as well as earthquake source processes. We find that the seismicity rate is a function of location, with the rate dying off exponentially with distance from the PSZ. About 80% of small earthquakes are located within 5 km of a PSZ. For small earthquakes, stress drops increase in size with distance away from the PSZs. The magnitude distribution near the PSZs suggests that large earthquakes are more common close to PSZs, and they are more likely to occur at greater depth than small earthquakes. In contrast, small quakes can occur at any geographical location. An optimal combination of heat flow and strain rate is required to concentrate the strain along rheologically weak fault zones, which accommodate the crustal deformation processes, causing seismicity. The regional trend of

  18. Boundary separating the seismically active reelfoot rift from the sparsely seismic Rough Creek graben, Kentucky and Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Reelfoot rift is the most active of six Iapetan rifts and grabens in central and eastern North America. In contrast, the Rough Creek graben is one of the least active, being seismically indistinguishable from the central craton of North America. Yet the rift and graben adjoin. Hazard assessment in the rift and graben would be aided by identification of a boundary between them. Changes in the strikes of single large faults, the location of a Cambrian transfer zone, and the geographic extent of alkaline igneous rocks provide three independent estimates of the location of a structural boundary between the rift and the graben. The boundary trends north-northwest through the northeastern part of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex of Kentucky and Illinois, and has no obvious surface expression. The boundary involves the largest faults, which are the most likely to penetrate to hypocentral depths, and the boundary coincides with the geographic change from abundant seismicity in the rift to sparse seismicity in the graben. Because the structural boundary was defined by geologic variables that are expected to be causally associated with seismicity, it may continue to bound the Reelfoot rift seismicity in the future.

  19. Defining boundaries for the distribution of microbial communities beneath the sediment-buried, hydrothermally active seafloor.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Ijiri, Akira; Breuker, Anja; Sakai, Sanae; Miyoshi, Youko; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Noguchi, Takuroh; Hirai, Miho; Schippers, Axel; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2017-02-01

    Subseafloor microbes beneath active hydrothermal vents are thought to live near the upper temperature limit for life on Earth. We drilled and cored the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, and examined the phylogenetic compositions and the products of metabolic functions of sub-vent microbial communities. We detected microbial cells, metabolic activities and molecular signatures only in the shallow sediments down to 15.8 m below the seafloor at a moderately distant drilling site from the active hydrothermal vents (450 m). At the drilling site, the profiles of methane and sulfate concentrations and the δ(13)C and δD isotopic compositions of methane suggested the laterally flowing hydrothermal fluids and the in situ microbial anaerobic methane oxidation. In situ measurements during the drilling constrain the current bottom temperature of the microbially habitable zone to ~45 °C. However, in the past, higher temperatures of 106-198 °C were possible at the depth, as estimated from geochemical thermometry on hydrothermally altered clay minerals. The 16S rRNA gene phylotypes found in the deepest habitable zone are related to those of thermophiles, although sequences typical of known hyperthermophilic microbes were absent from the entire core. Overall our results shed new light on the distribution and composition of the boundary microbial community close to the high-temperature limit for habitability in the subseafloor environment of a hydrothermal field.

  20. Boundary-reaction-diffusion model for oscillatory zoning in binary crystals grown from solution.

    PubMed

    Kalischewski, Felix; Lubashevsky, Ihor; Heuer, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    Oscillatory Zoning (OZ) is a phenomenon exhibited by many geologically formed crystals. It is characterized by quasiperiodic oscillations in the composition of a solid solution, caused by self-organization. We present a model for OZ. The growth mechanism applied includes species diffusion through the solution bulk, particle adsorption, surface diffusion, and subsequently desorption or incorporation into the crystal. This mechanism, in particular, can provide the synchronization effects necessary to reproduce the layered structure of experimentally obtained crystals, lacking in other models. We conduct a linear stability analysis combined with numerical simulations. Our results reproduce the experimental findings with respect to the patterns formed and a critical supersaturation necessary for OZ to occur.

  1. Active Flow Control on a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Owens, Lewis R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Allan, Brian G.; Schuster, Ernest P.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as means to improve overall system performance for Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI inlet and lays the groundwork for higher-fidelity systems studies. The results of the system study show that BLI provides a significant improvement in vehicle performance if the inlet distortion can be controlled, thus encouraging the pursuit of active flow control (AFC) as a BLI enabling technology. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet distortion was assessed using a 6% scale model of a 30% BLI offset, diffusing inlet. The experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel with a model inlet designed specifically for this type of testing. High mass flow pulsing actuators provided the active flow control. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion was determined by 120 total pressure measurements located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum freestream Mach number of 0.15 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the pulsed actuation can reduce distortion from 29% to 4.6% as measured by the circumferential distortion descriptor DC60 using less than 1% of inlet mass flow. Closed loop control of the actuation was also demonstrated using a sidewall surface static pressure as the response sensor.

  2. Automated optic disk boundary detection by modified active contour model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Chutatape, Opas; Chew, Paul

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a novel deformable-model-based algorithm for fully automated detection of optic disk boundary in fundus images. The proposed method improves and extends the original snake (deforming-only technique) in two aspects: clustering and smoothing update. The contour points are first self-separated into edge-point group or uncertain-point group by clustering after each deformation, and these contour points are then updated by different criteria based on different groups. The updating process combines both the local and global information of the contour to achieve the balance of contour stability and accuracy. The modifications make the proposed algorithm more accurate and robust to blood vessel occlusions, noises, ill-defined edges and fuzzy contour shapes. The comparative results show that the proposed method can estimate the disk boundaries of 100 test images closer to the groundtruth, as measured by mean distance to closest point (MDCP) <3 pixels, with the better success rate when compared to those obtained by gradient vector flow snake (GVF-snake) and modified active shape models (ASM).

  3. Plate boundary forces in the vicinity of Trinidad-the-transition from transpression to transtension in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary zones

    SciTech Connect

    Algar, S.T.; Pindell, J.L. )

    1993-02-01

    Deformation in the southern Caribbean plate boundary zones as recorded in the Northern Range of Trinidad initiated in the Oligocene with northward vergent gravity sliding of Northern Range sediments due to uplift and oversteepening of the previously passive margin by the eastward migration of the Caribbean flexural forebulge. Progressive east-southeast transvergence of the Caribbean Plate with respect to South America overthrust incorporated the Northern Range sediments into the Caribbean accretionary prism, thrusting them south-southeast to produce a Middle Miocene transpressive foreland fold and thrust belt in southern Trinidad. Late Miocene deformation within Trinidad was increasingly dominated by right-lateral strike-slop (RLSS) faulting, at the expense of transpressive compressional features. Right-stepping of RLSS motion initiated the Gulf of Paria and Caroni pull-apart basins, Since Early Pliocene these basins and other areas to the north of Trinidad have undergone north-south extension in addition to east-west trending RLSS. Such extension caused the northward withdrawal of Caribbean terranes from atop of the Northern Range, Resulting in rapid isostatically induced uplift (approximately 0.5 mmyr[sup -1]). This change in deformation style may relate to a hitherto unrecognized shift in the relative motion of the eastern Caribbean Plate with respect to South America: from east-southeast-directed transpression to east-northeast-directed transtension.

  4. Lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary (LAB) around the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerova, J.; Babuska, V.; Vecsey, L.; Passeq Working Group

    2012-04-01

    Exploiting the long memory of the deep continental lithosphere fabric, we present the LAB as a transition between a fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle and an underlying seismic anisotropy related to the present-day flow in the asthenosphere. A uniform updated model of the European LAB, recalculated from data collected during several regional studies of seismic anisotropy and other tomographic experiments (Plomerova and Babuska, 2010) is complemented by LAB depth estimates from the PASSEQ (2006-2008) field measurements, involving about 17 countries (Wilde-Piorko et al., SGG 2008). Analysis of static terms of teleseismic P-wave travel time deviations shows that the LAB topography is more distinct beneath the Phanerozoic part of Europe than beneath its Precambrian part and deepens down to ~220 km beneath the two Alpine roots, the South Carpathians and eastward of the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ), being shallowest beneath basins. The TESZ represents a distinct tectonic feature, which can be traced from north-western to south-eastern Europe in various seismic velocity tomography as well as in seismic anisotropy (Babuska et al., PAGEOPH 1998). Modelling seismic anisotropy around the western part of TESZ (Plomerova et al., Tectonophysics 2002; Babuska and Plomerova, Terra Nova 2004) delimited there three lithospheric domains of different thickness and fabrics: (1) thick Fennoscandian lithosphere north of the TESZ, (2) the sharply bounded fragment of a thinner lithosphere between the northern (Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone) and southern branch (Thor Suture) of the TESZ; (3) south of the TESZ, a domain belonging to a very thin lithosphere of Avalonia. Structure of the mantle around the Teisseyere-Tornquist Zone (TT), i.e., in the central part of the TESZ, is one of the main targets of the PASSEQ seismic experiment. The suture appears there as a broad transition zone on the surface and in the mantle it separates the thick lithosphere domains of the Paleozoic

  5. The Interfacial Transition Zone in Alkali-Activated Slag Mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Nicolas, Rackel; Provis, John

    2015-12-01

    The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is known to strongly influence the mechanical and transport properties of mortars and concretes. This paper studies the ITZ between siliceous (quartz) aggregates and alkali activated slag binders in the context of mortar specimens. Backscattered electron images (BSE) generated in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) are used to identify unreacted binder components, reaction products and porosity in the zone surrounding aggregate particles, by composition and density contrast. X-ray mapping is used to exclude the regions corresponding to the aggregates from the BSE image of the ITZ, thus enabling analysis of only the binder phases, which are segmented into binary images by grey level discrimination. A distinct yet dense ITZ region is present in the alkali-activated slag mortars, containing a reduced content of unreacted slag particles compared to the bulk binder. The elemental analysis of this region shows that it contains a (C,N)-A-S-H gel which seems to have a higher content of Na (potentially deposited through desiccation of the pore solution) and a lower content of Ca than the bulk inner and outer products forming in the main binding region. These differences are potentially important in terms of long-term concrete performance, as the absence of a highly porous interfacial transition zone region is expected to provide a positive influence on the mechanical and transport properties of alkali-activated slag concretes.

  6. Fault zone structure and inferences on past activities of the active Shanchiao Fault in the Taipei metropolis, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Lee, J.; Chan, Y.; Lu, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Taipei Metropolis, home to around 10 million people, is subject to seismic hazard originated from not only distant faults or sources scattered throughout the Taiwan region, but also active fault lain directly underneath. Northern Taiwan including the Taipei region is currently affected by post-orogenic (Penglai arc-continent collision) processes related to backarc extension of the Ryukyu subduction system. The Shanchiao Fault, an active normal fault outcropping along the western boundary of the Taipei Basin and dipping to the east, is investigated here for its subsurface structure and activities. Boreholes records in the central portion of the fault were analyzed to document the stacking of post- Last Glacial Maximum growth sediments, and a tulip flower structure is illuminated with averaged vertical slip rate of about 3 mm/yr. Similar fault zone architecture and post-LGM tectonic subsidence rate is also found in the northern portion of the fault. A correlation between geomorphology and structural geology in the Shanchiao Fault zone demonstrates an array of subtle geomorphic scarps corresponds to the branch fault while the surface trace of the main fault seems to be completely erased by erosion and sedimentation. Such constraints and knowledge are crucial in earthquake hazard evaluation and mitigation in the Taipei Metropolis, and in understanding the kinematics of transtensional tectonics in northern Taiwan. Schematic 3D diagram of the fault zone in the central portion of the Shanchiao Fault, displaying regional subsurface geology and its relation to topographic features.

  7. Multiferroic domain boundaries as active memory devices: trajectories towards domain boundary engineering.

    PubMed

    Salje, Ekhard K H

    2010-04-06

    Twin boundaries in ferroelastics and curved interfaces between crystalline and amorphous zircon can, in principle, act as multiferroic structural elements and lead the way to the discovery of novel multiferroic devices which are based on structurally heterogeneous materials. While this paradigm has not yet been explored in full, this review shows that physical and chemical properties can vary dramatically inside twin boundaries and interfaces. Properties that have been already been explored include electric dipoles in a non-polar matrix, the appearance of superconductivity in twin boundaries and the catalytic reaction of hydrous species in interfaces of radiation damaged material. Some of the fundamental physical and chemical properties of twin boundaries and related interfaces are described and possible applications are outlined.

  8. Partitioning of oblique convergence in the Northern Andes subduction zone: Migration history and the present-day boundary of the North Andean Sliver in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.; Nocquet, J. M.; Jaillard, E.; Mothes, P.; Jarrín, P.; Segovia, M.; Rolandone, F.; Cisneros, D.

    2016-05-01

    Along the Ecuadorian margin, oblique subduction induces deformation of the overriding continental plate. For the last 15 Ma, both exhumation and tectonic history of Ecuador suggest that the northeastward motion of the North Andean Sliver (NAS) was accompanied by an eastward migration of its eastern boundary and successive progressively narrowing restraining bends. Here we present geologic data, earthquake epicenters, focal mechanisms, GPS results, and a revised active fault map consistent with this new kinematic model. All data sets concur to demonstrate that active continental deformation is presently localized along a single major fault system, connecting fault segments from the Gulf of Guayaquil to the eastern Andean Cordillera. Although secondary faults are recognized within the Cordillera, they accommodate a negligible fraction of relative motion compared to the main fault system. The eastern limit is then concentrated rather than distributed as first proposed, marking a sharp boundary between the NAS, the Inca sliver, and the Subandean domain overthrusting the South American craton. The NAS limit follows a northeast striking right-lateral transpressional strike-slip system from the Gulf of Guayaquil (Isla Puná) to the Andean Cordillera and with the north-south striking transpressive faults along the eastern Andes. Eastward migration of the restraining belt since the Pliocene, abandonment of the sutures and reactivation of north-south striking ancient fault zones lead to the final development of a major tectonic boundary south and east of the NAS, favoring its extrusion as a continental sliver, accommodating the oblique convergence of the Nazca oceanic plate toward South America.

  9. Geothermal Frontier: Penetrate a boundary between hydrothermal convection and heat conduction zones to create 'Beyond Brittle Geothermal Reservoir'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, N.; Asanuma, H.; Sakaguchi, K.; Okamoto, A.; Hirano, N.; Watanabe, N.; Kizaki, A.

    2013-12-01

    EGS has been highlightened as a most promising method of geothermal development recently because of applicability to sites which have been considered to be unsuitable for geothermal development. Meanwhile, some critical problems have been experimentally identified, such as low recovery of injected water, difficulties to establish universal design/development methodology, and occurrence of large induced seismicity. Future geothermal target is supercritical and superheated geothermal fluids in and around ductile rock bodies under high temperatures. Ductile regime which is estimated beyond brittle zone is target region for future geothermal development due to high enthalpy fluids and relatively weak water-rock interaction. It is very difficult to determine exact depth of Brittle-Ductile boundary due to strong dependence of temperature (geotherm) and strain rate, however, ductile zone is considered to be developed above 400C and below 3 km in geothermal fields in Tohoku District. Hydrothermal experiments associated with additional advanced technology will be conducting to understand ';Beyond brittle World' and to develop deeper and hotter geothermal reservoir. We propose a new concept of the engineered geothermal development where reservoirs are created in ductile basement, expecting the following advantages: (a)simpler design and control the reservoir, (b)nearly full recovery of injected water, (c)sustainable production, (d)cost reduction by development of relatively shallower ductile zone in compression tectonic zones, (e)large quantity of energy extraction from widely distributed ductile zones, (f)establishment of universal and conceptual design/development methodology, and (g) suppression of felt earthquakes from/around the reservoirs. In ductile regime, Mesh-like fracture cloud has great potential for heat extraction between injection and production wells in spite of single and simple mega-fracture. Based on field observation and high performance hydrothermal

  10. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT SEARCH TOWARD THE BOUNDARY OF THE CENTRAL MOLECULAR ZONE WITH NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nishiyama, Shogo; Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide E-mail: nagata@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2014-08-01

    We have carried out near-infrared polarimetry toward the boundary of the Central Molecular Zone, in the field of (–1.°4 ≲ l ≲ –0.°3 and 1.°0 ≲ l ≲ 2.°9, |b| ≲ 0.°1), using the near-infrared polarimetric camera SIRPOL on the 1.4 m Infrared Survey Facility telescope. We have selected 112 intrinsically polarized sources on the basis of the estimate of interstellar polarization on Stokes Q/I – U/I planes. The selected sources are brighter than K{sub S} = 14.5 mag and have polarimetric uncertainty δP < 1%. Ten of these distinctive polarized sources are fit well with spectral energy distributions of young stellar objects when using the photometry in the archive of the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared data. However, many sources have spectral energy distributions of normal stars suffering from heavy interstellar extinction; these might be stars behind dark clouds. Due to the small number of distinctive polarized sources and candidates of young stellar objects, we cannot judge if they are declining in number outside the Central Molecular Zone. Many massive candidates for young stellar objects in the literature have only small intrinsic polarization. This might suggest that their masses are 4-15 M {sub ☉}, whose intrinsic polarization has been expected to be small.

  11. Seismic heating signatures in the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone: evidence from a preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Dekkers, Mark J.; Zhang, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Frictional heating during earthquake rupture reveals important information on earthquake mechanisms and energy dissipation. The amount of annealing varies widely and is, as yet, poorly constrained. Here we use magnetic susceptibility versus temperature measurements during cycling to increasingly elevated temperatures to constrain the maximum temperature a slip zone has experienced. The case study comprises sheared clay cored from the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone (décollement), which accommodated the large slip of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The décollement was cored during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343, the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). Heating signatures with estimated maximum temperatures ranging from ˜300 to over 500 °C are determined close to the multiple slip surfaces within the décollement. Since it is impossible to tie a specific slip surface to a certain earthquake, thermal evidence for the cumulative effect of several earthquakes is unveiled. This as yet preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer' would be a useful tool to detect seismic heating along faults that experienced medium temperature rise, a range which is difficult to assess with other approaches.

  12. Kinematics to dynamics in the New Zealand Plate boundary zone: implications for the strength of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plate. Cenozoic relative plate motion has resulted in a complex pattern of faulting and block rotation in a zone of continental lithosphere up to 250 km wide. I investigate the implications of the short-term kinematics for the strength of the deforming lithosphere. I use a compilation of seismic reflection/refraction studies and high quality receiver function analyses to determine both the regional structure of the crust, which ranges from 20 to 50 km thick, and fields of buoyancy stress (or GPE per unit volume). Deformation over thousands of years is quantified in terms of velocity and strain rate fields, based on an inversion of neotectonic fault slip and palaeomagnetic data, in the context of the short-term relative plate motions. Forces on the subduction megathrust, as well as deviatoric stresses in the behind subduction region, are calculated from simple 2-D force balances across the Hikurangi Margin, given negligible deviatoric stresses at the along-strike transition between backarc extension and compression. Average megathrust shear stresses are in the range 6-15 MPa, and average lithospheric stresses <20 MPa in the overriding plate. The regional lithospheric strength of the plate boundary zone, assuming a viscous rheology (Newtonian or power law), is determined from an inversion of the field of gradients of buoyancy stress (averaged over either the top 25 km of the crust, or 100-km-thick lithosphere) and strain rate, using the thin sheet stress balance equations, calibrated with the subduction force balance analysis. Effective viscosities for the deforming lithosphere and/or crust are in the range 0.1-5 × 1021 Pa s, with marked weakening in zones of high strain rate, and an abrupt transition to viscosities >1022 Pa s at the margins of the rigid plates. If lateral variations in effective viscosity are only due to non-Newtonian behaviour, these data indicate a bulk power law rheology, with

  13. Linking Plagioclase Zoning Patterns to Active Magma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Neill, O. K.; Shcherbakov, V.; Plechov, P.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Plagioclase, one of the most common and abundant mineral phases in volcanic products, will vary in composition in response to changes in temperature, pressure, composition of the ambient silicate melt, and melt H2O concentration. Changes in these parameters may cause dissolution or growth of plagioclase crystals, forming characteristic textural and compositional variations (zoning patterns), the complete core-to-rim sequence of which describes events experienced by an individual crystal from its nucleation to the last moments of its growth. Plagioclase crystals in a typical volcanic rock may look drastically dissimilar despite their spatial proximity and the fact that they have erupted together. Although they shared last moments of their growth during magma ascent and eruption, their prior experiences could be very different, as plagioclase crystals often come from different domains of the same magma system. Distinguishing similar zoning patterns, correlating them across the entire population of plagioclase crystals, and linking these patterns to specific perturbations in the magmatic system may provide additional perspective on the variety, extent, and timing of magma processes at active volcanic systems. Examples of magma processes, which may be distinguished based on plagioclase zoning patterns, include (1) cooling due to heat loss, (2) heating and/or pressure build up due to an input of new magmatic material, (3) pressure drop in response to magma system depressurization, and (4) crystal transfer between different magma domains/bodies. This review will include contrasting examples of zoning patters from recent eruptions of Karymsky, Bezymianny, and Tolbachik Volcanoes in Kamchatka, Augustine and Cleveland Volcanoes in Alaska, as well as from the drilling into an active magma body at Krafla, Iceland.

  14. Rainy Lake wrench zone: An example of an Archaean subprovince boundary in northwestern Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Superior Province of the Canadian Shield comprises an alternation of subprovinces with contrasting lithological, structural and metamorphic styles. Rocks of the Rainly Lake area form a fault bounded wedge between two of these subprovinces, the Wabigoon granite-greenstone terrain to the north and the Quetico metasedimentary terrain to the south. The Quetico and Seine River-Rainy Lake Faults bound this wedge within which interpretation of the stratigraphy has been historically contentious. In the eastern part of the wedge, volcanic rocks and coeval tonalitic sills are unconformably overlain by fluviatile conglomerate and arenite of the Seine Group; in the western part of the wedge, metamorphosed wacke and mudstone of the Coutchiching Group are cut by granodioritic plutons. The Coutchiching Group has previously been correlated with the Seine Group and with the turbiditic Quetico metasediments of the Quetico Subprovince and these correlations are the cornerstone of earlier tectonic models which relate the subprovinces. The structural geology of the Rainy Lake area is characterized by attributes which compare favourably with the known characteristics of dextral wrench or 'transpressive zones based both on experimental data and natural examples. Much of this deformation involved the Seine Group, the youngest stratigraphic unit in the area, and predates the emplacement of late-to-post-tectonic granodioritic plutons for which radiometric data indicate a Late Archean age.

  15. 77 FR 71167 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, Nebraska, Authorization of Production Activity, Novartis Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 59--Lincoln, Nebraska, Authorization of Production Activity, Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Related Preparations Production), Lincoln, Nebraska Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. submitted a notification of proposed production activity for the...

  16. Active faulting south of the Himalayan Front: Establishing a new plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeats, Robert S.; Thakur, V. C.

    2008-06-01

    New tectonic uplifts south of the Salt Range Thrust and Himalayan Front Thrust (HFT) represent an outward step of the plate boundary from the principal tectonic displacement zone into the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In Pakistan, the Lilla Anticline deforms fine-grained overbank deposits of the Jhelum River floodplain 15 km south of the Salt Range. The anticline is overpressured in Eocambrian non-marine strata. In northwest India south of Dehra Dun, the Piedmont Fault (PF) lies 15 km south of the HFT. Coalescing fans derived from the Himalaya form a piedmont (Old Piedmont Zone) 15-20 km wide east of the Yamuna River. This zone is uplifted as much as 15-20 m near the PF, and bedding is tilted 5-7° northeast. Holocene thermoluminescence-optically-stimulated luminescence dates for sediments in the Old Piedmont Zone suggest that the uplift rate might be as high as several mm/a. The Old Piedmont Zone is traced northwest 200 km and southeast another 200 km to the Nepal border. These structures, analogous to protothrusts in subduction zones, indicate that the Himalayan plate boundary is not a single structure but a series of structures across strike, including reactivated parts of the Main Boundary Thrust north of the range front, the HFT sensu stricto, and stepout structures on the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Displacement rates on all these structures must be added to determine the local India-Himalaya convergence rate.

  17. Rapid Kinematic and Tectonic Variations Along the 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark Plate Boundary Zone, Papua New Guinea and Woodlark Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Gahagan, L.; Watson, L.

    2004-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown the wide variability in present-day plate motions across the highly arcuate, 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark plate boundary extending from Papua New Guinea to the Solomon Islands. GPS-determined motions range from orthogonal oceanic spreading in the Woodlark basin, to continental transtension in the 2.5-km-high core complex area of easternmost Papua New Guinea, to continental strike-slip and transpression in 4-km-high mountains of the Papuan Peninsula. We use imagery, earthquake focal mechanisms, coral reef uplift data, and structural mapping studies to establish the along-strike continuity of the active plate boundary fault. Systematic angular changes in the direction of the plate vector along this continuous fault explain its varied tectonic geomorphology, Holocene uplift history, and geologic structure. We use a series of plate reconstructions to illustrate the longer term, Cenozoic evolution of this boundary including: its formation as an arcuate, N- and NE-dipping ophiolitic suture zone during Paleogene time, the progressive "unzippering" of this thrust over the past 6 Ma along a N- and NE-dipping, low-angle normal fault in easternmost Papua New Guinea, and its "zippering" or continued shortening on the suture thrust in the Owen Stanley Ranges of the Papuan Peninsula. Over the 1400-km-length of the fault, the length of segments of oceanic spreading, transtension, and transpression is 250-500 km; the time period separating one tectonic style from the succeeding style encroaching from the east is several million years. This systematic spatial and temporal superposition of tectonic styles, leads to complex - but predictable - along-strike variations in geologic history.

  18. Breaking into the Plate: Seismic and Hydroacoustic Analysis of a 7.6 Mw Oceanic Fracture Zone Earthquake Adjacent to the Central Indian Ridge Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Tolstoy, M.; Chapp, E.

    2003-12-01

    aftershock zone and the centroid location lies within its eastern portion, the rupture appears to have propagated from the plate boundary, breaking into the Indian plate along the fracture zone. The moment tensor solution for the mainshock event indicates dominantly right-lateral slip with a near vertical nodal plane striking parallel to the trend of the aftershocks. The right-lateral sense of slip opposes the left-lateral slip along the adjacent active transform and is consistent with reactivation due to north-south extension in association with a diffuse plate boundary that separates the Indian and Australian Plates. Coulomb failure modeling indicates that the right-lateral mainshock should promote left-lateral slip on the active portions of neighboring transforms. Consistent with this prediction, the largest aftershock, a 5.6 Mw left-lateral earthquake, is located on the active portion of a transform approximately 150 km northwest of the mainshock rupture. These models also show that left-lateral slip on the adjacent active transform, extending southwest from mainshock rupture, should be inhibited. No aftershock activity is observed along this active transform. Static stress changes will tend to reduce ridge-normal compressive stresses along the portion of the CIR axis to the north of the mainshock, with an increase in ridge-normal compression to the south. This will promote and impede axis-parallel diking events within these respective regions.

  19. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Signal International Texas GP, LLC, in Orange, Texas....

  20. Cerebral Blood Flow Heterogeneity in Preterm Sheep: Lack of Physiological Support for Vascular Boundary Zones in Fetal Cerebral White Matter

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Melissa; Riddle, Art; Manese, Mario; Luo, Ning Ling; Rorvik, Dawn A.; Kelly, Katherine A.; Barlow, Clyde H.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Vinecore, Kevin; Roberts, Colin; Hohimer, A. Roger; Back, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Periventricular white matter (PVWM) injury is the leading cause of chronic neurological disability in survivors of prematurity. To address the role of cerebral ischemia in the pathogenesis of this injury, we tested the hypothesis that immaturity of spatially distal vascular “end” or “border” zones predisposes the PVWM to be more susceptible to falls in cerebral blood flow (CBF) than more proximal regions, such as the cerebral cortex. We used fluorescently-labeled microspheres to quantify regional CBF in situ in the 0.65 gestation fetal sheep in histopathologically-defined 3-dimensional regions by means of post hoc digital dissection and co-registration algorithms. Basal flow in PVWM was significantly lower than gyral white matter and cerebral cortex, but was equivalent in superficial, middle and deep PVWM. Absolute and relative CBF (expressed as percentage of basal) CBF did not differ during ischemia or reperfusion between the PVWM and more superficial gyral white matter or cortex. Moreover, CBF during ischemia and reperfusion was equivalent at three distinct levels of the PVWM. Absolute and relative CBF during ischemia and reperfusion was not predictive of the severity of PVWM injury, as defined by TUNEL staining. However, the magnitude of ischemia to the cerebral cortex directly correlated with lesion severity (r= −0.48, p<.05). Hence, the PVWM did not display unique CBF disturbances that accounted for the distribution of injury. These results suggest that previously-defined cellular-maturational factors have a greater influence on the vulnerability of PVWM to ischemic injury than the presence of immature vascular-boundary zones. PMID:18091757

  1. The active zone T-bar--a plasticity module?

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Carolin; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2010-09-01

    The synaptic active zone, the site where Ca(2+)-triggered fusion of synaptic vesicles takes place, is commonly associated with protein-rich, electron-dense cytomatrices. The molecular composition and functional role of active zones, especially in the context of vesicular exo- and endocytosis, are under intense investigation. Per se, Drosophila synapses, which display so-called T-bars as electron-dense specializations, should be a highly suitable model system, as they allow for a combination of efficient genetics with ultrastructural and electrophysiological analyses. However, it needed a biochemical approach of the Buchner laboratory to "molecularly" access the T-bar by identification of the CAST/ERC-family member Bruchpilot as the first T-bar-residing protein. Genetic elimination of Bruchpilot revealed that the protein is essential for T-bar formation, calcium channel clustering, and hence proper vesicle fusion and patterned synaptic plasticity. Recently, Bruchpilot was shown to directly shape the T-bar, likely by adopting an elongated conformation. Moreover, first mechanisms that control the availability of Bruchpilot for T-bar assembly were described. This review seeks to summarize the information on T-bar structure, as well as on functional aspects, formulating the hypothesis that T-bars are genuine "plasticity modules."

  2. Geologic map transecting the highland/lowland boundary zone, Arabia Terra, Mars; quadrangles 30332, 35332, 40332, and 45332

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGill, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Arabia Terra is a large region of cratered terrane extending from about 20° W. longitude eastward across the prime meridian to about 300° W. longitude for an average east-west width of about 5,000 km. The northern boundary ranges from 40° N. to 45° N.; the southern boundary is a poorly defined zone at about 0° N. Thus, the north-south width is about 2,500 km. Except for the westernmost part, Arabia Terra has an albedo higher than surrounding terranes. The four quadrangles mapped (30332, 35332, 40332, 45332) provide a north-south strip from highland terrane in the south to lowland terrane in the north. The northern portion of Arabia Terra is the type region for both fretted terrane and fretted valleys and, along with the immediately adjacent northern plains, is also the site of some of the best examples of putative flow deposits present as aprons around isolated knobs and mesas or as deposits on the floors of fretted valleys and on the lowland surface. Mass wasting, eolian erosion or deposition, glacial scouring, fluvial or shoreline erosion, deposition from an ocean, hydrovolcanism, plateau volcanism, and faulting have all been proposed to account for the topography and crater characteristics in northern Arabia Terra. Although underlain by what appears to be typical highland terrane, Arabia Terra is anomalously low, with elevations generally below the planetary reference. Probably the most important question concerning the global-scale tectonic history of Mars is the origin of the crustal dichotomy. The northern lowland is not only several kilometers lower than the southern highland, it also is surfaced by materials that are significantly younger than surface materials in the southern highland. The young surface materials in the lowland rest unconformably on basement material having an age comparable to the exposed ancient highland terrane to the south. The age of the dichotomy continues to be controversial, as does the mechanism for its formation, as reviewed

  3. Observations of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Across the Land-Sea Transition Zone Using an Elastic Scanning Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Bergant, Klemen; Filipčič, Andrej; Forte, Biagio; Stanič, Samo; Veberič, Darko; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2010-05-01

    In the case of uneven terrain, atmospheric effects in the land-sea transition zone are numerous and diverse due to frequent changes in the wind direction and different effects of the heat flux on the sea and land surface. Such a case is the coastal region of the northernmost part of the Adriatic sea. Behind the coastal line the terrain rapidly rises to a Karst plateau (about 300 m a.s.l.), falls into the Vipava valley (60 m a.s.l.) and rises again to a mountainous region with maximum altitudes at about 1500 m a.s.l. To obtain complete meteorological status of the atmosphere in this region, a series of remote sensing experiments of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) across the land-sea transition zone were performed on 1 July 2009 using an elastic scattering lidar. The lidar system, which has vertical scanning and long-range detection functionality, was located at Otlica observatory in Slovenia, within 30 km of the coastal line and at an elevation of 945 m a.s.l. The atmosphere was scanned for elevation angles between 0° and 20° and the lidar data was processed into Cartesian 2-dimensional range-height-indicator plots with a spatial resolution of 50 m in both coordinates. Each pixel of the plot represents the weighted logarithm range-squared-corrected signal at that position and contains all the atmospheric information. Assuming horizontal atmospheric homogeneity, the optical depth, the extinction coefficients and the height of the ABL were calculated. The increase of the lidar detection range and the steepening of the optical depth profiles with time were observed, showing that on average the extinction coefficients in the ABL were decreasing during the experiment. The height of the ABL changed from 1.8 km to 0.55 km in about 3 hours. Rapid drop of the ABL height indicates highly variable atmospheric conditions in the land-sea transition zone and the adjacent mountainous region.

  4. Implementation of Microwave Active Nulling and Interrogation of Boundary Impedance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Sep. 2004. Electromagnetic Interrogation over Electric Boundary -H. How and C. Vittoria, "Microwave Impedance Control Over a Ferrite Boundary Layer...Utilizing Nonreciprocal Wave Propagation," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-52(8), 2004. Electromagnetic Interrogation involving Hexagonal Ferrite ...H. How, X. Zuo, and C. Vittoria, "Wave Propagation in Ferrite Involving Planar Anisotropy - Theory and Experiment" IEEE Trans. Magnetics, Mag-41(8

  5. Solar wind control of auroral zone geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. R.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Searls, C.; Kivelson, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    Solar wind magnetosphere energy coupling functions are analyzed using linear prediction filtering with 2.5 minute data. The relationship of auroral zone geomagnetic activity to solar wind power input functions are examined, and a least squares prediction filter, or impulse response function is designed from the data. Computed impulse response functions are observed to have characteristics of a low pass filter with time delay. The AL index is found well related to solar wind energy functions, although the AU index shows a poor relationship. High frequency variations of auroral indices and substorm expansions are not predictable with solar wind information alone, suggesting influence by internal magnetospheric processes. Finally, the epsilon parameter shows a poorer relationship with auroral geomagnetic activity than a power parameter, having a VBs solar wind dependency.

  6. Grey zones in cardiomyopathies: defining boundaries between genetic and iatrogenic disease.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Giovanni; Papadakis, Michael; Donna, Paolo Di; Maurizi, Niccolò; Iacovoni, Attilio; Gavazzi, Antonello; Senni, Michele; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2017-02-01

    Genetic cardiomyopathies are complex diseases with heterogeneous clinical presentation and phenotypes. Early descriptions of cardiomyopathies originated from case studies involving individuals with severe, paradigmatic presentation, which provided insight into the worst-case scenarios of these conditions. With time, improved diagnostic sensitivity and awareness of cardiomyopathies has uncovered a more heterogeneous disease spectrum, including mild phenotypes overlapping with physiological variation. This diagnostic 'grey area' poses important dilemmas, particularly in athletes. Current screening policies have the potential to identify affected individuals at very early stages, leading to effective prevention of cardiomyopathy-related complications such as sudden cardiac death. Conversely, however, some physicians actively impose diagnoses on individuals who perceive themselves to be disease-free. In addition, the high sensitivity of contemporary diagnostic techniques carries a serious risk of misinterpreting physiological variation as disease. In this Review, three of the most common and controversial areas are discussed, including left ventricular hypertrophy; left ventricular dilatation, noncompaction, and fibrosis; and arrhythmias originating from the right ventricle. A systematic and cautious approach is necessary in patients with mild phenotypes suggestive of, but not definitely diagnostic for, cardiomyopathies. Preventing the mislabelling of healthy individuals and overdiagnosis should be a priority, with the aim to combine adequate counselling and optimal protection.

  7. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine... SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-20 Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone....

  8. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine... SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-20 Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone....

  9. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine... SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-20 Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone....

  10. 78 FR 55057 - Foreign-Trade Zone 134-Chattanooga, Tennessee; Authorization of Production Activity; Komatsu...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 134--Chattanooga, Tennessee; Authorization of Production Activity; Komatsu America Corporation, (Construction and Forestry Equipment), Chattanooga, Tennessee On...

  11. 77 FR 61381 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Baxter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico, (Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Intravenous Bags...

  12. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production);...

  13. An Integrated Geospatial System for earthquake precursors assessment in Vrancea tectonic active zone in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.

    2015-10-01

    With the development of space-based technologies to measure surface geophysical parameters and deformation at the boundaries of tectonic plates and large faults, earthquake science has entered a new era. Using time series satellite data for earthquake prediction, it is possible to pursue the behaviors of earthquake precursors in the future and to announce early warnings when the differences between the predicted value and the observed value exceed the pre-define threshold value. Starting with almost one week prior to a moderate or strong earthquake a transient thermal infrared rise in LST of several Celsius degrees (oC) and the increased OLR values higher than the normal have been recorded around epicentral areas, function of the magnitude and focal depth, which disappeared after the main shock. Also are recorded associated geomagnetic and ionospheric distrurbances. Vrancea tectonic active zone in Romania is characterized by a high seismic hazard in European- Mediterranean region, being responsible of strong or moderate intermediate depth and normal earthquakes generation on a confined epicentral area. Based on recorded geophysical parameters anomalies was developed an integrated geospatial system for earthquake precursors assessment in Vrancea active seismic zone. This system integrates derived from time series MODIS Terra/Aqua, NOAA-AVHRR, ASTER, Landsat TM/ETM satellite data multi geophysical parameters (land surface temperature -LST, outgoing long-wave radiation- OLR, and mean air temperature- AT as well as geomagnetic and ionospheric data in synergy with in-situ data for surveillance and forecasting of seismic events.

  14. Tectonic activity evolution of the Scotia-Antarctic Plate boundary from mass transport deposit analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Bohoyo, Fernando; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Casas, David; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruano, Patricia; Maldonado, Andrés.

    2016-04-01

    The spatial distribution and temporal occurrence of mass transport deposits (MTDs) in the sedimentary infill of basins and submerged banks near the Scotia-Antarctic plate boundary allowed us to decode the evolution of the tectonic activity of the relevant structures in the region from the Oligocene to present day. The 1020 MTDs identified in the available data set of multichannel seismic reflection profiles in the region are subdivided according to the geographic and chronological distributions of these features. Their spatial distribution reveals a preferential location along the eastern margins of the eastern basins. This reflects local deformation due to the evolution of the Scotia-Antarctic transcurrent plate boundary and the impact of oceanic spreading along the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). The vertical distribution of the MTDs in the sedimentary record evidences intensified regional tectonic deformation from the middle Miocene to Quaternary. Intensified deformation started at about 15 Ma, when the ESR progressively replaces the West Scotia Ridge (WSR) as the main oceanic spreading center in the Scotia Sea. Coevally with the WSR demise at about 6.5 Ma, increased spreading rates of the ESR and numerous MTDs were formed. The high frequency of MTDs during the Pliocene, mainly along the western basins, is also related to greater tectonic activity due to uplift of the Shackleton Fracture Zone by tectonic inversion and extinction of the Antarctic-Phoenix Ridge and involved changes at late Pliocene. The presence of MTDs in the southern Scotia Sea basins is a relevant indicator of the interplay between sedimentary instability and regional tectonics.

  15. Super-resolution microscopy of the synaptic active zone

    PubMed Central

    Ehmann, Nadine; Sauer, Markus; Kittel, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Brain function relies on accurate information transfer at chemical synapses. At the presynaptic active zone (AZ) a variety of specialized proteins are assembled to complex architectures, which set the basis for speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Calcium channels are pivotal for the initiation of excitation-secretion coupling and, correspondingly, capture a central position at the AZ. Combining quantitative functional studies with modeling approaches has provided predictions of channel properties, numbers and even positions on the nanometer scale. However, elucidating the nanoscopic organization of the surrounding protein network requires direct ultrastructural access. Without this information, knowledge of molecular synaptic structure-function relationships remains incomplete. Recently, super-resolution microscopy (SRM) techniques have begun to enter the neurosciences. These approaches combine high spatial resolution with the molecular specificity of fluorescence microscopy. Here, we discuss how SRM can be used to obtain information on the organization of AZ proteins. PMID:25688186

  16. Magnetic fields over active tectonic zones in ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kopytenko, Yu. A.; Serebrianaya, P.M.; Nikitina, L.V.; Green, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of our work is to estimate the electromagnetic effects that can be detected in the submarine zones with hydrothermal activity. It is known that meso-scale flows appear in the regions over underwater volcanoes or hot rocks. Their origin is connected with heat flux and hot jets released from underwater volcanoes or faults in a sea bottom. Values of mean velocities and turbulent velocities in plumes were estimated. Quasiconstant magnetic fields induced by a hot jet and a vortex over a plume top are about 1-40 nT. Variable magnetic fields are about 0.1-1 nT. These magnetic disturbances in the sea medium create an additional natural electromagnetic background that must be considered when making detailed magnetic surveys. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Ionian and Alfeo-Etna fault zones: New segments of an evolving plate boundary in the central Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonia, A.; Torelli, L.; Artoni, A.; Carlini, M.; Faccenna, C.; Ferranti, L.; Gasperini, L.; Govers, R.; Klaeschen, D.; Monaco, C.; Neri, G.; Nijholt, N.; Orecchio, B.; Wortel, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Calabrian Arc is a narrow subduction-rollback system resulting from Africa/Eurasia plate convergence. While crustal shortening is taken up in the accretionary wedge, transtensive deformation accounts for margin segmentation along transverse lithospheric faults. One of these structures is the NNW-SSE transtensive fault system connecting the Alfeo seamount and the Etna volcano (Alfeo-Etna Fault, AEF). A second, NW-SE crustal discontinuity, the Ionian Fault (IF), separates two lobes of the CA subduction complex (Western and Eastern Lobes) and impinges on the Sicilian coasts south of the Messina Straits. Analysis of multichannel seismic reflection profiles shows that: 1) the IF and the AEF are transfer crustal tectonic features bounding a complex deformation zone, which produces the downthrown of the Western lobe along a set of transtensive fault strands; 2) during Pleistocene times, transtensive faulting reactivated structural boundaries inherited from the Mesozoic Tethyan domain which acted as thrust faults during the Messinian and Pliocene; and 3) the IF and the AEF, and locally the Malta escarpment, accommodate a recent tectonic event coeval and possibly linked to the Mt. Etna formation. Regional geodynamic models show that, whereas AEF and IF are neighboring fault systems, their individual roles are different. Faulting primarily resulting from the ESE retreat of the Ionian slab is expressed in the northwestern part of the IF. The AEF, on the other hand, is part of the overall dextral shear deformation, resulting from differences in Africa-Eurasia motion between the western and eastern sectors of the Tyrrhenian margin of northern Sicily, and accommodating diverging motions in the adjacent compartments, which results in rifting processes within the Western Lobe of the Calabrian Arc accretionary wedge. As such, it is primarily associated with Africa-Eurasia relative motion.

  18. Fold/cleavage relationships as indicator for late Variscan sinistral transpression at the Rheno-Hercynian-Saxo-Thuringian boundary zone, Central European Variscides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Tobias; Kroner, Uwe; Hahn, Torsten; Hallas, Peter; Heuse, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The boundary between the Rheno-Hercynian and the Saxo-Thuringian zones of the European Variscides is characterized by a NE-SW striking late orogenic fold-and-thrust belt affecting the intervening Rheic suture. Classical models used the first-order strike of this zone as an indicator for perpendicular plate convergence, i.e. NW-SE. We present structural data from both sides of the suture, focusing on fold-cleavage relationships. The statistical analysis reveals an orientation maximum of the youngest cleavage that deviates from the strike of the fold-and-thrust belt by c. 22°. The presence of clockwise transection of the folds by the cleavage (up to - 16°) indicates pervasive sinistral transpression. Three types of fold-cleavage relationships are observed: NE trending folds (I) with or (II) without a transecting cleavage, and (III) non-transected ENE trending folds. We explain the occurrence of different fold-cleavage types by strain partitioning due to NNW convergence obliquely to pre-existent NE trending mechanical anisotropies. In terms of plate tectonics we propose that the classical boundary of the Rheno-Hercynian and the Saxo-Thuringian Zone represents an initial transform plate boundary that was finally affected by sinistral transpression.

  19. Boundary Activities of Middle School Teacher Teams in a Global Era: Empirical Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shengnan; Feng, Daming

    2016-01-01

    With the tide of globalization, the external environment that schools face turns uncertain and complex. In response to the new challenges, teacher teams need to manage boundaries to maintain the sustainable development. The two studies reported in this paper, aimed to examine the boundary activities of teacher teams of middle schools in China. In…

  20. Cadomian magmatism and metamorphism at the Ossa Morena/Central Iberian zone boundary, Iberian Massif, Central Portugal: Geochemistry and P-T constraints of the Sardoal Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, S. B. A.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Tajčmanová, L.; Dunning, G. R.

    2017-01-01

    A well preserved Cadomian basement is exposed in the Iberian Massif, Central Portugal, at the Ossa Morena/Central Iberian zone boundary, which allows the determination of reliable geochemical data. A sequence of Cadomian and Variscan magmatic and tectonometamorphic events has been already described for this area and are documented in other areas of the Avalonian-Cadomian orogen. However, the geochemical information concerning the Cadomian basement for this area is still limited. We present whole rock geochemical and oxygen isotopic information to characterize the igneous protoliths of the Sardoal Complex, located within the Tomar-Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone, and identify their tectonic setting. We use detailed petrography, mineral chemistry and P-T data to characterize the final Cadomian tectonometamorphic event. The Sardoal Complex contains orthogneiss and amphibolite units. The protoliths of the orthogneiss are calc-alkaline magmas of acid composition and peraluminous character that were generated in an active continental margin in three different stages (ca. 692 Ma, ca. 569 Ma and ca. 548 Ma). The most significant processes in their petrogenesis are the partial melting of old metasedimentary and meta-igneous crust at different crustal levels and the crystal fractionation of plagioclase, alkali feldspars, apatite, zircon and Fe-Ti oxides. The protoliths of the amphibolite, older than ca. 540 Ma, are tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas of basic composition that display N-, T- and E-MORB affinities. They were generated in an active continental margin. Crustal contamination and fractional crystallization of hornblende and diopside were involved in their petrogenesis. However, the fractional crystallization was not significant. The magmatic activity recorded in the Sardoal Complex indicates the existence of a long-lived continental arc (ca. 692-540 Ma) with coeval felsic and mafic magmatism. The final stage of the Cadomian metamorphism is usually represented in other

  1. Are boundary conditions in surface productivity at the Southern Polar Front reflected in benthic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Angelika; Vanreusel, Ann; Bracher, Astrid; Jule Marie Hoppe, Clara; Lins, Lidia; Meyer-Löbbecke, Anna; Altenburg Soppa, Mariana; Würzberg, Laura

    2014-10-01

    In austral summer 2012, during the expedition ANT-XXVIII/3 on board RV Polarstern, two sites were sampled 1600 km apart in the South Polar Front area (52°S) at the boundary of different productivity regimes for meio- and macrobenthos using a multiple-corer and an epibenthic sledge, respectively. Patterns in density and abundance data were compared between different size classes of the benthos and interpreted in relation to surface primary productivity data and sediment oxygen consumption. We tested the hypothesis that long-term satellite-derived surface phytoplankton biomass, in situ real time biomass, and productivity measurements at the surface and throughout the euphotic zone are reflected in abyssal benthos densities, abundances and activity. Specifically, we investigated the effect of boundary conditions for lower and higher surface productivity. Surface and integrated to 100 m depth biomass and primary productivity measurements vary stations, with the lowest values at station 85 (0.083 mg Chl-a m-3 at surface, 9 mg Chl-a m-2 and 161 mg C m-2 d-1- integrated over the first 100 m depth), and the highest values at station 86 (2.231 mg Chl-a m-3 at surface, 180 mg Chl-a m-2 and 2587 mg C m-2 d-1 integrated over first 100 m depth). Total meiofaunal densities varied between 102 and 335 individuals/10 cm². Densities were the highest at station 86-30 (335 individuals) and lowest at station 81-13 (102 individuals). Total macrofaunal densities (individuals/1000 m²) varied between 26 individuals at station 81-17 and 194 individuals at station 86-24. However, three EBS hauls were taken at station 86 with a minimum of 80 and a maximum of 194 individuals. Sediment oxygen consumption did not vary significantly between stations from east to west. Bentho-pelagic coupling of meio- and macrobenthic communities could not be observed in the South Polar Front at the boundary conditions from low to high surface productivity between stations 81 and 86.

  2. Structural and functional maturation of active zones in large synapses.

    PubMed

    Cano, Raquel; Torres-Benito, Laura; Tejero, Rocío; Biea, Anca I; Ruiz, Rocío; Betz, William J; Tabares, Lucía

    2013-02-01

    Virtually all functions of the nervous system rely upon synapses, the sites of communication between neurons and between neurons and other cells. Synapses are complex structures, each one comprising hundreds of different types of molecules working in concert. They are organized by adhesive and scaffolding molecules that align presynaptic vesicular release sites, namely, active zones, with postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors, thereby allowing rapid and reliable intercellular communication. Most synapses are relatively small, and acting alone exerts little effect on their postsynaptic partners. Some, however, are much larger and stronger, reliably driving the postsynaptic cell to its action potential threshold, acting essentially as electrical relays of excitation. These large synapses are among the best understood, and two of these are the subject of this review, namely, the vertebrate neuromuscular junction and the calyx of Held synapse in the mammalian auditory pathway of the brain stem. Both synapses undergo through a complex and well-coordinated maturation process, during which time the molecular elements and the biophysical properties of the secretory machinery are continuously adjusted to the synapse size and to the functional requirements. We here review the morphological and functional changes occurring during postnatal maturation, noting particular similarities and differences between these two large synapses.

  3. Exterior optical cloaking and illusions by using active sources: A boundary element perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H. H.; Xiao, J. J.; Lai, Y.; Chan, C. T.

    2010-05-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that active sources can be used to cloak any objects that lie outside the cloaking devices [F. Guevara Vasquez, G. W. Milton, and D. Onofrei, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073901 (2009)]. Here, we propose that active sources can create illusion effects so that an object outside the cloaking device can be made to look like another object. Invisibility is a special case in which the concealed object is transformed to a volume of air. From a boundary element perspective, we show that active sources can create a nearly “silent” domain which can conceal any objects inside and at the same time make the whole system look like an illusion of our choice outside a virtual boundary. The boundary element method gives the fields and field gradients, which can be related to monopoles and dipoles, on continuous curves which define the boundary of the active devices. Both the cloaking and illusion effects are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  4. Lu-Hf garnet geochronology applied to plate boundary zones: Insights from the (U)HP terrane exhumed within the Woodlark Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirakparvar, N. A.; Baldwin, S. L.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2011-09-01

    High-pressure and ultra high-pressure (U)HP metamorphic rocks occur in many of the world's major orogenic belts, suggesting that subduction of continental lithosphere is a geologically important process. Despite the widespread occurrence of these rocks, relatively little is known about the timescales associated with (U)HP metamorphism. This is because most (U)HP terranes are tectonically overprinted and juxtaposed against rocks with a different history. An exception to this are the Late Miocene (U)HP metamorphic rocks found in active metamorphic core complexes (MCC) in the Woodlark Rift of southeastern Papua New Guinea. This region provides a rare opportunity to study the garnet Lu-Hf isotopic record of (U)HP metamorphism in a terrane that is not tectonically overprinted. In order to constrain the timing of garnet growth relative to the history of (U)HP metamorphism and the evolution of the Woodlark Rift, Lu-Hf ages were determined, in conjunction with measurements of Lu and major element zoning, for garnets from three metamorphic rocks. Garnets from the three samples yielded different ages that, instead of recording the spatial and temporal evolution associated with a single metamorphic event, provide information on the timing of three separate plate boundary events. The youngest Lu-Hf age determined was 7.1 ± 0.7 Ma for garnets in a Late Miocene coesite eclogite. The age is interpreted to record the time when a garnet-bearing partial melt of the mantle crystallized within subducted continental lithosphere at (U)HP conditions. The young Lu-Hf age from the coesite eclogite is in contrast to a 68 ± 3.6 Ma Lu-Hf age obtained on large (1-2 cm) garnet porphyroblasts, from within the Pleistocene amphibolite facies shear zone carapace bounding exposures of (U)HP rocks in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands. This older age records the growth of garnet in response to continental subduction and ophiolite obduction in the region north and east of Australia during late Mesozoic

  5. Structure and seismic activity of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evain, M.; Galve, A.; Charvis, P.; Laigle, M.; Ruiz Fernandez, M.; Kopp, H.; Hirn, A.; Flueh, E. R.; Thales Scientific Party

    2011-12-01

    Several active and passive seismic experiments conducted in 2007 in the framework of the European program "Thales Was Right" and of the French ANR program "Subsismanti" provided a unique set of geophysical data highlighting the deep structure of the central part of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, offshore Dominica and Martinique, and its seismic activity during a period of 8 months. The region is characterized by a relatively low rate of seismicity that is often attributed to the slow (2 cm/yr) subduction of the old, 90 My, Atlantic lithosphere beneath the Caribbean Plate. Based on tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic data, the forearc can clearly be divided into an inner forearc, characterised by a high vertical velocity gradient in the igneous crust, and an outer forearc with lower crustal velocity gradient. The thick, high velocity, inner forearc is possibly the extension at depth of the Mesozoic Caribbean crust outcropping in La Désirade Island. The outer forearc, up to 70 km wide in the northern part of the study area, is getting narrower to the south and disappears offshore Martinique. Based on its seismic velocity structure with velocities higher than 6 km/s the backstop consists, at least partly, of magmatic rocks. The outer forearc is also highly deformed and faulted within the subducting trend of the Tiburon Ridge. With respect to the inner forearc velocity structure the outer forearc basement could either correspond to an accreted oceanic terrane or made of highly fractured rocks. The inner forearc is a dense, poorly deformable crustal block, tilted southward as a whole. It acts as a rigid buttress increasing the strain within both the overriding and subducting plates. This appears clearly in the current local seismicity affecting the subducting and the overriding plates that is located beneath the inner forearc. We detected earthquakes beneath the Caribbean forearc and in the Atlantic oceanic plate as well. The main seismic activity is

  6. Compositional variations in spinel-hosted pargasite inclusions in the olivine-rich rock from the oceanic crust-mantle boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Akihiro; Morishita, Tomoaki; Ishimaru, Satoko; Hara, Kaori; Sanfilippo, Alessio; Arai, Shoji

    2016-05-01

    The crust-mantle boundary zone of the oceanic lithosphere is composed mainly of olivine-rich rocks represented by dunite and troctolite. However, we still do not fully understand the global variations in the boundary zone, and an effective classification of the boundary rocks, in terms of their petrographical features and origin, is an essential step in achieving such an understanding. In this paper, to highlight variations in olivine-rich rocks from the crust-mantle boundary, we describe the compositional variations in spinel-hosted hydrous silicate mineral inclusions in rock samples from the ocean floor near a mid-ocean ridge and trench. Pargasite is the dominant mineral among the inclusions, and all of them are exceptionally rich in incompatible elements. The host spinel grains are considered to be products of melt-peridotite reactions, because their origin cannot be ascribed to simple fractional crystallization of a melt. Trace-element compositions of pargasite inclusions are characteristically different between olivine-rich rock samples, in terms of the degree of Eu and Zr anomalies in the trace-element pattern. When considering the nature of the reaction that produced the inclusion-hosting spinel, the compositional differences between samples were found to reflect a diversity in the origin of the olivine-rich rocks, as for example in whether or not a reaction was accompanied by the fractional crystallization of plagioclase. The differences also reflect the fact that the melt flow system (porous or focused flow) controlled the melt/rock ratios during reaction. The pargasite inclusions provide useful data for constraining the history and origin of the olivine-rich rocks and therefore assist in our understanding of the crust-mantle boundary of the oceanic lithosphere.

  7. 77 FR 55182 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR, Authorization of Production Activity, Shimadzu USA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 45--Portland, OR, Authorization of Production Activity... Production), Canby, OR The Port of Portland, grantee of FTZ 45, submitted a notification of proposed production activity within Subzone 45G, at the facility of Shimadzu USA Manufacturing, Inc....

  8. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Toshiba...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Toshiba International Corporation (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production) The Port of Houston Authority, grantee of FTZ 84, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on...

  9. A general analytical model for pumping tests in radial finite two-zone confined aquifers with Robin-type outer boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ye-Chen; Yang, Shaw-Yang; Fen, Chiu-Shia; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2016-09-01

    This study develops a general analytical model for describing transient drawdown distribution induced by pumping at a finite-radius well in a radial two-zone confined aquifer of finite areal extent with Robin-type condition at both inner and outer boundaries. This model is also applicable to heat conduction problems for a composite hollow cylinder on the basis of the analogy between heat flow and groundwater flow. The time-domain solution of the model is derived by the methods of Laplace transform, Bromwich integral, and residue theorem. This new solution can reduce to the solution for constant-head test (CHT) or constant-rate test (CRT) problem by specifying appropriate coefficients at the Robin inner boundary condition. The solution describing the flow rate across the wellbore due to CHT is further developed by applying Darcy's law to the new solution. In addition, steady-state solutions for both CHT and CRT are also developed based on the approximation for Bessel functions with very small argument values. Many existing solutions for transient flow in homogeneous or two-zone finite aquifers with Dirichlet or no-flow condition at the outer boundary are shown to be special cases of the present solution. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is also performed to investigate the behaviors of the wellbore flow due to CHT and the aquifer drawdown induced by CRT in response to the change in each of aquifer parameters.

  10. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wairkar, Yogesh P; Toda, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hiroaki; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo; Tomoda, Toshifumi; Diantonio, Aaron

    2009-01-14

    Efficient synaptic transmission requires the apposition of neurotransmitter release sites opposite clusters of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Transmitter is released at active zones, which are composed of a large complex of proteins necessary for synaptic development and function. Many active zone proteins have been identified, but little is known of the mechanisms that ensure that each active zone receives the proper complement of proteins. Here we use a genetic analysis in Drosophila to demonstrate that the serine threonine kinase Unc-51 acts in the presynaptic motoneuron to regulate the localization of the active zone protein Bruchpilot opposite to glutamate receptors at each synapse. In the absence of Unc-51, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot, and ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that fewer active zones contain dense body T-bars. In addition to the presence of these aberrant synapses, there is also a decrease in the density of all synapses. This decrease in synaptic density and abnormal active zone composition is associated with impaired evoked transmitter release. Mechanistically, Unc-51 inhibits the activity of the MAP kinase ERK to promote synaptic development. In the unc-51 mutant, increased ERK activity leads to the decrease in synaptic density and the absence of Bruchpilot from many synapses. Hence, activated ERK negatively regulates synapse formation, resulting in either the absence of active zones or the formation of active zones without their proper complement of proteins. The Unc-51-dependent inhibition of ERK activity provides a potential mechanism for synapse-specific control of active zone protein composition and release probability.

  11. Optimization of object region and boundary extraction by energy minimization for activity recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalooshi, Fatema A.; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2013-05-01

    Automatic video segmentation for human activity recognition has played an important role in several computer vision applications. Active contour model (ACM) has been used extensively for unsupervised adaptive segmentation and automatic object region and boundary extraction in video sequences. This paper presents optimizing Active Contour Model using recurrent architecture for automatic object region and boundary extraction in human activity video sequences. Taking advantage of the collective computational ability and energy convergence capability of the recurrent architecture, energy function of Active Contour Model is optimized with lower computational time. The system starts with initializing recurrent architecture state based on the initial boundary points and ends up with final contour which represent actual boundary points of human body region. The initial contour of the Active Contour Model is computed using background subtraction based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) such that background model is built dynamically and regularly updated to overcome different challenges including illumination changes, camera oscillations, and changes in background geometry. The recurrent nature is useful for dealing with optimization problems due to its dynamic nature, thus, ensuring convergence of the system. The proposed boundary detection and region extraction can be used for real time processing. This method results in an effective segmentation that is less sensitive to noise and complex environments. Experiments on different databases of human activity show that our method is effective and can be used for real-time video segmentation.

  12. Density functional calculation of activation energies for lattice and grain boundary diffusion in alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yinkai; Gong, Yu; Duan, Zhiyao; Wang, Guofeng

    2013-06-01

    To acquire knowledge on the lattice and grain boundary diffusion processes in alumina, we have determined the activation energies of elementary O and Al diffusive jumps in the bulk crystal, Σ3(0001) grain boundaries, and Σ3(101¯0) grain boundaries of α-Al2O3 using the first-principles density functional theory method. Specifically, we calculated the activation energies for four elementary jumps of both O and Al lattice diffusion in alumina. It was predicted that the activation energy of O lattice diffusion varied from 3.58 to 5.03 eV, while the activation energy of Al lattice diffusion ranged from 1.80 to 3.17 eV. As compared with experimental measurements, the theoretical predictions of the activation energy for lattice diffusion were lower and thus implied that there might be other high-energy diffusive jumps in the experimental alumina samples. Moreover, our results suggested that the Al lattice diffusion was faster than the O lattice diffusion in alumina, in agreement with experiment observations. Furthermore, it was found from our calculations for α-Al2O3 that the activation energies of O and Al grain boundary diffusion in the high-energy Σ3(0001) grain boundaries were significantly lower than those of the lattice diffusion. In contrast, the activation energies of O and Al grain boundary diffusion in the low-energy Σ3(101¯0) grain boundaries could be even higher than those of the lattice diffusion.

  13. Redefining Medlicott-Wadia's main boundary fault from Jhelum to Yamuna: An active fault strand of the main boundary thrust in northwest Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, V. C.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Malik, M. A.

    2010-06-01

    The MBT demarcates a tectonic boundary between the Tertiary Sub Himalaya and the pre-Tertiary Lesser Himalaya. South of the MBT, another tectonically important fault extends from Muzaffarabad and Riasi in Jammu-Kashmir to Bilaspur and Nahan in Himachal. Medlicott and Wadia had designated this fault the Main Boundary Fault (MBF) in Simla Hills and Jammu region respectively. In between these two areas, later workers gave local-area names to the MBF as the Riasi Thrust in Jammu, Palampur Thrust in Kangra, Bilaspur Thrust in Simla Hills and Nahan Thrust in Sirmur. We have reviewed and established the tectonostratigraphic framework and physical continuity of the lower Tertiary belt and the MBF. The lower Tertiary belt, lying south of the MBT, has characteristic tectonostratigraphic setting with discontinuous bodies of stromatolite-bearing Proterozoic limestone overlain with depositional contact by the Paleocene-lower part Middle Eocene marine Subathu/Patala formation which in turn overlain by the Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene non-marine Dharamsala/Murree Formation. To avoid confusion with the MBT, we designate collectively the MBF and related faults as the Medlicott-Wadia Thrust (MWT). The MWT extends east of Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis to river Yamuna, covering a distance of ˜ 700 km. Further east of Yamuna, the lower Tertiary belt pinches out and the MWT merges with the sensuo-stricto MBT. The Proterozoic limestone represents the basement over which the lower Tertiary sediments were deposited. The limestone basement with its cover was detached by the MWT, exhuming to the surface and thrusting over largely the Siwalik group. The reactivated Balakot-Bagh Fault, causative fault for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, extends southeast with right-step to the Riasi Thrust. The Riasi Thrust shows evidence of reactivation and active tectonic activity in Jammu region. It extends further east to the Palampur Thrust in Kangra reentrant, which lies within the 1905 Kangra earthquake

  14. Geospatial database of the study boundary, sampled sites, watersheds, and riparian zones developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Midwest Stream Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Qi, Sharon L.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Button, Daniel T.; Baker, Nancy T.; Burley, Thomas E.; VanMetre, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the first of several Regional Stream Quality Assessments (RSQA) was done in the Midwest United States. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA) was a collaborative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA), the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). One of the objectives of the RSQA, and thus the MSQA, is to characterize the relationships between water-quality stressors and stream ecology and to determine the relative effects of these stressors on aquatic biota within the streams (U.S. Geological Survey, 2012). To meet this objective, a framework of fundamental geospatial data was required to develop physical and anthropogenic characteristics of the study region, sampled sites and corresponding watersheds, and riparian zones. This dataset is composed of the four fundamental geospatial data layers that were developed for the Midwest study: 1) study boundary, 2) sampled sites, 3) watershed boundaries, and 4) riparian-zone boundaries.References cited:Nakagaki, N., Qi, S.L., and Baker, N.T., 2016, Selected environmental characteristics of sampled sites, watersheds, and riparian zones for the U.S. Geological Survey Midwest Stream Quality Assessment: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F77W699S.U.S. Geological Survey, 2012, The Midwest stream quality assessment: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3124, 2 p.

  15. Tsunamigenic potential of Mediterranean fault systems and active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, Patrizio; Babeyko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Since the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) is under development by the European scientific community, it becomes necessary to define guidelines for the characterization of the numerous parameters must be taken into account in a fair assessment of the risk. Definition of possible tectonic sources and evaluation of their potential is one of the principal issues. In this study we systematically evaluate tsunamigenic potential of up-to-now known real fault systems and active subduction interfaces in the NEAMTWS region. The task is accomplished by means of numerical modeling of tsunami generation and propagation. We have simulated all possible uniform-slip ruptures populating fault and subduction interfaces with magnitudes ranging from 6.5 up to expected Mmax. A total of 15810 individual ruptures were processed. For each rupture, a tsunami propagation scenario was computed in linear shallow-water approximation on 1-arc minute bathymetric grid (Gebco_08) implying normal reflection boundary conditions. Maximum wave heights at coastal positions (totally - 23236 points of interest) were recorded for four hours of simulation and then classified according to currently adopted warning level thresholds. The resulting dataset allowed us to classify the sources in terms of their tsunamigenic potential as well as to estimate their minimum tsunamigenic magnitude. Our analysis shows that almost every source in the Mediterranean Sea is capable to produce local tsunami at the advisory level (i.e., wave height > 20 cm) starting from magnitude values of Mw=6.6. In respect to the watch level (wave height > 50 cm), the picture is less homogeneous: crustal sources in south-west Mediterranean as well as East-Hellenic arc need larger magnitudes (around Mw=7.0) to trigger watch levels even at the nearby coasts. In the context of the regional warning (i.e., source-to-coast distance > 100 km) faults also behave more heterogeneously in respect to the minimum

  16. Zoogeography of the San Andreas Fault system: Great Pacific Fracture Zones correspond with spatially concordant phylogeographic boundaries in western North America.

    PubMed

    Gottscho, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an ultimate tectonic explanation for several well-studied zoogeographic boundaries along the west coast of North America, specifically, along the boundary of the North American and Pacific plates (the San Andreas Fault system). By reviewing 177 references from the plate tectonics and zoogeography literature, I demonstrate that four Great Pacific Fracture Zones (GPFZs) in the Pacific plate correspond with distributional limits and spatially concordant phylogeographic breaks for a wide variety of marine and terrestrial animals, including invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These boundaries are: (1) Cape Mendocino and the North Coast Divide, (2) Point Conception and the Transverse Ranges, (3) Punta Eugenia and the Vizcaíno Desert, and (4) Cabo Corrientes and the Sierra Transvolcanica. However, discussion of the GPFZs is mostly absent from the zoogeography and phylogeography literature likely due to a disconnect between biologists and geologists. I argue that the four zoogeographic boundaries reviewed here ultimately originated via the same geological process (triple junction evolution). Finally, I suggest how a comparative phylogeographic approach can be used to test the hypothesis presented here.

  17. Hurricane Mountain Formation melange: history of Cambro-Ordovician accretion of the Boundary Mountains terrane within the northern Appalachian orthotectonic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, G.M.; Boudette, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Hurricane Mountain Formation (HMF) melange and associated ophiolitic and volcanogenic formations of Cambrian and lowermost Ordovician age bound the SE margin of the Precambrian Y (Helikian) Chain Lakes Massif in western Maine. HMF melange matrix, though weakly metamorphosed, contains a wide variety of exotic greenschist to amphibolite facies blocks as components of its polymictic assemblage, but blocks of high-grade cratonal rocks such as those of Chain Lakes or Grenville affinity are lacking. Formations of melange exposed in structural culminations of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks NE of the HMF in Maine and in the Fournier Group in New Brunswick are lithologically similar and probably tectonically correlative with the HMF; taken together, they may delineate a common pre-Middle Ordovician tectonic boundary. The authors infer that the Hurricane Mountain and St. Daniel melange belts define the SE and NW margins of the Boundary Mountains accreted terrane (BMT), which may consist of cratonal basement of Chain Lakes affinity extending from eastern Gaspe (deBroucker and St. Julien, 1985) to north-central New Hampshire. The Laurentian continental margin, underlain by Grenville basement, underplated the NW margin of this terrane, marked by the SDF suture zone, in late Cambrian to early Ordovician time, while terranes marked by Cambrian to Tremadocian (.) lithologies dissimilar to the Boundary Mountains terrane were accreted to its outboard margin penecontemporaneously. The docking of the Boundary Mountains terrane and the initiation of its peripheral melanges are equated to the Penobscottian disturbance.

  18. Are quartz LPOs predictably oriented with respect to the shear zone boundary?: A test from the Alpine Fault mylonites, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Prior, David J.; Toy, Virginia G.

    2016-03-01

    The Alpine fault self-exhumes its own ductile shear zone roots and has a known slip kinematics. Within ˜1 km of the fault, the mylonitic foliation is subparallel to the boundary of the amphibolite-facies ductile shear zone in which it formed. Using EBSD, we analyzed quartz Lattice Preferred Orientations [LPOs) of mylonites along a central part of the Alpine Fault. All LPOs feature a strongest girdle of [c]-axes that is forward-inclined ˜28 ± 4° away from the pole to the fault. A maximum of axes is inclined at the same angle relative the fault. The [c]-axis girdle is perpendicular to extensional (C') shear bands and the maximum is parallel to their slip direction. [c]-axis girdles do not form perpendicular to the SZB. Schmid factor analysis suggests that σ1 was arranged at 60-80° to the Alpine Fault. These observations indicate ductile transpression in the shear zone. The inclined arrangement of [c]-axis girdles, axes, and C' planes relative to the fault can be explained by their alignment relative to planes of maximum shear-strain-rate in a general shear zone, a significant new insight regarding shear zones and how LPO fabrics may generally develop within them. For the Alpine mylonite zone, our data imply a kinematic vorticity number (Wk) of ˜0.7 to ˜0.85. Inversions of seismic focal mechanisms in the brittle crust of the Southern Alps indicate that σ1 is oriented ˜60° to the Alpine Fault; that shear bands form at ˜30° to this direction, and that σ2 and σ3 flip positions between the brittle and ductile parts of the crust.

  19. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Kara R.; Sherman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated. PMID:28222093

  20. Rapid structural alterations of the active zone lead to sustained changes in neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Matz, Jacob; Gilyan, Andrew; Kolar, Annette; McCarvill, Terrence; Krueger, Stefan R

    2010-05-11

    The likelihood with which an action potential elicits neurotransmitter release, the release probability (p(r)), is an important component of synaptic strength. Regulatory mechanisms controlling several steps of synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis may affect p(r), yet their relative importance in determining p(r) and eliciting temporal changes in neurotransmitter release at individual synapses is largely unknown. We have investigated whether the size of the active zone cytomatrix is a major determinant of p(r) and whether changes in its size lead to corresponding alterations in neurotransmitter release. We have used a fluorescent sensor of SV exocytosis, synaptophysin-pHluorin, to measure p(r) at individual synapses with high accuracy and employed a fluorescently labeled cytomatrix protein, Bassoon, to quantify the amount of active zone cytomatrix present at these synapses. We find that, for synapses made by a visually identified presynaptic neuron, p(r) is indeed strongly correlated with the amount of active zone cytomatrix present at the presynaptic specialization. Intriguingly, active zone cytomatrices are frequently subject to synapse-specific changes in size on a time scale of minutes. These spontaneous alterations in active zone size are associated with corresponding changes in neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that the size of the active zone cytomatrix has a large influence on the reliability of synaptic transmission. Furthermore, they implicate mechanisms leading to rapid structural alterations at active zones in synapse-specific forms of plasticity.

  1. Release probability of hippocampal glutamatergic terminals scales with the size of the active zone

    PubMed Central

    Holderith, Noemi; Lorincz, Andrea; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Kulik, Akos; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nusser, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Cortical synapses display remarkable structural, molecular and functional heterogeneity. Our knowledge regarding the relationship between the ultrastructural and functional parameters is still fragmented. Here we asked how the release probability and presynaptic [Ca2+] transients relate to the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal glutamatergic axon terminals. Two-photon Ca2+ imaging-derived optical quantal analysis and correlated electron microscopic reconstructions revealed a tight correlation between the release probability and the active zone area. The peak amplitude of [Ca2+] transients in single boutons also positively correlated with the active zone area. Freeze-fracture immunogold labeling revealed that the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel subunit Cav2.1 and the presynaptic protein Rim1/2 are confined to the active zone and their numbers scale linearly with the active zone area. Gold particles for Cav2.1 showed a nonrandom distribution within the active zones. Our results demonstrate that the number of several active zone proteins, including presynaptic Ca2+ channels, docked vesicles and the release probability scales linearly with the active zone area. PMID:22683683

  2. Modelling of cloud formation due to air-sea interactions in an energy-active zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratyev, K. Ya.; Khvorostyanov, V. I.

    1989-02-01

    A mesoscale 3D numerical model is described, with which detailed calculations have been made of turbulence and wind characteristics in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as well as cloud particle size distribution, longwave and solar radiation fluxes and flux divergences, and atmosphere-ocean heat exchange. Based on numerical experiments simulating winter conditions of the Newfoundland energy-active zone of the ocean (EAZO), atmosphere-ocean energy exchange is investigated. It is shown that the basic mechanisms for the EAZO formation involve the following processes: (i) at the hydrological front between cold and warm ocean currents, the fluxes of sensible and latent heat grow significantly; (ii) at this front, in a particular synoptic situation, overcast low-level cloudiness forms, screening solar radiation so that in winter, the radiation budget at the front is reduced, and the radiative flux into the ocean is less than the energy release to the atmosphere; (iii) frequent occurrence of such synoptic situations with cloudiness decreases the oceanic enthalpy and creates negative SST anomalies. The transport of these anomalies by currents to the western coasts of the continents causes anomalies of weather and climate.

  3. 77 FR 75610 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, IL, Area Abbott... authority within Subzones 22F and 22S, at sites located in the North Chicago and Lake County, Illinois,...

  4. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On... production authority within Subzones 22F and 22S, respectively, at sites located in the North Chicago...

  5. 77 FR 70139 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 8--Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines); Clyde and Green Springs, OH On July 20, 2012 the...

  6. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone. 3.70-20 Section 3.70-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE...

  7. 33 CFR 3.70-20 - Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities Far East Marine Inspection Zone. 3.70-20 Section 3.70-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE...

  8. 78 FR 56859 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Honeywell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 75--Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Limited Production Activity, Honeywell Aerospace, Inc. (Aircraft Engines, Systems and Components), Phoenix and Tempe, Arizona On May 3, 2013, the City of Phoenix, grantee of FTZ 75, submitted a notification of...

  9. 78 FR 66330 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196-Fort Worth, Texas, Authorization of Production Activity, Flextronics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 196--Fort Worth, Texas, Authorization of Production Activity, Flextronics International USA, Inc. (Mobile Phone Assembly and Kitting), Fort Worth, Texas On June 14,...

  10. 78 FR 30862 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 41--Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America, LLC; Subzone 41I (Tractors and Tractor/Combine Components); Racine, Wisconsin...

  11. 77 FR 72816 - Foreign-Trade Zone 20-Suffolk, VA; Authorization of Production Activity; Usui International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 20--Suffolk, VA; Authorization of Production Activity; Usui International Corporation (Diesel Engine Fuel Lines); Chesapeake, VA On June 28, 2012, the Virginia...

  12. 78 FR 41911 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161-Sedgwick County, Kansas; Authorization of Production Activity; Siemens...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 161--Sedgwick County, Kansas; Authorization of Production Activity; Siemens Energy, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs); Hutchinson, Kansas On March 7,...

  13. 78 FR 48413 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Production Activity, Orbital Sciences...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 75--Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Production Activity, Orbital Sciences Corporation, (Satellites and Spacecraft Launch Vehicles); Gilbert, Arizona On April...

  14. 78 FR 33808 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Authorization of Production Activity; Panasonic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 108 (Wednesday, June 5, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 33808] [FR Doc No: 2013-13314] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-13-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 50--Long Beach, California; Authorization of Production Activity; Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics);...

  15. 78 FR 7394 - Foreign-Trade Zone 121-Albany, NY; Authorization of Production Activity; Albany Molecular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 121--Albany, NY; Authorization of Production Activity; Albany Molecular Research, Inc.; Subzone 121A (Pharmaceutical Chemicals Production); Rensselaer, NY On September...

  16. 78 FR 68814 - Foreign-Trade Zone 32-Miami, Florida, Authorization of Production Activity, Brightstar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 32--Miami, Florida, Authorization of Production Activity, Brightstar Corporation (Cell Phone Kitting), Miami, Florida On June 26, 2013, The Greater Miami Chamber...

  17. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC...

  18. 77 FR 48127 - Foreign-Trade Zone 20-Suffolk, VA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Usui...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 20--Suffolk, VA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Usui International Corporation, (Diesel Engine Fuel Lines), Chesapeake, VA The Virginia Port Authority, grantee of FTZ 20, submitted a...

  19. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics) Aurora, Illinois On January...

  20. Functional Requirements for Fab-7 Boundary Activity in the Bithorax Complex.

    PubMed

    Wolle, Daniel; Cleard, Fabienne; Aoki, Tsutomu; Deshpande, Girish; Schedl, Paul; Karch, Francois

    2015-11-01

    Chromatin boundaries are architectural elements that determine the three-dimensional folding of the chromatin fiber and organize the chromosome into independent units of genetic activity. The Fab-7 boundary from the Drosophila bithorax complex (BX-C) is required for the parasegment-specific expression of the Abd-B gene. We have used a replacement strategy to identify sequences that are necessary and sufficient for Fab-7 boundary function in the BX-C. Fab-7 boundary activity is known to depend on factors that are stage specific, and we describe a novel ∼700-kDa complex, the late boundary complex (LBC), that binds to Fab-7 sequences that have insulator functions in late embryos and adults. We show that the LBC is enriched in nuclear extracts from late, but not early, embryos and that it contains three insulator proteins, GAF, Mod(mdg4), and E(y)2. Its DNA binding properties are unusual in that it requires a minimal sequence of >65 bp; however, other than a GAGA motif, the three Fab-7 LBC recognition elements display few sequence similarities. Finally, we show that mutations which abrogate LBC binding in vitro inactivate the Fab-7 boundary in the BX-C.

  1. Active open boundary forcing using dual relaxation time-scales in downscaled ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, M.; Gillibrand, P. A.

    2015-05-01

    Regional models actively forced with data from larger scale models at their open boundaries often contain motion at different time-scales (e.g. tidal and low frequency). These motions are not always individually well specified in the forcing data, and one may require a more active boundary forcing while the other exert less influence on the model interior. If a single relaxation time-scale is used to relax toward these data in the boundary equation, then this may be difficult. The method of fractional steps is used to introduce dual relaxation time-scales in an open boundary local flux adjustment scheme. This allows tidal and low frequency oscillations to be relaxed independently, resulting in a better overall solution than if a single relaxation parameter is optimized for tidal (short relaxation) or low frequency (long relaxation) boundary forcing. The dual method is compared to the single relaxation method for an idealized test case where a tidal signal is superimposed on a steady state low frequency solution, and a real application where the low frequency boundary forcing component is derived from a global circulation model for a region extending over the whole Great Barrier Reef, and a tidal signal subsequently superimposed.

  2. Boundaries in gravitational and magnetic activation of cells for sorting.

    PubMed

    Czerlinski, G H

    1991-06-01

    Standard deviations in the distribution of radii of cells and particles are considered to arrive at realistic limits in the use of gravitational and magnetic activation of cells for sorting. Using a specific fractionation design, it is shown that the radius of particles (or cells) may be fractionated down to a precision of +/- 0.76%. Although higher precisions could be obtained with other designs, the number of particles available per fraction is inversely proportional to the precision desired. Thus, one would prefer to keep the precision as moderate as permissible by the experiments.

  3. The link between strength of lattice preferred orientation, second phase content and grain boundary migration: A case study from the Alpine Fault zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Prior, David J.; Toy, Virginia G.; Lindroos, Zoe Reid

    2015-12-01

    We analyse the microstructure and quartz LPOs of 36 layers of varying composition from a several-meter thick sequence of amphibolite-facies metacherts and related mica-garnet-plagioclase-quartz bearing schists from the central Southern Alps in the mylonite zone related to the Alpine Fault. Quartz contents vary from ∼10 to 100% and all of the LPO fabric skeletons are similar, featuring an asymmetric single girdle of [c]-axes inclined ∼30° away from the ZY plane. LPO strength is typically low at quartz contents <70% (M Index of ∼0.05) whereas it may be very high for nearly pure quartz rocks (M Index of up to 4.0). We attribute this change to a sparseness of interphase boundaries in the more quartzose rocks, a reduction in grain-boundary pinning, and a corresponding efficiency of grain boundary migration during dynamic recrystallization. The transition corresponds to a Zener parameter of approximately 700. In layers poor in quartz and rich in mica, the quartz grain size was kept small, and phase-boundary density, high. This may have promoted grain-size sensitive creep and dislocation glide in mica. Dislocation creep in the interspersed quartz grains was correspondingly reduced, and weaker quartz LPOs were produced. In highly quartzose layers, quartz grain boundaries experienced little drag or pinning from impurity phases and were able to migrate quickly into higher strain-energy grains. Preferential consumption of poorly oriented grains strengthened quartz LPOs, geometrically softened the dislocation creep process in these quartzose layers, and contributed to grain coarsening. The lack of evidence for instabilities in the thinly layered (<1 mm, quartz-rich vs. mica-rich) mylonite implies that a combination of deformation mechanisms, grain-size sensitive flow and dislocation creep, in the layers were able to accommodate a nearly homogeneous deformation between the different composition layers.

  4. Associations between active living-oriented zoning and no adult leisure-time physical activity in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F; Thrun, Emily

    2017-02-01

    Nearly one-third of adults report no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Governmental and authoritative bodies recognize the role that community design through zoning code changes can play in enabling LTPA. This study examined the association between zoning and no adult LTPA in the U.S. This study was conducted between 2012 and 2016, with analyses occurring in 2015-2016. Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for jurisdictions located in the 495 most populous U.S. counties and were evaluated for pedestrian-oriented code reform zoning, 11 active living-oriented provisions (e.g., sidewalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, mixed use, bike lanes) and a summated zoning scale (max=12). Individual-level LTPA data were obtained from the 2012 CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). County-aggregated, population-weighted zoning variables were constructed for linking to BRFSS. Log-log multivariate regressions (N=147,517 adults), controlling for individual and county characteristics and with robust standard errors clustered on county, were conducted to examine associations between zoning and no LTPA. Relative risks (RR) compared predicted lack of LTPA at 0% and 100% county-level population exposure to each zoning predictor. Zoning code reforms were associated with a 13% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82-0.92). Except for crosswalks, all zoning provisions were associated with an 11-16% lower probability of no LTPA. Having all 12 zoning provisions was associated with a 22% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.83). The results suggest that active living-oriented zoning is a policy lever available to communities seeking to reduce rates of no LTPA.

  5. Modeled Temperatures and Fluid Source Distributions for the Mexico Subduction Zone: Effects of Hydrothermal Cooling and Implications for Plate Boundary Seismic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M. R.; Spinelli, G. A.; Wada, I.

    2014-12-01

    In subduction zones, spatial variations in pore fluid pressure are hypothesized to control the distribution and nature of slip behavior (e.g., "normal" earthquakes, slow slip events, non-volcanic tremor, very low frequency earthquakes) on the plate boundary fault. A primary control on the pore fluid pressure distribution in subduction zones is the distribution of fluid release from hydrous minerals in the subducting sediment and rock. The distributions of these diagenetic and metamorphic fluid sources are controlled by the pressure-temperature paths that the subducting material follows. Thus, constraining subduction zone thermal structure is required to inform conceptual models of seismic behavior. Here, we present results of thermal models for the Mexico subduction zone, a system that has received recent attention due to observations of slow-slip events and non-volcanic tremor. We model temperatures in five margin-perpendicular transects from 96 ˚W to 104 ˚W. In each transect, we examine the potential thermal effects of vigorous fluid circulation in a high permeability aquifer within the basaltic basement of the oceanic crust. In the transect at 100˚W, hydrothermal circulation cools the subducting material by up to 140 ˚C, shifting peak slab dehydration landward by ~100 km relative to previous estimates from models that do not include the effects of fluid circulation. The age of the subducting plate in the trench increases from ~3 Ma at 104 ˚W to ~18 Ma at 96 ˚W; hydrothermal circulation redistributes the most heat (and cools the system the most) where the subducting plate is youngest. For systems with <20 Ma subducting lithosphere, hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust should be considered in estimating subduction zone temperatures and fluid source distributions.

  6. Exploring the Linkage between Activity-Friendly Zoning, Inactivity, and Cancer Incidence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-03-07

    Background: Physical activity (PA) protects against cancer and enhances cancer survivorship. Given high inactivity rates nationwide, population-level physical activity facilitators are needed. Several authoritative bodies have recognized that zoning and planning helps create activity-friendly environments. This study examined the association between activity-friendly zoning, inactivity, and cancer in 478 of the most populous U.S. counties.Methods: County geocodes linked county-level data: cancer incidence and smoking (State Cancer Profiles), inactivity (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), 11 zoning measures (compiled by the study team), and covariates (from the American Community Survey and NAVTEQ). For each zoning measure, single mediation regression models and Sobel tests examined whether activity-friendly zoning was associated with reduced cancer incidence, and whether inactivity mediated those associations. All models were clustered on state with robust SEs and significance at the P < 0.05 level.Results: Zoning for crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths were associated with reduced cancer incidence (β between -0.71 and -1.27, P < 0.05), about 1 case per 100,000 for each 10 percentage-point increase in county population exposure to zoning. Except for crosswalks, each association was mediated by inactivity. However, county smoking attenuated these results, with only crosswalks remaining significant. Results were similar for males (with zoning for bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths), but not females, alone.Conclusions: Zoning can help to create activity-friendly environments that support decreased inactivity, and possibly reduced cancer incidence.Impact: Given low physical activity levels nationwide, cross-sectoral collaborations with urban planning can inform cancer prevention and public health efforts to decrease inactivity and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev

  7. A note on chromospheric fine structure at active region polarity boundaries.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prata, S. W.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution H-alpha filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory reveal that some filamentary features in active regions have fine structure and hence magnetic field transverse to the gross structure and the zero longitudinal field line. These features are distinct from the usual active region filament, in which fine structure, magnetic field, and filament are all parallel to the zero longitudinal field line. The latter occur on boundaries between regions of weaker fields, while the former occur at boundaries between regions of stronger field.

  8. Synchronous wildfire activity rise and mire deforestation at the triassic-jurassic boundary.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik I; Lindström, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction event (∼201.4 million years ago) caused major faunal and floral turnovers in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The biotic changes have been attributed to extreme greenhouse warming across the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary caused by massive release of carbon dioxide and/or methane related to extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), resulting in a more humid climate with increased storminess and lightning activity. Lightning strikes are considered the primary source of wildfires, producing charcoal, microscopically recognized as inertinite macerals. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of pyrolytic origin and allochthonous charcoal in siliciclastic T-J boundary strata has suggested widespread wildfire activity at the time. We have investigated largely autochthonous coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary in Sweden and Denmark. These beds consist of predominantly organic material from the in situ vegetation in the mires, and as the coaly beds represent a substantial period of time they are excellent environmental archives. We document a remarkable increase in inertinite content in the coal and coaly beds across the T-J boundary. We show estimated burning temperatures derived from inertinite reflectance measurements coupled with palynological data and conclude that pre-boundary late Rhaetian mire wildfires included high-temperature crown fires, whereas latest Rhaetian-Sinemurian mire wildfires were more frequent but dominated by lower temperature surface fires. Our results suggest a major change in the mire ecosystems across the T-J boundary from forested, conifer dominated mires to mires with a predominantly herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Contrary to the overall regional vegetation for which onset of recovery commenced in the early Hettangian, the sensitive mire ecosystem remained affected during the Hettangian and did not start to recover until around the Hettangian

  9. Synchronous Wildfire Activity Rise and Mire Deforestation at the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Lindström, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction event (∼201.4 million years ago) caused major faunal and floral turnovers in both the marine and terrestrial realms. The biotic changes have been attributed to extreme greenhouse warming across the Triassic–Jurassic (T–J) boundary caused by massive release of carbon dioxide and/or methane related to extensive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), resulting in a more humid climate with increased storminess and lightning activity. Lightning strikes are considered the primary source of wildfires, producing charcoal, microscopically recognized as inertinite macerals. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of pyrolytic origin and allochthonous charcoal in siliciclastic T–J boundary strata has suggested widespread wildfire activity at the time. We have investigated largely autochthonous coal and coaly beds across the T–J boundary in Sweden and Denmark. These beds consist of predominantly organic material from the in situ vegetation in the mires, and as the coaly beds represent a substantial period of time they are excellent environmental archives. We document a remarkable increase in inertinite content in the coal and coaly beds across the T–J boundary. We show estimated burning temperatures derived from inertinite reflectance measurements coupled with palynological data and conclude that pre-boundary late Rhaetian mire wildfires included high-temperature crown fires, whereas latest Rhaetian–Sinemurian mire wildfires were more frequent but dominated by lower temperature surface fires. Our results suggest a major change in the mire ecosystems across the T–J boundary from forested, conifer dominated mires to mires with a predominantly herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Contrary to the overall regional vegetation for which onset of recovery commenced in the early Hettangian, the sensitive mire ecosystem remained affected during the Hettangian and did not start to recover until around the

  10. A fast region-based active contour model for boundary detection of echocardiographic images.

    PubMed

    Saini, Kalpana; Dewal, M L; Rohit, Manojkumar

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the boundary detection of atrium and ventricle in echocardiographic images. In case of mitral regurgitation, atrium and ventricle may get dilated. To examine this, doctors draw the boundary manually. Here the aim of this paper is to evolve the automatic boundary detection for carrying out segmentation of echocardiography images. Active contour method is selected for this purpose. There is an enhancement of Chan-Vese paper on active contours without edges. Our algorithm is based on Chan-Vese paper active contours without edges, but it is much faster than Chan-Vese model. Here we have developed a method by which it is possible to detect much faster the echocardiographic boundaries. The method is based on the region information of an image. The region-based force provides a global segmentation with variational flow robust to noise. Implementation is based on level set theory so it easy to deal with topological changes. In this paper, Newton-Raphson method is used which makes possible the fast boundary detection.

  11. Presynaptic spinophilin tunes neurexin signalling to control active zone architecture and function

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Karzan; Reddy-Alla, Suneel; Driller, Jan H; Schreiner, Dietmar; Rey, Ulises; Böhme, Mathias A.; Hollmann, Christina; Ramesh, Niraja; Depner, Harald; Lützkendorf, Janine; Matkovic, Tanja; Götz, Torsten; Bergeron, Dominique D.; Schmoranzer, Jan; Goettfert, Fabian; Holt, Mathew; Wahl, Markus C.; Hell, Stefan W.; Scheiffele, Peter; Walter, Alexander M.; Loll, Bernhard; Sigrist, Stephan J.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly and maturation of synapses at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) depend on trans-synaptic neurexin/neuroligin signalling, which is promoted by the scaffolding protein Syd-1 binding to neurexin. Here we report that the scaffold protein spinophilin binds to the C-terminal portion of neurexin and is needed to limit neurexin/neuroligin signalling by acting antagonistic to Syd-1. Loss of presynaptic spinophilin results in the formation of excess, but atypically small active zones. Neuroligin-1/neurexin-1/Syd-1 levels are increased at spinophilin mutant NMJs, and removal of single copies of the neurexin-1, Syd-1 or neuroligin-1 genes suppresses the spinophilin-active zone phenotype. Evoked transmission is strongly reduced at spinophilin terminals, owing to a severely reduced release probability at individual active zones. We conclude that presynaptic spinophilin fine-tunes neurexin/neuroligin signalling to control active zone number and functionality, thereby optimizing them for action potential-induced exocytosis. PMID:26471740

  12. Crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary: interplay between volcano deformation, geothermal processes, and plate spreading in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland since 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G.; Sturkell, Erik; Islam, Tariqul

    2014-05-01

    Iceland is a subaerial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian Plates can be studied. The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland, comprised of several volcanic systems, is particularly well suited to study interplay between volcanoes, geothermal areas and plate spreading, as the zone is relatively simple and accommodates the full spreading of the plates (18.6 mm/yr in a direction of 105 degrees according to NUVEL-1A predictions). The most recent volcanic activity in the area was the Krafla rifting episode (1975-1984). In 2007-2008 two intrusive events were detected: one in Upptypingar and the other in Þeistareykir. Extensive crustal deformation studies have been carried out in the NVZ; we report the results of recent GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) studies focusing on Krafla, Þeistareykir and Askja volcanic systems in the NVZ. An extensive GPS survey was undertaken in 2013, with over 135 stations occupied. This data was evaluated in conjunction with data acquired since 2008, to generate a velocity field spanning this entire time period. In addition to an existing continuous GPS (cGPS) station, three cGPS stations were installed in the area in 2011-2012. The 2008-2013 GPS velocities were compared to earlier GPS results, and complementary analysis of InSAR images was undertaken. Earlier studies have shown that the Krafla caldera underwent uplift during 1984-1989, followed by subsidence. Since 1995, the maximum subsidence in Krafla has shifted from directly above the shallow magma chamber towards an array of boreholes (geothermal exploitation) in Leirbotnar. Similar subsidence has been observed around another array of boreholes in Bjarnaflag, 7 km further south. The most significant signal on the velocities calculated from campaign GPS data over the 5 year period, is plate spreading with an E-W velocity of about 12 mm/yr over a 30 km wide area. However it also shows an

  13. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  14. The lateral boundary of a metamorphic core complex: The Moutsounas shear zone on Naxos, Cyclades, Greece☆

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Liu, Junlai

    2013-01-01

    We describe the structure, microstructures, texture and paleopiezometry of quartz-rich phyllites and marbles along N-trending Moutsounas shear zone at the eastern margin of the Naxos metamorphic core complex (MCC). Fabrics consistently indicate a top-to-the-NNE non-coaxial shear and formed during the main stage of updoming and exhumation between ca. 14 and 11 Ma of the Naxos MCC. The main stage of exhumation postdates the deposition of overlying Miocene sedimentary successions and predates the overlying Upper Miocene/Pliocene conglomerates. Detailed microstructural and textural analysis reveals that the movement along the Moutsounas shear zone is associated with a retrograde greenschist to subgreenschist facies overprint of the early higher-temperature rocks. Paleopiezometry on recrystallized quartz and calcite yields differential stresses of 20–77 MPa and a strain rate of 10−15–10−13 s−1 at 350 °C for quartz and ca. 300 °C for calcite. Chlorite geothermometry of the shear zone yields two temperature regimes, 300–360 °C, and 200–250 °C. The lower temperature group is interpreted to result from late-stage hydrothermal overprint. PMID:26523079

  15. The lateral boundary of a metamorphic core complex: The Moutsounas shear zone on Naxos, Cyclades, Greece.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Liu, Junlai

    2013-09-01

    We describe the structure, microstructures, texture and paleopiezometry of quartz-rich phyllites and marbles along N-trending Moutsounas shear zone at the eastern margin of the Naxos metamorphic core complex (MCC). Fabrics consistently indicate a top-to-the-NNE non-coaxial shear and formed during the main stage of updoming and exhumation between ca. 14 and 11 Ma of the Naxos MCC. The main stage of exhumation postdates the deposition of overlying Miocene sedimentary successions and predates the overlying Upper Miocene/Pliocene conglomerates. Detailed microstructural and textural analysis reveals that the movement along the Moutsounas shear zone is associated with a retrograde greenschist to subgreenschist facies overprint of the early higher-temperature rocks. Paleopiezometry on recrystallized quartz and calcite yields differential stresses of 20-77 MPa and a strain rate of 10(-15)-10(-13) s(-1) at 350 °C for quartz and ca. 300 °C for calcite. Chlorite geothermometry of the shear zone yields two temperature regimes, 300-360 °C, and 200-250 °C. The lower temperature group is interpreted to result from late-stage hydrothermal overprint.

  16. PP2A and GSK-3beta act antagonistically to regulate active zone development.

    PubMed

    Viquez, Natasha M; Füger, Petra; Valakh, Vera; Daniels, Richard W; Rasse, Tobias M; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2009-09-16

    The synapse is composed of an active zone apposed to a postsynaptic cluster of neurotransmitter receptors. Each Drosophila neuromuscular junction comprises hundreds of such individual release sites apposed to clusters of glutamate receptors. Here, we show that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is required for the development of structurally normal active zones opposite glutamate receptors. When PP2A is inhibited presynaptically, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot (Brp), an active zone protein required for normal transmitter release. These unapposed receptors are not due to presynaptic retraction of synaptic boutons, since other presynaptic components are still apposed to the entire postsynaptic specialization. Instead, these data suggest that Brp localization is regulated at the level of individual release sites. Live imaging of glutamate receptors demonstrates that this disruption to active zone development is accompanied by abnormal postsynaptic development, with decreased formation of glutamate receptor clusters. Remarkably, inhibition of the serine-threonine kinase GSK-3beta completely suppresses the active zone defect, as well as other synaptic morphology phenotypes associated with inhibition of PP2A. These data suggest that PP2A and GSK-3beta function antagonistically to control active zone development, providing a potential mechanism for regulating synaptic efficacy at a single release site.

  17. New GPS constraints on active deformation along the Africa-Iberia plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulali, A.; Ouazar, D.; Tahayt, A.; King, R. W.; Vernant, P.; Reilinger, R. E.; McClusky, S.; Mourabit, T.; Davila, J. M.; Amraoui, N.

    2011-08-01

    We use velocities from 65 continuous stations and 31 survey-mode GPS sites as well as kinematic modeling to investigate present day deformation along the Africa-Iberia plate boundary zone in the western Mediterranean region. The GPS velocity field shows southwestward motion of the central part of the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco with respect to Africa varying between 3.5 and 4.0 mm/yr, consistent with prior published results. Stations in the southwestern part of the Betic Mountains of southern Spain move west-southwest with respect to Eurasia (˜ 2-3 mm/yr). The western component of Betics motion is consistent with partial transfer of Nubia-Eurasia plate motion into the southern Betics. The southward component of Betics motion with respect to Iberia is kinematically consistent with south to southwest motion of the Rif Mountains with respect to Africa. We use block modeling, constrained by mapped surface faults and seismicity to estimate the geometry and rates of strain accumulation on plate boundary structures. Our preferred plate boundary geometry includes one block between Iberia and Africa including the SW Betics, Alboran Sea, and central Rif. This geometry provides a good fit to the observed motions, suggesting a wide transpressive boundary in the westernmost Mediterranean, with deformation mainly accommodated by the Gloria-Azores fault system to the West and the Rif-Tell lineament to the East. Block boundaries encompass aspects of earlier interpretations suggesting three main deformation styles: (i) extension along the NE-SW trending Trans-Alboran shear zone, (ii) dextral strike-slip in the Betics corresponding to a well defined E-W seismic lineament, and (iii) right lateral strike-slip motion extending West to the Azores and right-lateral motion with compression extending East along the Algerian Tell. We interpret differential motion in the Rif-Alboran-Betic system to be driven both by surface processes related the Africa-Eurasia oblique convergence and

  18. Identifying active interplate and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean plate from seismic reflection data and the significance of the Pedro Bank fault zone in the tectonic history of the Nicaraguan Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the western Caribbean Sea is an approximately 500,000 km2 area of Precambrian to Late Cretaceous tectonic terranes that have been assembled during the Late Cretaceous formation of the Caribbean plate and include: 1) the Chortis block, a continental fragment; 2) the Great Arc of the Caribbean, a deformed Cretaceous arc, and 3) the Caribbean large igneous province formed in late Cretaceous time. Middle Eocene to Recent eastward motion of the Caribbean plate has been largely controlled by strike-slip faulting along the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone that bounds the northern margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. These faults reactivate older rift structures near the island of Jamaica and form the transtensional basins of the Honduran Borderlands near Honduras. Recent GPS studies suggest that small amount of intraplate motion within the current margin of error of GPS measurements (1-3 mm/yr) may occur within the center of the western Caribbean plate at the Pedro Bank fault zone and Hess Escarpment. This study uses a database of over 54,000 km of modern and vintage 2D seismic data, combined with earthquake data and results from previous GPS studies to define the active areas of inter- and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean. Intraplate deformation occurs along the 700-km-long Pedro Bank fault zone that traverses the center of the Nicaraguan Rise and reactivates the paleo suture zone between the Great Arc of the Caribbean and the Caribbean large igneous province. The Pedro Bank fault zone also drives active extension at the 200-km-long San Andres rift along the southwest margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. Influence of the Cocos Ridge indentor may be contributing to reactivation of faulting along the southwesternmost, active segment of the Hess Escarpment.

  19. Activated platelets form protected zones of adhesion on fibrinogen and fibronectin-coated surfaces

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Leukocytes form zones of close apposition when they adhere to ligand- coated surfaces. Because plasma proteins are excluded from these contact zones, we have termed them protected zones of adhesion. To determine whether platelets form similar protected zones of adhesion, gel-filtered platelets stimulated with thrombin or ADP were allowed to adhere to fibrinogen- or fibronectin-coated surfaces. The protein- coated surfaces with platelets attached were stained with either fluorochrome-conjugated goat anti-human fibrinogen or anti-human fibronectin antibodies, or with rhodamine-conjugated polyethylene glycol polymers. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that F(ab')2 anti- fibrinogen (100 kD) did not penetrate into the contact zones between stimulated platelets and the underlying fibrinogen-coated surface, while Fab antifibrinogen (50 kD) and 10 kD polyethylene glycol readily penetrated and stained the substrate beneath the platelets. Thrombin- or ADP-stimulated platelets also formed protected zones of adhesion on fibronectin-coated surfaces. F(ab')2 anti-fibronectin and 10 kD polyethylene glycol were excluded from these adhesion zones, indicating that they are much less permeable than those formed by platelets on fibrinogen-coated surfaces. The permeability properties of protected zones of adhesion formed by stimulated platelets on surfaces coated with both fibrinogen and fibronectin were similar to the zones of adhesion formed on fibronectin alone. mAb 7E3, directed against the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin blocked the formation of protected adhesion zones between thrombin-stimulated platelets and fibrinogen or fibronectin coated surfaces. mAb C13 is directed against the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin on platelets. Stimulated platelets treated with this mAb formed protected zones of adhesion on surfaces coated with fibronectin. These protected zones were impermeable to F(ab')2 antifibronectin but were permeable to 10 kD polyethylene glycol. These results show that activated

  20. Factors affecting carbon-14 activity of unsaturated zone CO2 and implications for groundwater dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Cameron; Cook, Peter G.; Harrington, Glenn A.; Meredith, Karina; Kipfer, Rolf

    2014-11-01

    Unsaturated zone processes may influence the carbon-14 (14C) activity of infiltrating groundwater and thus introduce error in derived groundwater residence times. However unsaturated zone 14C activities are rarely measured and there is little understanding of how they may vary spatially in a groundwater basin. In this study we measured 14C activity in unsaturated zone gas at five sites with different watertable depths (8.2-31.5 m) in the arid Ti Tree Basin, central Australia. We observed a relatively uniform decrease in 14C activity of unsaturated zone gas with depth at most sites, with variation in unsaturated zone depths leading to variation in 14C activities directly above the watertable at each site (ranging from 54 to 106 percent Modern Carbon (pMC)). Through modelling we show that the profiles are influenced by CO2 production at different depths from sources with different isotopic ratios, including production of ‘modern' CO2 in the root zone and production of ‘old' CO2 above the watertable. Scenario modelling showed that these processes are independent of recharge when recharge is low (0-10 mm y-1) but that higher recharge rates (>100 mm y-1) result in more advective transport of atmospheric CO2 to the watertable. The variation in 14C above the watertable was more sensitive to watertable depth and shallow and deep CO2 production rates. These findings offer insight into how unsaturated zone 14C activities may vary spatially and provide guidance as to when 14C depletion in unsaturated zone CO2 may become important for groundwater dating, particularly in arid settings.

  1. The formation of equilibrium space-charge zones at grain boundaries in the perovskite oxide SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Roger A

    2009-11-21

    The thermodynamics of space-charge formation at grain boundaries in acceptor-doped SrTiO(3) is examined. Thermodynamic models of varying complexity are developed, which predict the space-charge potential as a function of thermodynamic variables, such as dopant concentration, temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Based on the results, limits to the space-charge potential that can arise at a grain boundary and strategies for tuning the space-charge potential are discussed. With literature equations linking the space-charge potential to electrical properties, one specific thermodynamic model is subsequently applied to electrical impedance data reported in the literature for tilt bicrystal samples of Fe-doped SrTiO(3). The thermodynamic driving energies for space-charge formation obtained from the analysis are examined as a function of tilt misorientation angle, in order to explore the relationship between driving energy and interface atomistic structure. In addition, the capabilities and deficiencies of the entire approach (from driving energies via space-charge potentials to electrical properties), with regard to predicting experimental behaviour, are demonstrated.

  2. 34 CFR 299.3 - What priority may the Secretary establish for activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? 299.3 Section 299.3 Education Regulations of the... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? For any ESEA discretionary grant program, the... significant portion of the program funds to address substantial problems in an Empowerment Zone, including...

  3. Geomorphic Indices in the Assessment of Tectonic Activity in Forearc of the Active Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of GIS techniques and constant advancement of digital elevation models significantly improved the accuracy of extraction of information on active tectonics from landscape features. Numerous attempts were made to quantitatively evaluate recent tectonic activity using GIS and DEMs, and a set of geomorphic indices (GI), however these studies focused mainly on sub-basins or small-scale areal units. In forearc regions where crustal deformation is usually large-scale and do not concentrate only along one specific fault, an assessment of the complete basin is more accurate. We present here the first attempt to implement thirteen GI in the assessment of active tectonics of a forearc region of an active convergent margin using the entire river basins. The GIs were divided into groups: BTAI - basin geomorphic indices (reflecting areal erosion vs. tectonics) and STAI - stream geomorphic indices (reflecting vertical erosion vs. tectonics). We calculated selected indices for 9 large (> 450 km2) drainage basins. Then we categorized the obtained results of each index into three classes of relative tectonic activity: 1 - high, 2 - moderate, and 3 - low. Finally we averaged these classes for each basin to determine the tectonic activity level (TAI). The analysis for the case study area, the Guerrero sector at the Mexican subduction zone, revealed high tectonic activity in this area, particularly in its central and, to a lesser degree, eastern part. This pattern agrees with and is supported by interpretation of satellite images and DEM, and field observations. The results proved that the proposed approach indeed allows identification and recognition of areas witnessing recent tectonic deformation. Moreover, our results indicated that, even though no large earthquake has been recorded in this sector for more than 100 years, the area is highly active and may represent a seismic hazard for the region.

  4. Caltepec fault zone: An Early Permian dextral transpressional boundary between the Proterozoic Oaxacan and Paleozoic Acatlán complexes, southern Mexico, and regional tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elías-Herrera, Mariano; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando

    2002-06-01

    The tectonic boundary between the Grenville-age Oaxacan and Paleozoic Acatlán crystalline complexes in southern Mexico, named the Caltepec fault zone (CFZ), is characterized for the first time as a dextral transpressional, NNW trending and ENE dipping ductile fault zone of Early Permian age. The complexes are welded by a syntectonic magmatic epidote-bearing granite along the entire length of the CFZ. From east to west, the 2-6 km wide CFZ consists of disrupted and retrograded banded gneisses of the Oaxacan complex, quartz-feldspar mylonite, and the syntectonic magmatic epidote-bearing Cozahuico granite (CZG) with huge xenoliths (up to several kilometers long and up to 600 m wide) of the Proterozoic gneisses, thrust westward over metasedimentary tectonites of the Acatlán complex. The CZG shows magmatic fabrics that represent a transition to solid-state deformation characterized by subvertical foliation, subhorizontal NNE and SSE dipping mineral stretching lineation and dextral kinematics. The megaxenoliths underwent partial melting developing banded migmatites with layers of epidote-bearing granitic neosome. The parallelism of fabrics in these anatexitic rocks and in the enclosing deformed granite suggests that ductile deformation, migmatization of xenolithic gneisses, and granite emplacement along the CFZ were coeval. The neosome yielded a U-Pb zircon concordant age of 275.6 +/- 1 Ma probably dating the peak of the tectonothermal event. We interpret the CFZ as a major terrane boundary accommodating transpressional interaction between the Acatlán and Oaxaquia blocks, which were amalgamated in an oblique convergent setting by Early Permian time, as the leading edge of Gondwana impinged onto the southern margin of Laurentia along the Marathon-Ouachita suture to form Pangea.

  5. Repair boundary for parent tube indications within the upper joint zone of hybrid expansion joint (HEJ) sleeved tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, W.K.; Keating, R.F.

    1997-02-01

    In the Spring and Fall of 1994, and the Spring of 1995, crack-like indications were found in the upper hybrid expansion joint (HEJ) region of Steam Generator (S/G) tubes which had been sleeved using Westinghouse HEJ sleeves. As a result of these findings, analytic and test evaluations were performed to assess the effect of the degradation on the structural, and leakage, integrity of the sleeve/tube joint relative to the requirements of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) draft Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.121. The results of these evaluations demonstrated that tubes with implied or known crack-like circumferential parent tube indications (PTIs) located 1.1 inches or farther below the bottom of the hardroll upper transition, have sufficient, and significant, integrity relative to the requirements of RG 1.121. Thus, the purpose of this report is to provide background information related to the justification of the modified tube repair boundary.

  6. Incipient Crustal Stretching across AN Active Collision Belt: the Case of the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, S.; Tortorici, G.; Romagnoli, G.; Pavano, F.

    2012-12-01

    In the Central Mediterranean, the differential roll-back of the subducting Nubia Plate caused the Neogene-Quaternary extrusion of the Calabrian arc onto the oceanic Ionian slab, and the opening of the oceanic Tyrrhenian Basin, in the overriding Eurasia Plate. The differential motion at the edges of the arc was largely accommodated along transform faults that propagated across the orogenic belt. Since the Late Quaternary, the southern edge of the arc has been replaced by the roughly N-S oriented Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (SCRZ) that formed as the NNW-directed normal faults of NE Sicily, crossing the orogenic belt, have linked the NNE-oriented Tyrrhenian margin of southern Calabria with the NNW-trending Africa-Ionian boundary of southeastern Sicily. Our study focused on the Sicily shoulder of the SCRZ, where the transition zone between the extensional belt and the still active Nubia-Eurasia convergent margin is characterized by two distinct mobile crustal wedges, both lying on an upwarped Mantle, where a re-orientations of the σ1 is combined with volcanism (e.g. Etna, Aeolian islands) and a huge tectonic uplift. In southeastern Sicily, the Hyblean-Etnean region evolved, since about 0.85 Ma, as an indipendent crustal wedge, moving towards the NNW and pointing to the active Mt. Etna volcano. A local ENE crustal stretching accompanied the traslation of the block and pre-dated the ESE-oriented extension governing the propagation of the southernmost branch of the SCR, which started at about 330 ka B.P.. Similarly, the Peloritani-Aeolian region, flanked by the 125 ka-old NE-Sicily branch of the rift zone, represents a mostly submerged crustal wedge that migrates towards the NE, diverging from the rest of the Sicily collision zone and pointing to the Stromboli volcano. The Peloritani-Aeolian block is characterized by the occurrence of a wide central NE-oriented collapsed basin contoured by an actively uplifting region, whose tectonic boundaries are evidenced by a sharp

  7. Geophysical and Chemical Weathering Signatures Across the Deep Weathered-Unweathered Granite Boundary of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D., Jr.; Bacon, A. R.; Brantley, S. L.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the relationship between geophysical measurements and chemical weathering at Earth's surface, we combine comprehensive chemical and physical analyses of a 70-m granite weathering profile in the Southern Piedmont in the southeastern United States. The research site is in the uplands of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory and is similar to many geomorphically stable, ancient, and highly-weathered Ultisol soils of the region. Surface and downhole geophysical analyses suggest significant physical changes to depths of about 40 m, where geophysical properties are consistent with competent and unweathered granite. At this depth, surface refraction velocities increase to >4.5 km/s; variations in downhole sonic velocities decrease by more than two-fold; and deviations in the downhole caliper log sharply decrease as well. Forty meters depth is also the depth of initiation of plagioclase feldspar weathering, as inferred from bulk geochemical measurement of the full 70-m deep core. Specifically, element-depth profiles, cast as mass transfer coefficient profiles using Ti and Zr as immobile elements, document inferred loss of plagioclase in the depth interval between 15 and 40-m depth. Plagioclase feldspar is the most abundant of the highly reactive minerals in the granite. Such a wide reaction front is characteristic of weathering granites. Some loss of K is observed at these depths but most K loss, as well as Mg loss, occurs at shallower depths. Nearby geophysical profiles and 3D stress models have been interpreted as showing that seismic velocities decrease at 40 m depth due to opening of fractures as rock is exhumed toward the surface. Given our interpretations of both the geochemical and geophysical data, we infer that the onset of chemical weathering of feldspar coincides with the opening of these fractures. The data highlight the ability of geochemistry and geophysics to complement each other and enrich our understanding of Earth's Critical Zone.

  8. Post-glacial (<20 ka) Dextral Slip Rate of the Offshore Alpine Fault: Implications for Deformation in the Pacific-Australia Plate Boundary Zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    Geological displacement rates for major plate boundary strike-slip faults have seldom been determined with precision from the marine environment. In this study of the southern Alpine Fault, high-precision fault structure and slip rates are identified using multibeam bathymetric data and dated samples from the Fiordland continental margin. These rates are derived from dextral displacements of relict, but well- preserved, glacial geomorphology (moraines and outwash fans), interpreted to be aged 17 (+2, -1) calendar ka. The weighted mean slip rate is 27.2 (-3.0, +1.8) mm/yr on the shelf between Milford and George sounds, increasing southward to 31.4 (-3.5, +2.1) mm/yr between Caswell and Doubtful sounds, with uncertainties at the 95% confidence level. These offshore rates are higher than those from an adjacent 80 km length section of the fault on land in south Westland, and are in good agreement with GPS data. The southern slip rates represent some of the highest strike-slip rates on Earth, and ~ 90% of the total plate motion in southern New Zealand. The southward increase in strike-slip rate on the Alpine Fault occurs despite a southward reduction in Pacific-Australian relative plate motion rate, and despite the prediction of southward decreasing plate-parallel motion and southward increasing normal convergence. The Fiordland region is thus an excellent example of geological strain being highly partitioned within an obliquely-convergent plate boundary zone.

  9. A Method for Lung Boundary Correction Using Split Bregman Method and Geometric Active Contour Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianxun; Liang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    In order to get the extracted lung region from CT images more accurately, a model that contains lung region extraction and edge boundary correction is proposed. Firstly, a new edge detection function is presented with the help of the classic structure tensor theory. Secondly, the initial lung mask is automatically extracted by an improved active contour model which combines the global intensity information, local intensity information, the new edge information, and an adaptive weight. It is worth noting that the objective function of the improved model is converted to a convex model, which makes the proposed model get the global minimum. Then, the central airway was excluded according to the spatial context messages and the position relationship between every segmented region and the rib. Thirdly, a mesh and the fractal theory are used to detect the boundary that surrounds the juxtapleural nodule. Finally, the geometric active contour model is employed to correct the detected boundary and reinclude juxtapleural nodules. We also evaluated the performance of the proposed segmentation and correction model by comparing with their popular counterparts. Efficient computing capability and robustness property prove that our model can correct the lung boundary reliably and reproducibly. PMID:26089976

  10. Functional dissection of the mouse tyrosinase locus control region identifies a new putative boundary activity.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Patricia; Martínez, Antonio; Regales, Lucía; Lavado, Alfonso; García-Díaz, Angel; Alonso, Angel; Busturia, Ana; Montoliu, Lluís

    2003-11-01

    Locus control regions (LCRs) are complex high-order chromatin structures harbouring several regulatory elements, including enhancers and boundaries. We have analysed the mouse tyrosinase LCR functions, in vitro, in cell lines and, in vivo, in transgenic mice and flies. The LCR-core (2.1 kb), located at -15 kb and carrying a previously described tissue-specific DNase I hypersensitive site, operates as a transcriptional enhancer that efficiently transactivates heterologous promoters in a cell-specific orientation-independent manner. Furthermore, we have investigated the boundary activity of these sequences in transgenic animals and cells. In mice, the LCR fragment (3.7 kb) rescued a weakly expressed reference construct that displays position effects. In Drosophila, the LCR fragment and its core insulated the expression of a white minigene reporter construct from chromosomal position effects. In cells, sequences located 5' from the LCR-core displayed putative boundary activities. We have obtained genomic sequences surrounding the LCR fragment and found a LINE1 repeated element at 5'. In B16 melanoma and L929 fibroblast mouse cells, this element was found heavily methylated, supporting the existence of putative boundary elements that could prevent the spreading of condensed chromatin from the LINE1 sequences into the LCR fragment, experimentally shown to be in an open chromatin structure.

  11. Active and passive-source imaging of the Cascadia subduction zone using both onshore and offshore data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiszewski, H. A.; Abers, G. A.; Carton, H. D.; Webb, S. C.; Gaherty, J. B.; Trehu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone is characterized by the subduction of young lithosphere with relatively little seismicity, despite evidence of prehistoric earthquakes, and a thick incoming sediment section that feeds the plate interface. It has been suggested that the thrust zone forms a high-porosity channel of near-lithostatic pressure to 40 km depth, but stronger metasediments may also explain many observations. To test these hypotheses, we analyze new data and integrate results from both active and passive-source seismic studies of Cascadia that sample the interplate thrust zone. In June-July 2012, fifteen seismometers were deployed in Washington from the coast to 140 km inland to record airguns from the R/V Langseth along a linear trench-perpendicular profile. We also analyze broadband data from the coincident onshore CAFE (2006-08) broadband high-density array, which provided high-resolution receiver function images of the downgoing plate, and with the offshore Grays Harbor array of the Cascadia Initiative (CI). In the active-source data, arrivals are observed at up to 140 km offset from the stations, the farthest of which are likely turning waves that travel in the slab mantle. Signals from all but the farthest inland stations are dominated by strong reverberating signals at 20-90 km offset. Preliminary calculations indicate that some of these signals have apparent velocity and timing consistent with waves that reflect off the plate interface or just above it. Bounce points for these rays map a zone of high reflectivity extending ~15-20 km on either side of the coastline. Some aspects of the signals may indicate an origin on or near the plate boundary. In addition, these reflections directly underlie CAFE stations where receiver functions have been obtained on land and the CI broadband stations where receiver functions are being obtained offshore, allowing for direct comparison and integration of all three datasets. The CI stations present several challenges

  12. An investigation of nanoscale grain boundary electrical activity and electrical properties in a model electroceramic: Niobium-doped strontium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kevin David

    2000-12-01

    This thesis presents an integrated approach towards understanding grain boundary electrical properties in electroceramics by examining the effects of doping and annealing conditions on macroscopic electrical measurements, nanoscale potentials, and defect distributions at grain boundaries. The varistor behavior of a model electroceramic system, bicrystals of Nb bulk doped SrTiO 3, has been investigated as a basis for correlating grain boundary properties through a simplified microstructure. Although these bicrystals only have a single grain boundary, AC and DC electrical measurements have revealed a four order of magnitude increase in resistance for the isolated grain boundary. Characteristic of varistor behavior, this grain boundary resistance was demonstrated to rapidly decline above a switch-on voltage, indicating nonlinear grain boundary barrier breakdown. For the same bicrystals that showed varistor behavior, the characteristics of the grain boundary barrier were examined as a function of doping and heat treatment. SrTiO3 bicrystals, doped with donors (Nb) and acceptors (Mn), were examined with high resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques to observe changes in the local grain boundary chemistry and structure. Although Nb does not strongly segregate, through a Mn grain boundary doping procedure, highly doped grain boundaries were achieved. In both cases, electron holograms revealed the presence of potentials at these grain boundaries, indicative of the underlying charge density distributions. Another major contribution of this research has been the development of a unique procedure for incorporating in situ applied current with electron holography. This approach has enabled for the first time dynamic changes in grain boundary potentials to be directly observed as a function of applied bias. Although there remain many open-ended questions regarding the electrical activity of grain boundaries in even this simple electroceramic system, the thesis

  13. Timing of Deformation in the Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Thrust Zone (CMBbtz), southern Ontario, Canada, from Electron Microprobe Dating of Monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, M. J.; Dunn, S. R.; Peck, W. H.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    In the Grenville Province of Southern Ontario, the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary thrust zone (CMBbtz) is a crustal-scale tectonic boundary between the older, granulite-facies Central Gneiss Belt to the NW and the younger, amphibolite-facies Central Metasedimentary Belt to the SE. Although there are a range of tectonic models for the CMBbtz, most workers agree it is a major tectonic boundary that accommodated ductile thrusting and crustal shortening during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville Orogeny (~1080-1020 Ma). Some studies suggest that ductile thrusting in the CMBbtz was roughly synchronous with synorogenic extensional collapse below an orogenic lid. Previous geochronological studies also provide evidence of earlier deformation and/or metamorphic events in the CMBbtz, although the relation between deformation in the CMBbtz to the Elzeviran (~1230 Ma) and Shawinigan (~1180 Ma) orogenies is unclear. Our study is the first to report in situ electron microprobe monazite (mnz) dates from amphibolite-grade ortho- and para-gneisses of the CMBbtz. Our results are broadly consistent with other chronometers. We present dates from 132 age-domains within 83 mnz grains in 14 samples. Although our data provide strong evidence for deformation and metamorphism along the length of the CMBbtz during the Ottawan (1080-1020 Ma), we also report two other clusters of ages: 1140-1110 Ma and 1230-1170 Ma. The latter cluster falls between the widely accepted ranges for the Elzeviran and Shawinigan orogenies. In addition, some individual outcrops, particularly those in Killaloe and Minden, show mnz ages spanning over 200 m.y., and the setting and compositions of individual monazite domains allow us to link mnz growth to episodes of garnet growth during multiple events. Together these data indicate an unexpectedly continuous and long-lived period of deformation and metamorphism in the CMBbtz.

  14. Concentric zones of active RhoA and Cdc42 around single cell wounds

    PubMed Central

    Benink, Hélène A.; Bement, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Rho GTPases control many cytoskeleton-dependent processes, but how they regulate spatially distinct features of cytoskeletal function within a single cell is poorly understood. Here, we studied active RhoA and Cdc42 in wounded Xenopus oocytes, which assemble and close a dynamic ring of actin filaments (F-actin) and myosin-2 around wound sites. RhoA and Cdc42 are rapidly activated around wound sites in a calcium-dependent manner and segregate into distinct, concentric zones around the wound, with active Cdc42 in the approximate middle of the F-actin array and active RhoA on the interior of the array. These zones form before F-actin accumulation, and then move in concert with the closing array. Microtubules and F-actin are required for normal zone organization and dynamics, as is crosstalk between RhoA and Cdc42. Each of the zones makes distinct contributions to the organization and function of the actomyosin wound array. We propose that similar rho activity zones control related processes such as cytokinesis. PMID:15684032

  15. A model for the termination of the Ryukyu subduction zone against Taiwan: A junction of collision, subduction/separation, and subduction boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, F.T.; Liang, W.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Benz, H.; Villasenor, A.

    2009-01-01

    The NW moving Philippine Sea plate (PSP) collides with the Eurasian plate (EUP) in the vicinity of Taiwan, and at the same time, it subducts toward the north along SW Ryukyu. The Ryukyu subduction zone terminates against eastern Taiwan. While the Ryukyu Trench is a linear bathym??trie low about 100 km east of Taiwan, closer to Taiwan, it cannot be clearly identified bathymetrically owing to the deformation related to the collision, making the location of the intersection of the Ryukyu with Taiwan difficult to decipher. We propose a model for this complex of boundaries on the basis of seismicity and 3-D velocity structures. In this model the intersection is placed at the latitude of about 23.7??N, placing the northern part of the Coastal Range on EUP. As PSP gets deeper along the subduction zone it collides with EUP on the Taiwan side only where they are in direct contact. Thus, the Eurasian plate on the Taiwan side is being pushed and compressed by the NW moving Philippine Sea plate, at increasing depth toward the north. Offshore of northeastern Taiwan the wedge-shaped EUP on top of the Ryukyu subducting plate is connected to the EUP on the Ryukyu side and coupled to the NW moving PSP by friction at the plate interface. The two sides of the EUP above the western end of the subduction zone are not subjected to the same forces, and a difference in motions can be expected. The deformation of Taiwan as revealed by continuous GPS measurements, geodetic movement along the east coast of Taiwan, and the formation of the Hoping Basin can be understood in terms of the proposed model. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Topography and tectonics of the central New Madrid seismic zone: Results of numerical experiements using a three-dimensional boundary element program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Ellis, Michael

    1994-01-01

    We present results of a series of numerical experiments designed to test hypothetical mechanisms that derive deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone. Experiments are constrained by subtle topography and the distribution of seismicity in the region. We use a new boundary element algorithm that permits calcuation of the three-dimensional deformation field. Surface displacement fields are calculated for the New Madrid zone under both far-field (plate tectonics scale) and locally derived driving strains. Results demonstrate that surface displacement fields cannot distinguish between either a far-field simple or pure shear strain field or one that involves a deep shear zone beneath the upper crustal faults. Thus, neither geomorphic nor geodetic studies alone are expected to reveal the ultimate driving mechanism behind the present-day deformation. We have also tested hypotheses about strain accommodation within the New Madrid contractional step-over by including linking faults, two southwest dipping and one vertical, recently inferred from microearthquake data. Only those models with step-over faults are able to predict the observed topography. Surface displacement fields for long-term, relaxed deformation predict the distribution of uplift and subsidence in the contractional step-over remarkably well. Generation of these displacement fields appear to require slip on both the two northeast trending vertical faults and the two dipping faults in the step-over region, with very minor displacements occurring during the interseismic period when the northeast trending vertical faults are locked. These models suggest that the gently dippling central step-over fault is a reverse fault and that the steeper fault, extending to the southeast of the step-over, acts as a normal fault over the long term.

  17. Delineation of Active Basement Faults in the Eastern Tennessee and Charlevoix Intraplate Seismic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. A.; Langston, C. A.; Cooley, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recognition of distinct, seismogenic basement faults within the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) and the Charlevoix seismic zone (CSZ) is now possible using local earthquake tomography and datasets containing a sufficiently large number of earthquakes. Unlike the New Madrid seismic zone where seismicity clearly defines active fault segments, earthquake activity in the ETSZ and CSZ appears diffuse. New arrival time inversions for hypocenter relocations and 3-D velocity variations using datasets in excess of 1000 earthquakes suggest the presence of distinct basement faults in both seismic zones. In the ETSZ, relocated hypocenters align in near-vertical segments trending NE-SW, parallel to the long dimension of the seismic zone. Earthquakes in the most seismogenic portion of the ETSZ delineate another set of near-vertical faults trending roughly E-ESE. These apparent trends and steep dips are compatible with ETSZ focal mechanism solutions. The solutions are remarkably consistent and indicate strike-slip motion along the entire length of the seismic zone. Relocated hypocenter clusters in the CSZ define planes that trend and dip in directions that are compatible with known Iapitan rift faults. Seismicity defining the planes becomes disrupted where the rift faults encounter a major zone of deformation produced by a Devonian meteor impact. We will perform a joint statistical analysis of hypocenter alignments and focal mechanism nodal plane orientations in the ETSZ and the CSZ to determine the spatial orientations of dominant seismogenic basement faults. Quantifying the locations and dimensions of active basement faults will be important for seismic hazard assessment and for models addressing the driving mechanisms for these intraplate zones.

  18. Low resistivity and permeability in actively deforming shear zones on the San Andreas Fault at SAFOD

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, Carolyn A.; Lockner, David A.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) scientific drillhole near Parkfield, California crosses the San Andreas Fault at a depth of 2.7 km. Downhole measurements and analysis of core retrieved from Phase 3 drilling reveal two narrow, actively deforming zones of smectite-clay gouge within a roughly 200 m-wide fault damage zone of sandstones, siltstones and mudstones. Here we report electrical resistivity and permeability measurements on core samples from all of these structural units at effective confining pressures up to 120 MPa. Electrical resistivity (~10 ohm-m) and permeability (10-21 to 10-22 m2) in the actively deforming zones were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding damage zone material, consistent with broader-scale observations from the downhole resistivity and seismic velocity logs. The higher porosity of the clay gouge, 2 to 8 times greater than that in the damage zone rocks, along with surface conduction were the principal factors contributing to the observed low resistivities. The high percentage of fine-grained clay in the deforming zones also greatly reduced permeability to values low enough to create a barrier to fluid flow across the fault. Together, resistivity and permeability data can be used to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault, key to understanding fault structure and strength. The low resistivities and strength measurements of the SAFOD core are consistent with observations of low resistivity clays that are often found in the principal slip zones of other active faults making resistivity logs a valuable tool for identifying these zones.

  19. Active control of the depletion boundary layers in microfluidic electrochemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong Kee; Fichtl, Geoff W; Kenis, Paul J A

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we describe three methods to improve the performance of pressure-driven laminar flow-based microreactors by manipulating reaction-depletion boundary layers to overcome mass transfer limitations at reactive surfaces on the walls, such as electrodes. The transport rate of the reactants to the reactive surfaces is enhanced by (i) removing the depleted zone through multiple periodically-placed outlets; (ii) adding fresh reactants through multiple periodically-placed inlets along the reactive surface; or (iii) producing a spiraling, transverse flow through the integration of herringbone ridges along the channel walls. For approaches (i) and (ii), the network of microfluidic channels needs to be designed such that under the operating conditions used the right amount of boundary layer at each outlet or inlet is removed or replenished, respectively. Here, we report a set of design rules, derived with the help of a fluidic resistance circuit model, to aid in the design of appropriate microfluidic networks. Also, the actual enhancement of the performance of the electrochemical microreactor, i.e. chemical conversion efficiency, using multiple inlets, multiple outlets, or herringbone ridges is reported.

  20. Shifting boundaries of retinoic acid activity control hindbrain segmental gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Gresh, Lionel; Barra, Jacqueline; Duester, Gregg

    2005-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) generated by Raldh2 in paraxial mesoderm is required for specification of the posterior hindbrain, including restriction of Hoxb1 expression to presumptive rhombomere 4 (r4). Hoxb1 expression requires 3' and 5' RA response elements for widespread induction up to r4 and for r3/r5 repression, but RA has previously been detected only from r5-r8, and vHnf1 is required for repression of Hoxb1 posterior to r4 in zebrafish. We demonstrate in mouse embryos that an RA signal initially travels from the paraxial mesoderm to r3, forming a boundary next to the r2 expression domain of Cyp26a1 (which encodes an RA-degrading enzyme). After Hoxb1 induction, the RA boundary quickly shifts to r4/r5, coincident with induction of Cyp26c1 in r4. A functional role for Cyp26c1 in RA degradation was established through examination of RA-treated embryos. Analysis of Raldh2-/- and vHnf1-/- embryos supports a direct role for RA in Hoxb1 induction up to r4 and repression in r3/r5, as well as an indirect role for RA in Hoxb1 repression posterior to r4 via RA induction of vHnf1 up to the r4/r5 boundary. Our findings suggest that Raldh2 and Cyp26 generate shifting boundaries of RA activity, such that r3-r4 receives a short pulse of RA and r5-r8 receives a long pulse of RA. These two pulses of RA activity function to establish expression of Hoxb1 and vHnf1 on opposite sides of the r4/r5 boundary.

  1. A Comparison of Active and Passive Methods for Control of Hypersonic Boundary Layers on Airbreathing Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Active and passive methods for control of hypersonic boundary layers have been experimentally examined in NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels on a Hyper-X model. Several configurations for forcing transition using passive discrete roughness elements and active mass addition, or blowing, methods were compared in two hypersonic facilities, the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air and the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air tunnels. Heat transfer distributions, obtained via phosphor thermography, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. The comparisons between the active and passive methods for boundary layer control were conducted at test conditions that nearly match the nominal Mach 7 flight trajectory of an angle-of-attack of 2-deg and length Reynolds number of 5.6 million. For the passive roughness examination, the primary parametric variation was a range of trip heights within the calculated boundary layer thickness for several trip concepts. The prior passive roughness study resulted in a swept ramp configuration being selected for the Mach 7 flight vehicle that was scaled to be roughly 0.6 of the calculated boundary layer thickness. For the active jet blowing study, the blowing manifold pressure was systematically varied for each configuration, while monitoring the mass flow, to determine the jet penetration height with schlieren and transition movement with the phosphor system for comparison to the passive results. All the blowing concepts tested were adequate for providing transition onset near the trip location with manifold stagnation pressures on the order of 40 times the model static pressure or higher.

  2. Active flow control insight gained from a modified integral boundary layer equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Avraham

    2016-11-01

    Active Flow Control (AFC) can alter the development of boundary layers with applications (e.g., reducing drag by separation delay or separating the boundary layers and enhancing vortex shedding to increase drag). Historically, significant effects of steady AFC methods were observed. Unsteady actuation is significantly more efficient than steady. Full-scale AFC tests were conducted with varying levels of success. While clearly relevant to industry, AFC implementation relies on expert knowledge with proven intuition and or costly and lengthy computational efforts. This situation hinders the use of AFC while simple, quick and reliable design method is absent. An updated form of the unsteady integral boundary layer (UIBL) equations, that include AFC terms (unsteady wall transpiration and body forces) can be used to assist in AFC analysis and design. With these equations and given a family of suitable velocity profiles, the momentum thickness can be calculated and matched with an outer, potential flow solution in 2D and 3D manner to create an AFC design tool, parallel to proven tools for airfoil design. Limiting cases of the UIBL equation can be used to analyze candidate AFC concepts in terms of their capability to modify the boundary layers development and system performance.

  3. Postsynaptic actin regulates active zone spacing and glutamate receptor apposition at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Blunk, Aline D; Akbergenova, Yulia; Cho, Richard W; Lee, Jihye; Walldorf, Uwe; Xu, Ke; Zhong, Guisheng; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Littleton, J Troy

    2014-07-01

    Synaptic communication requires precise alignment of presynaptic active zones with postsynaptic receptors to enable rapid and efficient neurotransmitter release. How transsynaptic signaling between connected partners organizes this synaptic apparatus is poorly understood. To further define the mechanisms that mediate synapse assembly, we carried out a chemical mutagenesis screen in Drosophila to identify mutants defective in the alignment of active zones with postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields at the larval neuromuscular junction. From this screen we identified a mutation in Actin 57B that disrupted synaptic morphology and presynaptic active zone organization. Actin 57B, one of six actin genes in Drosophila, is expressed within the postsynaptic bodywall musculature. The isolated allele, act(E84K), harbors a point mutation in a highly conserved glutamate residue in subdomain 1 that binds members of the Calponin Homology protein family, including spectrin. Homozygous act(E84K) mutants show impaired alignment and spacing of presynaptic active zones, as well as defects in apposition of active zones to postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields. act(E84K) mutants have disrupted postsynaptic actin networks surrounding presynaptic boutons, with the formation of aberrant actin swirls previously observed following disruption of postsynaptic spectrin. Consistent with a disruption of the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton, spectrin, adducin and the PSD-95 homolog Discs-Large are all mislocalized in act(E84K) mutants. Genetic interactions between act(E84K) and neurexin mutants suggest that the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton may function together with the Neurexin-Neuroligin transsynaptic signaling complex to mediate normal synapse development and presynaptic active zone organization.

  4. Postsynaptic actin regulates active zone spacing and glutamate receptor apposition at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Blunk, Aline D.; Akbergenova, Yulia; Cho, Richard W.; Lee, Jihye; Walldorf, Uwe; Xu, Ke; Zhong, Guisheng; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Littleton, J. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic communication requires precise alignment of presynaptic active zones with postsynaptic receptors to enable rapid and efficient neurotransmitter release. How transsynaptic signaling between connected partners organizes this synaptic apparatus is poorly understood. To further define the mechanisms that mediate synapse assembly, we carried out a chemical mutagenesis screen in Drosophila to identify mutants defective in the alignment of active zones with postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields at the larval neuromuscular junction. From this screen we identified a mutation in actin 57B that disrupted synaptic morphology and presynaptic active zone organization. Actin 57B, one of six actin genes in Drosophila, is expressed within the postsynaptic bodywall musculature. The isolated allele, actE84K, harbors a point mutation in a highly conserved glutamate residue in subdomain 1 that binds members of the Calponin Homology protein family, including spectrin. Homozygous actE84K mutants show impaired alignment and spacing of presynaptic active zones, as well as defects in apposition of active zones to postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields. actE84K mutants have disrupted postsynaptic actin networks surrounding presynaptic boutons, with the formation of aberrant actin swirls previously observed following disruption of postsynaptic spectrin. Consistent with a disruption of the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton, spectrin, adducin and the PSD-95 homolog Disc-Large are all mislocalized in actE84K mutants. Genetic interactions between actE84K and neurexin mutants suggest that the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton may function together with the Neurexin-Neuroligin transsynaptic signaling complex to mediate normal synapse development and presynaptic active zone organization. PMID:25066865

  5. 78 FR 25253 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 26-Atlanta, Georgia; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; PBR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 26--Atlanta, Georgia; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; PBR, Inc. d/b/a SKAPS Industries (Polypropylene Geotextiles); Athens, Georgia Georgia Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ...

  6. 78 FR 54234 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 26--Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a SKAPS Industries (Polypropylene Geotextiles), Athens, Georgia On April 8, 2013, Georgia Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 26, submitted a notification of proposed...

  7. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 44-Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Authorization of Production Activity; Givaudan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 44--Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Authorization of Production Activity; Givaudan Fragrances Corporation (Fragrance and Flavor Products); Mt. Olive, New Jersey On June 11... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board for its facility within Site 1 of FTZ 44 in Mt. Olive, New Jersey....

  8. Quaternary slip rates along the northeastern boundary of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone (Kopeh Dagh Mountains, Northeast Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanian, Esmaeil; Siame, Lionel; Bellier, Olivier; Benedetti, Lucilla; Abbassi, Mohammad R.

    2009-08-01

    The Kopeh Dagh is accommodating a large portion of the northward motion of central Iran with respect to Eurasia, involving a major right-lateral strike-slip fault system (Bakharden-Quchan). This fault system corresponds to the northeastern boundary of the Arabia-Eurasia collision, and can be considered as a lithospheric-scale tectonic feature. We present a well-constrained estimation of late Quaternary slip rates along two major strike-slip faults (the Baghan and Quchan faults) in this fault system, using in situ-produced 36Cl nuclide to date two offset alluvial fan surfaces. Combining detailed satellite image and digital topographic data analyses complemented with geomorphic fieldwork allows quantifying the cumulative offset values of 940 +/- 100 and 360 +/- 50 m of the fan surfaces along the Baghan and Quchan faults, respectively. A total of 12 carbonate boulders from the fan surfaces were collected and dated. This yields minimum age of two episodes of fan abandonment at 280 +/- 16 (Baghan fault) and 83 +/- 4 ka (Quchan fault). Age estimates and measured offsets of the fans are consistent with respective maximum long-term fault slip rates of 2.8 +/- 1.0 and 4.3 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 for the Baghan and Quchan faults over the Middle-Late Pleistocene. Applying the slip rates to cumulative post-folding offsets along the Baghan and Quchan faults indicates that strike-slip motion within the Kopeh Dagh may have started ~4 Ma. This constrains the timing of a major tectonic reorganization in the Kopeh Dagh, previously recorded through Arabia-Eurasia collision between 3 and 7 Ma. At the regional scale, the sum of total cumulative strike-slip offsets is about 35-40 km, which implies a total maximum slip rate of about 9 +/- 2 mm yr-1 in the Central-Eastern Kopeh Dagh. This is resolved to average northward and westward slip rates of ~8 and ~4 mm yr-1, respectively, for the Western Kopeh Dagh with respect to Eurasia. Our results also suggests that the localized strike-slip faulting

  9. [Characteristics of soil organic carbon and enzyme activities in soil aggregates under different vegetation zones on the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ma, Rui-ping; An, Shao-shan; Zeng, Quan-chao; Li, Ya-yun

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the distribution characteristics of organic carbon of different forms and the active enzymes in soil aggregates with different particle sizes, soil samples were chosen from forest zone, forest-grass zone and grass zone in the Yanhe watershed of Loess Plateau to study the content of organic carbon, easily oxidized carbon, and humus carbon, and the activities of cellulase, β-D-glucosidase, sucrose, urease and peroxidase, as well as the relations between the soil aggregates carbon and its components with the active soil enzymes were also analyzed. It was showed that the content of organic carbon and its components were in order of forest zone > grass zone > forest-grass zone, and the contents of three forms of organic carbon were the highest in the diameter group of 0.25-2 mm. The content of organic carbon and its components, as well as the activities of soil enzymes were higher in the soil layer of 0-10 cm than those in the 10-20 cm soil layer of different vegetation zones. The activities of cellulase, β-D-glucosidase, sucrose and urease were in order of forest zone > grass zone > forest-grass zone. The peroxidase activity was in order of forest zone > forest-grass zone > grass zone. The activities of various soil enzymes increased with the decreasing soil particle diameter in the three vegetation zones. The activities of cellulose, peroxidase, sucrose and urease had significant positive correlations with the contents of various forms of organic carbon in the soil aggregates.

  10. Classification of elastic objects by active sonar in the vicinity of shallow sea boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunaurd, Guillermo C.; Werby, Michael F.

    1992-09-01

    Active sonar classification of submerged elastic structures becomes increasingly difficult when the structure is close to the bottom or surface of the sea. The backscattering cross-section (BSCS) of any target, which is relatively simpler to determine in deep waters, away from boundaries, becomes substantially distorted as the structure approaches either one of these environmental boundaries. Near these interfaces the classification methodology based on echo resonances that we have used in the past (viz., Appl. Mechanics Reviews 43, 171-208, (1990)) can no longer be used. By means of the examples of a spherical shell and an elastic solid sphere insonified by plane waves, we study the above mentioned degradation in BSCS in order to assess how distant the structure should be from these boundaries before the resonance features become discernible again in the echoes, and object recognition is again possible. Our approach is based on the method of images for the construction of the appropriate Green's functions, combined with a very involved two-body scattering formulation that determines the combined T-Matrix of two insonified objects, when the T-Matrix of each individual object is known. The method is extended to the time domain. We present form-functions in the frequency domain, as well as late-time responses in the time domain for both sphere and shell as they approach the mentioned boundaries. Boundary effects seem to be confined to a 'skin layer' bounded by R

  11. Inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption activity through osteoprotegerin-induced damage of the sealing zone.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wang, Qichao; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Jiaming; Cheng, Laiyang; Tong, Xishuai; Qi, Xinyi; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zongping

    2014-09-01

    Bone remodeling is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated osteogenesis. The sealing zone is an osteoclast-specific cytoskeletal structure, the integrity of which is critical for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To date, studies have focused mainly on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)‑induced inhibition of osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK system, which affects the bone resorption of osteoclasts. However, the effects of OPG on the sealing zone have not been reported to date. In this study, the formation of the sealing zone was observed by Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of OPG on the existing sealing zone and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity, as well as the regulatory role of genes involved in the formation of the sealing zone were examined by immunofluorescence staining, HMC microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing zone was formed on day 5, with belt-like protuberances at the cell edge and scattered distribution of cell nuclei, but no filopodia. The sealing zone was intact in the untreated control group. However, defects in the sealing zone were observed in the OPG-treated group (20 ng/ml) and the structure was absent in the groups treated with 40 and 80 ng/ml OPG. The podosomes showed a scattered or clustered distribution between the basal surface of the osteoclasts and the well surface. Furthermore, resorption lacunae were not detected in the 20 ng/ml OPG-treated group, indicating the loss of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. Treatment with OPG resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of Arhgef8/Net1 and DOCK5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), 10 of 18 RhoGTPases (RhoA, RhoB, cdc42v1, cdc42v2

  12. Observing active deformation of volcanoes in North America: Geodetic data from the Plate Boundary Observatory and associated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Enders, M.; Feaux, K.; Mencin, D.; Baker, S.; Lisowski, M.; Smith, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), operated by UNAVCO, records deformation of the geologically diverse North America western plate boundary, with subnetworks of instruments concentrated at selected active and potentially active volcanoes. These sensors record deformation and earthquakes and allow monitoring agencies and researchers to analyze changes in ground motion and seismicity. The intraplate volcanoes at Yellowstone and Long Valley are characterized by uplift/subsidence cycles, high seismicity, and hydrothermal activity but there have been no historic eruptions at either volcano. PBO maintains dense GPS networks of 20-25 stations at each of these volcanoes, with an additional 5 boreholes at Yellowstone containing tensor strainmeters, short-period seismometers, and borehole tiltmeters. Subduction zone volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc have had multiple historic eruptions, and PBO maintains equipment at Augustine (8 GPS), Akutan (8 GPS, 4 tiltmeters), and Unimak Island (14 GPS, 8 tiltmeters). The Unimak stations are at the active Westdahl and Shishaldin edifices and the nearby, inactive Isanotski volcano. In the Cascade Arc, PBO maintains networks at Mount St. Helens (15 GPS, 4 borehole strainmeters and seismometers, 8 borehole tiltmeters), Shasta (7 GPS, 1 borehole strainmeter and seismometer), and Lassen Peak (8 GPS). Data from many of these stations in the Pacific Northwest and California are also provided as realtime streams of raw and processed data. Real-time GPS data, along with high-rate GPS data, will be an important new resource for detecting and studying future rapid volcanic deformation events and earthquakes. UNAVCO works closely with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program, archiving data from USGS GPS stations in Alaska, Cascadia, and Long Valley. The PBO and USGS networks combined provide more comprehensive coverage than PBO alone, particularly of the Cascade Arc, where the USGS maintains a multiple instruments near each volcano. Ground

  13. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, extending from the surface to the sea floor: (1) Within a... territorial sea) in the Southeastern New England COTP zone. This zone will remain activated at all times while... the water within the boundaries of these security zones unless previously authorized by the COTP...

  14. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, extending from the surface to the sea floor: (1) Within a... territorial sea) in the Southeastern New England COTP zone. This zone will remain activated at all times while... the water within the boundaries of these security zones unless previously authorized by the COTP...

  15. A new perspective on the radio active zone at the Galactic center - feedback from nuclear activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.-H.; Morris, M. R.; Goss, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    Based on our deep image of Sgr A using broadband data observed with the VLA† at 6 cm, we present a new perspective of the radio bright zone at the Galactic center. We further show the radio detection of the X-ray Cannonball, a candidate neutron star associated with the Galactic center SNR Sgr A East. The radio image is compared with the Chandra X-ray image to show the detailed structure of the radio counterparts of the bipolar X-ray lobes. The bipolar lobes are likely produced by the winds from the activities within Sgr A West, which could be collimated by the inertia of gas in the CND, or by the momentum driving of Sgr A*; and the poloidal magnetic fields likely play an important role in the collimation. The less-collimated SE lobe, in comparison to the NW one, is perhaps due to the fact that the Sgr A East SN might have locally reconfigured the magnetic field toward negative galactic latitudes. In agreement with the X-ray observations, the time-scale of ˜1 × 104 yr estimated for the outermost radio ring appears to be comparable to the inferred age of the Sgr A East SNR.

  16. Zones of Difference, Boundaries of Access: Moral Geography and Community Mapping in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 18% of men who have sex with men (MSM) are HIV-positive. Based on ethnographic research conducted among HIV peer educators and activists in Abidjan, I examine their narratives and hand-drawn maps of city space. I draw on a methodological process of map-making to examine research participants' evaluations of neighborhoods and link these evaluations to debates over national and cultural belonging in Côte d'Ivoire. I suggest a moral geography emerges from the maps and narratives and ask what the bioethical implications of moral geography are in the context of service delivery and activism among sexual minorities.

  17. Dynamics of nascent and active zone ultrastructure as synapses enlarge during long-term potentiation in mature hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Maria Elizabeth; Bourne, Jennifer N; Chirillo, Michael A; Mendenhall, John M; Kuwajima, Masaaki; Harris, Kristen M

    2014-12-01

    Nascent zones and active zones are adjacent synaptic regions that share a postsynaptic density, but nascent zones lack the presynaptic vesicles found at active zones. Here dendritic spine synapses were reconstructed through serial section electron microscopy (3DEM) and EM tomography to investigate nascent zone dynamics during long-term potentiation (LTP) in mature rat hippocampus. LTP was induced with theta-burst stimulation, and comparisons were made with control stimulation in the same hippocampal slices at 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and 2 hours post-induction and to perfusion-fixed hippocampus in vivo. Nascent zones were present at the edges of ∼35% of synapses in perfusion-fixed hippocampus and as many as ∼50% of synapses in some hippocampal slice conditions. By 5 minutes, small dense-core vesicles known to transport active zone proteins moved into more presynaptic boutons. By 30 minutes, nascent zone area decreased, without significant change in synapse area, suggesting that presynaptic vesicles were recruited to preexisting nascent zones. By 2 hours, both nascent and active zones were enlarged. Immunogold labeling revealed glutamate receptors in nascent zones; however, average distances from nascent zones to docked presynaptic vesicles ranged from 170 ± 5 nm in perfusion-fixed hippocampus to 251 ± 4 nm at enlarged synapses by 2 hours during LTP. Prior stochastic modeling suggests that decrease in glutamate concentration reduces the probability of glutamate receptor activation from 0.4 at the center of release to 0.1 just 200 nm away. Thus, conversion of nascent zones to functional active zones likely requires the recruitment of presynaptic vesicles during LTP.

  18. Dynamical Organization of Syntaxin-1A at the Presynaptic Active Zone.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Alexander; Böhme, Mathias A; Schöneberg, Johannes; Depner, Harald; Sigrist, Stephan J; Noé, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Synaptic vesicle fusion is mediated by SNARE proteins forming in between synaptic vesicle (v-SNARE) and plasma membrane (t-SNARE), one of which is Syntaxin-1A. Although exocytosis mainly occurs at active zones, Syntaxin-1A appears to cover the entire neuronal membrane. By using STED super-resolution light microscopy and image analysis of Drosophila neuro-muscular junctions, we show that Syntaxin-1A clusters are more abundant and have an increased size at active zones. A computational particle-based model of syntaxin cluster formation and dynamics is developed. The model is parametrized to reproduce Syntaxin cluster-size distributions found by STED analysis, and successfully reproduces existing FRAP results. The model shows that the neuronal membrane is adjusted in a way to strike a balance between having most syntaxins stored in large clusters, while still keeping a mobile fraction of syntaxins free or in small clusters that can efficiently search the membrane or be traded between clusters. This balance is subtle and can be shifted toward almost no clustering and almost complete clustering by modifying the syntaxin interaction energy on the order of only 1 kBT. This capability appears to be exploited at active zones. The larger active-zone syntaxin clusters are more stable and provide regions of high docking and fusion capability, whereas the smaller clusters outside may serve as flexible reserve pool or sites of spontaneous ectopic release.

  19. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca2+ signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca2+ buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca2+ signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca2+ imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca2+-binding ratio (∼15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca2+ from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca2+ signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca2+ buffering enables fast active zone Ca2+ signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca2+ buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission. PMID:26015575

  20. Dynamical Organization of Syntaxin-1A at the Presynaptic Active Zone

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Alexander; Böhme, Mathias A.; Schöneberg, Johannes; Depner, Harald; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Noé, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle fusion is mediated by SNARE proteins forming in between synaptic vesicle (v-SNARE) and plasma membrane (t-SNARE), one of which is Syntaxin-1A. Although exocytosis mainly occurs at active zones, Syntaxin-1A appears to cover the entire neuronal membrane. By using STED super-resolution light microscopy and image analysis of Drosophila neuro-muscular junctions, we show that Syntaxin-1A clusters are more abundant and have an increased size at active zones. A computational particle-based model of syntaxin cluster formation and dynamics is developed. The model is parametrized to reproduce Syntaxin cluster-size distributions found by STED analysis, and successfully reproduces existing FRAP results. The model shows that the neuronal membrane is adjusted in a way to strike a balance between having most syntaxins stored in large clusters, while still keeping a mobile fraction of syntaxins free or in small clusters that can efficiently search the membrane or be traded between clusters. This balance is subtle and can be shifted toward almost no clustering and almost complete clustering by modifying the syntaxin interaction energy on the order of only 1 kBT. This capability appears to be exploited at active zones. The larger active-zone syntaxin clusters are more stable and provide regions of high docking and fusion capability, whereas the smaller clusters outside may serve as flexible reserve pool or sites of spontaneous ectopic release. PMID:26367029

  1. Microbial respiration and extracellular enzyme activity in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study explores the relationship between sediment chemistry (TC, TN, TP) and microbial respiration (DHA) and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) hypoxic zone. TC, TN, and TP were all positively correlated with each other (r=0.19-0.68). DHA was ...

  2. 77 FR 47429 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries... concerning the Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones. This request for comment is being made... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title:...

  3. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) using GPS data: Implications in seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staller, Alejandra; Benito, Belen; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Alonso-Henar, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90º-100ºE direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  4. Upper plate deformation and seismic barrier in front of Nazca subduction zone: The Chololo Fault System and active tectonics along the Coastal Cordillera, southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audin, Laurence; Lacan, Pierre; Tavera, Hernando; Bondoux, Francis

    2008-11-01

    The South America plate boundary is one of the most active subduction zone. The recent Mw = 8.4 Arequipa 2001 earthquake ruptured the subduction plane toward the south over 400 km and stopped abruptly on the Ilo Peninsula. In this exact region, the subduction seismic crisis induced the reactivation of continental fault systems in the coastal area. We studied the main reactivated fault system that trends perpendicular to the trench by detailed mapping of fault related-geomorphic features. Also, at a longer time scale, a recurrent Quaternary transtensive tectonic activity of the CFS is expressed by offset river gullies and alluvial fans. The presence of such extensional fault systems trending orthogonal to the trench along the Coastal Cordillera in southern Peru is interpreted to reflect a strong coupling between the two plates. In this particular case, stress transfer to the upper plate, at least along the coastal fringe, appears to have induced crustal seismic events that were initiated mainly during and after the 2001 earthquake. The seafloor roughness of the subducting plate is usually thought to be a cause of segmentation along subduction zones. However, after comparing and discussing the role of inherited structures within the upper plate to the subduction zone segmentation in southern Peru, we suggest that the continental structure itself may exert some feedback control on the segmentation of the subduction zone and thus participate to define the rupture pattern of major subduction earthquakes along the southern Peru continental margin.

  5. Active and passive-touch during interpersonal multisensory stimulation change self-other boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Lorusso, Ludovica; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-12-01

    In the "enfacement" illusion seeing an unfamiliar face being touched at the same time as one's own face evokes changes in self-face recognition. We investigated the contribution of proprioceptive and motor signals derived from self-generated actions in the sensory-driven malleability of self-other boundaries during the "enfacement" illusion. Changes in self-face recognition during active- and passive-touch interpersonal visuo-tactile stimulation were quantified by means of psychophysical and psychometric tasks. Active- and passive-touch evoked comparable changes in the categorical boundaries of self-other distinction, changing the extent to which the other is assimilated into the mental self-representation. Actively touching or simply feeling touch on one's own face with concurrent observed touch on someone else's face seems to elicit comparable changes in self-recognition, suggesting that afferent input might be sufficient for updating one's body-image, although some components of the experience of self-identification seem to be more affected by passive- than by active-touch.

  6. Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

  7. Self-diffusiophoresis of catalytically active patchy colloids near a solid boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldarelli, Charles; Mozaffari, Ali; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Koplik, Joel

    2014-11-01

    Active colloidal swimmers designed to move along an envisioned path to ascertain various applications in nanotechnology. In diffusiophoresis, gradients in the solute concentration across the colloid create an imbalance force due to the interactions of the solute with the particle. These forces can also be integrated into a self-propulsion by choosing a reactant as a solute which undergoes a surface reaction only on one face of a colloid. The effect of boundaries in self-diffusiophoresis is not purely to retard the motion, because the boundaries also alter the solutal gradient. We developed an analytical approach to investigate the dynamics of swimming colloid near an infinite planar wall assuming constant flux production and a repulsive interaction between product solute and the colloid. The motion of the colloid was decomposed into translational motions perpendicular and parallel to the wall and a rigid body rotation around the third axis. Our analysis indicates when a patchy colloid approaches the boundary with an inclination angle with respect to the unit normal of the wall, the asymmetric distribution of product around the colloid compels it to rotate and redirects its reaction section towards the wall and thereby the colloid will be moved away from the wall.

  8. Differential activity of Drosophila Hox genes induces myosin expression and can maintain compartment boundaries.

    PubMed

    Curt, Jesús R; de Navas, Luis F; Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Compartments are units of cell lineage that subdivide territories with different developmental potential. In Drosophila, the wing and haltere discs are subdivided into anterior and posterior (A/P) compartments, which require the activity of Hedgehog, and into dorsal and ventral (D/V) compartments, needing Notch signaling. There is enrichment in actomyosin proteins at the compartment boundaries, suggesting a role for these proteins in their maintenance. Compartments also develop in the mouse hindbrain rhombomeres, which are characterized by the expression of different Hox genes, a group of genes specifying different structures along their main axis of bilaterians. We show here that the Drosophila Hox gene Ultrabithorax can maintain the A/P and D/V compartment boundaries when Hedgehog or Notch signaling is compromised, and that the interaction of cells with and without Ultrabithorax expression induces high levels of non-muscle myosin II. In the absence of Ultrabithorax there is occasional mixing of cells from different segments. We also show a similar role in cell segregation for the Abdominal-B Hox gene. Our results suggest that the juxtaposition of cells with different Hox gene expression leads to their sorting out, probably through the accumulation of non-muscle myosin II at the boundary of the different cell territories. The increase in myosin expression seems to be a general mechanism used by Hox genes or signaling pathways to maintain the segregation of different groups of cells.

  9. Silicic volcanism in Iceland: Composition and distribution within the active volcanic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónasson, Kristján

    2007-01-01

    Silicic volcanic rocks within the active volcanic zones of Iceland are mainly confined to central volcanoes. The volcanic zones of Iceland can be divided into rift zones and flank zones. Each of these zones contains several central volcanoes, most of which have produced minor amounts of silicic rocks. The silicic rocks occur as lavas and domes or as tephra layers, welded tuffs and ignimbrites, formed both in effusive and explosive eruptions. They tend to be glassy or very fine-grained, containing small amounts of phenocrysts. Plagioclase (andesine-oligoclase), anorthoclase or occasionally sanidine coexist with minerals such as augite, fayalite, pigeonite, orthopyroxene and magnetite. Quartz phenocrysts are exceedingly rare. Zoning of phenocrysts is limited and the pattern is variable. A set of 90 samples representing all active central volcanoes that have erupted silicic rocks was analysed for major- and trace-elements. The silicic rocks can be classified as dacites, trachytes, low-alkali rhyolites and alkalic rhyolites. Some of the trachytes and alkalic rhyolites are peralkaline (mostly comenditic). Trachytes and alkalic rhyolites are only found within the flank zones, while dacites and low-alkali rhyolites are mostly confined to the rift zones. The Icelandic rhyolites plot close to the thermal minimum in the "granite" system, while dacites and trachytes plot within the plagioclase field and towards the alkali feldspar temperature minimum. The silicic rocks are relatively Fe-rich and Ca-poor indicating low water pressure in the source. Trace element concentrations follow similar patterns in most central volcanoes. Exceptions are Torfajökull where silicic rocks display a negative correlation of Ba to Th and unusually high Th-contents, and the western flank zone where Ba-concentrations are highly variable. The ratios of different high field-strength elements are generally similar within each central volcano or region, which probably reflects different ratios in the

  10. Comparison between active sensor and radiosonde cloud boundaries over the ARM Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2003-02-01

    In order to test the strengths and limitations of cloud boundary retrievals from radiosonde profiles, 4 years of radar, lidar, and ceilometer data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Southern Great Plains site from November 1996 through October 2000 are used to assess the retrievals of [1995] and [1996]. The lidar and ceilometer data yield lowest-level cloud base heights that are, on average, within approximately 125 m of each other when both systems detect a cloud. These quantities are used to assess the accuracy of coincident cloud base heights obtained from radar and the two radiosonde-based methods applied to 200 m resolution profiles obtained at the same site. The lidar/ceilometer and radar cloud base heights agree by 0.156 ± 0.423 km for 85.27% of the observations, while the agreement between the lidar/ceilometer and radiosonde-derived heights is at best -0.044 ± 0.559 km for 74.60% of all cases. Agreement between radar- and radiosonde-derived cloud boundaries is better for cloud base height than for cloud top height, being at best 0.018 ± 0.641 km for 70.91% of the cloud base heights and 0.348 ± 0.729 km for 68.27% of the cloud top heights. The disagreements between radar- and radiosonde-derived boundaries are mainly caused by broken cloud situations when it is difficult to verify that drifting radiosondes and fixed active sensors are observing the same clouds. In the case of the radar the presence of clutter (e.g., vegetal particles or insects) can affect the measurements from the surface up to approximately 3-5 km, preventing comparisons with radiosonde-derived boundaries. Overall, [1995] tend to classify moist layers that are not clouds as clouds and both radiosonde techniques report high cloud top heights that are higher than the corresponding heights from radar.

  11. Progressive failure during the 1596 Keicho earthquakes on the Median Tectonic Line active fault zone, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, M.; Toda, S.; Nishizaka, N.; Onishi, K.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rupture patterns of a long fault system are controlled by spatial heterogeneity of fault strength and stress associated with geometrical characteristics and stress perturbation history. Mechanical process for sequential ruptures and multiple simultaneous ruptures, one of the characteristics of a long fault such as the North Anatolian fault, governs the size and frequency of large earthquakes. Here we introduce one of the cases in southwest Japan and explore what controls rupture initiation, sequential ruptures and fault branching on a long fault system. The Median Tectonic Line active fault zone (hereinafter MTL) is the longest and most active fault in Japan. Based on historical accounts, a series of M ≥ 7 earthquakes occurred on at least a 300-km-long portion of the MTL in 1596. On September 1, the first event occurred on the Kawakami fault segment, in Central Shikoku, and the subsequent events occurred further west. Then on September 5, another rupture initiated from the Central to East Shikoku and then propagated toward the Rokko-Awaji fault zone to Kobe, a northern branch of the MTL, instead of the eastern main extent of the MTL. Another rupture eventually extended to near Kyoto. To reproduce this progressive failure, we applied two numerical models: one is a coulomb stress transfer; the other is a slip-tendency analysis under the tectonic stress. We found that Coulomb stress imparted from historical ruptures have triggered the subsequent ruptures nearby. However, stress transfer does not explain beginning of the sequence and rupture directivities. Instead, calculated slip-tendency values show highly variable along the MTL: high and low seismic potential in West and East Shikoku. The initiation point of the 1596 progressive failure locates near the boundary in the slip-tendency values. Furthermore, the slip-tendency on the Rokko-Awaji fault zone is far higher than that of the MTL in Wakayama, which may explain the rupture directivity toward Kobe-Kyoto.

  12. Hydrogen Gas Emissions from Active Faults and Identification of Flow Pathway in a Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, T.; Niwa, M.; Kurosawa, H.; Shimada, K.

    2010-12-01

    It has been observed that hydrogen gas emissions from the subsurface along active faults exceed atmospheric concentrations (e.g. Sugisaki et. al., 1983). Experimental studies have shown that hydrogen gas is generated in a radical reaction of water with fractured silicate minerals due to rock fracturing caused by fault movement (e.g. Kita et al., 1982). Based on such research, we are studying an investigation method for an assessment of fault activity using hydrogen gas emissions from fracture zones. To start, we have devised portable equipment for rapid and simple in situ measurement of hydrogen gas emissions (Shimada et al., 2008). The key component of this equipment is a commercially available and compact hydrogen gas sensor with an integral data logger operable at atmospheric pressure. In the field, we have drilled shallow boreholes into incohesive fault rocks to depths ranging from 15 to 45 cm using a hand-operated drill with a 9mm drill-bit. Then, we have measured the hydrogen gas concentrations in emissions from active faults such as: the western part of the Atotsugawa fault zone, the Atera fault zone and the Neodani fault in central Japan; the Yamasaki fault zone in southwest Japan; and the Yamagata fault zone in northeast Japan. In addition, we have investigated the hydrogen gas concentrations in emissions from other major geological features such as tectonic lines: the Butsuzo Tectonic Line in the eastern Kii Peninsula and the Atokura Nappe in the Northeastern Kanto Mountains. As a result of the investigations, hydrogen gas concentration in emissions from the active faults was measured to be in the approximate range from 6,000 ppm to 26,000 ppm in two to three hours after drilling. A tendency for high concentrations of hydrogen gas in active faults was recognized, in contrast with low concentrations in emissions from tectonic lines that were observed to be in the range from 730 ppm to 2,000 ppm. It is inferred that the hydrogen gas migrates to ground

  13. 77 FR 39209 - Foreign-Trade Zone 74-Baltimore, MD, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, J.D. Neuhaus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 74--Baltimore, MD, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, J.D. Neuhaus LP (Overhead Lifting Equipment Production) Sparks, MD The Baltimore Development Corporation, grantee of FTZ 74, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of...

  14. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 74-Baltimore, MD, Authorization of Production Activity, J.D. Neuhaus LP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 74--Baltimore, MD, Authorization of Production Activity, J.D. Neuhaus LP, (Overhead Lifting Equipment Production), Sparks, MD On June 13, 2012, the Baltimore Development Corporation, grantee of FTZ 74, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on...

  15. Perceiving Object Shape from Specular Highlight Deformation, Boundary Contour Deformation, and Active Haptic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Jacob R.; Thomason, Kelsey E.; Ronning, Cecilia; Behari, Kriti; Kleinman, Kayla; Calloway, Autum B.; Lamirande, Davora

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that motion facilitates the visual perception of solid object shape, particularly when surface texture or other identifiable features (e.g., corners) are present. Conventional models of structure-from-motion require the presence of texture or identifiable object features in order to recover 3-D structure. Is the facilitation in 3-D shape perception similar in magnitude when surface texture is absent? On any given trial in the current experiments, participants were presented with a single randomly-selected solid object (bell pepper or randomly-shaped “glaven”) for 12 seconds and were required to indicate which of 12 (for bell peppers) or 8 (for glavens) simultaneously visible objects possessed the same shape. The initial single object’s shape was defined either by boundary contours alone (i.e., presented as a silhouette), specular highlights alone, specular highlights combined with boundary contours, or texture. In addition, there was a haptic condition: in this condition, the participants haptically explored with both hands (but could not see) the initial single object for 12 seconds; they then performed the same shape-matching task used in the visual conditions. For both the visual and haptic conditions, motion (rotation in depth or active object manipulation) was present in half of the trials and was not present for the remaining trials. The effect of motion was quantitatively similar for all of the visual and haptic conditions–e.g., the participants’ performance in Experiment 1 was 93.5 percent higher in the motion or active haptic manipulation conditions (when compared to the static conditions). The current results demonstrate that deforming specular highlights or boundary contours facilitate 3-D shape perception as much as the motion of objects that possess texture. The current results also indicate that the improvement with motion that occurs for haptics is similar in magnitude to that which occurs for vision. PMID:26863531

  16. Blended Wing Body Systems Studies: Boundary Layer Ingestion Inlets With Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A. (Technical Monitor); Daggett, David L.; Kawai, Ron; Friedman, Doug

    2003-01-01

    A CFD analysis was performed on a Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft with advanced, turbofan engines analyzing various inlet configurations atop the aft end of the aircraft. The results are presented showing that the optimal design for best aircraft fuel efficiency would be a configuration with a partially buried engine, short offset diffuser using active flow control, and a D-shaped inlet duct that partially ingests the boundary layer air in flight. The CFD models showed that if active flow control technology can be satisfactorily developed, it might be able to control the inlet flow distortion to the engine fan face and reduce the powerplant performance losses to an acceptable level. The weight and surface area drag benefits of a partially submerged engine shows that it might offset the penalties of ingesting the low energy boundary layer air. The combined airplane performance of such a design might deliver approximately 5.5% better aircraft fuel efficiency over a conventionally designed, pod-mounted engine.

  17. Holocene activity of the Rose Canyon fault zone in San Diego, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindvall, Scott C.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    1995-12-01

    The Rose Canyon fault zone in San Diego, California, has many well-expressed geomorphic characteristics of an active strike-slip fault, including scarps, offset and deflected drainages and channel walls, pressure ridges, a closed depression, and vegetation lineaments. Geomorphic expression of the fault zone from Mount Soledad south to Mission Bay indicates that the Mount Soledad strand is the most active. A network of trenches excavated across the Mount Soledad strand in Rose Creek demonstrate a minimum of 8.7 m of dextral slip in a distinctive early to middle Holocene gravel-filled channel that crosses the fault zone. The gravel-filled channel was preserved within and east of the fault but was removed west of the fault zone by erosion or possibly grading during development. Consequently, the actual displacement of the channel could be greater than 8.7 m. Radiocarbon dates on detrital charcoal recovered from the sediments beneath the channel yield a maximum calibrated age of about 8.1±0.2 kyr. The minimum amount of slip along with the maximum age yield a minimum slip rate of 1.07±0.03 mm/yr on this strand of the Rose Canyon fault zone for much of Holocene time. Other strands of the Rose Canyon fault zone, which are east and west of our site, may also have Holocene activity. Based on an analysis of the geomorphology of fault traces within the Rose Canyon fault zone, along with the results of our trenching study, we estimate the maximum likely slip rate at about 2 mm/yr and a best estimate of about 1.5 mm/yr. Stratigraphie evidence of at least three events is present during the past 8.1 kyr. The most recent surface rupture displaces the modern A horizon (topsoil), suggesting that this event probably occurred within the past 500 years. Stratigraphie and structural relationships also indicate the occurrence of a scarp-forming event at about 8.1 kyr, prior to deposition of the gravel-filled channel that was used as a piercing line. A third event is indicated by the

  18. A rod-type creepmeter for measurement of displacement in active fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-C.; Jeng, F.-S.; Chu, H.-T.; Angelier, J.; Hu, J.-C.

    2000-05-01

    A creepmeter has been developed to monitor gradual displacements of near-surface movement in an active fault zone. This rod-type creepmeter is a robust, low-cost instrument that is simple to construct and install. This creepmeter consists of two 3-m invar rods attached to anchored steel piers at each end, straddling the surface traces of active fault. The invar rods are supported by a pair of U-shaped solid steel girders. A mechanical dial-gauge sensor in the middle of the creepmeter is adopted to record the displacement of fault creep, and has a precision of 0.01 mm. Because the creepmeter is installed on the surface, the temperature effect is important. To calibrate and correct for the temperature effect, we carried out hourly measurements over a period of 30 hours to calculate the thermal expansion coefficients for each creepmeter. Thermal corrections could thus be made when readings were taken. Five of these creepmeters have been installed in the Chihshang active fault zone of eastern Taiwan, in the present collision suture zone between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate. Readings taken over one year have shown that this rod-type creepmeter is effective in providing a near-continuous record of active fault creep with a good precision.

  19. Readily releasable vesicles recycle at the active zone of hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Schikorski, Thomas

    2014-04-08

    During the synaptic vesicle cycle, synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and recycle for repeated exo/endocytic events. By using activity-dependent N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino) styryl) pyridinium dibromide dye uptake combined with fast (<1 s) microwave-assisted fixation followed by photoconversion and ultrastructural 3D analysis, we tracked endocytic vesicles over time, "frame by frame." The first retrieved synaptic vesicles appeared 4 s after stimulation, and these endocytic vesicles were located just above the active zone. Second, the retrieved vesicles did not show any sign of a protein coat, and coated pits were not detected. Between 10 and 30 s, large labeled vesicles appeared that had up to 5 times the size of an individual synaptic vesicle. Starting at around 20 s, these large labeled vesicles decreased in number in favor of labeled synaptic vesicles, and after 30 s, labeled vesicles redocked at the active zone. The data suggest that readily releasable vesicles are retrieved as noncoated vesicles at the active zone.

  20. 78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard), Winston-Salem, North Carolina... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Oracle Flexible...

  1. 78 FR 60826 - Foreign-Trade Zone 155-Calhoun/Victoria Counties, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Production Activity; Caterpillar, Inc. (Excavator and Frame Assembly Production); Victoria, Texas On May 29... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Caterpillar, Inc.,...

  2. Plume Generation Zones On The Core Mantle Boundary: their origin and what they tell about how the Earth works - and how it has worked (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    It is more than 50 years since Wilson (1963) suggested that a fixed plume of deep origin from the convecting mantle is generating the Hotspots of the Hawaiian chain on the overlying moving rigid lithosphere and nearly 45 years since Morgan (1972) followed by suggesting that the plumes which generate Hotspots rise only from the Core/Mantle Boundary (CMB). During the past ~ 15 years testing has begun of a refinement of Morgan's idea based on the observation that Plumes responsible for Hotspots, Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and a significant fraction of other igneous rocks (including kimberlites) originate only in Plume Generation Zones (PGZs) at the edges on the CMB of one or other of TUZO and JASON the 2 antipodal, equatorial, Large Low Shear Wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) of the deep mantle (Garnero et al. 2007) or from similar PGZs at the edges on the CMB of ~8 smaller Low Shear Wave Velocity Provinces. Today I will: (i) demonstrate using dated Hotspot, Large Igneous Province and Kimberlite occurrence history and paleomagnetic rotations (e.g. Torsvik et al. 2010, Burke et al.2008) the stability throughout the past 0.55 Ga of the LLSVPs and LSVPs (ii) show from the history of the Earth and Mars how the LLSVPs and LSVPs are likely to have formed early in Earth history and to have been stable since ~ 4.4 Ga (Burke et al. 2012) (iii) show, following an analogy suggested by Jack Whitehead of similarity to atmospheric fronts, why plumes are generated only from PGZs on the CMB at the margins of LLSVPs and LSVPs. (iv) show from results of recent seismological studies of Iceland, Jan Mayen, Hawaii, Yellowstone, the Afar and Ontong Java, that although plumes rise vertically in the deep mantle from the CMB their fate in the top ~ 1, 000 km of the mantle is proving to be varied and to depend largely, as Wilson suggested, on how they interact with the plates above them. Properties of the Plume Generation Zones (PGZs) on the CMB and of the plumes that rise from them are

  3. Numerical Modeling of Active Flow Control in a Boundary Layer Ingesting Offset Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Owens, Lewis R.; Berrier, Bobby L.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the numerical prediction of flow distortion and pressure recovery for a boundary layer ingesting offset inlet with active flow control devices. The numerical simulations are computed using a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code developed at NASA. The numerical results are validated by comparison to experimental wind tunnel tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center at both low and high Mach numbers. Baseline comparisons showed good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Numerical simulations for the inlet with passive and active flow control also showed good agreement at low Mach numbers where experimental data has already been acquired. Numerical simulations of the inlet at high Mach numbers with flow control jets showed an improvement of the flow distortion. Studies on the location of the jet actuators, for the high Mach number case, were conducted to provide guidance for the design of a future experimental wind tunnel test.

  4. Control of the boundary layer separation about an airfoil by active surface heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible two-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip on the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  5. Earthquake swarm activity in the Oaxaca segment of Middle American Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Cabral, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.

    2013-05-01

    An outstanding question in geophysics is the degree to which the newly discovered family of slow fault slip behaviors is related to more traditional earthquakes, especially since theoretical predictions indicate slip in the deeper transitional zone promotes failure in the shallower seismogenic zone. The Oaxacan segment of the Middle American Subduction zone is a natural region to pursue detailed studies of the spectrum of fault slip due to the unusually shallow subduction angle and short trench-to-coast distances that bring broad portions of the seismogenic and transitional zones of the plate interface inland. A deployment of broadband seismometers in this region has improved the network coverage to ~70 km station spacing since 2006, providing new opportunities to investigate smaller seismic phenomena. While characterization of tectonic tremor has been a prominent focus of this deployment, the improved network has also revealed productive earthquake swarms, whose sustained periods of similar magnitude earthquakes are also thought to be driven by slow slip. We identify a particularly productive earthquake swarm in July 2006 (~600 similar earthquakes detected), which occurred during a week-long episode of tectonic tremor and geodetically detected slow slip. Using a multi-station "template matching" waveform cross correlation technique, we have been able to detect and locate swarm earthquakes several orders of magnitude smaller than that of traditional processing, particularly during periods of increased background activity, because the detector is finely tuned to events with similar hypocentral location and focal mechanism. When we scan for repeats of the event families detected in the July 2006 sequence throughout the 6+ years since, we find these families were also activated during several other slow slip episodes, which indicates a link between slow slip in the transition zone and earthquakes at the downdip end of the seismogenic portion of the megathrust.

  6. Bait attending fishes of the abyssal zone and hadal boundary: Community structure, functional groups and species distribution in the Kermadec, New Hebrides and Mariana trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linley, T. D.; Stewart, A. L.; McMillan, P. J.; Clark, M. R.; Gerringer, M. E.; Drazen, J. C.; Fujii, T.; Jamieson, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Baited landers were deployed at 83 stations at four locations in the west Pacific Ocean from bathyal to hadal depths: The Kermadec Trench, the New Hebrides Trench, the adjoining South Fiji Basin and the Mariana Trench. Forty-seven putative fish species were observed. Distinct fish faunal groups were identified based on maximum numbers and percentage of observations. Both analyses broadly agreed on the community structure: A bathyal group at <3000 m in the New Hebrides and Kermadec trenches, an abyssal group (3039 - 4692 m) in the Kermadec Trench, an abyssal-hadal transition zone (AHTZ) group (Kermadec: 4707-6068 m, Mariana: 4506-6198 m, New Hebrides: 2578-6898 m, South Fiji Basin: 4074-4101 m), and a hadal group of endemic snailfish in the Kermadec and Mariana trenches (6750-7669 m and 6831-8143 m respectively). The abyssal and hadal groups were absent from the New Hebrides Trench. Depth was the single factor that best explained the biological variation between samples (16%), the addition of temperature and average surface primary production for the previous year increased this to 36% of variation. The absence of the abyssal group from the New Hebrides Trench and South Fiji Basin was due to the absence of macrourids (Coryphaenoides spp.), which defined the group. The macrourids may be energetically limited in these areas. In their absence the species of the AHTZ group appear released of competition with the macrourids and are found far shallower at these sites. The fish groups had distinct feeding strategies while attending the bait: The bathyal and abyssal groups were almost exclusively necrophagous, the AHTZ group comprised predatory and generalist feeders, while the hadal snailfishes were exclusively predators. With increasing depth, predation was found to increase while scavenging decreased. The data suggest scavenging fish fauna do not extend deeper than the hadal boundary.

  7. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars

    PubMed Central

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Harman, Chester E.

    2014-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet’s atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, “Dune” planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, Seff, the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus—1.78; runaway greenhouse—1.04; moist greenhouse—1.01; maximum greenhouse—0.35; and early Mars—0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4–0.5. PMID:24277805

  8. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Harman, Chester E.

    2014-09-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, "Dune" planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, Seff, the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus-1.78; runaway greenhouse-1.04; moist greenhouse-1.01; maximum greenhouse-0.35; and early Mars-0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5.

  9. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars.

    PubMed

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M; Harman, Chester E

    2014-09-02

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, "Dune" planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, S(eff), the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus--1.78; runaway greenhouse--1.04; moist greenhouse--1.01; maximum greenhouse--0.35; and early Mars--0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5.

  10. Evolution of a Canada Basin ice-ocean boundary layer and mixed layer across a developing thermodynamically forced marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaher, Shawn G.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Shaw, William J.; Cole, Sylvia T.; Toole, John M.; Wilkinson, Jeremy P.; Maksym, Ted; Hwang, Byongjun

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive set of autonomous, ice-ocean measurements were collected across the Canada Basin to study the summer evolution of the ice-ocean boundary layer (IOBL) and ocean mixed layer (OML). Evaluation of local heat and freshwater balances and associated turbulent forcing reveals that melt ponds (MPs) strongly influence the summer IOBL-OML evolution. Areal expansion of MPs in mid-June start the upper ocean evolution resulting in significant increases to ocean absorbed radiative flux (19 W m-2 in this study). Buoyancy provided by MP drainage shoals and freshens the IOBL resulting in a 39 MJ m-2 increase in heat storage in just 19 days (52% of the summer total). Following MP drainage, a near-surface fresh layer deepens through shear-forced mixing to form the summer mixed layer (sML). In late summer, basal melt increases due to stronger turbulent mixing in the thin sML and the expansion of open water areas due in part to wind-forced divergence of the sea ice. Thermal heterogeneities in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) upper ocean led to large ocean-to-ice heat fluxes (100-200 W m-2) and enhanced basal ice melt (3-6 cm d-1), well away from the ice edge. Calculation of the upper ocean heat budget shows that local radiative heat input accounted for at least 89% of the observed latent heat losses and heat storage (partitioned 0.77/0.23). These results suggest that the extensive area of deteriorating sea ice observed away from the ice edge during the 2014 season, termed the "thermodynamically forced MIZ," was driven primarily by local shortwave radiative forcing.

  11. RIM determines Ca2+ channel density and vesicle docking at the presynaptic active zone

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yunyun; Kaeser, Pascal S.; Südhof, Thomas C.; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    At presynaptic active zones, neurotransmitter release is initiated by the opening of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels close to docked vesicles. The mechanisms that enrich Ca2+ channels at active zones are, however, largely unknown, possibly because of the limited presynaptic accessibility of most synapses. Here, we have established a Cre-lox based conditional knock-out approach at a presynaptically accessible CNS synapse, the calyx of Held, to directly study the functions of RIM proteins. Removal of all RIM1/2 isoforms strongly reduced the presynaptic Ca2+ channel density, revealing a new role of RIM proteins in Ca2+ channel targeting. Removal of RIMs also reduced the readily-releasable pool, paralleled by a similar reduction of the number of docked vesicles, and the Ca2+ channel - vesicle coupling was decreased. Thus, RIM proteins co-ordinately regulate key functions for fast transmitter release: enabling a high presynaptic Ca2+ channel density, and vesicle docking at the active zone. PMID:21262468

  12. A Direct Grain-Boundary-Activity Correlation for CO Electroreduction on Cu Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Copper catalyzes the electrochemical reduction of CO to valuable C2+ products including ethanol, acetate, propanol, and ethylene. These reactions could be very useful for converting renewable energy into fuels and chemicals, but conventional Cu electrodes are energetically inefficient and have poor selectivity for CO vs H2O reduction. Efforts to design improved catalysts have been impeded by the lack of experimentally validated, quantitative structure–activity relationships. Here we show that CO reduction activity is directly correlated to the density of grain boundaries (GBs) in Cu nanoparticles (NPs). We prepared electrodes of Cu NPs on carbon nanotubes (Cu/CNT) with different average GB densities quantified by transmission electron microscopy. At potentials ranging from −0.3 V to −0.5 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode, the specific activity for CO reduction to ethanol and acetate was linearly proportional to the fraction of NP surfaces comprised of GB surface terminations. Our results provide a design principle for CO reduction to ethanol and acetate on Cu. GB-rich Cu/CNT electrodes are the first NP catalysts with significant CO reduction activity at moderate overpotential, reaching a mass activity of up to ∼1.5 A per gram of Cu and a Faradaic efficiency >70% at −0.3 V. PMID:27163043

  13. Active Control of Panel Vibrations Induced by a Boundary Layer Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Pao-Liu

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, active and passive control of sound and vibration in aeroelastic structures have received a great deal of attention due to many potential applications to aerospace and other industries. There exists a great deal of research work done in this area. Recent advances in the control of sound and vibration can be found in the several conference proceedings. In this report we will summarize our research findings supported by the NASA grant NAG-1-1175. The problems of active and passive control of sound and vibration has been investigated by many researchers for a number of years. However, few of the articles are concerned with the sound and vibration with flow-structure interaction. Experimental and numerical studies on the coupling between panel vibration and acoustic radiation due to flow excitation have been done by Maestrello and his associates at NASA/Langley Research Center. Since the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations is formidable, an analytical solution to the full problem seems impossible. For this reason, we have to simplify the problem to that of the nonlinear panel vibration induced by a uniform flow or a boundary-layer flow with a given wall pressure distribution. Based on this simplified model, we have been able to study the control and stabilization of the nonlinear panel vibration, which have not been treated satisfactorily by other authors. The vibration suppression will clearly reduce the sound radiation power from the panel. The major research findings will be presented in the next three sections. In Section II we shall describe our results on the boundary control of nonlinear panel vibration, with or without flow excitation. Section III is concerned with active control of the vibration and sound radiation from a nonlinear elastic panel. A detailed description of our work on the parametric vibrational control of nonlinear elastic panel will be presented in Section IV. This paper will be submitted to the Journal

  14. Active control of panel vibrations induced by a boundary layer flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Pao-Liu

    1995-01-01

    The problems of active and passive control of sound and vibration has been investigated by many researchers for a number of years. However, few of the articles are concerned with the sound and vibration with flow-structure interaction. Experimental and numerical studies on the coupling between panel vibration and acoustic radiation due to flow excitation have been done by Maestrello and his associates at NASA/Langley Research Center. Since the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations is formidable, an analytical solution to the full problem seems impossible. For this reason, we have to simplify the problem to that of the nonlinear panel vibration induced by a uniform flow or a boundary-layer flow with a given wall pressure distribution. Based on this simplified model, we have been able to consider the control and stabilization of the nonlinear panel vibration, which have not been treated satisfactorily by other authors. Although the sound radiation has not been included, the vibration suppression will clearly reduce the sound radiation power from the panel. The major research findings are presented in three sections. In section two we describe results on the boundary control of nonlinear panel vibration, with or without flow excitation. Sections three and four are concerned with some analytical and numerical results in the optimal control of the linear and nonlinear panel vibrations, respectively, excited by the flow pressure fluctuations. Finally, in section five, we draw some conclusions from research findings.

  15. Micro 3D ERT tomography for data assimilation modelling of active root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanella, Daniela; Busato, Laura; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Binley, Andrew; Putti, Mario; Consoli, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Within the soil-plant-atmosphere system, root activity plays a fundamental role, as it connects different domains and allows a large part of the water and nutrient exchanges necessary for plant sustenance. The understanding of these processes is not only useful from an environmental point of view, making a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the critical zone dynamics, but also plays a pivotal role in precision agriculture, where the optimisation of water resources exploitation is mandatory and often carried out through deficit irrigation techniques. In this work, we present the results of non-invasive monitoring of the active root zone of two orange trees (Citrus sinensis, cv Tarocco Ippolito) located in an orange orchard in eastern Sicily (Italy) and drip irrigated with two different techniques: partial root drying and 100% crop evapotranspiration. The main goal of the monitoring activity is to assess possible differences between the developed root systems and the root water uptake between the two irrigation strategies. The monitoring is conducted using 3D micro-electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) based on an apparatus composed of a number of micro-boreholes (about 1.2 m deep) housing 12 electrodes each, plus a number of surface electrodes. Time-lapse measurements conducted both with long-term periodicity and short-term repetition before and after irrigation clearly highlight the presence and distribution of root water uptake zone both at shallow and larger depth, likely to correspond to zones utilized during the irrigation period (shallow) and during the time when the crop is not irrigated (deep). Subsidiary information is available in terms of precipitation, sap flow measurements and micrometeorological evapotranspiration estimates. This data ensemble lends itself to the assimilation into a variably saturated flow model, where both soil hydraulic parameters and root distribution shall be identified. Preliminary results in this directions show

  16. Micro 3D ERT tomography for data assimilation modelling of active root zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassiani, G.; Boaga, J.; Busato, L.; Vanella, D.; Consoli, S.; Binley, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Within the soil-plant-atmosphere system, root activity plays a fundamental role, as it connects different domains and allows a large part of the water and nutrient exchanges necessary for plant sustenance. The understanding of these processes is not only useful from an environmental point of view, making a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the critical zone dynamics, but also plays a pivotal role in precision agriculture, where the optimisation of water resources exploitation is mandatory and often carried out through deficit irrigation techniques. In this work, we present the results of non-invasive monitoring of the active root zone of two orange trees (Citrus sinensis, cv Tarocco Ippolito) located in an orange orchard in eastern Sicily (Italy) and drip irrigated with two different techniques: partial root drying and 100% crop evapotranspiration. The main goal of the monitoring activity is to assess possible differences between the developed root systems and the root water uptake between the two irrigation strategies. The monitoring is conducted using 3D micro-electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) based on an apparatus composed of a number of micro-boreholes (about 1.2 m deep) housing 12 electrodes each, plus a number of surface electrodes. Time-lapse measurements conducted both with long-term periodicity and short-term repetition before and after irrigation clearly highlight the presence and distribution of root water uptake zone both at shallow and larger depth, likely to correspond to zones utilized during the irrigation period (shallow) and during the time when the crop is not irrigated (deep). Subsidiary information is available in terms of precipitation, sap flow measurements and micrometeorological evapotranspiration estimates. This data ensemble lends itself to the assimilation into a variably saturated flow model, where both soil hydraulic parameters and root distribution shall be identified. Preliminary results in this directions show

  17. Functional Dissection of the Blocking and Bypass Activities of the Fab-8 Boundary in the Drosophila Bithorax Complex.

    PubMed

    Kyrchanova, Olga; Mogila, Vladic; Wolle, Daniel; Deshpande, Girish; Parshikov, Alexander; Cléard, Fabienne; Karch, Francois; Schedl, Paul; Georgiev, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Functionally autonomous regulatory domains direct the parasegment-specific expression of the Drosophila Bithorax complex (BX-C) homeotic genes. Autonomy is conferred by boundary/insulator elements that separate each regulatory domain from its neighbors. For six of the nine parasegment (PS) regulatory domains in the complex, at least one boundary is located between the domain and its target homeotic gene. Consequently, BX-C boundaries must not only block adventitious interactions between neighboring regulatory domains, but also be permissive (bypass) for regulatory interactions between the domains and their gene targets. To elucidate how the BX-C boundaries combine these two contradictory activities, we have used a boundary replacement strategy. We show that a 337 bp fragment spanning the Fab-8 boundary nuclease hypersensitive site and lacking all but 83 bp of the 625 bp Fab-8 PTS (promoter targeting sequence) fully rescues a Fab-7 deletion. It blocks crosstalk between the iab-6 and iab-7 regulatory domains, and has bypass activity that enables the two downstream domains, iab-5 and iab-6, to regulate Abdominal-B (Abd-B) transcription in spite of two intervening boundary elements. Fab-8 has two dCTCF sites and we show that they are necessary both for blocking and bypass activity. However, CTCF sites on their own are not sufficient for bypass. While multimerized dCTCF (or Su(Hw)) sites have blocking activity, they fail to support bypass. Moreover, this bypass defect is not rescued by the full length PTS. Finally, we show that orientation is critical for the proper functioning the Fab-8 replacement. Though the inverted Fab-8 boundary still blocks crosstalk, it disrupts the topology of the Abd-B regulatory domains and does not support bypass. Importantly, altering the orientation of the Fab-8 dCTCF sites is not sufficient to disrupt bypass, indicating that orientation dependence is conferred by other factors.

  18. Pulsed Light Stimulation Increases Boundary Preference and Periodicity of Episodic Motor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shuang; Xiao, Chengfeng; Robertson, R. Meldrum

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the therapeutic benefits of long-term sensory stimulation for improving cognitive abilities and motor performance of stroke patients. The rationale is that such stimulation would activate mechanisms of neural plasticity to promote enhanced coordination and associated circuit functions. Experimental approaches to characterize such mechanisms are needed. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most attractive model organisms to investigate neural mechanisms responsible for stimulation-induced behaviors with its powerful accessibility to genetic analysis. In this study, the effect of chronic sensory stimulation (pulsed light stimulation) on motor activity in w1118 flies was investigated. Flies were exposed to a chronic pulsed light stimulation protocol prior to testing their performance in a standard locomotion assay. Flies responded to pulsed light stimulation with increased boundary preference and travel distance in a circular arena. In addition, pulsed light stimulation increased the power of extracellular electrical activity, leading to the enhancement of periodic electrical activity which was associated with a centrally-generated motor pattern (struggling behavior). In contrast, such periodic events were largely missing in w1118 flies without pulsed light treatment. These data suggest that the sensory stimulation induced a response in motor activity associated with the modifications of electrical activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Finally, without pulsed light treatment, the wild-type genetic background was associated with the occurrence of the periodic activity in wild-type Canton S (CS) flies, and w+ modulated the consistency of periodicity. We conclude that pulsed light stimulation modifies behavioral and electrophysiological activities in w1118 flies. These data provide a foundation for future research on the genetic mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying such behavioral modification. PMID:27684063

  19. The energy balance and pressure in the solar transition zone for network and active region features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, K. R.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.; Brueckner, G. E.; Vanhoosier, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The electron pressure and energy balance in the solar transition zone are determined for about 125 network and active region features on the basis of high spectral and spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet spectra. Si III line intensity ratios obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory high-resolution telescope and spectrograph during a rocket flight are used as diagnostics of electron density and pressure for solar features near 3.5 x 10 to the 4th K. Observed ratios are compared with the calculated dependence of the 1301 A/1312 A and 1301 A/1296 A line intensity ratios on electron density, temperature and pressure. Electron densities ranging from 2 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm to 10 to the 12th/cu cm and active region pressures from 3 x 10 to the 15th to 10 to the 16th/cu cm K are obtained. Energy balance calculations reveal the balance of the divergence of the conductive flux and turbulent energy dissipation by radiative energy losses in a plane-parallel homogeneous transition zone (fill factor of 1), and an energy source requirement for a cylindrical zone geometry (fill factor less than 0.04).

  20. Microearthquake activity on the Orozco Fracture Zone: Preliminary results from Project ROSE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-10

    We present preliminary hypocenter determinations for 52 earthquakes recorded by a large multiinstitutional network of ocean bottom seismometers and ocean bottom hydrophones in the Orozco Fracture Zone in the eastern Pacific during late February to mid-March 1979. The network was deployed as part of the Rivera Ocean Seismic Experiment, also known as Project ROSE. The Orozco Fracture Zone is Physiographically complex, and the pattern of microearthquake hypocenters at least partly reflects this complexity. All of the well-located epicenters lie within the active transform fault segment of the fracture zone. About half of the recorded earthquakes were aligned along a narrow trough that extends eastward from the northern rise crest intersection in the approximate direction of the Cocos-Pacific relative plate motion; these events appear to be characterized by strike-slip faulting. The second major group of activity occurred in the central portion of the transform fault; the microearthquakes in this group do not display a preferred alignment parallel to the direction of spreading, and several are not obviously associated with distinct topographic features. Hypocentral depth was well resolved for many of the earthquakes reported here. Nominal depths range from 0 to 17 km below the seafloor.

  1. Intrinsic Bayesian Active Contours for Extraction of Object Boundaries in Images

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework for incorporating prior information about high-probability shapes in the process of contour extraction and object recognition in images. Here one studies shapes as elements of an infinite-dimensional, non-linear quotient space, and statistics of shapes are defined and computed intrinsically using differential geometry of this shape space. Prior models on shapes are constructed using probability distributions on tangent bundles of shape spaces. Similar to the past work on active contours, where curves are driven by vector fields based on image gradients and roughness penalties, we incorporate the prior shape knowledge in the form of vector fields on curves. Through experimental results, we demonstrate the use of prior shape models in the estimation of object boundaries, and their success in handling partial obscuration and missing data. Furthermore, we describe the use of this framework in shape-based object recognition or classification. PMID:21076692

  2. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Hair Coloring Products); Oxford, NC On October 10, 2012,...

  3. 78 FR 58995 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 138-Columbus, Ohio; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Rolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 138--Columbus, Ohio; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Rolls Royce Energy Systems, Inc. (Industrial Gas Turbines, Power Generation Turbines, and Generator Sets); Mount Vernon, Ohio...

  4. 78 FR 16465 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC (Soft Drink and Fruit Drink Beverages), Toa Baja,...

  5. 78 FR 62583 - Foreign-Trade Zone 39-Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Lasko...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 39--Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Lasko Products, Inc. (Household Electric Fans); Fort Worth, Texas On May 21, 2013, Lasko...

  6. 78 FR 40427 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183-Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Samsung...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183--Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC (Semiconductors); Austin, Texas Samsung Austin Semiconductor... the FTZ Board for its facility in Austin, Texas. The notification conforming to the requirements...

  7. 77 FR 56611 - Foreign-Trade Zone 216-Olympia, WA; Authorization of Production Activity; Callisons, Inc. (Mint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 178 (Thursday, September 13, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 56611] [FR Doc No: 2012-22601] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-38-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 216--Olympia, WA; Authorization of Production Activity; Callisons, Inc. (Mint Products); Lacey...

  8. 78 FR 29322 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Authorization of Production Activity; Subzone 41J...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 41--Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Authorization of Production Activity; Subzone 41J; Generac Power Systems, Inc. (Generators, Pressure Washers, Engines and Other...

  9. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina...

  10. 77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, LLC (Subzone 61A), (Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Products), Guayama,...

  11. 78 FR 79390 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 265-Conroe, Texas, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Bauer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 265--Conroe, Texas, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Bauer Manufacturing Inc., (Pile Drivers, Boring Machinery, and Foundation Construction Equipment), Conroe, Texas The City of Conroe,...

  12. 77 FR 71167 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, New York, Authorization of Production Activity, Takasago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, New York, Authorization of Production Activity, Takasago International Corporation (Fragrances), Harriman, New York On July 26, 2012,...

  13. 77 FR 75406 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, GA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Perkins Shibaura...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 26--Atlanta, GA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Perkins Shibaura Engines LLC, (Diesel Engines), Griffin, GA Perkins Shibaura Engines LLC (Perkins Shibaura), an operator of FTZ 26, submitted...

  14. More Active Living-oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity-United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Nicholson, Lisa M; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA.

  15. Landform development in a zone of active Gedi Fault, Eastern Kachchh rift basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Rastogi, B. K.; Morthekai, P.; Dumka, Rakesh K.

    2016-02-01

    An earthquake of 2006 Mw 5.7 occurred along east-west trending Gedi Fault (GF) to the north of the Kachchh rift basin in western India which had the epicenter in the Wagad upland, which is approximately 60 km northeast of the 2001 Mw 7.7 earthquake site (or epicenter). Development of an active fault scarp, shifting of a river channel, offsetting of streams and uplift of the ground indicate that the terrain is undergoing active deformation. Based on detailed field investigations, three major faults that control uplifts have been identified in the GF zone. These uplifts were developed in a step-over zone of the GF, and formed due to compressive force generated by left-lateral motion within the segmented blocks. In the present research, a terrace sequence along the north flowing Karaswali river in a tectonically active GF zone has been investigated. Reconstructions based on geomorphology and terrace stratigraphy supported by optical chronology suggest that the fluvial aggradation in the Wagad area was initiated during the strengthening (at ~ 8 ka) and declining (~ 4 ka) of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). The presence of younger valley fill sediments which are dated ~ 1 ka is ascribed to a short lived phase of renewed strengthening of ISM before present day aridity. Based on terrace morphology two major phases of enhanced uplift have been estimated. The older uplift event dated to 8 ka is represented by the Tertiary bedrock surfaces which accommodated the onset of valley-fill aggradation. The younger event of enhanced uplift dated to 4 ka was responsible for the incision of the older valley fill sediments and the Tertiary bedrock. These ages suggest that the average rate of uplift ranges from 0.3 to 1.1 mm/yr during the last 9 ka implying active nature of the area.

  16. Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Docking by Different Classes of Macromolecules in Active Zone Material

    PubMed Central

    Szule, Joseph A.; Harlow, Mark L.; Jung, Jae Hoon; De-Miguel, Francisco F.; Marshall, Robert M.; McMahan, Uel J.

    2012-01-01

    The docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of axon terminals is essential for their fusion with the membrane and exocytosis of their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Dense networks of macromolecules, called active zone material, (AZM) are attached to the presynaptic membrane next to docked vesicles. Electron tomography has shown that some AZM macromolecules are connected to docked vesicles, leading to the suggestion that AZM is somehow involved in the docking process. We used electron tomography on the simply arranged active zones at frog neuromuscular junctions to characterize the connections of AZM to docked synaptic vesicles and to search for the establishment of such connections during vesicle docking. We show that each docked vesicle is connected to 10–15 AZM macromolecules, which fall into four classes based on several criteria including their position relative to the presynaptic membrane. In activated axon terminals fixed during replacement of docked vesicles by previously undocked vesicles, undocked vesicles near vacated docking sites on the presynaptic membrane have connections to the same classes of AZM macromolecules that are connected to docked vesicles in resting terminals. The number of classes and the total number of macromolecules to which the undocked vesicles are connected are inversely proportional to the vesicles’ distance from the presynaptic membrane. We conclude that vesicle movement toward and maintenance at docking sites on the presynaptic membrane are directed by an orderly succession of stable interactions between the vesicles and distinct classes of AZM macromolecules positioned at different distances from the membrane. Establishing the number, arrangement and sequence of association of AZM macromolecules involved in vesicle docking provides an anatomical basis for testing and extending concepts of docking mechanisms provided by biochemistry. PMID:22438915

  17. Groundwater hydrochemistry in the active layer of the proglacial zone, Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Wadham, J.L.; Tranter, M.; Hodgkins, R.; Peters, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    Glacial bulk meltwaters and active-layer groundwaters were sampled from the proglacial zone of Finsterwalderbreen during a single melt season in 1999, in order to determine the geochemical processes that maintain high chemical weathering rates in the proglacial zone of this glacier. Results demonstrate that the principle means of solute acquisition is the weathering of highly reactive moraine and fluvial active-layer sediments by supra-permafrost groundwaters. Active-layer groundwater derives from the thaw of the proglacial snowpack, buried ice and glacial bulk meltwaters. Groundwater evolves by sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution. Evaporation- and freeze-concentration of groundwater in summer and winter, respectively produce Mg-Ca-sulphate salts on the proglacial surface. Re-dissolution of these salts in early summer produces groundwaters that are supersaturated with respect to calcite. There is a pronounced spatial pattern to the geochemical evolution of groundwater. Close to the main proglacial channel, active layer sediments are flushed diurnally by bulk meltwaters. Here, Mg-Ca-sulphate deposits become exhausted in the early season and geochemical evolution proceeds by a combination of sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution. At greater distances from the channel, the dissolution of Mg-Ca-sulphate salts is a major influence and dilution by the bulk meltwaters is relatively minor. The influence of sulphate salt dissolution decreases during the sampling season, as these salts are exhausted and waters become increasingly routed by subsurface flowpaths. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone from inversion of focal mechanism solutions: A successful trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard M., Franck A.; Castilla, Raymi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a compilation of 16 present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone (PBZ), and particularly in western and along northern Venezuela. As a trial, these new stress tensors along PBZ have been calculated from inversion of 125 focal mechanism solutions (FMS) by applying the Angelier & Mechler's dihedral method, which were originally gathered by the first author and published in 2005. These new tensors are compared to those 59 tensors inverted from fault-slip data measured only in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks, compiled in Audemard et al. (2005), which were originally calculated by several researchers through the inversion methods developed by Angelier and Mechler or Etchecopar et al. The two sets of stress tensors, one derived from geological data and the other one from seismological data, compare very well throughout the PBZ in terms of both stress orientation and shape of the stress tensor. This region is characterized by a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato), occasionally compressional, regime from the southern Mérida Andes on the southwest to the gulf of Paria in the east. Significant changes in direction of the maximum horizontal stress (σH = σ1) can be established along it though. The σ1 direction varies progressively from nearly east-west in the southern Andes (SW Venezuela) to between NW-SE and NNW-SSE in northwestern Venezuela; this direction remaining constant across northern Venezuela, from Colombia to Trinidad. In addition, the σV defined by inversion of focal mechanisms or by the shape of the stress ellipsoid derived from the Etchecopar et al.'s method better characterize whether the stress regime is transpressional or compressional, or even very rarely trantensional at local scale. The orientation and space variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the addition of the two major neighbouring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (

  19. Mineralogy and porosity transformation induced by normal fault activity, Pirgaki fault zone (Corinth rift, Greece).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géraud, Y.; Diraison, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Pirgaki fault displays an average N095-100 strike direction and contributes to the south part of the Corinth graben. Several interconnected segments compose it and it forms a quite continuous fault scrap elevated up to 300 meters. The total length of outcropping fault zone is at least 30 km. The dip angle involves between 40° to 70° for the highest. The high angle part of the fault marks the contact between limestone and sediments of the rift series (Ghisetti et al. 2001). A large set of structural and sedimentological criteria are evidence of repeated activity of the Pirgaki fault during the whole Pliocene-Pleistocene period (Ghisetti et al., 2001). The studied part of the Pirgaki fault zone has low angle dip and affects limestones. These limestones, as well as in the hanging wall than in the footwall, are strongly affected by a previous neogene orogen with ductile (folds) and brittle (faults) structures. The sampling zone concerns the low dipping part of the fault. A set of 12 samples is analysed by Hg and water porosimetry, X-ray diffraction and SEM. Protolith is characterised by a very low porosity material, porous volume lower than 1% and threshold size lower 0.1µm. Clay fraction of the protolith material is formed by a set of interstratified illite-smectite and kaolinite minerals. The gouge zone is characterized by an important structural modification with formation of ductile strain part and a brittle strain part. Transformations of the clay content are important in this part of the fault zone. Interstratified phases disappear and are replaced by illite and chlorite phases. The highest illite content is measured for the brittle part of the gouge zone and the highest chlorite content is measured in the ductile part. These structural transformations are also associated with porosity modifications with an large increase of the porosity volume (10%) an of the threshold diameter (3µm) in the brittle part and a lower increase (porosity value, 2% and

  20. Active Crustal Faults in the Forearc Region, Guerrero Sector of the Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidzik, Krzysztof; Ramírez-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Kostoglodov, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the characteristics and the seismogenic potential of crustal faults on the overriding plate in an area of high seismic hazard associated with the occurrence of subduction earthquakes and shallow earthquakes of the overriding plate. We present the results of geomorphic, structural, and fault kinematic analyses conducted on the convergent margin between the Cocos plate and the forearc region of the overriding North American plate, within the Guerrero sector of the Mexican subduction zone. We aim to determine the active tectonic processes in the forearc region of the subduction zone, using the river network pattern, topography, and structural data. We suggest that in the studied forearc region, both strike-slip and normal crustal faults sub-parallel to the subduction zone show evidence of activity. The left-lateral offsets of the main stream courses of the largest river basins, GPS measurements, and obliquity of plate convergence along the Cocos subduction zone in the Guerrero sector suggest the activity of sub-latitudinal left-lateral strike-slip faults. Notably, the regional left-lateral strike-slip fault that offsets the Papagayo River near the town of La Venta named "La Venta Fault" shows evidence of recent activity, corroborated also by GPS measurements (4-5 mm/year of sinistral motion). Assuming that during a probable earthquake the whole mapped length of this fault would rupture, it would produce an event of maximum moment magnitude Mw = 7.7. Even though only a few focal mechanism solutions indicate a stress regime relevant for reactivation of these strike-slip structures, we hypothesize that these faults are active and suggest two probable explanations: (1) these faults are characterized by long recurrence period, i.e., beyond the instrumental record, or (2) they experience slow slip events and/or associated fault creep. The analysis of focal mechanism solutions of small magnitude earthquakes in the upper plate, for the period between 1995

  1. Mutational Analysis of Rab3 Function for Controlling Active Zone Protein Composition at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shirui; Gendelman, Hannah K; Roche, John P; Alsharif, Peter; Graf, Ethan R

    2015-01-01

    At synapses, the release of neurotransmitter is regulated by molecular machinery that aggregates at specialized presynaptic release sites termed active zones. The complement of active zone proteins at each site is a determinant of release efficacy and can be remodeled to alter synapse function. The small GTPase Rab3 was previously identified as playing a novel role that controls the distribution of active zone proteins to individual release sites at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Rab3 has been extensively studied for its role in the synaptic vesicle cycle; however, the mechanism by which Rab3 controls active zone development remains unknown. To explore this mechanism, we conducted a mutational analysis to determine the molecular and structural requirements of Rab3 function at Drosophila synapses. We find that GTP-binding is required for Rab3 to traffick to synapses and distribute active zone components across release sites. Conversely, the hydrolytic activity of Rab3 is unnecessary for this function. Through a structure-function analysis we identify specific residues within the effector-binding switch regions that are required for Rab3 function and determine that membrane attachment is essential. Our findings suggest that Rab3 controls the distribution of active zone components via a vesicle docking mechanism that is consistent with standard Rab protein function.

  2. 78 FR 11626 - Foreign-Trade Zone 181-Akron/Canton, OH, Authorization of Production Activity, Cimbar Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ..., Cimbar Performance Minerals, (Barium Sulfate Grinding), Wellsville, OH On October 10, 2012, the Northeast... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Cimbar Performance Minerals, within FTZ...

  3. 78 FR 30269 - Foreign-Trade Zone 129-Bellingham, Washington; Authorization of Production Activity; T.C. Trading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Activity; T.C. Trading Company, Inc. (Eyeglass Assembly and Kitting), Blaine, WA On January 17, 2013, the... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of T.C. Trading Company, Inc., within Subzone 129B, in...

  4. Electrokinetic microactuator arrays for active sublayer control of turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez-Garias, Francisco J.

    2002-09-01

    The present study has been the first to examine the electrokinetic principle as the basis for a new class of microscale actuator arrays for active sublayer control on full scale aeronautical and hydronautical vehicles under realistic operating conditions. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski scalings that govern such electrokinetic actuator arrays show significant performance advantages from their miniaturization to the microscale. The electrokinetic microactuator arrays that are the subject of this study seek to interrupt the bursting process associated with naturally-occurring streamwise sublayer vortices in the turbulent boundary layer. Specific performance requirements for microactuator spacing, flow rate, and frequency response for active sublayer control have been determined from fundamental scaling laws for the streamwise vortical structures in the sublayer of turbulent boundary layers. In view of the inherently local nature of the sublayer dynamics, a general system architecture for microactuator arrays appropriate for active sublayer control has been developed based on the concept of relatively small and independent "unit cells", each with their own sensing, processing, and actuation capability, that greatly simplifies the sensing and processing requirements needed to achieve practical sublayer control. A fundamental three-layer design has been developed for such electrokinetic microactuator arrays, in which electrokinetic flow is induced by an impulsively applied electric field across a center layer, with a bottom layer containing an electrolyte reservoir and a common electrode, and a top layer that containing individual electrodes and lead-outs for each microactuator in the unit cell. Microfabrication techniques have been developed that permit mass production of large numbers of individual electrokinetic microactuators in unit cells on comparatively large-area tiles. Several generations of such electrokinetic microactuator arrays have been built leading to the

  5. Seismotectonics of the southern boundary of Anatolia, Eastern Mediterranean region: subduction, collision, and arc jumping

    SciTech Connect

    Rotstein, Y.; Kafka, A.L.

    1982-09-10

    The pattern of seismicity and fault plane solutions of earthquakes are used to outline the tectonic features of the southern boundary of Anatolia in the eastern Mediterranean and southeastern Turkey. The results of this study show that this boundary is composed of two distinct parts. One, in southeastern Turkey and Syria, is a wide and complex zone of continental collision. The other, in the Levantine basin of the eastern Mediterranean, is a zone of oceanic subduction. In the region of continental collision three zones of seismicity are observed. Most of the seismic activity in this region follows the Bitlis zone and is associated with a zone of thrusting and mountain building. This appears to be the zone of most active deformation and plate consumption in the plate boundary region between Arabia and Turkey. A less active zone of seismicity to the north of the Bitlis zone is interpreted to have been more active in the past whereas another active zone of seismicity to the south is interpreted to be a zone which may be more active in the future as the main zone of plate consumption jumps to the south. In the subduction zone of the eastern Mediterranean the depth of the subducted slab and the rate of seismicity generally increease from east to west. The zone of present-day convergence between Africa and Turkey in the Levantine basin can be best outlined by the northern edge of the Mediterranean ridge. Deep seismic activity near the Gulf of Antalya is associated with a detached subducted slab north of the Anaximander Mountains that is distinctly different from the seismic trend which is associated with present-day active subduction. Most of the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes along the entire southern boundary of Anatolia indicate that N to NNW thrusting is the dominant mode of seismic deformation.

  6. Role of Bassoon and Piccolo in Assembly and Molecular Organization of the Active Zone

    PubMed Central

    Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Reissner, Carsten; Garner, Craig C.

    2016-01-01

    Bassoon and Piccolo are two very large scaffolding proteins of the cytomatrix assembled at the active zone (CAZ) where neurotransmitter is released. They share regions of high sequence similarity distributed along their entire length and seem to share both overlapping and distinct functions in organizing the CAZ. Here, we survey our present knowledge on protein-protein interactions and recent progress in understanding of molecular functions of these two giant proteins. These include roles in the assembly of active zones (AZ), the localization of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) in the vicinity of release sites, synaptic vesicle (SV) priming and in the case of Piccolo, a role in the dynamic assembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Piccolo and Bassoon are also important for the maintenance of presynaptic structure and function, as well as for the assembly of CAZ specializations such as synaptic ribbons. Recent findings suggest that they are also involved in the regulation activity-dependent communication between presynaptic boutons and the neuronal nucleus. Together these observations suggest that Bassoon and Piccolo use their modular structure to organize super-molecular complexes essential for various aspects of presynaptic function. PMID:26793095

  7. Active Control of Turbulent Boundary Layer Induced Sound Radiation from Multiple Aircraft Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to experimentally investigate active structural acoustic control of turbulent boundary layer (TBL) induced sound radiation from multiple panels on an aircraft sidewall. One possible approach for controlling sound radiation from multiple panels is a multi-input/multi-output scheme which considers dynamic coupling between the panels. Unfortunately, this is difficult for more than a few panels, and is impractical for a typical aircraft which contains several hundred such panels. An alternative is to implement a large number of independent control systems. Results from the current work demonstrate the feasibility of reducing broadband radiation from multiple panels utilizing a single-input/single-output (SISO) controller per bay, and is the first known demonstration of active control of TBL induced sound radiation on more than two bays simultaneously. The paper compares sound reduction for fully coupled control of six panels versus independent control on each panel. An online adaptive control scheme for independent control is also demonstrated. This scheme will adjust for slow time varying dynamic systems such as fuselage response changes due to aircraft pressurization, etc.

  8. Active control of turbulent boundary layer sound transmission into a vehicle interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, A.; Alujević, N.; Pluymers, B.; Desmet, W.

    2016-09-01

    In high speed automotive, aerospace, and railway transportation, the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is one of the most important sources of interior noise. The stochastic pressure distribution associated with the turbulence is able to excite significantly structural vibration of vehicle exterior panels. They radiate sound into the vehicle through the interior panels. Therefore, the air flow noise becomes very influential when it comes to the noise vibration and harshness assessment of a vehicle, in particular at low frequencies. Normally, passive solutions, such as sound absorbing materials, are used for reducing the TBL-induced noise transmission into a vehicle interior, which generally improve the structure sound isolation performance. These can achieve excellent isolation performance at higher frequencies, but are unable to deal with the low-frequency interior noise components. In this paper, active control of TBL noise transmission through an acoustically coupled double panel system into a rectangular cavity is examined theoretically. The Corcos model of the TBL pressure distribution is used to model the disturbance. The disturbance is rejected by an active vibration isolation unit reacting between the exterior and the interior panels. Significant reductions of the low-frequency vibrations of the interior panel and the sound pressure in the cavity are observed.

  9. Collision-induced signal enhancement (CISE): the use of boundary activation to effect non-resonant CISE.

    PubMed

    Asam, Michael R; Glish, Gary L

    2002-06-01

    An alternative to resonant excitation collision-induced signal enhancement (CISE) is presented. This alternative utilizes boundary activation instead of resonant excitation to effect CISE and is called boundary activated collision induced signal enhancement (BA-CISE). There are three ways to effect BA-CISE to enhance the signal for an MS(n+1) experiment. Each technique utilizes the beta(z) = 0 boundary, which ions encounter from high to low mass/charge ratio. BA-CISE is shown to produce an almost 900% increase in the C2 ion of [maltohexaose + Li]+. The use of a heavy collision gas in addition to the helium bath gas generally produced a signal enhancement inferior to the same experiment without the heavy gas.

  10. Activating without Inhibiting: Left-Edge Boundary Tones and Syntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Mikael; Horne, Merle; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Right-edge boundary tones have earlier been found to restrict syntactic processing by closing a clause for further integration of incoming words. The role of left-edge intonation, however, has received little attention to date. We show that Swedish left-edge boundary tones selectively facilitate the on-line processing of main clauses, the…

  11. Crustal structure of the Churchill-Superior boundary zone between 80 and 98 deg W longitude from Magsat anomaly maps and stacked passes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. H.; Millar, T. W.; Noble, I. A.

    1985-01-01

    A modeling technique using spherical shell elements and equivalent dipole sources has been applied to Magsat signatures at the Churchill-Superior boundary in Manitoba, Ontario, and Ungava. A large satellite magnetic anomaly (12 nT amplitude) on POGO and Magsat maps near the Churchill-Superior boundary was found to be related to the Richmond Gulf aulacogen. The averaged crustal magnetization in the source region is 5.2 A/m. Stacking of the magnetic traces from Magsat passes reveals a magnetic signature (10 nT amplitude) at the Churchill-Superior boundary in an area studied between 80 deg W and 98 deg W. Modeling suggests a steplike thickening of the crust on the Churchill side of the boundary in a layer with a magnetization of 5 A/m. Signatures on aeromagnetic maps are also found in the source areas for both of these satellite anomalies.

  12. Active control of panel vibrations induced by boundary-layer flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Pao-Liu

    1991-01-01

    Some problems in active control of panel vibration excited by a boundary layer flow over a flat plate are studied. In the first phase of the study, the optimal control problem of vibrating elastic panel induced by a fluid dynamical loading was studied. For a simply supported rectangular plate, the vibration control problem can be analyzed by a modal analysis. The control objective is to minimize the total cost functional, which is the sum of a vibrational energy and the control cost. By means of the modal expansion, the dynamical equation for the plate and the cost functional are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations and the cost functions for the modes. For the linear elastic plate, the modes become uncoupled. The control of each modal amplitude reduces to the so-called linear regulator problem in control theory. Such problems can then be solved by the method of adjoint state. The optimality system of equations was solved numerically by a shooting method. The results are summarized.

  13. Impact of anthropogenic activities on the dissemination of antibiotic resistance across ecological boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Vijay; Cytryn, Eddie

    2017-02-28

    Antibiotics are considered to be one of the major medical breakthroughs in history. Nonetheless, over the past four decades, antibiotic resistance has reached alarming levels worldwide and this trend is expected to continue to increase, leading some experts to forecast the coming of a 'post-antibiotic' era. Although antibiotic resistance in pathogens is traditionally linked to clinical environments, there is a rising concern that the global propagation of antibiotic resistance is also associated with environmental reservoirs that are linked to anthropogenic activities such as animal husbandry, agronomic practices and wastewater treatment. It is hypothesized that the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) within and between environmental microbial communities can ultimately contribute to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. Nonetheless, the scope of this phenomenon is not clear due to the complexity of microbial communities in the environment and methodological constraints that limit comprehensive in situ evaluation of microbial genomes. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance in non-clinical environments, specifically focusing on the dissemination of antibiotic resistance across ecological boundaries and the contribution of this phenomenon to global antibiotic resistance.

  14. Effects of reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy boundary measurements on localization of active neural source.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui-min; Lee, Kok-Meng; Hu, Liang; Foong, Shaohui; Fu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Localization of active neural source (ANS) from measurements on head surface is vital in magnetoencephalography. As neuron-generated magnetic fields are extremely weak, significant uncertainties caused by stochastic measurement interference complicate its localization. This paper presents a novel computational method based on reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy measurements for enhanced ANS localization by suppressing effects of unrelated noise. In this approach, the magnetic flux density (MFD) in the nearby current-free space outside the head is reconstructed from measurements through formulating the infinite series solution of the Laplace's equation, where boundary condition (BC) integrals over the entire measurements provide "smooth" reconstructed MFD with the decrease in unrelated noise. Using a gradient-based method, reconstructed MFDs with good fidelity are selected for enhanced ANS localization. The reconstruction model, spatial interpolation of BC, parametric equivalent current dipole-based inverse estimation algorithm using reconstruction, and gradient-based selection are detailed and validated. The influences of various source depths and measurement signal-to-noise ratio levels on the estimated ANS location are analyzed numerically and compared with a traditional method (where measurements are directly used), and it was demonstrated that gradient-selected high-fidelity reconstructed data can effectively improve the accuracy of ANS localization.

  15. Fault displacement rates and recent activity on the Ierapetra Fault Zone, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veliz, V.

    2015-12-01

    Crete is an eastern Mediterranean island that includes the highest forearc topography of the Hellenic subduction margin, along which the African and Eurasian plates converge at rates of ~40 mm/yr. The island is currently experiencing regional uplift and is broken up by numerous active normal faults that contribute to the shaping of its topography. The largest of these onshore tectonic features is, the Ierapetra Fault Zone (IFZ), a normal fault that traverses the entire width of eastern Crete (>20 km) with a NNE strike and west diping. Here we use geomorphologic, structural and kinematic indicators to discuss fault segmentation along the IFZ and to provide quantitative constraints on the late Quaternary (~16.5 and 33 kyr) displacement rate on the fault, including evidence of Holocene earthquake activity on its central segment.

  16. Geophysical signature of hydration-dehydration processes in active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    inclusions in arc lavas. High electrical conductivities up to 1 S/m in the hydrated wedge of the hot subductions (Ryukyu, Kyushu, Cascadia) reflect high fluid concentration, while low to moderate (<0.01 S/m) conductivities in the cold subductions (N-E Japan, Bolivia) reflect low fluid flow. This is consistent with the seismic observations of extensive shallow serpentinization in hot subduction zones, while serpentinization is sluggish in cold subduction zones. Bezacier, L., et al. 2010. Elasticity of antigorite, seismic detection of serpentinites, and anisotropy in subduction zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 289, 198-208. Reynard, B., 2012. Serpentine in active subduction zones. Lithos, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2012.10.012. Reynard, B., Mibe, K. & Van de Moortele, B., 2011. Electrical conductivity of the serpentinised mantle and fluid flow in subduction zones. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 307, 387-394. Reynard, B., Nakajima, J. & Kawakatsu, H., 2010. Earthquakes and plastic deformation of anhydrous slab mantle in double Wadati-Benioff zones. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L24309.

  17. Differential structural and geomorphic mountain-front evolution in an active continental collision zone: the NW Pamir, southern Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, M. R.; Hilley, G. E.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Coutand, I.

    2002-12-01

    Western, central, and eastern segments of the Trans Alai mountain front in the northern Pamir of Kyrgyzstan have accommodated varying degrees of approachment of the Pamir orogen with respect to the Tien Shan mountains to the north. Ongoing collision between the northwestern corner of the Indian indenter and Eurasia has resulted in closure of the intramontane Alai Valley, which separates the Tien Shan and Trans Alai (Pamir) ranges. The different segments highlight the processes of shaping tectonically active mountain fronts in a semi-arid environment. In this study, we have characterized this variation in processes with compilations of regional tectonic information, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps, topographic analyses, and interpretation of seismic reflection data. Along the sinuous western segment of the mountain front, dextrally oblique thrusting has created a wide (>500m) zone of highly erodible fault gouge. This fault zone impinges on the southern Tien Shan, but complete basin closure is prevented by erosion of the westward-flowing Kyzilsu River; the Kyzilsu valley forms the only outlet and is the vestige of a formerly contiguous sedimentary basin linking the Tarim Basin of China with the Tadjik Depression in the west. Numerous large landslides rooted in the fault zone have covered the trace of the active fault, which is partially undercut by the Kyzilsu River. Older, large landslides in this setting are associated with different levels of fluvial terraces of the former or present course of the Kyzilsu River, suggesting a causative relation between lateral fluvial scouring, failure of mechanically weak mountain fronts, ongoing faulting, and mass transfer. Along the linear central segment, deformation is confined to a narrow single south-dipping thrust fault that juxtaposes Pliocene/Pleistocene and Holocene conglomerates. In this sector, the mountain front has numerous Holocene offsets. This prevailing structural style and the long-term deformation are

  18. Differential structural and geomorphic mountain-front evolution in an active continental collision zone: the NW Pamir, southern Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, M. R.; Hilley, G. E.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Coutand, I.

    2003-04-01

    Western, central, and eastern segments of the Trans Alai mountain front in the northern Pamir of Kyrgyzstan have accommodated varying degrees of approachment of the Pamir orogen with respect to the Tien Shan mountains to the north. Ongoing collision between the northwestern corner of the Indian indenter and Eurasia has resulted in closure of the intramontane Alai Valley, which separates the Tien Shan and Trans Alai (Pamir) ranges. The different segments highlight the processes of shaping tectonically active mountain fronts in a semi-arid environment. In this study, we have characterized this variation in processes with compilations of regional tectonic information, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps, topographic analyses, and interpretation of seismic reflection data. Along the sinuous western segment of the mountain front, dextrally oblique thrusting has created a wide (>500m) zone of highly erodible fault gouge. This fault zone impinges on the southern Tien Shan, but complete basin closure is prevented by erosion of the westward-flowing Kyzilsu River; the Kyzilsu valley forms the only outlet and is the vestige of a formerly contiguous sedimentary basin linking the Tarim Basin of China with the Tadjik Depression in the west. Numerous large landslides rooted in the fault zone have covered the trace of the active fault, which is partially undercut by the Kyzilsu River. Older, large landslides in this setting are associated with different levels of fluvial terraces of the former or present course of the Kyzilsu River, suggesting a causative relation between lateral fluvial scouring, failure of mechanically weak mountain fronts, ongoing faulting, and mass transfer. Along the linear central segment, deformation is confined to a narrow single south-dipping thrust fault that juxtaposes Pliocene/Pleistocene and Holocene conglomerates. In this sector, the mountain front has numerous Holocene offsets. This prevailing structural style and the long-term deformation are

  19. Active faults in the deformation zone off Noto Peninsula, Japan, revealed by high- resolution seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Okamura, Y.; Murakami, F.; Kimura, H.; Ikehara, K.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a lot of earthquakes occur in Japan. The deformation zone which many faults and folds have concentrated exists on the Japan Sea side of Japan. The 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake (MJMA 6.9) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (MJMA 6.8) were caused by activity of parts of faults in this deformation zone. The Noto Hanto Earthquake occurred on 25 March, 2007 under the northwestern coast of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. This earthquake is located in Quaternary deformation zone that is continued from northern margin of Noto Peninsula to southeast direction (Okamura, 2007a). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) carried out high-resolution seismic survey using Boomer and 12 channels short streamer cable in the northern part off Noto Peninsula, in order to clarify distribution and activities of active faults in the deformation zone. A twelve channels short streamer cable with 2.5 meter channel spacing developed by AIST and private corporation is designed to get high resolution seismic profiles in shallow sea area. The multi-channel system is possible to equip on a small fishing boat, because the data acquisition system is based on PC and the length of the cable is short and easy to handle. Moreover, because the channel spacing is short, this cable is very effective for a high- resolution seismic profiling survey in the shallow sea, and seismic data obtained by multi-channel cable can be improved by velocity analysis and CDP stack. In the northern part off Noto Peninsula, seismic profiles depicting geologic structure up to 100 meters deep under sea floor were obtained. The most remarkable reflection surface recognized in the seismic profiles is erosion surface at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the western part, sediments about 30 meters (40 msec) thick cover the erosional surface that is distributed under the shelf shallower than 100m in depth and the sediments thin toward offshore and east. Flexures like deformation in

  20. Thermally activated step motion observed by HREM at a (113) symmetric tilt grain boundary in Al.

    SciTech Connect

    Merkle, K. L.; Thompson, L. J.; Phillipp, F.; Materials Science Division; Max-Planck-Inst.

    2002-11-01

    Grain-boundary migration is demonstrated to proceed by lateral propagation of a small step in a (113), [110] symmetric Al tilt grain-boundary. In-situ high-resolution (transmission) electron microscopy (HREM) at 523K allowed the study of atomic-scale detail at video rates during the migration process. The grain-boundary translational states on both sides of the step are identical, which leads to a step dislocation. This defect can move laterally by a combination of climb and glide. Dynamic HREM images indicate considerable atomic agitation within the dislocation core. A detailed temporal analysis of the step movements shows small random displacements of the dislocation core.

  1. Contact zone permeability at intrusion boundaries: New results from hydraulic testing and geophysical logging in the Newark Rift Basin, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matter, J.M.; Goldberg, D.S.; Morin, R.H.; Stute, M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydraulic tests and geophysical logging performed in the Palisades sill and the underlying sedimentary rocks in the NE part of the Newark Rift Basin, New York, USA, confirm that the particular transmissive zones are localized within the dolerite-sedimentary rock contact zone and within a narrow interval below this contact zone that is characterized by the occurrence of small layers of chilled dolerite. Transmissivity values determined from fluid injection, aquifer testing, and flowmeter measurements generally fall in the range of 8.1E-08 to 9.95E-06 m2/s and correspond to various scales of investigation. The analysis of acoustic and optical BHTV images reveals two primary fracture sets within the dolerite and the sedimentary rocks - subhorizontal fractures, intersected by subvertical ones. Despite being highly fractured either with subhorizontal, subvertical or both fracture populations, the dolerite above and the sedimentary rocks below the contact zone and the zone with the layers of chilled dolerite are significantly less conductive. The distribution of the particular conductive intervals is not a function of the two dominant fracture populations or their density but rather of the intrusion path of the sill. The intrusion caused thermal fracturing and cracking of both formations, resulting in higher permeability along the contact zone. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  2. Holocene activity and paleoseismicity of the Selaha Fault, southeastern segment of the strike-slip Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bing; Lin, Aiming

    2017-01-01

    In this study we examine the Holocene activity, including slip rate and paleoseismicity, of the Selaha Fault, a branch of the left-lateral strike-slip Xianshuihe Fault Zone located along the southeastern segment of the Ganzhi-Yushu-Xianshuihe Fault System (GYXFS) of the Tibetan Plateau. Interpretation of high-resolution images and field investigations reveal that the Selaha Fault is characterized by left-lateral strike-slip faulting with an average horizontal slip-rate of 9.0 mm/year during the Holocene. Trench excavations and 14C dating results show that at least three morphogenic earthquakes occurred during the past millennium; the most recent event occurred in the past 450 years and corresponds to the 1786 M 7.75 earthquake. The penultimate seismic event (E2) occurred in the period between 560 and 820 year BP (i.e., 1166-1428 CE) and is probably associated with the 1327 M 7.5 earthquake. The antepenultimate event (E3) is inferred to have occurred in the period between 820 ± 30 and 950 ± 30 year BP. Our results confirm that the Selaha Fault, as a portion of the GYXFS, plays an important role as a tectonic boundary in releasing the strain energy accumulated during the northeastward motion of the Tibetan Plateau in response to the ongoing northward penetration of the Indian Plate into the Eurasian Plate. The strain energy is released in the form of repeated large earthquakes that are recorded by strike-slip displacements of stream channels and alluvial fans.

  3. Alignment of Synaptic Vesicle Macromolecules with the Macromolecules in Active Zone Material that Direct Vesicle Docking

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Jung, Jae Hoon; Marshall, Robert M.; McMahan, Uel J.

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles dock at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of a neuron’s axon terminals as a precondition for fusing with the membrane and releasing their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Typically, docked vesicles are next to aggregates of plasma membrane-bound macromolecules called active zone material (AZM). Electron tomography on tissue sections from fixed and stained axon terminals of active and resting frog neuromuscular junctions has led to the conclusion that undocked vesicles are directed to and held at the docking sites by the successive formation of stable connections between vesicle membrane proteins and proteins in different classes of AZM macromolecules. Using the same nanometer scale 3D imaging technology on appropriately stained frog neuromuscular junctions, we found that ∼10% of a vesicle’s luminal volume is occupied by a radial assembly of elongate macromolecules attached by narrow projections, nubs, to the vesicle membrane at ∼25 sites. The assembly’s chiral, bilateral shape is nearly the same vesicle to vesicle, and nubs, at their sites of connection to the vesicle membrane, are linked to macromolecules that span the membrane. For docked vesicles, the orientation of the assembly’s shape relative to the AZM and the presynaptic membrane is the same vesicle to vesicle, whereas for undocked vesicles it is not. The connection sites of most nubs on the membrane of docked vesicles are paired with the connection sites of the different classes of AZM macromolecules that regulate docking, and the membrane spanning macromolecules linked to these nubs are also attached to the AZM macromolecules. We conclude that the luminal assembly of macromolecules anchors in a particular arrangement vesicle membrane macromolecules, which contain the proteins that connect the vesicles to AZM macromolecules during docking. Undocked vesicles must move in a way that aligns this arrangement with the AZM macromolecules for

  4. Pharmacogenomic identification of small molecules for lineage specific manipulation of subventricular zone germinal activity

    PubMed Central

    Marcy, Guillaume; Pieropan, Francesca; Rivera, Andrea; Donega, Vanessa; Cantù, Claudio; Williams, Gareth; Berninger, Benedikt; Butt, Arthur M.; Raineteau, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Strategies for promoting neural regeneration are hindered by the difficulty of manipulating desired neural fates in the brain without complex genetic methods. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinal zone of the forebrain and is responsible for the lifelong generation of interneuron subtypes and oligodendrocytes. Here, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome of dorsal and lateral SVZ in early postnatal mice, including neural stem cells (NSCs) and their immediate progenies, which generate distinct neural lineages. We identified multiple signaling pathways that trigger distinct downstream transcriptional networks to regulate the diversity of neural cells originating from the SVZ. Next, we used a novel in silico genomic analysis, searchable platform-independent expression database/connectivity map (SPIED/CMAP), to generate a catalogue of small molecules that can be used to manipulate SVZ microdomain-specific lineages. Finally, we demonstrate that compounds identified in this analysis promote the generation of specific cell lineages from NSCs in vivo, during postnatal life and adulthood, as well as in regenerative contexts. This study unravels new strategies for using small bioactive molecules to direct germinal activity in the SVZ, which has therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28350803

  5. PLIF Visualization of Active Control of Hypersonic Boundary Layers Using Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Alderfer, David W.; Berry, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging was used to visualize the boundary layer flow on a 1/3-scale Hyper-X forebody model. The boundary layer was perturbed by blowing out of orifices normal to the model surface. Two blowing orifice configurations were used: a spanwise row of 17-holes spaced at 1/8 inch, with diameters of 0.020 inches and a single-hole orifice with a diameter of 0.010 inches. The purpose of the study was to visualize and identify laminar and turbulent structures in the boundary layer and to make comparisons with previous phosphor thermography measurements of surface heating. Jet penetration and its influence on the boundary layer development was also examined as was the effect of a compression corner on downstream boundary layer transition. Based upon the acquired PLIF images, it was determined that global surface heating measurements obtained using the phosphor thermography technique provide an incomplete indicator of transitional and turbulent behavior of the corresponding boundary layer flow. Additionally, the PLIF images show a significant contribution towards transition from instabilities originating from the underexpanded jets. For this experiment, a nitric oxide/nitrogen mixture was seeded through the orifices, with nitric oxide (NO) serving as the fluorescing gas. The experiment was performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center.

  6. An attempt to monitor tectonic forces in the Vrancea active geodynamic zone: The Baspunar experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita; Plopeanu, Marin

    2013-04-01

    (sparsely) run in the area, have provided inconsistent results on the PCF current dynamics. The Baspunar Geodynamic Observatory (BGO) has been designed and implemented by the Solid Earth Dynamics Department in the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy in order to reveal and monitor eventual motions along PCF in the attempt to correlate variations in the slip rate with changes in the seismicity released within Vrancea zone. The first BGO records were strongly affected by changes in the atmospheric parameters. Consequently, technical measures and special corrections for the removal or at least mitigation of the effects created by changes in temperature, air pressure and humidity have been applied to the observations. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio, some mathematical filters have been applied too. The paper is aimed at revealing results of the geodetic observations along with preliminary geodynamic considerations. On the overall, after about two years of monitoring, PCF appears as an active tectonic contact. It mainly behaves as a left-lateral fault, but some short episodes with a reverse slip (dextral) were also pointed out. Correlations with crustal and intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in both cases within the bending zone of East Carpathians are illustrated and discussed.

  7. 78 FR 22512 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 225-Springfield, Missouri; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 225--Springfield, Missouri; Notification of Proposed... available for public inspection at the Office of the Executive Secretary, Foreign-Trade Zones Board, Room...-free to 5.3%) for the foreign articles noted below. The articles sourced from abroad include:...

  8. Pedestrian-oriented zoning is associated with reduced income and poverty disparities in adult active travel to work, United States.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Leider, Julien; Thrun, Emily; Nicholson, Lisa M; Slater, Sandy J

    2017-02-01

    Active travel to work can provide additional minutes of daily physical activity. While the literature points to the relationship between zoning, equity and socioeconomic status, and physical activity, no study has quantitatively explored these connections. This study examined whether zoning may help to moderate any income and poverty inequities in active travel and taking public transit to work. Research was conducted between May 2012 and June 2015. Zoning data were compiled for 3914 jurisdictions covering 45.45% of the U.S. population located in 471 of the most populous U.S. counties and 2 consolidated cities located in 48 states and the District of Columbia. (Sensitivity analyses also captured unincorporated areas which, with the municipalities, collectively covered ~72% of the U.S.

  9. EEG reactions of the human brain in the gradient magnetic field zone of the active geological fault (pilot study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pobachenko, S. V.; Shitov, A. V.; Grigorjev, P. E.; Sokolov, M. V.; Zubrilkin, A. I.; Vypiraylo, D. N.; Solovjev, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of the functional state of a person within the zone of an active geological fault characterized by abnormal spatial distribution of the magnetic- field vector values. It is shown that these geophysical modifications have a pronounced effect on the fluctuations of the electrical activity of the human brain. When the person gets into a zone with abnormal levels of gradient magnetic field in the absence of any subjective sensations, a nonspecific orientation activation reaction is observed, which is characterized by a significant increase in the levels of peak performance in key functional EEG frequency bands.

  10. Polyphase ductile/brittle deformation along a major tectonic boundary in an ophiolitic nappe, Alpine Corsica: Insights on subduction zone intermediate-depth asperities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magott, Rémi; Fabbri, Olivier; Fournier, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In an ophiolitic nappe of Alpine Corsica, a major fault zone superimposes metagabbro over serpentinite and peridotite. Ductile and brittle deformation structures are observed in the fault damage zones. In the metagabbro damage zone, early deformation culminates in blueschist or eclogite facies conditions and consists of west-verging mylonitization alternating with pseudotachylyte-forming faulting with undetermined vergence. This early deformation is likely coeval with west-verging seismic (pseudotachylyte-forming) reverse faulting in the footwall peridotite or with aseismic distributed cataclastic deformation of footwall serpentinite. These early events (aseismic mylonitization or distributed cataclasis and seismic faulting) are interpreted as reverse faulting/shear in an east-dipping subducting oceanic lithosphere in Cretaceous to Eocene times. Late deformation events consist of ductile shear and seismic faulting having occurred under retrograde greenschist conditions. Kinematics of the ductile shear is top-to-the-east. These events are interpreted as the result of syn-to post-collision extension of Alpine Corsica in Eocene to Miocene times. The heterogeneous distribution of pseudotachylyte veins along the fault zone (abundant at peridotite-metagabbro interfaces, rare or absent at serpentinite-metagabbro interfaces) is interpreted as the consequence of contrasted frictional properties of the rocks in contact. High-friction peridotite-metagabbro contacts could correspond to asperities whereas low-friction serpentinite-metagabbro contacts could correspond to creeping zones.

  11. The Presynaptic Active Zone Protein RIM1α Is Critical for Normal Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Craig M.; Schoch, Susanne; Monteggia, Lisa; Barrot, Michel; Matos, Maria F.; Feldmann, Nicole; Südhof, Thomas C.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The active zone protein RIM1α is required both for maintaining normal probability of neurotransmitter release and for long-term presynaptic potentiation at brain synapses. We now demonstrate that RIM1α−/− mice exhibit normal coordination and anxiety-related behaviors but display severely impaired learning and memory. Mice with a synaptotagmin 1 mutation, which selectively lowers release probability, and mice with Rab3A deletion, which selectively abolishes presynaptic long-term potentiation, do not exhibit this abnormality. Our data suggest that a decrease in release probability or a loss of presynaptic LTP alone is not sufficient to cause major behavioral alterations, but the combination of presynaptic abnormalities in RIM1α−/− mice severely alters learning and memory. PMID:15066271

  12. Sustaining rapid vesicular release at active zones: potential roles for vesicle tethering

    PubMed Central

    Hallermann, Stefan; Silver, R. Angus

    2016-01-01

    Rapid information processing in our nervous system relies on high-frequency fusion of transmitter-filled vesicles at chemical synapses. Some sensory synapses possess prominent electron-dense ribbon structures that provide a scaffold for tethering synaptic vesicles at the active zone (AZ), enabling sustained vesicular release. Here, we review functional data indicating that some central and neuromuscular synapses can also sustain vesicle-fusion rates that are comparable to those of ribbon-type sensory synapses. Comparison of the ultrastructure across these different types of synapses, together with recent work showing that cytomatrix proteins can tether vesicles and speed vesicle reloading, suggests that filamentous structures may play a key role in vesicle supply. We discuss potential mechanisms by which vesicle tethering could contribute to sustained high rates of vesicle fusion across ribbon-type, central, and neuromuscular synapses. PMID:23164531

  13. Quantitative super-resolution imaging of Bruchpilot distinguishes active zone states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmann, Nadine; van de Linde, Sebastian; Alon, Amit; Ljaschenko, Dmitrij; Keung, Xi Zhen; Holm, Thorge; Rings, Annika; Diantonio, Aaron; Hallermann, Stefan; Ashery, Uri; Heckmann, Manfred; Sauer, Markus; Kittel, Robert J.

    2014-08-01

    The precise molecular architecture of synaptic active zones (AZs) gives rise to different structural and functional AZ states that fundamentally shape chemical neurotransmission. However, elucidating the nanoscopic protein arrangement at AZs is impeded by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional light microscopy. Here we introduce new approaches to quantify endogenous protein organization at single-molecule resolution in situ with super-resolution imaging by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). Focusing on the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), we find that the AZ cytomatrix (CAZ) is composed of units containing ~137 Bruchpilot (Brp) proteins, three quarters of which are organized into about 15 heptameric clusters. We test for a quantitative relationship between CAZ ultrastructure and neurotransmitter release properties by engaging Drosophila mutants and electrophysiology. Our results indicate that the precise nanoscopic organization of Brp distinguishes different physiological AZ states and link functional diversification to a heretofore unrecognized neuronal gradient of the CAZ ultrastructure.

  14. Seismic evidence for active underplating below the megathrust earthquake zone in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hisanori; Takeda, Tetsuya; Obara, Kazushige; Kasahara, Keiji

    2010-07-09

    Determining the structure of subduction zones is important for understanding mechanisms for the generation of interplate phenomena such as megathrust earthquakes. The peeling off of the uppermost part of a subducting slab and accretion to the bottom of an overlying plate (underplating) at deep regions has been inferred from exhumed metamorphic rocks and deep seismic imaging, but direct seismic evidence of this process is lacking. By comparing seismic reflection profiles with microearthquake distributions in central Japan, we show that repeating microearthquakes occur along the bottom interface of the layer peeling off from the subducting Philippine Sea plate. This region coincides with the location of slow-slip events that may serve as signals for monitoring active underplating.

  15. Ependymal stem cells divide asymmetrically and transfer progeny into the subventricular zone when activated by injury.

    PubMed

    Gleason, D; Fallon, J H; Guerra, M; Liu, J-C; Bryant, P J

    2008-09-22

    Evidence is presented to show that cells of the ependymal layer surrounding the ventricles of the mammalian (rat) forebrain act as neural stem cells (NSCs), and that these cells can be activated to divide by a combination of injury and growth factor stimulation. Several markers of asymmetric cell division (ACD), a characteristic of true stem cells, are expressed asymmetrically in the ependymal layer but not in the underlying subventricular zone (SVZ), and when the brain is treated with a combination of local 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) with systemic delivery of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha), ependymal cells divide asymmetrically and transfer progeny into the SVZ. The SVZ cells then divide as transit amplifying cells (TACs) and their progeny enter a differentiation pathway. The stem cells in the ependymal layer may have been missed in many previous studies because they are usually quiescent and divide only in response to strong stimuli.

  16. Hydrothermal quartz formation during fluctuations of brittle shear-zone activity and fluid flow: grain growth and deformation structures of the Pfahl shear zone (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, T.; Prosser, G.; Liotta, D.; Kruhl, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Bavarian Pfahl shear zone is a WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip shear zone at the SW margin of the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe). It was discontinuously active during decreasing PT-conditions, i.e. from ductile to brittle, from the late-Carboniferous to the late-Cretaceous - Paleocene times. Triassic hydrothermal activity produced a 150 km long and 30-100 m wide quartz dyke along the main fault, surrounded by sheared basement rocks. Within a zone of >10 m metasomatism transformed the wall rocks to mostly kaolinite, chlorite and phyllosilicates. The quartz dyke exhibits a layered to lenticular and partly symmetric structure with different types of quartz masses, transected by a complex quartz vein network. This already indicates pulses of fluid flux and fragmentation during the lifetime of the shear zone. Analyses by optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) and SEM-EDX reveal at least four subsequent stages of quartz crystallization and fragmentation. (i) The oldest generation of quartz is represented by a homogeneous dark grey to reddish quartz mass made up by ~10-20 μm-sized crystals. It contains mm- to cm-sized angular wall-rock fragments, completely altered to kaolinite, indicating intense wall-rock alteration prior to the earliest event of silica precipitation. This rules out the possibility that the quartz mass developed from silicification of the wall rocks. This first type of quartz occurs as cm- to dm-large angular fragments in (ii) a light grey to pink quartz mass formed by ~10-50 μm-sized crystals. The different colours result from variable types and amounts of inclusions. Quartz of both generations shows random crystallographic orientations and complex inclusion structures. It probably developed during two fragmentation events and possibly from a silica gel precursor that crystallized after precipitation. (iii) The third quartz generation formed as a set of mm- to dm-wide veins roughly parallel to the trend of the Pfahl zone

  17. Quaternary grabens in southernmost Illinois: deformation near an active intraplate seismic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, W. John; Denny, F. Brett; Follmer, Leon R.; Masters, John M.

    1999-05-01

    Narrow grabens displace Quaternary sediments near the northern edge of the Mississippi Embayment in extreme southern Illinois, east-central United States. Grabens are part of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex (FAFC), which has been recurrently active throughout Phanerozoic time. The FAFC strikes directly toward the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ), scene of some of the largest intra-plate earthquakes in history. The NMSZ and FAFC share origin in a failed Cambrian rift (Reelfoot Rift). Every major fault zone of the FAFC in Illinois exhibits Quaternary displacement. The structures appear to be strike-slip pull-apart grabens, but the magnitude and direction of horizontal slip and their relationship to the current stress field are unknown. Upper Tertiary strata are vertically displaced more than 100 m, Illinoian and older Pleistocene strata 10 to 30 m, and Wisconsinan deposits 1 m or less. No Holocene deformation has been observed. Average vertical slip rates are estimated at 0.01 to 0.03 mm/year, and recurrence intervals for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 7 are on the order of 10,000s of years for any given fault. Previous authors remarked that the small amount of surface deformation in the New Madrid area implies that the NMSZ is a young feature. Our findings show that tectonic activity has shifted around throughout the Quaternary in the central Mississippi Valley. In addition to the NMSZ and southern Illinois, the Wabash Valley (Illinois-Indiana), Benton Hills (Missouri), Crowley's Ridge (Arkansas-Missouri), and possibly other sites have experienced Quaternary tectonism. The NMSZ may be only the latest manifestation of seismicity in an intensely fractured intra-plate region.

  18. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone.

    PubMed

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Mueller, Benjamin F; Rohmer, Marion; Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Arrey, Tabiwang N; Hick, Meike; Ackermann, Jörg; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike; Karas, Michael; Volknandt, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs) was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network.

  19. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Benjamin F.; Rohmer, Marion; Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Arrey, Tabiwang N.; Hick, Meike; Ackermann, Jörg; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike; Karas, Michael; Volknandt, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs) was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network. PMID:27092780

  20. Quaternary grabens in southernmost Illinois: Deformation near an active intraplate seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, W.J.; Denny, F.B.; Follmer, L.R.; Masters, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Narrow grabens displace Quaternary sediments near the northern edge of the Mississippi Embayment in extreme southern Illinois, east-central United States. Grabens are part of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex (FAFC), which has been recurrently active throughout Phanerozoic time. The FAFC strikes directly toward the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ), scene of some of the largest intra-plate earthquakes in history. The NMSZ and FAFC share origin in a failed Cambrian rift (Reelfoot Rift). Every major fault zone of the FAFC in Illinois exhibits Quaternary displacement. The structures appear to be strike-slip pull-apart grabens, but the magnitude and direction of horizontal slip and their relationship to the current stress field are unknown. Upper Tertiary strata are vertically displaced more than 100 m, Illinoian and older Pleistocene strata 10 to 30 m, and Wisconsinan deposits 1 m or less. No Holocene deformation has been observed. Average vertical slip rates are estimated at 0.01 to 0.03 mm/year, and recurrence intervals for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 7 are on the order of 10,000s of years for any given fault. Previous authors remarked that the small amount of surface deformation in the New Madrid area implies that the NMSZ is a young feature. Our findings show that tectonic activity has shifted around throughout the Quaternary in the central Mississippi Valley. In addition to the NMSZ and southern Illinois, the Wabash Valley (Illinois-Indiana), Benton Hills (Missouri), Crowley's Ridge (Arkansas-Missouri), and possibly other sites have experienced Quaternary tectonism. The NMSZ may be only the latest manifestation of seismicity in an intensely fractured intra-plate region.

  1. Significant foreshock activities of M>7.5 earthquakes in the Kuril subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, T.; Yokoi, S.; Satake, K.

    2014-12-01

    In the Kuril subduction zone, some M>7.5 earthquakes are accompanied by significant foreshock activities, providing a good opportunity to understand the characteristics of foreshocks for large interplate events such as occur along the Japan Trench and Nankai Trough etc. Some preliminary results from our examination of the foreshock sequences are as follows. Relocated foreshocks tend to migrate with time toward the trench axis. Foreshock distributions of the interplate earthquakes do not overlap with the large coseismic slips (asperities) of the mainshocks. Foreshocks of the 2007 northern Kuril outer-rise event, however, were distributed on the entire rupture area. Foreshock sequences seem to be limited in the regions where the background seismicity rates are relatively high. The foreshock activities were found in the examination of the space-time pattern of M>7 events along the northern Japan to Kuril trench since 1913 (e.g. Harada, Satake, and Ishibashi, 2011:AGU, 2012:AOGS). The large earthquakes preceded by active foreshock sequences are: the 2006 (M8.3), 2007 (M8.1) offshore Simushir earthquakes, the 1963 (M8.5), 1991 (M7.6), 1995 (M7.9) offshore Urup events, the 1978 (M7.8) offshore Iturup events, the 1969 (M8.2) offshore Shikotan event. In contrast, M>7.5 interplate earthquakes offshore Hokkaido (1952 (M8.1), 1973 (M7.8), 2003 (M8.1)) and intraslab earthquakes (1958 (M8.3), 1978 (M7.8), 1993 (M7.6), 1994 (M8.3)) had few or no foreshocks. In the examination of the active foreshocks, we relocated foreshocks by the Modified JHD method (Hurukawa, 1995), compared relocated foreshock areas with mainshock coseismic slip distributions estimated by the teleseismic body-wave inversion (Kikuchi and Kanamori, 2003), and examined the relation between active foreshock sequences and regional background seismicity. This study was supported by the MEXT's "New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai/Ryukyu subduction zones".

  2. Development of an active wedge-thrust: A case study of the eastern boundary fault of the Echigo plain, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Abe, Susumu; Kawai, Nobuo

    2010-05-01

    The Niigata basin is located along the Japan Sea coast of the central Honshu and characterized by thick (max. 8 km) Neogene back-arc sediments and arc-parallel folds-and-thrusts. Thrust faults in the basement have generated devastative earthquakes, such as 1964 Niigata (Mw 7.6), 2004 Chuetsu (Mw 6.6) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki (Mw 6.6) earthquakes. Due to thick sedimentary cover, the relationship between active folding and source fault is poorly understood. We performed deep and shallow high-resolution seismic reflection profiling and discuss the development of active wedge-thrust in the eastern part of the Echigo plain, Niigata, Japan. Deep seismic data were acquired along a 70-km-long seismic line using air-guns and vibroseis trucks (Sato et al., 2009). Shallow high-resolution data was obtained by Mini-vib (IVI T15000) and 240 ch recording system (Kato et al., 2009). Subsurface geology was interpreted based on seismic sections, velocity profiles, surface geology and borehole data. The eastern boundary fault of the Echigo plain is an eastward dipping (40 degrees) thrust and its deeper extension clearly demonstrated down to 7 km in depth by velocity profiles showing a lower velocity zone at the foot wall and narrow east-dipping reflectors. The fault is a blind thrust and it becomes flat at the depth of 1 km and the detachment fault lies in the middle Miocene mudstone of the Teradomari Formation. At the toe of the thrust, a structural triangle zone has been developed associated with wedge thrusts and an anticlinorium. The shallow part (< 2 km) of hanging wall of lower detachment (main thrust) consists of mudstone and the wave length of folds in the hanging wall becomes smaller to the front of the thrust. Deformation of hanging wall is more intense at the thrust front. On the hanging wall of upper detachment, 1-km-thick fluvial sediments are widely distributed. The mechanisms of the concentration of strain at the intercutaneous wedge and formation of triangle zone is

  3. Impacts of stellar evolution and dynamics on the habitable zone: The role of rotation and magnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, F.; Charbonnel, C.; Amard, L.; Brun, S.; Palacios, A.; Mathis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Context. With the ever growing number of detected and confirmed exoplanets, the probability of finding a planet that looks like the Earth increases continuously. While it is clear that the presence of a planet in the habitable zone does not imply the planet is habitable, a systematic study of the evolution of the habitable zone is required to account for its dependence on stellar parameters. Aims: In this article, we aim to provide the community with the dependence of the habitable zone upon the stellar mass, metallicity, rotation, and for various prescriptions of the limits of the habitable zone. Methods: We use stellar evolution models computed with the code STAREVOL, which includes the most current physical mechanisms of internal transport of angular momentum and external wind braking, to study the evolution of the habitable zone and the continuously habitable zone limits. Results: The stellar parameters mass and metallicity affect the habitable zone limits most dramatically. Conversely, for a given stellar mass and metallicity, stellar rotation has only a marginal effect on these limits and does not modify the width of the habitable zone. Moreover, and as expected in the main-sequence phase and for a given stellar mass and metallicity, the habitable zone limits remain almost constant, and this confirms the usual assumptions of a relative constancy of these limits during that phase. The evolution of the habitable zone limits is also correlated to the evolution of the stellar activity (through the Rossby number), which depends on the stellar mass considered. While the magnetic activity has negligible consequence in the case of more massive stars, these effects may have a strong impact on the habitability of a planet around M-dwarf stars. Thus, stellar activity cannot be neglected and may have a strong impact on the development of life during the early stage of the continuously habitable zone phase of low-mass stars. Using observed trends of stellar magnetic field

  4. Active Pacific North America Plate boundary tectonics as evidenced by seismicity in the oceanic lithosphere offshore Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, Egill; Kanamori, Hiroo; Stock, Joann; Cormier, Marie-Helene; Legg, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Pacific Ocean crust west of southwest North America was formed by Cenozoic seafloor spreading between the large Pacific Plate and smaller microplates. The eastern limit of this seafloor, the continent-ocean boundary, is the fossil trench along which the microplates subducted and were mostly destroyed in Miocene time. The Pacific-North America Plate boundary motion today is concentrated on continental fault systems well to the east, and this region of oceanic crust is generally thought to be within the rigid Pacific Plate. Yet, the 2012 December 14 Mw 6.3 earthquake that occurred about 275 km west of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, is evidence for continued tectonism in this oceanic part of the Pacific Plate. The preferred main shock centroid depth of 20 km was located close to the bottom of the seismogenic thickness of the young oceanic lithosphere. The focal mechanism, derived from both teleseismic P-wave inversion and W-phase analysis of the main shock waveforms, and the 12 aftershocks of M ˜3-4 are consistent with normal faulting on northeast striking nodal planes, which align with surface mapped extensional tectonic trends such as volcanic features in the region. Previous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements on offshore islands in the California Continental Borderland had detected some distributed Pacific and North America relative plate motion strain that could extend into the epicentral region. The release of this lithospheric strain along existing zones of weakness is a more likely cause of this seismicity than current thermal contraction of the oceanic lithosphere or volcanism. The main shock caused weak to moderate ground shaking in the coastal zones of southern California, USA, and Baja California, Mexico, but the tsunami was negligible.

  5. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals in an Arid Vadose Zone Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Adler Flitton, M.K; Mizia, R.E.; Bishop, C.W.

    2001-10-24

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains neutron-activated metals from nonfuel nuclear-reactor- core components. A long-term corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in an arid vadose zone environment. The tests use nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated material buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel, Type 315L stainless steel, nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6, and a zirconium alloy, (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) (the proposed material for the high- integrity disposal containers) are also included in the test program. This paper briefly describes the test program and presents the early corrosion rate results after 1 year and 3 years of underground exposure.

  6. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals in an Arid Vadose Zone Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Adler Flitton, Mariana Kay; Mizia, Ronald Eugene; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner

    2002-04-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains neutron-activated metals from nonfuel nuclear-reactor- core components. A long-term corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in an arid vadose zone environment. The tests use nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated material buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel, Type 315L stainless steel, nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6, and a zirconium alloy, (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) (the proposed material for the high- integrity disposal containers) are also included in the test program. This paper briefly describes the test program and presents the early corrosion rate results after 1 year and 3 years of underground exposure.

  7. Probabilistic secretion of quanta and the synaptosecretosome hypothesis: evoked release at active zones of varicosities, boutons, and endplates.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M R; Gibson, W G; Robinson, J

    1997-10-01

    A quantum of transmitter may be released upon the arrival of a nerve impulse if the influx of calcium ions through a nearby voltage-dependent calcium channel is sufficient to activate the vesicle-associated calcium sensor protein that triggers exocytosis. A synaptic vesicle, together with its calcium sensor protein, is often found complexed with the calcium channel in active zones to form what will be called a "synaptosecretosome." In the present work, a stochastic analysis is given of the conditions under which a quantum is released from the synaptosecretosome by a nerve impulse. The theoretical treatment considers the rise of calcium at the synaptosecretosome after the stochastic opening of a calcium channel at some time during the impulse, followed by the stochastic binding of calcium to the vesicle-associated protein and the probability of this leading to exocytosis. This allows determination of the probabilities that an impulse will release 0, 1, 2,... quanta from an active zone, whether this is in a varicosity, a bouton, or a motor endplate. A number of experimental observations of the release of transmitter at the active zones of sympathetic varicosities and boutons as well as somatic motor endplates are described by this analysis. These include the likelihood of the secretion of only one quantum at an active zone of endplates and of more than one quantum at an active zone of a sympathetic varicosity. The fourth-power relationship between the probability of transmitter release at the active zones of sympathetic varicosities and motor endplates and the external calcium concentration is also explained by this approach. So, too, is the fact that the time course of the increased rate of quantal secretion from a somatic active zone after an impulse is invariant with changes in the amount of calcium that enters through its calcium channel, whether due to changes consequent on the actions of autoreceptor agents such as adenosine or to facilitation. The increased

  8. Probing Microbial Activity in a Perched Water Body Located in a Deep Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taylor, J. L.; Henriksen, J. R.; Delwiche, M.; Gebrehiwet, T.; Hubbard, S. S.; Spycher, N.; Weathers, T. S.; Ginn, T. R.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Smith, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Waste releases to the vadose zone are a legacy of past activities at a number of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), 90Sr has been detected in perched water bodies underlying the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) facility. Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) using urea-hydrolyzing microbes is one proposed approach for immobilization of 90Sr in the subsurface. The sequestration mechanism is co-precipitation in calcite, promoted by the production of carbonate alkalinity from ureolysis. In order to assess the potential efficacy of MICP at INTEC a field study was conducted at the INL Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP). The VZRP is located approximately 3 km from INTEC and shares many of the same hydrologic and lithologic features but in a non-contaminated setting. We conducted experiments over two field seasons in a perched water body located approximately 15 meters below land surface, using a 5-spot wellfield design. During the first season amendments (molasses and urea) were injected into the central well and water was extracted from two wells on either side, located along a diagonal. Water samples were characterized for microbial abundance, ureolytic activity and ureC gene numbers, along with solution composition. Before, during and after the injections cross-borehole geophysical imaging was performed, using various combinations of the available wells. During the second field season in situ static experiments were conducted to specifically characterize attached and unattached microbial communities, using surrogate substrates colonized during a 12 week incubation. Based on the field data a first order in situ urea hydrolysis rate constant of 0.034 d-1 was estimated. This was more than an order of magnitude higher than rate constants estimated above-ground using water samples, suggesting that attached microorganisms were responsible for >90% of the observed urea hydrolysis activity. The

  9. Diffusion length and grain boundary recombination activity determination by means of induced current methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabelnikova, Yana; Yakimov, Eugene

    2016-11-01

    The application of induced current methods for a quantitative description of multicrystalline silicon solar cell properties is demonstrated. For the minority carriers' diffusion length (L) and grain boundary recombination velocity (Vs) determination three types of measurements were used. They included the measurement of EBIC signal dependence on electron beam energy and of EBIC and XBIC grain boundary contrast profiles. The L and Vs values obtained by means of minimization the residual function between measured and model induced current curves are presented. The inaccuracy of obtained parameters is discussed for each of three types of measurements.

  10. Observations of Seafloor Deformation and Methane Venting within an Active Fault Zone Offshore Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Brewer, P. G.; Vrijenhoek, R.; Lundsten, L.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed mapping surveys of the floor and flanks of the Santa Monica Basin, San Pedro Basin, and San Diego Trough were conducted during the past seven years using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) built and operated by MBARI specifically for seafloor mapping. The AUV collected data provide up to 1 m resolution multibeam bathymetric grids with a vertical precision of 0.15 m. Along with high-resolution multibeam, the AUV also collects chirp seismic reflection profiles. Structures within the uppermost 10-20 m of the seafloor, which in the surveys presented here is composed of recent sediment drape, can typically be resolved in the sub-bottom reflectors. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives allowed for ground-truth observations and sampling within the surveyed areas. The objectives of these dives included finding evidence of recent seafloor deformation and locating areas where chemosynthetic biological communities are supported by fluid venting. Distinctive seafloor features within an active fault zone are revealed in unprecedented detail in the AUV generated maps and seismic reflection profiles. Evidence for recent fault displacements include linear scarps which can be as small as 20 cm high but traceable for several km, right lateral offsets within submarine channels and topographic ridges, and abrupt discontinuities in sub-bottom reflectors, which in places appear to displace seafloor sediments. Several topographic highs that occur within the fault zone appear to be anticlines related to step-overs in these faults. These topographic highs are, in places, topped with circular mounds that are up to 15 m high and have ~30° sloping sides. The crests of the topographic highs and the mounds both have distinctive rough morphologies produced by broken pavements of irregular blocks of methane-derived authigenic carbonates, and by topographic depressions, commonly more than 2 m deep. These areas of distinctive rough topography are commonly associated with living

  11. Phosphodiesterase7 Inhibition Activates Adult Neurogenesis in Hippocampus and Subventricular Zone In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Sanz-SanCristobal, Marina; Lopez-Moreno, Jose A; Gil, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) enzyme is one of the enzymes responsible for controlling intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the immune and central nervous system. We have previously shown that inhibitors of this enzyme are potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, we also demonstrated that PDE7 inhibition induces endogenous neuroregenerative processes toward a dopaminergic phenotype. Here, we show that PDE7 inhibition controls stem cell expansion in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (SGZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the adult rat brain. Neurospheres cultures obtained from SGZ and SVZ of adult rats treated with PDE7 inhibitors presented an increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation compared to control cultures. PDE7 inhibitors treatment of neurospheres cultures also resulted in an increase of the levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein, suggesting that their effects were indeed mediated through the activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. In addition, adult rats orally treated with S14, a specific inhibitor of PDE7, presented elevated numbers of proliferating progenitor cells, and migrating precursors in the SGZ and the SVZ. Moreover, long-term treatment with this PDE7 inhibitor shows a significant increase in newly generated neurons in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Also a better performance in memory tests was observed in S14 treated rats, suggesting a functional relevance for the S14-induced increase in SGZ neurogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that inhibition of PDE7 directly regulates proliferation, migration and differentiation of neural stem cells, improving spatial learning and memory tasks. Stem Cells 2017;35:458-472.

  12. The active disturbance rejection control approach to stabilisation of coupled heat and ODE system subject to boundary control matched disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Zhu; Liu, Jun-Jun; AL-Fhaid, A. S.; Younas, Arshad Mahmood M.; Asiri, Asim

    2015-08-01

    We consider stabilisation for a linear ordinary differential equation system with input dynamics governed by a heat equation, subject to boundary control matched disturbance. The active disturbance rejection control approach is applied to estimate, in real time, the disturbance with both constant high gain and time-varying high gain. The disturbance is cancelled in the feedback loop. The closed-loop systems with constant high gain and time-varying high gain are shown, respectively, to be practically stable and asymptotically stable.

  13. Locating an active fault zone in Coso geothermal field by analyzing seismic guided waves from microearthquake data

    SciTech Connect

    SGP-TR-150-16

    1995-01-26

    Active fault systems usually provide high-permeability channels for hydrothermal outflow in geothermal fields. Locating such fault systems is of a vital importance to plan geothermal production and injection drilling, since an active fault zone often acts as a fracture-extensive low-velocity wave guide to seismic waves. We have located an active fault zone in the Coso geothermal field, California, by identifying and analyzing a fault-zone trapped Rayleigh-type guided wave from microearthquake data. The wavelet transform is employed to characterize guided-wave's velocity-frequency dispersion, and numerical methods are used to simulate the guided-wave propagation. The modeling calculation suggests that the fault zone is {approx} 200m wide, and has a P wave velocity of 4.80 km/s and a S wave velocity of 3.00 km/s, which is sandwiched between two half spaces with relatively higher velocities (P wave velocity 5.60 km/s, and S wave velocity 3.20 km/s). zones having vertical or nearly vertical dipping fault planes.

  14. 2011 Operations and Maintenance Activities in the East Region of UNAVCO's Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Kasmer, D.; Jenkins, F.; Mencin, D.

    2011-12-01

    2011 marked Year 3 of Operations and Maintenance of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). In the East Region of PBO, it was a year characterized by several major projects as well as scheduled ongoing maintenance activities. The most significant major project was a USGS/ARRA funded communications upgrade in Yellowstone National Park. This upgrade consisted of bringing 8 existing PBO stations within the Yellowstone volcanic region to near real-time communications. This work will be completed on time and in collaboration with the National Park Service. The upgrade promises to provide much faster latency for invaluable data being recorded for one of the most geodetically critical regions of the current PBO network. Another significant ongoing project in the East Region has been supporting the community that continues to use PBO data. In particular, support of Kristine Larson (Univ of CO) both in installing webcams at PBO sites for monitoring snow depth as well as supporting vegetative surveys at current PBO sites. Similarly, the East Region responded promptly to the community with requests for data quality issues that are station hardware related, including replacing GPS antennae and receivers. With regards to ongoing operations and maintenance projects, reasons for site visits in 2011 were dominated by two significant situations: battery replacement and CDMA modem swaps. 83 site visits were required as part of the Operations and Maintenance strategic battery plan of 5 year battery replacements. This proved to be a considerable challenge due to the scale and geography of the scheduled replacements- the sites were spread throughout the entire network, east to west and north to south. 20 station visits were required due to a Verizon upgrade of the older Alltel network purchased by Verizon. These stations are predominantly in the Rocky Mountain region, but often times had limited access to due weather. Overall, despite record snowfalls throughout the west, state of health

  15. Distribution of dehalogenation activity in subseafloor sediments of the Nankai Trough subduction zone

    PubMed Central

    Futagami, Taiki; Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Kaksonen, Anna H.; Inagaki, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Halogenated organic matter buried in marine subsurface sediment may serve as a source of electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration of subseafloor microbes. Detection of a diverse array of reductive dehalogenase-homologous (rdhA) genes suggests that subseafloor organohalide-respiring microbial communities may play significant ecological roles in the biogeochemical carbon and halogen cycle in the subseafloor biosphere. We report here the spatial distribution of dehalogenation activity in the Nankai Trough plate-subduction zone of the northwest Pacific off the Kii Peninsula of Japan. Incubation experiments with slurries of sediment collected at various depths and locations showed that degradation of several organohalides tested only occurred in the shallow sedimentary basin, down to 4.7 metres below the seafloor, despite detection of rdhA in the deeper sediments. We studied the phylogenetic diversity of the metabolically active microbes in positive enrichment cultures by extracting RNA, and found that Desulfuromonadales bacteria predominate. In addition, for the isolation of genes involved in the dehalogenation reaction, we performed a substrate-induced gene expression screening on DNA extracted from the enrichment cultures. Diverse DNA fragments were obtained and some of them showed best BLAST hit to known organohalide respirers such as Dehalococcoides, whereas no functionally known dehalogenation-related genes such as rdhA were found, indicating the need to improve the molecular approach to assess functional genes for organohalide respiration. PMID:23479745

  16. Molecular Machines Regulating the Release Probability of Synaptic Vesicles at the Active Zone

    PubMed Central

    Körber, Christoph; Kuner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the plasma membrane of the active zone (AZ) upon arrival of an action potential (AP) at the presynaptic compartment is a tightly regulated probabilistic process crucial for information transfer. The probability of a SV to release its transmitter content in response to an AP, termed release probability (Pr), is highly diverse both at the level of entire synapses and individual SVs at a given synapse. Differences in Pr exist between different types of synapses, between synapses of the same type, synapses originating from the same axon and even between different SV subpopulations within the same presynaptic terminal. The Pr of SVs at the AZ is set by a complex interplay of different presynaptic properties including the availability of release-ready SVs, the location of the SVs relative to the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) at the AZ, the magnitude of calcium influx upon arrival of the AP, the buffering of calcium ions as well as the identity and sensitivity of the calcium sensor. These properties are not only interconnected, but can also be regulated dynamically to match the requirements of activity patterns mediated by the synapse. Here, we review recent advances in identifying molecules and molecular machines taking part in the determination of vesicular Pr at the AZ. PMID:26973506

  17. Children who stutter show reduced action-related activity in the rostral cingulate zone.

    PubMed

    Harrewijn, A; Schel, M A; Boelens, H; Nater, C M; Haggard, P; Crone, E A

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that children who stutter show not only speech-related problems, but also wider difficulties in self-control. In this study we test the novel hypothesis that children who stutter may experience difficulties with inhibitory control over voluntary actions. We used functional MRI to compare brain activity between children who stutter and children who do not stutter in a task that captures key cognitive aspects of voluntary action control. Participants performed a rolling marble task, in which they were instructed to press a key to stop a rolling marble from crashing on some of the trials (instructed action condition). They were also asked to choose voluntarily whether to execute or inhibit this prepotent response in other trials (volition condition). Children who stutter reported less motor and cognitive impulsivity and had shorter stop-signal reaction times when controlled for IQ, consistent with greater inhibition, compared to children who do not stutter. At the neural level, children who stutter showed decreased activation in the rostral cingulate zone during voluntary action selection compared to children who do not stutter. This effect was more pronounced for children who were rated as showing more stuttered syllables in the stutter screening, and was furthermore correlated with stop-signal reaction times and impulsivity ratings. These findings suggest that stuttering in childhood could reflect wider difficulties in self-control, also in the non-verbal domain. Understanding these neural mechanisms could potentially lead to more focused treatments of stuttering.

  18. An automatic continuous monitoring station for groundwater geochemistry at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Fu, Ching-Chou; Hilton, David R.; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Walia, Vivek; Lai, Tzu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shui, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of H-O isotopic compositions, DIC concentration and δ13C isotopic ratios, and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous monitoring for about one year, some anomalies occurred prior to some local earthquakes. It demonstrates that this automated system is feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. Keywords: monitoring; geochemistry; isotope; dissolved gases; pre-seismic signal.

  19. [Correlation analysis between meteorological factors, biomass, and active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in different climatic zones].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen-lu; Liang, Zong-suo; Guo, Hong-bo; Liu, Jing-ling; Liu, Yan; Liu, Feng-hua; Wei, Lang-zhu

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the growth and accumulation of active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in twenty two experimental sites which crossing through three typical climate zones. The S. miltiorrhiza seedlings with the same genotype were planted in each site in spring, which were cultivated in fields with uniform management during their growing seasons till to harvest. The diterpene ketones (dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A)) in S. miltiorrhiza root samples were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The biomass of root (root length, number of root branches, root width and dry weight) was also measured. The results showed that tanshinone II(A) in all samples of each site were higher than the standards required by China Pharmacopoeia. It has been found there is a relationship between root shape and climate change. The correlation analysis between active components and meteorological factors showed that the accumulation of tanshinones were effected by such meteorological factors as average relative humidity from April to October > average vapor pressure from April to October > average temperature difference day and night from April to October > annual average temperature and so on. The correlation analysis between root biomass and meteorological factors exhibited that root shape and accumulation of dry matter were affected by those factors, such as average annual aboveground (0-20 cm) temperature from April to October > annual average temperature > average vapor pressure from April to October > annual active accumulated temperature > annual average temperature > average vapor pressure from April to October. The accumulation of tanshinones and biomass was increased with the decrease of latitude. At the same time, the dry matter and diameter of root decreased if altitude rises. In addition, S. miltiorrhiza required sunlight is not sophisticated, when compared with humid and temperature. To sum up, S

  20. Slip Rates of Main Active Fault Zones Through Turkey Inferred From GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Aktug, B.; Dogru, A.; Tasci, L.; Acar, M.; Emre, O.; Yilmaz, O.; Turgut, B.; Halicioglu, K.; Sabuncu, A.; Bal, O.; Eraslan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Active Fault Map of Turkey was revised and published by General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration in 2012. This map reveals that there are about 500 faults can generate earthquakes.In order to understand the earthquake potential of these faults, it is needed to determine the slip rates. Although many regional and local studies were performed in the past, the slip rates of the active faults in Turkey have not been determined. In this study, the block modelling, which is the most common method to produce slip rates, will be done. GPS velocities required for block modeling is being compiled from the published studies and the raw data provided then velocity field is combined. To form a homogeneous velocity field, different stochastic models will be used and the optimal velocity field will be achieved. In literature, GPS site velocities, which are computed for different purposes and published, are combined globally and this combined velocity field are used in the analysis of strain accumulation. It is also aimed to develop optimal stochastic models to combine the velocity data. Real time, survey mode and published GPS observations is being combined in this study. We also perform new GPS observations. Furthermore, micro blocks and main fault zones from Active Fault Map Turkey will be determined and homogeneous velocity field will be used to infer slip rates of these active faults. Here, we present the result of first year of the study. This study is being supported by THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF TURKEY (TUBITAK)-CAYDAG with grant no. 113Y430.

  1. Auroral activity associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the inner edge of the low-latitude boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Sandholt, P. E.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1994-01-01

    Auroral activity occurred in the late afternoon sector (approx. 16 MLT) in the northern hemisphere during the passage at Earth of an interplanetary magnetic cloud on January 14, 1988. The auroral activity consisted of a very dynamic display which was preceded and followed by quiet auroral displays. During the quiet displays, discrete rayed arcs aligned along the geomagnetic L shells were observed. In the active stage, rapidly evolving spiral forms centered on magnetic zenith were evident. The activity persisted for many minutes and was characterized by the absence of directed motion. They were strongly suggestive of intense filaments of upward field-aligned currents embedded in the large-scale region 1 current system. Distortions of the flux ropes as they connect from the equatorial magnetosphere to the ionosphere were witnessed. We assess as possible generating mechanisms three nonlocal sources known to be associated with field-aligned currents. Of these, partial compressions of the magnetosphere due to variations of solar wind dynamic pressure seem an unlikely source. The possibility that the auroral forms are due to reconnection is investigated but is excluded because the active aurora were observed on the closed field line region just equatorward of the convection reversal boundary. To support this conclusion further, we apply recent results on the mapping of ionospheric regions to the equatorial plane based on the Tsyganenko 1989 model (Kaufmann et al., 1993). We find that for comparable magnetic activity the aurora map to the equatorial plane at X(sub GSM) = approx. 3 R(sub E) and approx. 2 R(sub E) inward of the magnetopause, that is, the inner edge of the boundary layer close to dusk. Since the auroral forms are manifestly associated with magnetic field shear, a vortical motion at the equatorial end of the flux rope is indicated, making the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability acting at the inner edge of the low-latitude boundary layer the most probable generating

  2. Dual-color STED microscopy reveals a sandwich structure of Bassoon and Piccolo in active zones of adult and aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishimune, Hiroshi; Badawi, Yomna; Mori, Shuuichi; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Presynaptic active zones play a pivotal role as synaptic vesicle release sites for synaptic transmission, but the molecular architecture of active zones in mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) at sub-diffraction limited resolution remains unknown. Bassoon and Piccolo are active zone specific cytosolic proteins essential for active zone assembly in NMJs, ribbon synapses, and brain synapses. These proteins are thought to colocalize and share some functions at active zones. Here, we report an unexpected finding of non-overlapping localization of these two proteins in mouse NMJs revealed using dual-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) super resolution microscopy. Piccolo puncta sandwiched Bassoon puncta and aligned in a Piccolo-Bassoon-Piccolo structure in adult NMJs. P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) puncta colocalized with Bassoon puncta. The P/Q-type VGCC and Bassoon protein levels decreased significantly in NMJs from aged mouse. In contrast, the Piccolo levels in NMJs from aged mice were comparable to levels in adult mice. This study revealed the molecular architecture of active zones in mouse NMJs at sub-diffraction limited resolution, and described the selective degeneration mechanism of active zone proteins in NMJs from aged mice. Interestingly, the localization pattern of active zone proteins described herein is similar to active zone structures described using electron microscope tomography. PMID:27321892

  3. 78 FR 73824 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20--Suffolk, Virginia; Notification of Proposed... that apply to toner cartridges, bottles and cartridge parts (duty free) for the foreign-status inputs... are: duty-free, 10 cents/barrel or 6.5%). Public comment is invited from interested...

  4. Active Control of Boundary-Layer Instabilities: Use of Sensors and Spectral Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, R. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.; Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Gunzburger, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    Full Navier-Stokes equations were conducted to determine the feasibility of automating the control of wave instabilities within a flat plate boundary layer with sensors, actuators, and a spectral controller. The results indicate that a measure of wave cancellation can be obtained for small and large amplitude instabilities without feedback; however, feedback is required to optimize the control amplitude and phase for exact wave cancellation.

  5. Group Dynamics in the Language Classroom: Embodied Participation as Active Reception in the Collective Zone of Proximal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "active reception" during small-group collaborative interaction in the foreign language classroom, focusing on the embodied participation of a secondary (nonspeaking) interactant, Diane. Drawing on Vygotskian sociocultural theory, we argue that within small-group work, a Zone of Proximal Development…

  6. 77 FR 28569 - Foreign-Trade Zone 92-Gulfport, MS Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...; Gulf Ship, LLC, (Shipbuilding), Gulfport, MS The Mississippi Coast Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 92, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of Gulf Ship, LLC (Gulf Ship), located in Gulfport, Mississippi. The Gulf Ship facility is located within Site 3 of FTZ 92....

  7. The Status of Secondary School Science Laboratory Activities for Quality Education in Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zengele, Ashebir Gogile; Alemayehu, Bereket

    2016-01-01

    A high quality science education in primary and secondary schools contributes to developing scientific literacy and would be expected to predispose students to study the enabling sciences at university. The major purpose of this study was to assess the practice and problems in science laboratory activities in the secondary school of Wolaita Zone,…

  8. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  9. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  10. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  11. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  12. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  13. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  14. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  15. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  16. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  17. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  18. Copper indium gallium (di)selenide: Electronic activities of grain boundaries and solar cell fabrication studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, Mehmet Eray

    This dissertation is composed of three studies related to chalcopyrite solar cells. The first study is on electronic activities of grain boundaries (GBs) in CuInSe2 (CIS). Despite being polycrystalline, chalcopyrite thin film solar cells have reached record power conversion efficiencies. This is against the classical understanding on the effect of GBs in semiconductor materials. Because GBs are expected to be recombination centers and barriers against the carrier flow, reducing the device efficiency. Therefore, a complete understanding on the electronic behavior of chalcopyrite GBs is missing. Moreover, the high efficiency chalcopyrite solar cells are grown with Na impurities which positively affect the performance of the solar cell, so-called sodium effect. Research on chalcopyrite GBs has been coupled with the effect of Na impurities, because Na has been found segregated at the GBs. The study presented in this dissertation was performed on GBs in a Na-free CIS. It is important to study the GBs in a Na-free chalcopyrite to avoid any uncontrolled effects of Na segregation at the GBs, for instance a possible Na-related secondary phase formation which would affect the conclusions drawn on the natural behavior of chalcopyrite GBs. In addition, it is known that Sigma3 GBs in chalcopyrite solar cells are abundant; therefore, it is meaningful to investigate the differences between Sigma3 and non-Sigma3 GBs. For this purpose, Sigma3, close to Sigma3 and Sigma9 GBs in a Bridgman-grown multicrystalline Na-free CIS wafer were identified by electron backscatter diffraction and their electronic properties were investigated by Kelvin probe force microscope and cathodoluminescence in scanning electron microscope. It is shown that the Sigma3 GB is neutral and it does not behave as a recombination center, whereas once the geometry of a GB deviates from the Sigma3 geometry, such as close to Sigma3 and Sigma9 GBs, the GB becomes charged and behaves as a recombination center. This

  19. APP—A Novel Player within the Presynaptic Active Zone Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Weingarten, Jens; Weingarten, Melanie; Wegner, Martin; Volknandt, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) was discovered in the 1980s as the precursor protein of the amyloid A4 peptide. The amyloid A4 peptide, also known as A-beta (Aβ), is the main constituent of senile plaques implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In association with the amyloid deposits, increasing impairments in learning and memory as well as the degeneration of neurons especially in the hippocampus formation are hallmarks of the pathogenesis of AD. Within the last decades much effort has been expended into understanding the pathogenesis of AD. However, little is known about the physiological role of APP within the central nervous system (CNS). Allocating APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) identified APP as a novel player within this neuronal communication and signaling network. The analysis of the hippocampal PAZ proteome derived from APP-mutant mice demonstrates that APP is tightly embedded in the underlying protein network. Strikingly, APP deletion accounts for major dysregulation within the PAZ proteome network. Ca2+-homeostasis, neurotransmitter release and mitochondrial function are affected and resemble the outcome during the pathogenesis of AD. The observed changes in protein abundance that occur in the absence of APP as well as in AD suggest that APP is a structural and functional regulator within the hippocampal PAZ proteome. Within this review article, we intend to introduce APP as an important player within the hippocampal PAZ proteome and to outline the impact of APP deletion on individual PAZ proteome subcommunities. PMID:28265241

  20. Trio, a Rho Family GEF, Interacts with the Presynaptic Active Zone Proteins Piccolo and Bassoon

    PubMed Central

    Terry-Lorenzo, Ryan T.; Torres, Viviana I.; Wagh, Dhananjay; Galaz, Jose; Swanson, Selene K.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Waites, Clarissa L.; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Reimer, Richard J.; Garner, Craig C.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse with the plasma membrane at a precise location called the presynaptic active zone (AZ). This fusion is coordinated by proteins embedded within a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the AZ (CAZ). In the present study, we have identified a novel binding partner for the CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. This interacting protein, Trio, is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known to regulate the dynamic assembly of actin and growth factor dependent axon guidance and synaptic growth. Trio was found to interact with the C-terminal PBH 9/10 domains of Piccolo and Bassoon via its own N-terminal Spectrin repeats, a domain that is also critical for its localization to the CAZ. Moreover, our data suggest that regions within the C-terminus of Trio negatively regulate its interactions with Piccolo/Bassoon. These findings provide a mechanism for the presynaptic targeting of Trio and support a model in which Piccolo and Bassoon play a role in regulating neurotransmission through interactions with proteins, including Trio, that modulate the dynamic assembly of F-actin during cycles of synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis. PMID:27907191

  1. Trio, a Rho Family GEF, Interacts with the Presynaptic Active Zone Proteins Piccolo and Bassoon.

    PubMed

    Terry-Lorenzo, Ryan T; Torres, Viviana I; Wagh, Dhananjay; Galaz, Jose; Swanson, Selene K; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Waites, Clarissa L; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Reimer, Richard J; Garner, Craig C

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse with the plasma membrane at a precise location called the presynaptic active zone (AZ). This fusion is coordinated by proteins embedded within a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the AZ (CAZ). In the present study, we have identified a novel binding partner for the CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. This interacting protein, Trio, is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known to regulate the dynamic assembly of actin and growth factor dependent axon guidance and synaptic growth. Trio was found to interact with the C-terminal PBH 9/10 domains of Piccolo and Bassoon via its own N-terminal Spectrin repeats, a domain that is also critical for its localization to the CAZ. Moreover, our data suggest that regions within the C-terminus of Trio negatively regulate its interactions with Piccolo/Bassoon. These findings provide a mechanism for the presynaptic targeting of Trio and support a model in which Piccolo and Bassoon play a role in regulating neurotransmission through interactions with proteins, including Trio, that modulate the dynamic assembly of F-actin during cycles of synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis.

  2. APP-A Novel Player within the Presynaptic Active Zone Proteome.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Jens; Weingarten, Melanie; Wegner, Martin; Volknandt, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) was discovered in the 1980s as the precursor protein of the amyloid A4 peptide. The amyloid A4 peptide, also known as A-beta (Aβ), is the main constituent of senile plaques implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In association with the amyloid deposits, increasing impairments in learning and memory as well as the degeneration of neurons especially in the hippocampus formation are hallmarks of the pathogenesis of AD. Within the last decades much effort has been expended into understanding the pathogenesis of AD. However, little is known about the physiological role of APP within the central nervous system (CNS). Allocating APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) identified APP as a novel player within this neuronal communication and signaling network. The analysis of the hippocampal PAZ proteome derived from APP-mutant mice demonstrates that APP is tightly embedded in the underlying protein network. Strikingly, APP deletion accounts for major dysregulation within the PAZ proteome network. Ca(2+)-homeostasis, neurotransmitter release and mitochondrial function are affected and resemble the outcome during the pathogenesis of AD. The observed changes in protein abundance that occur in the absence of APP as well as in AD suggest that APP is a structural and functional regulator within the hippocampal PAZ proteome. Within this review article, we intend to introduce APP as an important player within the hippocampal PAZ proteome and to outline the impact of APP deletion on individual PAZ proteome subcommunities.

  3. Liparid and macrourid fishes of the hadal zone: in situ observations of activity and feeding behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, A.J.; Fujii, T.; Solan, M.; Matsumoto, A.K.; Bagley, P.M.; Priede, I.G.

    2008-01-01

    Using baited camera landers, the first images of living fishes were recorded in the hadal zone (6000–11 000 m) in the Pacific Ocean. The widespread abyssal macrourid Coryphaenoides yaquinae was observed at a new depth record of approximately 7000 m in the Japan Trench. Two endemic species of liparid were observed at similar depths: Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis in the Japan Trench and Notoliparis kermadecensis in the Kermadec Trench. From these observations, we have documented swimming and feeding behaviour of these species and derived the first estimates of hadal fish abundance. The liparids intercepted bait within 100–200 min but were observed to preferentially feed on scavenging amphipods. Notoliparis kermadecensis act as top predators in the hadal food web, exhibiting up to nine suction-feeding events per minute. Both species showed distinctive swimming gaits: P. amblystomopsis (mean length 22.5 cm) displayed a mean tail-beat frequency of 0.47 Hz and mean caudal : pectoral frequency ratio of 0.76, whereas N. kermadecensis (mean length 31.5 cm) displayed respective values of 1.04 and 2.08 Hz. Despite living at extreme depths, these endemic liparids exhibit similar activity levels compared with shallow-water liparids. PMID:19129104

  4. Liparid and macrourid fishes of the hadal zone: in situ observations of activity and feeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A J; Fujii, T; Solan, M; Matsumoto, A K; Bagley, P M; Priede, I G

    2009-03-22

    Using baited camera landers, the first images of living fishes were recorded in the hadal zone (6000-11000 m) in the Pacific Ocean. The widespread abyssal macrourid Coryphaenoides yaquinae was observed at a new depth record of approximately 7000 m in the Japan Trench. Two endemic species of liparid were observed at similar depths: Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis in the Japan Trench and Notoliparis kermadecensis in the Kermadec Trench. From these observations, we have documented swimming and feeding behaviour of these species and derived the first estimates of hadal fish abundance. The liparids intercepted bait within 100-200 min but were observed to preferentially feed on scavenging amphipods. Notoliparis kermadecensis act as top predators in the hadal food web, exhibiting up to nine suction-feeding events per minute. Both species showed distinctive swimming gaits: P. amblystomopsis (mean length 22.5 cm) displayed a mean tail-beat frequency of 0.47 Hz and mean caudal:pectoral frequency ratio of 0.76, whereas N. kermadecensis (mean length 31.5 cm) displayed respective values of 1.04 and 2.08 Hz. Despite living at extreme depths, these endemic liparids exhibit similar activity levels compared with shallow-water liparids.

  5. Synaptophysin 1 Clears Synaptobrevin 2 from the Presynaptic Active Zone to Prevent Short-Term Depression.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Rajit; Gauthier-Kemper, Anne; Böning, Daniel; Hüve, Jana; Klingauf, Jürgen

    2016-02-16

    Release site clearance is an important process during synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. Here we identify self-assembly of exocytosed Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2) and Synaptophysin 1 (Syp1) by homo- and hetero-oligomerization into clusters as key mechanisms mediating release site clearance for preventing cis-SNARE complex formation at the active zone (AZ). In hippocampal neurons from Syp1 knockout mice, neurons expressing a monomeric Syb2 mutant, or after acute block of the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), responsible for cis-SNARE complex disassembly, we found strong frequency-dependent short-term depression (STD), whereas retrieval of Syb2 by compensatory endocytosis was only affected weakly. Defects in Syb2 endocytosis were stimulus- and frequency-dependent, indicating that Syp1 is not essential for Syb2 retrieval, but for its efficient clearance upstream of endocytosis. Our findings identify an SV protein as a release site clearance factor.

  6. Establishment of Active Traces of Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone through an Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Vilanova, S.; Flor, A.; Canora, C.; Heleno, S.; Domingues, A.; Narciso, J.; Pinheiro, P.; Pinto, L.; Fonseca, J. F.

    2013-05-01

    Despite the occurrence of at least two damaging earthquakes in historical times - the M~7 1531 and the M6 1909 earthquakes - the Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone (LTVFZ) has only recently been mapped (Besana-Ostman et al., 2012). In addition, a new set of active traces has been identified to the east during recent analysis and field inspections. The major challenges to the identification of active traces within Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) are both the presence of the very dynamic Tagus River (LTR) and the extensive urban and agricultural modifications introduced in the landscape. The detailed reports on the geological effects of the 1909 earthquake, while documenting extensively the secondary, shaking-related effects, provide no indication of surface rupture. The active traces of the northeast-southwest trending left-lateral LTVFZ within the LTV were established through integrated approaches as follows: aerial photo analysis, drainage system and satellite images examination, geomorphic feature identification, field mapping, geomorphic index measurements and trenching. The mapped traces extend to about 80 kilometers long and transect Quaternary and Holocene deposits. The mapped length of the western splay is compatible with an M7.2 earthquake. On the other hand, the newly mapped eastern traces plot almost parallel with the western splay, which may extend southwards to a comparable length. Preliminary analysis of satellite data show some evidence of additional splays located further east and south relative to the LTV. The new active traces suggest that the LTVFZ is a left-stepping left-lateral fault system with a regional NNE-SSW trend. Moreover, its extent and kinematics suggest magnitudes higher than previously assessed for the region. The location of the active traces displays a better correlation with the damage distribution of the historical events. Given the significance and implications of these findings for earthquake hazards assessment in Portugal, further studies

  7. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP): Active Rift Processes in the Brawley Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, L.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Harding, A. J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lazaro-Mancilla, O.

    2011-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded by NSF and USGS, acquired seismic data in and across the Salton Trough in southern California and northern Mexico in March 2011. The project addresses both rifting processes at the northern end of the Gulf of California extensional province and earthquake hazards at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault system. Seven lines of onshore refraction and low-fold reflection data were acquired in the Coachella, Imperial, and Mexicali Valleys, two lines and a grid of airgun and OBS data were acquired in the Salton Sea, and onshore-offshore data were recorded. Almost 2800 land seismometers and 50 OBS's were used in almost 5000 deployments at almost 4300 sites, in spacing as dense as 100 m. These instruments received seismic signals from 126 explosive shots up to 1400 kg and over 2300 airgun shots. In the central Salton Trough, North American lithosphere appears to have been rifted completely apart. Based primarily on a 1979 seismic refraction project, the 20-22 km thick crust is apparently composed entirely of new crust added by magmatism from below and sedimentation from above. Active rifting of this new crust is manifested by shallow (<10km depth) seismicity in the oblique Brawley Seismic Zone (BSZ), small Salton Buttes volcanoes aligned perpendicular to the transform faults, very high heat flow (~140 mW/m2), and geothermal energy production. This presentation is focused on an onshore-offshore line of densely sampled refraction and low-fold reflection data that crosses the Brawley Seismic Zone and Salton Buttes in the direction of plate motion. At the time of abstract submission, data analysis was very preliminary, consisting of first-arrival tomography of the onshore half of the line for upper crustal seismic velocity. Crystalline basement (>5 km/s), comprised of late-Pliocene to Quaternary sediment metamorphosed by the high heat flow, occurs at ~2 km depth beneath the Salton Buttes and geothermal field and ~4 km

  8. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    tenth of solar metallicity, and a hundredth of solar metallicity.They calculate the location of the inner and outer UV habitable zone boundaries for each star at the beginning and end of its main-sequence life. They then determine the region for which the UV habitable zone and the traditional habitable zone overlap which maximizes the potential to support persistent life.The Field NarrowsRelationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a star of one hundredth solar metallicity. The traditional and UV habitable zones do not overlap for stars of any mass. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Oishi and Kamaya find that taking the UV habitable zone into account unsurprisingly decreases the places where persistent life might be found. For solar-metallicity stars, for instance, only those stars between 1.01.5 solar masses even have overlapping traditional and UV habitable zones.As metallicity of the host star decreases, the overlapping regions decrease as well: at a metallicity of one hundredth that of the Sun (Z=0.0002), the UV and traditional habitable zones do not overlap for any mass star.The authors point out that this does not necessarily mean that such stars cant support life. Stellar activity such as flares and coronal mass ejections can temporarily increase UV flux, possibly providing enough to make up for low steady-state flux. And oceans on planetary surfaces could shield potential life from UV flux that is too high.Nonetheless, the estimates of the UV habitable zone in this study help us to narrow down the most probableplaces for findinglife in the universe.CitationMidori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya 2016 ApJ 833 293. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/833/2/293

  9. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  10. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  11. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  12. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  13. Faults paragenesis and paleostress state in the zone of actively propagating continental strike-slip on the example of North Khangai fault (Northern Mongolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankov, Vladimir; Parfeevets, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Sublatitudinal North Khangai fault extends from Ubsunuur basin to the eastern part of the Selenga corridor trough 800 km. It is the northern boundary of the massive Mongolian block and limits of the Baikal rift system structures propagation in the south (Logatchev, 2003). Late Cenozoic and present-day fault activity are expressed in the left-lateral displacements of a different order of river valleys and high seismicity. We have carried out studies of the kinematics of active faults and palaeostresses reconstruction in the zone of the dynamic influence of North Khangai fault, the width of which varies along the strike and can exceeds 100 km. The result shows that the fault zone has a longitudinal and a transverse zoning. Longitudinal zonation presented gradual change from west to east regions of compression and transpression regimes (Khan-Khukhey ridge) to strike-slip regime (Bolnay ridge) and strike-slip and transtensive regimes (west of Selenga corridor). Strike-slip zones are represented by linearly concentrated rupture deformations. In contrast, near the termination of the fault the cluster fault deformation formed. Here, from north to south, there are radical changes in the palaeostress state. In the north-western sector (east of Selenga corridor) strike-slip faults, strike-slip faults with normal components and normal faults are dominated. For this sector the stress tensors of extensive, transtension and strike-slip regimes are typical. South-western sector is separated from the north-eastern one by massive Buren Nuruu ridge within which the active faults are not identified. In the south-western sector between the Orkhon and Tola rivers the cluster of NW thrusts and N-S strike-slip faults with reverse component are discovered. The faults are perfectly expressed by NW and N-S scarps in the relief. The most structures dip to the east and north-east. Holocene fault activity is demonstrated by the hanging river valleys and horizontal displacements with amplitudes

  14. [Characteristics of soil denitrifying enzyme activity in riparian zones with different land use types in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang-Liang; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Chang-Ming

    2013-10-01

    By using acetylene inhibition method, this paper studied the soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) and its affecting factors in the riparian zone with different land use types (cropland riparian, forested riparian, and grassy riparian zones) in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China. The riparian soil DEA was (0.69 +/- 0.11)--(134.93 +/- 33.72) microg N x kg(-1) x h(-1), which differed obviously among different land types, with a decreasing trend of forested riparian zone > cropland riparian zone > grassy riparian zone. The soil DEA was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 0-10 cm in 10-30, 30-50, and 50-70 cm layers. There were significant positive relationships between soil DEA and soil TOC, TN, and NO(3-)-N (P < 0.01). Land use change mainly altered the soil natural structure and soil physical and chemical properties, decreased the accumulation of soil organic carbon, and affected the soil nitrogen transformation, and thus, inhibited the occurrence of riparian soil denitrification.

  15. Ocean floor boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, H D

    1979-04-13

    The base of the continental slope, combined with the concepts of a boudary zone, a technical advisory boundary commission, and special treatment for restricted seas, offers a readily attainable, natural, practicable, and equitable boundary between national and international jurisdiction over the ocean floor. There is no point in bringing into the boundary formula the unnecessary added complication of thickness of sediments, as recently proposed. Review of the U.S. offshore brings out the critical importance with respect to energy resources of proper choice of boundary principles and proper determination of the base-of-continent line about our shores. The advice of the pertinent science and technology community should urgently be sought and contributed to decisions on offshore boundaries.

  16. Performance of the active sidewall boundary-layer removal system for the Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.; Kilgore, W. Allen; Murthy, A. V.

    1989-01-01

    A performance evaluation of an active sidewall boundary-layer removal system for the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) was evaluated in 1988. This system uses a compressor and two throttling digital valves to control the boundary-layer mass flow removal from the tunnel. The compressor operates near the maximum pressure ratio for all conditions. The system uses a surge prevention and flow recirculation scheme. A microprocessor based controller is used to provide the necessary mass flow and compressor pressure ratio control. Initial tests on the system indicated problems in realizing smooth mass flow control while running the compressor at high speed and high pressure ratios. An alternate method has been conceived to realize boundary-layer mass flow control which avoids the recirculation of the compressor mass flow and operation near the compressor surge point. This scheme is based on varying the speed of the compressor for a sufficient pressure ratio to provide needed mass flow removal. The system has a mass flow removal capability of about 10 percent of test section flow at M = 0.3 and 4 percent at M = 0.8. The system performance has been evaluated in the form of the compressor map, and compressor tunnel interface characteristics covering most of the 0.3-m TCT operational envelope.

  17. 78 FR 20091 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity, Perkins Shibaura...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ..., Perkins Shibaura Engines, LLC (Diesel Engines), Griffin, Georgia On November 29, 2012, Georgia Foreign... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Perkins Shibaura Engines, LLC, submitted a notification...

  18. Tectonic role of margin-parallel and margin-transverse faults during oblique subduction in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes: Insights from Boundary Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton-Yonge, A.; Griffith, W. A.; Cembrano, J.; St. Julien, R.; Iturrieta, P.

    2016-09-01

    Obliquely convergent subduction margins develop trench-parallel faults shaping the regional architecture of orogenic belts and partitioning intraplate deformation. However, transverse faults also are common along most orogenic belts and have been largely neglected in slip partitioning analysis. Here we constrain the sense of slip and slip rates of differently oriented faults to assess whether and how transverse faults accommodate plate-margin slip arising from oblique subduction. We implement a forward 3-D boundary element method model of subduction at the Chilean margin evaluating the elastic response of intra-arc faults during different stages of the Andean subduction seismic cycle (SSC). Our model results show that the margin-parallel, NNE striking Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System accommodates dextral-reverse slip during the interseismic period of the SSC, with oblique slip rates ranging between 1 and 7 mm/yr. NW striking faults exhibit sinistral-reverse slip during the interseismic phase of the SSC, displaying a maximum oblique slip of 1.4 mm/yr. ENE striking faults display dextral strike slip, with a slip rate of 0.85 mm/yr. During the SSC coseismic phase, all modeled faults switch their kinematics: NE striking fault become sinistral, whereas NW striking faults are normal dextral. Because coseismic tensile stress changes on NW faults reach 0.6 MPa at 10-15 km depth, it is likely that they can serve as transient magma pathways during this phase of the SSC. Our model challenges the existing paradigm wherein only margin-parallel faults account for slip partitioning: transverse faults are also capable of accommodating a significant amount of plate-boundary slip arising from oblique convergence.

  19. Present-day submarine hydrothermal activity in the Taupo-Rotorua Zone (Bay of Plenty, New Zealand)

    SciTech Connect

    Osipenko, A.B.; Egorov, Yu.O.; Fazlullin, S.M.; Gavrilenko, G.M.; Shul`kin, V.I.; Chertkova, L.V.

    1994-09-01

    We made detailed descriptions of the structure and material composition of sedimentary and water columns in the vicinity of active submarine hydrothermal activity in the southern part of the Bay of Plenty (North Island, New Zealand). Geophysical methods revealed that the hydrothermal system is confined to a tectonically distinct zone with a sedimentary cover characterized by complex structure. Chemical and mineralogical investigations confirmed that the activity of underwater vents exerts no substantial regional influence on the composition and features of ore mineralization in these formations. It is shown that essentially hydrothermal formations distinguishable within areas of otherwise monotypic sediments directly coincide with zones of hydrothermal discharge in the ocean floor. The absence of pronounced hydrothermal anomalies, together with the presence of {open_quotes}tongues{close_quotes} of anomalous concentrations of water-soluble gases suggests that the discharges are primarily hydrothermal in character.

  20. Exoplanet detection. Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

    2014-07-25

    The M dwarf star Gliese 581 is believed to host four planets, including one (GJ 581d) near the habitable zone that could possibly support liquid water on its surface if it is a rocky planet. The detection of another habitable-zone planet--GJ 581g--is disputed, as its significance depends on the eccentricity assumed for d. Analyzing stellar activity using the Hα line, we measure a stellar rotation period of 130 ± 2 days and a correlation for Hα modulation with radial velocity. Correcting for activity greatly diminishes the signal of GJ 581d (to 1.5 standard deviations) while significantly boosting the signals of the other known super-Earth planets. GJ 581d does not exist, but is an artifact of stellar activity which, when incompletely corrected, causes the false detection of planet g.

  1. Shoreline changes and its impact on activities in the coastal zone in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, A.; Bendixen, M.; Elberling, B.

    2015-12-01

    shorelines. The shoreline changes were estimated using the digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) of the USGS. The spatial variability of accumulation and erosion patterns was detected and shows a surprising thread for ancient settlements and present-day activities in the coastal zone. The same patterns are finally discussed in terms of coastal risk assessment.

  2. Characterization of particle cloud droplet activity and composition in the free troposphere and the boundary layer during INTEX-B

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G. C.; Day, D. A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A. D.

    2010-07-20

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), aerosol size distributions, and submicron aerosol composition were made as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign during spring 2006. Measurements were conducted from an aircraft platform over the northeastern Pacific and western North America with a focus on how the transport and evolution of Asian pollution across the Pacific Ocean affected CCN properties. A broad range of air masses were sampled and here we focus on three distinct air mass types defined geographically: the Pacific free troposphere (FT), the marine boundary layer (MBL), and the polluted continental boundary layer in the California Central Valley (CCV). These observations add to the few observations of CCN in the FT. CCN concentrations showed a large range of concentrations between air masses, however CCN activity was similar for the MBL and CCV ({kappa} {approx} 0.2-0.25). FT air masses showed evidence of long-range transport from Asia and CCN activity was consistently higher than for the boundary layer air masses. Bulk chemical measurements predicted CCN activity reasonably well for the CCV and FT air masses. Decreasing trends in {kappa} with organic mass fraction were observed for the combination of the FT and CCV air masses and can be explained by the measured soluble inorganic chemical components. Changes in hygroscopicity associated with differences in the non-refractory organic composition were too small to be distinguished from the simultaneous changes in inorganic ion composition in the FT and MBL, although measurements for the large organic fractions (0.6-0.8) found in the CCV showed values of the organic fraction hygroscopicity consistent with other polluted regions ({kappa}{sub org} {approx} 0.1-0.2). A comparison of CCN-derived {kappa} (for particles at the critical diameter) to H-TDMA-derived {kappa} (for particles at 100 nm diameter) showed similar trends, however the CCN-derived {kappa

  3. Tectonic Activity and Processes Preceding the Formation of the Dead Sea Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.; Pilchin, A. N.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of geological-geophysical data indicates that at the end of the Proterozoic, blocks of the Arabian Shield (AS) were thrust to the north-west onto the crust of the proto-Mediterranean (PM). This was caused by the pushing of oceanic crust from the south-east forming the Najd faults system (NF). This thrusting took place between 630 and 590 Ma, and is confirmed by the offsets between the Yanbu suture of the AS and Allaqi-Sol Hamid suture of the Nubian Shield (NS), the Bi'r Umq suture of AS and Nakasib suture of NS, and parts of the Yanbu and Nabitah sutures of AS. This caused the separation of AS from NS, and AS from the continental crust to north-east of it with its north-western displacement, resulting in opening of the Persian Gulf. This caused the start of deposition of huge amounts of Vendian-Cambrian evaporites in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Persian Gulf, Zagros, central Iran and other regions. The fact of the formation and preservation of the evaporites, and the common similarities in Vendian-Triassic sedimentary cover of Central Iran, Zagros, Taurus, and Arabian Plate (AP) and common Late Proterozoic-Early Paleozioc magmatic activity, show that these regions did not change their position significantly since then. Results of the DESERT project show that the lowermost part of the crust is present east of the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ), but it is absent west of it. This could be explained by detachment of the bottom part of the crust west of DSFZ during AP thrusting onto the crust of PM. The lithospheric slice discovered by seismic data between Moho and depth of about 55 km in S. Israel could be a remnant of that crust. During the thrusting, the AP overrode the detached slice. The slice was later remelted during formation of the postorogenic magmatic rocks of 590-530 Ma widespread in Jordan. The formation of three dyke swarms in S. Israel (600-540 Ma), widespread dykes in Sinai (590-530 Ma) and AP (590-530 Ma), as well as high-T-low-P metamorphism between 600

  4. Development of the method of an electrohydrodynamic force effect on a boundary layer for active control of aerodynamic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, B. S.; Khomich, V. Yu.; Chernyshev, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    The results of investigations on the possibility of an electrohydrodynamic force effect on a gas flow implemented with the help of a barrier discharge are presented. A new method of controlling the laminar flow around a base with suppression of instabilities of the incoming flow due to electrohydrodynamic force action on the boundary layer near the forward edge of a swept wing is proposed. An efficient multidischarge actuator system is developed and created for active control of aerodynamic flows with induced-air-flow characteristics exceeding the world analogues.

  5. Active Control of Instabilities in Laminar Boundary-Layer Flow. Part 2; Use of Sensors and Spectral Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Nicolaides, R. A.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Gunzburger, Max D.

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on the suppression of instability growth using an automated active-control technique. The evolution of 2D disturbances that are spatially growing in a flat-plate boundary layer are computed with a spatial DNS code. A controller receives wall sensor information (pressure or shear) as input and provides a signal that controls an actuator response as output. The control law assumes that wave cancellation is valid. The results indicate that a measure of wave cancellation can be obtained for small- and large-amplitude instabilities without feedback; however, feedback is required to optimize the control amplitude and phase for exact wave cancellation.

  6. The Active and Periactive Zone Organization and the Functional Properties of Small and Large Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Raquel; Tabares, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The arrival of an action potential (AP) at a synaptic terminal elicits highly synchronized quanta release. Repetitive APs produce successive synaptic vesicle (SV) fusions that require management of spent SV components in the presynaptic membrane with minimum disturbance of the secretory apparatus. To this end, the synaptic machinery is structured accordingly to the strength and the range of frequencies at which each particular synapse operates. This results in variations in the number and dimension of Active Zones (AZs), amount and distribution of SVs, and probably, in the primary endocytic mechanisms they use. Understanding better how these structural differences determine the functional response in each case has been a matter of long-term interest. Here we review the structural and functional properties of three distinct types of synapses: the neuromuscular junction (NMJ; a giant, highly reliable synapse that must exocytose a large number of quanta with each stimulus to guarantee excitation of the postsynaptic cell), the hippocampal excitatory small synapse (which most often has a single release site and a relatively small pool of vesicles), and the cerebellar mossy fiber-granule cell synapse (which possesses hundreds of release sites and is able to translocate, dock and prime vesicles at high speed). We will focus on how the release apparatus is organized in each case, the relative amount of vesicular membrane that needs to be accommodated within the periAZ upon stimulation, the different mechanisms for retrieving the excess of membrane and finally, how these factors may influence the functioning of the release sites. PMID:27252645

  7. Simultaneous Segmentation of Prostatic Zones Using Active Appearance Models With Multiple Coupled Levelsets.

    PubMed

    Toth, Robert; Ribault, Justin; Gentile, John; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an improvement to the popular Active Appearance Model (AAM) algorithm, that we call the Multiple-Levelset AAM (MLA). The MLA can simultaneously segment multiple objects, and makes use of multiple levelsets, rather than anatomical landmarks, to define the shapes. AAMs traditionally define the shape of each object using a set of anatomical landmarks. However, landmarks can be difficult to identify, and AAMs traditionally only allow for segmentation of a single object of interest. The MLA, which is a landmark independent AAM, allows for levelsets of multiple objects to be determined and allows for them to be coupled with image intensities. This gives the MLA the flexibility to simulataneously segmentation multiple objects of interest in a new image. In this work we apply the MLA to segment the prostate capsule, the prostate peripheral zone (PZ), and the prostate central gland (CG), from a set of 40 endorectal, T2-weighted MRI images. The MLA system we employ in this work leverages a hierarchical segmentation framework, so constructed as to exploit domain specific attributes, by utilizing a given prostate segmentation to help drive the segmentations of the CG and PZ, which are embedded within the prostate. Our coupled MLA scheme yielded mean Dice accuracy values of .81, .79 and .68 for the prostate, CG, and PZ, respectively using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme over 40 patient studies. When only considering the midgland of the prostate, the mean DSC values were .89, .84, and .76 for the prostate, CG, and PZ respectively.

  8. Simultaneous Segmentation of Prostatic Zones Using Active Appearance Models With Multiple Coupled Levelsets

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Robert; Ribault, Justin; Gentile, John; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an improvement to the popular Active Appearance Model (AAM) algorithm, that we call the Multiple-Levelset AAM (MLA). The MLA can simultaneously segment multiple objects, and makes use of multiple levelsets, rather than anatomical landmarks, to define the shapes. AAMs traditionally define the shape of each object using a set of anatomical landmarks. However, landmarks can be difficult to identify, and AAMs traditionally only allow for segmentation of a single object of interest. The MLA, which is a landmark independent AAM, allows for levelsets of multiple objects to be determined and allows for them to be coupled with image intensities. This gives the MLA the flexibility to simulataneously segmentation multiple objects of interest in a new image. In this work we apply the MLA to segment the prostate capsule, the prostate peripheral zone (PZ), and the prostate central gland (CG), from a set of 40 endorectal, T2-weighted MRI images. The MLA system we employ in this work leverages a hierarchical segmentation framework, so constructed as to exploit domain specific attributes, by utilizing a given prostate segmentation to help drive the segmentations of the CG and PZ, which are embedded within the prostate. Our coupled MLA scheme yielded mean Dice accuracy values of .81, .79 and .68 for the prostate, CG, and PZ, respectively using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme over 40 patient studies. When only considering the midgland of the prostate, the mean DSC values were .89, .84, and .76 for the prostate, CG, and PZ respectively. PMID:23997571

  9. Circadian expression of the presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot in the lamina of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta; Makuch, Renata; Stefan, Joanna; Görlich, Alicja; Semik, Danuta; Pyza, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    In the fly's visual system, the morphology of cells and the number of synapses change during the day. In the present study we show that in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila melanogaster, a presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot (BRP) exhibits a circadian rhythm in abundance. In day/night (or light/dark, LD) conditions the level of BRP increases two times, in the morning and in the evening. The same pattern of changes in the BRP level was detected in whole brain homogenates, thus indicating that the majority of synapses in the brain peaks twice during the day. However, these two peaks in BRP abundance, measured as the fluorescence intensity of immunolabeling, seem to be regulated differently. The peak in the morning is predominantly regulated by light and involves the transduction pathway in the retina photoreceptors. This peak is present neither in wild-type Canton-S flies in constant darkness (DD), nor in norpA(7) phototransduction mutant in LD. However, it also depends on the clock gene per, because it is abolished in the per(0) arrhythmic mutant. In turn, the peak of BRP in the evening is endogenously regulated by an input from the pacemaker located in the brain. This peak is present in Canton-S flies in DD, as well as in the norpA(7) mutant in LD, but is absent in per(01), tim,(01) and cry(01) mutants in LD. In addition both peaks seem to depend on clock gene-expressing photoreceptors and glial cells of the visual system.

  10. Map showing lava-flow hazard zones, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Thomas L.; Chun, Jon Y.F.; Exposo, Jean; Heliker, Christina; Hodge, Jon; Lockwood, John P.; Vogt, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    This map shows lava-flow hazard zones for the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Volcano boundaries are shown as heavy, dark bands, reflecting the overlapping of lava flows from adjacent volcanoes along their common boundary. Hazard-zone boundaries are drawn as double lines because of the geologic uncertainty in their placement. Most boundaries are gradational, and the change In the degree of hazard can be found over a distance of a mile or more. The general principles used to place hazard-zone boundaries are discussed by Mullineaux and others (1987) and Heliker (1990). The differences between the boundaries presented here and in Heliker (1990) reflect new data used in the compilation of a geologic map for the Island of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). The primary source of information for volcano boundaries and generalized ages of lava flows for all five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii is the geologic map of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). More detailed information is available for the three active volcanoes. For Hualalai, see Moore and others (1987) and Moore and Clague (1991); for Mauna Loa, see Lockwood and Lipman (1987); and for Kilauea, see Holcomb (1987) and Moore and Trusdell (1991).

  11. Aftershocks illuminate the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake causative fault zone and nearby active faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, Jr., J. Wright; Shah, Anjana K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Snyder, Stephen L.; Carter, Aina M

    2015-01-01

    Deployment of temporary seismic stations after the 2011 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake produced a well-recorded aftershock sequence. The majority of aftershocks are in a tabular cluster that delineates the previously unknown Quail fault zone. Quail fault zone aftershocks range from ~3 to 8 km in depth and are in a 1-km-thick zone striking ~036° and dipping ~50°SE, consistent with a 028°, 50°SE main-shock nodal plane having mostly reverse slip. This cluster extends ~10 km along strike. The Quail fault zone projects to the surface in gneiss of the Ordovician Chopawamsic Formation just southeast of the Ordovician–Silurian Ellisville Granodiorite pluton tail. The following three clusters of shallow (<3 km) aftershocks illuminate other faults. (1) An elongate cluster of early aftershocks, ~10 km east of the Quail fault zone, extends 8 km from Fredericks Hall, strikes ~035°–039°, and appears to be roughly vertical. The Fredericks Hall fault may be a strand or splay of the older Lakeside fault zone, which to the south spans a width of several kilometers. (2) A cluster of later aftershocks ~3 km northeast of Cuckoo delineates a fault near the eastern contact of the Ordovician Quantico Formation. (3) An elongate cluster of late aftershocks ~1 km northwest of the Quail fault zone aftershock cluster delineates the northwest fault (described herein), which is temporally distinct, dips more steeply, and has a more northeastward strike. Some aftershock-illuminated faults coincide with preexisting units or structures evident from radiometric anomalies, suggesting tectonic inheritance or reactivation.

  12. Structural and thermal control of seismic activity and megathrust rupture dynamics in subduction zones: Lessons from the Mw 9.0, 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriano, Claudio; Dionicio, Viviana; Miyake, Hiroe; Uchida, Naoki; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake ruptured a vast region of the northeast Japan Trench subduction zone in a way that had not been enough anticipated by earthquake and tsunami risk scenarios. We analyzed the Tohoku rupture combining high-frequency back-projection analysis with low frequency kinematic inversion of the co-seismic slip. Results support the to-day well-accepted broadband characteristics of this earthquake. Most of the seismic moment is released during the first 100 s, with large co-seismic slip (up to 55 m) offshore Miyagi in a compact region on the landward side of the trench. Coherent high-frequency radiation areas and relatively low co-seismic slip are a distinctive signature of the slab-mantle interface. The broadband characteristics of the Tohoku rupture are interpreted, integrating the seismic activity and structure information on the NE Japan forearc region, as a signature of along-dip segmentation and segment interactions, that result from thermal structure, plate geometry, material composition and fracture heterogeneities along the plate boundary interface. Deep mantle corner flow and low dehydration rates along the cold subduction slab interface lead to an extended seismogenic slab-mantle interface, with strong bi-material contrast controlling larger propagation distance in the downdip preferred rupture direction. Off Miyagi, plate bending below the mantle wedge, ∼142.3°E at ∼25 km depth, is associated with the eastern limit of the deep M7-8-class thrust-earthquakes, and of the strongest coherent high-frequency generation areas. The region of the slab-crust interface between the mantle wedge limit, ∼142.7°E at ∼20 km depth, and a trenchward plate bending, ∼143.2°E at ∼15 km, acted as an effective barrier resisting for many centuries to stress-loading gradient induced by deep stable sliding and large earthquakes along the slab-mantle interface. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake, whose hypocenter is located on the east side of the

  13. More Active Living–oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity—United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie F.; Nicholson, Lisa M.; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA. PMID:27587898

  14. Multibeam investigation of the active North Atlantic plate boundary reorganization tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, Richard; Martinez, Fernando; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Eason, Deborah E.; Sleeper, Jonathan; Thordarson, Sigvaldi; Benediktsdóttir, Ásdís; Merkuryev, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    The previous orthogonal ridge/transform staircase geometry south of Iceland is being progressively changed to the present continuous oblique Reykjanes Ridge spreading geometry as North America-Eurasia transform faults are successively eliminated from north to south. This reorganization is commonly interpreted as a thermal phenomenon, caused by warmer Iceland plume mantle progressively interacting with the ridge, although other diachronous seafloor spreading reorganizations are thought to result from tectonic rift propagation. New marine geophysical data covering our reinterpretation of the reorganization tip near 57°N show successive transform eliminations at a propagation velocity of ∼110 km/Myr, ten times the spreading half rate, followed by abrupt reorganization slowing at the Modred transform as it was converted to a migrating non-transform offset. Neither the simple thermal model nor the simple propagating rift model appears adequate to explain the complicated plate boundary reorganization process.

  15. Precision polyimide single surface thin film shell apertures and active boundary control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Eric M.; Lindler, Jason E.; Hall, Jonathan L.; Rankine, Charles; Reggelbrugge, Mark

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses the current status of self supporting precision membrane optical shell technology (MOST) apertures based on thin (25 to 125 um thick) polyimide and polyester films primary shell. Optically relevant doubly curved reflective apertures are realized by inducing permanent curvature into thin substrates that can then be coated. The initial thin nature provides both very low areal density (20 to 200 grams/m2) and compatibility with compact roll stowage. The induced curvature/depth provides the ability to support the shell around the periphery at discrete locations and considerable structural and dynamic stiffness. The discrete mounts also provide an excellent location with which to improve the surface figure and to reject environmental and host structure induced errors. Material microroughness on the leading substrate/coating combination has been measured to down to 3 nm rms over small (100x100um's) sample sizes with white light interferometry. A variety of reflective coated substrates have also been shown to have sub micron rms surface roughness over up to 100mm diameter test apertures using interferometric measurements. Best materials currently have 20nm rms surface roughness noise floors at these sizes. The ability to fabricate shells over a range of prescriptions (R/0.9 to R/2.2) and a range of sizes (0.1 to 0.75m diameter) has been demonstrated. Global surface figure accuracies of 2 to 4 microns rms have been demonstrated at the 0.2m size, and further improvements are anticipated through ongoing improved fabrication techniques (preliminary results indicate sub-micron rms values). The ability of discrete boundary control to improve the shape and maintain it in the face of disturbances (gravity for example) is demonstrated as is the ability to implement high amplitude (multi-wave) Zernike mode surface figure control. Results extending boundary control to interferometric optical level are also presented.

  16. Structure and deformation of the Southern Taiwan accretionary prism: The active submarine Fangliao Fault Zone offshore west Hengchun Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffontaines, Benoit; Liu, Char-Shine; Hsu, Ho-Han

    2016-12-01

    What is the structural geometry of the southern Taiwan transition zone from the Manila subduction offshore to the Taiwan onshore collision, specifically in the western flank of the Hengchun peninsula that corresponds to the summit of the Manila subduction accretionary prism? This paper aims to decipher the onshore/offshore structures and tectonic deformation that occur west of the Hengchun Ridge through both detailed topographic analyses and interpretation of numerous old and new seismic profiles. From a geomorphic point of view, both Fangliao and Hongchai submarine canyons have different structural and landslide implications. The Fangliao Canyon is guided by a N-S elongated mud diapir (the Fangliao Ridge), intruding an inferred N010°E trending, left lateral strike-slip fault zone. Conversely, the arcuate and concave shape of the Hongchai Canyon appear to follow the crown and the northern boundary of a newly recognized Hongchai submarine landslide situated on the steep western flank of the onshore asymmetric Hengchun Anticline. Our results highlight that both Fangliao and Hengchun Faults are linear, near-vertical left-lateral strike-slip faults. They converge onshore to the Chaochou Fault. This study demonstrates that neotectonics combine with morphostructural analysis of the submarine canyon drainages lead to a better comprehension of the present deformation in the northern part of the Manila accretionary prism.

  17. [Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-06-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality.

  18. Faults Activities And Crustal Deformation Along The Arc-Continent Collision Boundary, Eastern Taiwan - Observed From Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Chang, Chung-Pai; Hooper, Andrew; Chang, Yo-Ho; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Chang, Tsui-Yu

    2010-05-01

    Located in the southeastern periphery of the Eurasian plate, eastern Taiwan marks the collional boundary between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. These two plates converge at about 8 cm/yr near Taiwan and nearly half of the shortening is consumed in eastern Taiwan. There have been many studies in this area about the dynamics of the plate convergence, however, most of the geodetic studies focused on small area (strainmeter), with very few data points (GPS), or only gather data along a specific profile (leveling). We applied the Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry in the Longitudinal Valley of eastern Taiwan to observe temporally-variable processes using both ERS and Envisat data. At the same time, leveling and GPS data were measured for the auxiliary tool to verify the deformation rate in this area. Our result indicated that although the area is under active collision, faults do not move in the same fashion along the boundary. In the very northern part of the collided arc, small subsidence has been detected, while in the north-central part very few activity is observed. In the central and southern part of the collisional boundary, patches of faults are moving as rapidly as 15 mm/yr along radar line-of-sight. In addition. between late 2004 and middle 2005 there had been an earthquake swarm consists of shallow earthquakes, which coincided with PSI observation of a large vertical displacement. The comparison between our leveling data and PS results indicated PSI is a reliable tool even in the highly vegetated area in eastern Taiwan.

  19. Preliminary Results of Activated Sintering Mechanism and Grain Boundary Prewetting/premelting in Nickel-doped Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V K; Yoon, D H; Luo, Jian; Meyer III, Harry M

    2005-01-01

    Supported by prior lattice-gas and phase-field simulations, we proposed that nanoscale intergranular and surficial amorphous films in multicomponent ceramic materials can be treated as a case of combined interfacial prewetting and premelting. Consequently, a class of parallel interfacial phenomena, i.e., coupled interfacial adsorption and disordering, is anticipated to occur in multicomponent metallic alloys. An exploratory study was carried out wherein grain boundary segregation in a model binary metallic alloy (Ni-doped W) was characterized as a function of temperature and dopant concentration. Doped specimens were prepared using high purity chemicals, sintered in flowing H2/N2 mixture, and examined using Auger spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Preliminary results are presented and discussed with respect to a prewetting/premelting model versus the classical Langmuir-McLean and BET models. An additional goal of this study is to resolve the long-standing mystery of solid-state activated sintering mechanism for nickel-doped tungsten. Use of ultra-pure materials confirmed the occurrence of nickel activated sintering of tungsten in the solid-state. We demonstrated that, contrary to the previous belief, Ni-rich secondary bulk phase does not penetrate along GBs and the solid-state activator should be a nanoscale interfacial phase that does not appear in the bulk phase diagram. The solid-state activated sintering in the model metallic system of Ni-doped W is therefore attributed to the enhance diffusion in a coupled grain boundary disordering and adsorption region, analogous to activated sintering via accelerated mass transport in nanoscale intergranular and surficial amorphous film in the model oxide system of Bi2O3-doped ZnO.

  20. Strain localization in ultramylonitic marbles by simultaneous activation of dislocation motion and grain boundary sliding (Syros, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, A.; White, J. C.; Grasemann, B.

    2016-03-01

    Extreme strain localization occurred in the centre of the cross-cutting element of a flanking structure in almost pure calcite marbles from Syros, Greece. At the maximum displacement of 120 cm along the cross-cutting element, evidence of grain size sensitive deformation mechanisms can be found in the ultramylonitic marbles, which are characterized by (1) an extremely small grain size ( ˜ 3 µm), (2) grain boundary triple junctions with nearly 120° angles, (3) a weak crystallographic preferred orientation with very low texture index (J = 1.4), (4) a random misorientation angle distribution curve and (5) the presence of small cavities. Using transmission electron microscopy, a deformation sequence is observed comprising recrystallization dominantly by bulging, resulting in the development of the fine-grained ultramylonite followed by the development of a high dislocation density ( ˜ 1013 m-2) with ongoing deformation of the fine-grained ultramylonite. The arrangement of dislocations in the extremely fine-grain-sized calcite differs from microstructures created by classical dislocation creep mediated by combined glide and thermally activated climb. Instead, it exhibits extensive glide and dislocation networks characteristic of recovery accommodated by cross-slip and network-assisted dislocation movement without formation of idealized subgrain walls. The enabling of grain boundary sliding to dislocation activity is deemed central to initiating and sustaining strain softening and is argued to be an important strain localization process in calcite rocks, even at a high strain rate ( ˜ 10-9 s-1) and low temperature (300 °C).

  1. Strain localization in ultramylonitic marbles by simultaneous activation of dislocation motion and grain boundary sliding (Syros, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, A.; White, J. C.; Grasemann, B.

    2015-09-01

    Extreme strain localization occurred in the center of the cross-cutting element of a flanking structure in almost pure calcite marbles from Syros, Greece. At the maximum displacement of 120 cm along the cross-cutting element evidence of grain size sensitive deformation mechanisms can be found in the ultramylonitic marbles, which are characterized by (1) an extremely small grain size (∼3 μm), (2) grain boundary triple junctions with nearly 120° angles, (3) a weak crystallographic preferred orientation with very low texture index (J=1.4), (4) a random misorientation angle distribution curve and (5) the presence of small cavities. Using transmission electron microscopy a deformation sequence is observed comprising, first recrystallization by bulging resulting in the development of the fine-grained ultramylonite followed by the evolution of a high dislocation density (∼1013 m-2) with ongoing deformation of the fine-grained ultramylonite. The arrangement of dislocations in the extremely fine grain sized calcite differs from microstructures created by classical dislocation creep mediated by combined glide and thermally activated climb. Instead, it exhibits extensive glide and dislocation networks characteristic of recovery accommodated by cross-slip and network-assisted dislocation movement without formation of idealized subgrain walls. The enabling of grain boundary sliding to dislocation activity is deemed central to initiating and sustaining strain softening and is argued to be an important strain localization process in calcite rocks, even at high strain rate (10-9 s-1) and low temperature (300 °C).

  2. The active zone protein family ELKS supports Ca2+ influx at nerve terminals of inhibitory hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changliang; Bickford, Lydia S; Held, Richard G; Nyitrai, Hajnalka; Südhof, Thomas C; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2014-09-10

    In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle exocytosis is restricted to specialized sites called active zones. At these sites, neurotransmitter release is determined by the number of releasable vesicles and their probability of release. Proteins at the active zone set these parameters by controlling the presynaptic Ca(2+) signal, and through docking and priming of synaptic vesicles. Vertebrate ELKS proteins are enriched at presynaptic active zones, but their functions are not well understood. ELKS proteins are produced by two genes in vertebrates, and each gene contributes ∼50% to total brain ELKS. We generated knock-out mice for ELKS1 and found that its constitutive removal causes lethality. To bypass lethality, and to circumvent redundancy between ELKS1 and ELKS2 in synaptic transmission, we used a conditional genetic approach to remove both genes in cultured hippocampal neurons after synapses are established. Simultaneous removal of ELKS1 and ELKS2 resulted in a 50% decrease of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses, paralleled by a reduction in release probability. Removal of ELKS did not affect synapse numbers or their electron microscopic appearance. Using Ca(2+) imaging, we found that loss of ELKS caused a 30% reduction in single action potential-triggered Ca(2+) influx in inhibitory nerve terminals, consistent with the deficits in synaptic transmission and release probability. Unlike deletion of the active zone proteins RIM, RIM-BP, or bruchpilot, ELKS removal did not lead to a measurable reduction in presynaptic Ca(2+) channel levels. Our results reveal that ELKS is required for normal Ca(2+) influx at nerve terminals of inhibitory hippocampal neurons.

  3. Cascading ecohydrological transitions: Multiple changes in vegetation and hydrology over the past 500 years for a semiarid forest/woodland boundary zone in New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Craig D.

    2010-05-01

    On decadal and centennial time scales, multiple drivers can cause substantial changes in vegetation cover, which can trigger associated changes in runoff and erosion patterns and processes, with consequent feedbacks to the vegetation - cumulatively this can lead to a cascading series of non-equilibrial ecosystem changes through time. The work reported here provides a relatively detailed 500-year perspective of such changes on the mesas the eastern Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico (USA), which today exhibit vegetation transitions along an elevational gradient between semiarid ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, mixed woodlands dominated by piñon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma), and juniper savannas. Using multiple lines of evidence, a history of major ecosystem changes since ca. 1500 A.D. is reconstructed for a dynamic transition zone on one such mesa (Frijolito Mesa). Evidence includes intensive archaeological surveys, dendrochronological reconstructions of the demographic and spatial patterns of establishment and mortality for these three main tree species, dendrochronological reconstructions of fire regimes and climate patterns, broad-scale mapping of vegetation changes from historic aerial photographs since 1935, monitoring of vegetation from permanent transects since 1991, detailed soil maps and interpretations, intensive ecohydrological studies since 1993 on portions of this mesa, and research on the ecosystem effects of an experimental tree-thinning experiment conducted in 1997. Frijolito Mesa was fully occupied by large numbers of Native American farmers from the A.D. 1200's until the late 1500's, when they left these mesas for settlements in the adjoining Rio Grande Valley. Archaeological evidence and tree ages indicate that the mesa was likely quite deforested when abandoned, followed by episodic tree establishment dominated by ponderosa pine during the Little Ice Age. By the late 1700's Frijolito Mesa included

  4. The fate and transport of nitroglycerin in the unsaturated zone at active and legacy anti-tank firing positions.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Poulin, Isabelle

    2012-11-01

    The environmental fate of nitroglycerin (NG) in the unsaturated zone was evaluated in the context of double-base propellant residue deposition at anti-tank training ranges. Fresh propellant residues were collected during live anti-tank training. Surface soils, sub-surface soils and water samples from the unsaturated zone were collected at an active anti-tank range, and at a legacy site where NG-based propellants have been used. Results show that the residues are composed of intact propellant particles, as well as small quantities of NG, dinitroglycerin (DNG) and nitrate which are rapidly dissolved by precipitation, resulting in sporadic pulses of those compounds in water from the unsaturated zone after rain/snow melt events. The dissolved NG and DNG can be progressively degraded in the unsaturated zone, releasing nitrate as an end-product. Over a period of several years, small propellant particles located at the soil surface can be carried downward through the soil pore system by infiltration water, which explains the presence of NG in sub-surface soils at the legacy site, more than 35 years after site closure. NG is no longer leached from these old particles, therefore the detection of NG in sub-surface soils does not signify that groundwater is at risk of contamination by NG.

  5. Magnetic Data Interpretation for the Source-Edge Locations in Parts of the Tectonically Active Transition Zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament in Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    The study has been carried out in the transition zone of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL) which is seismically active with various geological complexities, upwarp movement of the mantle material into the crust through fault, fractures lamination and upwelling. NSL is one of the most prominent lineaments in central India after the Himalaya in the Indian geology. The area of investigation extends from longitude 80.25°E to 81.50°E and latitude 23.50°N to 24.37°N in the central part of the Indian continent. Different types of subsurface geological formations viz. alluvial, Gondwana, Deccan traps, Vindhyan, Mahakoshal, Granite and Gneisses groups exist in this area with varying geological ages. In this study area tectonic movement and crustal variation have been taken place during the past time and which might be reason for the variation of magnetic field. Magnetic anomaly suggests that the area has been highly disturbed which causes the Narmada-Son lineament trending in the ENE-WSW direction. Magnetic anomaly variation has been taken place due to the lithological variations subject to the changes in the geological contacts like thrusts and faults in this area. Shallow and deeper sources have been distinguished using frequency domain analysis by applying different filters. To enhance the magnetic data, various types of derivatives to identify the source-edge locations of the causative source bodies. The present study carried out the interpretation using total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative, horizontal tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative map to get source-edge locations. The results derived from various derivatives of magnetic data have been compared with the basement depth solutions calculated from 3D Euler deconvolution. It is suggested that total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative are the most useful tools for identifying the multiple source edge locations of the causative bodies in this tectonically active

  6. Reduction of turbulent boundary layer induced interior noise through active impedance control.

    PubMed

    Remington, Paul J; Curtis, Alan R D; Coleman, Ronald B; Knight, J Scott

    2008-03-01

    The use of a single actuator tuned to an optimum impedance to control the sound power radiated from a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) excited aircraft panel into the aircraft interior is examined. An approach to calculating the optimum impedance is defined and the limitations on the reduction in radiated power by a single actuator tuned to that impedance are examined. It is shown that there are too many degrees of freedom in the TBL and in the radiation modes of the panel to allow a single actuator to control the radiated power. However, if the panel modes are lightly damped and well separated in frequency, significant reductions are possible. The implementation of a controller that presents a desired impedance to a structure is demonstrated in a laboratory experiment, in which the structure is a mass. The performance of such a controller on an aircraft panel is shown to be effective, if the actuator impedance is similar to but not the same as the desired impedance, provided the panel resonances are well separated in frequency and lightly damped.

  7. Active Control of Airfoil Boundary Layer Separation and Wake using Ns-DBD Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durasiewicz, Claudia; Castro Maldonado, Jorge; Little, Jesse

    2016-11-01

    Nanosecond pulse driven dielectric barrier discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators are employed to control boundary layer separation and the wake of a NACA 0012 airfoil having aspect ratio of three. Ns-DBD plasma actuators are known to operate via a thermal mechanism in contrast to ac-DBDs which are momentum-based devices. Nominally 2D forcing is applied to the airfoil leading edge with pulse energy of 0.35 mJ/cm. Experiments are conducted at a Reynolds number of 0 . 74 ×106 primarily at 18° incidence which is well within the stalled regime. Baseline and controlled flow fields are studied using surface pressure measurements, constant temperature anemometry (CTA) and PIV. Forcing at a dimensionless frequency of F+ = fc /U∞ = 1 . 14 results in reattachment of nominally separated flow to the airfoil surface. Lower frequency forcing is less optimal for separation control, but produces strong fluctuations in the wake which are intended for use in the study of vortex body interaction in the future. Actuation below F+ = 0 . 23 shows behavior consistent with an impulse-like response while forcing in the range 0 . 23

  8. Preliminary assessment of the nuclide migration from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of migrating radionuclides from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Using conservatively high estimates of the potential inventory of radioactive activation products that could form in the proposed compacted-soil shield berm around an SNS facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a conservative, simplified transport model was used to estimate the potential worst-case concentrations of the 12 long-lived isotopes in the groundwater under a site with the hydrologic characteristics of the ORR.

  9. Evolution of Warped Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Roles of Feeding at the Outer Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the alignment processes of spinning black holes and their surrounding warped accretion disks in a frame of two different types of feeding at the outer boundaries. We consider (1) fixed flows in which gas is continually fed with a preferred angular momentum, and (2) free flows in which there is no gas supply and the disks diffuse freely at their outer edges. As expected, we find that for the cases of fixed flows the black hole disk systems always align on timescales of several 106 yr, irrespective of the initial inclinations. If the initial inclination angles are larger than π/2, the black hole accretion transits from retrograde to prograde fashion, and the accreted mass onto the black holes during these two phases is comparable. On the other hand, for the cases of free flows, both alignments and anti-alignments can occur, depending on the initial inclinations and the ratios of the angular momentum of the disks to that of the black holes. In such cases, the disks will be consumed within timescales of 106 yr by black holes accreting at the Eddington limit. We propose that there is a close connection between the black hole spin and the lifetime for which the feeding persists, which determines the observable episodic lifetimes of active galactic nuclei. We conclude that careful inclusion of the disk feeding at the outer boundaries is crucial for modeling the evolution of the black hole spin.

  10. Long-time atomistic evolution of grain boundary in nickel using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Sami; Trochet, Mickaël; Restrepo, Oscar; Mousseau, Normand

    The microscopic mechanisms associated with the evolution of metallic materials are still a matter of debate as both experimental and numerical approaches fail to provide a detailed atomic picture of their time evolution. Here, we use the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an unbiased off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building to overcome these limitations and follow the atomistic evolution of a 10.000-atom grain boundary Ni system over macroscopic time scales. We first characterize the kinetic properties of four different empirical potentials, the embedded atom method (EAM), the first and second modified embedded atom method (MEAM1NN and MEAM2NN respectively) and the Reax force field (ReaxFF) potentials. Comparing the energetics, the elastic effects and the diffusion mechanisms for systems with one to three vacancies and one to three self-interstitials in nickel simulated over second time scale, we conclude that ReaxFF and EAM potentials are closest to experimental values. We then proceed to study the long-time evolution of a grain boundary with the Reax forcefield and to offer a detailed description of its energy landscape, including the exact description of short and long-range effects on self-diffusion along the interface

  11. Boundary layer theory and subduction

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, A.C.

    1993-12-01

    Numerical models of thermally activated convective flow in Earth`s mantle do not resemble active plate tectonics because of their inability to model successfully the process of subduction, other than by the inclusion of artificial weak zones. Here we show, using a boundary layer argument, how the `rigid lid` style of convection favored by thermoviscous fluids leads to lithospheric stresses which may realistically exceed the yield stress and thus cause subduction ot occur through the visoc-plastic failure of lithospheric rock. An explicit criterion for the failure of the lid is given, which is sensitive to the internal viscosity eta(sub a) below the lid. For numbers appropriate to Earth`s mantle, this criterion is approximately eta(sub a) greater than 10(exp 21) Pa s.

  12. Circadian Variability in Methane Oxidation Activity in the Root Zone of Rice Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, M. H.; Cho, R.; Zeyer, J.

    2009-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas with a warming potential about 20 times stronger than that of carbon dioxide. A main source of biogenic methane are rice-paddy soils. Methane is produced in flooded rice fields under anaerobic conditions. Conversely, methanotrophic microorganisms oxidize methane to carbon dioxide in the root zone of rice plants in the presence of molecular oxygen supplied to the roots through the plants’ aerenchyma, thus reducing overall methane emissions to the atmosphere. To quantify methane oxidation we adapted push-pull tests (PPTs), a technique originally developed for aquifer testing, in combination with a suitable microbial inhibitor for application in the root zone of rice plants. During a PPT, 70 ml of a test solution containing dissolved substrates (methane, oxygen), nonreactive tracers (argon, chloride) and the methanogenesis inhibitor 2-Bromoethane sulfonate was injected into the plant’s root zone, and after a rest period of two hours extracted from the same location. Reaction rate constants were calculated from extraction-phase breakthrough curves of substrates and tracers. We conducted a set of three different laboratory PPTs to quantify methane oxidation at day time, directly after dawn, and at night in the root zone of four different potted rice plants each. High diurnal methane oxidation rate constants (up to 23 h-1) were obtained for all rice plants. Methane oxidation potential decreased soon after nightfall. At night, rate constants were usually below 1 h-1. Methane oxidation rates were apparently independent of additional oxygen supplied via the injected test solutions, but strongly dependent on photosynthetically produced oxygen transported to the roots through the plants’ aerenchyma. Additional PPTs utilizing 13C-labeled methane are currently being conducted to corroborate these findings. Ultimately, this novel tool shall support efforts to quantitatively understand the controlling mechanisms of methane turnover in

  13. Geometry and faults tectonic activity of the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Evidence from magnetotelluric and electrical resistivity tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufford, Kelsey Mosley; Atekwana, Estella A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Shemang, Elijah; Atekwana, Eliot A.; Mickus, Kevin; Moidaki, Moikwathai; Modisi, Motsoptse P.; Molwalefhe, Loago

    2012-04-01

    We used Magnetotelluric (MT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to investigate the geometry and nature of faults activity of the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in Botswana, an incipient rift at the southern tip of the Southwestern Branch of the East African Rift System. The ORZ forms a subtle topographic depression filled with Quaternary lacustrine and fluvio-deltaic sediments and is bounded by NE-trending normal faults that are more prominent in the southeastern portion of the rift basin. An MT model from a regional (˜140 km) NW-SE trending MT transect shows that much of the rift basin is underlain by a broad asymmetrical low resistivity anomaly that slopes gently (˜1°) from NW to SE reaching a depth of ˜300 m. This anomaly suggests that faults in the southeastern part of the rift form a NW-dipping border fault zone and that the lacustrine and fluvio-deltaic sediments contain brackish to saline water filling the broad half-graben structure. Furthermore, MT and ERT models from detailed (4-13 km long) MT transects and resistivity profiles show that one border fault (Thamalakane) and two within-basin faults (Lecha and Tsau) in the southeastern part of the ORZ are characterized by a localized high conductivity anomaly while another border fault (Kunyere) lacks such an anomaly. These localized anomalies are attributed to channelized fresh surface water and saline groundwater percolating through these faults forming "fault zone conductors" and suggest actively displacing faults. The lack of a "fault zone conductor" in the Kunyere fault is interpreted as indicating diminishing displacement on this fault, and that strain was transferred to the Thamalakane fault further to the east. The fluids provide lubricant for the ORZ faults, hence preventing infrequent large magnitude earthquakes, but favoring frequent micro-seismicity.

  14. Overexpression of INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION activates cell separation in vestigial abscission zones in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stenvik, Grethe-Elisabeth; Butenko, Melinka A; Urbanowicz, Breeanna Rae; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Aalen, Reidunn B

    2006-06-01

    Plants may shed organs when they have been injured or served their purpose. The differential pattern of organ abscission in different species is most likely the result of evolutionary adaptation to a variety of life styles and environments. The final step of abscission-related cell separation in floral organs of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana, which only abscises sepals, petals, and stamens, is controlled by INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA). Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis 35S:IDA lines constitutively overexpressing IDA exhibit earlier abscission of floral organs, showing that the abscission zones are responsive to IDA soon after the opening of the flowers. In addition, ectopic abscission was observed at the bases of the pedicel, branches of the inflorescence, and cauline leaves. The silique valves also dehisced prematurely. Scanning electron microscopy indicated a spread of middle lamella degradation from preformed abscission zone cells to neighboring cells. A transcript encoding an arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was upregulated in the 35S:IDA lines, and large amounts of AGP were secreted at the sites of abscission. AGP was shown to be a constituent of wild-type floral abscission zones during and soon after cell separation had been completed. We suggest that the restricted expression pattern of IDA precludes abscission of nonfloral organs in Arabidopsis.

  15. Transverse tectonic boundaries near Kodiak Island, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Von Huene, R.

    1981-01-01

    Transverse tectonic boundaries exist at the NE and SW ends of the Kodiak islands, so that the Aleutian arc-trench system is longitudinally segmented in this area. Evidence for the transverse boundaries includes alignments of such geologic features as offset volcanic lineations, terminations of structural trends, and boundaries of discrete zones of earthquake aftershock sequences. The boundaries appear to be broad zones of disruption that began to form during the late Miocene or Pliocene. Although oceanic fracture zones and seamount chains intersect the continental margin near the boundaries, subduction of these features probably did not cause the tectonic boundaries. The fracture zones and seamount chains have swept northeastward along the margin, at least since the late Pliocene, because of the direction of convergence of the Pacific and N American plates. -Authors

  16. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  17. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  18. Searching for Active Faults in the Western Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Veronica; Custodio, Susana; Arroucau, Pierre; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The repeated occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in southwest Iberia in historical and instrumental times suggests the presence of active faults in the region. However, the region undergoes slow deformation, which results in low rates of seismic activity, and the location, dimension and geometry of active structures remains unsettled. We recently developed a new algorithm for earthquake location in 3D complex media with laterally varying interface depths, which allowed us to relocate 2363 events that occurred from 2007 to 2013. The method takes as inputs P- and S-wave catalog arrival times obtained from the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IPMA, Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera), for a study area defined by 8.5°W < lon < 5°W and 36° < lat < 37.5°. After relocation, we obtain a lineation of events in the Guadalquivir bank region, in the northern Gulf of Cadiz. The lineation defines a low-angle northward-dipping plane rooted at the base of the crust, which could indicate the presence of a major fault. We provide seismological evidence for the existence of this seemingly active structure based on earthquake relocations, focal mechanisms and waveform similarity between neighboring events.

  19. Developing a User Oriented Design Methodology for Learning Activities Using Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragou, ?lga; Kameas, Achilles

    2013-01-01

    International Standards in High and Open and Distance Education are used for developing Open Educational Resources (OERs). Current issues in e-learning community are the specification of learning chunks and the definition of describing designs for different units of learning (activities, units, courses) in a generic though expandable format.…

  20. Reconsidering the Boundaries of the Cyberloafing Activity: The Case of a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    While many scholars generally conceptualise cyberloafing as just one more type of conventional deviant behaviour at work, others consider this activity to be innocuous or even productive. In either case, cyberloafing is viewed as merely misusing Internet resources, without contemplating its potential online character. The purpose of this study is…

  1. Boundaries of Cultural Influence: Construct Activation as a Mechanism for Cultural Differences in Social Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Ying-Yi; Benet-Martinez, Veronica; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Morris, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Examined how applicability of activated cultural knowledge would moderate cultural priming effects. Research with Chinese undergraduate students who had extensive knowledge of Chinese and western culture, and with Chinese-born students at an American university, indicated that seeing American versus Chinese cultural primes affected perception of…

  2. Locating Active Plate Boundaries by Earthquake Data. Crustal Evaluation Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  3. In-flight active wave cancelation with delayed-x-LMS control algorithm in a laminar boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Bernhard; Fabbiane, Nicolò; Nemitz, Timotheus; Bagheri, Shervin; Henningson, Dan S.; Grundmann, Sven

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript demonstrates the first successful application of the delayed-x-LMS (dxLMS) control algorithm for TS-wave cancelation. Active wave cancelation of two-dimensional broadband Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) disturbances is performed with a single DBD plasma actuator. The experiments are conducted in flight on the pressure side of a laminar flow wing glove, mounted on a manned glider. The stability properties of the controller are investigated in detail with experimental flight data, DNS and stability analysis of the boundary layer. Finally, a model-free approach for dxLMS operation is introduced to operate the controller as a `black-box' system, which automatically adjusts the controller settings based on a group speed measurement of the disturbance wave packets. The modified dxLMS controller is operated without a model and is able to adapt to varying conditions that may occur during flight in atmosphere.

  4. In-Flight Active Wave Cancelation with Delayed-x-LMS Control Algorithm in a Laminar Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Bernhard; Fabbiane, Nicolo; Nemitz, Timotheus; Bagheri, Shervin; Henningson, Dan; Grundmann, Sven

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript demonstrates the first successful application of the delayed-x-LMS (dxLMS) control algorithm for TS-wave cancelation. Active wave cancelation of two-dimensional broad-band Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) disturbances is performed with a single DBD plasma actuator. The experiments are conducted in flight on the pressure side of a laminar flow wing glove, mounted on a manned glider. The stability properties of the controller are investigated in detail with experimental flight data, DNS and stability analysis of the boundary layer. Finally, a model-free approach for dxLMS operation is introduced to operate the controller as a "black box" system, which automatically adjusts the controller settings based on a group speed measurement of the disturbance wave packets. The modified dxLMS controller is operated without a model and is able to adapt to varying conditions that may occur during flight in atmosphere. DFG No.GR3524/4-1.

  5. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Molecular Adaptations in the Hippocampal Synaptic Active Zone of Chronic Mild Stress-Unsusceptible Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Liu, Zhao; Yu, Jia; Han, Xin; Fan, Songhua; Shao, Weihua; Chen, Jianjun; Qiao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background: While stressful events are recognized as an important cause of major depressive disorder, some individuals exposed to life stressors maintain normal psychological functioning. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Abnormal transmission and plasticity of hippocampal synapses have been implied to play a key role in the pathoetiology of major depressive disorder. Methods: A chronic mild stress protocol was applied to separate susceptible and unsusceptible rat subpopulations. Proteomic analysis using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was performed to identify differential proteins in enriched hippocampal synaptic junction preparations. Results: A total of 4318 proteins were quantified, and 89 membrane proteins were present in differential amounts. Of these, SynaptomeDB identified 81 (91%) having a synapse-specific localization. The unbiased profiles identified several candidate proteins within the synaptic junction that may be associated with stress vulnerability or insusceptibility. Subsequent functional categorization revealed that protein systems particularly involved in membrane trafficking at the synaptic active zone exhibited a positive strain as potential molecular adaptations in the unsusceptible rats. Moreover, through STRING and immunoblotting analysis, membrane-associated GTP-bound Rab3a and Munc18-1 appear to coregulate syntaxin-1/SNAP25/VAMP2 assembly at the hippocampal presynaptic active zone of unsusceptible rats, facilitating SNARE-mediated membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release, and may be part of a stress-protection mechanism in actively maintaining an emotional homeostasis. Conclusions: The present results support the concept that there is a range of potential protein adaptations in the hippocampal synaptic active zone of unsusceptible rats, revealing new investigative targets that may contribute to a better understanding of stress

  6. Toll-like receptor stimulation in splenic marginal zone lymphoma can modulate cell signaling, activation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Eleonora; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Reverberi, Daniele; Ntoufa, Stavroula; Scarfò, Lydia; Ranghetti, Pamela; Cutrona, Giovanna; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Xochelli, Aliki; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Belessi, Chrysoula; Davis, Zadie; Piris, Miguel A.; Oscier, David; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Muzio, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on splenic marginal zone lymphoma identified distinct mutations in genes belonging to the B-cell receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, thus pointing to their potential implication in the biology of the disease. However, limited data is available regarding the exact role of TLRs. We aimed at characterizing the expression pattern of TLRs in splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells and their functional impact on the activation, proliferation and viability of malignant cells in vitro. Cells expressed significant levels of TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10 mRNA; TLR2 and TLR4 showed a low, variable pattern of expression among patients whereas TLR3 and TLR5 mRNAs were undetectable; mRNA specific for TLR signaling molecules and adapters was also expressed. At the protein level, TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10 were detected. Stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 with their respective ligands triggered the activation of IRAK kinases, MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and the induction of CD86 and CD25 activation molecules, although in a heterogeneous manner among different patient samples. TLR-induced activation and cell viability were also inhibited by a specific IRAK1/4 inhibitor, thus strongly supporting the specific role of TLR signaling in these processes. Furthermore, TLR2/6 and TLR9 stimulation also significantly increased cell proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells are equipped with functional TLR and signaling molecules and that the stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 may play a role in regulating disease pathobiology, likely promoting the expansion of the neoplastic clone. PMID:26294727

  7. Blurring the boundaries: developmental and activity-dependent determinants of neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Verena; Baines, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain comprises approximately 100 billion neurons that express a diverse, and often subtype-specific, set of neurotransmitters and voltage-gated ion channels. Given this enormous complexity, a fundamental question is how is this achieved? The acquisition of neurotransmitter phenotype was viewed as being set by developmental programs ‘hard wired’ into the genome. By contrast, the expression of neuron-specific ion channels was considered to be highly dynamic (i.e., ‘soft wired’) and shaped largely by activity-dependent mechanisms. Recent evidence blurs this distinction by showing that neurotransmitter phenotype can be altered by activity and that neuron type-specific ion channel expression can be set, and perhaps limited by, developmental programs. Better understanding of these early regulatory mechanisms may offer new avenues to avert the behavioral changes that are characteristic of many mental illnesses. PMID:23876426

  8. BDNF Enhances Quantal Neurotransmitter Release and Increases the Number of Docked Vesicles at the Active Zones of Hippocampal Excitatory Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, William J.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas D.

    2009-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is emerging as a key mediator of activity-dependent modifications of synaptic strength in the CNS. We investigated the hypothesis that BDNF enhances quantal neurotransmitter release by modulating the distribution of synaptic vesicles within presynaptic terminals using organotypic slice cultures of postnatal rat hippocampus. BDNF specifically increased the number of docked vesicles at the active zone of excitatory synapses on CA1 dendritic spines, with only a small increase in active zone size. In agreement with the hypothesis that an increased docked vesicle density enhances quantal neurotransmitter release, BDNF increased the frequency, but not the amplitude, of AMPA receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. Synapse number, independently estimated from dendritic spine density and electron microscopy measurements, was also increased after BDNF treatment, indicating that the actions of BNDF on mEPSC frequency can be partially attributed to an increased synaptic density. Our results further suggest that all these actions were mediated via tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor activation, established by inhibition of plasma membrane tyrosine kinases with K-252a. These results provide additional evidence of a fundamental role of the BDNF–TrkB signaling cascade in synaptic transmission, as well as in cellular models of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. PMID:11404410

  9. Diversity and Dynamics of Active Small Microbial Eukaryotes in the Anoxic Zone of a Freshwater Meromictic Lake (Pavin, France)

    PubMed Central

    Lepère, Cécile; Domaizon, Isabelle; Hugoni, Mylène; Vellet, Agnès; Debroas, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Microbial eukaryotes play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning and oxygen is considered to be one of the strongest barriers against their local dispersal. However, diversity of microbial eukaryotes in freshwater habitats with oxygen gradients has previously received very little attention. We applied high-throughput sequencing (V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene) in conjunction with quantitative PCR (DNA and RNA) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, to provide an unique spatio-temporal analysis of microbial eukaryotes diversity and potential activity in a meromictic freshwater lake (lake Pavin). This study revealed a high genetic diversity of unicellular eukaryotes in the permanent anoxic zone of lake Pavin and allowed the discrimination of active vs. inactive components. Forty-two percent of the OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) are exclusively present in the monimolimnion, where Alveolata (Ciliophora and Dinophyceae) and Fungi (Dikarya and Chytrids) are the most active phyla and are probably represented by species capable of anaerobic metabolism. Pigmented eukaryotes (Haptophyceae and Chlorophyceae) are also present and active in this zone, which opens up questions regarding their metabolism. PMID:26904006

  10. Active deformation in Zagros-Makran transition zone inferred from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, R.; Chery, J.; Tatar, M.; Vernant, Ph.; Abbassi, M.; Masson, F.; Nilforoushan, F.; Doerflinger, E.; Regard, V.; Bellier, O.

    2006-04-01

    The Bandar Abbas-Strait of Hormuz zone is considered as a transition between the Zagros collision and the Makran oceanic subduction. We used GPS network measurements collected in 2000 and 2002 to better understand the distribution of the deformation between the collision zone and the Makran subduction. Analysing the GPS velocities, we show that transfer of the deformation is mainly accommodated along the NNW-SSE-trending reverse right-lateral Zendan-Minab-Palami (ZMP) fault system. The rate is estimated to 10 +/- 3 mm yr-1 near the faults. Assuming that the ZMP fault system transfers the motion between the Makran-Lut Block and the Arabian plate, we estimate to 15 mm yr-1 and 6 mm yr-1, respectively, the dextral strike-slip and shortening components of the long-term transpressive displacement. Our geodetic measurements suggest also a 10-15 km locking depth for the ZMP fault system. The radial velocity pattern and the orientation of compressive strain axes around the straight of Hormuz is probably the consequence of the subducting Musandam promontory. The N-S Jiroft-Sabzevaran (JS) fault system prolongates southwards the dextral shear motion of the Nayband-Gowk (NG) fault system at an apparent rate of 3.1 +/- 2.5 mm yr-1. The change from strong to weak coupling for underthrusting the Arabian plate beneath the Zagros (strong) and the Makran (weak) may explain the dextral motion along the ZMP, JS/NG and Neh-Zahedan fault systems which transfer the convergence from a broad zone in the western Iran (Zagros, Tabriz fault system, Alborz, Caucasus and Caspian sea surroundings) to Makran subduction.

  11. Active transition fixing and control of the boundary layer in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    1985-01-01

    Active transition of flow over an airfoil surface and feedback control by sound is investigated in a wind tunnel at Caltech. Laminar instability forced by localized time dependent nonintrusive narrow heating strip causes abrupt changes in velocity to trigger instant transition at favorable pressure gradient. At zero and adverse pressure gradients these changes are only marginal. Feedback control by sound interaction at nearly normal incidence produces significant reduction in velocity perturbation in regions of transition. This reduction is in part at the expense of an increase in background disturbance since it is not possible to restore the flow to its undisturbed state.

  12. Control of biologically active degradation zones by vertical heterogeneity: Applications in fractured media. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, F.S.; Smith, R.W.; McKinley, J.; Fredrickson, J.; Onstott, T.C.; Reysenbach, A.L.

    1997-11-01

    'The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between of biologically active contaminant degradation zones in a fractured, subsurface medium and vertical geological heterogeneities. The research is being performed on samples collected from the Test Area North (TAN) site at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) where a dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) plume is migrating in the basalts and interbed sediments of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Research results are leading to an enhanced understanding of the constraints that the geochemical and hydrological environment place on the activities and distribution of TCE-degrading organisms in this fractured subsurface medium. Enhanced understanding allows better decisions to be made regarding the use of remedial technologies such as natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation at geologically complex waste sites. Through this research, investigations conducted by the Subsurface Science Program (SSP) at TAN are being extended in order to develop a mechanistic understanding of the coupled geomicrobial and hydrogeochemical processes that are necessary to predict the field-scale intrinsic degradation rates of TCE. The research objective is being accomplished by characterizing paired cores and water samples from boreholes located in differing geochemical and flow environments within the plume. Analysis of these samples will allow the determination of the spatial correlation and microbial characterization. The results presented in this report consist primarily of TAN-33 data as many of those analyses have been completed. Nearly all of the TAN-37 data has yet to be acquired. It should be noted that most of the cores were collected from zones that consist of relatively competent, massive basalt. This was because the authors were doubtful about the quality of samples obtained from rubble zones due to potential alteration by the drilling fluids. Thus, microbiological

  13. Boundary issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    -centric boundary (Filippelli 2008, Handoh and Lenton 2003). However, human alteration of the P cycle has multiple potential boundaries (figure 1), including P-driven freshwater eutrophication (Smith and Schindler 2009), the potential for world P supply to place an ultimate limit on food production (Smil 2000, Childers et al 2011), and depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions (MacDonald et al 2011). Carpenter and Bennett revisit the P boundary from the freshwater eutrophication perspective. Given the extraordinary variation in freshwater ecosystems across the globe, this is a challenging task, but the authors strengthen their analysis by using three different boundaries with relevance to eutrophication, along with two water quality targets and a range of estimates of P flow to the sea. In doing so, they make a compelling case that if freshwater eutrophication is indeed a Rubicon, we have already crossed it. Importantly, Carpenter and Bennett go beyond the calculation of new boundaries to make broader points about humanity's relationship with the P cycle. Disruptions of both the P and N cycles are mostly about our need for food (Galloway et al 2008, Cordell et al 2009), but unlike N, P supplies are finite and irreplaceable. Environmental concerns aside, we can fix all the N2 from the atmosphere we want—but deplete our economically viable P reserves and we're in trouble. Figure 1 Figure 1. Human alteration of the global P cycle has multiple possible boundaries. These include the environmental risks posed by freshwater eutrophication and marine anoxic events, and the food security risks that come from depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions, as well as finite global supplies of high-value mineral P reserves. Photo credits beyond authors: upper left, Shelby Riskin; upper right, Pedro Sanchez. In effect, Carpenter and Bennett argue that among P's multiple boundaries, the one for freshwaters is less forgiving of our current activities (but no less important) than is

  14. Late Quaternary Activity and Seismogenic Potential of the Gonave Microplate: Plantain Garden Strike-Slip Fault Zone of Eastern Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.; King, W.; Demets, C.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.; Benford, B.

    2008-12-01

    At the longitude of Jamaica, Caribbean (Carib)-North America (Noam) plate motion of 19 ± 2 mm/a is carried by two parallel, left-lateral strike-slip faults, the Oriente fault zone, immediately south of Cuba, and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ), which lies 100-150 km further south. It has been postulated that the lithosphere between these faults constitutes an independent Gonave microplate that has formed in response to the ongoing collision between the leading edge of Carib in Hispaniola and the Bahama carbonate platform. GPS measurements in Jamaica and Hispanola is supportive of the microplate hypothesis and indicates that roughly half of Carib-Noam plate motion (8-14 mm/a) is carried by the EPGFZ of southern Hispaniola and eastern Jamaica. This study applies geomorphic and paleoseismic methods as a direct test of the activity and amount of microplate motion carried on the Plantain Garden fault segment of eastern Hispaniola and how this motion is distributed across a large restraining bend that has formed the island of Jamaica since the late Miocene. The EPFZ curves gently to the northeast and forming a steep mountain front to the Blue Mountains restraining bend with elevations up to 2200 m. Geomorphic fault-related features along the mountain front fault zone include left-laterally deflected rivers and streams, but no small scale features indicative of Holocene activity. River and stream deflections range from 0.1 to 0.5 km. We identified and trenched the most active trace of the mountain front fault at the Morant River where the fault is characterized by a 1.5-m-wide sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and fault Cretaceous basement rocks This section is overlain by a 6-m-thick fluvial terrace. Trenching in the unfaulted terrace immediately overlying the fault trace revealed radiocarbon and OSL ages ranging from 20 to 21 ka that are consistent with a prominent unfaulted alluvial fan along the projection of this fault 1.5 km to

  15. Regional and Detailed Survey for Radon Activities in Soil-Gas and Groundwater in the Okchon Zone, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, H.-K.; Chon, H.-T.

    2012-04-01

    The Okchon zone in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched in potentially toxic elements including uranium which is parent nuclide for radon gas. For the purpose of radon radioactivity risk assessment, making the map of radon risk grade from Okchon zone, regional and detailed field surveys were carried out during 3 years. The study area is located in the central part of Korea, called the Okchon zone (about 5,100 km2), which occur in a 80km wide, northeast-trending belt that extends across the Korean Peninsula. The Okchon zone is underlain by metasedimentary rocks of unknown age that are composed mainly of black slate, phyllite, shale, and limestone. The three research areas (defined as Boeun, Chungju, and Nonsan) for detailed survey were selected from the results of regional survey. Results of detailed radon survey indicated a wide range of radon activities for soil-gases (148-1,843 pCi/L) and ground waters (23-5,540 pCi/L). About 15 percent of soil-gas samples exceeded 1,000 pCi/L and 84 percent of ground water samples exceeded the MCL (maximum contaminant level) of drinking water, 300 pCi/L, which proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999. For detailed survey, radon activities of soil-gas and ground water were classified as bedrock geology, based on 1/50,000 geological map and field research. For soil-gas measurements, mean values of radon activity from black slate-shale (789 pCi/L) were highest among the other base rocks. And for groundwater measurements, mean value of radon activities were decreased in the order of granite (1,345 pCi/L) > black shale-slate (915 pCi/L) > metasediments (617 pCi/L). Result of indoor radon measurement from detailed survey areas showed that about 50% of houses exceeded the indoor guideline, 4 pCi/L. For the radon risk assessment in indoor environment showed that probability of lung cancer risk from the houses located on the granite base rock (3.0×10-2) was highest among the other

  16. Active Control of Instabilities in Laminar Boundary Layers-Overview and Concept Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yoursuff

    1997-01-01

    This paper (the first in a series) focuses on using active-control methods to maintain laminar flow in a region of the flow in which the natural instabilities, if left unattended, lead to turbulent flow. The authors review previous studies that examine wave cancellation (currently the most prominent method) and solve the unsteady, nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations to evaluate this method of controlling instabilities. It is definitively shown that instabilities are controlled by the linear summation of waves (i.e., wave cancellation). Although a mathematically complete method for controlling arbitrary instabilities has been developed, the review, duplication, and physical explanation of previous studies are important steps for providing an independent verification of those studies, for establishing a framework for the work which will involve automated transition control, and for detailing the phenomena by-which the automated studies can be used to expand knowledge of flow control.

  17. Active control of instabilities in laminar boundary-layer flow. Part 1: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1994-01-01

    This paper (the first in a series) focuses on using active-control methods to maintain laminar flow in a region of the flow in which the natural instabilities, if left unattended, lead to turbulent flow. The authors review previous studies that examine wave cancellation (currently the most prominent method) and solve the unsteady, nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations to evaluate this method of controlling instabilities. It is definitely shown that instabilities are controlled by the linear summation of waves (i.e., wave cancellation). Although a mathematically complete method for controlling arbitrary instabilities has been developed (but not yet tested), the review, duplication, and physical explanation of previous studies are important steps for providing an independent verification of those studies, for establishing a framework for subsequent work which will involve automated transition control, and for detailing the phenomena by which the automated studies can be used to expand knowledge of flow control.

  18. The active-zone protein Munc13 controls the use-dependence of presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Calloway, Nathaniel; Gouzer, Géraldine; Xue, Mingyu; Ryan, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Presynaptic calcium channel function is critical for converting electrical information into chemical communication but the molecules in the active zone that sculpt this function are poorly understood. We show that Munc13, an active-zone protein essential for exocytosis, also controls presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) function dictating their behavior during various forms of activity. We demonstrate that in vitro Munc13 interacts with voltage-VGCCs via a pair of basic residues in Munc13's C2B domain. We show that elimination of this interaction by either removal of Munc13 or replacement of Munc13 with a Munc13 C2B mutant alters synaptic VGCC's response to and recovery from high-frequency action potential bursts and alters calcium influx from single action potential stimuli. These studies illustrate a novel form of synaptic modulation and show that Munc13 is poised to profoundly impact information transfer at nerve terminals by controlling both vesicle priming and the trigger for exocytosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07728.001 PMID:26196145

  19. High-resolution water column survey to identify active sublacustrine hydrothermal discharge zones within Lake Rotomahana, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Sharon L.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Fornari, Daniel; Tivey, Maurice A.; Stucker, Valerie K.

    2016-03-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles were used to conduct a high-resolution water column survey of Lake Rotomahana using temperature, pH, turbidity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to identify active hydrothermal discharge zones within the lake. Five areas with active sublacustrine venting were identified: (1) the area of the historic Pink Terraces; (2) adjacent to the western shoreline subaerial "Steaming Cliffs," boiling springs and geyser; (3) along the northern shoreline to the east of the Pink Terrace site; (4) the newly discovered Patiti hydrothermal system along the south margin of the 1886 Tarawera eruption rift zone; and (5) a location in the east basin (northeast of Patiti Island). The Pink Terrace hydrothermal system was active prior to the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, but venting along the western shoreline, in the east basin, and the Patiti hydrothermal system appear to have been initiated in the aftermath of the eruption, similar to Waimangu Valley to the southwest. Different combinations of turbidity, pH anomalies (both positive and negative), and ORP responses suggest vent fluid compositions vary over short distances within the lake. The seasonal period of stratification limits vertical transport of heat to the surface layer and the hypolimnion temperature of Lake Rotomahana consequently increases with an average warming rate of ~ 0.010 °C/day due to both convective hydrothermal discharge and conductive geothermal heating. A sudden temperature increase occurred during our 2011 survey and was likely the response to an earthquake swarm just 11 days prior.

  20. Adjacent positioning of cellular structures enabled by a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein-mediated zone of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zongtian; Gao, Xiang-Dong; Howell, Audrey S; Bose, Indrani; Lew, Daniel J; Bi, Erfei

    2007-12-31

    Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are born carrying localized transmembrane landmark proteins that guide the subsequent establishment of a polarity axis and hence polarized growth to form a bud in the next cell cycle. In haploid cells, the relevant landmark proteins are concentrated at the site of the preceding cell division, to which they recruit Cdc24, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the conserved polarity regulator Cdc42. However, instead of polarizing at the division site, the new polarity axis is directed next to but not overlapping that site. Here, we show that the Cdc42 guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP) Rga1 establishes an exclusion zone at the division site that blocks subsequent polarization within that site. In the absence of localized Rga1 GAP activity, new buds do in fact form within the old division site. Thus, Cdc42 activators and GAPs establish concentric zones of action such that polarization is directed to occur adjacent to but not within the previous cell division site.

  1. Active part of Charlie--Gibbs fracture zone: A study using sonar and other geophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Searle, R.

    1981-01-10

    A short survey with Gloria side-scan sonar and other geophysical instruments has revealed new information about Charlie--Gibbs fracture zone between 29/sup 0/ and 36 /sup 0/W. The traces of two transform faults have been clearly delineated. They fit small circles about the pole of rotation with an rms error of only about 1 km, but they do not always follow the deepest parts of the transform valleys. The transforms are joined by a short spreading center at 31 /sup 0/45 'W. The median transverse ridge appears to have been produced by normal seafloor spreading at this center and bears identifiable Vine-Matthews magnetic anomalies. A transverse ridge along the eastern inactive part of the northern transform may be an intrusive feature. Considerable thickness of sediment appear to have been deposited in the northern transform valley from Norwegian Sea overflow water passing through the fracture zone, but transverse ridges have prevented the sediment reaching the southern valley.

  2. 78 FR 7394 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, WI; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; CNH America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 41--Milwaukee, WI; Notification of Proposed Production... conforming to the requirements of the regulations of the Foreign Trade-Zones Board (the Board) (15 CFR 400.22..., Foreign-Trade Zones Board, Room 21013, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1401 Constitution Avenue...

  3. Preliminary results on the tectonic activity of the Ovacık Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey): Implications of the morphometric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazıcı, Müge; Zabci, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Sunal, Gürsel; Natalin, Boris A.

    2016-04-01

    The Anatolian 'plate' is being extruded westward relative to the Eurasia along two major tectonic structures, the North Anatolian and the East Anatolian shear zones, respectively making its northern and eastern boundaries. Although the main deformation is localized along these two structures, there is remarkable intra-plate deformation within Anatolia, especially which are characterized by NE-striking sinistral and NW-striking dextral strike-slip faults (Şengör et al. 1985). The Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone (MOFZ) and its northeastern member, the Ovacık Fault (OF), is a one of the NE-striking sinistral strike slip faults in the central 'ova' neotectonic province of Anatolia, located close to its eastern boundary. Although this fault zone is claimed to be an inactive structure in some studies, the recent GPS measurements (Aktuǧ et al., 2013) and microseismic activity (AFAD, 2013) strongly suggest the opposite. In order to understand rates and patterns of vertical ground motions along the OF, we studied the certain morphometric analyses such as hypsometric curves and integrals, longitudinal channel profiles, and asymmetry of drainage basins. The Karasu (Euphrates) and Munzur rivers form the main drainage systems of the study area. We extracted all drainage network from SRTM-based Digital Elevation Model with 30 m ground pixel resolution and totally identified 40 sub-drainage basins, which are inhomogeneously distributed to the north and to the south of the OF. Most of these basins show strong asymmetry, which are mainly tilted to SW. The asymmetry relatively decreases from NE to SW in general. The only exception is at the margins of the Ovacık Basin (OB), where almost the highest asymmetry values were calculated. On the other hand, the characteristics of hypsometric curves and the calculated hypsometric integrals do not show the similar systematic spatial pattern. The hypsometric curves with convex-shaped geometry, naturally indicating relatively young morphology

  4. Control of plasma properties in a short direct-current glow discharge with active boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S. F.; Demidov, V. I.; Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Koepke, M. E.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.

    2016-02-15

    To demonstrate controlling electron/metastable density ratio and electron temperature by applying negative voltages to the active (conducting) discharge wall in a low-pressure plasma with nonlocal electron energy distribution function, modeling has been performed in a short (lacking the positive-column region) direct-current glow discharge with a cold cathode. The applied negative voltage can modify the trapping of the low-energy part of