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Sample records for active brazing alloy

  1. Elevated temperature creep properties for selected active metal braze alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    Active metal braze alloys reduce the number of processes required for the joining of metal to ceramic components by eliminating the need for metallization and/or Ni plating of the ceramic surfaces. Titanium (Ti), V, and Zr are examples of active element additions which have been used successfully in such braze alloys. Since the braze alloy is expected to accommodate thermal expansion mismatch strains between the metal and ceramic materials, a knowledge of its elevated temperature mechanical properties is important. In particular, the issue of whether or not the creep strength of an active metal braze alloy is increased or decreased relative to its non-activated counterpart is important when designing new brazing processes and alloy systems. This paper presents a survey of high temperature mechanical properties for two pairs of conventional braze alloys and their active metal counterparts: (a) the conventional 72Ag-28Cu (Cusil) alloy, and the active braze alloy 62.2Ag- 36.2Cu-1.6Ti (Cusil ABA), and (b) the 82Au-18Ni (Nioro) alloy and the active braze alloy Mu-15.5M-0.75Mo-1.75V (Nioro ABA). For the case of the Cusil/Cusil ABA pair, the active metal addition contributes to solid solution strengthening of the braze alloy, resulting in a higher creep strength as compared to the non-active alloy. In the case of the Nioro/Nioro ABA pair, the Mo and V additions cause the active braze alloy to have a two-phase microstructure, which results in a reduced creep strength than the conventional braze alloy. The Garofalo sinh equation has been used to quantitatively describe the stress and temperature dependence of the deformation behavior. It will be observed that the effective stress exponent in the Garofalo sinh equation is a function of the instantaneous value of the stress argument.

  2. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-02-20

    A brazing alloy is described which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability and is capable of forming a corrosion-resistant brazed joint. At least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion-resistant refractory metal. The brazing alloy consists essentially of 40 to 90 wt % of gold, 5 to 35 wt% of nickel, and 1 to 45 wt% of tantalum. (AEC)

  3. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    A brazing alloy which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability, said alloy being capable of forming a corrosion resistant brazed joint wherein at least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion resistant refractory metal, said alloy consisting essentially of 20 to 50 per cent by weight of gold, 20 to 50 per cent by weight of nickel, and 15 to 45 per cent by weight of molybdenum. (AEC)

  4. Laser Brazing of High Temperature Braze Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Y. P.; Seaman, R. F.; McQuillan, T. J.; Martiens, R. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) consists of 1080 conical tubes, which are furnace brazed themselves, manifolds, and surrounding structural jacket making almost four miles of braze joints. Subsequent furnace braze cycles are performed due to localized braze voids between the coolant tubes. SSME nozzle experiences extremely high heat flux (180 mW/sq m) during hot fire. Braze voids between coolant tubes may result in hot combustion gas escape causing jacket bulges. The nozzle can be disqualified for flight or result in mission failure if the braze voids exceed the limits. Localized braze processes were considered to eliminate braze voids, however, damage to the parent materials often prohibited use of such process. Being the only manned flight reusable rocket engine, it has stringent requirement on the braze process. Poor braze quality or damage to the parent materials limits the nozzle service life. The objective of this study was to develop a laser brazing process to provide quality, localized braze joints without adverse affect on the parent materials. Gold (Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Mn) based high temperature braze alloys were used in both powder and wire form. Thin section iron base superalloy A286 tube was used as substrate materials. Different Laser Systems including CO2 (10.6 micrometers, 1kW), ND:YAG (1.06 micrometers, 4kW). and direct diode laser (808nm. 150W) were investigated for brazing process. The laser process variables including wavelength. laser power, travel speed and angle of inclination were optimized according to bead geometry and braze alloy wetting at minimum heat input level, The properties of laser brazing were compared to that of furnace brazing. Microhardness profiles were used for braze joint property comparison between laser and furnace brazing. The cooling rate of laser brazing was compared to furnace brazing based on secondary dendritic arm spacing, Both optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructures of

  5. Silver-hafnium braze alloy

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, Jr., John J.; Hosking, F. Michael; Yost, Frederick G.

    2003-12-16

    A binary allow braze composition has been prepared and used in a bonded article of ceramic-ceramic and ceramic-metal materials. The braze composition comprises greater than approximately 95 wt % silver, greater than approximately 2 wt % hafnium and less than approximately 4.1 wt % hafnium, and less than approximately 0.2 wt % trace elements. The binary braze alloy is used to join a ceramic material to another ceramic material or a ceramic material, such as alumina, quartz, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, and mullite, to a metal material, such as iron-based metals, cobalt-based metals, nickel-based metals, molybdenum-based metals, tungsten-based metals, niobium-based metals, and tantalum-based metals. A hermetic bonded article is obtained with a strength greater than 10,000 psi.

  6. Braze alloys for high temperature service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, R. A.; Mckisson, R. L.; Erwin, G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Two groups of refractory metal compositions have been developed that are very useful as high temperature brazing alloys for sealing between ceramic and metal parts. Each group consists of various compositions of three selected refractory metals which, when combined, have characteristics required of good braze alloys.

  7. Braze alloy spreading on steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, T. A.; Heine, R. W.; Lagally, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron microscopy (AEM) were employed to observe elemental surface decomposition resulting from the brazing of a copper-treated steel. Two types of steel were used for the study, stainless steel (treated with a eutectic silver-copper alloy), and low-carbon steel (treated with pure copper). Attention is given to oxygen partial pressure during the processes; a low enough pressure (8 x 10 to the -5th torr) was found to totally inhibit the spreading of the filler material at a fixed heating cycle. With both types of steel, copper treatment enhanced even spreading at a decreased temperature.

  8. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  9. Theory and modeling of active brazing.

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James Edward; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-09-01

    Active brazes have been used for many years to produce bonds between metal and ceramic objects. By including a relatively small of a reactive additive to the braze one seeks to improve the wetting and spreading behavior of the braze. The additive modifies the substrate, either by a chemical surface reaction or possibly by alloying. By its nature, the joining process with active brazes is a complex nonequilibrium non-steady state process that couples chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion to the rheology and wetting behavior of the braze. Most of the these subprocesses are taking place in the interfacial region, most are difficult to access by experiment. To improve the control over the brazing process, one requires a better understanding of the melting of the active braze, rate of the chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion rates, nonequilibrium composition-dependent surface tension as well as the viscosity. This report identifies ways in which modeling and theory can assist in improving our understanding.

  10. Weld-brazing - a new joining process. [combination resistance spot welding and brazing of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Arnold, W. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A joining process designated weld brazing which combines resistance spot welding and brazing has been developed. Resistance spot welding is used to position and align the parts as well as to establish a suitable faying surface gap for brazing. Fabrication is then completed by capillary flow of the braze alloy into the joint. The process has been used successfully to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy joints using 3003 aluminum braze alloy. Test results obtained on single overlap and hat-stiffened structural specimens show that weld brazed joints are superior in tensile shear, stress rupture, fatigue, and buckling than joint fabricated by spotwelding or brazing. Another attractive feature of the process is that the brazed joints is hermetically sealed by the braze material.

  11. Microstructure and Performance of Kovar/Alumina Joints Made with Silver-Copper Base Active Metal Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS, JOHN J.; VIANCO,PAUL T.; HLAVA,PAUL F.; WALKER,CHARLES A.

    1999-12-15

    Poor hermeticity performance was observed for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic-ceramic joints having a Kovar{trademark} alloy interlayer. The active Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal was used to braze the substrates together. The Ti active element was scavenged from the filler metal by the formation of a (Fe, Ni, Co){sub x}Ti phase (x= 2-3) that prevented development of a continuous Ti{sub x}O{sub y} layer at the filler metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. Altering the process parameters did not circumvent the scavenging of Ti. Molybdenum barrier layers 1000, 2500, or 5000 {angstrom} thick on the Kovar{trademark} surfaces successfully allowed Ti{sub x}O{sub y} formation at the filler metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface and hermetic joints. The problems with the Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal for Kovar{trademark}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} braze joints led to the evaluation of a Ag-Cu-Zr filler metal. The Zr (active element) in Ag-Cu-Zr filler metal was not susceptible to the scavenging problem.

  12. Oxide film on 5052 aluminium alloy: Its structure and removal mechanism by activated CsF-AlF3 flux in brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bing; Wang, Dongpo; Cheng, Fangjie; Wang, Ying

    2015-05-01

    The oxide-film structure on the 5052 Al alloy and the film-removal mechanism by activated CsF-AlF3 flux in brazing were studied. Characterisation of the oxide film shows that thermally activated Mg, segregated from the alloy's interior, was significantly enriched and oxidised during medium-temperature brazing. Thus, the outer oxide surface consisted of the amorphous MgO-like phase, and the interior of the oxide film comprised mainly the amorphous MgO-like phase and dispersely distributed and less-ordered MgAl2O4. The MgO-like phase was the main obstacle to oxide removal in brazing. The activated ZnCl2-containing CsF-AlF3 flux effectively removed the oxide film, and the 5052 Al alloy was successfully brazed by the Zn-Al filler metal and activated flux. When Zn2+ in the molten flux permeated the oxide film through cracks, its chemical reaction with the Al substrate loosened the oxide film, which was eventually pushed out as the filler metal spread over the alloy surface.

  13. Dissimilar joint characteristics of SiC and WC-Co alloy by laser brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsuka, K.; Sechi, Y.; Nakata, K.

    2012-08-01

    SiC and WC-Co alloys were joined by laser brazing with an active braze metal. The braze metal based on eutectic Ag-Cu alloy with additional Ti as an active element ranging from 0 to 2.8 mass% was sandwiched by the SiC block and WC-Co alloy plate. The brazing was carried out by selective laser beam irradiation on the WC-Co alloy plate. The content of Ti in the braze metal was required to exceed 0.6 mass% in order to form a brazed joint with a measurable shear strength. The shear strength increased with increasing Ti content up to 2.3 mass%Ti and decreased with a higher content.

  14. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOEpatents

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1995-01-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99 gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  15. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOEpatents

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1990-07-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99% gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  16. The Effect of Braze Interlayer Thickness on the Mechanical Strength of Alumina Brazed with Ag-CuO Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, Kevin M.; Meier, Alan; Joshi, Vineet V.; Pilgrim, Steven M.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of braze interlayer thickness on the strength of alumina brazed with silver-copper oxide reactive air braze (RAB) alloys was evaluated using a four point bend test configuration. The brazed samples had an average fracture strength of 180 MPa or approximately 60 percent of the average monolithic alumina strength. The joint strength values obtained exceeded the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the silver interlayer indicating strong ceramic to metal adhesion and the development of a triaxial stress state in the braze interlayer. The average fracture strength was relatively constant (190 ± 60 MPa) in the thickness range of 0.030 mm to 0.230 mm for all test conditions. The braze fracture strength then decreased down to 100 ± 30 MPa as the braze thickness increased from 0.230 mm to 0.430 mm indicating a loss of triaxial constraint with increasing interlayer thickness. In addition, four different fracture modes were observed.

  17. Microstructural and Mechanical Evaluation of a Cu-Based Active Braze Alloy to Join Silicon Nitride Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, Rajiv; Varela, F. M.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.

    2010-01-01

    Self-joining of St. Gobain Si3N4 (NT-154) using a ductile Cu-Al-Si-Ti active braze (Cu-ABA) was demonstrated. A reaction zone approx.2.5-3.5 microns thick) developed at the interface after 30 min brazing at 1317 K. The interface was enriched in Ti and Si. The room temperature compressive shear strengths of Si3N4/Si3N4 and Inconel/Inconel joints (the latter created to access baseline data for use with the proposed Si3N4/Inconel joints) were 140+/-49MPa and 207+/-12MPa, respectively. High-temperature shear tests were performed at 1023K and 1073 K, and the strength of the Si3N4/Si3N4 and Inconel/Inconel joints were determined. The joints were metallurgically well-bonded for temperatures above 2/3 of the braze solidus. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed a fine grain microstructure in the reaction layer, and large grains in the inner part of the joint with interfaces being crack-free. The observed formation of Ti5Si3 and AlN at the joint interface during brazing is discussed.

  18. Methods to Predict Stresses in Cutting Inserts Brazed Using Iron-Carbon Brazing Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovodov, V. V.; Valentov, A. V.; Retuynskiy, O. Yu; Esekuev, Sh B.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes a method for predicting residual and operating stresses in a flat-form tool insert made of tungsten free carbides brazed using iron-carbon alloy. According to the studies’ results it is concluded that the recommendations relating to the limitation of a melting point of tool brazing alloys (950-1100°C according to different data) are connected with a negative impact on tools as a composite made of dissimilar materials rather than on hard alloys as a tool material. Due to the cooling process stresses inevitably occur in the brazed joint of dissimilar materials, and these stresses increase with the higher solidification temperature of the brazing alloy.

  19. Design of a braze alloy for fast epitaxial brazing of superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegert, S.; Laux, B.; Rösier, J.

    2012-07-01

    For the repair of directionally solidified turbine components made of nickel-based superalloys, a new high-temperature brazing method has been developed. Utilising heterogeneous nucleation on the crack surface, the microstructure of the base material can be reproduced, i.e. single crystallinity can be maintained. In contrast to commonly used eutectic braze alloys, such as nickel-boron or nickel-silicon systems, the process is not diffusion controlled but works with a consolute binary base system. The currently applied epitaxial brazing methods rely on isothermal solidification diffusing the melting point depressants into the base material until their concentration is reduced so that the liquid braze solidifies. Contrary, the identified Ni-Mn consolute system enables a temperature driven epitaxial solidification resulting in substantially reduced process duration. The development of the braze alloys was assisted using the CALPHAD software Thermo-Calc. The solidification behaviour was estimated by kinetic calculations with realistic boundary conditions. Finally, the complete system, including braze alloy as well as substrate material, was modelled by means of DICTRA. Subsequently, the thermodynamic properties of the braze alloys were experimentally analysed by DSC measurements. For brazing experiments 300 μm wide parallel gaps were used. Complete epitaxial solidification, i.e. the absence of high-angle grain boundaries, could be achieved within brazing times being up to two orders of magnitude shorter compared to diffusion brazing processes. Theoretically and experimentally evaluated process windows reveal similar shapes. However, a distinct shift has to be stated which can be ascribed to the limited accuracy of the underlying thermodynamic databases.

  20. Thin-film diffusion brazing of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikus, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    A thin film diffusion brazing technique for joining titanium alloys by use of a Cu intermediate is described. The method has been characterized in terms of static and dynamic mechanical properties on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These include tensile, fracture toughness, stress corrosion, shear, corrosion fatigue, mechanical fatigue and acoustic fatigue. Most of the properties of titanium joints formed by thin film diffusion brazing are equal or exceed base metal properties. The advantages of thin film diffusion brazing over solid state diffusion bonding and brazing with conventional braze alloys are discussed. The producibility advantages of this process over others provide the potential for producing high efficiency joints in structural components of titanium alloys for the minimum cost.

  1. Thermal fatigue and oxidation data for alloy/braze combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, V. L.; Humphreys, V. E.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal fatigue and oxidation data were obtained for 62 brazed specimens of 3 iron-, 3 nickel-, and 1 cobalt-base alloy. Fluidized bed thermal cycling was conducted over the range 740/25 C employing 10 cm long single-edge wedge specimens. Immersion time was always 4 minutes in each bed. Types of test specimens employed in the program include those with brazed overlays on the specimen radius, those butt brazed at midspan and those with a brazed foil overlay on the specimen radius. Of the 18 braze overlay specimens, 5 generated fatigue cracks by 7000 cycles. Thermal cracking of butt brazed specimens occurred exclusively through the butt braze. Of the 23 butt brazed specimens, 7 survived 11,000 thermal cycles without cracking. Only 2 of the 21 foil overlaid specimens exhibiting cracking in 7,000 cycles. Blistering of the foil did occur for 2 alloys by 500 cycles. Oxidation of the alloy/braze combination was limited at the test maximum test temperature of 740 C.

  2. Plasma Spray for Difficult-To-Braze Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, A.

    1982-01-01

    Nickel plating on surfaces makes brazing easier for some alloys. Sometimes nickel plating may not be feasible because of manufacturing sequence, size of hardware, or lack of suitable source for nickel plating. Alternative surface preparation in such cases is to grit-blast surface lightly and then plasma-spray 1 1/2 to 2 mils of fine nickel powder or braze-alloy material directly on surface. Powder is sprayed from plasma gun, using argon as carrier gas to prevent oxidation of nickel or braze alloy.

  3. Silver-palladium braze alloy recovered from masking materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cierniak, R.; Colman, G.; De Carlo, F.

    1966-01-01

    Method for recovering powdered silver-palladium braze alloy from an acrylic spray binder and rubber masking adhesive used in spray brazing is devised. The process involves agitation and dissolution of masking materials and recovery of suspended precious metal particles on a filter.

  4. Braze Process Optimization Involving Conventional Metal/Ceramic Brazing with 50Au-50Cu Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    MALIZIA JR.,LOUIS A.; MEREDITH,KEITH W.; APPEL,DANIEL B.; MONROE,SAUNDRA L.; BURCHETT,STEVEN N.; STEPHENS JR.,JOHN J.

    1999-12-15

    Numerous process variables can influence the robustness of conventional metal/ceramic brazing processes. Experience with brazing of hermetic vacuum components has identified the following parameters as influencing the outcome of hydrogen furnace brazed Kovar{trademark} to metallized alumina braze joints: (a) Mo-Mn metallization thickness, sinter fire temperature and porosity (b) Nil plate purity, thickness, and sinter firing conditions (c) peak process temperature, time above liquidus and (d) braze alloy washer thickness. ASTM F19 tensile buttons are being used to investigate the above parameters. The F19 geometry permits determination of both joint hermeticity and tensile strength. This presentation will focus on important lessons learned from the tensile button study: (A) the position of the Kovar{trademark} interlayer can influence the joint tensile strength achieved--namely, off-center interlayers can lead to residual stress development in the ceramic and degrade tensile strength values. Finite element analysis has been used to demonstrate the expected magnitude in strength degradation as a function of misalignment. (B) Time above liquidus (TAL) and peak temperature can influence the strength and alloying level of the resulting braze joint. Excessive TAL or peak temperatures can lead to overbraze conditions where all of the Ni plate is dissolved. (C) Metallize sinter fire processes can influence the morphology and strength obtained from the braze joints.

  5. Several braze filler metals for joining an oxide-dispersion-strengthened nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation was made of five braze filler metals for joining an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloy, TD-NiCrAl. All five braze filler metals evaluated are considered suitable for joining TD-NiCrAl in terms of wettability and flow. Also, the braze alloys appear to be tolerant of slight variations in brazing procedures since joints prepared by three sources using three of the braze filler metals exhibited similar brazing characteristics and essentially equivalent 1100 C stress-rupture properties in a brazed butt-joint configuration. Recommendations are provided for brazing the aluminum-containing ODS alloys.

  6. Reducing inadvertent alloying of metal/ceramic brazes

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.; Hlava, P.F.

    1992-12-31

    Inadvertent alloying of Cu braze metal can compromise metal/ceramic seals. Electron microprobe analyses have quantified alloying of Cu brazes in metal/ceramic feedthroughs. Pin material and processing parameters above 1084C both affect alloying levels. Using either Kovar or Ni-plated 316L stainless steel pins limits alloying compared to Palco pins. Minimizing the time during which the braze is molten also avoids excessive alloying. The original thickness of the Ni plating on the Mo-Mn metallization of the ceramic also influences the alloying content of these brazes. Metal/ceramic brazes made with long brazing cycles, Mo-Mn metallization, and Kovar components grow a layer of Mo{sub 6}(Fe{sub 3.5}CO{sub 3.5}){sub 7} on the metallization. Layer thicknesses observed do not appear to compromise joint integrity. Ni additions of approximately 10 and 20 wt.% to Cu apparently increases the stress required for stress relaxation during cooldown. to maintain creep rates required for stress relaxation during cooldown. Relative to unalloyed Cu, this strengthening effect tends to increase as temperature is decreased.

  7. Low vapor pressure braze alloys for thermionic energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    The evaluation of cesium diode electrode materials called for braze fillers with very low vapor pressures and a wide range of melting points. Binary alloys of low vapor pressure refractory metals were chosen to fill this need. These alloys of Th, Zr, Hf, Ru, Nb, Ir, Mo, Ta, Os, Re, and W have reported melting point minima or eutectics from 1,510 K to above 3,000 K. Preliminary data are compiled on the use of several of these braze alloys. Melting points and surface wetting on a Ta base are given. Results of brazing Ir, LaB6, Nb, Re, W, and Zr-22 wt % ZrO2 materials into Ta and Nb-1% Zr bases are presented. Current braze usage is summarized.

  8. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Actively Brazed Alumina Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Cadden, C.H.; Stephens, J.J.; Glass, S.J.; Yang, N.Y.C.; Vianco, P.V.; Walker, C.A.

    1999-08-26

    Alumina (94 and 99.8% grade compositions) was brazed directly to itself with gold-based active brazing alloys (ABA's) containing vanadium additions of 1,2 and 3 weight percent. The effects of brazing conditions on the joint properties were investigated. Wetting behavior, interfacial reactions, microstructure, hermeticity and tensile strength were determined. Wetting was fair to good for the ABA and base material combinations. Microanalysis identified a discontinuous Al-V-O spinel reaction product at the alumina-braze interface. Tensile strength results for 94% alumina were uniformly good and generally not sensitive to the vanadium concentration, with tensile values of 85-105 MPa. There was more variability in the 99.8% alumina strength results, with values ranging from 25-95 MPa. The highest vanadium concentration (3 wt. %) yielded the highest joint strength for the brazed 99.8% alumina. Failures in the 99.8% alumina samples occurred at the braze-alumina interface, while the 94% alumina specimens exhibited fracture of the ceramic substrate.

  9. Reactive Boride Brazing on Low-Alloy Automotive Grade Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, B.; Upadhyaya, A.

    2011-11-01

    Brazing is a widely used process to improve the performance of steels used in automotive applications. The substrate material is often exposed to harsh conditions in these applications and may affect the service life of the component. Reactive boride brazing aims to improve the mechanical properties of the substrate material by forming a ceramic-metal composite coating in a single-step process in situ. In this study, sintered Ancor 4300 low-alloy steel is used as the substrate with chromium-rich braze and chromium-lean braze materials. The mechanical properties of the brazed samples were studied in detail using microindentation hardness measurements and the transverse rupture test. The results indicate that the brazed superlayer has a 10 times higher hardness. There was a significant improvement in the transverse rupture strength of the steel brazed with the chromium-rich boride as compared to the pure substrate material. In an effort to reduce processing time, green compacts of the substrate were also directly brazed and yielded favorable results.

  10. Dissimilar laser brazing of h-BN and WC-Co alloy in Ar atmosphere without evacuation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sechi, Y.; Nagatsuka, K.; Nakata, K.

    2012-08-01

    Laser brazing with Ti as an active element in Ag-Cu alloy braze metal has been successfully applied to dissimilar joining of h-BN and WC-Co alloy in Ar (99.999% purity) gas flow atmosphere without any evacuation process. Good wettability of the braze metal with h-BN and WC-Co alloy were confirmed by the observation and structural analysis of the interface by electron probe micro-analysis and scanning acoustic microscopy. The oxidation of titanium was not observed and this showed that the laser brazing with titanium as an active element in braze metal could be performed even in an Ar gas flow atmosphere without an evacuation process using a high-vacuum furnace.

  11. One-step brazing process to join CFC composites to copper and copper alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvo, Milena; Casalegno, Valentina; Rizzo, Stefano; Smeacetto, Federico; Ferraris, Monica; Merola, Mario

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new single-step brazing technique to join carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite (CFC) to pure copper (Cu) and copper alloy (CuCrZr) for nuclear fusion applications. In order to increase the wettability of CFC by a copper-based brazing alloy containing no active metal, the composite surface was modified by direct reaction with chromium, which forms a carbide layer and allows a large reduction of the contact angle. After the CFC surface modification, the commercial Gemco ® alloy (Cu/Ge) was successfully used to braze CFC to pure copper and pure copper to CuCrZr by the same heat treatment. The shear strength of the CFC/Cu joints measured by single lap shear tests at room temperature was (34 ± 4) MPa, comparable to the values obtained by other joining processes and higher than the intrinsic CFC shear strength.

  12. Low vapor pressure braze alloys for thermionic energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results in the use of some low-vapor-pressure braze alloys are reported; these are binary alloys of refractory metals (Th, Zr, Hf, Ru, Nb, Ir, Mo, Ta, Os, Re, W) with vapor pressures below 0.1 nanotorr at 1500 K or 10 microtorr at 2000 K. The melting point minima or eutectics of the alloys range from 1510 K to above 3000 K. Melting points and surface wetting on a Ta base are given. Results are presented on brazing of Ir, LaB6, Nb, Re, W, and ZrO2 (with 22 wt % Zr) into a Ta base or a Nb-1% Zr base. The results are applicable in electrode screening programs for thermionic cesium diodes.

  13. Competitive Wetting in Active Brazes

    SciTech Connect

    Chandross, Michael Evan

    2014-05-01

    We found that the wetting and spreading of molten filler materials (pure Al, pure Ag, and AgAl alloys) on a Kovar ™ (001) substrate was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. A suite of different simulations was used to understand the effects on spreading rates due to alloying as well as reactions with the substrate. Moreover, the important conclusion is that the presence of Al in the alloy enhances the spreading of Ag, while the Ag inhibits the spreading of Al.

  14. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOEpatents

    Howard, Stanley R.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  15. HIGH TEMPERATURE BRAZING ALLOY FOR JOINT Fe-Cr-Al MATERIALS AND AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS

    DOEpatents

    Cost, R.C.

    1958-07-15

    A new high temperature brazing alloy is described that is particularly suitable for brazing iron-chromiumaluminum alloys. It consists of approximately 20% Cr, 6% Al, 10% Si, and from 1.5 to 5% phosphorus, the balance being iron.

  16. Fluxless Brazing and Heat Treatment of a Plate-Fin Sandwich Actively Cooled Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1978-01-01

    The processes and techniques used to fabricate plate-fin sandwich actively cooled panels are presented. The materials were 6061 aluminum alloy and brazing sheet having clad brazing alloy. The panels consisted of small scale specimens, fatigue specimens, and a large 0.61 m by 1.22 m test panel. All panels were fluxless brazed in retorts in heated platen presses while exerting external pressure to assure intimate contact of details. Distortion and damage normally associated with that heat treatment were minimized by heat treating without fixtures and solution quenching in an organic polymer solution. The test panel is the largest fluxless brazed and heat treated panel of its configuration known to exist.

  17. Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, W.D.

    1996-05-01

    Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state. (3) It acts as a deoxidant or a fluxing agent with copper. (4) It lowers the ductility of copper (embrittles). There is a misconception that silver improves the ductility of the copper-phosphorus alloys. In reality, silver added to copper acts in a similar manner as phosphorus. The addition of silver to copper lowers the melt temperature (temperature depressant) and decreases the ductility. Fortunately, the rate and amount at which silver lowers copper ductility is significantly less than that of phosphorus. Therefore, taking advantage of the temperature depressant property of silver, a Ag-Cu-P alloy can be selected at approximately the same melt temperature as a Cu-P alloy, but at a lower phosphorus content. The lowering of the phosphorus content actually makes the alloy more ductile, not the silver addition. A major advantage of the copper-phosphorus alloys is the self-fluxing characteristic when joining copper to copper. They may also be used with the addition of a paste flux on brass, bronze, and specialized applications on silver, tungsten and molybdenum. Whether it is selection of the proper BCuP alloy or troubleshooting an existing problem, the suggested approach is a review of the desired phosphorus content in the liquid metal and how it is being altered during application. In torch brazing, a slight change in the oxygen-fuel ratio can affect the joint quality or leak tightness.

  18. Compound characterization of laser brazed SiC-steel joints using tungsten reinforced SnAgTi-alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Südmeyer, I.; Rohde, M.; Fürst, T.

    2010-02-01

    With the help of a CO2-laser (λ = 10.64 μm) Silicon carbide (Trade name: Ekasic-F, Comp: ESK Ceramics) has been brazed to commercial steel (C45E, Matnr. 1.1191) using SnAgTi-filler alloys. The braze pellets were dry pressed based on commercially available powders and polished to a thickness of 300 μm. The SnAgTi-fractions were varied with the objective of improving the compound strength. Furthermore, tungsten reinforced SnAgTi-fillers were examined with regard to the shear strength of the ceramic/steel joints. Polished microsections of SnAgTi-pellets were investigated before brazing in order to evaluate the particle distribution and to detect potential porosities using optical microscopy. The brazing temperature and the influence of the reinforcing particles on the active braze filler were determined by measurements with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). After brazing. the ceramic-steel joints were characterized by scanning electron micrographs and EDX-analysis. Finally the mechanical strength of the braze-joints was determined by shear tests.

  19. Reversible brazing process

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  20. Wetting and spreading behavior of molten brazing filler metallic alloys on metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogi, Satoshi; Kajiura, Tetsurou; Hanada, Yukiakira; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Wetting and spreading of molten brazing filler material are important factors that influence the brazing ability of a joint to be brazed. Several investigations into the wetting ability of a brazing filler alloy and its surface tension in molten state, in addition to effects of brazing time and temperature on the contact angle, have been carried out. In general, dissimilar-metals brazing technology and high-performance brazed joint are necessities for the manufacturing field in the near future. Therefore, to address this requirement, more such studies on wetting and spreading of filler material are required for a deeper understanding. Generally, surface roughness and surface conditions affect spreading of molten brazing filler material during brazing. Wetting by and interfacial reactions of the molten brazing filler material with the metallic substrate, especially, affect strongly the spreading of the filler material. In this study, the effects of surface roughness and surface conditions on the spreading of molten brazing filler metallic alloys were investigated. Ag-(40-x)Cu-xIn and Ag- (40-x)Cu-xSn (x=5, 10, 15, 20, 25) alloys were used as brazing filler materials. A mild-steel square plate (S45C (JIS); side: 30 mm; thickness: 3mm) was employed as the substrate. A few surfaces with varying roughness were prepared using emery paper. Brazing filler material and metallic base plate were first washed with acetone, and then a flux was applied to them. The filler, 50 mg, was placed on the center of the metallic base with the flux. A spreading test was performed under Ar gas using an electrically heated furnace, after which, the original spreading area, defined as the sessile drop area, and the apparent spreading area, produced by the capillary grooves, were both evaluated. It was observed that the spreading area decreased with increasing In and Sn content.

  1. Thermochemical Analysis of Phases Formed at the Interface of a Mg alloy-Ni-plated Steel Joint during Laser Brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, Ali M.; Chartrand, Patrice; Weckman, David C.; Zhou, Norman Y.

    2013-04-01

    The thermodynamic stability of precipitated phases at the steel-Ni-Mg alloy interface during laser brazing of Ni-plated steel to AZ31B magnesium sheet using AZ92 magnesium alloy filler wire has been evaluated using FactSage thermochemical software. Assuming local chemical equilibrium at the interface, the chemical activity-temperature-composition relationships of intermetallic compounds that might form in the steel-Ni interlayer-AZ92 magnesium alloy system in the temperature range of 873 K to 1373 K (600 °C to 1100 °C) were estimated using the Equilib module of FactSage. The results provided better understanding of the phases that might form at the interface of the dissimilar metal joints during the laser brazing process. The addition of a Ni interlayer between the steel and the Mg brazing alloy was predicted to result in the formation of the AlNi, Mg2Ni, and Al3Ni2 intermetallic compounds at the interface, depending on the local maximum temperature. This was confirmed experimentally by laser brazing of Ni electro-plated steel to AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy using AZ92 magnesium alloy filler wire. As predicted, the formation of just AlNi and Mg2Ni from a monotectic and eutectic reaction, respectively, was observed near the interface.

  2. Microstructural development of diffusion-brazed austenitic stainless steel to magnesium alloy using a nickel interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Elthalabawy, Waled M.; Khan, Tahir I.

    2010-07-15

    The differences in physical and metallurgical properties of stainless steels and magnesium alloys make them difficult to join using conventional fusion welding processes. Therefore, the diffusion brazing of 316L steel to magnesium alloy (AZ31) was performed using a double stage bonding process. To join these dissimilar alloys, the solid-state diffusion bonding of 316L steel to a Ni interlayer was carried out at 900 deg. C followed by diffusion brazing to AZ31 at 510 deg. C. Metallographic and compositional analyses show that a metallurgical bond was achieved with a shear strength of 54 MPa. However, during the diffusion brazing stage B{sub 2} intermetallic compounds form within the joint and these intermetallics are pushed ahead of the solid/liquid interface during isothermal solidification of the joint. These intermetallics had a detrimental effect on joint strengths when the joint was held at the diffusion brazing temperature for longer than 20 min.

  3. Development of the activated diffusion brazing process for fabrication of finned shell to strut turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbers, L. G.; Berry, T. F.; Kutchera, R. E.; Edmonson, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    The activated diffusion brazing process was developed for attaching TD-NiCr and U700 finned airfoil shells to matching Rene 80 struts obstructing the finned cooling passageways. Creep forming the finned shells to struts in combination with precise preplacement of brazing alloy resulted in consistently sound joints, free of cooling passageway clogging. Extensive tensile and stress rupture testing of several joint orientation at several temperatures provided a critical assessment of joint integrity of both material combinations. Trial blades of each material combination were fabricated followed by destructive metallographic examination which verified high joint integrity.

  4. Development of brazing foils to join monocrystalline tungsten alloys with ODS-EUROFER steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Fedotov, V. T.; Sevrjukov, O. N.; Kalashnikov, A. N.; Suchkov, A. N.; Moeslang, A.; Rohde, M.

    2007-08-01

    Results on rapidly solidified filler metals for brazing W with W and monocrystalline W with EUROFER steel (FS) are presented. Rapidly quenched powder-type filler metals based on Ti bal-V-Cr-Be were developed to braze polycrystalline W with monocrystalline W. In addition, Fe bal-Ta-Ge-Si-B-Pd alloys were developed to braze monocrystalline W with FS for helium gas cooled divertors and plasma-facing components. The W to FS brazed joints were fabricated under vacuum at 1150 °C, using a Ta spacer of 0.1 mm in thickness to account for the different thermal expansions. The monocrystalline tungsten as well as the related brazed joints withstood 30 cycles between 750 °C/20 min and air cooling/3-5 min.

  5. Braze alloy process and strength characterization studies for 18 nickel grade 200 maraging steel with application to wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, James F.; Sandefur, Paul G., Jr.; Young, Clarence P., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive study of braze alloy selection process and strength characterization with application to wind tunnel models is presented. The applications for this study include the installation of stainless steel pressure tubing in model airfoil sections make of 18 Ni 200 grade maraging steel and the joining of wing structural components by brazing. Acceptable braze alloys for these applications are identified along with process, thermal braze cycle data, and thermal management procedures. Shear specimens are used to evaluate comparative shear strength properties for the various alloys at both room and cryogenic (-300 F) temperatures and include the effects of electroless nickel plating. Nickel plating was found to significantly enhance both the wetability and strength properties for the various braze alloys studied. The data are provided for use in selecting braze alloys for use with 18 Ni grade 200 steel in the design of wind tunnel models to be tested in an ambient or cryogenic environment.

  6. Microstructural Development and Mechanical Properties for Reactive Air Brazing of ZTA to Ni Alloys using Ag-CuO Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Prevost, Erica; DeMarco, A.Joseph; MacMichael, Beth; Joshi, Vineet V.; Meier, Alan; Hoffman, John W.; Walker, William J.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive air brazing (RAB) is a potential joining technique to join metal alloys to ceramics for a variety of applications. In the current study, nickel (Ni) alloys were heat treated to form an oxide layer prior to RAB joining to zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). The Ni alloys evaluated were Nicrofer 6025 HT, Inconel 600, Inconel 693, Haynes 214 and Inconel 601. The ZTA studied had compositions of 0 to 15 wt% zirconia and 0 to 14 wt% glass. Four point-bend tests were performed to evaluate the joint strength of ZTA/ZTA and ZTA/nickel alloys brazed with Ag-2wt% CuO braze alloys. It was determined that the joint strength is not a function of the ZTA composition, but that the strength is a strong function of the chemistry and microstructure of the oxide layer formed on the nickel alloy. It was determined that an increase in the aluminum content of the Ni alloy resulted in an increase of the thickness of alumina in the oxide layer and was directly proportional to the bond strength with the exception of Inconel 601 which exhibited relatively high joint strengths even though it had a relatively low aluminum content.

  7. BRAZE BONDING OF COLUMBIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heestand, R.L.; Picklesimer, M.L.

    1962-07-31

    A method of brazing niobium parts together is described. The surfaces of the parts to be brazed together are placed in abutting relationship with a brazing alloy disposed adjacent. The alloy consists essentially of, by weight, 12 to 25% niobium, 0.5 to 5% molybdenum, and the balance zirconium, The alloy is heated to at least its melting point to braze the parts together. The brazed joint is then cooled. The heating, melting and cooling take place in an inert atmosphere. (AEC)

  8. Basic principles of creating a new generation of high- temperature brazing filler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Suchkov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The development of new materials is based on the formation of a structural-phase state providing the desired properties by selecting the base and the complex of alloying elements. The development of amorphous filler alloys for a high-temperature brazing has its own features that are due to the limited life cycle and the production method of brazing filler alloys. The work presents a cycle of analytical and experimental materials science investigations including justification of the composition of a new amorphous filler alloy for brazing the products from zirconium alloys at the temperature of no more than 800 °C and at the unbrazing temperature of permanent joints of more than 1200 °C. The experimental alloys have been used for manufacture of amorphous ribbons by rapid quenching, of which the certification has been made by X-ray investigations and a differential-thermal analysis. These ribbons were used to obtain permanent joints from the spacer grid cells (made from the alloy Zr-1% Nb) of fuel assemblies of the thermal nuclear reactor VVER-440. The brazed samples in the form of a pair of cells have been exposed to corrosion tests in autoclaves in superheated water at a temperature of 350 °C, a pressure of 160 MPa and duration of up to 6,000 h. They have been also exposed to destructive tests using a tensile machine. The experimental results obtained have made it possible to propose and patent a brazing filler alloy of the following composition: Zr-5.5Fe-(2.5-3.5)Be-1Nb-(5-8)Cu-2Sn-0.4Cr-(0.5-1.0)Ge. Its melting point is 780 °C and the recommended brazing temperature is 800°C.

  9. Tensile Creep Properties of the 50Au-50Cu Braze Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1999-05-28

    The 50Au-50CU (wt.%) alloy is a solid-solution strengthened braze alloy used extensively in conventional, hermetic metal/ceramic brazing applications where low vapor pressure is a requirement. Typical metal/ceramic base materials would be KovarTM alloy and metallized and Ni-plated 94% alumina ceramic. The elevated temperature mechanical properties are important for permitting FEA evaluation of residual stresses in metal/ceramic brazes given specific geometries and braze cooldown profiles. For material with an atomic composition of 76.084 at.% CL 23.916 Au (i.e., on the Cu-rich side of Cu3Au) that was annealed for 2 hr. at 750°C and water quenched a Garofalo sinh equation was found to adequately characterize the minimum strain rate data over the temperature mnge 450-850°C. At lower temperatures (250 arid 350°C), a conventional power law equation was found to characterize the data. For samples held long periods of time at 375°C (96 hrs.) and slowly cooled to room temperature, a slight strengthening reaction was observed: with the stress necessary to reach the same strain rate increasing by about 15% above the baseline annealed and quenched data. X-ray diffiction indicates that the 96 hr at 375°C + slow cool condition does indeed order. The microhardness of the ordered samples indicates a value of 94.5 VHN, compared to 93.7 VHN for the baseline annealed and quenched (disordered FCC) samples. From a brazing perspective, the relative sluggishness of this ordering reaction does not appear to pose a problem for braze joints cooled at reasonable rates following brazing.

  10. Brazing ZrO{sub 2} ceramic to Ti–6Al–4V alloy using NiCrSiB amorphous filler foil: Interfacial microstructure and joint properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, J.; Song, X.G.; Li, C.; Zhao, L.Y.; Feng, J.C.

    2013-07-15

    Reliable brazing of ZrO{sub 2} ceramic and Ti–6Al–4V alloy was achieved using NiCrSiB amorphous filler foil. The interfacial microstructure of ZrO{sub 2}/Ti–6Al–4V joints was characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and micro-focused X-ray diffractometer. The effects of brazing temperature on the interfacial microstructure and joining properties of brazed joints were investigated in detail. Active Ti of Ti–6Al–4V alloy dissolved into molten filler metal and reacted with ZrO{sub 2} ceramic to form a continuous TiO reaction layer, which played an important role in brazing. Various reaction phases including Ti{sub 2}Ni, Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and β-Ti were formed in brazed joints. With an increasing of brazing temperature, the TiO layer thickened gradually while the Ti{sub 2}Ni amount reduced. Shear test indicated that brazed joints tend to fracture at the interface between ZrO{sub 2} ceramic and brazing seam or Ti{sub 2}Ni intermetallic layer. The maximum average shear strength reached 284.6 MPa when brazed at 1025 °C for 10 min. - Graphical Abstract: Interfacial microstructure of ZrO{sub 2}/TC4 joint brazed using NiCrSiB amorphous filler foil was: ZrO{sub 2}/TiO/Ti{sub 2}Ni + β-Ti + Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}/β-Ti/Widmanstätten structure/TC4. - Highlights: • Brazing of ZrO{sub 2} ceramic and Ti-6Al-4V alloy was achieved. • Interfacial microstructure was TiO/Ti{sub 2}Ni + β + Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}/β/Widmanstätten structure. • The formation of TiO produced the darkening effect of ZrO{sub 2} ceramic. • The highest joining strength of 284.6MPa was obtained.

  11. Chemical elements diffusion in the stainless steel components brazed with Cu-Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voiculescu, I.; Geanta, V.; Vasile, I. M.; Binchiciu, E. F.; Winestoock, R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the study of diffusion of chemical elements through a brazing joint, between two thin components (0.5mm) made of stainless steel 304. An experimental brazing filler material has been used for brazing stainless steel component and then the diffusion phenomenon has been studied, in terms of chemical element displacement from the brazed separation interface. The filler material is in the form of a metal rod coated with ceramic slurry mixture of minerals, containing precursors and metallic powders, which can contribute to the formation of deposit brazed. In determining the distance of diffusion of chemical elements, on both sides of the fusion line, were performed measurements of the chemical composition using electron microscopy SEM and EDX spectrometry. Metallographic analysis of cross sections was performed with the aim of highlight the microstructural characteristics of brazed joints, for estimate the wetting capacity, adherence of filler metal and highlight any imperfections. Analyzes performed showed the penetration of alloying elements from the solder (Ag, Cu, Zn and Sn) towards the base material (stainless steel), over distances up to 60 microns.

  12. Solubility and Dissolution Rate of Ni Base Alloy to Molten Ag-Cu-Pd Brazing Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeshoji, Toshi-Taka; Watanabe, Yuki; Suzumura, Akio; Yamazaki, Takahisa

    During the brazing process of the rocket engine’s nozzle skirt assembly made from Fe-Ni based super alloy pipes with Pd based brazing filler, the erosion corrosion pits were sometimes engraved on those pipes’ surface. The corrosion is considered to be assisted by the dynamic flow of the molten brazing filler. In order to estimate the amount of erosion corrosion and to prevent it, the solubility and the dissolution rate of Ni to the molten Ag-Cu-Pd brazing filler are measured experimentally. The Ni crucible poured with the Ag-Cu-Pd brazing filler was heated up to 1320K and quenched after the various keeping time. The microstructure of the solidified brazing filler part’s cross sections was observed, and the amount of the dissolved Ni was estimated using the image processing technique. The solubility was about 5.53mass%and the initial dissolution rate was 6.28 × 10-3mass%/s. Using these data, more elaborate dynamic flow simulation will be able to conduct.

  13. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    DOEpatents

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  14. ``Long-life`` aluminium brazing alloys for automotive radiators -- a ten-year retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.; Woods, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    A class of corrosion-resistant brazing sheet materials, generally referred to as ``long-life alloys,`` has been in widespread use in brazed aluminum automobile radiators for over ten years. K319 tube material was initially introduced in 1986 to address the problem of road-salt-induced, outside-in corrosion of tubes in vacuum-brazed aluminum radiators, The development history, metallurgy, and field performance of long-life radiator brazing sheet are reviewed. This material utilizes the familiar sacrificial layer concept to improve corrosion resistance; however, it is unusual in that the layer is not introduced by conventional cladding means during sheet manufacture, but rather develops in situ by metallurgical transformations which occur during the brazing cycle. The sacrificial layer, about 25 mV anodic to the core alloy, increases by an order of magnitude the time-to-perforation of radiator tube sheet tested in cyclic acidified salt spray (SWAAT), which mimics the corrosion morphology observed in the field. Radiators examined after ten years of field service show excellent corrosion resistance, as predicted by SWAAT.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of joints in sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramics brazed with Ag Cu Ti alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Asthana, Rajiv; Ishikawa, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2012-01-01

    Active metal brazing of a new high thermal conductivity sintered SiC-polycrystalline fiber-bonded ceramic (SA-Tyrannohexs) has been carried out using a Ti-containing Ag Cu active braze alloy (Cusil-ABAs). The brazed composite joints were characterized using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM EDS). The results show that this material can be successfully joined using judiciously selected off-the shelf active braze alloys to yield metallurgically sound joints possessing high integrity. Uniform and continuous joints were obtained irrespective of differences in the fiber orientation in the substrate material. Detailed interfacial microanalysis showed that the titanium reacts with C and Si to form TiC layer and a Ti Si compound, respectively. Furthermore, the evaluation of shear strength of the joints was also conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures in air using the single-lap offset (SLO) shear test. The perpendicular-type SA-Tyrannohex joints exhibited apparent shear strengths of about 42 MPa and 25 MPa at 650 1C and 750 1C, respectively. The fracture at the higher temperature occurred at the interface between the reactionformed TiC layer and braze. This might be caused by generation of stress intensity when a shear stress was applied, according to m-FEA simulation results.

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Joints in Sintered SiC Fiber-Bonded Ceramics Brazed with Ag-Cu-Ti Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Asthana, Rajiv; Ishikawa, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Active metal brazing of a new high thermal conductivity sintered SiC-polycrystalline fiber-bonded ceramic (SA-Tyrannohex{reg_sign}) has been carried out using a Ti-containing Ag-Cu active braze alloy (Cusil-ABA{reg_sign}). The brazed composite joints were characterized using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The results show that this material can be successfully joined using judiciously selected off-the shelf active braze alloys to yield metallurgically sound joints possessing high integrity. Uniform and continuous joints were obtained irrespective of differences in the fiber orientation in the substrate material. Detailed interfacial microanalysis showed that the titanium reacts with C and Si to form TiC layer and a Ti-Si compound, respectively. Furthermore, the evaluation of shear strength of the joints was also conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures in air using the single-lap offset (SLO) shear test. The perpendicular-type SA-Tyrannohex joints exhibited apparent shear strengths of about 42 MPa and 25 MPa at 650 C and 750 C, respectively. The fracture at the higher temperature occurred at the interface between the reaction-formed TiC layer and braze. This might be caused by generation of stress intensity when a shear stress was applied, according to {mu}-FEA simulation results.

  17. Mechanical properties of Inconel 718 and Nickel 201 alloys after thermal histories simulating brazing and high temperature service

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.F.

    1985-09-01

    An experimental investigation was made to evaluate two nickel base alloys (Nickel-201 and Inconel-718) in three heat treated conditions. These conditions were: (1) annealed; (2) after thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle; and (3) after a thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle plus one operational lifetime of high temperature service. For the Nickel-201, two different braze cycle temperatures were evaluated. A braze cycle utilizing a lower braze temperature resulted in less grain growth for Nickel-201 than the standard braze cycle used for joining Nickel-201 to Inconel-718. It was determined, however, that Nickel-201, was marginal for temperatures investigated due to large grain growth. After the thermal exposures described above, the mechanical properties of Nickel-201 were degraded, whereas similar exposure on Inconel-718 actually strengthened the material compared with the annealed condition. The investigation included tensile tests at both room temperature and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and metallographic examination.

  18. Mechanical properties of Inconel 718 and Nickel 201 alloys after thermal histories simulating brazing and high temperature service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to evaluate two nickel base alloys (Nickel-201 and Inconel-718) in three heat treated conditions. These conditions were: (1) annealed; (2) after thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle; and (3) after a thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle plus one operational lifetime of high temperature service. For the Nickel-201, two different braze cycle temperatures were evaluated. A braze cycle utilizing a lower braze temperature resulted in less grain growth for Nickel-201 than the standard braze cycle used for joining Nickel-201 to Inconel-718. It was determined, however, that Nickel-201, was marginal for temperatures investigated due to large grain growth. After the thermal exposures described above, the mechanical properties of Nickel-201 were degraded, whereas similar exposure on Inconel-718 actually strengthened the material compared with the annealed condition. The investigation included tensile tests at both room temperature and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and metallographic examination.

  19. Development of rapidly quenched brazing foils to join tungsten alloys with ferritic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Fedotov, V. T.; Sevrjukov, O. N.; Moeslang, A.; Rohde, M.

    2004-08-01

    Results on rapidly solidified filler metals for tungsten brazing are presented. A rapidly quenched foil-type filler metal based on Ni bal-15Cr-4Mo-4Fe-(0.5-1.0)V-7.5Si-1.5B was developed to braze tungsten to ferritic/martensitic Crl3Mo2NbVB steel (FS) for helium gas cooled divertors and plasma facing components. Polycrystalline W-2CeO 2 and monocrystalline pure tungsten were brazed to the steel under vacuum at 1150 °C, using a 0.5 mm thick foil spacer made of a 50Fe-50Ni alloy. As a result of thermocycling tests (100 cycles between 700 °C/20 min and air-water cooling/3-5 min) on brazed joints, tungsten powder metallurgically processed W-2CeO 2 failed due to residual stresses, whereas the brazed joint with zone-melted monocrystalline tungsten withstood the thermocycling tests.

  20. BRAZING OF POROUS ALUMINA TO MONOLITHIC ALUMINA WITH Ag-CuO and Ag-V2O5 ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, M. C.; Camardello, Sam J.; Meier, Alan; Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.

    2005-01-31

    The feasibility of joining porous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) bodies to monolithic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using Ag-CuO and Ag-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} alloys via reactive air brazing (RAB) was examined for a nanoporous filter application. Brazing for these systems is complicated by the conflicting requirements of satisfactory wetting to fill the braze gap, while minimizing the infiltration of the porous body. By varying the firing time, temperature, and initial powder size, porous bodies with a range of pore microstructures were fabricated. The wettability was evaluated via sessile drop testing on monolithic substrates and porous body infiltration. Porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/monolithic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} brazed samples were fabricated, and the microstructures were evaluated. Both systems exhibited satisfactory wetting for brazing, but two unique types of brazing behavior were observed. In the Ag-CuO system, the braze alloy infiltrated a short distance into the porous body. For these systems, the microstructures indicated satisfactory filling of the brazed gap and a sound joint regardless of the processing conditions. The Ag-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} alloys brazed joints exhibited a strong dependence on the amount of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} available. For Ag-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} alloys with large V{sub 2}O{sub 5} additions, the braze alloy aggressively infiltrated the porous body and significantly depleted the Ag from the braze region resulting in poor bonding and large gaps within the joint. With small additions of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the Ag infiltrated the porous body until the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was exhausted and the Ag remaining at the braze interlayer bonded with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Based on these results, the Ag-CuO alloys have the best potential for brazing porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to monolithic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  1. Welding and brazing of nickel and nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortland, J. E.; Evans, R. M.; Monroe, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The joining of four types of nickel-base materials is described: (1) high-nickel, nonheat-treatable alloys, (2) solid-solution-hardening nickel-base alloys, (3) precipitation-hardening nickel-base alloys, and (4) dispersion-hardening nickel-base alloys. The high-nickel and solid-solution-hardening alloys are widely used in chemical containers and piping. These materials have excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, and retain useful strength at elevated temperatures. The precipitation-hardening alloys have good properties at elevated temperature. They are important in many aerospace applications. Dispersion-hardening nickel also is used for elevated-temperature service.

  2. Wetting and Mechanical Performance of Zirconia Brazed with Silver/Copper Oxide and Silver/Vanadium Oxide Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnamon, Kathleen E.; Meier, Alan; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2014-12-01

    The wetting behavior and mechanical strength of silver/copper oxide and silver/vanadium oxide braze alloys were investigated for both magnesia-stabilized and yttria-stabilized (Mg-PSZ and Y-TZP) transformation toughened zirconia substrates. The temperatures investigated were 1000 to 1100°C, with oxide additions of 1 to 10 weight percent V2O5 or CuO, and hold times of 0.9 to 3.6 ks. Increasing either the isothermal hold temperature or time had a distinctly negative effect on the joint strength. The maximum strengths for both braze alloys were obtained for 5 wt. % oxide additions at 1050°C with a hold time of 0.9 ks. The Mg-PSZ/Ag-CuO system exhibited a average fracture strength of 255 MPa (45% of the reported monolithic strength), and the Y-TZP/Ag-CuO system had an average fracture strength of 540 MPa (30% of the reported monolithic strength). The fracture strengths were lower for the Ag-V2O5 braze alloys, with fracture strengths of approximately 180 MPa (30% of the monolithic strength) for Mg-PSZ versus approximately 160 MPa (10% of the monolithic strength) for Y-TZP. No interfacial products were observed in low magnification SEM analysis for the brazing alloys containing V2O5 additions, while there were interfacial products present for brazes prepared with CuO additions in the braze alloy.

  3. Control of Interfacial Reactivity Between ZrB2 and Ni-Based Brazing Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, F.; Muolo, M. L.; Passerone, A.; Cacciamani, G.; Artini, C.

    2012-05-01

    Transition metals diborides (Ti,Zr,Hf)B2 play a key role in applications where stability at extremely high temperatures and damage tolerance are required; however, much research has still to be done to optimize the joining of these materials to themselves or to other high-temperature materials. In this study, the reactivity at the solid-liquid interface between ZrB2 ceramics and Ni-based brazing alloys has been addressed; it is shown how the reactivity and the dissolution of the solid phase can be controlled and even suppressed by adjusting the brazing alloy composition on the basis of thermodynamic calculations. Wetting experiments on ZrB2 ceramics by Ni, Ni-B 17 at.%, and Ni-B 50 at.% were performed at 1500 and 1200 °C by the sessile drop technique. The obtained interfaces were characterized by optical microscopy and SEM-EDS, and interpreted by means of the ad hoc-calculated B-Ni-Zr ternary diagram. A correlation among microstructures, substrate dissolution, shape of the drops, spreading kinetics, and the phase diagram was found. The effect on the interfacial reactivity of Si3Ni4 used as a sintering aid and issues related to Si diffusion into the brazing alloy are discussed as well.

  4. Effect of mechanical milling on Ni-TiH{sub 2} powder alloy filler metal for brazing TiAl intermetallic alloy: The microstructure and joint's properties

    SciTech Connect

    He Peng Liu Duo; Shang Erjing; Wang Ming

    2009-01-15

    A TiH{sub 2}-50 wt.% Ni powder alloy was mechanically milled in an argon gas atmosphere using milling times up to 480 min. A TiAl intermetallic alloy was joined by vacuum furnace brazing using the TiH{sub 2}-50 wt.% Ni powder alloy as the filler metal. The effect of mechanical milling on the microstructure and shear strength of the brazed joints was investigated. The results showed that the grains of TiH{sub 2}-50 wt.% Ni powder alloy were refined and the fusion temperature decreased after milling. A sound brazing seam was obtained when the sample was brazed at 1140 deg. C for 15 min using filler metal powder milled for 120 min. The interfacial zones of the specimens brazed with the milled filler powder were thinner and the shear strength of the joint was increased compared to specimens brazed with non-milled filler powder. A sample brazed at 1180 deg. C for 15 min using TiH{sub 2}-50 wt.% Ni powder alloy milled for 120 min exhibited the highest shear strength at both room and elevated temperatures.

  5. Active Metal Brazing and Characterization of Brazed Joints in Titanium to Carbon-Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, T. P.; Morscher, G. N.; Asthana, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Ti-metal/C-C composite joints were formed by reactive brazing with three commercial brazes, namely, Cu-ABA, TiCuNi, and TiCuSiI. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results of the microstructure analysis indicate solute redistribution across the joint and possible metallurgical bond formation via interdiffusion, which led to good wetting and spreading. A tube-on-plate tensile test was used to evaluate joint strength of Ti-tube/ C-C composite joints. The load-carrying ability was greatest for the Cu-ABA braze joint structures. This system appeared to have the best braze spreading which resulted in a larger braze/C-C composite bonded area compared to the other two braze materials. Also, joint loadcarrying ability was found to be higher for joint structures where the fiber tows in the outer ply of the C-C composite were aligned perpendicular to the tube axis when compared to the case where fiber tows were aligned parallel to the tube axis.

  6. Investigation of welding and brazing of molybdenum and TZM alloy tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundblad, Wayne E.

    1991-01-01

    This effort involved investigating the welding and brazing techniques of molybdenum tubes to be used as cartridges in the crystal growth cartridge. Information is given in the form of charts and photomicrographs. It was found that the recrystallization temperature of molybdenum can be increased by alloying it with 0.5 percent titanium and 0.1 percent zirconium. Recrystallization temperatures for this alloy, known as TZM, become significant around 2500 F. A series of microhardness tests were run on samples of virgin and heat soaked TZM. The test results are given in tabular form. It was concluded that powder metallurgy TZM may be an acceptable cartridge material.

  7. Mechanical Property and Corrosion Resistance Evaluations of Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloy Brazed with Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, E.; Kato, H.; Ogata, Toshiaki; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Specht, Eliot D; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Inoue, A.; Hisatsune, K.

    2007-01-01

    Exploitation of metallic glass as new brazing filler for Ti-based biomedical alloy was attempted. Ti-6Al-7Nb was used as a brazed material, and candidates of bulk metallic glass brazing filler were Cu60Hf25Ti15, Mg65Cu25Gd10, Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 and Pd40Cu30P20Ni10. Convergence infrared-ray brazing was conducted for brazing Ti-6Al-7Nb/metallic glass in Ar atmosphere. After brazing, hardness measurement, X-ray tomography, cross-sectional observation, artificial saliva immersion test and tensile test were performed to evaluate brazability, mechanical property and corrosion resistance of the obtained brazing joints. The results of brazing using these metallic glass fillers show that all the metallic glasses were brazable to Ti-6Al-7Nb except for Mg65Cu25Gd10. Mg65Cu25Gd10, Cu60Hf25Ti15 and their joints collapsed rapidly during immersion test. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 joint was the best in terms of degradation resistance; however, tensile strength was inferior to the conventional one. Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 filler and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 filler and their joints did not show any collapse or tarnish during the immersion test. Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 joint showed the excellent properties in terms of both corrosion resistance and tensile strength, which were superior to a joint brazed using Ti-15Cu-25Ni conventional filler. X-ray tomograph indicates that fracture tends to occur in the vicinity of the brazing interface after tensile test. The brazed metallic glass fillers were fully crystallized, excluding Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 filler. Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 brazed filler contained mapleleaf like primary dendrite, peritectoid and a few microns interfacial reaction layer in glassy matrix. The results indicated that Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 is promising brazing filler for dental or biomaterial devices.

  8. Thermodynamics of copper-nickel alloys containing aluminum, silicon, titanium, and chromium relative to their use in ceramic brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.O.

    1984-11-01

    By varying the copper-to-nickel ratio the activity coefficients of Al, Si, Ti, and Cr can be varied over a wide range. Thus to a degree one can tailor the behavior of such alloys for usefulness in brazing ceramics. Further, considerable amounts of these active elements can be present while the ability of carbon to reduce the surface oxide film in a high-vacuum system is retained. The critical aluminum concentrations required to prevent the formation of SiO/sub 2/, TiO, or Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ by reaction with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are calculated. The simultaneous presence of the four active additions will presumably promote wetting without making the surface deoxidation more difficult.

  9. Some properties of low-vapor-pressure braze alloys for thermionic converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, V. L.

    1978-01-01

    Density, dc electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and linear thermal expansion are measured for arc-melted rod-shaped samples of binary eutectics of Zr, Hf, Ru, Nb, Ir, Mo, Ta, Os, Re, and W selected as very-low-pressure braze fillers for thermionic converters. The first two properties are measured at 296 K for Zr-21.7 at% Ru, Zr-13 wt% W, Zr-19 wt% W, Zr-22.3 at% Nb, Nb-66.9 at% Ru, Hf-25.3 wt% Re, Zr-25.7 at% Ta, Hf-22.5 at% W, and Nb-35 wt% Mo. The last property is measured from 293 K to 2/3 melting point for specified alloys of different compositions. Resistivities of 0.000055 to 0.000181 ohm-cm are observed with the alloys having resistivities about ten times that of the less resistive constituent metal and about three times that of the more resistive constituent metal, except for Zr-19 wt% W and Nb-35 wt% Mo (greater resistivities). Thermal expansion coefficients vary from 0.000006 to 0.0000105/K. All brazes exhibit linear thermal expansion near that of their constituent metals.

  10. Brazing of the Tore Supra actively cooled Phase III Limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.; Walker, C.A.; Lutz, T.J.; Hosking, F.M.; McGrath, R.T.

    1993-12-31

    The head of the water-cooled Tore Supra Phase 3 Limiter is a bank of 14 round OFHC copper tubes, curved to fit the plasma radius, onto which several hundred pyrolytic graphite (PG) tiles and a lesser number of carbon fiber composite tiles are brazed. The small allowable tolerances for fitting the tiles to the tubes and mating of compound curvatures made the brazing and fabrication extremely challenging. The paper describes the fabrication process with emphasis on the procedure for brazing. In the fixturing for vacuum furnace brazing, the tiles were each independently clamped to the tube with an elaborate set of window frame clamps. Braze quality was evaluated with transient heating tests. Some rebrazing was necessary.

  11. Atomic structure and thermophysical properties of molten silver-copper oxide air braze alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, John Steven

    The Ag-CuOx materials system is the basis for a family of filler alloys used in a recently developed ceramic-metal joining technique referred to as air brazing, which is a brazing process that can be carried out in ambient air rather than under the vacuum or inert to reducing gas conditions required for conventional brazing methods. This research was conducted to elucidate the atomic coordination and selected thermophysical properties of these materials as a function of temperature when they are in the salient liquid state in air, since this is when the critical steps of wetting and spreading occur in the joining process. A series of alloys was selected spanning the entire length of the phase diagram including the pure end members, Ag and CuOx; alloys that form the two constituent single phase liquids; and alloys for which the two liquid phases coexist in the miscibility gap of the phase diagram. The oxygen content of the liquid alloys in air was measured using thermogravimetry. The oxidative weight gain of 99.999% pure metallic precursors was measured while simultaneously accounting for the concurrent silver volatility using a method that was developed in the course of the study. The surface tension and mass density were measured using the maximum bubble pressure method. The number density was calculated based on the information gained from the oxygen content and mass density measurements. For compositions that were amenable to laser heating, containerless high energy x-ray scattering measurements of the liquid atomic coordination were performed using a synchrotron beamline, an aerodynamic levitator, and laser heating. For the remaining compositions x-ray scattering measurements were performed in a beamline-compatible furnace. The two liquid phases that form in this materials system have distinct atomic coordinations characterized by an average of nearly two-fold coordinated ionic metal-oxygen pairs in the CuOx-rich liquid and nearly eight-fold coordinated atomic

  12. Active Metal Brazing of Carbon-Carbon Composites to Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, T. P.; Morscher, G.; Asthana, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Ti-metal/C-C composite joints were formed by reactive brazing with three commercial brazes, namely, Cu-ABA, TiCuNi, and TiCuSil. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results of the microstructure analysis indicate solute redistribution across the joint which led to good wetting, spreading, and metallurgical bond formation via interdiffusion.

  13. In-process oxidation protection in fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelly, K. P.; Featherston, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    Aluminum is cleaned of its oxide coating and is sealed immediately with polymeric material which makes it suitable for fluxless brazing or diffusion bonding. Time involved between cleaning and brazing is no longer critical factor.

  14. Brazing technique

    DOEpatents

    Harast, Donald G.

    1986-01-01

    A method of brazing comprises sand blasting the surfaces of the components to be brazed with particles of a brazing material to clean the surfaces and to embed brazing material in the surfaces, applying the brazing material to the surfaces, and heating the brazing material to form a brazement between the components.

  15. Active Metal Brazing and Characterization of Brazed Joints in C-C and C-SiC Composites to Copper-Clad-Molybdenum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices, and C/SiC composites reinforced with T-300 carbon fibers in a CVI SiC matrix were joined to Cu-clad Mo using two Ag-Cu braze alloys, Cusil-ABA (1.75% Ti) and Ticusil (4.5% Ti). The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of Ti at the composite/braze interface, and a tendency toward delamination in resin-derived C/C composite. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The Knoop microhardness (HK) distribution across the C/C joints indicated sharp gradients at the interface, and a higher hardness in Ticusil than in Cusil-ABA. For the C/SiC composite to Cu-clad-Mo joints, the effect of composite surface preparation revealed that ground samples did not crack whereas unground samples cracked. Calculated strain energy in brazed joints in both systems is comparable to the strain energy in a number of other ceramic/metal systems. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that such joined systems may be promising for thermal management applications.

  16. Brazing Dissimilar Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotz, Phillip D.; Davis, William M.; Wisner, Daniel L.

    1996-01-01

    Brazing effective technique for joining ordinary structural metals to brittle, low-thermal-expansion refractory metals. Specifically, brazing process established for joining copper or nickel flanges to ends of vacuum-plasma-sprayed tungsten tubes and for joining stainless-steel flanges to ends of tubes made of alloy of molybdenum with 40 percent of rhenium.

  17. Increasing Ti-6Al-4V brazed joint strength equal to the base metal by Ti and Zr amorphous filler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjeh, E.; Sarkhosh, H.; Bajgholi, M.E.; Khorsand, H.; Ghaffari, M.

    2012-09-15

    Microstructural features developed along with mechanical properties in furnace brazing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using STEMET 1228 (Ti-26.8Zr-13Ni-13.9Cu, wt.%) and STEMET 1406 (Zr-9.7Ti-12.4Ni-11.2Cu, wt.%) amorphous filler alloys. Brazing temperatures employed were 900-950 Degree-Sign C for the titanium-based filler and 900-990 Degree-Sign C for the zirconium-based filler alloys, respectively. The brazing time durations were 600, 1200 and 1800 s. The brazed joints were evaluated by ultrasonic test, and their microstructures and phase constitutions analyzed by metallography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since microstructural evolution across the furnace brazed joints primarily depends on their alloying elements such as Cu, Ni and Zr along the joint. Accordingly, existence of Zr{sub 2}Cu, Ti{sub 2}Cu and (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni intermetallic compounds was identified in the brazed joints. The chemical composition of segregation region in the center of brazed joints was identical to virgin filler alloy content which greatly deteriorated the shear strength of the joints. Adequate brazing time (1800 s) and/or temperature (950 Degree-Sign C for Ti-based and 990 Degree-Sign C for Zr-based) resulted in an acicular Widmanstaetten microstructure throughout the entire joint section due to eutectoid reaction. This microstructure increased the shear strength of the brazed joints up to the Ti-6Al-4V tensile strength level. Consequently, Ti-6Al-4V can be furnace brazed by Ti and Zr base foils produced excellent joint strengths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature or time was the main factors of controlling braze joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing a Widmanstaetten microstructure generates equal strength to base metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brittle intermetallic compounds like (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni/Cu deteriorate shear strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti and Zr base filler alloys were the best choice for brazing Ti

  18. Joining Ceramics By Brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Sudsina, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Certain ceramic materials tightly bond together by brazing with suitable alloys. Enables fabrication of parts of wide variety of shapes from smaller initial pieces of ceramics produced directly in only limited variety of shapes.

  19. Active Brazing of C/C Composite to Copper by AgCuTi Filler Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kexiang; Xia, Lihong; Zhang, Fuqin; He, Lianlong

    2016-05-01

    Brazing between the carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon composite (C/C composite) and copper has gained increasing interest because of its important application in thermal management systems in nuclear fusion reactors and in the aerospace industry. In order to examine the "interfacial shape effect" on the mechanical properties of the joint, straight and conical interfacial configurations were designed and machined on the surface of C/C composites before joining to copper using an Ag-68.8Cu-4.5Ti (wt pct) alloy. The microstructure and interfacial microchemistry of C/C composite/AgCuTi/Cu brazed joints were comprehensively investigated by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the joint region of both straight and conical joints can be described as a bilayer. Reaction products of Cu3Ti3O and γ-TiO were formed near the copper side in a conical interface joint, while no reaction products were found in the straight case. The effect of Ag on the interfacial reaction was discussed, and the formation mechanism of the joints during brazing was proposed. On the basis of the detailed microstructure presented, the mechanical performance of the brazed joints was discussed in terms of reaction and morphology across the joint.

  20. Nondestructive test of brazed cooling tubes of prototype bolometer camera housing using active infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Tahiliani, Kumudni; Pandya, Santosh P; Pandya, Shwetang; Jha, Ratneshwar; Govindarajan, J

    2011-01-01

    The active infrared thermography technique is used for assessing the brazing quality of an actively cooled bolometer camera housing developed for steady state superconducting tokamak. The housing is a circular pipe, which has circular tubes vacuum brazed on the periphery. A unique method was adopted to monitor the temperature distribution on the internal surface of the pipe. A stainless steel mirror was placed inside the pipe and the reflected IR radiations were viewed using an IR camera. The heat stimulus was given by passing hot water through the tubes and the temperature distribution was monitored during the transient phase. The thermographs showed a significant nonuniformity in the brazing with a contact area of around 51%. The thermography results were compared with the x-ray radiographs and a good match between the two was observed. Benefits of thermography over x-ray radiography testing are emphasized. PMID:21280850

  1. Phase Evolution in the Pd-Ag-CuO Air Braze Filler Metal Alloy System

    SciTech Connect

    Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

    2006-08-01

    Palladium was added as a ternary component to a series of copper oxide-silver alloys in an effort to increase the use temperature of these materials for potential ceramic air brazing applications. Phase equilibria in the ternary Pd-Ag-CuO system were investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a series of quenching experiments. Presented here are the latest findings on this system and a construction of the corresponding ternary phase diagram for low-to-moderate additions of palladium. The analysis included samples with higher palladium additions than were studied in the past, as well as an analysis of the composition-temperature trends in the Ag-CuO miscibility gap with palladium addition. It was found that the addition of palladium increases the solidus and liquidus and caused three phase zones to appear as expected by the phase rule. Furthermore, the palladium additions cause the miscibility gap boundary extending from the former binary eutectic to shift to lower silver-to-copper ratios.

  2. Aluminum core structures brazed without use of flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Aluminum alloy face sheets are brazed to aluminum alloy honeycomb cores without using corrosive flux by means of one or three methods. The completed brazed structure has the high-strength characteristics of heat treated aluminum alloys.

  3. Weld-brazing of titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Arnold, W. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A joining process, designated weld-brazing, which combines resistance spotwelding and brazing has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Resistance spot-welding is employed to position and align the parts and to establish a suitable faying surface gap for brazing; it contributes to the integrity of the joint. Brazing enhances the properties of the joint and reduces the stress concentrations normally associated with spotwelds. Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy joints have been fabricated using 3003 aluminum braze both in a vacuum furnace and in a retort containing an inert gas environment.

  4. Coating system to permit direct brazing of ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Cadden, Charles H.; Hosking, F. Michael

    2003-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a ceramic component that enables direct brazing using a non-active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a ceramic component to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by using this brazing method. The ceramic can be high purity alumina. The method comprises applying a first coating of a silicon-bearing oxide material (e.g. silicon dioxide or mullite (3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.2SiO.sub.2) to the ceramic. Next, a thin coating of active metal (e.g. Ti or V) is applied. Finally, a thicker coating of a non-active metal (e.g. Au or Cu) is applied. The coatings can be applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Alternatively, the active and non-active metals can be co-deposited (e.g. by sputtering a target made of mullite). After all of the coatings have been applied, the ceramic can be fired at a high temperature in a non-oxidizing environment to promote diffusion, and to enhance bonding of the coatings to the substrate. After firing, the metallized ceramic component can be brazed to other components using a conventional non-active braze alloy. Alternatively, the firing and brazing steps can be combined into a single step. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  5. Experimental study of W-Eurofer laser brazing for divertor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munez, C. J.; Garrido, M. A.; Rams, J.; Ureña, A.

    2011-11-01

    This work can be considered as a preliminary evaluation of the potential of laser brazing for joining tungsten based alloys to reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels (Eurofer). Brazing of tungsten and EUROFER alloys using a 55Ni-45Ti alloy as a brazer and a high power diode laser (HPDL) as a power source has been investigated. The brazed joints showed solidified pools with good superficial aspect and a high degree of wettability with the both parent sheets, presumably because of the active effect of titanium. Metallurgical brazeability was investigated and nanoindentation measurements were done to evaluate local hardening and stiffness effects associated to dilution phenomena.

  6. Reduced-Temperature Transient-Liquid-Phase Bonding of AluminaUsing a Ag-Cu-Based Brazing Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung Moo; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2005-12-19

    The mechanical properties and microstructural evolution ofmetal-ceramic bonds produced using a transient liquid phase (TLP) aredescribed. Alumina (Al2O3) was joined at 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C,and 700 degrees C using a multilayer In/Cusil-ABA (R) (commercialcopper-silver eutectic brazing alloy)/In interlayer. The introduction ofthin In cladding layers allows the system to bond at much lowertemperatures than those typically used for brazing with Cusil-ABA (R),thereby protecting temperature-sensitive components. After chemicalhomogenization, the interlayers retain an operating temperature rangesimilar to that of the brazed joints. TLP bonds made at 500 degrees C,600 degrees C, and 700 degrees C with holding times ranging from as lowas 1.5 h to 24 h had average fracture strengths above 220 MPa. Theeffects of bonding temperature and time on fracture strength aredescribed. Preliminary analysis of the interlayers shows that the Ag-Inor Cu-In intermetallic phases do not form. Considerations unique tosystems with two-phase core layers are discussed. Experiments usingsingle-crystal sapphire indicate rapid formation of a reaction layer at700 degrees C, suggesting the possibility of making strong bonds usinglower temperatures and/or shorter processing times.

  7. Some possible filler alloys with low vapor pressures for refractory-metal brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of eutectics and melting-point minima for binary combinations of metals having vapor pressures below 10 to the minus 10th power torr at 1500 degrees K and .00005 torr at 2000 degree K is presented. These compositions and others near them on their phase diagrams are potential special brazing fillers for refractory metals. Some possible problems and advantages for fusion bonds of such mixtures are indicated. Evaluations of brazing fillers containing refractory metals are reported.

  8. Corrosion of Ti-STS dissimilar joints brazed by a Ag interlayer and Ag-Cu-(Pd) alloy fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. K.; Park, J. J.; Lee, G. J.; Lee, J. G.; Kim, D. W.; Lim, C. H.; Rhee, C. K.; Lee, Y. B.; Lee, J. K.; Hong, S. J.

    2011-02-01

    Corrosion behavior of dissimilar brazed joints between titanium Gr. 2 (Ti) and S31254 stainless steel (STS) was investigated. For the study, a Ag interlayer and two Ag-base eutectic alloys, 72Ag-28Cu and 66.2Ag-25.8Cu-8Pd (wt.%), were introduced as a diffusion control layer and fillers, respectively, between the base materials. The joints commonly had a layered structure of Ti(base)/TiAg/Ag solid solution/STS(base), but the one brazed by the Ag-Cu-Pd filler was slightly alloyed with the noble Pd elements over the Ag-rich solid solution region. A series of corrosion test experiments in a sea water revealed that a corrosion of TiAg layer and a stress-induced cracking at the TiAg/Ag solid solution interface were dominant due to a galvanic attack, but notably the Ti-STS dissimilar joint's resistance to corrosion was significantly improved by alloying the Pd in the joint. The corrosion behavior of such dissimilar metal joints was discussed based on galvanic corrosion effect.

  9. New concept in brazing metallic honeycomb panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, P. D.; Layton, R. E.; Stratton, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    Aluminum oxide coating provides surface which will not be wetted by brazing alloy and which stops metallic diffusion welding of tooling materials to part being produced. This method eliminates loss of tooling materials and parts from braze wetting and allows fall-apart disassembly of tooling after brazing.

  10. Laser beam brazing of car body and aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Haferkamp, H.; Kreutzburg, K.

    1994-12-31

    At present, when brazing car body components for the automotive industry, manual flame brazing is mostly used. The advantage of brazing as compared to welding, is the lower hardness of the braze metal, making postmachining easier. But manual flame brazing also shows several main disadvantages, such as pores within the seam and a high thermal influence on the workpiece. Therefore, investigations on laser beam brazing concerning the reduction of the technological and economical disadvantages of the flame brazing process were carried out. Laser beam brazing of aluminum alloys is also a main topic of this presentation. The fundamental research in brazing mild steel was done on lap joints. The investigations about brazing mild steel and aluminum alloys have demonstrated that it is possible to braze these metals using laser beam radiation. Laser beam brazing of 3-dimensional mild steel components requires a special program for the brazing sequence, and new specifications in design and fabrication. But comparing seams made by laser beam brazing to manual flame brazing show that there are advantages to using the automated laser process. Laser beam brazing of aluminum alloys makes it possible to join metals with poor brazeability, although brazing conditions lead to a slight melting of the gap sides.

  11. Bonding of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy using an active cement, Ag-Cu eutectic and Cu interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhao; Xiaohong, Li; Jinbao, Hou; Qiang, Sun; Fuli, Zhang

    2012-10-01

    The interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints formed by active cement added brazing in vacuum of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy, using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and pure copper foil as braze alloy and interlayer respectively, were investigated. CuTi, Cu4Ti3, Fe2Ti and the reaction layer of TiC and Si were the predominant components at the joint interface. The maximum shear strength of the joint was 77 MPa for brazing at 850 °C for 15 min. The results show that active cement added brazing in vacuum using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and Cu interlayer can be used successfully for joining Cf/SiC composites to Invar alloy.

  12. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  13. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  14. METHOD OF BRAZING BERYLLIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hanks, G.S.; Keil, R.W.

    1963-05-21

    A process is described for brazing beryllium metal parts by coating the beryllium with silver (65- 75 wt%)-aluminum alloy using a lithium fluoride (50 wt%)-lithium chloride flux, and heating the coated joint to a temperature of about 700 un. Concent 85% C for about 10 minutes. (AEC)

  15. Active Metal Brazing and Adhesive Bonding of Titanium to C/C Composites for Heat Rejection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, Tarah; Cerny, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Robust assembly and integration technologies are critically needed for the manufacturing of heat rejection system (HRS) components for current and future space exploration missions. Active metal brazing and adhesive bonding technologies are being assessed for the bonding of titanium to high conductivity Carbon-Carbon composite sub components in various shapes and sizes. Currently a number of different silver and copper based active metal brazes and adhesive compositions are being evaluated. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Several mechanical tests have been employed to ascertain the effectiveness of different brazing and adhesive approaches in tension and in shear that are both simple and representative of the actual system and relatively straightforward in analysis. The results of these mechanical tests along with the fractographic analysis will be discussed. In addition, advantages, technical issues and concerns in using different bonding approaches will also be presented.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF A NOVEL AIR BRAZING COMPOSITION FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE, OXIDATION-RESISTANT CERAMIC JOINING

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.

    2004-01-30

    One of the challenges in developing a useful ceramic joining technique is in producing a joint that offers good strength under high temperature and highly oxidizing operating conditions. Unfortunately many of the commercially available active metal ceramic brazing alloys exhibit oxidation behaviors which are unacceptable for use in a high temperature application. We have developed a new approach to ceramic brazing, referred to as air brazing, that employs an oxide wetting agent dissolved in a molten noble metal solvent, in this case CuO in Ag, such that acceptable wetting behavior occurs on a number of ceramic substrates. In an effort to explore how to increase the operating temperature of this type of braze, we have investigated the effect of ternary palladium additions on the wetting characteristics of our standard Ag-CuO air braze composition

  17. Dissimilar Laser Welding/Brazing of 5754 Aluminum Alloy to DP 980 Steel: Mechanical Properties and Interfacial Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Yulong; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Wei; Weckman, David; Zhou, Norman

    2015-11-01

    A diode laser welding/brazing technique was used for lap joining of 5754 aluminum alloy to DP 980 steel with Al-Si filler metal. The correlation between joint interfacial microstructure, wettability of filler metal, and mechanical properties was systematically investigated. At low laser power (1.4 kW), a layer of intermetallic compounds, composed of θ-Fe(Al,Si)3 and τ 5 -Al7.2Fe1.8Si, was observed at the interface between fusion zone and steel. Because of the poor wettability of filler metal on the steel substrate, the joint strength was very low and the joint failed at the FZ/steel interface. When medium laser power (2.0 kW) was applied, the wettability of filler metal was enhanced, which improved the joint strength and led to FZ failure. With further increase of laser power to 2.6 kW, apart from θ and τ 5, a new hard and brittle η-Fe2(Al,Si)5 IMC with microcracks was generated at the FZ/steel interface. The formation of η significantly degraded the joint strength. The failure mode changed back to interfacial failure.

  18. Weld-brazing of titanium. [resistance spot welding combined with brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Arnold, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A joining process, designated weld-brazing, which combines resistance spot-welding and brazing has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Resistance spot-welding is employed to position and aline the parts and to establish a suitable faying surface gap for brazing and contributes to the integrity of the joint. Brazing enhances the properties of the joint and reduces the stress concentrations normally associated with spotwelds. Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy joints have been fabricated using 3003 aluminum braze both in a vaccum furnace and in a retort containing an inert gas environment.

  19. Brazing of beryllium for structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Progress made in fabricating a beryllium compression tube structure and a stiffened beryllium panel. The compression tube was 7.6cm in diameter and 30.5cm long with titanium end fittings. The panel was 203cm long and stiffened with longitudinal stringers. Both units were assembled by brazing with BAg-18 braze alloy. The detail parts were fabricated by hot forming 0.305cm beryllium sheet and the brazing parameters established.

  20. Fluxless Brazing of Large Structural Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Fluxless brazing is used in fabricating aluminum structural panels that withstand high internal pressure. Aluminum sheet of structural thickness with 4045 aluminum/silicon-braze-alloy cladding is brazed to corrugated "fin stock" having channels 0.001 inch (0.03mm) high by same width. Process is carried out in an inert (argon) atmosphere in a retort furnace. Filler bars are used in some channels to prevent fin stock from collapsing as pressure is applied.

  1. Improved brazing technique

    DOEpatents

    Harast, D.G.

    1984-01-27

    A method of brazing comprises sand blasting the surfaces of the components to be brazed with particles of a brazing material to clean the surfaces and to embed brazing material in the surfaces, applying the brazing material to the surfaces, and heating the brazing material to form a brazement between the components.

  2. Tensile fracture characterization of braze joined copper-to-CFC coupon assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trester, P. W.; Valentine, P. G.; Johnson, W. R.; Chin, E.; Reis, E. E.; Colleraine, A. P.

    1996-10-01

    A vacuum brazing process was used to join a broad spectrum of carbon-fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (CFC) materials, machined into cylindrical coupons, between coupons of oxygen-free copper, the braze alloy was a copper-base alloy which contained only low activation elements (Al, Si, and Ti) relative to a titanium baseline specification. This demonstration was of particular importance for plasma facing components (PFCs) under design for use in the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX); the braze investigation was conducted by General Atomics for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A tensile test of each brazed assembly was conducted. The results from the braze processing, testing, and fracture characterization studies of this reporting support the use of CFC's of varied fiber architecture and matrix processing in PFC designs for TPX. Further, the copper braze alloy investigated is now considered to be a viable candidate for a low-activation bond design. The prediction of plasma disruption-induced loads on the PFCs in TPX requires that joint strength between CFC tiles and their copper substrate be considered in design analysis and CFC selection.

  3. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  4. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  5. Union would facilitate joining of tubing, minimize braze contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terril, A. E.

    1966-01-01

    Union assembly provides a fluidtight joint between two lengths of tubing and minimizes introduction of braze contaminants into the tubing. The union contains two brazing preforms separated by a metal ring that serves as a dam for the molten brazing alloy.

  6. Some properties of low-vapor-pressure braze alloys for thermionic converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, V. L.

    1978-01-01

    Property measurements were made for arc-melted, rod-shaped specimens. Density and dc electrical resistivity at 296 K were measured for various binary eutectic alloys. Thermal conductivity was inferred from the electrical conductivity using the Wiedemann, Franz, Lorenz relation. Linear thermal expansion from 293 K to two-thirds melting point, under a helium atmosphere, was measured for Zr, 21.7-wt percent Ru; Zr, 13-wt percent W; Zr, 22.3-wt percent Nb; Nb, 66.9-wt percent Ru; and Zr, 25.7-wt percent Ta.

  7. Microstructural evolution and ductile phase toughening in brazed joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Noah Robinson

    In typical brazed joints, melting point depressants degrade the structural robustness by concentrating as brittle phases into continuous seams along the centerline. The objective of this dissertation is to sufficiently understand the mechanisms governing the microstructure of a typical braze that approaches for modifying the fabrication to eliminate brittleness can be identified and demonstrated. A characterization of a quaternary braze (Nicrobraze 31) used for stainless steel bonds, containing P and Si melting point depressants, reveals that the thermochemical interactions governing the microstructure include dissolution/reprecipitation, solid-state diffusion, and solidification. It is shown that the Si can be incorporated into a solid solution gamma-Ni(Fe, Si) phase that forms by reprecipitation. A fracture toughness test for intermediate toughness materials is developed to quantify the performance of brazed joints. The test configuration is a wedge driven DCB (Double Cantilever Beam), with design guided by analytical solutions for the energy release rate and compliance. The fracture resistance of a typical braze joint is found to be significantly greater than that for the intermetallic constituents. Approximately half of the toughening is attributed to plastic stretch of the ductile phase within the eutectic. The remainder is attributed to dissipation within a plastic zone that forms in the primary gamma-Ni(Fe, Si) regions. Heat treatments are presented that use ductile phase toughening to mitigate the effect of brittle intermetallics in a Ni-based braze alloy. The development of this beneficial microstructure is based on an understanding of the transient dissolution and isothermal solidification phenomena. By rapid cooling after a short brazing time, gamma-Ni(Fe, Si) is redistributed to the midline where it disrupts the intermetallics and forms a network of ductile ligaments upon fracture. Reinforcement by the modified ductile phase nearly doubles the toughness

  8. Mechanical design of ceramic beam tube braze joints for NOvA kicker magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C.R.; Reilly, R.E.; Wilson, J.H.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The NO?A Experiment will construct a detector optimized for electron neutrino detection in the existing NuMI neutrino beam. The NuMI beam line is capable of operating at 400 kW of primary beam power and the upgrade will allow up to 700 kW. Ceramic beam tubes are utilized in numerous kicker magnets in different accelerator rings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Kovar flanges are brazed onto each beam tube end, since kovar and high alumina ceramic have similar expansion curves. The tube, kovar flange, end piece, and braze foil alloy brazing material are stacked in the furnace and then brazed. The most challenging aspect of fabricating kicker magnets in recent years have been making hermetic vacuum seals on the braze joints between the ceramic and flange. Numerous process variables can influence the robustness of conventional metal/ceramic brazing processes. The ceramic-filler metal interface is normally the weak layer when failure does not occur within the ceramic. Differences between active brazing filler metal and the moly-manganese process will be discussed along with the applicable results of these techniques used for Fermilab production kicker tubes.

  9. Characterization of Brazed Joints of C-C Composite to Cu-clad-Molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites with either pitch+CVI matrix or resin-derived matrix were joined to copper-clad molybdenum using two active braze alloys, Cusil-ABA (1.75% Ti) and Ticusil (4.5% Ti). The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of Ti at the composite/braze interface, and a tendency toward de-lamination in resin-derived C-C composite due to its low inter-laminar shear strength. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the pitch+CVI C-C composites was observed. The relatively low brazing temperatures (<950 C) precluded melting of the clad layer and restricted the redistribution of alloying elements but led to metallurgically sound composite joints. The Knoop microhardness (HK) distribution across the joint interfaces revealed sharp gradients at the Cu-clad-Mo/braze interface and higher hardness in Ticusil (approx.85-250 HK) than in Cusil-ABA (approx.50-150 HK). These C-C/Cu-clad-Mo joints with relatively low thermal resistance may be promising for thermal management applications.

  10. Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres

    DOEpatents

    Cadden, Charles H.; Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi; Hosking, Floyd M.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  11. Vacuum brazing of high volume fraction SiC particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dongfeng; Niu, Jitai; Gao, Zeng; Wang, Peng

    2015-03-01

    This experiment chooses A356 aluminum matrix composites containing 55% SiC particle reinforcing phase as the parent metal and Al-Si-Cu-Zn-Ni alloy metal as the filler metal. The brazing process is carried out in vacuum brazing furnace at the temperature of 550°C and 560°C for 3 min, respectively. The interfacial microstructures and fracture surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy spectrum analysis (EDS). The result shows that adequacy of element diffusion are superior when brazing at 560°C, because of higher activity and liquidity. Dislocations and twins are observed at the interface between filler and composite due to the different expansion coefficient of the aluminum alloy matrix and SiC particles. The fracture analysis shows that the brittle fracture mainly located at interface of filler and composites.

  12. Development of the weld-braze joining process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Arnold, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A joining process, designated weld-brazing, was developed which combines resistance spot welding and brazing. Resistance spot welding is used to position and aline the parts, as well as to establish a suitable faying-surface gap for brazing. Fabrication is then completed at elevated temperature by capillary flow of the braze alloy into the joint. The process was used successfully to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V alloy joints by using 3003 aluminum braze alloy and should be applicable to other metal-braze systems. Test results obtained on single-overlap and hat-stiffened panel specimens show that weld-brazed joints were superior in tensile shear, stress rupture, fatigue, and buckling compared with joints fabricated by conventional means. Another attractive feature of the process is that the brazed joint is hermetically sealed by the braze material, which may eliminate many of the sealing problems encountered with riveted or spot welded structures. The relative ease of fabrication associated with the weld-brazing process may make it cost effective over conventional joining techniques.

  13. Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, T.K.; Novak, R.F.

    1991-05-07

    An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined. 3 figures.

  14. Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Thomas K.; Novak, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined.

  15. The Apparent Contact Angle and Wetted Area of Active Alloys on Silicon Carbide as a Function of the Temperature and the Surface Roughness: A Multivariate Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Pfeiffer, Jan; Wojarski, Lukas

    2015-08-01

    Despite the broad field of applications for active filler alloys for brazing ceramics, as well as intense research work on the wetting and spreading behavior of these alloys on ceramic surfaces within the last decades, the manufactured joints still exhibit significant variations in their properties due to the high sensitivity of the alloys to changing brazing conditions. This increases the need for investigations of the wetting and spreading behavior of filler alloys with regard to the dominating influences combined with their interdependencies, instead of solely focusing on single parameter investigations. In this regard, measurements of the wetting angle and area were conducted at solidified AgCuTi and CuSnTi alloys on SiC substrates. Based on these measurements, a regression model was generated, illustrating the influence of the brazing temperature, the roughness of the faying surfaces, the furnace atmosphere, and their interdependencies on the wetting and spreading behavior of the filler alloys. It was revealed that the behavior of the melts was significantly influenced by the varied brazing parameters, as well as by their interdependencies. This result was also predicted by the developed model and showed a high accuracy.

  16. Brazing of photocathode RF gun structures in Hydrogen atmosphere: Process qualification, effect of brazing on RF properties and vacuum compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kak, Ajay; Kulshreshtha, P.; Lal, Shankar; Kaul, Rakesh; Ganesh, P.; Pant, K. K.; Abhinandan, Lala

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a brazing process for an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible photocathode RF gun structure developed at our Centre. The choice of brazing alloy and its form, brazing clearance between parts to be joined and the brazing cycle adopted have been qualified through metallographic examination of identical joints on an OFE copper prototype that was cut open after brazing. The quality of brazed joint not only affects the UHV compatibility of the gun, but also influences the RF parameters finally achieved. A 2-D electromagnetic code, SUPERFISH, was used to predict the variation in RF parameters before and after brazing considering actual brazing clearances provided between the parts to be joined. Results obtained from low power RF measurements on the brazed gun structure confirm the integrity of the brazed joints and show good agreement with those predicted by electromagnetic simulations. The brazed gun structure has been leak-tested and pumped down to a vacuum level limited by the vacuum compatibility of the flange-fittings employed in the setup.

  17. Vacuum brazing beryllium to Monel

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, T.G.; Grotsky, V.K.; Keller, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    The tensile strength of beryllium to Monel vacuum furnace brazed joints was studied. The filler used was the 72% Ag-28%Cu(BAg-8) alloy. The strength of these joints, which require the use of a titanium hydride powder or physical vapor deposited titanium wetting agent on the beryllium, was found to approach the yield strength of the base metals. Strength was found to be reduced by the interaction of increased titanium hydride quantity and brazing time. Metallographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies correlated these effects with microstructure. The formation of the brittle copper-beryllium delta phase was found to require conditions of high brazing temperature and the presence of a reservoir of the copper-containing filler such as found in fillet areas. Two other filler metals: pure silver, and a 60% Ag-30% Cu-10%Sn (BAg-17) alloy were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the BAg-8 alloy in cases where the filler metal can be preplaced between the base metal surfaces.

  18. Substrate Effects on the High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of a Gold-Based Braze Filler Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Rice, Joseph P.

    2005-06-30

    Oxidation testing was conducted on a commercial gold-based braze alloy, Gold ABA, and on zirconia and stainless steel joining couples prepared using this braze filler metal. Preliminary results reveal that both substrates play a significant role in determining the overall oxidation resistance of the brazed joint.

  19. Effects of Different Braze Materials and Composite Substrates on Composite/Ti Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Asthana, Rajiv; Shpargel, Tarah

    2007-01-01

    An ever increasing number of applications require robust joining technologies of dissimilar materials. In this study, three types of ceramic composites (C-C, C-SiC, and SiC-SiC) were vacuum brazed to commercially pure Ti using the Cusil-ABA (63 Ag - 35.5 Cu - 1.75 Ti) active metal braze alloy. The study also compared composite specimens as-fabricated and after surface grinding/polishing. A butt-strap tensile shear strength test was used to evaluate the joined structures at room temperature, 270 and 500 C. The elevated temperatures represent possible use temperatures for some heat rejection type applications. Joint strength will be discussed in light of braze wetting and spreading properties, composite properties, and test temperature.

  20. Effect of Composite Substrates on the Mechanical Behavior of Brazed Joints in Metal-Composite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Shpargel, Tarah; Asthana, Rajiv

    2006-01-01

    Advanced composite components are being considered for a wide variety of demanding applications in aerospace, space exploration, and ground based systems. A number of these applications require robust integration technologies to join dissimilar materials (metalcomposites) into complex structural components. In this study, three types of composites (C-C, C-SiC, and SiC-SiC) were vacuum brazed to commercially pure Ti using the active metal braze alloy Cusil-ABA (63Ag-35.3Cu-1.75Ti). Composite substrates with as fabricated and polished surfaces were used for brazing. The microstructure and composition of the joint, examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), showed sound metallurgical bonding in all systems. The butt strap tensile (BST) test was performed on bonded specimens at room and elevated temperatures. Effect of substrate composition, interlaminar properties, and surface roughness on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of joints will be discussed.

  1. Weld braze technique

    DOEpatents

    Kanne, Jr., William R.; Kelker, Jr., John W.; Alexander, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    High-strength metal joints are formed by a combined weld-braze technique. A hollow cylindrical metal member is forced into an undersized counterbore in another metal member with a suitable braze metal disposed along the bottom of the counterbore. Force and current applied to the members in an evacuated chamber results in the concurrent formation of the weld along the sides of the counterbore and a braze along the bottom of the counterbore in one continuous operation.

  2. Brazing of Stainless Steels to Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Using Silver -Base Brazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Asthana, Rajiv

    2005-01-01

    Three silver-base brazes containing either noble metal palladium (Palcusil-10 and Palcusil-15) or active metal titanium (Ticusil) were evaluated for high-temperature oxidation resistance, and their effectiveness in joining yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to a corrosion-resistant ferritic stainless steel. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and optical- and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to evaluate the braze oxidation behavior and the structure and chemistry of the YSZ/braze/steel joints. The effect of the braze type and processing conditions on the interfacial microstructure and composition of the joint regions is discussed with reference to the chemical changes that occur at the interface. It was found that chemical interdiffusion of the constituents of YSZ, steel and the brazes led to compositional changes and/or interface reconstruction, and metallurgically sound joints.

  3. A new low-melting-point aluminum braze

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.M.; Humpston, G.; Sangha, S.P.S.

    1996-08-01

    Most high-strength aluminum engineering alloys cannot be joined by brazing because they either degrade or melt at the temperature at which commercially available aluminum brazes are used. Previous efforts to develop aluminum brazing filler metal alloys with a significantly reduced melting point have tended to be frustrated by poor mechanical properties of the alloys, corrosion of the joints or the high cost, toxicity or volatility of the constituent materials. This paper describes the development and assessment of a new brazing alloy with a composition of 73Al-20Cu-2Ni-55I (wt-%), which has been designed to overcome these limitations. A joining process has been devised for fluxless brazing of aluminum engineering alloys using the new filler metal for use in both inert gas and vacuum furnaces. The production of ductile foil preforms and roll-clad base metals is described together with preliminary results of mechanical property assessments and corrosion resistance trials. These results are highly encouraging and point to promising new applications for aluminum brazing technology.

  4. Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed EUROFER-tungsten-joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehtov, T.; Aktaa, J.; Kraft, O.

    2007-08-01

    Within the scope of the European fusion power plant study for development of a He-cooled divertor, a tungsten-steel joint has been considered. A preferable joining technique is high temperature brazing. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. The components of the joint are exposed to mechanical and cyclic thermal loads which give rise to development of high stresses and could lead to failure. Brazed joints of tungsten alloy and ferritic-martensitic steel using different brazing filler materials were studied both experimentally and theoretically. Finite element computations have been performed to calculate the stress distribution and to investigate their evolution within the course of the operational thermal load. Sample joint specimen have been brazed, investigated with respect to their microstructure, and mechanically characterized by performing bend and notched bar impact testing at different temperatures. Some plastic deformation and relatively low impact energies were measured.

  5. Brazing SiC/SiC Composites to Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffier, Wayne S.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have shown that active brazing alloys (ABAs) can be used to join SiC/SiC composite materials to metals, with bond strengths sufficient for some structural applications. The SiC/SiC composite coupons used in the experiments were made from polymerbased SiC fiber preforms that were chemical-vapor-infiltrated with SiC to form SiC matrices. Some of the metal coupons used in the experiments were made from 304 stainless steel; others were made from oxygen-free, high-conductivity copper. Three ABAs were chosen for the experiments: two were chosen randomly from among a number of ABAs that were on hand at the time; the third ABA was chosen because its titanium content (1.25 percent) is less than those of the other two ABAs (1.75 and 4.5 percent, respectively) and it was desired to evaluate the effect of reducing the titanium content, as described below. The characteristics of ABAs that are considered to be beneficial for the purpose of joining SiC/SiC to metal include wettability, reactivity, and adhesion to SiC-based ceramics. Prior to further development, it was verified that the three chosen ABAs have these characteristics. For each ABA, suitable vacuum brazing process conditions were established empirically by producing a series of (SiC/SiC)/ABA wetting samples. These samples were then sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) for analysis of their microstructures and compositions. Specimens for destructive mechanical tests were fabricated by brazing of lap joints between SiC/SiC coupons 1/8-in. (.3.2- mm) thick and, variously, stainless steel or copper tabs. The results of destructive mechanical tests and the SEM/EDS analysis were used to guide the development of a viable method of brazing the affected materials.

  6. Process for forming unusually strong joints between metals and ceramics by brazing at temperatures that do not exceed 750/sup 0/C

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, J.P.; David, S.A.; Woodhouse, J.J.

    1984-12-04

    This invention is a process for joining metals to ceramics to form very strong bonds using low brazing temperature, i.e., less than 750/sup 0/C, and particularly for joining nodular cast iron to partially stabilized zirconia. The process provides that the ceramic be coated with an active metal, such as titanium, that can form an intermetallic with a low melting point brazing alloy such as 60Ag-30Cu-10Sn. The nodular cast iron is coated with a noncarbon containing metal, such as copper, to prevent carbon in the nodular cast iron from dissolving in the brazing alloy. These coated surfaces can be brazed together with the brazing alloy between at less than 750/sup 0/C to form a very strong joint. An even stronger bond can be formed if a transition piece is used between the metal and ceramic. It is preferred for the transition piece to have a coefficient of thermal expansion compatible with the coefficient of thermal expansion of the ceramic, such as titanium.

  7. Process for forming unusually strong joints between metals and ceramics by brazing at temperatures that do no exceed 750 degree C.

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Joseph P.; David, Stan A.; Woodhouse, John J.

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a process for joining metals to ceramics to form very strong bonds using low brazing temperature, i.e., less than 750.degree. C., and particularly for joining nodular cast iron to partially stabilized zirconia. The process provides that the ceramic be coated with an active metal, such as titanium, that can form an intermetallic with a low melting point brazing alloy such as 60Ag-30Cu-10Sn. The nodular cast iron is coated with a noncarbon containing metal, such as copper, to prevent carbon in the nodular cast iron from dissolving in the brazing alloy. These coated surfaces can be brazed together with the brazing alloy between at less than 750.degree. C. to form a very strong joint. An even stronger bond can be formed if a transition piece is used between the metal and ceramic. It is preferred for the transition piece to have a coefficient of thermal compatible with the coefficient of thermal expansion of the ceramic, such as titanium.

  8. Interfacial reaction of intermetallic compounds of ultrasonic-assisted brazed joints between dissimilar alloys of Ti6Al4V and Al4Cu1Mg.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhipeng; Zhao, Weiwei; Yan, Jiuchun; Li, Dacheng

    2011-09-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted brazing of Al4Cu1Mg and Ti6Al4V using Zn-based filler metal (without and with Si) has been investigated. Before brazing, the Ti6Al4V samples were pre-treated by hot-dip aluminizing and ultrasonic dipping in a molten filler metal bath in order to control the formation of intermetallic compounds between the Ti6Al4V samples and the filler metal. The results show that the TiAl(3) phase was formed in the interface between the Ti6Al4V substrate and the aluminized coating. For the Zn-based filler metal without Si, the Ti6Al4V interfacial area of the brazed joint did not change under the effect of the ultrasonic wave, and only consisted of the TiAl(3) phase. For the Zn-based filler metal with Si, the TiAl(3) phase disappeared and a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase was formed at the interfacial area of the brazed joints under the effect of the ultrasonic wave. Due to the TiAl(3) phase completely changing to a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase, the morphology of the intermetallic compounds changed from a block-like shape into a lamellar-like structure. The highest shear strength of 138MPa was obtained from the brazed joint free of the block-like TiAl(3) phase. PMID:21489846

  9. Development of Brazing Technology for Use in High- Temperature Gas Separation Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K.S.; Hardy, J.S.; Kim, J.Y.

    2003-04-23

    The development of high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen separators, fuel gas reformers, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors is part of a rapidly expanding segment of the solid state technology market. These devices employ an ionic conducting ceramic as the active membrane that establishes the electrochemical potential of the device, either under voltage (i.e. to carry out gas separation) or under chemical gradient (to develop an electrical potential and thereby generate electrical power). Because the device operates under an ionic gradient that develops across the electrolyte, hermiticity across this layer is paramount. That is, not only must this thin ceramic membrane be dense with no interconnected porosity, but it must be connected to the rest of the device, typically constructed from a heat resistant alloy, with a high-temperature, gas-tight seal. A significant engineering challenge in fabricating these devices is how to effectively join the thin electrochemically active membrane to the metallic body of the device such that the resulting seal is hermetic, rugged, and stable during continuous high temperature operation. Active metal brazing is the typical method of joining ceramic and metal engineering components. It employs a braze alloy that contains one or more reactive elements, often titanium, which will chemically reduce the ceramic faying surface and greatly improve its wetting behavior and adherence with the braze. However, recent studies of these brazes for potential use in fabricating high-temperature electrochemical devices revealed problems with interfacial oxidation and subsequent joint failure [1,2]. Specifically, it was found that the introduction of the ceramic electrolyte and/or heat resistant metal substrate dramatically affects the inherent oxidation behavior of the braze, often in a deleterious manner. These conclusions pointed to the need for an oxidation resistant, high-temperature ceramic

  10. A New Vacuum Brazing Route for Niobium-316L Stainless Steel Transition Joints for Superconducting RF Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Bhatnagar, V. K.; Yedle, K.; Ram Sankar, P.; Sindal, B. K.; Kumar, K. V. A. N. P. S.; Singh, M. K.; Rai, S. K.; Bose, A.; Veerbhadraiah, T.; Ramteke, S.; Sridhar, R.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S. C.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes a new approach for vacuum brazing of niobium-316L stainless steel transition joints for application in superconducting radiofrequency cavities. The study exploited good wettability of titanium-activated silver-base brazing alloy (CuSil-ABA®), along with nickel as a diffusion barrier, to suppress brittle Fe-Nb intermetallic formation, which is well reported during the established vacuum brazing practice using pure copper filler. The brazed specimens displayed no brittle intermetallic layers on any of its interfaces, but instead carried well-distributed intermetallic particles in the ductile matrix. The transition joints displayed room temperature tensile and shear strengths of 122-143 MPa and 80-113 MPa, respectively. The joints not only exhibited required hermeticity (helium leak rate <1.1 × 10-10 mbar l/s) for service in ultra-high vacuum but also withstood twelve hour degassing heat treatment at 873 K (suppresses Q-disease in niobium cavities), without any noticeable degradation in the microstructure and the hermeticity. The joints retained their leak tightness even after undergoing ten thermal cycles between the room temperature and the liquid nitrogen temperature, thereby establishing their ability to withstand service-induced low cycle fatigue conditions. The study proposes a new lower temperature brazing route to form niobium-316L stainless steel transition joints, with improved microstructural characteristics and acceptable hermeticity and mechanical properties.

  11. METHOD OF BRAZING

    DOEpatents

    Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-11-27

    A method of joining metal surfaces is given. Surfaces having nickel or iron as the base metal are joined together with a brazing composition consisting of 80% nickel, 10% phosphorus, and 10% chromium. (AEC)

  12. Interfacial Microstructure Evolution and Shear Strength of Titanium Sandwich Structures Fabricated by Brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Fan, Minyu; Li, Jinlong; Tao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The corrugated sandwich structure, consisting of a CP Ti (commercially pure titanium) core between two Ti-6Al-4V face sheets, was brazed using pasty Ti-37.5Zr-15Cu-10Ni as filler alloy, at the temperature of 870°C for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. The effect of brazing time on the microstructure and elemental distribution of the brazed joints was examined by means of SEM, EDS, and XRD analyses. It was found that various intermetallic phases were formed in the brazed joints, following a brazing time of 5 min, and their contents were decreased by the increment of brazing time, while prolonged brazing time resulted in a fine, acicular Widmanstätten microstructure throughout the entire joint. In addition, shear testing was performed in the brazed corrugated specimens in order to indirectly assess the quality of the joints. The debonding between CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V was observed in the specimen brazed for 5 min and the fracture of the CP Ti corrugated core occurred after 30 min of brazing time. Additionally, when brazed for 10 min or 20 min, brittle intermetallic compounds in the joints and the grain growth of the base metal were controllable. Therefore, the sandwich structures failed without debonding in the joints or fracture within the base metal, demonstrating a good combination of strength and ductility.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Brazed Joints for SiC-Metallic Systems Utilizing Refractory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coddington, Bryan; Asthana, Rajiv; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, M.

    2011-01-01

    Metal to ceramic joining plays a key role for the integration of ceramics into many nuclear, ground and aero based technologies. In order to facilitate these technologies, the active metal brazing of silicon carbide (CVD beta-SiC, 1.1 mm thick, and hot-pressed alpha-SiC, 3 mm thick) to the refractory metals molybdenum and tungsten using active braze alloys was studied. The joint microstructure, composition, and microhardness were evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Knoop hardness testing. The braze alloys, Cusil-ABA, Ticusil and Copper-ABA, all formed sound joints with excellent wetting and chemical bonding with the SiC substrate. Despite the close thermal expansion match between the metal substrates and SiC, hairline cracks formed in alpha-SiC while beta-SiC showed no signs of residual stress cracking. The use of ductile interlayers to reduce the effect from residual stresses was investigated and joints formed with copper as an interlayer produced crack free systems utilizing both CVD and hot-pressed SiC.

  14. A review of oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    There is growing interest in using ceramics for structural applications, many of which require the fabrication of components with complicated shapes. Normal ceramic processing methods restrict the shapes into which these materials can be produced, but ceramic joining technology can be used to overcome many of these limitations, and also offers the possibility for improving the reliability of ceramic components. One method of joining ceramics is by brazing. The metallic alloys used for bonding must wet and adhere to the ceramic surfaces without excessive reaction. Alumina, partially stabilized zirconia, and silicon nitride have high ionic character to their chemical bonds and are difficult to wet. Alloys for brazing these materials must be formulated to overcome this problem. Silicon carbide, which has some metallic characteristics, reacts excessively with many alloys, and forms joints of low mechanical strength. The brazing characteristics of these three types of ceramics, and residual stresses in ceramic-to-metal joints are briefly discussed.

  15. Failure Assessment of Stainless Steel and Titanium Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury A.

    2012-01-01

    Following successful application of Coulomb-Mohr and interaction equations for evaluation of safety margins in Albemet 162 brazed joints, two additional base metal/filler metal systems were investigated. Specimens consisting of stainless steel brazed with silver-base filler metal and titanium brazed with 1100 Al alloy were tested to failure under combined action of tensile, shear, bending and torsion loads. Finite Element Analysis (FEA), hand calculations and digital image comparison (DIC) techniques were used to estimate failure stresses and construct Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD). This study confirms that interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub t u) are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in stainless steel and titanium brazed joints.

  16. Substrate Effects on the High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of a Gold-Based Braze Filler Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Rice, Joseph P.

    2005-06-01

    Oxidation testing was conducted on a commercial gold-based braze alloy, Gold ABA®, and on zirconia/stainless steel couples joined using this filler metal. Preliminary results reveal that both substrates play a significant role in determining the overall oxidation behavior of the brazed joint.

  17. Braze system and method for reducing strain in a braze joint

    SciTech Connect

    Cadden, Charles H.; Goods, Steven H.; Prantil, Vincent C.

    2004-05-11

    A system for joining a pair of structural members having widely differing coefficients of thermal expansion is disclosed. A mechanically "thick" foil is made by dispersing a refractory metal powder, such as molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, or tungsten into a quantity of a liquid, high expansion metal such as copper, silver, or gold, casting an ingot of the mixture, and then cutting sections of the ingot about 1 mm thick to provide the foil member. These foil members are shaped, and assembled between surfaces of structural members for joining, together with a layer of a braze alloy on either side of the foil member capable of wetting both the surfaces of the structural members and the foil. The assembled body is then heated to melt the braze alloy and join the assembled structure. The foil member subsequently absorbs the mechanical strain generated by the differential contraction of the cooling members that results from the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of the members.

  18. Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

    2009-06-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

  19. More About Brazing Or Welding NiAl Without Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Kalinowski, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about two processes for joining, brazing, or welding workpieces made of nickel aluminide alloys, without use of filler metal. Joining processes involve uniform heating in vacuum-controlled furnace. Eliminates internal thermal gradients in workpieces joined and greatly reduces tendency toward cracking.

  20. Method for controlling brazing

    DOEpatents

    Hosking, F. Michael; Hall, Aaron C.; Givler, Richard C.; Walker, Charles A.

    2006-08-01

    A method for making a braze joint across a discontinuity in a work piece using alternating current. A filler metal is pre-placed at a location sufficiently close to the discontinuity such that, when an alternating current is applied across a work piece to heat the work piece and melt the filler metal, the filler metal is drawn into the discontinuity. The alternating current is maintained for a set residence time, generally less than 10 seconds and more particularly less than 3 seconds. The alternating current is then altered, generally by reducing the current and/or voltage such that the filler metal can solidify to form a braze joint of desired quality and thickness.

  1. Failure Assessment of Brazed Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the great advances in analytical methods available to structural engineers, designers of brazed structures have great difficulties in addressing fundamental questions related to the loadcarrying capabilities of brazed assemblies. In this chapter we will review why such common engineering tools as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as well as many well-established theories (Tresca, von Mises, Highest Principal Stress, etc) don't work well for the brazed joints. This chapter will show how the classic approach of using interaction equations and the less known Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion can be employed to estimate Margins of Safety (MS) in brazed joints.

  2. Finding Brazing Voids by Holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galluccio, R.

    1986-01-01

    Vibration-induced interference fringes reveal locations of defects. Holographic apparatus used to view object while vibrated ultrasonically. Interference fringes in hologram reveal brazing defects. Holographic technique locates small voids in large brazed joints. Identifies unbrazed regions 1 in. to second power (6 cm to the second power) or less in area.

  3. Field installed brazed thermocouple feedthroughs for high vacuum experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P. M.; Messick, C.

    1983-12-01

    In order to reduce the occurrence of vacuum leaks and to increase the availability of the DIII vacuum vessel for experimental operation, effort was applied to developing a vacuum-tight brazed feedthrough system for sheathed thermocouples, stainless steel sheathed conductor cables and tubes for cooling fluids. This brazed technique is a replacement for elastomer O ring sealed feedthroughs that have proven vulnerable to leaks caused by thermal cycling, etc. To date, about 200 feedthroughs were used. Up to 91 were grouped on a single conflat flange mounted in a bulkhead connector configuration which facilitates installation and removal. Investigation was required to select a suitable braze alloy, flux and installation procedure. Braze alloy selection was challenging since the alloy was required to have: (1) melting temperature in excess of the 250 C (482 F) bakeout temperature; (2) no high vapor pressure elements; (3) good wetting properties when used in air with acceptable flux; and (4) good wettability to 300 series stainless steel and Inconel.

  4. Brazing graphite to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, George R.

    1976-01-01

    Graphite is joined to graphite by employing both fine molybdenum powder as the brazing material and an annealing step that together produce a virtually metal-free joint exhibiting properties similar to those found in the parent graphite. Molybdenum powder is placed between the faying surfaces of two graphite parts and melted to form molybdenum carbide. The joint area is thereafter subjected to an annealing operation which diffuses the carbide away from the joint and into the graphite parts. Graphite dissolved by the dispersed molybdenum carbide precipitates into the joint area, replacing the molybdenum carbide to provide a joint of virtually graphite.

  5. Brazing of Stainless Steel to Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Using Gold-Based Brazes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, T. P.; Asthana, R.

    2007-01-01

    Two gold-base active metal brazes (gold-ABA and gold-ABA-V) were evaluated for oxidation resistance to 850 C, and used to join yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to a corrosion-resistant ferritic stainless steel for possible use in solid oxide fuel cells. Thermogravimetric analysis and optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate the braze oxidation behavior, and microstructure and composition of the YSZ/braze/steel joints. Both gold-ABA and gold-ABA-V exhibited nearly linear oxidation kinetics at 850 C, with gold-ABA-V showing faster oxidation than gold-ABA. Both brazes produced metallurgically sound YSZ/steel joints due to chemical interactions of Ti and V with the YSZ and steel substrates.

  6. Rene 95 brazed joint metallurgical program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, C.; Givens, J.; Mastrorroco, S.; Sterman, A.

    1972-01-01

    This metallurgical program was specifically conducted for the establishment of material properties required for the design of the LF460 fan. The LF460 lift fan is an advanced 18:1 high thrust to weight single stage design. It has a turbine attached to the outer flowpath of the fan blade tip which minimizes the axial depth of the fan. Advanced lightweight attachment designs are employed in this concept to achieve minimum mass polar moments of inertia which are required for good aircraft flight response control. The design features which are unique to this advanced LF460 lift fan are the 0.010 inch thin Udimet 700 alloy integral tip turbine design, minimum weight braze attachment of the turbine to the fan blade, and the high strength and elevated temperature capability of the Rene'95 alloy for the fan blade. The data presented in this report show that the LF460 fan rotor design is feasible and that the design stresses and margins of safety were more than adequate. Prior to any production application, however, additional stress rupture/shear lap joints should be run in order to establish a firm 1200 F stress rupture curve for the CM50 braze metal.

  7. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, V. R.; Hollis, K. J.; Castro, R. G.; Smith, F. M.; Javernick, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  8. Recent experience in the fabrication and brazing of ceramic beam tubes for kicker magnets at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C.R.; Jensen, C.; Reilly, R.; Snee, D.; Wilson, J.H.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Ceramic beam tubes are utilized in numerous kicker magnets in different accelerator rings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Kovar flanges are brazed onto each beam tube end, since kovar and high alumina ceramic have similar expansion curves. The tube, kovar flange, end piece, and braze foil (titanium/incusil) alloy brazing material are stacked in the furnace and then brazed in the furnace at 1000 C. The ceramic specified is 99.8% Alumina, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a strong recrystallized high-alumina fabricated by slip casting. Recent experience at Fermilab with the fabrication and brazing of these tubes has brought to light numerous problems including tube breakage and cracking and also the difficulty of brazing the tube to produce a leak-tight joint. These problems may be due to the ceramic quality, voids in the ceramic, thinness of the wall, and micro-cracks in the ends which make it difficult to braze because it cannot fill tiny surface cracks which are caused by grain pullout during the cutting process. Solutions which are being investigated include lapping the ends of the tubes before brazing to eliminate the micro-cracks and also metallization of the tubes.

  9. Diffusion bonding and brazing of high purity copper for linear collider accelerator structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmer, J. W.; Klingmann, J.; van Bibber, K.

    2001-05-01

    Diffusion bonding and brazing of high purity copper were investigated to develop procedures for joining precision machined copper components for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Diffusion bonds were made over a range of temperatures from 400 °C to 1000 °C, under two different loading conditions [3.45 kPa (0.5 psi) and 3.45 MPa (500 psi)], and on two different diamond machined surface finishes. Brazes were made using pure silver, pure gold, and gold-nickel alloys, and different heating rates produced by both radiation and induction heating. Braze materials were applied by both physical vapor deposition (PVD) and conventional braze alloy shims. Results of the diffusion bonding experiments showed that bond strengths very near that of the copper base metal could be made at bonding temperatures of 700 °C or higher at 3.45 MPa bonding pressure. At lower temperatures, only partial strength diffusion bonds could be made. At low bonding pressures (3.45 kPa), full strength bonds were made at temperatures of 800 °C and higher, while no bonding (zero strength) was observed at temperatures of 700 °C and lower. Observations of the fracture surfaces of the diffusion bonded samples showed the effects of surface finish on the bonding mechanism. These observations clearly indicate that bonding began by point asperity contact, and flatter surfaces resulted in a higher percentage of bonded area under similar bonding conditions. Results of the brazing experiments indicated that pure silver worked very well for brazing under both conventional and high heating rate scenarios. Similarly, pure silver brazed well for both the PVD layers and the braze alloy shims. The gold and gold-containing brazes had problems, mainly due to the high diffusivity of gold in copper. These problems led to the necessity of overdriving the temperature to ensure melting, the presence of porosity in the joint, and very wide braze joints. Based on the overall findings of this study, a two-step joining method

  10. Study of the possibility of using solar radiant energy for welding and brazing metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvernyakov, V. S.; Frantsevich, I. N.; Pasichnyy, V. V.; Shiganov, N. A.; Korunov, Y. I.; Kasich-Pilipenko, I. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The solar spectrum at the surface of the earth is analyzed. A facility for creating concentrated solar radiant energy flux is described, and data on its energetic capabilities are presented. The technology of solar welding by the fusion technique and joining by high-temperature brazing is examined. The use of concentrated solar radiant energy for welding and brazing metals and alloys is shown. The results of mechanical tests and microscopic and macroscopic studies are presented.

  11. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P.

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  12. Welding, brazing, and soldering handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, A. B.; Koehler, M. L.; Metzler, J. W.; Sturges, S. R.

    1969-01-01

    Handbook gives information on the selection and application of welding, brazing, and soldering techniques for joining various metals. Summary descriptions of processes, criteria for process selection, and advantages of different methods are given.

  13. Mechanistic understanding of aerosol emissions from a brazing operation.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, A T; Biswas, P

    2000-01-01

    Welding operations produce gaseous and aerosol by-products that can have adverse health effects. A laboratory furnace study was conducted to aid understanding of the chemical and aerosol behavior of a widely used, self-fluxing brazing alloy (89% Cu, 6% Ag, 5% P) that is also used with a supplemental fluxing compound to prevent oxidation at the molten metal surface. The results indicate that the aerosols generated by the alloy are transient (produced over a short duration of time) and are associated with mass transfer of phosphorus species from the molten metal surface to the surrounding gas. In contrast, when the alloy was used in conjunction with the supplemental fluxing compound, a relatively nontransient, submicron-size aerosol was generated that was several orders of magnitude higher in concentration. Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis suggests that fluoride (a major constituent in the fluxing compound) played a significant role in reacting with the brazing alloy metals to form gas phase metal fluoride compounds that had high vapor pressures when compared with their elemental or oxide forms. As these metal-fluoride vapors cooled, submicron-size particles were formed mainly through nucleation and condensation growth processes. In addition, the equilibrium results revealed the potential formation of severe pulmonary irritants (HF and BF3) from heating the supplemental fluxing compound. These results demonstrated the importance of fluxing compounds in the formation of brazing fumes, and suggest that fluxing compounds could be selected that serve their metallurgical intention and suppress the formation of aerosols. PMID:10885884

  14. Manufacturing development of low activation vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Baxi, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    General Atomics is developing manufacturing methods for vanadium alloys as part of a program to encourage the development of low activation alloys for fusion use. The culmination of the program is the fabrication and installation of a vanadium alloy structure in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the Radiative Divertor modification. Water-cooled vanadium alloy components will comprise a portion of the new upper divertor structure. The first step, procuring the material for this program has been completed. The largest heat of vanadium alloy made to date, 1200 kg of V-4Cr-4Ti, has been produced and is being converted into various product forms. Results of many tests on the material during the manufacturing process are reported. Research into potential fabrication methods has been and continues to be performed along with the assessment of manufacturing processes particularly in the area of joining. Joining of vanadium alloys has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for their use in the Radiative Divertor Program. Joining processes under evaluation include resistance seam, electrodischarge (stud), friction and electron beam welding. Results of welding tests are reported. Metallography and mechanical tests are used to evaluate the weld samples. The need for a protective atmosphere during different welding processes is also being determined. General Atomics has also designed, manufactured, and will be testing a helium-cooled, high heat flux component to assess the use of helium cooled vanadium alloy components for advanced tokamak systems. The component is made from vanadium alloy tubing, machined to enhance the heat transfer characteristics, and joined to end flanges to allow connection to the helium supply. Results are reported.

  15. New hermetic sealing material for vacuum brazing of stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, S.; Wiehl, G.; Silze, F.

    2016-03-01

    For vacuum brazing applications such as in vacuum interrupter industry Hermetic Sealing Materials (HSM) with low partial pressure are widely used. AgCu28 dominates the hermetic sealing market, as it has a very good wetting behavior on copper and metallized ceramics. Within recent decades wetting on stainless steel has become more and more important. However, today the silver content of HSMs is more in focus than in the past decades, because it has the biggest impact on the material prices. Umicore Technical Materials has developed a new copper based HSM, CuAg40Ga10. The wettability on stainless steel is significantly improved compared to AgCu28 and the total silver content is reduced by almost 44%. In this article the physical properties of the alloy and its brazed joints will be presented compared to AgCu28.

  16. Simulation based analysis of laser beam brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Michael; Wiethop, Philipp; Schmid, Daniel; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Laser beam brazing is a well-established joining technology in car body manufacturing with main applications in the joining of divided tailgates and the joining of roof and side panels. A key advantage of laser brazed joints is the seam's visual quality which satisfies highest requirements. However, the laser beam brazing process is very complex and process dynamics are only partially understood. In order to gain deeper knowledge of the laser beam brazing process, to determine optimal process parameters and to test process variants, a transient three-dimensional simulation model of laser beam brazing is developed. This model takes into account energy input, heat transfer as well as fluid and wetting dynamics that lead to the formation of the brazing seam. A validation of the simulation model is performed by metallographic analysis and thermocouple measurements for different parameter sets of the brazing process. These results show that the multi-physical simulation model not only can be used to gain insight into the laser brazing process but also offers the possibility of process optimization in industrial applications. The model's capabilities in determining optimal process parameters are exemplarily shown for the laser power. Small deviations in the energy input can affect the brazing results significantly. Therefore, the simulation model is used to analyze the effect of the lateral laser beam position on the energy input and the resulting brazing seam.

  17. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-04-23

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  18. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2010-04-06

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  19. Trends in wetting behavior for Ag–CuO braze alloys on Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O(3-δ) at elevated temperatures in air

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Meier, Alan; Darsell, Jens; Weil, K. Scott; Bowden, Mark

    2013-06-21

    Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.80.2O(3-δ)(BSCF) is a potential oxygen separation membrane material for advanced coal based power plants. For this application, BSCF must be joined to a metal. In the current study, Ag-CuO, a reactive air brazing (RAB) alloy was evaluated for brazing BSCF. In-situ contact angle tests were performed on BSCF using Ag-CuO binary mixtures at 950 and 1000°C and the interfacial microstructures were evaluated. Wetting contact angles (θ< 90°) were obtained at short times at 950°C and the contact angles remained constant at 1000°C for 1, 2 and 8 mol% CuO contents. Microstructural analysis revealed the dissolution of copper oxide into the BSCF matrix to form copper-cobalt-oxygen rich dissolution products along the BSCF grain boundary. The formation of a thick interfacial reaction product layer and ridging at the sessile drop triple point indicate that the reaction kinetics are very rapid and that it will require careful process control to obtain the desired thin but continuous interfacial product layer.

  20. Development of rapidly quenched nickel-based non-boron filler metals for brazing corrosion resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivannikov, A.; Kalin, B.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion-resistant steels are stably applied in modern rocket and nuclear technology. Creating of permanent joints of these steels is a difficult task that can be solved by means of welding or brazing. Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing filler metals is perspective. However, the use of such alloys leads to the formation of brittle borides in brazing zone, which degrades the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the compounds. Therefore, the development of non-boron alloys for brazing stainless steels is important task. The study of binary systems Ni-Be and Ni-Si revealed the perspective of replacing boron in Ni-based filler metals by beryllium, so there was the objective of studying of phase equilibrium in the system Ni-Be-Si. The alloys of the Ni-Si-Be with different contents of Si and Be are considered in this paper. The presence of two low-melting components is revealed during of their studying by methods of metallography analysis and DTA. Microhardness is measured and X-ray diffraction analysis is conducted for a number of alloys of Ni-Si-Be. The compositions are developed on the basis of these data. Rapidly quenched brazing alloys can be prepared from these compositions, and they are suitable for high temperature brazing of steels.

  1. Brazing Inconel 625 Using the Copper Foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Cheng-Yen; Shiue, Ren-Kae

    2013-12-01

    Brazing Inconel 625 (IN-625) using the copper foil has been investigated in this research. The brazed joint is composed of nanosized CrNi3 precipitates and Cr/Mo/Nb/Ni quaternary compound in the Cu/Ni-rich matrix. The copper filler 50 μm in thickness is enough for the joint filling. However, the application of Cu foil 100 μm in thickness has little effect on the shear strength of the brazed joint. The specimen brazed at 1433 K (1160 °C) for 1800 seconds demonstrates the best shear strength of 470 MPa, and its fractograph is dominated by ductile dimple fracture with sliding marks. Decreasing the brazing temperature slightly decreases the shear strength of the brazed joint due to the presence of a few isolated solidification shrinkage voids smaller than 15 μm. Increasing the brazing temperature, especially for the specimen brazed at 1473 K (1200 °C), significantly deteriorates the shear strength of the joint below 260 MPa because of coalescence of isothermal solidification shrinkage voids in the joint. The Cu foil demonstrates potential in brazing IN-625 for industrial application.

  2. Thermal resilient multiple jaw braze fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ney, Robert; Perrone, Alex J.

    1995-07-11

    A braze fixture has side walls forming a cavity with an opening to receive a stack of parts to be brazed. Sidewalls of the housing have a plurality of bearing receiving openings into which bearing rods or jaws are inserted to align the stacked elements of the workpiece. The housing can also have view ports to allow a visual check of the alignment. Straps or wires around the fixture are selected to have thermal characteristics similar to the thermal characteristics of the workpiece undergoing brazing. The straps or wires make physical contact with the bearing rods thereby causing bearing rods to maintain the workpiece in proper alignment throughout the entire brazing cycle.

  3. Susceptor heating device for electron beam brazing

    DOEpatents

    Antieau, Susan M.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

    1999-01-01

    A brazing device and method are provided which locally apply a controlled amount of heat to a selected area, within a vacuum. The device brazes two components together with a brazing metal. A susceptor plate is placed in thermal contact with one of the components. A serrated pedestal supports the susceptor plate. When the pedestal and susceptor plate are in place, an electron gun irradiates an electron beam at the susceptor plate such that the susceptor plate is sufficiently heated to transfer heat through the one component and melt the brazing metal.

  4. High temperature silver-palladium-copper oxide air braze filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsell, Jens Tommy

    The Ag-CuO system is currently being investigated as the basis for an air braze filler metal alloy to be used in SOFC components. The system is of interest because unlike most braze alloys, it is capable of wetting a variety of ceramic materials while being applied in an air. This thesis work examined modification of Ag-CuO filler metal system by alloying with palladium to increase the use temperature of the resulting air braze alloy. Thermal analysis was performed to track changes in the solidus and liquidus temperatures for these alloys and determine equilibrium phase present as a function of temperature and composition. Sessile drop experiments were performed to investigate the effect of palladium addition on braze wetability. The influence of copper-oxide and palladium contents on brazed joint strength was characterized by a combination of four-point bend testing and fractography. From combined thermal analysis and quenched data it was found that both the liquidus and solidus increase with increasing palladium content, and the silver-rich miscibility gap boundary could be shifted by the addition of palladium. This was employed as a tool to study the effects of two-liquid phase formation on wetting behavior. In addition, a mass loss likely attributable to silver volatilization is observed in the Pd-modified filler metals when heated over ˜1100°C. As volatilization should be avoided, the ternary alloys should be limited to 15mol% Pd. It was found by sessile drop wetting experiments that there is a definitive change in wetting behavior that corresponds directly to the miscibility gap boundary for the Pd-Ag-CuO system. The first order transition tracks with changes in the miscibility gap boundary that can be induced by increasing palladium content. This is the first experimental evidence of critical point wetting behavior reported for a metal-oxide system and further confirms that critical point wetting theory is universal. Four-point bend testing and

  5. Brazed Joints Design and Allowables: Discuss Margins of Safety in Critical Brazed Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FLom, Yury

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation tutorial discusses margins of safety in critical brazed structures. It reviews: (1) the present situation (2) definition of strength (3) margins of safety (4) design allowables (5) mechanical testing (6) failure criteria (7) design flowchart (8) braze gap (9) residual stresses and (10) delayed failures. This presentation addresses the strength of the brazed joints, the methods of mechanical testing, and our ability to evaluate the margins of safety of the brazed joints as it applies to the design of critical and expensive brazed assemblies.

  6. Study on the Microstructure and Wettability of an Al-Cu-Si Braze Containing Small Amounts of Rare Earth Erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaowu; Yu, Yang; Li, Yapeng; Xia, Zhidong; Lei, Yongping; Li, Xiaoyan; Guo, Fu

    2009-04-01

    The effect of adding small amounts of rare earth Er on the microstructure of an Al-Cu-Si braze alloy has been investigated. Several Al-20Cu-7Si braze alloys containing various contents of Er were prepared, and their melting temperature, microstructure, hardness, and wettability in contact with 3003 aluminum alloy substrates were determined. The results indicate that the constituents of the microstructure of Al-20Cu-7Si-Er braze alloys are similar to those in the Al-20Cu-7Si alloy, and comprise of solid solutions of aluminum, silicon, and the intermetallic compound CuAl2. When the Er content increases, the size of the Al phase decreases, and the needle-like Si phase is thickened, and transformed to a blocky shape. Moreover, small amounts of Er can improve the wettability and hardness of the Al-20Cu-7Si braze alloy; however, the melting temperature of the Al-20Cu-7Si alloy does not change.

  7. Design data for brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Arnquist, J.; Koetje, E. L.; Esposito, J. J.; Lindsay, V. E. J.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Strength data, creep data and residual strength data after cyclic thermal exposure were obtained at temperatures from 78 K to 1144 K (-320 F to 1600 F). The influences of face thickness, core depth, core gage, cell size and thermal/stress exposure conditions on the mechanical design properties were investigated. A braze alloy and process was developed that is adequate to fully develop the strength of the honeycomb core while simultaneously solution treating and aging the Rene 41 fact sheets. New test procedures and test specimen configurations were developed to avoid excessive thermal stresses during cyclic thermal exposure.

  8. Development of brazing process for W-EUROFER joints using Cu-based fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Prado, J.; Sánchez, M.; Ureña, A.

    2016-02-01

    A successful joint between W and EUROFER using high temperature brazing technique has been achieved for structural application in future fusion power plants. Cu-based powder alloy mixed with a polymeric binder has been used as filler. Microstructural analysis of the joints revealed that the joint consisted mainly of primary phases and acicular structures in a Cu matrix. Interaction between EUROFER and filler took place at the interface giving rise to several Cu-Ti-Fe rich layers. A loss of hardness at the EUROFER substrate close to the joint due to a diffusion phenomenon during brazing cycle was measured; however, the joints had an adequate shear strength value.

  9. Detached Melt Nucleation during Diffusion Brazing of a Technical Ni-based Superalloy: A Phase-Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, B.; Apel, M.; Laux, B.; Piegert, S.

    2015-06-01

    Advanced solidification processes like welding, soldering, and brazing are often characterized by their specific solidification conditions. But they also may include different types of melting processes which themselves are strongly influenced by the initial microstructures and compositions of the applied materials and therefore are decisive for the final quality and mechanical properties of the joint. Such melting processes are often not well- understood because - compared to other fields of solidification science - relatively little research has been done on melting by now. Also, regarding microstructure simulation, melting has been strongly neglected in the past, although this process is substantially different from solidification due to the reversed diffusivities of the involved phases. In this paper we present phase-field simulations showing melting, solidification and precipitation of intermetallic phases during diffusion brazing of directionally solidified and heat-treated high-alloyed Ni- based gas turbine blade material using different boron containing braze alloys. Contrary to the common belief, melting of the base material is not always planar and can be further accompanied by detached nucleation and growth of a second liquid phase inside the base material leading to polycrystalline morphologies of the joint after solidification. These findings are consistent with results from brazed laboratory samples, which were characterized by EDX and optical microscopy, and can be explained in terms of specific alloy thermodynamics and inter-diffusion kinetics. Consequences of the gained new understanding for brazing of high- alloyed materials are discussed.

  10. Calcium alloy as active material in secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Roche, Michael F.; Preto, Sandra K.; Martin, Allan E.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium alloys such as calcium-aluminum and calcium-silicon, are employed as active material within a rechargeable negative electrode of an electrochemical cell. Such cells can use a molten salt electrolyte including calcium ions and a positive electrode having sulfur, sulfides, or oxides as active material. The calcium alloy is selected to prevent formation of molten calcium alloys resulting from reaction with the selected molten electrolytic salt at the cell operating temperatures.

  11. Automatic-Control System for Safer Brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.; Vanasse, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Automatic-control system for radio-frequency (RF) induction brazing of metal tubing reduces probability of operator errors, increases safety, and ensures high-quality brazed joints. Unit combines functions of gas control and electric-power control. Minimizes unnecessary flow of argon gas into work area and prevents electrical shocks from RF terminals. Controller will not allow power to flow from RF generator to brazing head unless work has been firmly attached to head and has actuated micro-switch. Potential shock hazard eliminated. Flow of argon for purging and cooling must be turned on and adjusted before brazing power applied. Provision ensures power not applied prematurely, causing damaged work or poor-quality joints. Controller automatically turns off argon flow at conclusion of brazing so potentially suffocating gas does not accumulate in confined areas.

  12. Method for brazing together planar and nonplanar metal members

    DOEpatents

    Hammersand, Fred G.; Witkowski, Anthony J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for brazing two metal members together, at least one of which is nonplanar, in a brazing furnace using a substantially pure brazing material. The method comprises the steps of utilizing a brazing fixture to hold the two metal members in tangential relation to one another along a portion of each member so that a cavity is formed adjacent to the contacting portions. A braze material is then positioned within the cavity. The braze fixture, the metal members, and the braze material are then placed in a brazing furnace. A heat shield is then placed over the braze fixture, the metal members, and the braze material to shield the braze material from direct furnace radiation. The furnace temperature is linearly increased at a rate of about 180.degree. C. per hour until a temperature of 350.degree. C. is achieved. Heat is transferred by conduction from the metal members to the braze material to cause the braze material to melt. Some material from the metal members slowly diffuses into the braze material forming a braze joint. The furnace is rapidly cooled to room temperature using nitrogen gas. The brazed assemblies made according to this method are superior to assemblies formed by heliarc welding.

  13. 46 CFR 56.75-20 - Brazing qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brazing qualification. 56.75-20 Section 56.75-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-20 Brazing qualification. (a) The qualification of the performance of brazers and brazing operators shall be in...

  14. A Compendium of Brazed Microstructures For Fission Power Systems Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development for fission-based power systems that could provide power to an outpost on the Moon, Mars, or an asteroid. Technology development efforts have included fabrication and evaluation of components used in a Stirling engine power conversion system. This investigation is part of the development of several braze joints crucial for the heat exchanger transfer path from a hot-side heat exchanger to a Stirling engine heat acceptor. Dissimilar metal joints are required to impart both mechanical strength and thermal path integrity for a heater head of interest. Preliminary design work for the heat exchanger involved joints between low carbon stainless steel to Inconel 718, where the 316L stainless steel would contain flowing liquid metal NaK while Inconel 718, a stronger alloy, would be used as structural reinforcement. This paper addressed the long-term microstructural stability of various braze alloys used to join 316L stainless steel heater head to the high conductivity oxygen-free copper acceptor to ensure the endurance of the critical metallic components of this sophisticated heat exchanger. The bonding of the 316L stainless steel heater head material to a copper heat acceptor is required to increase the heat-transfer surface area in contact with flowing He, which is the Stirling engine working fluid.

  15. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  16. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-07-29

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  17. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOEpatents

    Hopper, Jr., Albert C.

    1984-12-18

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  18. Development of corrosion resistant aluminum heat exchanger, Part 1: Development of new aluminum alloy sheets for sacrificial anode

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, M.; Baba, Y.; Tanabe, Z.; Miura, T.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iijima, K.

    1986-01-01

    The sacrificial anodic effect of Al-Zn alloy reduced markedly in aluminium heat exchanger as car air conditioner manufactured by vacuum brazing conventionally used, as zinc elements preferentially evaporate in vacuum-heating. It was found that Al-Sn alloy had superior electrochemical characteristics than Al-Zn alloy (AA7072) as the sacrificial anodic material used in vacuum brazing. According to many experimental results, the new brazing sheet-fin with Al-Mn-Sn alloy core metal has been developed. This fin has favorable formability and prominent sacrificial anodic effect. Therefore, this fin is excellent material for car air conditioner manufactured by vacuum brazing.

  19. The Effect of TiO2 on the Wetting Behavior of Silver-copper Oxide Braze Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.

    2006-03-01

    A series of silver-copper oxide ceramic brazing alloys was compositionally modified by doping with small amounts of titania. Subsequent contact angle measurements indicate that concentrations as low as 0.5 mol% TiO2 can significantly enhance wettability over a wide range of binary Ag-CuOx compositions.

  20. Charpy impact test results for low-activation ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.; Hu, W.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the shift of the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the reduction of the upper shelf energy (USE) due to neutron irradiation of low activation ferritic alloys. Six low activation ferritic alloys have been tested following irradiation at 365/sup 0/C to 10 dpa and compared with control specimens in order to assess the effect of irradiation on Charpy impact properties.

  1. Ultrasonics permits brazing complex stainless steel assembly without flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. H.

    1967-01-01

    Ultrasonic vibration of an assembly of stainless steel instrumentation tubes ensures brazing without flux. Vibration with an ultrasonic transducer permits the brazing material to flow down each tube in contact with a seal plug installed in a pressure vessel wall.

  2. Refractory metals welded or brazed with tungsten inert gas equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisner, J. P.

    1965-01-01

    Appropriate brazing metals and temperatures facilitate the welding or brazing of base metals with tungsten inert gas equipment. The highest quality bond is obtained when TIG welding is performed in an inert atmosphere.

  3. Tungsten wire and tubing joined by nickel brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Thin tungsten wire and tungsten tubing are brazed together using a contacting coil of nickel wire heated to its melting point in an inert-gas atmosphere. This method is also effective for brazing tungsten to tungsten-rhenium parts.

  4. Ultrasonic inspection of brazed titanium samples with complex shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, J.; Steinhauser, L.

    The ultrasonic technique of inspecting the completeness of brazed titanium joints of complex shape in aircraft engines is examined. The metal dies used for the inspection of titanium parts can be made of aluminum alloy because the longitudinal sound velocity of both materials is nearly the same. The two aluminum dies with an interposed turbine blade dummy are shown. The experiments indicate that a gap of 1.5 mm is sufficient for a broadband 5 MHz pulse. The smallest detected defect with axicon lenses was about 2 mm in diameter. The variation in the transmitted ultrasonic signal through junctions without defects was smaller than 3 dB. A C-scan of a titanium blade dummy with the two cavities inside is shown.

  5. Preliminary results on the development of vacuum-brazed joints for cyrogenic wind tunnel aerofoil models

    SciTech Connect

    Wigley, D.A.; Lawing, P.L.; Sandefur, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Initial trials carried out at the NASA Langley Research Center in the investigation of cryogenic wind tunnel joint construction demonstrated that diffusion-assisted brazed joints could be formed in 17-4 PH, 15-5 PH, AISI-type 347, and Nitronic 40 stainless steels using electrodeposited copper as the bonding agent. Subsequent work has concentrated on 15-5 PH and Nitronic 40 using thin foils of pure copper and Nicrobraz LM, a commercially available nickel-based alloy containing boron and silicon melting point depressants. This paper summarizes the work carried out to understand and evaluate these bonds and their metallurgical characteristics. The results indicate that a high-strength void-free bond can be formed by the vacuum brazing of stainless steels using copper- and nickel-based filler alloys. The Nitronic 40 brazed joints show strengths in excess of the yield strengths of the parent metal. The poor toughness of 15-5 PH stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures tends to disqualify its use in critical areas of low-temperature aerofoil models.

  6. Fabrication and evaluation of superplastically formed/weld-brazed corrugated compression panels with beaded webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royster, D. M.; Davis, R. C.; Shinn, J. M., Jr.; Bales, T. T.; Wiant, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made to investigate the feasibility of superplastically forming corrugated panels with beaded webs and to demonstrate the structural integrity of these panels by testing. The test panels in the study consist of superplastically formed titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V half-hat elements that are joined by weld-brazing to titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V caps to form either single-corrugation compression panels or multiple-corrugation compression panels. Stretching and subsequent thinning of the titanium sheet during superplastic forming is reduced by approximately 35 percent with a shallow half-hat die concept instead of a deep die concept and results in a more uniform thickness across the beaded webs. The complete panels are tested in end compression at room temperature and the results compared with analysis. The heavily loaded panels failed at loads approaching the yield strength of the titanium material. At maximum load, the caps wrinkled locally accompanied with separation of the weld-braze joint in the wrinkle. None of the panels tested, however, failed catastrophically in the weld-braze joint. Experimental test results are in good agreement with structural analysis of the panels.

  7. Nondestructive testing of brazed rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, C. J.; Hagemaier, D. J.; Meyer, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    Report details study made of nondestructive radiographic, ultrasonic, thermographic, and leak test methods used to inspect and evaluate the quality of the various brazed joints in liquid-propellant rocket engine components and assemblies. Descriptions of some of the unique equipment and methods developed are included.

  8. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Neutzler, Jay Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

  9. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Neutzler, J.K.

    1998-07-07

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

  10. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  11. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    DOEpatents

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  12. Thermal and Fluid Flow Brazing Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    HOSKING, FLOYD MICHAEL; GIANOULAKIS,STEVEN E.; GIVLER,RICHARD C.; SCHUNK,P. RANDALL

    1999-12-15

    The thermal response of fixtured parts in a batch-type brazing furnace can require numerous, time-consuming development runs before an acceptable furnace schedule or joint design is established. Powerful computational simulation tools are being developed to minimize the required number of verification experiments, improve furnace throughput, and increase product yields. Typical furnace simulations are based on thermal, fluid flow, and structural codes that incorporate the fundamental physics of the brazing process. The use of massively parallel computing to predict furnace and joint-level responses is presented. Measured and computed data are compared. Temperature values are within 1-270 of the expected peak brazing temperature for different loading conditions. Sensitivity studies reveal that the thermal response is more sensitive to the thermal boundary conditions of the heating enclosure than variability y in the materials data. Braze flow simulations predict fillet geometry and free surface joint defects. Dynamic wetting conditions, interfacial reactions, and solidification structure add a high degree of uncertainty to the flow results.

  13. Critical Issues for Producing UHTC-Brazed Joints: Wetting and Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerone, A.; Muolo, M. L.; Valenza, F.

    2016-03-01

    A brief survey is presented of the most important interaction phenomena occurring at the solid-liquid interfaces in metal-ceramic systems at high temperatures, with special attention to the most recent developments concerning wetting and joining transition metals diborides. These phenomena are described and discussed from both the experimental and theoretical points of view in relation to joining ceramic and metal-ceramic systems by means of processes in the presence of a liquid phase (brazing, TLPB etc.). It is shown that wetting and the formation of interfacial dissolution regions are the results of the competition between different phenomena: dissolution of the ceramic in the liquid phase, reaction and formation of new phases at the solid-liquid interface, and drop spreading along the substrate surface. We emphasize the role of phase diagrams to support both the design of the experiments and the choice of active alloying elements, and to interpret the evolution of the system in relation to temperature and composition. In this respect, the sessile-drop technique has been shown to be helpful in assessing critical points of newly calculated phase diagrams. These studies are essential for the design of joining processes, for the creation of composite materials, and are of a particular relevance when applied to UHTC materials.

  14. Preparation and Properties of a Novel Al-Si-Ge-Zn Filler Metal for Brazing Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhiwei; Huang, Jihua; Yang, Hao; Chen, Shuhai; Zhao, Xingke

    2015-06-01

    The study is concerned with developing a filler metal with low melting temperature and good processability for brazing aluminum and its alloys. For this purpose, a novel Al-Si-Ge-Zn alloy was prepared according to Al-Si-Ge and Al-Si-Zn ternary phase diagrams. The melting characteristics, microstructures, wettability, and processing property of the alloy were investigated. The results showed that the melting temperature range of the novel filler metal was 505.2-545.1 °C, and the temperature interval between the solidus and the liquidus was 39.9 °C. Compared with a common Al-Si-Ge alloy, it had smaller and better dispersed β-GeSi solid solution precipitates, and the Zn-rich phases distributed on the boundary of the β-GeSi precipitates. The novel filler metal has good processability and good wettability with Al. There was one obvious transition layer with a thin α-Al solid solution between the filler metal and base metal, which is favorable to improve the strength of brazing joint.

  15. Activity and diffusion of metals in binary aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jao, C. S.

    1980-12-01

    To determine the activity of zinc in Zn-Al alloys, the electromotive force (emf) of the cell: Zn/ZnCl/sub 2/-KC1 (eut)/Zn,Al was measured at temperatures between 569.5 K (296.5C) and 649.5 K (376.5C). The applicability of a two-suffix Margules equation was demonstrated, in good agreement with theoretical expectations. The diffusion coefficient of Zn in Al determined from a planar diffusion model for the experimental data was about 3 x 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 2//sec to 2 x 10/sup -9/ cm/sup 2//sec in the range of temperature studied. This is higher than that found in the literature. The most plausible reason appears to be the high alumina concentration in the working electrode because of partial oxidation. Oxidation of the alloying metals was the primary cause of poor alloying between calcium/or zinc and aluminum, thereby frustrating similar measurements at a Ca-Al/or Zn-Al alloy. The literature on the activity of calcium and zinc is aluminum is reviewed.

  16. Nanoparticle-Assisted Diffusion Brazing of Metal Microchannel Arrays: Nanoparticle Synthesis, Deposition, and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eluri, Ravindranadh T.

    Microchannel process technology (MPT) offers several advantages to the field of nanomanufacturing: 1) improved process control over very short time intervals owing to shorter diffusional distances; and 2) reduced reactor size due to high surface area to volume ratios and enhanced heat and mass transfer. The objective of this thesis was to consider how nanomaterials, produced in part using MPT, could be used to solve problems associated with the fabrication of MPT devices. Specifically, many MPT devices are produced using transient liquid-phase brazing involving an electroplated interlayer consisting of a brazing alloy designed for melting temperature suppression. Unfortunately, these alloys can form brittle secondary phases which significantly reduce bond strength. In contrast, prior efforts have shown that it is possible to leverage the size-dependent properties of nanomaterials to suppress brazing temperatures. In this prior work, thin films of off-the-shelf elemental nanoparticles were used as interlayers yielding joints with improved mechanical properties. In the present investigation, efforts have been made to characterize the synthesis and deposition of various elemental nanoparticle suspensions for use in the transient liquid-phase brazing of aluminum and stainless steel. Advances were used to demonstrate the nanoparticle-assisted diffusion brazing of a microchannel array. In the first section, a silver nanoparticle (AgNP) interlayer was produced for the diffusion brazing of heat exchanger aluminum. Efforts are made to examine the effect of braze filler particle size (˜5 nm and ˜50 nm) and processing parameters (heating rate: 5ºC/min and 25ºC/min; brazing temperature: 550ºC and 570ºC) on thin coupons of diffusion-brazed 3003 Al. A tensile strength of 69.7 MPa was achieved for a sample brazed at 570°C for 30 min under 1 MPa with an interlayer thickness of approximately 7 microm. Further suppression of the brazing temperature to 500ºC was achieved by

  17. Applying Taguchi Methods To Brazing Of Rocket-Nozzle Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Bellows, William J.; Deily, David C.; Brennan, Alex; Somerville, John G.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes experimental study in which Taguchi Methods applied with view toward improving brazing of coolant tubes in nozzle of main engine of space shuttle. Dr. Taguchi's parameter design technique used to define proposed modifications of brazing process reducing manufacturing time and cost by reducing number of furnace brazing cycles and number of tube-gap inspections needed to achieve desired small gaps between tubes.

  18. Evaluation of Brazed Joints Using Failure Assessment Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Fitness-for service approach was used to perform structural analysis of the brazed joints consisting of several base metal / filler metal combinations. Failure Assessment Diagrams (FADs) based on tensile and shear stress ratios were constructed and experimentally validated. It was shown that such FADs can provide a conservative estimate of safe combinations of stresses in the brazed joints. Based on this approach, Margins of Safety (MS) of the brazed joints subjected to multi-axial loading conditions can be evaluated..

  19. The story of laser brazing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Peter; Dierken, Roland

    2012-03-01

    This article gives an overview on the development of laser brazing technology as a new joining technique for car body production. The story starts with fundamental research work at German institutes in 1993, continues with the first implementations in automobile production in 1998, gives examples of applications since then and ends with an outlook. Laser brazing adapted design of joints and boundary conditions for a safe processing are discussed. Besides a better understanding for the sensitivity of the process against joint irregularities and misalignment, the key to successful launch was an advanced system technology. Different working heads equipped with wire feeding device, seam tracking system or tactile sensors for an automated teaching are presented in this paper. Novel laser heads providing a two beam technology will allow improved penetration depth of the filler wire and a more ecological processing by means of energy consumption.

  20. Ultrasonic scanning system for inspection of brazed tube joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, J. L.; Maurer, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    An ultrasonic scanning system used to inspect and evaluate in-place brazed tube joints is considered. The system was designed, developed, and built especially for nondestructive testing and was selected because of its known response to brazing defects not associated with material density changes. The scan system is capable of scanning brazed joints in union, tee, elbow and cross configuration of 3/16-inch through 5/8-inch diameters. It is capable of detecting brazed defects as small as 0.008 by 0.010-inch, which exceeds the 0.015-inch diameter defect resolution required by specification.

  1. Composition and method for brazing graphite to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Albert J.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a brazing material for joining graphite structures that can be used at temperatures up to about 2800.degree. C. The brazing material formed of a paste-like composition of hafnium carbide and uranium oxide with a thermosetting resin. The uranium oxide is converted to uranium dicarbide during the brazing operation and then the hafnium carbide and uranium dicarbide form a liquid phase at a temperature about 2600.degree. C. with the uranium diffusing and vaporizing from the joint area as the temperature is increased to about 2800.degree. C. so as to provide a brazed joint consisting essentially of hafnium carbide. This brazing temperature for hafnium carbide is considerably less than the eutectic temperature of hafnium carbide of about 3150.degree. C. The brazing composition also incorporates the thermosetting resin so that during the brazing operation the graphite structures may be temporarily bonded together by thermosetting the resin so that machining of the structures to final dimensions may be completed prior to the completion of the brazing operation. The resulting brazed joint is chemically and thermally compatible with the graphite structures joined thereby and also provides a joint of sufficient integrity so as to at least correspond with the strength and other properties of the graphite.

  2. Brazing of copper to stainless steel with a low-silver-content brazing filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukikoshi, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yūki; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki; Kanasaki, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    The brazing of copper to stainless steel (SUS304 JIS) was performed using a low- silver-content brazing filler metal, Ag-50Cu, under an Ar gas atmosphere with a conventional furnace, owing to the potential economic benefits of using low-silver-content filler metals. The brazeability of the low-silver-content brazing filler metal to copper and SUS304 was investigated. A good joint was obtained, and a drastic dissolution reaction occurred at the copper side. Molten BAg8 penetrated along the crystal grain boundary of the copper base metal when BAg8 was used as the filler metal. This was caused by the dissolution of Ni from the stainless steel into the molten filler metal. Ag-50Cu, which was investigated in this work, can be used instead of BAg8 filler metal.

  3. Braze Development of Graphite Fiber for Use in Phase Change Material Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Gleason, Brian; Beringer, Woody; Stephen, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Hamilton Sundstrand (HS), together with NASA Johnson Space Center, developed methods to metallurgically join graphite fiber to aluminum. The goal of the effort was to demonstrate improved thermal conductance, tensile strength and manufacturability compared to existing epoxy bonded techniques. These improvements have the potential to increase the performance and robustness of phase change material heat sinks that use graphite fibers as an interstitial material. Initial work focused on evaluating joining techniques from 4 suppliers, each consisting of a metallization step followed by brazing or soldering of one inch square blocks of Fibercore graphite fiber material to aluminum end sheets. Results matched the strength and thermal conductance of the epoxy bonded control samples, so two suppliers were down-selected for a second round of braze development. The second round of braze samples had up to a 300% increase in strength and up to a 132% increase in thermal conductance over the bonded samples. However, scalability and repeatability proved to be significant hurdles with the metallization approach. An alternative approach was pursued which used nickel and active braze allows to prepare the carbon fibers for joining with aluminum. This approach was repeatable and scalable with improved strength and thermal conductance when compared with epoxy bonding.

  4. METHOD AND ALLOY FOR BONDING TO ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    McCuaig, F.D.; Misch, R.D.

    1960-04-19

    A brazing alloy can be used for bonding zirconium and its alloys to other metals, ceramics, and cermets, and consists of 6 to 9 wt.% Ni, 6 to 9 wn~.% Cr, Mo, or W, 0 to 7.5 wt.% Fe, and the balance Zr.

  5. Evaluation of methods for nondestructive testing of brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanno, A.

    1968-01-01

    Evaluation of nondestructive methods of testing brazed joints reveals that ultrasonic testing is effective in the detection of nonbonds in diffusion bonded samples. Radiography provides excellent resolutions of void or inclusion defects, and the neutron radiographic technique shows particular advantage for brazing materials containing cadmium.

  6. Brazing method produces solid-solution bond between refractory metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Brazing two refractory metals by diffusion bonding minimizes distortion and avoids excessive grain growth in the metals. This method requires the selection of an interface metal that forms intermediate low-melting eutectics or solid solutions with the metals to be brazed.

  7. 46 CFR 56.30-30 - Brazed joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) are satisfied at the highest... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brazed joints. 56.30-30 Section 56.30-30 Shipping COAST... Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-30 Brazed joints. (a) General (refer also to subpart...

  8. 46 CFR 56.30-30 - Brazed joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) are satisfied at the highest... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brazed joints. 56.30-30 Section 56.30-30 Shipping COAST... Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-30 Brazed joints. (a) General (refer also to subpart...

  9. 46 CFR 56.30-30 - Brazed joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) are satisfied at the highest... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brazed joints. 56.30-30 Section 56.30-30 Shipping COAST... Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-30 Brazed joints. (a) General (refer also to subpart...

  10. 46 CFR 56.30-30 - Brazed joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) are satisfied at the highest... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brazed joints. 56.30-30 Section 56.30-30 Shipping COAST... Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-30 Brazed joints. (a) General (refer also to subpart...

  11. 46 CFR 56.30-30 - Brazed joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) are satisfied at the highest... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brazed joints. 56.30-30 Section 56.30-30 Shipping COAST... Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-30 Brazed joints. (a) General (refer also to subpart...

  12. Evaluation of Margins of Safety in Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Wang, Len; Powell, Mollie M.; Soffa, Matthew A.; Rommel, Monica L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the essential steps in assuring reliable performance of high cost critical brazed structures is the assessment of the Margin of Safety (MS) of the brazed joints. In many cases the experimental determination of the failure loads by destructive testing of the brazed assembly is not practical and cost prohibitive. In such cases the evaluation of the MS is performed analytically by comparing the maximum design loads with the allowable ones and incorporating various safety or knock down factors imposed by the customer. Unfortunately, an industry standard methodology for the design and analysis of brazed joints has not been developed. This paper provides an example of an approach that was used to analyze an AlBeMet 162 (38%Be-62%Al) structure brazed with the AWS BAlSi-4 (Al-12%Si) filler metal. A practical and conservative interaction equation combining shear and tensile allowables was developed and validated to evaluate an acceptable (safe) combination of tensile and shear stresses acting in the brazed joint. These allowables are obtained from testing of standard tensile and lap shear brazed specimens. The proposed equation enables the assessment of the load carrying capability of complex brazed joints subjected to multi-axial loading.

  13. Tube dimpling tool assures accurate dip-brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Portable, hand-held dimpling tool assures accurate brazed joints between tubes of different diameters. Prior to brazing, the tool performs precise dimpling and nipple forming and also provides control and accurate measuring of the height of nipples and depth of dimples so formed.

  14. Split glass tube assures quality in electron beam brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kressin, W. J.

    1966-01-01

    Sealed enclosure of heat-resistant glass tubing and silicone rubber molds provide good visibility for electron beam brazing of metal tubes in an inert gas atmosphere. The glass tubing and rubber molds, which are bonded together, are easily applied to and removed from the brazing area by operation of a clamp.

  15. Failure Assessment Diagram for Brazed 304 Stainless Steel Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yory

    2011-01-01

    Interaction equations were proposed earlier to predict failure in Albemet 162 brazed joints. Present study demonstrates that the same interaction equations can be used for lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in 304 stainless steel joints brazed with silver-based filler metals as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD).

  16. Composition and method for brazing graphite to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, A.J.; Dykes, N.L.

    1982-08-10

    A brazing material is described for joining graphite structures that can be used up to 2800/sup 0/C. The brazing material is formed of a paste-like composition of hafnium carbide and uranium oxide with a thermosetting resin. The uranium oxide is converted to uranium dicarbide during the brazing operation and then the hafnium carbide and uranium dicarbide form a liquid phase at a temperature about 2600/sup 0/C with the uranium diffusing and vaporizing from the joint area as the temperature is increased to about 2800/sup 0/C so as to provide a brazed joint consisting essentially of hafnium carbide. The resulting brazed joint is chemically and thermally compatible with the graphite structures.

  17. Flaw Tolerance in Lap Shear Brazed Joints. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Wang, Li-Qin

    2003-01-01

    Furnace brazing is a joining process used in the aerospace and other industries to produce strong permanent and hermetic structural joints. As in any joining process, brazed joints have various imperfections and defects. At the present time, our understanding of the influence of the internal defects on the strength of the brazed joints is not adequate. The goal of this 3-part investigation is to better understand the properties and failure mechanisms of the brazed joints containing defects. This study focuses on the behavior of the brazed lap shear joints because of their importance in manufacturing aerospace structures. In Part 1, an average shear strength capability and failure modes of the single lap joints are explored. Stainless steel specimens brazed with pure silver are tested in accordance with the AWS C3.2 standard. Comparison of the failure loads and the ultimate shear strength with the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the same specimens as a function of the overlap widths shows excellent correlation between the experimental and calculated values for the defect-free lap joints. A damage zone criterion is shown to work quite well in understanding the failure of the braze joints. In Part 2, the findings of the Part 1 will be verified on the larger test specimens. Also, various flaws will be introduced in the test specimens to simulate lack of braze coverage in the lap joints. Mechanical testing and FEA will be performed on these joints to verify that behavior of the flawed ductile lap joints is similar to joints with a reduced braze area. Finally, in Part 3, the results obtained in Parts 1 and 2 will be applied to the actual brazed structure to evaluate the load-carrying capability of a structural lap joint containing discontinuities. In addition, a simplified engineering procedure will be offered for the laboratory testing of the lap shear specimens.

  18. The effect of palladium additions on the solidus/liquidus temperatures and wetting properties of Ag-CuO based air brazes

    SciTech Connect

    Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

    2007-01-01

    A new ceramic brazing technique referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has recently been developed for potential applications in high temperature devices such as gas concentrators, solid oxide fuel cells, gas turbines, and combustion engines. At present, the technique utilizing a silver-copper oxide system is of great interest. The maximum operating temperature of this system is limited by its eutectic temperature of ~945°C, although in practice the operating temperature will need to be lower. An obvious strategy that can be employed to increase the maximum operating temperature of the braze material is to add a higher melting noble alloying element. In this paper, we report the effects of palladium addition on the melting characteristics of the Ag-CuO system and on the wetting properties of the resulting braze with respect to alumina. It was found that the addition of Pd will cause an increase in the melting temperature of the Ag-CuO braze but possibly at a sacrifice of wetting properties depending on composition.

  19. Tensile properties of thin Au-Ni brazes between strong base materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tolle, M.C.; Kassner, M.E. )

    1991-12-01

    It has long been known that when relatively strong base materials are joined by thin, soft, interlayer metals such as with brazing or various solid state joining processes, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the bond may be several factors higher than the UTS of the bulk, or unconstrained, interlayer metals. However, earlier work reported by the authors confirmed that delayed or creep'' failure of the bond may occur at stresses much less than the UTS. It was found that for thin silver interlayers, prepared by brazing and physical vapor deposition (PVD), joining elastically deforming base materials (i.e. no measurable plastic deformation occurs in the base metal at the applied stresses), the ambient (and near-ambient) temperature time to failure is controlled by the creep rate of the silver interlayer which is determined by the effective stress within the interlayer. The plastic deformation within the interlayer causes cavity nucleation which continues until the concentration of nuclei is sufficiently high to lead to instability and eventual failure. The delayed failure may be accelerated by base material creep resulting from the effective stress in the base material. Plastic deformation in the base metal causes corresponding deformation in the interlayer, and cavities nucleate as with elastic base metal case. The delayed failure phenomenon was confirmed by the authors only for silver interlayers; other compositions were not tested. In this study, maraging steel was joined with an Au-Ni braze alloy with 57.5 at. % Au and 42.5 at. % Ni. The microstructure is expected to be a refined two-phase (spinodal) alloy with higher strength than the PVD silver of our previous investigation.

  20. Tensile properties of thin Au-Ni brazes between strong base materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tolle, M.C.; Kassner, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    It has long been known that when relatively strong base materials are joined by thin, soft, interlayer metals such as with brazing or various solid state joining processes, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the bond may be several factors higher than the UTS of the bulk, or unconstrained, interlayer metals. However, earlier work reported by the authors confirmed that delayed or ``creep`` failure of the bond may occur at stresses much less than the UTS. It was found that for thin silver interlayers, prepared by brazing and physical vapor deposition (PVD), joining elastically deforming base materials (i.e. no measurable plastic deformation occurs in the base metal at the applied stresses), the ambient (and near-ambient) temperature time to failure is controlled by the creep rate of the silver interlayer which is determined by the effective stress within the interlayer. The plastic deformation within the interlayer causes cavity nucleation which continues until the concentration of nuclei is sufficiently high to lead to instability and eventual failure. The delayed failure may be accelerated by base material creep resulting from the effective stress in the base material. Plastic deformation in the base metal causes corresponding deformation in the interlayer, and cavities nucleate as with elastic base metal case. The delayed failure phenomenon was confirmed by the authors only for silver interlayers; other compositions were not tested. In this study, maraging steel was joined with an Au-Ni braze alloy with 57.5 at. % Au and 42.5 at. % Ni. The microstructure is expected to be a refined two-phase (spinodal) alloy with higher strength than the PVD silver of our previous investigation.

  1. Phase constitution in the interfacial region of laser penetration brazed magnesium–steel joints

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yugang; Han, Duanfeng Xu, Xiangfang; Wu, Bintao

    2014-07-01

    The phase constitution in the interfacial region of laser penetration brazed magnesium–steel joints was investigated using electron microscopy. From the distribution of elements, the transition zone was mainly composed of elements Mg and Fe along with some Al and O. Furthermore, the transition layer consisted mainly of intermetallic compounds and metal oxides. The compounds were identified as Al-rich phases, such as Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}, Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, FeAl and Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13}. More noteworthy was that the thickness of the transition layer was determined by Fe–Al compounds. The presence of FeAl and Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13} was a result of the complex processes that were associated with the interfacial reaction of solid steel and liquid Mg–Al alloy. - Highlights: • A technology of laser penetration brazed Mg alloy and steel has been developed. • The interface of Mg/Fe dissimilar joints was investigated using electron microscopy. • The transition layer consisted of intermetallic compounds and metal oxides. • Moreover, the thickness of transition layer was determined by Fe/Al compounds. • The presence of FeAl and Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13} was associated with the interfacial reaction.

  2. Neutron irradiation effects on the microstructure of low-activation ferritic alloys*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, A.; Matsui, H.

    1994-09-01

    Microstructures of low-activation ferritic alloys, such as 2.25% Cr-2% W, 7% Cr-2% W, 9% Cr-2% W and 12% Cr-2% W alloys, were observed after FFTF irradiation at 698 K to a dose of 36 dpa. Martensite in 7% Cr-2% W, 9% Cr-2% W and 12% Cr-2% W alloys and bainite in 2.25% Cr-2% W alloy were fairly stable after the irradiation. Microvoids were observed in the martensite in each alloy but not in bainite and δ-ferrite in 12% Cr-2% W alloys. An addition of 0.02% Ti to 9% Cr-2% W alloy considerably reduced the void density. Spherical (Ta, W) and Ti-rich precipitates were observed in the Ti-added 9% Cr-2% W alloy. Precipitates observed in 9% Cr-2% W and 7% Cr-2% W alloys are mainly Cr-rich M 23C 6 (Ta, W) and Ta(W)-rich M 6C and Fe-rich Laves phase. In 2.25% Cr-2% W alloy, high density of fine (Ta, W)-rich M 2C type precipitates as well as M 6C were observed. Spherical small α' Cr-rich particles were observed in both martensite and α-ferrite in 12% Cr-2% W alloys. Correlation between postirradiation microstructure and irradiation hardening is shown and discussed for these alloys.

  3. Brazing of Carbon Carbon Composites to Cu-clad Molybdenum for Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.; Shpargel, T> P.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced carbon carbon composites were joined to copper-clad molybdenum (Cu/Mo) using four active metal brazes containing Ti (Cu ABA, Cusin-1 ABA, Ticuni, and Ticusil) for potential use in thermal management applications. The brazed joints were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Knoop microhardness measurements across the joint region. Metallurgically sound C-C/Cu/Mo joints, devoid of interfacial cracks formed in all cases. The joint interfaces were preferentially enriched in Ti, with Cu ABA joints exhibiting the largest interfacial Ti concentrations. The microhardness measurements revealed hardness gradients across the joint region, with a peak hardness of 300-350 KHN in Cusin-1 ABA and Ticusil joints and 200-250 KHN in Cu ABA and Ticuni joints, respectively.

  4. Soldering and brazing safety guide: A handbook on space practice for those involved in soldering and brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This manual provides those involved in welding and brazing with effective safety procedures for use in performance of their jobs. Hazards exist in four types of general soldering and brazing processes: (1) cleaning; (2) application of flux; (3) application of heat and filler metal; and (4) residue cleaning. Most hazards during those operations can be avoided by using care, proper ventilation, protective clothing and equipment. Specific process hazards for various methods of brazing and soldering are treated. Methods to check ventilation are presented as well as a check of personal hygiene and good maintenance practices are stressed. Several emergency first aid treatments are described.

  5. Reactive Brazing of Carbon-Carbon Composites to Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shpargel, Tarah; Singh, M.; Morscher, Gregory; Asthana, Rajiv

    2004-01-01

    The Ti-metal/C-C composite joints were formed by reactive brazing with three commercial brazes, namely, Cu-ABA, TiCuNi, and TiCuSil. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results of the microstructure analysis indicate solute redistribution across the joint and possible metallurgical bond formation via interdiffusion, which led to good wetting and spreading.

  6. Improved Assembly for Gas Shielding During Welding or Brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul; Baker, Kevin; Weeks, Jack

    2009-01-01

    An improved assembly for inert-gas shielding of a metallic joint is designed to be useable during any of a variety of both laser-based and traditional welding and brazing processes. The basic purpose of this assembly or of a typical prior related assembly is to channel the flow of a chemically inert gas to a joint to prevent environmental contamination of the joint during the welding or brazing process and, if required, to accelerate cooling upon completion of the process.

  7. Ceramic-to-metal stator vane assembly with braze

    DOEpatents

    Chase, Donna J.; Fang, Ho T.; Irwin, Craig W.; Schienle, James L.

    1995-01-01

    A stator vane assembly for a gas turbine engine that includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced ceramic vanes, each of which has an inner and outer ceramic shroud, and a ceramic post extending from one of the shrouds, and a metallic platform having a plurality of circumferentially spaced recesses. The posts are inserted into a metallic sleeve and then brazed. The brazed sleeves are then mounted in the recesses. A method for assembling these components to form the stator assembly is also described.

  8. Method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts for improved impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration and increased activity

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Randy B.

    1992-01-01

    Alternate, successive high temperature oxidation and reduction treatments, in either order, of intermetallic alloy hydrogenation and intermetallic alloy oxidation catalysts unexpectedly improves the impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration capacity and/or activity of the catalysts. The particular alloy, and the final high temperature treatment given alloy (oxidation or reduction) will be chosen to correspond to the function of the catalyst (oxidation or hydrogenation).

  9. Potential and limitations of microanalysis SEM techniques to characterize borides in brazed Ni-based superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Vargas, J.; Siredey-Schwaller, N.; Noyrez, P.; Mathieu, S.; Bocher, P.; and others

    2014-08-15

    Brazed Ni-based superalloys containing complex phases of different Boron contents remain difficult to characterize at the micrometer scale. Indeed Boron is a light element difficult to measure precisely. The state-of-the-art microanalysis systems have been tested on a single crystal MC2 based metal brazed with BNi-2 alloy to identify boride precipitates. Effort has been made to evaluate the accuracy in Boron quantitation. Energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy attached to a Scanning Electron Microscope have first been used to determine the elemental composition of Boron-free phases, and then applied to various types of borides. Results have been compared to the ones obtained using a dedicated electron probe microanalysis, considered here as the reference technique. The most accurate method to quantify Boron using EDS is definitely by composition difference. A precision of 5 at.% could be achieved with optimized data acquisition and post-processing schemes. Attempts that aimed at directly quantifying Boron with various standards using EDS or coupled EDS/WDS gave less accurate results. Ultimately, Electron Backscatter Diffraction combined with localized EDS analysis has proved invaluable in conclusively identifying micrometer sized boride precipitates; thus further improving the characterization of brazed Ni-based superalloys. - Highlights: • We attempt to accurately identify Boron-rich phases in Ni-based superalloys. • EDS, WDS, EBSD systems are tested for accurate identification of these borides. • Results are compared with those obtained by electron probe microanalysis. • Boron was measured with EDS by composition difference with a precision of 5 at. %. • Additional EBSD in phase identification mode conclusively identifies the borides.

  10. Electron Beam Welder Used to Braze Sapphire to Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Vannuyen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A new use for electron beam brazing was recently developed by NASA Lewis Research Center's Manufacturing Engineering Division. This work was done to fabricate a fiberoptic probe (developed by Sentec Corporation) that could measure high temperatures less than 600 deg C of vibrating machinery, such as in jet engine combustion research. Under normal circumstances, a sapphire fiber would be attached to platinum by a ceramic epoxy. However, no epoxies can adhere ceramic fibers to platinum under such high temperatures and vibration. Also, since sapphire and platinum have different thermal properties, the epoxy bond is subjected to creep over time. Therefore, a new method had to be developed that would permanently and reliably attach a sapphire fiber to platinum. Brazing a sapphire fiber to a platinum shell. The fiber-optic probe assembly consists of a 0.015-in.-diameter sapphire fiber attached to a 0.25-in.-long, 0.059-in.-diameter platinum shell. Because of the small size of this assembly, electron beam brazing was chosen instead of conventional vacuum brazing. The advantage of the electron beam is that it can generate a localized heat source in a vacuum. Gold reactive braze was used to join the sapphire fiber and the platinum. Consequently, the sapphire fiber was not affected by the total heat needed to braze the components together.

  11. Microstructure and Strength Characteristics of Alloy 617 Welds

    SciTech Connect

    T.C. Totemeier; H. Tian; D.E. Clark; J.A. Simpson

    2005-06-01

    Three types of high-temperature joints were created from alloy 617 base metal: fusion welds, braze joints, and diffusion bonds. The microstructures of all joint types and tensile properties of fusion welds and braze joints were characterized. Sound fusion welds were created by the GTAW process with alloy 617 filler wire. Cross-weld tensile strengths were equal to the parent metal at temperatures of 25, 800, and 1000°C; ductilities of the joints were only slightly lower than that of the parent metal. Failure occurred in the weld fusion zone at room temperature and in the parent metal at elevated temperatures. Incomplete wetting occurred in joints produced by vacuum brazing using AWS BNi-1 braze alloy, believed to be due to tenacious Al and Ti oxide formation. Incompletely bonded butt joints showed relatively poor tensile properties. A second set of braze joints has been created with faying surfaces electroplated with pure Ni prior to brazing; characterization of these joints is in progress. Conditions resulting in good diffusion bonds characterized by grain growth across the bondline and no porosity were determined: vacuum bonding at 1150°C for 3 hours with an initial uniaxial stress of 20 MPa (constant ram displacement). A 15 µm thick pure Ni interlayer was needed to achieve grain growth across the bondline. Tensile testing of diffusion bonds is in progress

  12. Thermally activated retainer means utilizing shape memory alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldi, Margaret E. (Inventor); Hartz, Leslie S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A retainer member suitable for retaining a gap filler placed in gaps between adjacent tile members is presented. One edge of the retainer member may be attached to the gap filler and another edge may be provided with a plurality of tab members which in an intermediate position do not interfere with placement or removal of the gap filler between tile members. The retainer member may be fabricated from a shape memory alloy which when heated to a specified memory temperature will thermally activate the tab members to predetermined memory positions engaging the tile members to retain the gap filler in the gap. This invention has particular application to the thermal tiles on space vehicles such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  13. Measurement of Activity of Indium in Liquid Bi-In-Sn Alloys by EMF Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. R.; Mohan, S.; Behera, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical technique based on a molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell has been used to measure the activity of indium in liquid Bi-In-Sn alloys in the temperature range of 723 K to 855 K along three ternary sections. The activity of tin in Bi-Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the above temperature range. The activity of indium in Bi-In-Sn alloys shows negative deviation from Raoult's law for most of the compositions and slight positive deviations for a few indium-rich compositions. The ternary excess molar free energies have been calculated by Darken's treatment. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary Bi-In-Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In-Sn and Bi-In alloys. The values of excess molar free energy obtained in this study are compared with those calculated from the Muggianu model at 813 K.

  14. Measurement of Activity of Indium in Liquid Bi-In-Sn Alloys by EMF Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. R.; Mohan, S.; Behera, C. K.

    2016-05-01

    The electrochemical technique based on a molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell has been used to measure the activity of indium in liquid Bi-In-Sn alloys in the temperature range of 723 K to 855 K along three ternary sections. The activity of tin in Bi-Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the above temperature range. The activity of indium in Bi-In-Sn alloys shows negative deviation from Raoult's law for most of the compositions and slight positive deviations for a few indium-rich compositions. The ternary excess molar free energies have been calculated by Darken's treatment. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary Bi-In-Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In-Sn and Bi-In alloys. The values of excess molar free energy obtained in this study are compared with those calculated from the Muggianu model at 813 K.

  15. Elevated temperature behavior of superplastically formed/weld-brazed titanium compression panels having advanced shaped stiffeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royster, D. M.; Bales, T. T.

    1983-01-01

    The 316 C (600 F) buckling behavior of superplastically formed/weld-brazed titanium compression panels having advanced shaped stiffeners was investigated. Fabrication of the advanced shaped stiffeners was made possible by the increased formability afforded by the superplasticity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Stiffeners having the configurations of a conventional hat, a beaded web, a modified beaded web, a ribbed web, and a stepped web were investigated. The data from the panel tests include load-shortening curves, local buckling strengths, and failure loads. The superplastic formed/weld-brazed panels with the ribbed web and stepped web stiffeners developed 25 and 27 percent higher buckling strengths at 316 C (600 F) than panels with conventionally shaped stiffeners. The buckling load reductions for panels tested at 316 C (600 F), compared with panels tested at room temperature, were in agreement with predictions based on titanium material property data. The advantage that higher buckling loads can be readily achieved by superplastically forming of advanced stiffener shapes was demonstrated. Application of these advanced stiffener shapes offers the potential to achieve substantial weight savings in aerospace vehicles.

  16. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  17. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  18. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  19. Online monitoring of the laser brazing of titanium overlap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Vielhaber, K.; Donst, D.; Klocke, F.

    2007-06-01

    Image processing and thermography for its own are very versatile and established measurement techniques for many years. However, the combination of these two measurement technologies opens a new field of applications. The online monitoring of the laser-brazing of titanium overlap joints is such a new application. The laser brazing process for overlap joining of formed titanium sheets for the production of heat exchangers is presently being investigated at the Fraunhofer IPT. In comparison to conventional furnace brazing the laser brazing technology decreases substantially the heat impact and thus reduces the thermal material damage in the parts due to local selective heating in a laser beam focal spot. Even though the process is stable, errors in the brazing seam such as pores or unacceptable material oxidation can occur. To ensure a high quality an online process monitoring or even process control is necessary. But since the surface remains unchanged during this brazing process no geometrical inspection of the surface can be conducted. Therefore today's quality assurance performs x-ray or destructive testing. This paper demonstrates how the use of thermography in combination with image processing allows a machine integrated online monitoring of the laser brazing process. First the basic principals are presented which cover the fields of heat coupling, heat transmission and heat distribution as well as the temperature emission of light and the spectral properties of the laser beam shaping optic and so lead to the optical set-up. Then analysis algorithms are derived which characterize the process, detect process failures and make a seam tracking possible.

  20. Air Brazing: A New Method of Ceramic-Ceramic and Ceramic-Metal Joining

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Darsell, Jens T.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2011-10-01

    A new method of ceramic-ceramic and ceramic-metal joining has emerged over the past several years. Referred to as air brazing, the technique was originally designed and developed for use in fabricating high-temperature solid-state electrochemical devices such as planar SOFCs and oxygen and hydrogen concentrators. The primary advantage of air brazing is that a predominantly metallic joint can be formed directly in air without need of an inert cover gas or the use of surface reactive fluxes. The resulting bond is hermetic, offers excellent room temperature strength, and is inherently resistant to oxidation at high temperature. The key to developing a successful filler metal composition for air brazing is to identify a metal oxide wetting agent that is mutually soluble in a molten noble metal solvent. One particular oxide-metal combination that appears readily suited for this purpose is CuOx-Ag, a system originally of interest in the development of silver clad cuprate-based superconductors. Studies of the equilibrium phases studies in this system indicate that there are two invariant points in the pseudobinary CuOx-Ag phase diagram around which new braze compositions can be developed: 1) a monotectic reaction at 969±1°C, where CuO and a Ag-rich liquid L1 coexist with a second CuOx-rich liquid phase L2 at a composition of xAg/(xAg + xCu) = 0.10±0.03 Ag and 2) a eutectic reaction at 942±1°C, where CuO and Ag coexist with L1 at a composition of xAg/(xAg + xCu) = 0.99±0.005. Specifically, near-eutectic Ag-CuO filler metal compositions have shown good promise in joining electrochemically active ceramics such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, lanthanum strontium manganite, and barium strontium cobalt ferrite, as well as alumina and magnesia. More recently it has been found that various ternary additions can further improve the wetting characteristics of these filler metals, increase their potential operating temperatures, and/or increase the resulting strength of the

  1. Direct use geothermal applications for brazed plate heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1993-02-01

    Brazed plate heat exchanger were placed in three geothermal fluids (Klamath Falls, OR; Boise, ID; and Pagosa Springs, CO) in order to determine the effect of H{sub 2}S on braze material. Based on subsequent analysis, it appears that the rate of corrosion of the braze material is much slower than corrosion of copper tube materials in the same fluids. Minimum expected life of the heat exchangers based on these corrosion rates is reported to be 12 years in fluids of less than 1 ppm H{sub 2}S and 10 years in fluids of less than 5 ppm. Based on these expected lives, and using a 3% inflation rate and 8% discount rate, brazed plate heat exchangers are a clear economic choice in which the capital cost is 50% or less of the cost of a plate and frame heat exchanger for the same duty. Due to their single pass design, brazed plate heat exchangers are generally limited to approach temperatures of 10{degree} or greater. Size limitations restrict applications to 100 gpm and/or 200 ft{sup 2} heat transfer surface area.

  2. Failure mechanism characterization of platinum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, J. M.; Mcfarlen, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes procedures and results of testing performed on a platinum/10-percent rhodium, thin-wall tubular product. The purpose of the testing was to develop exemplar SEM fractographs to be used to characterize failures under various environmental conditions. Conditions evaluated for the platinum alloys included high temperature, hydrogen environment, braze metal contamination, and cyclic loading.

  3. Copper/nickel eutectic brazing of titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutchera, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Technique joins titanium or one of its alloys to materials, such as iron, nickel or cobalt base material, or to refractory metals. To ensure formation of a satisfactory bond, the temperature, time, environment and pressure must be controlled.

  4. Nanoporous PtRu Alloys with Unique Catalytic Activity toward Hydrolytic Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiuxia; Xu, Caixia

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporous (NP) PtRu alloys with three different bimetallic components were straightforwardly fabricated by dealloying PtRuAl ternary alloys in hydrochloric acid. Selective etching of aluminum from source alloys generates bicontinuous network nanostructures with uniform size and structure. The as-made NP-PtRu alloys exhibit superior catalytic activity toward the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB) than pure NP-Pt and NP-Ru owing to alloying platinum with ruthenium. The NP-Pt70 Ru30 alloy exhibits much higher specific activity toward hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB than NP-Pt30 Ru70 and NP-Pt50 Ru50 . The hydrolysis activation energy of NP-Pt70 Ru30 was estimated to be about 38.9 kJ mol(-1) , which was lower than most of the reported activation energy values in the literature. In addition, recycling tests show that the NP-Pt70 Ru30 is still highly active in the hydrolysis of AB even after five runs, which indicates that NP-PtRu alloy accompanied by the network nanoarchitecture is beneficial to improve structural stability toward the dehydrogenation of AB. PMID:26573746

  5. 49 CFR 178.50 - Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.50 Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4B is a welded or brazed steel cylinder with...

  6. 49 CFR 178.50 - Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.50 Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4B is a welded or brazed steel cylinder with...

  7. 49 CFR 178.50 - Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.50 Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4B is a welded or brazed steel cylinder with...

  8. Inert-gas welding and brazing enclosure fabricated from sheet plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisner, J. P.

    1965-01-01

    Custom-fabricated plastic bag maintains an inert-gas atmosphere for welding and brazing certain metals. The bag fits over part of the workpieces and the welding and brazing tools. It is also used for metal brazing and fusion plating which require an inert-gas atmosphere.

  9. Designation of alloy composition of reduced-activation martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, A.; Kayano, H.; Misawa, T.; Matsui, H.

    1994-09-01

    An alloy composition of reduced-activation martensitic steel for fusion reactor is designed on the basis of the experimental results of postirradiation microstructure, mechanical properties, such as creep, fracture toughness and tensile properties, hydrogen effects and corrosion. At present, a desired composition of the steel is 0.1C-0.05Si-0.5Mn-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.02Ti-0.05Ta- < 0.002S- < 0.002P by weight percent. Effects of the other minor elements such as Al, Zr and B are also inspected. An addition of 0.05 wt% Ta increases the high temperature strength but reduces the fracture toughness. Susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracking is reduced by an addition of 0.03 wt% Al, though it results in a severe degradation of the fracture toughness. An addition of 30 wppm B together with the addition of 0.02 wt% Ti increases the fracture toughness. Void nucleation at grain boundaries, however, is enhanced by the B addition under the FFTF irradiation at 638 K in 10 dpa.

  10. Mechanical activation of a hard magnetic Fe-Cr-Co alloy powder charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alymov, M. I.; Milyaev, I. M.; Sychev, A. E.; Kovalev, D. Yu.; Korneev, V. P.; Morozov, Yu. G.; Yusupov, V. S.; Bompe, T. A.

    2014-07-01

    The mechanical activation (MA) of a charge of a hard magnetic 22Kh15KT alloy is studied by wet and dry milling in a planetary mill in a medium of argon and ethyl alcohol with addition of surface-active materials and without them. It is shown that, upon dry MA, powder alloy components are alloyed with formation of two bcc solid solutions and, upon wet MA, charge particles are only intensely dispersed. Dispersion is developed at the highest degree in the first five minutes of MA.

  11. Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Malizia, L.A.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the furnace/hardware and joint levels, respectively) are discussed. The ability to accurately simulate and control furnace conditions is examined.

  12. Brazing Inconel 625 Using Two Ni/(Fe)-Based Amorphous Filler Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Shiang; Shiue, Ren-Kae

    2012-07-01

    For MBF-51 filler, the brazed joint consists of interfacial grain boundary borides, coarse Nb6Ni16Si7, and Ni/Cr-rich matrix. In contrast, the VZ-2106 brazed joint is composed of interfacial Nb6Ni16Si7 precipitates as well as grain boundary borides, coarse Nb6Ni16Si7, and Ni/Cr/Fe-rich matrix. The maximum tensile strength of 443 MPa is obtained from the MBF-51 brazed specimen. The tensile strengths of VZ-2106 brazed joints are approximately 300 MPa. Both amorphous filler foils demonstrate potential in brazing IN-625 substrate.

  13. Hierarchical Pd-Sn Alloy Nanosheet Dendrites: An Economical and Highly Active Catalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures. PMID:23383368

  14. Computation of infinite dilute activity coefficients of binary liquid alloys using complex formation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awe, O. E.; Oshakuade, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ∞s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ∞s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ∞s of 10 binary alloys whose γ∞s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ∞s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ∞s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ∞s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ∞s and then used the γ∞s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ∞s of binary liquid alloys.

  15. Influences of Nozzle Material on Laser Droplet Brazing Joints with Cu89Sn11 Preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Stefan; Heberle, Johannes; Gürtler, Franz Josef; Cvecek, Kristian; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    This paper presents latest results on the influences of nozzle material and geometry on the electromechanical contacting of sensitive piezoceramic actuator modules. Two nozzle types have been investigated,a standard WC/Co nozzle which is used for soldering applications and a novelceramic nozzle. Applications for active piezoceramic components integrated in structural parts are e.g. active damping, energy harvesting, or monitoring of vibrations and material failure. Anup to now unsolved problem is the electrical contacting of such components without damaging the conductor or the metallization of the ceramic substrate. Since piezoelectric components are to be integrated into structures made of casted aluminum, requirements are high mechanical strength and temperature resistance. Within this paper a method forcontacting piezoceramic modules is presented. A spherical braze preform of tin bronze Cu89Sn11 with a diameter of 600 μm is located in a ceramic nozzle and is subsequently melted by a laser pulse. The liquid solder is ejected from the nozzlevia nitrogen overpressure and wets the surface of the metallization pad and the Cu-wire, resulting in a brazing joint after solidification. The process is called laser droplet brazing (LDB). To asses the thermal evolution during one cycle WC/Co and ZTA have been simulated numerically for two different geometries enabling a proposition weather the geometry or the material properties have a significant influence on the thermal load during one cycle. To evaluate the influence of the nozzle on the joint the positioning accuracy, joint height and detachment times have been evaluated. Results obtained with the ZTA nozzle show comparable positioning accuracies to a WC/Co nozzle with a lower standard deviation of solder detachment time.

  16. Method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts for improved impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration and increased activity

    DOEpatents

    Wright, R.B.

    1992-01-14

    Alternate, successive high temperature oxidation and reduction treatments, in either order, of intermetallic alloy hydrogenation and intermetallic alloy oxidation catalysts unexpectedly improves the impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration capacity and/or activity of the catalysts. The particular alloy, and the final high temperature treatment given alloy (oxidation or reduction) will be chosen to correspond to the function of the catalyst (oxidation or hydrogenation). 23 figs.

  17. 46 CFR 56.75-20 - Brazing qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... brazing operators shall be in accordance with the requirements of part C, Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and part 57 of this... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS...

  18. 46 CFR 56.75-20 - Brazing qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... brazing operators shall be in accordance with the requirements of part C, section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and part 57 of this... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS...

  19. 46 CFR 56.75-20 - Brazing qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... brazing operators shall be in accordance with the requirements of part C, Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and part 57 of this... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS...

  20. 46 CFR 56.75-20 - Brazing qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... brazing operators shall be in accordance with the requirements of part C, section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2) and part 57 of this... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS...

  1. Low-energy gamma ray inspection of brazed aluminum joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    Americium 241 serves as a suitable radioisotope /gamma ray source/ and exposure probe for radiographic inspection of brazed aluminum joints in areas of limited accessibility. The powdered isotope is contained in a sealed capsule mounted at the end of a spring-loaded pushrod in the probe assembly.

  2. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of Pd-Ag alloys on ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. C.; Rego, R.; Fernandes, L. S.; Tavares, P. B.

    2011-08-01

    Pd-Ag alloys containing different amounts of Ag (8, 21 and 34 at.%) were prepared in order to evaluate their catalytic activity towards the ethanol oxidation (EOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions. A sequential electroless deposition of Ag and Pd on a stainless steel disc, followed by annealing at 650 °C under Ar stream, was used as the alloy electrode deposition process. From half-cell measurements in a 1.0 M NaOH electrolyte at ≅20 °C, it was found that alloying Pd with Ag leads to an increases of the ORR and EOR kinetics, relative to Pd. Among the alloys under study, the 21 at.% Ag content alloy presents the highest catalytic activity for the EOR and the lowest Ag content alloy (8 at.% Ag) shows the highest ORR activity. Moreover, it was found that the selectivity of Pd-Ag alloys towards ORR is sustained when ethanol is present in the electrolyte.

  3. Effect of Cu content on the antibacterial activity of titanium-copper sintered alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Li, Fangbing; Liu, Cong; Wang, Hongying; Ren, Baorui; Yang, Ke; Zhang, Erlin

    2014-02-01

    The phase constitution and the microstructure Ti-x Cu (x=2, 5, 10 and 25 wt.%) sintered alloys were investigated by XRD and SEM and the antibacterial activity was assessed in order to investigate the effect of the Cu content on the antibacterial activity. The results have shown that Ti2Cu was synthesized as a main secondary phase in all Ti-Cu alloys while Cu-rich phase was formed in the alloys with 5 wt.% or more copper. Antibacterial tests have showed that the Cu content influences the antibacterial rate seriously and only the alloys with 5 wt.% or high Cu have a strong and stable antibacterial rate, which indicates that the Cu content in Ti-Cu alloys must be at least 5 wt.% to obtain strong and stable antibacterial property. The Cu content also influenced the Cu ion release behavior. High Cu ion release concentration and high Cu ion release rate were observed for Ti-Cu alloys with high Cu content. It was concluded that the Cu content affects the Cu existence and the Cu ion release behavior, which in turn influences the antibacterial property. It was thought that the Cu-rich phase should play an important role in the strong antibacterial activity. PMID:24411393

  4. Technical Consultation of the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Cooling Water Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Rotter, Hank A.; Easton, Myriam; Lince, Jeffrey; Park, Woonsup; Stewart, Thomas; Speckman, Donna; Dexter, Stephen; Kelly, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) coolant exhibited unexpected chemical changes during the first year of on-orbit operation following the launch and activation in February 2001. The coolant pH dropped from 9.3 to below the minimum specification limit of 9.0, and re-equilibrated between 8.3 and 8.5. This drop in coolant pH was shown to be the result of permeation of CO2 from the cabin into the coolant via Teflon flexible hoses which created carbonic acid in the fluid. This unexpected diffusion was the result of having a cabin CO2 partial pressure higher than the ground partial pressure (average 4.0 mmHg vs. less than 0.2 mmHg). This drop in pH was followed by a concurrent increasing coolant nickel concentration. No other metal ions were observed in the coolant and based on previous tests, the source of nickel ion was thought to be the boron nickel (BNi) braze intermetallics used in the construction of HXs and cold plates. Specifically, BNi2 braze alloy was used for the IATCS IFHX and BNi3 braze alloy was used for the IATCS Airlock Servicing and Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) HX and cold plates. Given the failure criticality of the HXs, a Corrosion Team was established by the IATCS CWG to determine the impact of the nickel corrosion on hardware performance life.

  5. Pu-ZR Alloy high-temperature activation-measurement foil

    DOEpatents

    McCuaig, Franklin D.

    1977-08-02

    A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron flux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

  6. Thermodynamic activity measurements of U-Zr alloys by knudsen effusion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Masayoshi; Yamawaki, Michio; Koyama, Tadafumi; Morioka, Nobuo

    1988-06-01

    Vaporization of a series of U-Zr alloys, a fundamental subsystem of the promising metallic fuel U-Pu-Zr, was studied by using a tantalum Knudsen cell coupled with a mass spectrometer in the temperature range 1700-2060 K. Thermodynamic activities, partial molar Gibbs free energies and integral molar Gibbs free energies of mixing were calculated from the partial vapor pressures of uranium over these alloys. The activities of uranium exhibit negative deviations from ideality, especially in the uranium-rich composition region. Both the solidus and liquidus lines for this system estimated from the activities show negative deviations from the tentative phase diagram previously reported.

  7. High-strength alloy with resistance to hydrogen-environment embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    Alloy is precipitation-hardened, high-strength, and low-thermal-expansion materials. It is iron-based and contains nickel and chromium at lower levels than high-strength alloys. It is readily welded and brazed and has good oxidation resistance. Tests indicated there was no reduction of notched or smooth strength.

  8. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370{degrees}C to 15 DPA

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-10-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf.

  9. Facile synthesis of PtAu alloy nanoparticles with high activity for formic acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    We report the facile synthesis of carbon supported PtAu alloy nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity as the anode catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). PtAu alloy nanopaticles are synthesized by co-reducing HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6 with NaBH4 in the presence of sodium citrate and then the nanoparticles are deposited on Vulcan XC-72R carbon support (PtAu/C). The obtained catalysts are characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which reveal PtAu alloy formation with an average diameter of 4.6 nm. PtAu/C exhibits 8 times higher catalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation than Pt/C. The enhanced activity of PtAu/C catalyst is attributed to noncontinuous Pt sites formed in the presence of the neighbored Au sites, which promotes direct oxidation of formic acid by avoiding poison CO.

  10. Evaluation of Superplastic Forming and Weld-brazing for Fabrication of Titanium Compression Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royster, D. M.; Bales, T. T.; Davis, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The two titanium processing procedures, superplastic forming and weld brazing, are successfully combined to fabricate titanium skin stiffened structural panels. Stiffeners with complex shapes are superplastically formed using simple tooling. These stiffeners are formed to the desired configuration and required no additional sizing or shaping following removal from the mold. The weld brazing process by which the stiffeners are attached to the skins utilize spot welds to maintain alignment and no additional tooling is required for brazing. The superplastic formed/weld brazed panels having complex shaped stiffeners develop up to 60 percent higher buckling strengths than panels with conventional shaped stiffeners. The superplastic forming/weld brazing process is successfully scaled up to fabricate full size panels having multiple stiffeners. The superplastic forming/weld brazing process is also successfully refined to show its potential for fabricating multiple stiffener compression panels employing unique stiffener configurations for improved structural efficiency.

  11. Improved Wetting of Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductors Used in Electrochemical Devices with Ternary Reactive Air Braze Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong Y; Thomsen, Ed C; Weil, K Scott

    2007-01-19

    This paper reports on the wetting behavior, reactivity, and long-term electrical conductance of a series of ternary filler metals being considered for brazing lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) based oxygen separation membranes. Mixed ionic/electronic conducting perovskite oxides such as LSCF and various doped barium cerates are currently being considered for use in high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen concentrators and solid oxide fuel cells. However to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. Furthermore, if the proposed joining technique were to yield a hermetic ceramic-to-metal junction that was also electrically conductive, it would additionally benefit the device by allowing current to be drawn from or carried to the electrochemically active mixed conducting oxide component without requiring an separate current collector. A newly developed brazing technique known as air brazing is one such method of joining. In its present form, air brazing uses a silver-copper oxide based filler metal that can be melted directly in air to form a compliant joint that is electrically conductive. Recently, it has been shown that the addition of titania can enhance the wetting behavior of Ag-CuO filler metals on alumina. Here the effect of this wetting agent on the surface wettability, long-term electrical resistance at 750°C, and reactivity with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3- (LSCF-6428 or LSCF) substrates is discussed.

  12. Corrosion Testing of Brazed Space Station IATCS Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohlman, Matthew J.; Varisik, Jerry; Steele, John W.; Golden, Johnny L.; Boyce, William E.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Increased nickel concentrations in the IATCS coolant prompted a study of the corrosion rates of nickel-brazed heat exchangers in the system. The testing has shown that corrosion is occurring in a silicon-rich intermetallic phase in the braze filler of coldplates and heat exchangers as the result of a decrease in the coolant pH brought about by cabin carbon dioxide permeation through polymeric flexhoses. Similar corrosion is occurring in the EMU de-ionized water loop. Certain heat exchangers and coldplates have more silicon-rich phase because of their manufacturing method, and those units produce more nickel corrosion product. Silver biocide additions did not induce pitting corrosion at silver precipitate sites.

  13. Separation and Sealing of a Sample Container Using Brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Wincentsen, James E.; Gershman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A special double-wall container and a process for utilizing the container are being developed to enable (1) acquisition of a sample of material in a dirty environment that may include a biological and/or chemical hazard; (2) sealing a lid onto the inner part of the container to hermetically enclose the sample; (3) separating the resulting hermetic container from the dirty environment; and (4) bringing that hermetic container, without any biological or chemical contamination of its outer surface, into a clean environment. The process is denoted S(exp 3)B (separation, seaming, and sealing using brazing) because sealing of the sample into the hermetic container, separating the container from the dirty environment, and bringing the container with a clean outer surface into the clean environment are all accomplished simultaneously with a brazing operation.

  14. Flight service evaluation of two aluminum-brazed titanium spoilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    The long-term service evaluation of two aluminum-brazed titanium (ABTi) honeycomb flight spoilers was concluded. The two spoilers had about 7.5 years of commercial flight experience on All Nippon Airways Model 737 aircraft. All Nippon Airways was selected because Japan has one of the most severe marine-industrial environments in the world. The results indicated that both flight spoilers still had the same load-carrying capability as when they were originally installed. No direct evidence of any corrosion was observed on either spoiler. Another significant accomplishment of this effort was the development of a braze design for efficiently distributing point loads from the fittings and skin into the honeycomb core.

  15. Effects of service environments on aluminum-brazed titanium (ABTi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    Aluminum brazed titanium (ABTi) structures were evaluated during prolonged exposure to extreme environments: elevated temperature exposure to airline service fluids, hydraulic fluid, and seawater, followed by laboratory corrosion tests. Solid-face and perforated face honeycomb sandwich panel specimens, stressed panel assemblies, and faying surface brazed joints were tested. The corrosion resistance of ABTi is satisfactory for commercial airline service. Unprotected ABTi proved inherently resistant to attack by all of the extreme service aircraft environments except: seawater at 700 K (800 F) and above, dripping phosphate ester hydraulic fluid at 505 K (450 F), and a marine environment at ambient temperature. The natural oxides and deposits present on titanium surfaces in airline service provide protection against hot salt corrosion pitting. Coatings are required to protect titanium dripping phosphate ester fluid at elevated temperatures and to protect exposed acoustic honeycomb parts against corrosion in a marine environment.

  16. Structure of Vacuum Brazed BNi-5 Joint of Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grushko, B.; Weiss, B. Z.

    1984-04-01

    Structural investigations of the brazed joint of Inconel 718 with BNi-5 filler metal were carried out on specimens with geometries simulating a real joint. Three identification methods applied in parallel were used. Fused and solidified filler metal showed the presence of at least four microstructural components: the dominant γ-solid solution, two binary eutectics (G phase + γ) and (θ-phase + γ @#@), and prismatic objects identified as cr-phase. The influence of brazing time and temperature was studied with specimens heated in accordance with three different thermal regimes. The Ni-base γ-phase solidifies in dendritic form and contains Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, the concentrations of which are dependent on the thermal regime and on the distance from the former liquid-solid interface. The intermetallics (G, 0) and the matrix form binary and ternary eutectics. In overheated brazed joints the filler metal penetrates into the grain boundaries of the base metal, resulting in the formation of new phases. The dominant phase was identified as a hexagonal Laves phase (λ,). The diffusion zone in the base metal can be divided into two subregions. In subregion I the precipitating phase is a Nb-rich G-phase, while in subregion II, the depth of which can be directly related to the width of the gap, preferentially oriented carbides of Nb and Ti are formed. The phase formation in the BNi-5 brazing of Inconel 718 may be described by a quasi-quarternary diagram on the Ni-Cr-Nb-Si system.

  17. Ultrasonic guided wave inspection of Inconel 625 brazed lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comot, Pierre; Bocher, Philippe; Belanger, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The aerospace industry has been investigating the use of brazing for structural joints, as a mean of reducing cost and weight. There therefore is a need for a rapid, robust, and cost-effective non-destructive testing method for evaluating the structural integrity of the joints. The mechanical strength of brazed joints depends mainly on the amount of brittle phases in their microstructure. Ultrasonic guided waves offer the possibility of detecting brittle phases in joints using spatio-temporal measurements. Moreover, they offer the opportunity to inspect complex shape joints. This study focused on the development of a technique based on ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of Inconel 625 lap joints brazed with BNi-2 filler metal. A finite element model of a lap joint was used to optimize the inspection parameters and assess the feasibility of detecting the amount of brittle phases in the joint. A finite element parametric study simulating the input signal shape, the center frequency, and the excitation direction was performed. The simulations showed that the ultrasonic guided wave energy transmitted through, and reflected from, the joints was proportional to the amount of brittle phases in the joint.

  18. Dispersed metal-toughened ceramics and ceramic brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhead, A.J.; Tiegs, T.N.; Lauf, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) based material that contains approximately 1 vol % finely dispersed platinum or chromium was developed for use in high temperature thermal-shock resistant electrical insulators. The work at ORNL is divided into two areas: (1) development of DMT ceramics; and (2) development of brazing filler metals suitable for making ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal brazements. The DMT ceramics and brazements are intended for service at elevated temperatures and at high stress levels in the dirty environments of advanced heat engines. The development and characterization of DMT ceramics includes processing (powder preparation, densification and heat treatment) and detailed measurement of mechanical and physical properties (strength, fracture toughness, and thermal conductivity). The brazing work includes: (1) the formulation and melting of small quantities of experimental brazing filler metals; (2) evaluation of the wetting and bonding behavior of these filler metals on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, partially stabilized zirconia and ..cap alpha..-SiC in a sessile drop apparatus; and (3) determine the short-term strength and fracture toughness of brazements.

  19. Brazed joints of CBN grains and AISI 1045 steel with AgCuTi-TiC mixed powder as filler materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wen-Feng; Xu, Jiu-Hua; Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Su, Hong-Hua; Fu, Yu-Can

    2011-12-01

    The brazing process of cubic boron nitride (CBN) grains and AISI 1045 steel with AgCuTi-TiC mixed powder as a filler material was carried out. The joining strength and the interfacial microstructure were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the spreading of the molten filler material on AISI 1045 steel is decreased with the increase of TiC content. A good interface is formed between the TiC particulates and AgCuTi alloy through the wetting behavior. In the case of AgCuTi+16wt% TiC, the strength of the brazed steel-to-steel joints reached the highest value of 95 MPa dependent upon the reinforcement effect of TiC particles within the filler layer. Brazing resultants of TiB2, TiB, and TiN are produced at the interface of the CBN grains and the AgCuTi-TiC filler layer by virtue of the interdiffusion of B, N, and Ti atoms.

  20. Selection And Evaluation Of An Alloy For Nozzle Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, A. B.; Shah, S.; Shadoan, M.; Lyles, Garry (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The present work includes results on material characterization conducted under COBRA Hydrogen Cooled Nozzle Program and was funded by NASA MSFC. The nozzle requires a material that has high strength at ambient and high (up to l200 F) temperatures in air and hydrogen. Presently, a precipitation hardened steel; A-286 is used in nozzles for Space Shuttle Engines. The A-286 alloy has limited hydrogen compatibility and weldability. The present work focused on selection and characterization of JBK-75 alloy that has significantly higher capability in hydrogen and weldability in addition to other attributes. The alloy was evaluated at different temperatures and environments. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and Electron Beam welding techniques were used to evaluate the weldability of material. Brazing was also conducted on the alloy and evaluated. The characterization of base JBK-75 alloy, welded and brazed alloy included tensile properties, low cycle fatigue and crack growth resistance at different temperatures in air and hydrogen environments. The results indicated that JBK-75 has excellent tensile and fatigue properties in air and hydrogen. The welded and brazed alloy also showed very good properties.

  1. Electrocatalytic activity of Rh-Ru alloys in electroreduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Bukherissa, S.; Belik, V.V.; Kudryashov, I.V.; Meretskii, A.M.

    1986-04-01

    The authors study the kinetics of cathodic hydrogen evolution in 1 N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and of maleic acid electroreduction in C/sub 4/H/sub 4/O/sub 4/ solutions of different concentrations in 1 N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a base electrolyte at Rh-Ru alloy ingots prepared by vacuum arc melting. The results of polarization measurements for cathodic hydrogen evolution were analyzed in semilogarithmic plots of overvoltage against the logarithm of current density. Over the range of current densities from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -3/ A/cm/sup 2/, the polarization curves exhibit distinctly linear sections and can be described by the Tafel equation.

  2. Minimum activation martensitic alloys for surface disposal after exposure to neutron flux

    DOEpatents

    Lechtenberg, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Steel alloys for long-term exposure to neutron flux have a martensitic microstructure and contain chromium, carbon, tungsten, vanadium and preferably titanium. Activation of the steel is held to within acceptable limits for eventual surface disposal by stringently controlling the impurity levels of Ni, Mo, Cu, N, Co, Nb, Al and Mn.

  3. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  4. Impurity content of reduced-activation ferritic steels and a vanadium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Bloom, E.E.

    1997-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze a reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel and a vanadium alloy for low-level impurities that would compromise the reduced-activation characteristics of these materials. The ferritic steel was from the 5-ton IEA heat of modified F82H, and the vanadium alloy was from a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti. To compare techniques for analysis of low concentrations of impurities, the vanadium alloy was also examined by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Two other reduced-activation steels and two commercial ferritic steels were also analyzed to determine the difference in the level of the detrimental impurities in the IEA heat and steels for which no extra effort was made to restrict some of the tramp impurities. Silver, cobalt, molybdenum, and niobium proved to be the tramp impurities of most importance. The levels observed in these two materials produced with present technology exceeded the limits for low activation for either shallow land burial or recycling. The chemical analyses provide a benchmark for the improvement in production technology required to achieve reduced activation; they also provide a set of concentrations for calculating decay characteristics for reduced-activation materials. The results indicate the progress that has been made and give an indication of what must still be done before the reduced-activation criteria can be achieved.

  5. Polyhedral Palladium–Silver Alloy Nanocrystals as Highly Active and Stable Electrocatalysts for the Formic Acid Oxidation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Geng-Tao; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Yu; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Polyhedral noble–metal nanocrystals have received much attention and wide applications as electrical and optical devices as well as catalysts. In this work, a straightforward and effective hydrothermal route for the controllable synthesis of the high-quality Pd–Ag alloy polyhedrons with uniform size is presented. The morphology, composition and structure of the Pd–Ag alloy polyhedrons are fully characterized by the various physical techniques, demonstrating the Pd–Ag alloy polyhedrons are highly alloying. The formation/growth mechanisms of the Pd–Ag alloy polyhedrons are explored and discussed based on the experimental observations and discussions. As a preliminary electrochemical application, the Pd–Ag alloy polyhedrons are applied in the formic acid oxidation reaction, which shows higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than commercially available Pd black due to the “synergistic effects” between Pd and Ag atoms. PMID:26329555

  6. Polyhedral Palladium-Silver Alloy Nanocrystals as Highly Active and Stable Electrocatalysts for the Formic Acid Oxidation Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Geng-Tao; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Yu; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Polyhedral noble-metal nanocrystals have received much attention and wide applications as electrical and optical devices as well as catalysts. In this work, a straightforward and effective hydrothermal route for the controllable synthesis of the high-quality Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons with uniform size is presented. The morphology, composition and structure of the Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons are fully characterized by the various physical techniques, demonstrating the Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons are highly alloying. The formation/growth mechanisms of the Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons are explored and discussed based on the experimental observations and discussions. As a preliminary electrochemical application, the Pd-Ag alloy polyhedrons are applied in the formic acid oxidation reaction, which shows higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than commercially available Pd black due to the “synergistic effects” between Pd and Ag atoms.

  7. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David; Zhu, Wenzhong

    2014-11-01

    In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

  8. A preliminary report on the effect of elevated temperature exposure on the mechanical properties of titanium-alloy honeycomb-core sandwich panels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Cain, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A study has been initiated to determine the effects of elevated-temperature exposure on the room-temperature mechanical properties of titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated by brazing or spot diffusion bonding. Only flatwise tensile properties following exposure have been determined to date. Preliminary results indicate very little change in the flatwise tensile strength of sandwich panels fabricated by spot diffusion bonding following exposures of 10,000 hr at 600 and 800 F and 1000 hr at 1000 F. Titanium panels fabricated by using a Ti-Zr-Be braze alloy are susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperature and experience flatwise tensile strength degradation after continuous exposures of 7500 hr at 600 F, 1000 hr at 800 F, and less than 100 hr at 1000 F. It is possible that the exposure life of the brazed panels may be substantially increased if the panel edges are sealed to prevent oxidation of the braze alloy.

  9. The anti-bacterial activity of titanium-copper sintered alloy against Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Zhang, Erlin; Liu, Junchao; Zhu, Jingtao

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the anti-bacterial property of Ti-Cu sintered alloys against Porphyromonas gingivalis. The anti-anaerobic property of Ti-Cu sintered alloys against P. gingivalis was investigated by antibacterial activity test, DNA measurement, DAPI staining and morphology observation. The antibacterial rates of the Ti-5Cu against P. gingivalis after 18 and 24 h incubation were 36.04 and 54.39%, and those of Ti-10Cu were 68.69 and 75.39%, which were lower than their anti-aerobic abilities. The concentration of P. gingivalis DNA gradually decreased with the increasing Cu content, which was nearly 50% after 24 h incubation on Ti-10Cu. SEM results showed that the shape of P. gingivalis changed and the bacteria broke apart with the addition of Cu and the extension of the culture time. Ti-Cu sintered alloys could not only kill anaerobic bacteria but also reduce the activity of the survived bacteria. The anti-anaerobic mechanism was thought to be in associated with the Cu ion released from Ti-Cu alloy. PMID:27477233

  10. Effects of two ergonomic improvements in brazing coils of air-handler units.

    PubMed

    Loo, H S; Yeow, Paul H P

    2015-11-01

    The research aims to address the physically loading task and quality and productivity problems in the brazing of coils of air-handler units. Eight operators participated in two intervention studies conducted in a factory in Malaysia to compare the status quo brazing with (1) the use of a new twin-brazing torch that replaced the single-brazing gun and (2) brazing in a sitting position. The outcome measures are related to quality, productivity, monetary costs, body postures and symptoms. After baseline, Interventions I and II were applied for 3 months respectively. The results show a 58.9% quality improvement, 140% productivity increase and 113 times ROI. There was also a reduction in poor work postures e.g. in the raising of the arms and shoulders; bending, twisting and extending of the neck; and bending of left and right wrists, and the back. This research can be replicated in other factories that share similar processes. PMID:26154237

  11. Effect of Temperature and Sheet Temper on Isothermal Solidification Kinetics in Clad Aluminum Brazing Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michael J.; Whitney, Mark A.; Wells, Mary A.; Winkler, Sooky

    2016-07-01

    Isothermal solidification (IS) is a phenomenon observed in clad aluminum brazing sheets, wherein the amount of liquid clad metal is reduced by penetration of the liquid clad into the core. The objective of the current investigation is to quantify the rate of IS through the use of a previously derived parameter, the Interface Rate Constant (IRC). The effect of peak temperature and initial sheet temper on IS kinetics were investigated. The results demonstrated that IS is due to the diffusion of silicon (Si) from the liquid clad layer into the solid core. Reduced amounts of liquid clad at long liquid duration times, a roughened sheet surface, and differences in resolidified clad layer morphology between sheet tempers were observed. Increased IS kinetics were predicted at higher temperatures by an IRC model as well as by experimentally determined IRC values; however, the magnitudes of these values are not in good agreement due to deficiencies in the model when applied to alloys. IS kinetics were found to be higher for sheets in the fully annealed condition when compared with work-hardened sheets, due to the influence of core grain boundaries providing high diffusivity pathways for Si diffusion, resulting in more rapid liquid clad penetration.

  12. Effect of Temperature and Sheet Temper on Isothermal Solidification Kinetics in Clad Aluminum Brazing Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michael J.; Whitney, Mark A.; Wells, Mary A.; Winkler, Sooky

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal solidification (IS) is a phenomenon observed in clad aluminum brazing sheets, wherein the amount of liquid clad metal is reduced by penetration of the liquid clad into the core. The objective of the current investigation is to quantify the rate of IS through the use of a previously derived parameter, the Interface Rate Constant (IRC). The effect of peak temperature and initial sheet temper on IS kinetics were investigated. The results demonstrated that IS is due to the diffusion of silicon (Si) from the liquid clad layer into the solid core. Reduced amounts of liquid clad at long liquid duration times, a roughened sheet surface, and differences in resolidified clad layer morphology between sheet tempers were observed. Increased IS kinetics were predicted at higher temperatures by an IRC model as well as by experimentally determined IRC values; however, the magnitudes of these values are not in good agreement due to deficiencies in the model when applied to alloys. IS kinetics were found to be higher for sheets in the fully annealed condition when compared with work-hardened sheets, due to the influence of core grain boundaries providing high diffusivity pathways for Si diffusion, resulting in more rapid liquid clad penetration.

  13. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jolodosky, Alejandra; Kramer, Kevin; Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana; Fratoni, Massimiliano

    2016-04-09

    Here we report that an attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys inmore » the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as lead, tin, and strontium, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as lead and bismuth. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). Some of the activation results for alloys with tin, zinc, and gallium were in

  14. Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, C.R.

    1988-08-01

    A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility in addition to special heat treatment and bakeout heats. The detailed operation sequence and description of the MELCO furnace system are covered by this report. This document is to augment LA-10231-SOP, which describes the operation of the large furnace systems. 6 figs.

  15. Service evaluation of aluminum-brazed titanium (ABTi). [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    Long term creep-rupture, flight service and jet engine exhaust tests on aluminum-brazed titanium (ABTi), originally initiated under the DOT/SST follow-on program, were completed. These tests included exposure to natural airline service environments for up to 6 years. The results showed that ABTi has adequate corrosion resistance for long time commercial airplane structural applications. Special precautions are required for those sandwich structures designed for sound attenuation that utilize perforated skins. ABTi was also shown to have usable creep-rupture strength and to be metallurgically stable at temperatures up to 425 C (800 F).

  16. The generation of wear-resistant antimicrobial stainless steel surfaces by active screen plasma alloying with N and nanocrystalline Ag.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yangchun; Li, Xiaoying; Sammons, Rachel; Dong, Hanshan

    2010-04-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), a large proportion of which are derived from contact transmission, represent a massive global challenge. In this study a novel active screen plasma (ASP) alloying technology has been developed to generate highly durable antimicrobial surfaces by combining a wear-resistant S-phase with nanocrystalline silver for medical grade stainless steel. The phase constituent, microstructure, composition and surface roughness of the alloyed surfaces were fully characterized, and the surface hardness, wear resistance and antimicrobial efficiency of the treated surfaces were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the surface hardness and sliding wear resistance of medical grade 316LVM stainless steel can be effectively improved by the ASP alloying treatment; furthermore, the Ag alloyed S-phase can achieve 93% reduction in Escherichia coli (E. coli) after 6 h contact time. Therefore, the novel ASP alloying treatment can not only improve wear resistance but also confer antibacterial activity to stainless steel surfaces. PMID:20119942

  17. Catalytic activity of bimetallic nickel alloys for solid-oxide fuel cell anode reactions from density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Wei; Gatewood, Daniel; Dunlap, Brett; Turner, C. Heath

    2011-05-01

    We present density-functional theory calculations of the chemisorption of atomic species O, S, C, H and reaction intermediates OH, SH, and CHn (n = 1, 2, and 3) on M/Ni alloy model catalysts (M = Bi, Mo, Fe, Co, and Cu). The activity of the Ni alloy catalysts for solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode oxidation reactions is predicted, based on a simple descriptor, i.e., the binding energy of oxygen. First, we find that the binding of undesirable intermediates, such as C and S, can be inhibited and the catalytic activity of planar Ni-based anodes can be tuned towards oxidation by selectively forming a bimetallic surface alloy. In particular, Cu/Ni, Fe/Ni, and Co/Ni anode catalysts are found to be most active towards anode oxidation. On the other hand, the Mo/Ni alloy surface is predicted to be the most effective catalyst in terms of inhibiting the deposition of C and S (while still preserving relatively high catalytic activity). The formation of a surface alloy, which has the alloy element enriched on the topmost surface, was found to be critical to the activity of the Ni alloy catalysts.

  18. Characterization of the corrosion resistance of several alloys to dilute biologically active solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria/fungi detected in hygiene waters increased the corrosion rate in aluminum alloy. Biologically active media enhanced the formation of pits on metal coupons. Direct observation of gas evolved at the corrosion sample, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of the corrosion products indicates that the corrosion rate is increased because the presence of bacteria favor the reduction of hydrogen as the cathodic reaction through the reaction of oxygen and water. SEM verifies the presence of microbes in a biofilm on the surface of corroding samples. The bacterial consortia are associated with anodic sites on the metal surface, aggressive pitting occurs adjacent to biofilms. Many pits are associated with triple points and inclusions in the aluminum alloy microstructure. Similar bacterial colonization was found on the stainless steel samples. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carbonyl groups in pitted areas of samples exposed to biologically active waters.

  19. Development of optimum process parameters and a study of the effects of surface roughness on brazing of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharinie, Tuan; Huda, Zainul; Izuan, Mohd Faaliq; Hamdi, Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Brazing experiments on commercially-pure copper plates, using brazing filler metal (MBF-2005), are conducted at temperatures in the range of 650-750 °C for time-durations in the range of 5-15 min. Shear tests for braze-joints involved use of a universal testing machine. Based on the shear-test results, a new brazing cycle has been developed that corresponds to the greatest shear strength of the braze-joint. The brazing cycle has been performed under a controlled dry-argon atmosphere in a tube furnace. Microscopic observations were made by use of both optical and electron microscopes; whereas surface roughness measurements were made by using a TR100 Surface Roughness Tester. It is found that successful brazing and good wetting can be achieved by the least voids by using an average surface roughness (Ra value) for the base material.

  20. A General Method for Multimetallic Platinum Alloy Nanowires as Highly Active and Stable Oxygen Reduction Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Yao, Jianlin; Guo, Jun; Lu, Gang; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-25

    An unconventional class of high-performance Pt alloy multimetallic nanowires (NWs) is produced by a general method. The obtained PtNi NWs exhibit amazingly specific and mass oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities with improvement factors of 51.1 and 34.6 over commercial Pt/C catalysts, respectively, and are also stable in ORR conditions, making them among the most efficient electrocatalysts for ORR. PMID:26459261

  1. Flaw Tolerance In Lap Shear Brazed Joints. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Len; Flom, Yury

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results of the second part of an on-going effort to gain better understanding of defect tolerance in braze joints. In the first part of this three-part series, we mechanically tested and modeled the strength of the lap joints as a function of the overlap distance. A failure criterion was established based on the zone damage theory, which predicts the dependence of the lap joint shear strength on the overlap distance, based on the critical size of a finite damage zone or an overloaded region in the joint. In this second part of the study, we experimentally verified the applicability of the damage zone criterion on prediction of the shear strength of the lap joint and introduced controlled flaws into the lap joints. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the lap joint strength as a function of flaw size and its location through mechanical testing and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) employing damage zone criterion for definition of failure. The results obtained from the second part of the investigation confirmed that the failure of the ductile lap shear brazed joints occurs when the damage zone reaches approximately 10% of the overlap width. The same failure criterion was applicable to the lap joints containing flaws.

  2. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistive materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2003-07-08

    Method of making an active magnetic refrigerant represented by Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4 alloy for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0 comprising placing amounts of the commercially pure Gd, Si, and Ge charge components in a crucible, heating the charge contents under subambient pressure to a melting temperature of the alloy for a time sufficient to homogenize the alloy and oxidize carbon with oxygen present in the Gd charge component to reduce carbon, rapidly solidifying the alloy in the crucible, and heat treating the solidified alloy at a temperature below the melting temperature for a time effective to homogenize a microstructure of the solidified material, and then cooling sufficiently fast to prevent the eutectoid decomposition and improve magnetocaloric and/or the magnetostrictive and/or the magnetoresistive properties thereof.

  3. Strength testing of Ti-vapor-coated silicon nitride braze joints

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L.

    1994-09-01

    Sintered silicon nitride was vacuum brazed to itself at 1130{degree}C with a Au-25Ni-25Pd wt % filler metal. Wetting was obtained by coating the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces with titanium prior to brazing by electron beam evaporation. The brazed joints were virtually free of porosity. Metallographic analysis showed that Ti reacted with the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, to form a TiN reaction layer during brazing. Small amounts of Si and Ti dissolved in the filler metal layers but they did not appear to influence the mechanical properties of the braze layer. Flexure bars were made from the brazed coupons and tested at room temperature, 600C, 700C, and 800C in air. At 700C and below, fracture of the test bars occurred in the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, either near the brazed surfaces or at some distance into the monolithic material. The measured strength of joint specimens decreased slightly with increasing test temperature, and generally exceeded the intrinsic braze filler metal strength in this temperature range. It was also found that lapping the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, prior to Ti coating reduced the number of near-surface flaws and produced joints with higher average strength and lower scatter than those left in a ground condition. Specimens tested at 800C had very low strengths, and this behavior was related to the microstructure at the brazed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces.

  4. Vacuum Brazing of Beryllium Copper Components for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tyhurst, C.C.; Cunningham, M.A.

    2002-06-04

    A process for vacuum brazing beryllium copper anode assemblies was required for the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell System, or PEPC, a component for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Initial problems with the joint design and wettability of the beryllium copper drove some minor design changes. Brazing was facilitated by plating the joint surface of the beryllium copper rod with silver 0.0006 inch thick. Individual air sampling during processing and swipe tests of the furnace interior after brazing revealed no traceable levels of beryllium.

  5. Brazing of refractory, superalloy, and composite materials for Space Shuttle applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Research work concerning the metallic portion of the shuttle-orbiter heat shield (expected to experience temperatures up to 2500 F) is described. The five metals being evaluated are TD-Ni-Cr, Cb-C129Y, Cb752, Hayes 188, and Inconel 625. Brazing techniques whereby pairs of these materials are joined into thin-membered assemblies for heat shield applications are described. Results obtained with the vacuum-furnace brazing process are examined. In addition, the use of brazed aluminum-boron metal-matrix-contoured composite structures for heat shield applications is evaluated.

  6. Oxygen reduction reaction activity on Pt{111} surface alloys.

    PubMed

    Attard, Gary A; Brew, Ashley; Ye, Jin-Yu; Morgan, David; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-07-21

    PtM overlayers (where M=Fe, Co or Ni) supported on Pt{111} are prepared via thermal annealing in either a nitrogen/water or hydrogen ambient of dilute aqueous droplets containing M(Z+) cations directly attached to the electrode. Two different PtM phases are detected depending on the nature of the post-annealing cooling environment. The first of these consists of small (<20 nm), closely packed microcrystals comprised of a central metallic core and a shell (several monolayers thick) of mixed metal oxides/hydroxides. The second type of PtM phase is prepared by cooling in a stream of hydrogen gas. Although this second phase also consists of numerous microcrystals covering the Pt{111} electrode surface, these are both flatter than before and moreover are entirely metallic in character. A positive shift in the onset of PtM oxide formation correlates with increased activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which we ascribe to the greater availability of platinum metallic sites under ORR conditions. PMID:24986646

  7. Chloride Ion Activity and Susceptibility of Al Alloys 7075-T6 and 5083-H131 to Stress Corrosion Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, R. E.; Lee, E. U.; Taylor, R.; Lei, C.; Pregger, B.; Lipnickas, E.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of chloride ion activity on the susceptibility of aluminum alloys 5083-H131 and 7075-T6 to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was investigated by conducting slow strain-rate tensile tests at a strain-rate of 10-7 s-1 in naturally aerated aqueous solutions with varying NaCl mass fraction (0.001 to 20 pct) and in a 3.5 pct mass fraction NaCl solution with varying strain-rates (10-8 to 10-4 s-1). This study found that both alloys exhibited reduced strengths and failure strains (times) in the solutions compared with laboratory air. The extent of these reductions was greater in alloy 5083 for the conditions examined. The strength and ductility of both alloys decreased with chloride ion activity in a manner that indicates a chemical reaction is responsible. The strength and ductility of both alloys decreased with strain-rate in a sigmoidal manner, but the transition in alloy 7075 occurred at slower strain-rates of approximately two orders of magnitude. It was deduced that the chloride ion interacts chemically with the passivated surface in the potential gradient at the crack tip to cause SCC. While no mechanism of cracking can be eliminated on the basis of these results alone, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the absorbed hydrogen causes cracking in alloy 7075 while cracking in 5083 is the result of a dissolution mechanism.

  8. Grain boundary premelting and activated sintering in binary refractory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng

    Quasi-liquid intergranular film (IGF) which has been widely observed in ceramic systems can persist into sub-solidus region whereby an analogy to Grain boundary (GB) premelting can be made. In this work, a grain boundary (GB) premelting/prewetting model in a metallic system was firstly built based on the Benedictus' model and computational thermodynamics, predicting that GB disordering can start at 60-85% of the bulk solidus temperatures in selected systems. This model quantitatively explains the long-standing mystery of subsolidus activated sintering in W-Pd, W-Ni, W-Co, W-Fe and W-Cu, and it has broad applications for understanding GB-controlled transport kinetics and physical properties. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the necessity of developing GB phase diagrams as a tool for materials design. Subsequently, Grain boundary (GB) wetting and prewetting in Ni-doped Mo are systematically evaluated via characterizing well-quenched specimens and thermodynamic modeling. In contrast to prior reports, the delta-NiMo phase does not wet Mo GBs in the solid state. In the solid-liquid two-phase region, the Ni-rich liquid wets Mo GBs completely. Furthermore, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that nanometer-thick quasi-liquid IGFs persist at GBs into the single-phase region where the bulk liquid phase is no longer stable; this is interpreted as a case of GB prewetting. An analytical thermodynamic model is developed and validated, and this model can be extended to other systems. Furthermore, the analytical model was refined based upon Beneditus' model with correction in determining interaction contribution of interfacial energy. A calculation-based GB phase diagram for Ni-Mo binary system was created and validated by comparing with GB diffusivities determined through a series of controlled sintering experiments. The dependence of GB diffusivity on doping level and temperature was examined and compared with model-predicted GB phase diagram. The

  9. Controlling Hydrogen Activation, Spillover, and Desorption with Pd-Au Single-Atom Alloys.

    PubMed

    Lucci, Felicia R; Darby, Matthew T; Mattera, Michael F G; Ivimey, Christopher J; Therrien, Andrew J; Michaelides, Angelos; Stamatakis, Michail; Sykes, E Charles H

    2016-02-01

    Key descriptors in hydrogenation catalysis are the nature of the active sites for H2 activation and the adsorption strength of H atoms to the surface. Using atomically resolved model systems of dilute Pd-Au surface alloys and density functional theory calculations, we determine key aspects of H2 activation, diffusion, and desorption. Pd monomers in a Au(111) surface catalyze the dissociative adsorption of H2 at temperatures as low as 85 K, a process previously expected to require contiguous Pd sites. H atoms preside at the Pd sites and desorb at temperatures significantly lower than those from pure Pd (175 versus 310 K). This facile H2 activation and weak adsorption of H atom intermediates are key requirements for active and selective hydrogenations. We also demonstrate weak adsorption of CO, a common catalyst poison, which is sufficient to force H atoms to spill over from Pd to Au sites, as evidenced by low-temperature H2 desorption. PMID:26747698

  10. Hollow raspberry-like PdAg alloy nanospheres: High electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Hu, Yongli; Liu, Mingrui; Zheng, Yixiong

    2015-03-01

    Palladium-silver (PdAg) alloy nanospheres with unique structure were prepared using a one-pot procedure based on the galvanic replacement reaction. Their electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media was evaluated. The morphology and crystal structure of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical characterization techniques, including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements were used to analyze the electrochemical performance of the PdAg alloy nanospheres. The SEM and TEM images showed that the PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit a hierarchical nanostructure with hollow interiors and porous walls. Compared to the commercial Pd/C catalyst, the as-prepared PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media, showing its potential as a new non-Pt electro-catalyst for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs).

  11. Fast neutron activation analysis of oxide inclusions in magnesium alloy ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, C. D.; James, W. D.

    1999-06-01

    Magnesium will have an increasingly important role to play in the automotive industry's materials strategy. In addition to its obvious use as a lightweight alternative, magnesium offers advantages in areas such as component integration and NVH (noise, vibration and harshness). Although the metallic composition of magnesium alloys has been carefully defined, there is no uniform industry standard for non-metallic inclusions, such as oxides, which are believed to adversely impact the material's strength. A definitive test has been needed, preferably one that provides a highly sensitive, calibrated, nondestructive evaluation of the metal's bulk oxide content. In response to this need, fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA) has emerged as an important tool for providing highly accurate quantitative information on the oxygen content in magnesium alloys. Oxygen levels from less than 50 to several thousand ppm have been observed in these alloys, with the highest levels concentrated at the top center of the ingot. Several operational procedures have been developed to optimize the analysis, including: a new automated, blank-free procedure which pneumatically transports machined magnesium cylinders between the irradiation and counting facilities; the use of an oxygen standard prepared from polyethylene and titanium dioxide, machined to match the sample dimensions; and implementation of new background subtraction software.

  12. Stress level evaluation of thin films under thermal loading from a brazing process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1996-06-01

    X-ray front end beamline windows are made of thin beryllium foil that is commonly brazed or diffusion bonded onto a copper frame. In the brazing process, due to differences in the thermal expansion coefficient of the beryllium and copper materials, the beryllium film ends up in a state of very high level compression stress after cooling from 700{degrees}C (the brazing temperature) to room temperature. This makes the thin Be foil deform into a dome-shaped structure due to the usual asymmetrical geometry of the window. This paper studies the brazing process using a finite element method and explains the reason for such phenomena. Recommendations are offered for possible improvement in the bonding process of beryllium to the window block.

  13. A highly active and coke-resistant steam reforming catalyst comprising uniform nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Koike, Mitsuru; Li, Dalin; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2012-12-01

    Doing fine with Ni-Fe: The calcination and reduction of a hydrotalcite precursor containing Ni and Fe ions gives uniform Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles mixed with Mg(Ni, Fe, Al)O particles. The uniformity of the Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles is connected to the catalyst's high activity and resistance to coke formation in toluene and phenol steam reforming reactions. PMID:23135797

  14. Method of fluxless brazing and diffusion bonding of aluminum containing components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Featherston, A. B.; Okelly, K. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method of diffusion bonding and fluxless brazing of aluminum containing components is reported. The aluminum surfaces are freed of any aluminum oxide coating and are coated with a polymeric sealer which can be thermally removed leaving essentially no residue. The polymeric sealer is being removed in a substantially oxygen free environment, and the aluminum components are then being brazed or diffusion bonded without the use of a flux to remove oxide coating.

  15. Development of plasma MIG brazing process for dissimilar metal joining of aluminum to steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Tanaka, Manabu

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to develop a new brazing process employing plasma MIG. Because the energy density of the plasma produced by the plasma electrode is low, the base metal can be heated extensively without melting of the base metal, consequently improving the wettability of bead. This paper discussed the dissimilar metal joining of aluminum to steel by plasma MIG brazing process. Fracture occurred at the HAZ in the aluminum plate at 80 MPa.

  16. Effect of La2O3 Nanoparticles on the Brazeability, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Al-11Si-20Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Roh, Myung Hwan; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-06-01

    The Al-11Si-20Cu brazing alloy and its ex situ composite with the content ranging from 0.01 to 0.05 wt.% of La2O3 are produced by electromagnetic induction-cum-casting route. The brazeability of the alloy and composite samples are tested using the spreading technique according to JIS Z-3197 standard. The mechanical properties such as filler microhardness, tensile shear strength, and elongation of the brazed joints are evaluated in the as-brazed condition. It is reported that incorporation of an optimal amount of 0.05 wt.% of hard La2O3 nanoparticles in the Al-Si-Cu matrix inhibits the growth of the large CuAl2 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and Si particles. As a consequence, the composite filler brazeability, microhardness, joint tensile shear strength, and elongation are improved significantly compared to those of monolithic Al-11Si-20Cu alloy.

  17. Activation energies for oxygen reduction on platinum alloys: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alfred B; Roques, Jérôme; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Murthi, Vivek S; Markovic, Nenad M; Stamenkovic, Vojislav

    2005-01-27

    A combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the electrode potential dependencies of activation energies is presented for the first step in oxygen reduction over platinum and platinum alloy catalysts in both polycrystalline and carbon supported form. Tafel data for several of the catalysts are used to predict potential-dependent activation energies for oxygen reduction over the 0.6-0.9 V range in strong and weak acid. Comparisons with the theoretical curve show good agreement above 0.8 V, suggesting a fairly constant preexponential factor. Arrhenius determinations of activation energies over the 0.7-0.9 V range yield little trend for weak acid, possibly because of the larger uncertainties in the Arrhenius fits, but the strong acid results have smaller uncertainties and for them the measured activation energies trend up with potential. PMID:16851081

  18. JOINING OF MOLYBDENUM DISILICIDE TO STAINLESS STEEL USING AMORPHOUS METAL BRAZES-RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    VAIDYA, RAJENDRA U; KAUTZ, DOUGLAS D.; GALLEGOS, DAVID E.

    2007-01-30

    Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2})/stainless steel 316 L jOints were produced by high temperature brazing using a cobalt-based metallic-glass (METGLAS{trademark} 2714A). Successful joining was completed in two different ways; either by feeding excess braze into the braze gap upon heating or by constraining the MoSi{sub 2}/stainiess steel assembly with an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) fixture during the heating cycle. These steps were necessary to ensure the production of a high quality void free joint. Residual stress measurements were completed on these joints. Indentation results show higher tensile residual stresses in the stainless steel for the joint with the external constraint, in comparison to the unconstrained state. In contrast, the compressive residual stresses In the MoSi{sub 2} (as measured by X-ray diffraction) were lower in the constrained state relative to the unconstrained state. These results and a lack of residual stress balance indicate that the stress state in the braze is significantly different under the two joining conditions and the volume of the braze plays an important role in the development of the residual stresses. Push-out tests carried out on these joints gave higher joint strengths in the unconstrained as compared to the constrained condition. The results of this study have important implications on the selection of the appropriate joining process (use of constraint versus extra braze).

  19. Microstructural development in reduced activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 200 dpa at 420$deg;C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelles, D. S.

    1994-09-01

    Density change and microstructural development are reported for nine reduced activation ferritic steels covering the range 2.3 to 12Cr with varying additions of V and/or W for hardening and up to 6.5 Mn for austenite stability. Specimens were examined following irradiation in FFTF/MOTA at 420°C to a dose exceeding 200 dpa. Void swelling was found, but the swelling remained at 5% or below, with the worst case in an alloy of 9Cr-2Mn-1WV. The carbide structure pinning martensite lath boundaries remained in place.

  20. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Chung, H.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-04-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperatures the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation was completed on May 5, 1996, as planned, after achieving an estimated neutron damage of 4.7 dpa in vanadium. The capsule has since been kept in the ATR water canal for the required radioactivity cool-down. Planning is underway for disassembly of the capsule and test specimen retrieval.

  1. A method to determine the active particle nucleation undercooling distribution in a refined alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangelinck-Noël, N.; Spinelli, J. E.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Reinhart, G.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Billia, B.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method to determine the active particle distribution of nucleation undercooling in a refined alloy. The experimental data used in this work are inferred from solidification experiments on a refined Al-3.5 wt% Ni alloy performed with X-ray radiography at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. These in situ and real time observations allow the accurate and direct determination of the grain origin (heterogeneous nucleation on particles or fragmentation), of the density and of the equiaxed front growth rate. The LGK classical dendrite growth model is used to evaluate the front undercooling (ΔTC) corresponding to the measured equiaxed front growth rate. Then, the corresponding cumulative distribution of active refining particles is determined. From this cumulative distribution, we derive the corresponding Gaussian and log-normal laws to obtain the nucleation undercooling distribution of active particles. Results are discussed and compared to available measurements in the literature. The standard particle distribution parameters (density of nuclei, mean nucleation undercooling and standard deviation) are determined. We plan to use the determined nucleation undercooling particle distribution in a stochastic CAFE model for the grain structure without preliminary adjustment of the nucleation undercooling.

  2. In vitro activation of human fibroblasts by retrieved titanium alloy wear debris.

    PubMed

    Manlapaz, M; Maloney, W J; Smith, R L

    1996-05-01

    Titanium-aluminum-vanadium wear particles isolated from the soft-issue membrane of a failed total hip arthroplasty were added to human fibroblasts in cell culture. The cellular response to particle challenge was determined by assaying for levels of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, prostaglandin E2, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-AB, and transforming growth factor-beta. Collagenase and gelatinase activities were analyzed by zymography and [3H]collagen degradation. Cell viability was assessed by measuring the uptake of [3H]thymidine. Over the range of particle concentrations tested, cell viability, as demonstrated by [3H]thymidine uptake, remained unaffected. Fibroblasts exhibited a dose-dependent release of interleukin-6 in response to exposure to titanium-aluminum-vanadium particles. At 6 and 48 hours, the highest concentration of titanium alloy particles (0.189% [vol/vol]) resulted in 7-fold and 16-fold increases in interleukin-6 release, respectively, when compared with negative controls. Neither interleukin-1 beta nor tumor necrosis factor-alpha was detected in the culture medium at any particle concentration tested for both dermal and foreskin fibroblasts. The pattern of prostaglandin E2 release by fibroblasts mirrored the pattern of interleukin-6 release. Fibroblasts exposed to the highest concentration of titanium alloy particles showed an increase in collagenase activity, starting at 12 hours. When medium samples were treated with amino phenylmercuric acetate to activate latent enzymes, a statistically significant increase in collagenase activity was observed as early as 6 hours (p < 0.001). Substrate gel analysis of medium from fibroblasts stimulated by high particle concentrations also showed an increase in gelatinolytic activity when compared with unstimulated controls. Analysis of medium samples for growth factors showed an increase in basic fibroblast growth factor at low particle

  3. Cast iron-base alloy for cylinder/regenerator housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witter, Stewart L.; Simmons, Harold E.; Woulds, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    NASACC-1 is a castable iron-base alloy designed to replace the costly and strategic cobalt-base X-40 alloy used in the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/generator housing. Over 40 alloy compositions were evaluated using investment cast test bars for stress-rupture testing. Also, hydrogen compatibility and oxygen corrosion resistance tests were used to determine the optimal alloy. NASACC-1 alloy was characterized using elevated and room temperature tensile, creep-rupture, low cycle fatigue, heat capacity, specific heat, and thermal expansion testing. Furthermore, phase analysis was performed on samples with several heat treated conditions. The properties are very encouraging. NASACC-1 alloy shows stress-rupture and low cycle fatigue properties equivalent to X-40. The oxidation resistance surpassed the program goal while maintaining acceptable resistance to hydrogen exposure. The welding, brazing, and casting characteristics are excellent. Finally, the cost of NASACC-1 is significantly lower than that of X-40.

  4. Hydrogenation under high pressure enhancing catalytic activity of Cu-Zr amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szummer, A.; Janik-Czachor, M.; Molnár, Á.; Marchuk, I.; Varga, M.; Filipek, S. M.

    2002-11-01

    High pressures of hydrogen up to 3.0 GPa and temperatures up to 373 K were used as a pretreatment to introduce structural changes in the bulk and on the surface of Cu-Zr amorphous alloys which then were examined by means of x-ray diffraction and microscopy. The hydrogenative pretreatment of high hydrogen fugacity followed by annealing at 623 K, aimed at causing desorption of hydrogen, and an eventual exposure of the samples to air at room temperature to oxidize Zr, resulted in a distinct increase of catalytic activity in the dehydrogenation of 2-propanol. A tentative mechanism to account for the enhancement of the catalytic activity induced by the above combined pretreatment is discussed.

  5. Highly branched PtCu bimetallic alloy nanodendrites with superior electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Shaofang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Shi, Qiurong; Xia, Haibing; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-02-01

    Morphology control is a promising strategy to improve the catalytic performance of Pt-based catalysts. In this work, we reported a facile synthesis of PtCu bimetallic alloy nanodendrites using Brij 58 as a template. The highly branched structures and porous features offer relatively large surface areas, which is beneficial to the enhancement of the catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reactions in fuel cells. In addition, the elimination of carbon supports showed an important effect on the stability of the catalysts. By tuning the ratio of Pt and Cu precursors, PtCu nanodendrites were almost four times more active on the basis of an equivalent Pt mass for oxygen reduction reactions than the commercial Pt/C catalyst.Morphology control is a promising strategy to improve the catalytic performance of Pt-based catalysts. In this work, we reported a facile synthesis of PtCu bimetallic alloy nanodendrites using Brij 58 as a template. The highly branched structures and porous features offer relatively large surface areas, which is beneficial to the enhancement of the catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reactions in fuel cells. In addition, the elimination of carbon supports showed an important effect on the stability of the catalysts. By tuning the ratio of Pt and Cu precursors, PtCu nanodendrites were almost four times more active on the basis of an equivalent Pt mass for oxygen reduction reactions than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07682j

  6. Preparation of AuPt alloy foam films and their superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of formic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Ling; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2011-09-01

    AuPt alloy films with three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical pores consisting of interconnected dendrite walls were successfully fabricated by a strategy of cathodic codeposition utilizing the hydrogen bubble dynamic template. The foam films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Due to the special porous structure, the electronic property, and the assembly effect, the AuPt alloy foam films show superior electrocatalytic activity toward the electrooxidation of formic acid in acidic solution, and the prepared 3D porous AuPt alloy films also show high activity and long stability for the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol, where synergistic effect plays an important role in addition to the electronic effect and assembly effect. These findings provide more insights into the AuPt bimetallic nanomaterials for electrocatalytic applications. PMID:21838240

  7. Cryogenic performance of slotted brazed Rene 41 honeycomb panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Swegle, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two brazed Rene 41 honeycomb panels that would incorporate a frame element were designed, fabricated and tested. The panels were representative of the lower surface of an advanced space transportation vehicle. The first panel was a two span panel supported by a center frame and on edges parallel to it. The second panel was a two span panel supported by a center frame and on edges parallel to it. The second panel was a three span panel supported on two frames and on edges parallel to the frames. Each panel had its outer skin slotted to reduce the thermal stresses of the panel skins. The first panel was tested under simulated boost conditions that included liquid hydrogen exposure of the frame and inner skin and radiant heat to 478K on the outer skins. The first panel was tested to investigate the effect of thermal stresses in skins and core caused by the panel being restrained by a cold integral frame and to observe the effects of frost formation and possible liquid air development in and around outer skin slots.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum-Steel Weld-Brazing Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Li, Jie; Zhang, Gang; Huang, Jiankang; Gu, Yufen

    2016-05-01

    Dissimilar metals of 1060 aluminum and galvanized steel were joined with a lap joint by pulsed double-electrode gas metal arc weld brazing with aluminum-magnesium and aluminum-silicon filler metals. The corrosion behavior of the weld joints was investigated with immersion corrosion and electrochemical corrosion tests, and the corrosion morphology of the joints was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Galvanic corrosion was found to occur when the samples were immersed in corrosive media, and the corrosion rate of joints was increased with increased heat input of the workpiece. Comparison of the corrosion properties of weld joints with different filler wires indicated that the corrosion rate of weld joints with aluminum-silicon filler wire was larger than that of weld joints with aluminum-magnesium filler wire. Results also showed that the zinc-rich zone of weld joints was prone to corrosion. The corrosion behavior of zinc-rich zone was analyzed with SEM equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis system based on the test results.

  9. Microwave induced plasma (MIP) brazing of silicon nitride to stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Samandi, M.; Bate, M.; Donnan, R.; Miyake, S.

    1996-12-31

    In an attempt to accelerate the process of joining of metals to ceramics, a new rapid brazing technology has been developed. In this process, referred to as Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) brazing, a microwave plasma is used to rapidly heat the ceramic and metal to the melting temperature of the reactive braze material. The heating rate obtained by MIP could be many times faster than those achieved by conventional resistive heating in a tube furnace. The fast heating rate has no detrimental effect on the joint quality and in fact results in the formation of a thick interfacial film suggesting significant interdiffusion between the braze and ceramic, possibly stimulated by the microwave radiation. In this paper the experimental arrangement of the MIP system is described. The unique capability of the MIP heating is demonstrated by successful joining of hot pressed nitride to stainless steel using reactive metal brazing. The results of microstructural characterization of the joints carried out by SEM and EDS will also be presented.

  10. Brazing of Stainless Steels to Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shpargel, Tarah P.; Needham, Robert J.; Singh, M.; Kung, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in research, development, and commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells. Joining and sealing are critical issues that will need to be addressed before SOFC's can truly perform as expected. Ceramics and metals can be difficult to join together, especially when the joint must withstand up to 900 C operating temperature of the SOFC's. The goal of the present study is to find the most suitable braze material for joining of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to stainless steels. A number of commercially available braze materials TiCuSil, TiCuNi, Copper-ABA, Gold-ABA, and Gold-ABA-V have been evaluated. The oxidation behavior of the braze materials and steel substrates in air was also examined through thermogravimetric analysis. The microstructure and composition of the brazed regions have been examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis. Effect of braze composition and processing conditions on the interfacial microstructure and composition of the joint regions will be presented.

  11. Synthesis and anti-bacterial activity of Cu, Ag and Cu-Ag alloy nanoparticles: A green approach

    SciTech Connect

    Valodkar, Mayur; Modi, Shefaly; Pal, Angshuman; Thakore, Sonal

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis of novel nanosized copper-silver alloys of different compositions. {yields} Completely green approach for synthesis of water soluble bimetallic nanoparticle. {yields} Interesting anti-bacterial activity of as synthesized metal and alloy nanoparticle. -- Abstract: Metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of copper and silver in various proportions were prepared by microwave assisted chemical reduction in aqueous medium using the biopolymer, starch as a stabilizing agent. Ascorbic acid was used as the reducing agent. The silver and copper nanoparticles exhibited surface plasmon absorption resonance maxima (SPR) at 416 and 584 nm, respectively; while SPR for the Cu-Ag alloys appeared in between depending on the alloy composition. The SPR maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changes linearly with increasing copper content in the alloy. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) showed monodispersed particles in the range of 20 {+-} 5 nm size. Both silver and copper nanoparticles exhibited emission band at 485 and 645 nm, respectively. The starch-stabilized nanoparticles exhibited interesting antibacterial activity with both gram positive and gram negative bacteria at micromolar concentrations.

  12. Self-activated mesh device using shape memory alloy for periosteal expansion osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Kensuke; Takahashi, Tetsu; Tanaka, Kenko; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Lethaus, Bernd; Kessler, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The present study evaluated the use of this self-activated shape memory alloy (SMA) device, with a focus on its effects in the region under the periosteum. Twelve Japanese white rabbits were used in this study. The device was inserted under the periosteum at the forehead. In the experimental group, the device was pushed, bent, and attached to the bone surface and fixed with a titanium screw. In control group, the device was only inserted under the periosteum. After 14 days, the screw was removed and the mesh was activated in the experimental group. Rabbits were sacrificed 5 and 8 weeks after the operation and newly formed bone was histologically and radiographically evaluated. The quantitative data by the area and the occupation of newly formed bone indicated that the experimental group had a higher volume of new bone than the control group at each consolidation period. Histologically, some newly formed bone was observed and most of the subperiosteal space underneath the device was filled with fibrous tissue, and a thin layer of immature bone was observed in the control group. In the experimental group, multiple dome-shaped bones, outlined by thin and scattered trabeculae, were clearly observed under the SMA mesh device. The use of self-activated devices for the periosteal expansion technique may make it possible to avoid donor site morbidity, trans-skin activation rods, any bone-cutting procedure, and the following intermittent activation procedure. PMID:23359561

  13. 75 FR 52037 - Welding, Cutting and Brazing Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Order No. 5-2007 (67 FR 31160). Signed at Washington, DC, on August 16, 2010. David Michaels, Assistant... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Welding, Cutting and Brazing Standard; Extension of the Office of... the information collection requirements contained in the Welding, Cutting and Brazing Standard (29...

  14. Tuning the activity of Pt(111) for oxygen electroreduction by subsurface alloying.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Ifan E L; Bondarenko, Alexander S; Perez-Alonso, Francisco J; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Bech, Lone; Johansson, Tobias P; Jepsen, Anders K; Frydendal, Rasmus; Knudsen, Brian P; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2011-04-13

    To enable the development of low temperature fuel cells, significant improvements are required to the efficiency of the Pt electrocatalysts at the cathode, where oxygen reduction takes place. Herein, we study the effect of subsurface solute metals on the reactivity of Pt, using a Cu/Pt(111) near-surface alloy. Our investigations incorporate electrochemical measurements, ultrahigh vacuum experiments, and density functional theory. Changes to the OH binding energy, ΔE(OH), were monitored in situ and adjusted continuously through the subsurface Cu coverage. The incorporation of submonolayer quantities of Cu into Pt(111) resulted in an 8-fold improvement in oxygen reduction activity. The most optimal catalyst for oxygen reduction has an ΔE(OH) ≈ 0.1 eV weaker than that of pure Pt, validating earlier theoretical predictions. PMID:21417329

  15. A general method for multimetallic platinum alloy nanowires as highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Guo, Jun

    2015-10-13

    The production of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with precise control over structures has always been a central target in various fields of chemistry and physics because the properties of NPs can be desirably manipulated by their structure.[1-4] There has been an intense search for high-performance noble metal NP catalysts particular for Pt.[5-9] Precious platinum (Pt) NPs are active catalysts for various heterogeneous reactions and show particularly superior performance in both the anodic oxidation reaction and the cathodic ORR in the fuel cells, but their rare content and high cost largely impede the practical application.[10-12] A potential strategy to address this tremendous challenge is alloying Pt NPs with the transition metals (TM).[13-16]

  16. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1996-10-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperature the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation started in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) on November 30, 1995, and ended as planned on May 5, 1996. Total exposure was 132.9 effective full power days (EFPDs) and estimated neutron damage in the vanadium was 4.7 dpa. The vehicle has been discharged from the ATR core and is scheduled to be disassembled in the next reporting period.

  17. Excavated Cubic Platinum-Tin Alloy Nanocrystals Constructed from Ultrathin Nanosheets with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiaoli; Yang, Yanan; Cao, Zhenming; Kuang, Qin; Du, Guifen; Jiang, Yaqi; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zheng, Lansun

    2016-07-25

    Excavated polyhedral noble-metal materials that were built by the orderly assembly of ultrathin nanosheets have both large surface areas and well-defined facets, and therefore could be promising candidates for diverse important applications. In this work, excavated cubic Pt-Sn alloy nanocrystals (NCs) with {110} facets were constructed from twelve nanosheets by a simple co-reduction method with the assistance of the surface regulator polyvinylpyrrolidone. The specific surface area of the excavated cubic Pt-Sn NCs is comparable to that of commercial Pt black despite their larger particle size. The excavated cubic Pt-Sn NCs exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity in terms of both the specific area current density and the mass current density towards methanol oxidation. PMID:27325395

  18. Active vibration control of a flexible cantilever beam using shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kagawa, Y.

    2010-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using shape memory alloys (SMAs) as actuators to control the vibration of a flexible cantilever beam. In a tendon mechanism, SMAs are controlled in a push-pull fashion based on H-infinity theory and taking into account the uncertainty in the actuator performance. Using this mechanism, the four vibrational modes (three bending and one torsional) of the cantilever beam can be simultaneously damped. To control bending and torsional vibrational modes of a flexible beam, we install SMAs obliquely in a beam-SMA structure, then measure and theoretically model the properties of an actuator consisting of an SMA and a spring. Using the properties of the actuator, we introduce the state equations based on the dynamic model of the proposed beam-SMA structure and design the active control system according to H-infinity theory. Finally, we experimentally verify the functioning of the system.

  19. A general method for multimetallic platinum alloy nanowires as highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Guo, Jun

    2015-10-13

    The production of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with precise control over structures has always been a central target in various fields of chemistry and physics because the properties of NPs can be desirably manipulated by their structure.[1-4] There has been an intense search for high-performance noble metal NP catalysts particular for Pt.[5-9] Precious platinum (Pt) NPs are active catalysts for various heterogeneous reactions and show particularly superior performance in both the anodic oxidation reaction and the cathodic ORR in the fuel cells, but their rare content and high cost largely impede the practical application.[10-12] A potential strategy to address this tremendousmore » challenge is alloying Pt NPs with the transition metals (TM).[13-16]« less

  20. Electrocatalytic activity of alkyne-functionalized AgAu alloy nanoparticles for oxygen reduction in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peiguang; Song, Yang; Chen, Limei; Chen, Shaowei

    2015-05-01

    1-Dodecyne-functionalized AgAu alloy nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction of metal salt precursors at varied initial feed ratios. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were all rather well dispersed with the average core diameter in the narrow range of 3 to 5 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies confirmed the formation of AgAu alloy nanoparticles with the gold concentration ranging from approximately 25 at% to 55 at%. Consistent results were obtained in UV-vis spectroscopic measurements where the nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance red-shifted almost linearly with increasing gold concentrations. The self-assembly of 1-dodecyne ligands on the nanoparticle surface was manifested in infrared spectroscopic measurements. Importantly, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction in alkaline media, and the performance was found to show a volcano variation in the Au content in the alloy nanoparticles, with the best performance observed for the samples with ca. 35.5 at% Au. The enhanced catalytic activity, as compared to pure Ag nanoparticles or even commercial Pt/C catalysts, was accounted for by the unique metal-ligand interfacial bonding interactions as well as alloying effects that increased metal-oxygen affinity.1-Dodecyne-functionalized AgAu alloy nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction of metal salt precursors at varied initial feed ratios. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were all rather well dispersed with the average core diameter in the narrow range of 3 to 5 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies confirmed the formation of AgAu alloy nanoparticles with the gold concentration ranging from approximately 25 at% to 55 at%. Consistent results were obtained in UV-vis spectroscopic measurements where the nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance red-shifted almost linearly with increasing gold

  1. Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress for Copper Base Brazed Stainless Steel Plate-Fin Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiaoyun; Ling, Xiang

    2010-07-01

    Copper base stainless steel plate-fin structure has been widely used as a heat exchanger in many fields. The nonlinear thermal reaction on the residual stress in brazing process of the plate-fin structure was studied in this paper. A finite element model (FEM) was proposed to simulate the heat transfer and the sequential residual stress generated in the plate-fin and filler metals based on thermal elastic-plastic theory. By the stress distribution in four paths marked in the structure obtained from FEM results, it is found that the maximum residual tensile stress occurs in the brazed joint next to the plate side and a crack would initiate in this region. Also, the first principle stresses of reference nodes were calculated and the conclusion is consistent with the simulation results. These results would provide some constructive instructions in the practical brazing procedure.

  2. GRCop-84: A High-Temperature Copper Alloy for High-Heat-Flux Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2005-01-01

    GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) is a new high-temperature copper-based alloy. It possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance and low-cycle fatigue up to 700 C (1292 F) along with low thermal expansion and good conductivity. GRCop-84 can be processed and joined by a variety of methods such as extrusion, rolling, bending, stamping, brazing, friction stir welding, and electron beam welding. Considerable mechanical property data has been generated for as-produced material and following simulated braze cycles. The data shows that the alloy is extremely stable during thermal exposures. This paper reviews the major GRCop-84 mechanical and thermophysical properties and compares them to literature values for a variety of other high-temperature copper-based alloys.

  3. Brazeability of a 3003 Aluminum alloy with Al-Si-Cu-based filler metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, L. C.; Weng, W. P.; Cheng, M. D.; Tsao, C. W.; Chuang, T. H.

    2002-08-01

    Al-Si-Cu-based filler metals have been used successfully for brazing 6061 aluminum alloy as reported in the authors’ previous studies. For application in heat exchangers during manufacturing, the brazeability of 3003 aluminum alloy with these filler metals is herein further evaluated. Experimental results show that even at such a low temperature as 550 °C, the 3003 alloys can be brazed with the Al-Si-Cu fillers and display bonding strengths that are higher than 77 MPa as well. An optimized 3003 joint is attained in the brazements with the innovative Al-7Si-20Cu-2Sn-1Mg filler metal at 575 °C for 30 min, which reveals a bonding strength capping the 3003 Al matrix.

  4. Laser cladding of stainless steel with a copper-silver alloy to generate surfaces of high antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hans, Michael; Támara, Juan Carlos; Mathews, Salima; Bax, Benjamin; Hegetschweiler, Andreas; Kautenburger, Ralf; Solioz, Marc; Mücklich, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Copper and silver are used as antimicrobial agents in the healthcare sector in an effort to curb infections caused by bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics. While the bactericidal potential of copper and silver alone are well documented, not much is known about the antimicrobial properties of copper-silver alloys. This study focuses on the antibacterial activity and material aspects of a copper-silver model alloy with 10 wt% Ag. The alloy was generated as a coating with controlled intermixing of copper and silver on stainless steel by a laser cladding process. The microstructure of the clad was found to be two-phased and in thermal equilibrium with minor Cu2O inclusions. Ion release and killing of Escherichia coli under wet conditions were assessed with the alloy, pure silver, pure copper and stainless steel. It was found that the copper-silver alloy, compared to the pure elements, exhibited enhanced killing of E. coli, which correlated with an up to 28-fold increased release of copper ions. The results show that laser cladding with copper and silver allows the generation of surfaces with enhanced antimicrobial properties. The process is particularly attractive since it can be applied to existing surfaces.

  5. Further Charpy impact test results of low activation ferritic alloys, irradiated at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four ferritic alloys, GA3X, F82H, GA4X and HT9, have been impact tested following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of the previously tested lower dose irradiation condition indicates that the GA3X and F82H alloys, two primary candidate low activation alloys, exhibit virtually identical behavior following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa and at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa. Very little shift is observed in either DBTT or USE relative to the unirradiated condition. The shifts in DBTT and USE observed in both GA4X and HT9 were smaller after irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa than after irradiation at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa.

  6. Biodegradable Mg-Cu alloy implants with antibacterial activity for the treatment of osteomyelitis: In vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Lina; Wan, Peng; Zhai, Zanjing; Mao, Zhenyang; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Yu, Degang; Sun, Qi; Tan, Lili; Ren, Ling; Zhu, Zhenan; Hao, Yongqiang; Qu, Xinhua; Yang, Ke; Dai, Kerong

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis (bone infection) remains a clinical challenge; in particular, it requires an implantable material with improved antibacterial activity. Here, we prepared biodegradable magnesium (Mg)-copper (Cu) alloys with different Cu contents (0.05, 0.1, and 0.25 wt%) and assessed their potential for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis. We evaluated the microstructures, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and ion release of the alloys in vitro, and their biocompatibility and antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial activity of the Mg-Cu alloys in vitro was demonstrated by microbiological counting assays, bacterial viability assays, biofilm formation observations, and the expression of biofilm, virulence, and antibiotic-resistance associated genes. The antibacterial activity of Mg-Cu alloys in vivo was confirmed by imaging examination, microbiological cultures, and histopathology. The biocompatibility of Mg-Cu alloys was confirmed by cell proliferation, vitality, and morphology assays in vitro and Cu(2+) or Mg(2+) ion assays, blood biochemical tests, and histological evaluation in vivo. The alloy containing 0.25 wt% Cu exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among the tested alloys, with favorable biocompatibility. Collectively, our results indicate the potential utility of Mg-Cu alloy implants with 0.25 wt% Cu in treating orthopedic infections. PMID:27573133

  7. Design optimization study of a shape memory alloy active needle for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Konh, Bardia; Honarvar, Mohammad; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2015-05-01

    Majority of cancer interventions today are performed percutaneously using needle-based procedures, i.e. through the skin and soft tissue. The difficulty in most of these procedures is to attain a precise navigation through tissue reaching target locations. To overcome this challenge, active needles have been proposed recently where actuation forces from shape memory alloys (SMAs) are utilized to assist the maneuverability and accuracy of surgical needles. In the first part of this study, actuation capability of SMA wires was studied. The complex response of SMAs was investigated via a MATLAB implementation of the Brinson model and verified via experimental tests. The isothermal stress-strain curves of SMAs were simulated and defined as a material model in finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA was validated experimentally with developed prototypes. In the second part of this study, the active needle design was optimized using genetic algorithm aiming its maximum flexibility. Design parameters influencing the steerability include the needle's diameter, wire diameter, pre-strain and its offset from the needle. A simplified model was presented to decrease the computation time in iterative analyses. Integration of the SMA characteristics with the automated optimization schemes described in this study led to an improved design of the active needle. PMID:25782329

  8. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-05-01

    Further advances in fuel cell technologies are hampered by kinetic limitations associated with the sluggish cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. We have investigated a range of different formulations of binary and ternary Pt, Pd and Au thin films as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. The most active binary thin films are near-surface alloys of Pt with subsurface Pd and certain PdAu and PtAu thin films with surface and/or subsurface Au. The most active ternary thin films are with pure metal Pt or Pd skins with some degree of Au in the surface and/or subsurface layer and the near-surface alloys of Au with mixed Pt-Pd skins. The activity of the binary and ternary catalysts is explained through weakening of the OH binding energy caused by solute elements. However, given the low alloy formation energies it may be difficult to tune and retain the composition under operating conditions. This is particularly challenging for alloys containing Au due to a high propensity of Au to segregate to the surface. We also show that once Au is on the surface it will diffuse to defect sites, explaining why small amounts of Au retard dissolution of Pt nanoparticles. For the PtPd thin films there is no pronounced driving force for surface segregation, diffusion to defects or surface self-assembling. On the basis of stability and activity analysis we conclude that the near surface alloy of Pd in Pt and some PdAu binary and PtPdAu ternary thin films with a controlled amount of Au are the best catalysts for oxygen reduction. PMID:25865333

  9. Catalytic Activity of Platinum Monolayer on Iridium and Rhenium Alloy Nanoparticles for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karan, Hiroko I.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Kuttiyiel, Kurian; Farberow, Carrie A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2012-05-04

    A new type of electrocatalyst with a core–shell structure that consists of a platinum monolayer shell placed on an iridium–rhenium nanoparticle core or platinum and palladium bilayer shell deposited on that core has been prepared and tested for electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Carbon-supported iridium–rhenium alloy nanoparticles with several different molar ratios of Ir to Re were prepared by reducing metal chlorides dispersed on Vulcan carbon with hydrogen gas at 400 °C for 1 h. These catalysts showed specific electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction comparable to that of platinum. The activities of PtML/PdML/Ir2Re1, PtML/Pd2layers/Ir2Re1, and PtML/Pd2layers/Ir7Re3 catalysts were, in fact, better than that of conventional platinum electrocatalysts, and their mass activities exceeded the 2015 DOE target. Our density functional theory calculations revealed that the molar ratio of Ir to Re affects the binding strength of adsorbed OH and, thereby, the O2 reduction activity of the catalysts. The maximum specific activity was found for an intermediate OH binding energy with the corresponding catalyst on the top of the volcano plot. The monolayer concept facilitates the use of much less platinum than in other approaches. Finally, the results with the PtML/PdML/Ir2Re electrocatalyst indicate that it is a promising alternative to conventional Pt electrocatalysts in low-temperature fuel cells.

  10. Nanoporous PdZr surface alloy as highly active non-platinum electrocatalyst toward oxygen reduction reaction with unique structure stability and methanol-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huimei; Xu, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    Nanoporous (NP) PdZr alloy with controllable bimetallic ratio is successfully fabricated by a simple dealloying method. By leaching out the more reactive Al from PdZrAl precursor alloy, NP-PdZr alloy with smaller ligament size was generated, characterized by the nanoscaled interconnected network skeleton and hollow channels extending in all three dimensions. Upon voltammetric scan in acid solution, the dissolution of surface Zr atoms generates the highly active Pd-Zr surface alloy with a nearly pure Pd surface and Pd-Zr alloy core. The NP-Pd80Zr20 surface alloy exhibits markedly enhanced specific and mass activities as well as higher catalytic stability toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared with NP-Pd and the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts. In addition, the NP-Pd80Zr20 surface alloy shows a better selectivity for ORR than methanol in the 0.1 M HClO4 and 0.1 M methanol mixed solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations both demonstrate that the weakened Pd-O bond and improved ORR performances in turn depend on the downshifted d-band center of Pd due to the alloying Pd with Zr (20 at.%). The as-made NP-PdZr alloy holds prospective applications as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel-cell-related technologies with the advantages of superior overall ORR performances, unique structure stability, and easy preparation.

  11. Potentiodynamic study of Al-Mg alloy with superhydrophobic coating in photobiologically active/not active natural seawater.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Alessandro; Cirisano, Francesca; Delucchi, Marina; Faimali, Marco; Ferrari, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic coating technology is regarded as an attractive possibility for the protection of materials in a sea environment. DC techniques are a useful tool to characterize metals' behavior in seawater in the presence/absence of coatings and/or corrosion inhibitors. In this work, investigations concerning Al-5%Mg alloy with and without a sprayed superhydrophobic coating were carried out with potentiodynamic scans in photobiologically active and not active seawater (3 weeks of immersion). In not photobiologically active seawater, the presence of the superhydrophobic coating did not prevent pitting corrosion. With time, the coating underwent local exfoliations, but intact areas still preserved superhydrophobicity. In photobiologically active seawater, on samples without the superhydrophobic coating (controls) pitting was inhibited, probably due to the adsorption of organic compounds produced by the photobiological activity. After 3 weeks of immersion, the surface of the coating became hydrophilic due to diatom coverage. As suggested by intermediate observations, the surface below the diatom layer is suspected of having lost its superhydrophobicity due to early stages of biofouling processes (organic molecule adsorption and diatom attachment/gliding). Polarization curves also revealed that the metal below the coating underwent corrosion inhibiting phenomena as observed in controls, likely due to the permeation of organic molecules through the coating. Hence, the initial biofouling stages (days) occurring in photobiologically active seawater can both accelerate the loss of superhydrophobicity of coatings and promote corrosion inhibition on the underlying metal. Finally, time durability of superhydrophobic surfaces in real seawater still remains the main challenge for applications, where the early stages of immersion are demonstrated to be of crucial importance. PMID:26319307

  12. Facile synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites as highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yue; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Yang, Hong; Yang, Deren

    2014-05-01

    In addition to activity, durability of Pd-based catalysts in a highly corrosive medium has become one of the most important barriers to limit their industrial applications such as low-temperature fuel cell technologies. Here, Rh with a unique capability to resist against oxidation etching was incorporated into Pd-based catalysts to enhance both their activity and durability for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This idea was achieved through the synthesis of the Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites by co-reducing Rh and Pd salt precursors in oleylamine (OAm) containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In this synthesis, Rh-Pd alloy nanostructures with Rh-Pd atomic ratios from 19 : 1 to 1 : 4 were generated by varying the molar ratios of Rh and Pd salt precursors. Interestingly, this variation of the molar ratios of the precursors from Rh rich to Pd rich would lead to the shape evolution of Rh-Pd alloy from dendritic nanostructures to spherical aggregations. We found that Br- ions derived from CTAB were also indispensible to the production of Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites. Owing to the addition of highly stable Rh as well as the radical structure with a large number of low-coordinated sites on the arms, Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites with a Rh-Pd atomic ratio of 4 : 1 (Rh80Pd20) exhibited a substantially enhanced electrocatalytic performance towards ORR with a 5% loss of mass activity during the accelerated stability test for 10 000 cycles compared to ~50% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK).In addition to activity, durability of Pd-based catalysts in a highly corrosive medium has become one of the most important barriers to limit their industrial applications such as low-temperature fuel cell technologies. Here, Rh with a unique capability to resist against oxidation etching was incorporated into Pd-based catalysts to enhance both their activity and durability for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This idea was achieved through the synthesis of the Rh-Pd alloy nanodendrites by co

  13. Structural disordering of de-alloyed Pt bimetallic nanocatalysts: the effect on oxygen reduction reaction activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Ioannis; Dideriksen, Knud; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Jelavic, Stanislav; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-11-14

    Platinum bimetallic alloys are well-known for their ability to catalyze the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Pt(x)Co(1-x) colloidal nanoparticles were synthesized with varying initial Pt : Co ratios, but constant size to investigate how the initial metal composition affects their electrocatalytic performance. The results show that upon contact with acid environment the Co leaches out of the particles leading to almost identical compositions, independent of the initial differences. Surprisingly the data show a clear trend in ORR activity, although the Pt(x)Co(1-x) nanoparticles almost completely de-alloy during acid leaching, i.e. under reaction conditions in a fuel cell. To scrutinize the resulting particle structure after de-alloying we used pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) gaining insight into the structural disorder and its dependence on the initial metal composition. Our results suggest that not only the ORR activity, but also the corrosion resistance of the synthesized NPs, are dependent on the structural disorder resulting from the de-alloying process. PMID:25537262

  14. Progress on Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Development for Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan; Melcher, Kevin; Noebe, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Results of a numerical analysis evaluating the feasibility of high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) for active clearance control actuation in the high-pressure turbine section of a modern turbofan engine has been conducted. The prototype actuator concept considered here consists of parallel HTSMA wires attached to the shroud that is located on the exterior of the turbine case. A transient model of an HTSMA actuator was used to evaluate active clearance control at various operating points in a test bed aircraft engine simulation. For the engine under consideration, each actuator must be designed to counteract loads from 380 to 2000 lbf and displace at least 0.033 in. Design results show that an actuator comprised of 10 wires 2 in. in length is adequate for control at critical engine operating points and still exhibit acceptable failsafe operability and cycle life. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with integrator windup protection was implemented to control clearance amidst engine transients during a normal mission. Simulation results show that the control system exhibits minimal variability in clearance control performance across the operating envelope. The final actuator design is sufficiently small to fit within the limited space outside the high-pressure turbine case and is shown to consume only small amounts of bleed air to adequately regulate temperature.

  15. In vivo degradation behavior and biological activity of some new Mg-Ca alloys with concentration's gradient of Si for bone grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Fântânariu, Mircea; Solcan, Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Burtan, Liviu; Acatrinei, Dumitru Mihai; Stanciu, Sergiu; Istrate, Bogdan; Munteanu, Corneliu

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium based alloys, especially Mg-Ca alloys, are biocompatible substrates with mechanical properties similar to those of bones. The biodegradable alloys of Mg-Ca provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers and also they avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. The main issue facing a biodegradable Mg-Ca alloy is the fast degradation in the aggressive physiological environment of the body. The alloy's corrosion is proportional with the dissolution of the Mg in the body: the reaction with the water generates magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen. The accelerated corrosion will lead to early loss of the alloy's mechanical integrity. The degradation rate of an alloy can be improved mainly through tailoring the composition and by carrying out surface treatments. This research focuses on the ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg-Ca alloys by an original method and studies the biological activity of the resulted specimens. A new Mg-Ca alloy, with a Si gradient concentration from the surface to the interior of the material, was obtained. The surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffraction (X'Pert equipment) and energy dispersive X-ray (Bruker EDS equipment). In vivo degradation behavior, biological compatibility and activity of Mg-Ca alloys with/without Si gradient concentration were studied with an implant model (subcutaneous and bony) in rats. The organism response to implants was characterized by using radiological (plain X-rays and computed tomography), biochemical and histological methods of investigation. The results sustained that Si gradient concentration can be used to control the rate of degradation of the Mg-Ca alloys for enhancing their biologic activity in order to facilitate bone tissue repair.

  16. Correlation established between heat transfer and ultrasonic transmission properties of copper braze bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinovi, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Measuring and correlating the thermal conductivity and ultrasonic transmission of seven hot-brazed-bonded copper plates established a relationship between heat transfer and ultrasonic transmission properties of the bonds. This relationship permits the prediction of heat transfer characteristics from ultrasonic transmission tests.

  17. Ultrasonics used for high-precision nondestructive inspection of brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    Technique detects voids greater than or equal to 0.1016 cm in braze depths of 0.254 cm, detecting voids of smaller dimensions is possible. Internal design ensures control of beam's water path length to within 0.635 cm, this length is critical to system's accuracy.

  18. Method for braze-joining spirally wound tapes to inner walls of heat exchanger tubes

    DOEpatents

    Garrison, Melton E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating heat exchanger tubes in which twisted tapes are utilized for promoting turbulence and heat transfer. The method of the present invention provides for the brazing of the tapes to the inner walls of the tubes for enhancing heat transfer between the fluid within the conduit and a fluid medium outside of the conduit by conduction through the tape. The braze joint of the present invention is coextensive with the tape over the entire length thereof within the conduit. The practice of the present invention is achieved by placing a filler wire of brazing metal along the tape at a location removed from the side walls and then heating the conduit and tape sufficiently to effect the displacement of the filler metal by wicking to the contact point between the tape and the conduit wall to form a braze joint coextensive with the length of the tape within the conduit. This arrangement provides maximum heat transfer and assures that the tape is in contact with the conduit over the entire common length thereof.

  19. Method for braze-joining spirally wound tapes to inner walls of heat exchanger tubes

    DOEpatents

    Garrison, M.E.

    1982-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating heat exchanger tubes in which twisted tapes are utilized for promoting turbulence and heat transfer. The method of the present invention provides for the brazing of the tapes to the inner walls of the tubes for enhancing heat transfer between the fluid within the conduit and a fluid medium outside of the conduit by conduction through the tape. The braze joint of the present invention is coextensive with the tape over the entire length thereof within the conduit. The practice of the present invention is achieved by placing a filler wire of brazing metal along the tape at a location removed from the side walls and then heating the conduit and tape sufficiently to effect the displacement of the filler metal by wicking to the contact point between the tape and the conduit wall to form a braze joint coextensive with the length of the tape within the conduit. This arrangement provides maximum heat transfer and assures that the tape is in contact with the conduit over the entire common length thereof.

  20. Braze Development of Graphite Fiber for Use in Phase Change Material Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Beringer, Woody; Gleason, Brian; Stephan, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Hamilton Sundstrand (HS), together with NASA Johnson Space Center, developed methods to metallurgically join graphite fiber to aluminum. The goal of the effort was to demonstrate improved thermal conductance, tensile strength and manufacturability compared to existing epoxy bonded techniques. These improvements have the potential to increase the performance and robustness of phase change material heat sinks that use graphite fibers as an interstitial material. Initial work focused on evaluating joining techniques from four suppliers, each consisting of a metallization step followed by brazing or soldering of one inch square blocks of Fibercore graphite fiber material to aluminum end sheets. Results matched the strength and thermal conductance of the epoxy bonded control samples, so two suppliers were down-selected for a second round of braze development. The second round of braze samples had up to a 300% increase in strength and up to a 132% increase in thermal conductance over the bonded samples. However, scalability and repeatability proved to be significant hurdles with the metallization approach. An alternative approach was pursued which used a nickel braze allow to prepare the carbon fibers for joining with aluminum. Initial results on sample blocks indicate that this approach should be repeatable and scalable with good strength and thermal conductance when compared with epoxy bonding.

  1. Nondestructive testing for braze voids in thin panels by use of special coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Application of commercial coating to exterior of sandwich panel structures for determining presence of voids in brazed plates is discussed. Procedure for applying coating material and method of conducting nondestructive tests are explained. Illustrations are included to show appearance of voids.

  2. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  3. 49 CFR 178.51 - Specification 4BA welded or brazed steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 4BA welded or brazed steel cylinders. 178.51 Section 178.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications...

  4. 49 CFR 178.55 - Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders. 178.55 Section 178.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  5. Training Materials Sourcebook. Welding, Brazing, and Flame-Cutting. Voc./Tec. Resources Series Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Commission of Employment and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Second in a resource series (see note), this annotated bibliography provides detailed information on training curriculum and instructional materials for welding, brazing, and flame-cutting. The materials are divided into thirty-fie sections by topic and type. Specific topic areas include gas and arc welding; arc welding; oxyacetylene welding and…

  6. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix G: Experiment M552 exothermic brazing (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, O. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment M552, Exothermic Brazing (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  7. Copper-silver-titanium filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1987-01-01

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 atomic percent copper, 15 to 50 atomic percent silver and 10 to 45 atomic percent titanium. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  8. Copper-silver-titanium-tin filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1988-04-05

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another at about 800.degree. C. is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 at. % copper, 40 to 50 at. % silver, 1 to 15 at. % titanium, and 2 to 8 at. % tin. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  9. Micro-nano filler metal foil on vacuum brazing of SiCp/Al composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Gao, Zeng; Niu, Jitai

    2016-06-01

    Using micro-nano (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)- xTi (wt%, x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0) foils as filler metal, the research obtained high-performance joints of aluminum matrix composites with high SiC particle content (60 vol%, SiCp/Al-MMCs). The effect of brazing process and Ti content on joint properties was investigated, respectively. The experimental results indicate that void free dense interface between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam with C-Al-Si-Ti product was readily obtained, and the joint shear strength enhanced with increasing brazing temperature from 560 to 580 °C or prolonging soaking time from 10 to 90 min. Sound joints with maximum shear strength of 112.5 MPa was achieved at 580 °C for soaking time of 90 min with (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)-2Ti filler, where Ti(AlSi)3 intermetallic is in situ strengthening phase dispersed in the joint and fracture occured in the filler metal layer. In this research, the beneficial effect of Ti addition into filler metal on improving wettability between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam was demonstrated, and capable welding parameters were broadened for SiCp/Al-MMCs with high SiC particle content.

  10. Joining of SiC Fiber-Bonded Ceramics using Silver, Copper, Nickel, Palladium, and Silicon-Based Alloy Interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Asthana, Rajiv; Singh, Mrityunjay; Lin, Hua-Tay; Matsunaga, Kenji; Ishikawa, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    SiC fiber-bonded ceramics, SA-Tyrannohex, (SA-THX) with perpendicular and parallel fiber orientations were brazed using Ag-, Ni- and Pd-base brazes, and four Si X (X: Ti, Cr, Y, Ta) eutectics. Outcomes were variable, ranging from bonded joints through partially bonded to un-bonded joints. Prominent Ti- and Si-rich interfaces developed with Cusil-ABA, Ticusil, and Copper-ABA and Ni- and Si-rich layers with MBF-20. Stress rupture tests at 650 and 750 C on Cusil-ABA-bonded joints revealed a temperature-dependent behavior for the perpendicular joints but not for the parallel joints with failure occurring at brazed interface. Higher-use temperatures can be targeted with eutectic Si Ti and Si Cr alloys.

  11. Kinetically-controlled growth of cubic and octahedral Rh-Pd alloy oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with high activity and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yucong; Zhan, Fangwei; Du, Jingshan; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2014-11-01

    Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA μg-1 in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30 000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ~56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition.Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for

  12. Titanium oxynitride interlayer to influence oxygen reduction reaction activity and corrosion stability of Pt and Pt-Ni alloy.

    PubMed

    Tan, XueHai; Wang, Liya; Zahiri, Beniamin; Kohandehghan, Alireza; Karpuzov, Dimitre; Lotfabad, Elmira Memarzadeh; Li, Zhi; Eikerling, Michael H; Mitlin, David

    2015-01-01

    A key advancement target for oxygen reduction reaction catalysts is to simultaneously improve both the electrochemical activity and durability. To this end, the efficacy of a new highly conductive support that comprises of a 0.5 nm titanium oxynitride film coated by atomic layer deposition onto an array of carbon nanotubes has been investigated. Support effects for pure platinum and for a platinum (50 at %)/nickel alloy have been considered. Oxynitride induces a downshift in the d-band center for pure platinum and fundamentally changes the platinum particle size and spatial distribution. This results in major enhancements in activity and corrosion stability relative to an identically synthesized catalyst without the interlayer. Conversely, oxynitride has a minimal effect on the electronic structure and microstructure, and therefore, on the catalytic performance of platinum-nickel. Calculations based on density functional theory add insight with regard to compositional segregation that occurs at the alloy catalyst-support interface. PMID:25470445

  13. Numerical simulation of the activation behavior of thermal shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Bucht, André; Pagel, Kenny; Jung, Jakob

    2010-04-01

    Problems in using shape memory alloys (SMA) in industrial applications are often caused by the fragmentary knowledge of the complex activation behavior. To solve this problem, Fraunhofer IWU developed a Matlab®-based simulation tool to emulate the properties of a SMA wire based on the energy balance. The contained terms result of the characteristic material behavior combined with thermal, electrical, and mechanical conditions. Model validation is performed by laboratory tests. It is shown that there is almost no difference between the measured and the simulated actuator movement. Due to the good quality of the model it is possible to use it in a control loop. Knowing current and voltage enables the computation of the electrical resistance of the actuator and can therefore be used for feedback control. Implementation of the results into industrial applications is exemplified by integration of an actuator in a flap as used in air condition systems of cars. Furthermore, the SMA-based drive will be compared to an electromechanical drive.

  14. Elevated temperature creep properties of the 54Fe-29Ni-17Co "Kovar" alloy.

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, John Joseph, Jr.; Rejent, Jerome Andrew; Schmale, David T.

    2009-01-22

    The outline of this presentation is: (1) Applications of Kovar Alloy in metal/ceramic brazing; (2) Diffusion bonding of precision-photoetched Kovar parts; (3) Sample composition and annealing conditions; (4) Intermediate temperature creep properties (350-650 C); (5) Power law creep correlations--with and without modulus correction; (6) Compressive stress-strain properties (23-900 C); (7) Effect of creep deformation on grain growth; and (8) Application of the power law creep correlation to the diffusion bonding application. The summary and conclusions are: Elevated temperature creep properties of Kovar from 750-900 C obey a power law creep equation with a stress exponent equal to 4.9, modulus compensated activation energy of 47.96 kcal/mole. Grain growth in Kovar creep samples tested at 750 and 800 C is quite sluggish. Significant grain growth occurs at 850 C and above, this is consistent with isothermal grain growth studies performed on Kovar alloy wires. Finite element analysis of the diffusion bonding of Kovar predict that stresses of 30 MPa and higher are needed for good bonding at 850 C, we believe that 'sintering' effects must be accounted for to allow FEA to be predictive of actual processing conditions. Additional creep tests are planned at 250-650 C.

  15. On the Challenges of Reducing Contact Resistances in Thermoelectric Generators Based on Half-Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Pham Hoang; Van Nong, Ngo; Hung, Le Thanh; Balke, Benjamin; Han, Li; Hedegaard, Ellen Marie Jensen; Linderoth, Søren; Pryds, Nini

    2016-01-01

    A method using fast hot pressing to join half-Heusler (HH) thermoelectric materials directly to an electrical current collector (Ag electrode) without using a third filler material is introduced. The compositions of the HH alloys used are Hf0.5Zr0.5CoSn0.2Sb0.8 and Ti0.6Hf0.4NiSn for p- and n-type, respectively. Using this method, the quality of the HH-electrode contacts is improved due to their low electrical contact resistance and less reaction-diffusion layer. The microstructure and chemical composition of the joints were examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The electrical characteristics of the interfaces at the contacts were studied based on electrical contact resistance and Seebeck scanning microprobe measurements. In this paper, we show that joining the HH to a Ag electrode directly using fast hot pressing resulted in lower contact resistance and better performance compared with the method of using active brazing filler alloy.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Copper Alloys Against Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Nosocomial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Eser, Ozgen Koseoglu; Ergin, Alper; Hascelik, Gulsen

    2015-08-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance demanded novel approaches for the prevention of nosocomial infections, and metallic copper surfaces have been suggested as an alternative for the control of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in surfaces in the hospital environment. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of copper material for invasive MDR nosocomial pathogens isolated over time, in comparison to stainless steel. Clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n:4), OXA-23 and OXA-58 positive, MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (n:6) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n:4) were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of coupons containing 99 % copper and a brass alloy containing 63 % copper was assessed against stainless steel. All the materials demonstrated statistically significant differences within each other for the logarithmic reduction of microorganisms. Among the three materials, the highest reduction of microorganisms was seen in 99 % copper and the least in stainless steel. The result was statistically significant especially for 0, 2, and 4 h (P = 0.05). 99 % copper showed a bactericidal effect at less than 1 h for MRSA and at 2 h for P. aeruginosa. 63 % copper showed a bactericidal effect at 24 h for P. aeruginosa strains only. Stainless steel surfaces exhibited a bacteriostatic effect after 6 h for P. aeruginosa strains only. 99 % copper reduced the number of bacteria used significantly, produced a bactericidal effect and was more effective than 63 % copper. The use of metallic copper material could aid in reducing the concentration of bacteria, especially for invasive nosocomial pathogens on hard surfaces in the hospital environment. PMID:26044991

  17. Three-dimensional hierarchical porous platinum-copper alloy networks with enhanced catalytic activity towards methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yang; Liu, Pei-Fang; Zhang, Zong-Wen; Cui, Ying; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Porous Pt-Cu alloy networks are synthesized through a one-pot hydrothermal process, with ethylene glycol as the reducing agent and the block copolymer Pluronic F127 as structure-directing agent. The structure, porosity and surface chemical state of as-prepared Pt-Cu alloy with different composition are characterized. The formation mechanism of the porous structure is investigated by time sequential experiments. The obtained Pt53Cu47 alloy possesses a unique 3D hierarchical porous network structure assembled by interconnected nanodendrites as building blocks. Because of the high surface area, concave surface topology and open porous structure, the Pt53Cu47 alloy catalyst exhibits enhanced catalytic activity towards methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation in comparison with commercial Pt black and the Pt73Cu27 alloy synthesized following the same process as Pt53Cu47.

  18. Thermal activation mechanisms and Labusch-type strengthening analysis for a family of high-entropy and equiatomic solid-solution alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Zhenggang; Gao, Yanfei; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-11-01

    To understand the underlying strengthening mechanisms, thermal activation processes are investigated from stress-strain measurements with varying temperatures and strain rates for a family of equiatomic quinary, quaternary, ternary, and binary, face-center-cubic-structured, single phase solid-solution alloys, which are all subsystems of the FeNiCoCrMn high-entropy alloy. Our analysis suggests that the Labusch-type solution strengthening mechanism, rather than the lattice friction (or lattice resistance), governs the deformation behavior in equiatomic alloys. First, upon excluding the Hall-Petch effects, the activation volumes for these alloys are found to range from 10 to 1000 times the cubic power of Burgers vector, which are much larger thanmore » that required for kink pairs (i.e., the thermal activation process for the lattice resistance mechanism in body-center-cubic-structured metals). Second, the Labusch-type analysis for an N-element alloy is conducted by treating M-elements (M < N) as an effective medium and summing the strengthening contributions from the rest of N-M elements as individual solute species. For all equiatomic alloys investigated, a qualitative agreement exists between the measured strengthening effect and the Labusch strengthening factor from arbitrary M to N elements based on the lattice and modulus mismatches. Furthermore, the Labusch strengthening factor provides a practical critique to understand and design such compositionally complex but structurally simple alloys.« less

  19. Interaction behaviors at the interface between liquid Al-Si and solid Ti-6Al-4V in ultrasonic-assisted brazing in air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Yan, Jiuchun; Gao, Fei; Wei, Jinghui; Xu, Zhiwu; Fan, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Power ultrasonic vibration (20 kHz, 6 μm) was applied to assist the interaction between a liquid Al-Si alloy and solid Ti-6Al-4V substrate in air. The interaction behaviors, including breakage of the oxide film on the Ti-6Al-4V surface, chemical dissolution of solid Ti-6Al-4V, and interfacial chemical reactions, were investigated. Experimental results showed that numerous 2-20 μm diameter-sized pits formed on the Ti-6Al-4V surface. Propagation of ultrasonic waves in the liquid Al-Si alloy resulted in ultrasonic cavitation. When this cavitation occurred at or near the liquid/solid interface, many complex effects were generated at the small zones during the bubble implosion, including micro-jets, hot spots, and acoustic streaming. The breakage behavior of oxide films on the solid Ti-6Al-4V substrate, excessive chemical dissolution of solid Ti-6Al-4V into liquid Al-Si, abnormal interfacial chemical reactions at the interface, and phase transformation between the intermetallic compounds could be wholly ascribed to these ultrasonic effects. An effective bond between Al-Si and Ti-6Al-4V can be produced by ultrasonic-assisted brazing in air. PMID:22824641

  20. Surface oxide net charge of a titanium alloy: modulation of fibronectin-activated attachment and spreading of osteogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Rapuano, Bruce E; MacDonald, Daniel E

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we have altered the surface oxide properties of a Ti6Al4V alloy using heat treatment or radiofrequency glow discharge (RFGD) in order to evaluate the relationship between the physico-chemical and biological properties of the alloy's surface oxide. The effects of surface pretreatments on the attachment of cells from two osteogenic cell lines (MG63 and MC3T3) and a mesenchymal stem cell line (C3H10T1/2) to fibronectin adsorbed to the alloy were measured. Both heat and RFGD pretreatments produced a several-fold increase in the number of cells that attached to fibronectin adsorbed to the alloy at a range of coating concentrations (0.001-10nM FN) for each cell line tested. An antibody (HFN7.1) directed against the central integrin binding domain of fibronectin produced a 65-70% inhibition of cell attachment to fibronectin-coated disks, indicating that cell attachment to the metal discs was dependent on fibronectin binding to cell integrin receptors. Both treatments also accelerated the cell spreading response manifested by extensive flattening and an increase in mean cellular area. The treatment-induced increases in the cell attachment activity of adsorbed fibronectin were correlated with previously demonstrated increases in Ti6Al4V oxide negative net surface charge at physiological pH produced by both heat and RFGD pretreatments. Since neither treatment increased the adsorption mass of fibronectin, these findings suggest that negatively charged surface oxide functional groups in Ti6Al4V can modulate fibronectin's integrin receptor activity by altering the adsorbed protein's conformation. Our results further suggest that negatively charged functional groups in the surface oxide can play a prominent role in the osseointegration of metallic implant materials. PMID:20884181

  1. Bactericidal activity of copper and niobium-alloyed austenitic stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Baena, M I; Márquez, M C; Matres, V; Botella, J; Ventosa, A

    2006-12-01

    Biofouling and microbiologically influenced corrosion are processes of material deterioration that originate from the attachment of microorganisms as quickly as the material is immersed in a nonsterile environment. Stainless steels, despite their wide use in different industries and as appliances and implant materials, do not possess inherent antimicrobial properties. Changes in hygiene legislation and increased public awareness of product quality makes it necessary to devise control methods that inhibit biofilm formation or to act at an early stage of the biofouling process and provide the release of antimicrobial compounds on a sustainable basis and at effective level. These antibacterial stainless steels may find a wide range of applications in fields, such as kitchen appliances, medical equipment, home electronics, and tools and hardware. The purpose of this study was to obtain antibacterial stainless steel and thus mitigate the microbial colonization and bacterial infection. Copper is known as an antibacterial agent; in contrast, niobium has been demonstrated to improve the antimicrobial effect of copper by stimulating the formation of precipitated copper particles and its distribution in the matrix of the stainless steel. Thus, we obtained slides of 3.8% copper and 0.1% niobium alloyed stainless steel; subjected them to three different heat treatment protocols (550 degrees C, 700 degrees C, and 800 degrees C for 100, 200, 300, and 400 hours); and determined their antimicrobial activities by using different initial bacterial cell densities and suspending solutions to apply the bacteria to the stainless steels. The bacterial strain used in these experiments was Escherichia coli CCM 4517. The best antimicrobial effects were observed in the slides of stainless steel treated at 700 degrees C and 800 degrees C using an initial cell density of approximately 10(5) cells ml(-1) and phosphate-buffered saline as the solution in which the bacteria came into contact with

  2. High-temperature thermodynamic activities of zirconium in platinum alloys determined by nitrogen-nitride equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    A high-temperature nitrogen-nitride equilibrium apparatus is constructed for the study of alloy thermodynamics to 2300/sup 0/C. Zirconium-platinum alloys are studied by means of the reaction 9ZrN + 11Pt ..-->.. Zr/sub 9/Pt/sub 11/ + 9/2 N/sub 2/. Carful attention is paid to the problems of diffusion-limited reaction and ternary phase formation. The results of this study are and a/sub Zr//sup 1985/sup 0/C/ = 2.4 x 10/sup -4/ in Zr/sub 9/Pt/sub 11/ ..delta..G/sub f 1985/sup 0/C//sup 0/ Zr/sub 9/Pt/sub 11/ less than or equal to -16.6 kcal/g atom. These results are in full accord with the valence bond theory developed by Engel and Brewer; this confirms their prediction of an unusual interaction of these alloys.

  3. Mechanical and microstructural behavior of brazed aluminum / stainless steel mixed joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V.; Weis, S.; Wagner, G.

    2016-03-01

    There is a requirement to combine different materials such as aluminum and stainless steel in industrial applications like automotive heat exchangers. Brazing offers the possibility to reduce the joining temperature in comparison to welding due to the lower liquidus temperature of the fillers. In the present work, the mechanical and microstructural behavior of aluminum / stainless steel mixed joints is investigated. The specimens are produced by induction brazing using an AlSi10filler and a non-corrosive flux. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints, tensile tests at elevated temperatures are carried out. Additionally, long-term thermal exposure experiments are done in order to investigate the changes in the microstructure.

  4. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

    2006-01-02

    Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  5. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2006-01-31

    Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  6. Ultrasonic scanning system for in-place inspection of brazed tube joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, J. L.; Wages, C. G.; Haralson, H. S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A miniaturized ultrasonic scanning system for nondestructive in-place, non-immersion testing of brazed joints in stainless-steel tubing is described. The system is capable of scanning brazed tube joints, with limited clearance access, in 1/4 through 5/8 inch union, tee, elbow and cross configurations. The system has the capability to detect defective conditions now associated with material density changes in addition to those which are depended upon density variations. The system includes a miniaturized scanning head assembly that fits around a tube joint and rotates the transducer around and down the joint in a continuous spiral motion. The C-scan recorder is similar in principle to conventional models except that it was specially designed to track the continuous spiral scan of the tube joint. The scanner and recorder can be operated with most commercially available ultrasonic flaw detectors.

  7. New findings on the atomistic mechanisms active during mechanical milling of a Fe-Y2O3 model alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressel, G.; Parz, P.; Primig, S.; Leitner, H.; Clemens, H.; Puff, W.

    2014-03-01

    In order to improve the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, several types of steels are mechanically alloyed with yttria. The processes that are active during milling differ dependent on the individual powder constituents. Nevertheless, some theories exist which try to describe the mechanism of producing a metastable phase during milling. However, even in the system iron-yttria, the mechanisms taking place during milling are still not well understood. By using the example of a simple iron-yttria model alloy, this paper attempts to elucidate the structure of mechanically milled powder particles and, consequently, to clarify the functionality of mechanical alloying in the last stage of milling. Positron annihilation experiments on milled materials revealed "open" volumes which are enriched in yttria. Electron backscatter diffraction and atom probe tomography as complimentary techniques allowed an identification of these "open" volumes as mainly vacancies, where enrichments of Y and O occur. From these results, it can be concluded that especially vacancies are responsible for producing a metastable phase, whereby yttria is dissolved in pure iron.

  8. Hybrid LCA of a design for disassembly technology: active disassembling fasteners of hydrogen storage alloys for home appliances.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Yamasue, Eiji

    2010-06-15

    In the current recycling system of end-of-life (EoL) appliances, which is based on shredding, alloying elements tend to end up in the scrap of base metals. The uncontrolled mixing of alloying elements contaminates secondary metals and calls for dilution with primary metals. Active disassembling fastener (ADF) is a design for disassembly (DfD) technology that is expected to solve this problem by significantly reducing the extent of mixing. This paper deals with a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on the waste input-output (WIO) model of an ADF developed using hydrogen storage alloys. Special attention is paid to the issue of dilution of mixed iron scrap using pig iron in an electric arc furnace (EAF). The results for Japanese electrical and electronic appliances indicate superiority of the recycling system based on the ADF over the current system in terms of reduced emissions of CO(2). The superiority of ADF was found to increase with an increase in the requirement for dilution of scrap. PMID:20476783

  9. Nanoporous PdZr surface alloy as highly active non-platinum electrocatalyst toward oxygen reduction reaction with unique structure stability and methanol-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huimei; Xu, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    Nanoporous (NP) PdZr alloy with controllable bimetallic ratio is successfully fabricated by a simple dealloying method. By leaching out the more reactive Al from PdZrAl precursor alloy, NP-PdZr alloy with smaller ligament size was generated, characterized by the nanoscaled interconnected network skeleton and hollow channels extending in all three dimensions. Upon voltammetric scan in acid solution, the dissolution of surface Zr atoms generates the highly active Pd-Zr surface alloy with a nearly pure Pd surface and Pd-Zr alloy core. The NP-Pd80Zr20 surface alloy exhibits markedly enhanced specific and mass activities as well as higher catalytic stability toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared with NP-Pd and the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts. In addition, the NP-Pd80Zr20 surface alloy shows a better selectivity for ORR than methanol in the 0.1 M HClO4 and 0.1 M methanol mixed solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations both demonstrate that the weakened Pd-O bond and improved ORR performances in turn depend on the downshifted d-band center of Pd due to the alloying Pd with Zr (20 at.%). The as-made NP-PdZr alloy holds prospective applications as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel-cell-related technologies with the advantages of superior overall ORR performances, unique structure stability, and easy preparation.

  10. High-Power Comparison Among Brazed, Clamped and Electroformed X-Band Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Spataro, B.; Alesini, D.; Chimenti, V.; Dolgashev, V.; Higashi, Y.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Parodi, R.; Tantawi, S.G.; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC

    2012-04-25

    We report the building procedure of X-band copper structures using the electroforming and electroplating techniques. These techniques allow the deposition of copper layers on a suitable die and they can be used to build RF structures avoiding the high temperature brazing step in the standard technique. We show the constructed prototypes and low power RF measurements and discuss the results of the high power tests at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

  11. Residual Stress in Brazing of Submicron Al2O3 to WC-Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, T.; Piquerez, A.; Bach, M.; Mille, P.

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the residual stresses induced by brazing and grinding submicron Al2O3, using different methods. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry analysis (EDX) of 72Ag-Cu filler and filler/WC-Co interface showed evidence of atomic diffusion and possible formation of titanium oxide layers between the joint and the bonding materials. An analytical model supported by the finite element method (FEM) based on strain determination due to the difference in variation of thermal expansion was used to assess the stress distribution at the coupling interface and in bulk materials. The model took into account the evolution of the Young's modulus and of the thermal expansion with temperature. The model could be used to follow strain and stress evolutions of the bonded materials during the cooling cycle. The maximum stress rose above -300 MPa at the center of the 100 × 100 × 3 mm ceramic plates. The residual stresses on the external surface of ceramic were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and indentation fracture method (IFM). After brazing and grinding the plate, the principal stresses were 128.1 and 94.9 MPa, and the shear stress was -20.1 MPa. Microscopic examination revealed grain pull-out promoted by the global residual stresses induced by the brazing and grinding processes. The surface stresses evaluated by the different methods were reasonably correlated.

  12. Residual Stress in Brazing of Submicron Al2O3 to WC-Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, T.; Piquerez, A.; Bach, M.; Mille, P.

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the residual stresses induced by brazing and grinding submicron Al2O3, using different methods. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry analysis (EDX) of 72Ag-Cu filler and filler/WC-Co interface showed evidence of atomic diffusion and possible formation of titanium oxide layers between the joint and the bonding materials. An analytical model supported by the finite element method (FEM) based on strain determination due to the difference in variation of thermal expansion was used to assess the stress distribution at the coupling interface and in bulk materials. The model took into account the evolution of the Young's modulus and of the thermal expansion with temperature. The model could be used to follow strain and stress evolutions of the bonded materials during the cooling cycle. The maximum stress rose above -300 MPa at the center of the 100 × 100 × 3 mm ceramic plates. The residual stresses on the external surface of ceramic were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and indentation fracture method (IFM). After brazing and grinding the plate, the principal stresses were 128.1 and 94.9 MPa, and the shear stress was -20.1 MPa. Microscopic examination revealed grain pull-out promoted by the global residual stresses induced by the brazing and grinding processes. The surface stresses evaluated by the different methods were reasonably correlated.

  13. Mechanical Characterization of Reactively Brazed Metal-Composite Joints for Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Asthana, Rajiv; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah

    2005-01-01

    The joining of metal tubes to composite plates is required for heat-rejection components in several space applications. Currently a number of different braze compositions are being evaluated as to their effectiveness. Such tube-plate configurations cannot be represented by traditional methods of testing, e.g., lap joints. The joined region is not between two flat surfaces, but rather between a flat surface and a curved surface. Therefore, several tests have been employed to ascertain the effectiveness of the different braze approaches in tension and in shear that are both simple and representative of the actual system and relatively straightforward in analysis. The results of these "tube tests" will be discussed for the three different braze compositions, Cu-ABA, Ti-Cu-Sil, and Ti-Cu-Ni. In addition, fracture analysis of the failed joints was performed and offers insights into the cause of joint failure and the distinctions which need to be made between the "strength" of a joint versus the "load carrying ability" of a joint.

  14. EBSD analysis of (10–12) twinning activity in Mg–3Al–1Zn alloy during compression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingshu; Deng, Liping; Guo, Ning; Xu, Zeren; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-15

    The (10–12) twinning activity of Mg–3Al–1Zn magnesium alloy during uniaxial compression at room temperature has been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The results indicated that the twinning activity was closely related with two angles: one was the angle between the c-axis and the compression direction and the other was the angle between the a-axis and the titling direction in the basal plane for a given relation between the c-axis and the compression direction. These two parameters can be used to explain which twinning variant will operate under the given strain path. For the grains containing a single (10–12) twinning variant, the (10–12) twinning variant occurred in a wide range of Schmid factor values (0 < Schmid factor < 0.5) and the Schmid factor rank of 1 or 2 was the most commonly observed. By contrast, for the grains containing two (10–12) twinning variants, the (10–12) twinning activity exhibited a stronger orientation dependence and the combinations of Schmid factor ranks 1–3 and 1–2 were the most commonly observed. - Highlights: • Twinning activity of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated by EBSD. • (10–12) twinning shows a strong orientation dependence. • Two angles can be used to explain which twin variant will operate.

  15. ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPLIANT CORROSION-ACTIVATED INHIBITOR SYSTEM FOR ALUMINUM ALLOYS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The federal government is estimated to spend $1 billion on painting/repainting aircraft annually. Aircraft have surfaces composed of aluminum alloys that are highly susceptible to corrosion and must be protected with corrosion-preventative treatments that typically conta...

  16. Multiply twinned AgNi alloy nanoparticles as highly active catalyst for multiple reduction and degradation reactions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Deka, Sasanka

    2014-09-24

    Size dependent surface characteristics of nanoparticles lead to use of these nanomaterials in many technologically important fields, including the field of catalysis. Here Ag(1-x)Ni(x) bimetallic alloy nanoparticles have been developed having a 5-fold twinned morphology, which could be considered as an important alloy because of their excellent and unique catalytic and magnetic properties. Alloying between Ag and Ni atoms on a nanoscale has been confirmed with detailed X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Although introduced for the first time as a catalyst due to having high active surface sites, the as-synthesized nanoparticles showed one of the best multiple catalytic activity in the industrially important (electro)-catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) to corresponding amines with noticeable reduced reaction time and increased rate constant without the use of any large area support. Additionally the same catalyst showed enhanced catalytic activity in degradation of environment polluting dye molecules. The highest ever activity parameter we report here for Ag0.6Ni0.4 composition is 156 s(-1)g(-1) with an apparent rate constant of 31.1 × 10(-3) s(-1) in a 4-NP reduction reaction where the amount of catalyst used was 0.2 mg and the time taken for complete conversion of 4-NP to 4-aminophenol was 60 s. Similarly, an incredible reaction rate constant (115 s(-1)) and activity parameter (576.6 s(-1)g(-1)) were observed for the catalytic degradation of methyl orange dye where 15 s is the maximum time for complete degradation of the dye molecules. The high catalytic performance of present AgNi alloy NPs over the other catalysts has been attributed to size, structural (twinned defect) and electronic effects. This study may lead to use of these bimetallic nanostructures with excellent recyclable catalytic

  17. Effects of TiB2 particles and Ag on the activation energy of Ω phase in Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melotti, F.; Hirst, T.; Dustan, A.; Griffiths, W. D.

    2016-03-01

    This work analyses the effects of TiB2 reinforcement particles and silver additions on the activation energy of the GP zones and the Ω phase in an aluminium matrix composite (AMC). Several additions of TiB2 and Ag were made to a 2xxx series alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to identify the temperature peaks and the Kissinger approach used to calculate activation energies. Results showed that the activation energy for the Ω phase was greatly reduced by the addition of both elements; however, the TiB2 particles were more effective. In addition, experimental results show that the lowest value of the activation energy, 68 kJmol-1, was not affected by the silver content. This value is lower than any value found in literature and suggests that the formation of the Ω phase is related to the pipe diffusion of Cu in Al.

  18. The effect of supports on the activity and selectivity of Co - Ni alloy catalysts for CO hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Tatsumi; Horiuchi, Nobuhiko; Eguchi, Koichi; Arai, Hiromichi )

    1991-07-01

    The CO hydrogenation activity of 50Co50Ni alloy catalysts strongly depended on the oxide support. Electron-donating oxides such as MgO, PbO, and ZnO lowered the overall activity of the 50Co50Ni metal. The CO conversion as well as the chain growth probability was high over 50Co50Ni/TiO{sub 2} and 50Co50Ni/MnO{sub 2}. The infrared spectra of adsorbed NO indicated that the electron density of the 50Co50Ni metal was low when it was supported on electron-accepting oxide. The results of desorption measurements suggest that metal-support interaction has a great influence on the surface concentration of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and adsorption of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is weakened by increasing the electronegativity of the oxide support. Since the rate of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} exchange correlated well with the CO hydrogenation rate, activation of hydrogen is of primary importance in this catalyst system. The low electron density of the alloy supported on the electron-accepting oxides such as TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} weakens CO adsorption, resulting in an increase in surface coverage of hydrogen. Thus sufficient coverage of hydrogen leads to a high CO hydrogenation rate.

  19. Mixed-phase Pd-Pt bimetallic alloy on graphene oxide with high activity for electrocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Majid; Yousaf, Ammar Bin; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Wu, Xibo; Huang, Ningdong; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin

    2015-05-01

    Bimetallic PdPt alloy nanoparticles on graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by a simple and facile chemical route, in which the reduction of metal precursors is carried out using CO as a reductant. Structural and morphological characterizations of GO/PdPt composites are performed using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that PdPt bimetallic nanoparticles are successfully synthesized and uniformly attached on the graphene sheets. The electrocatalytic and electrochemical properties of GO/PdPt composites including methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol tolerant oxygen reduction reaction (MTORR) are studied in HClO4 aqueous solution. A significant improvement in the electrocatalytic activities is observed by increasing the atomic ratio of Pt in PdPt bimetallic alloys compared to the freestanding Pd nanoparticles on GO. The prepared GO/PdPt composites with an (Pd:Pt) atomic ratio of 40:60 exhibits higher methanol oxidation activity, higher specific ORR activity and better tolerance to CO poisoning. The results can be attributed to the collective effects of the PdPt nanoparticles and the enhanced electron transfer of graphene.

  20. Development of a nitride dispersion strengthened (NDS) metallic alloy for high-temperature recuperators. Final report, 1 October 1982-30 September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kindlimann, L.E.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of using nitride dispersion-strengthened (NDS) stainless steel in fabricating a recuperator for advanced gas turbine engines. Test results showed an alloy--designated NDS 300--to have tensile properties comparable to those of Inconel 625 at temperatures up to 1650 F, and at higher temperatures the properties of the NDS alloy exceeded those of the Inconel 625. However, creep test results showed a three-fold improvement in strength of NDS 300 over Inconel 625 at temperatures above 1500 F. The NDS material demonstrated adequate formability and joinability by brazing with a filler metal of nominal composition Ni-19Cr-10Si (J8100). The same filler metal proved to be a good coating for high-temperature oxidation resistance. Tests on specimens prepared to a typical plate-fin recuperator configuration confirmed the strength of the brazing alloy and demonstrated the marked superiority of the NDS material over Inconel 625.

  1. Effect of ZrO2 Nanoparticles on the Microstructure of Al-Si-Cu Filler for Low-Temperature Al Brazing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Roh, Myung-Hwan; Jung, Do-Hyun; Jung, Jae-Pil

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of ZrO2 nanoparticles on Al-12Si-20Cu alloy has been studied as a filler metal for aluminum brazing. The microstructural and thermal characterizations are performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The intermetallic compound (IMC) phases are identified by the energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis coupled with the SEM. The filler spreading test is performed according to JIS-Z-3197 standard. XRD and SEM analyses confirm the presence of Si particles, the CuAl2 ( θ) intermetallic, and the eutectic structures of Al-Si, Al-Cu, and Al-Si-Cu in the Al matrix in the monolithic and composite samples. It is observed that when the ZrO2 is added in the alloy, the CuAl2 IMCs and Si particles are found to be dispersed uniformly in the Al matrix up to 0.05 wt pct ZrO2. DTA results show that the liquidus temperature of Al-12Si-20Cu filler metal is dropped from ~806.78 K to 804.6 K (533.78 °C to 531.6 °C) with a lowering of 2 K (2 °C) in liquidus temperature, when the amount of ZrO2 is increased up to 0.05 wt pct. It is also shown that the presence of ZrO2 nanoparticles in the filler metal has no deleterious effect on wettability up to 0.05 wt pct of ZrO2. The ultimate tensile strength and elongation percentage are also found to improve with the addition of ZrO2 nanoparticles in the Al-12Si-20Cu alloy.

  2. Weldability of High Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maroef, I

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and iron on the weldability of HAYNES HR-160{reg_sign} alloy. HR-I60 alloy is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Co-Cr-Si alloy. The alloy is designed to resist corrosion in sulfidizing and other aggressive high temperature environments. Silicon is added ({approx}2.75%) to promote the formation of a protective oxide scale in environments with low oxygen activity. HR-160 alloy has found applications in waste incinerators, calciners, pulp and paper recovery boilers, coal gasification systems, and fluidized bed combustion systems. HR-160 alloy has been successfully used in a wide range of welded applications. However, the alloy can be susceptible to solidification cracking under conditions of severe restraint. A previous study by DuPont, et al. [1] showed that silicon promoted solidification cracking in the commercial alloy. In earlier work conducted at Haynes, and also from published work by DuPont et al., it was recognized that silicon segregates to the terminal liquid, creating low melting point liquid films on solidification grain boundaries. Solidification cracking has been encountered when using the alloy as a weld overlay on steel, and when joining HR-160 plate in a thickness greater than19 millimeters (0.75 inches) with matching filler metal. The effect of silicon on the weldability of HR-160 alloy has been well documented, but the effect of iron is not well understood. Prior experience at Haynes has indicated that iron may be detrimental to the solidification cracking resistance of the alloy. Iron does not segregate to the terminal solidification product in nickel-base alloys, as does silicon [2], but iron may have an indirect or interactive influence on weldability. A set of alloys covering a range of silicon and iron contents was prepared and characterized to better understand the welding metallurgy of HR-160 alloy.

  3. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  4. Microstructural characterization and mechanical property of active soldering anodized 6061 Al alloy using Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Lin Tsai, Yi-Chia

    2012-06-15

    Active solders Sn-3.5Ag-xTi varied from x = 0 to 6 wt.% Ti addition were prepared by vacuum arc re-melting and the resultant phase formation and variation of microstructure with titanium concentration were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders are used as metallic filler to join with anodized 6061 Al alloy for potential applications of providing a higher heat conduction path. Their joints and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated in terms of titanium content. The mechanical property of joints was measured by shear testing. The joint strength was very dependent on the titanium content. Solder with a 0.5 wt.% Ti addition can successfully wet and bond to the anodized aluminum oxide layers of Al alloy and posses a shear strength of 16.28 {+-} 0.64 MPa. The maximum bonding strength reached 22.24 {+-} 0.70 MPa at a 3 wt.% Ti addition. Interfacial reaction phase and chemical composition were identified by a transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer. Results showed that the Ti element reacts with anodized aluminum oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti phases at the joint interfaces. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active solder joining of anodized Al alloy needs 0.5 wt.% Ti addition for Sn-3.5Ag. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum bonding strength occurs at 3 wt.% Ti addition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ti reacts with anodized Al oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti at joint interface.

  5. Nanoporous bimetallic Pt-Au alloy nanocomposites with superior catalytic activity towards electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2011-04-01

    We present a facile route to fabricate novel nanoporous bimetallic Pt-Au alloy nanocomposites by dealloying a rapidly solidified Al(75)Pt(15)Au(10) precursor under free corrosion conditions. The microstructure of the precursor and the as-dealloyed sample was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The Al(75)Pt(15)Au(10) precursor is composed of a single-phase Al(2)(Au,Pt) intermetallic compound, and can be fully dealloyed in a 20 wt.% NaOH or 5 wt.% HCl aqueous solution. The dealloying leads to the formation of the nanoporous Pt(60)Au(40) nanocomposites (np-Pt(60)Au(40) NCs) with an fcc structure. The morphology, size and crystal orientation of grains in the precursor can be conserved in the resultant nanoporous alloy. The np-Pt(60)Au(40) NCs consist of two zones with distinct ligament/channel sizes and compositions. The formation mechanism of these np-Pt(60)Au(40) NCs can be rationalized based upon surface diffusion of more noble elements and spinodal decomposition during dealloying. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the np-Pt(60)Au(40) NCs show superior catalytic activity towards the electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid in the acid media compared to the commercial JM-Pt/C catalyst. This material can find potential applications in catalysis related areas, such as direct methanol or formic acid fuel cells. Our findings demonstrate that dealloying is an effective and simple strategy to realize the alloying of immiscible systems under mild conditions, and to fabricate novel nanostructures with superior performance. PMID:21311802

  6. Effect of oxide layer modification of CoCr stent alloys on blood activation and endothelial behavior.

    PubMed

    Milleret, Vincent; Ziogas, Algirdas; Buzzi, Stefano; Heuberger, Roman; Zucker, Arik; Ehrbar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    CoCr alloys, in particular MP35N and L605, are extensively used in biomedical implants, for example for coronary stents. In practice, these alloys present a moderately hydrophobic surface which leads to significant platelet adhesion and consequently to risk of early thrombosis or in-stent restenosis. Surface modification of biomedical implants is known to alter their biological performances. In this study we focused on the alteration of in vitro biological responses of human cells contacting CoCr surfaces with engineered oxide layers. XPS analysis was performed to determine the composition of the oxide layer of differently treated CoCr while the bulk properties were not modified. An extensive characterization of the surfaces was performed looking at surface roughness, wettability and charge. After static exposure to blood, strongly reduced platelet and increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil adhesion were observed on treated versus untreated surfaces. Comparisons of treated and untreated samples provide evidence for wettability being an important player for platelet adhesion, although multiple factors including surface oxide chemistry and charge might control polymorphonuclear neutrophil adhesion. The differently treated surfaces were shown to be equally suitable for endothelial cell proliferation. We herein present a novel approach to steer biological properties of CoCr alloys. By adjusting their oxide layer composition, substrates were generated which are suitable for endothelial cell growth and at the same time show an altered (reduced) blood contact activation. Such treatments are expected to lead to stents of highly reproducible quality with minimal thrombogenicity and in-stent restenosis, while maintaining rapid re-endothelialization after coronary angioplasty. PMID:24964763

  7. Hollow alloy nanostructures templated by Au nanorods: synthesis, mechanistic insights, and electrocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mengmeng; Tan, Yiwei

    2014-11-01

    A unique methodology having access to Au nanorods (AuNRs)-based hollow alloy nanostructures has been developed. The syntheses and characterization of the hollow Pt-Au nanoalloys with ellipsoidal and cylindrical shapes together with a rattle-type hollow Cu-Au nanoheterostructure are described. Unlike the conventional nanoscale Kirkendall process, the formation of these AuNRs-based hollow nanostructures occurs under extremely mild conditions, indicating a distinctive underlying mechanism. The key step for this present synthesis method is the incubation of AuNRs with CuCl2 at 60 °C in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The selective etching of the tips of AuNRs caused by Cu(2+) ions combined with the dissolved molecular oxygen promotes the generation of defects and vacancies, leading to a facile alloying reaction by the crystal fusion of AuNRs. Particularly, the results of the formation of the hollow nanoalloys in conjunction with various control experiments demonstrate that the halide ions that are specifically adsorbed on the AuNR surface afford sinks for vacancy accumulation and condensation during the unbalanced interdiffusion of alloying atoms, presumably because of the disproportion in the equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Thus, the void formation becomes kinetically favorable. The Pt-Au nanocages can provide modified surface electronic structures, resulting from their non-uniform crystalline structures and the surface segregation of Pt in the nanocages. These characteristics enable them to exhibit excellent electrocatalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). PMID:25166262

  8. Mechanical performance of reactive-air-brazed (RAB) ceramic/metal joints for solid oxide fuel cells at ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, B.; Wetzel, F. J.; Malzbender, J.; Steinbrech, R. W.; Singheiser, L.

    Mechanical integrity of the sealants in planar SOFC stacks is a key prerequisite for reliable operation. In this respect joining with metals rather than brittle glass-ceramics is considered to have advantages. Hence, as one of the joining solutions for SOFCs of planar design, reactive air brazing of ceramic cells into metallic frames gains increasing interest. Fracture experiments are carried out to characterize fracture energy and failure mechanisms of silver-based reactive-air-brazes, used for joining the zirconia electrolytes of anode supported planar cells with metallic Crofer22APU frames. The specimens are mechanically tested in notched beam bending geometry. In-situ observation in optical and SEM resolution reveals specific failure mechanisms. The influence of braze formulation and associated interfacial reactions on the crack path location is addressed. Discussion of the results focuses in particular on the role of oxide scale formation.

  9. Platinum-monolayer Electrocatalysts: Palladium Interlayer on IrCo Alloy Core Improves Activity in Oxygen-reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, K.; Chen, W.-F.; Sasaki, K.; Su, D.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Zhou, W.; Izzo, E.L.; Perez-Acosta, C.; Hirunsit, P.; Balbuena, P.B.; Adzic, R.R.

    2010-11-15

    We describe the synthesis and electrocatalytic properties of a new low-Pt electrocatalyst consisting of an IrCo core, a Pd interlayer, and a surface Pt monolayer, emphasizing the interlayer's role in improving electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen-reduction reaction on Pt in HClO{sub 4} solution. We prepared the IrCo alloys by decomposing, at 800 C, hexacyanometalate, KCoIr(CN){sub 6}, adsorbed on the carbon surfaces. The synthesis of Ir{sub 3}Co/C involved heating a mix of metal salts and carbon in hydrogen at 500 C. Thereafter, we placed a palladium and/or platinum monolayer on them via the galvanic displacement of an underpotentially deposited copper monolayer. The electrocatalysts were characterized using structural- and electrochemical-techniques. For PtML/PdML/IrCo/C, we observed a Pt mass activity of 1.18 A/mg{sub (Pt)} and the platinum-group-metals mass of 0.16 A/mg{sub (Pt, Pd, Ir)}. In comparison, without a Pd interlayer, i.e., Pt{sub ML}/IrCo/C, the activities of 0.15 A/mg{sub (Pt)} and 0.036 A/mg{sub (Pt, Pd, Ir)} were considerably lower. We consider that the palladium interlayer plays an essential role in achieving high catalytic activity by adjusting the electronic interaction of the platinum monolayer with the IrCo core, so that it accelerates the kinetics of adsorption and desorption of the intermediates of oxygen reduction. A similar trend was observed for Pt{sub ML}/Pd{sub ML} and Pt{sub ML} deposited on Ir{sub 3}Co/C alloy core. We used density functional theory to interpret the observed phenomena.

  10. Amorphous silicon-carbon alloys and amorphous carbon from direct methane and ethylene activation by ECR

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, J.P.; Chu, V.; Giorgis, F.; Pirri, C.F.; Arekat, S.

    1997-07-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon alloys are prepared using electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Hydrogen is introduced into the source resonance cavity as an excitation gas. Silane is introduced in the main chamber in the vicinity of the plasma stream, whereas the carbon source gases, methane or ethylene, are introduced either with the silane or with the hydrogen as excitation gases. The effect of the type of carbon-source gas, excitation gas mixture and silane-to-carbon source gas flow ratio on the deposition rate, bandgap, subgap density of states, spin density and hydrogen evolution are studied.

  11. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    DOEpatents

    Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2006-10-03

    An alloy made of heat treated material represented by Gd.sub.5(Si.sub.xGe.sub.1-x).sub.4 where 0.47.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.56 that exhibits a magnetic entropy change (-.DELTA.S.sub.m) of at least 16 J/kg K, a magnetostriction of at least 2000 parts per million, and a magnetoresistance of at least 5 percent at a temperature of about 300K and below, and method of heat treating the material between 800 to 1600 degrees C. for a time to this end.

  12. An Ag based brazing system with a tunable thermal expansion for the use as sealant for solid oxide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiebach, Ragnar; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Grahl-Madsen, Laila; Sieborg, Bertil; Chen, Ming; Hjelm, Johan; Norrman, Kion; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2016-05-01

    An Ag-Al2TiO5 composite braze was developed and successfully tested as seal for solid oxide cells. The thermo-mechanical properties of the Ag-Al2TiO5 system and the chemical compatibility between this composite braze and relevant materials used in stacks were characterized and the leak rates as a function of the operation temperature were measured. The thermal expansion coefficient in the Ag-Al2TiO5 system can be tailored by varying the amount of the ceramic filler. The brazing process can be carried out in air, the joining partners showed a good chemical stability and sufficient low leak rates were demonstrated. Furthermore, the long-term stability of the Ag-Al2TiO5 composite braze was studied under relevant SOFC and SOEC conditions. The stability of brazed Crofer/Ag-Al2TiO5/NiO-YSZ assemblies in reducing atmosphere and in pure oxygen was investigated over 500 h at 850 °C. Additionally, a cell component test was performed to investigate the durability of the Ag-Al2TiO5 seal when exposed to dual atmosphere. The seals performed well over 900 h under electrolysis operation conditions (-0.5 A cm2, 850 °C), and no cell degradation related to the Ag-Al2TiO5 sealing was found, indicating that the developed braze system is applicable for the use in SOFC/SOEC stacks.

  13. Erosion of tungsten and its brazed joints with bronze irradiated by pulsed deuterium plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushin, V.; Polsky, V.; Kalin, B.; Dzhumaev, P.; Polyansky, A.; Sevryukov, O.; Suchkov, A.; Fedotov, V.

    2013-11-01

    This work presents results on erosion of mono- and polycrystalline tungsten and its brazed joints with bronze substrates under irradiation by high-temperature pulsed (τp ˜ 20 μs) deuterium plasma flows, with a power density q = 19-66 GW/m2 and pulses numbering from 2 to 10, simulating the expected plasma disruptions and ELMs in fusion reactors. The surface erosion and heat resistance of tungsten and brazed joints were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and erosion coefficients were determined by target mass loss. It is found that for both types of tungsten the surface starts to significantly crack even under relatively weak irradiation regimes (q = 19 GW/m2, N = 2), at which point surface melting is not observed. Local melting becomes visible with an increase of q up to 25 GW/m2. In addition, there is formation of blisters with a typical size of 1-2 μm on the surface of monocrystalline samples and craters up to 2 μm in diameter on polycrystalline samples. In addition, craters ˜10-30 μm in diameter are formed on defects similar to those observed under unipolar arcs. At that point, the erosion coefficients change to within ranges of 0.2-0.7 × 10-5 kg/J m2. It is found that at q = 50 GW/m2, the brazed joints of monocrystalline tungsten with bronze of Cu-0.6% Cr-0.08% Zr have the highest heat resistance.

  14. Adhesive bonding and brazing of nanocrystalline diamond foil onto different substrate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodes, Matthias A.; Sailer, Stefan; Rosiwal, Stefan M.; Singer, Robert F.

    2013-10-01

    Diamond coatings are used in heavily stressed industrial applications to reduce friction and wear. Hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) is the favourable coating method, as it allows a coating of large surface areas with high homogeneity. Due to the high temperatures occurring in this CVD-process, the selection of substrate materials is limited. With the desire to coat light materials, steels and polymers a new approach has been developed. First, by using temperature-stable templates in the HFCVD and stripping off the diamond layer afterwards, a flexible, up to 150 μm thick and free standing nanocrystalline diamond foil (NCDF) can be produced. Afterwards, these NCDF can be applied on technical components through bonding and brazing, allowing any material as substrate. This two-step process offers the possibility to join a diamond layer on any desired surface. With a modified scratch test and Rockwell indentation testing the adhesion strength of NCDF on aluminium and steel is analysed. The results show that sufficient adhesion strength is reached both on steel and aluminium. The thermal stress in the substrates is very low and if failure occurs, cracks grow undercritically. Adhesion strength is even higher for the brazed samples, but here crack growth is critical, delaminating the diamond layer to some extent. In comparison to a sample directly coated with diamond, using a high-temperature CVD interlayer, the brazed as well as the adhesively bonded samples show very good performance, proving their competitiveness. A high support of the bonding layer could be identified as crucial, though in some cases a lower stiffness of the latter might be acceptable considering the possibility to completely avoid thermal stresses which occur during joining at higher temperatures.

  15. Correlation between theoretical descriptor and catalytic oxygen reduction activity of graphene supported palladium and palladium alloy electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Min Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Lee, Dong Un; Kim, Won Bae; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-12-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction, ORR, performances of graphene-supported palladium (Pd) and palladium alloys (Pd3X: X = Ag, Co and Fe) catalysts with highly dispersed catalyst particles are investigated in acidic and alkaline conditions using a rotating disk electrode, RDE. Graphene nanosheet, GNS, supported Pd based catalysts are fabricated without surfactant through the impregnation of Pd and 2nd metal precursors on GNS, leading to small and uniformly dispersed nanoparticles, even when high metal loading of up to 60 wt.% are deposited on supports. The ab-initio density functional theory, DFT, calculations, which are based on the d-band center theory, have been applied to correlate with the results of the ORR performances obtained by half-cell tests. Additionally, the cohesive energy, Ecoh, and dissolution potential, Um, for the Pd nanoparticles have been calculated to understand thermodynamic stability. To elucidate the d-band center shift, the Pd 3d5/2 core-level binding energies for Pd/GNS, Pd3Ag/GNS, Pd3Fe/GNS and Pd3Co/GNS have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS. The GNS-supported Pd, or Pd-based alloy-nanoparticle catalyst shows good ORR activity under acidic and alkaline conditions, suggesting it may offer potential replacement for Pt for use in cathode electrodes of anion-exchange membrane fuel cell, AEMFC, and acid based polymer electrolyte fuel cell, PEMFC.

  16. Influence of copper content on the electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation of CoχCuy alloy nanoparticles-decorated CNFs

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Zafar Khan; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, CoCu alloy nanoparticles-incorporated carbon nanofibers are introduced as effective non precious electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The introduced electrocatalyst has been synthesized by simple and effective process; electrospinning. Typically, calcination, in nitrogen atmosphere, of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate, copper acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The nanofibrous morphology and alloy structure have been confirmed by SEM, TEM and XRD analyses. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity indicates that copper content has strong influence, the alloy nanoparticles having the composition Cu5%Co95% showed distinct high performance; 100 times higher than other formulations. Overall, the introduced study revealed the veil about the distinct role of copper in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity of cobalt-based materials. PMID:26568442

  17. Influence of copper content on the electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation of CoχCuy alloy nanoparticles-decorated CNFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouri, Zafar Khan; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, CoCu alloy nanoparticles-incorporated carbon nanofibers are introduced as effective non precious electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The introduced electrocatalyst has been synthesized by simple and effective process; electrospinning. Typically, calcination, in nitrogen atmosphere, of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate, copper acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The nanofibrous morphology and alloy structure have been confirmed by SEM, TEM and XRD analyses. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity indicates that copper content has strong influence, the alloy nanoparticles having the composition Cu5%Co95% showed distinct high performance; 100 times higher than other formulations. Overall, the introduced study revealed the veil about the distinct role of copper in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity of cobalt-based materials.

  18. Influence of embedded nanocontainers on the efficiency of active anticorrosive coatings for aluminum alloys part II: influence of nanocontainer position.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Dimitriya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2013-01-01

    The present work contributes to the coating design of active anticorrosive coatings for the aluminum alloy, AA2024-T3. Part II is a continuation of Part I: Influence of Nanocontainer Concentration and describes further surprising aspects of the design of nanocontainer based active anticorrosive coatings, which influence their performance. The studied coating system consists of a passive sol-gel (SiO(x)/ZrO(x)) matrix and inhibitor (2-mercaptobenzothiazole) loaded mesoporous silica nanocontainers (MBT@NCs), which are dispersed only in half of the coating volume. Varying position and concentration of MBT@NCs the synergetic effect of inhibitor amount and path length on the metal surface were analyzed, considering the balance between optimum barrier properties, active protection and adhesion. The impact of MBT@NC position on passive and active corrosion resistance was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning vibrating electrode technique. Increasing the distance between MBT@NCs and metal surface led to better barrier properties but worse active corrosion inhibition. These findings improve the understanding of the factors influencing the overall performance of active anticorrosive coatings and enable the development of a coating system with optimum anticorrosion efficiency. PMID:23237235

  19. Note: Magnification of a polarization angle with a Littrow layout brazed grating

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, H. Kubo, H.; Kawano, Y.; Itami, K.; Arakawa, H.

    2014-08-15

    A new method to magnify a small polarization angle with brazed gratings has been developed. In the method, difference in diffraction efficiency for S and P polarization components is used. The magnification dependence on the incident angle can be small by arranging the grating in Littrow layout. A magnification with a factor ∼2.7 has been demonstrated for a 10.6 μm CO{sub 2} laser beam as expected from a calculation. The method is applicable in many polarimetry fields.

  20. Simulation and experiment of packaging of the fibre Bragg grating sensors using brazing/soldering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Changjin; Li, Yulong; Hu, Ronghua; Xu, Jianning

    2016-08-01

    To manufacture fibre Bragg grating (FBG) transducer, finite element model simulation and experimental verification of packaging of the FBG by brazing/soldering were investigated. The packaging processes and their impacts on the wavelength change of FBG were analysed. Simulation results showed that the Bragg wavelength of packaged FBG shifted down a level of ~10 nm. For experimental verification, temperature sensitivity of the packaged FBG was enhanced about twice of the bare FBG, while its spectrum was well preserved. The Bragg wavelength was shifted down a level of ~10 nm which was in accordance with the simulation.

  1. Automating a precision braze paste dispensing operation using non- contact sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, D; Novak, J; Maslakowski, J; Thiele, A

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative effort between Sandia National Laboratories and the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation to develop an automated braze paste dispensing system for rocket engine nozzle manufacturing. The motivation for automating this manufacturing process is to reduce the amount of labor and excess material required. A critical requirement for this system is the automatic location of key nozzle features using non-contact sensors. Sandia has demonstrated that the low-cost Multi-Axis Seam Tracking (MAST) capacitive sensor can be used to accurately locate the nozzle surface and tube gaps.

  2. Amorphous alloy catalysis: VII. Activation and surface characterization of an amorphous Cu-Ti alloy catalyst precursor in the dehydrogenation of 2-propanol and comparison with Cu-Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Katona, T.; Molnar, A.

    1995-05-01

    The activation and catalytic properties of Cu-Ti and Cu-Zr metallic glass precursors in the dehydrogenation of 2-propanol differ substantially. In contrast with Cu-Zr, Cu-Ti can only be activated with HF solution. The pretreatment of Cu-Ti results in catalysts with BET and copper surface areas one order of magnitude smaller than those of Cu-Zr under the same conditions. Cu-Ti exhibits decreasing catalytic activity, while Cu-Zr displays stable activity in the course of the reaction. Crystallization of the metallic glasses prior to HF treatment results in a weaker reactivity toward hydrogen fluoride for both alloys. Scanning electron micrographs of the alloys reveal that HF etching results in surfaces with deep grooves, and copper-rich flakes, a Raney-Cu-like catalyst. Auger electron spectroscopic studies show copper enrichment in the surface region on both alloys after HF treatment. On the surface of Cu-Ti, mostly Cu(II) is detected, whereas Cu(O) and Cu(II) coexist on Cu-Zr. 54 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Preparation of Pt Ag alloy nanoisland/graphene hybrid composites and its high stability and catalytic activity in methanol electro-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites were prepared based on the self-organization of Au@PtAg nanorods on graphene sheets. Graphite oxides (GO) were prepared and separated to individual sheets using Hummer's method. Graphene nano-sheets were prepared by chemical reduction with hydrazine. The prepared PtAg alloy nanomaterial and the hybrid composites with graphene were characterized by SEM, TEM, and zeta potential measurements. It is confirmed that the prepared Au@PtAg alloy nanorods/graphene hybrid composites own good catalytic function for methanol electro-oxidation by cyclic voltammograms measurements, and exhibited higher catalytic activity and more stability than pure Au@Pt nanorods and Au@AgPt alloy nanorods. In conclusion, the prepared PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites own high stability and catalytic activity in methanol electro-oxidation, so that it is one kind of high-performance catalyst, and has great potential in applications such as methanol fuel cells in near future. PMID:21982417

  4. Preparation of Pt Ag alloy nanoisland/graphene hybrid composites and its high stability and catalytic activity in methanol electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lili; Gao, Guo; Huang, Peng; Wang, Xiansong; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhang, Jiali; Guo, Shouwu; Cui, Daxiang

    2011-01-01

    In this article, PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites were prepared based on the self-organization of Au@PtAg nanorods on graphene sheets. Graphite oxides (GO) were prepared and separated to individual sheets using Hummer's method. Graphene nano-sheets were prepared by chemical reduction with hydrazine. The prepared PtAg alloy nanomaterial and the hybrid composites with graphene were characterized by SEM, TEM, and zeta potential measurements. It is confirmed that the prepared Au@PtAg alloy nanorods/graphene hybrid composites own good catalytic function for methanol electro-oxidation by cyclic voltammograms measurements, and exhibited higher catalytic activity and more stability than pure Au@Pt nanorods and Au@AgPt alloy nanorods. In conclusion, the prepared PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites own high stability and catalytic activity in methanol electro-oxidation, so that it is one kind of high-performance catalyst, and has great potential in applications such as methanol fuel cells in near future. PMID:21982417

  5. Preparation of Pt Ag alloy nanoisland/graphene hybrid composites and its high stability and catalytic activity in methanol electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lili; Gao, Guo; Huang, Peng; Wang, Xiansong; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhang, Jiali; Guo, Shouwu; Cui, Daxiang

    2011-10-01

    In this article, PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites were prepared based on the self-organization of Au@PtAg nanorods on graphene sheets. Graphite oxides (GO) were prepared and separated to individual sheets using Hummer's method. Graphene nano-sheets were prepared by chemical reduction with hydrazine. The prepared PtAg alloy nanomaterial and the hybrid composites with graphene were characterized by SEM, TEM, and zeta potential measurements. It is confirmed that the prepared Au@PtAg alloy nanorods/graphene hybrid composites own good catalytic function for methanol electro-oxidation by cyclic voltammograms measurements, and exhibited higher catalytic activity and more stability than pure Au@Pt nanorods and Au@AgPt alloy nanorods. In conclusion, the prepared PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites own high stability and catalytic activity in methanol electro-oxidation, so that it is one kind of high-performance catalyst, and has great potential in applications such as methanol fuel cells in near future.

  6. Compressive behavior of titanium alloy skin-stiffener specimens selectively reinforced with boron-aluminum composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, H. W.; Carri, R. L.; Webster, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    A method of selectively reinforcing a conventional titanium airframe structure with unidirectional boron-aluminum composite attached by brazing was successfully demonstrated in compression tests of short skin-stiffener specimens. In a comparison with all-titanium specimens, improvements in structural performance recorded for the composite-reinforced specimens exceeded 25 percent on an equivalent-weight basis over the range from room temperature to 700 K (800 F) in terms of both initial buckling and maximum strengths. Performance at room temperature was not affected by prior exposure at 588 K (600 F) for 1000 hours in air or by 400 thermal cycles between 219 K and 588 K (-65 F and 600 F). The experimental results were generally predictable from existing analytical procedures. No evidence of failure was observed in the braze between the boron-aluminum composite and the titanium alloy.

  7. Compressive strength of titanium alloy skin-stringer panels selectively reinforced with boron-aluminum composite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, H. W.; Carri, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a method of selectively reinforcing conventional titanium airframe structure with unidirectional boron-aluminum composite attached by brazing which has been successfully demonstrated based on compression tests of short skin-stringer panels. Improvements in structural performance exceeded 25% on an equivalent weight basis over the range from room temperature to 800 F, both in terms of initial buckling and maximum strengths. Room-temperature performance was not affected by prior exposure at 600 F for 1000 hours in air, or by 400 cycles between -65 and 600 F. The experimental results were generally predictable on the basis of existing analytical procedures. No evidence of failure was observed in the braze bond between the boron-aluminum composite and the titanium alloy.

  8. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  9. Design and development of a shape memory alloy activated heat pipe-based thermal switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benafan, O.; Notardonato, W. U.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2013-10-01

    This work reports on the design, fabrication and testing of a thermal switch wherein the open and closed states were actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA) elements while heat was transferred by a two-phase heat pipe. The motivation for such a switch comes from NASA’s need for thermal management in advanced spaceport applications associated with future lunar and Mars missions. As the temperature can approximately vary between -233 and 127 ° C during lunar day/night cycles, the switch was designed to reject heat from a cryogen tank into space during the night cycle while providing thermal isolation during the day cycle. A Ni47.1Ti49.6Fe3.3 (at.%) alloy that exhibited a reversible phase transformation between a trigonal R-phase and a cubic austenite phase was used as the sensing and actuating elements. Thermomechanical actuation, accomplished through an antagonistic spring system, resulted in strokes up to 7 mm against bias forces of up to 45 N. The actuation system was tested for more than thirty cycles, equivalent to one year of operation. The thermal performance, accomplished via a variable length, closed two-phase heat pipe, was evaluated, resulting in heat transfer rates of 13 W using pentane and 10 W using R-134a as working fluids. Experimental data were also compared to theoretical predictions where possible. Direct comparisons between different design approaches of SMA helical actuators, highlighting the effects of the helix angle, were carried out to give a layout of more accurate design methodologies.

  10. The Effect of Post-grinding Heat Treatment of Alumina and Ag-Cu-Ti Braze Preform Thickness on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Alumina-to-Alumina-Brazed Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassam, Tahsin Ali; Nadendla, Hari Babu; Ludford, Nicholas; Buisman, Iris

    2016-05-01

    Alumina-to-alumina-brazed joints were formed using 96.0 and 99.7 wt.% Al2O3 and TICUSIL® (68.8Ag-26.7Cu-4.5Ti wt.%) preforms of different thicknesses. Brazing was conducted in a vacuum of 1 × 10-5 mbar at 850 °C for 10 minutes. Joint strengths were evaluated using four-point bend testing and were compared to flexural strengths of standard test bars. Post-grinding heat treatment, performed at 1550 °C for 1 hour, did not affect the average surface roughness or grain size of either grades of alumina but affected their average flexural strengths with a small increase for 96.0 wt.% Al2O3 and a small decrease for 99.7 wt.% Al2O3. As the TICUSIL® preform thickness was increased from 50 to 100 µm, the average strengths of both 96.0 and 99.7 wt.% Al2O3 brazed joints improved. Joints made using 100-µm-thick TICUSIL® preforms predominantly consisted of Cu-Ti phases which formed due to excess Ti in the interlayers and non-uniform Ag-rich outflow. Brazed joints of 96.0 wt.% Al2O3 made using 100-µm-thick TICUSIL® preforms achieved an average joint strength of 238 MPa with consistent failure in the ceramic.

  11. Melting Point Depression and Fast Diffusion in Nanostructured Brazing Fillers Confined Between Barrier Nanolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptay, G.; Janczak-Rusch, J.; Jeurgens, L. P. H.

    2016-05-01

    Successful brazing using Cu-based nanostructured brazing fillers at temperatures much below the bulk melting temperature of Cu was recently demonstrated (Lehmert et al. in, Mater Trans 56:1015-1018, 2015). The Cu-based nano-fillers are composed of alternating nanolayers of Cu and a permeable, non-wetted AlN barrier. In this study, a thermodynamic model is derived to estimate the melting point depression (MPD) in such Cu/AlN nano-multilayers (NMLs) as function of the Cu nanolayer thickness. Depending on the melting route, the model predicts a MPD range of 238-609 K for Cu10nm/AlN10nm NMLs, which suggests a heterogeneous pre-melting temperature range of 750-1147 K (476-874 °C), which is consistent with experimental observations. As suggested by basic kinetic considerations, the observed Cu outflow to the NML surface at the temperatures of 723-1023 K (450-750 °C) can also be partially rationalized by fast solid-state diffusion of Cu along internal interfaces, especially for the higher temperatures.

  12. Comparison of GRCop-84 to Other High Thermal Conductive Cu Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Ellis, David L.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of five copper alloys (GRCop-84, AMZIRC, GlidCop Al-15, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr) competing in high temperature, high heat flux applications such as rocket nozzles, were compared. Tensile, creep, thermal expansion, and compression tests are presented. Tests were done on as-received material, and on material which received a simulated brazing heat treatment at 935 C. The 935 C heat treatment weakened AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, and Cu-0.9Cr, and the strength of as-received AMZIRC dropped precipitously as test temperatures exceeded 500 C. The properties of GlidCop Al-15 and GRCop-84 were not significantly affected by the 935 C heat treatment. Thus GRCop-84 is better than AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, and Cu-0.9Cr at temperatures greater than 500 C. Ductility was lowest in GlidCop Al-15 and Cu-0.9Cr. The creep properties of GRCop-84 were superior to those of brazed AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, and Cu-0.9Cr. At equivalent rupture life and stress, GRCop-84 had a 150 C temperature advantage over brazed AMZIRC; for equivalent rupture life and temperature GRCop-84 was two times stronger. The advantages of GRCop-84 over GlidCop Al-15 associated with ease of processing were confirmed by GlidCop s marginal ductility. In the post brazed condition, GRCop-84 was found to be superior to the other alloys due to its greater strength and creep resistance (compared to AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, and Cu-0.9Cr) and ductility (compared to GlidCop Al-15)

  13. Comparison of GRCop-84 to Other Cu Alloys with High Thermal Conductivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Ellis, David L.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of six highly conductive copper alloys, GRCop-84, AMZIRC, GlidCop Al-15, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z were compared. Tests were done on as-received hard drawn material, and after a heat treatment designed to simulate a brazing operation at 935 C. In the as-received condition AMZIRC, GlidCop Al-15, Cu- 1Cr-0.1Zr and Cu-0.9Cr had excellent strengths at temperatures below 500 C. However, the brazing heat treatment substantially decreased the mechanical properties of AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z. The properties of GlidCop Al-15 and GRCop-84 were not significantly affected by the heat treatment. Thus there appear to be advantages to GRCop-84 over AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z if use or processing temperatures greater than 500 C are expected. Ductility was lowest in GlidCop Al-15 and Cu-0.9Cr; reduction in area was particularly low in GlidCop Al-15 above 500 C, and as- received Cu-0.9Cr was brittle between 500 and 650 C. Tensile creep tests were done at 500 and 650 C; the creep properties of GRCop-84 were superior to those of brazed AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr- 0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z. In the brazed condition, GRCop-84 was superior to the other alloys due to its greater strength and creep resistance (compared to AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z) and ductility (compared to GlidCop Al-15).

  14. A new Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, D. L.; Michal, G. M.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Various applications exist where a high conductivity alloy with good strength and creep resistance are required. NASA LeRC has developed a Cu-8 at. percent Cr-4 at. percent Nb (Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb) alloy for these applications. The alloy is designed for use up to 700 C and shows exceptional strength, low cycle fatigue (LCF) resistance, and creep resistance. Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb also has a thermal conductivity of at least 72 percent that of pure Cu. Furthermore, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy are very stable. In addition to the original application in combustion chambers, Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb shows promise for welding electrodes, brazing fixtures, and other applications requiring high conductivity and strength at elevated temperatures.

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Plasma Arc Brazed AISI 304L Stainless Steel and Galvanized Steel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yajuan; Li, Ruifeng; Yu, Zhishui; Wang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Plasma arc brazing is used to join the AISI 304L stainless steel and galvanized steel plate butt joints with the CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. The effect of parameters on weld surface appearance, interfacial microstructure, and composition distribution in the joint was studied. The microhardness and mechanical tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the welded specimens. The results indicated that good appearance, bead shape, and sufficient metallurgical bonding could be obtained when the brazing process was performed with a wire feeding speed of 0.8 m/min, plasma gas flow rate of 3.0 l/min, welding current of 100 A, and welding speed of 27 cm/min. During plasma arc brazing process, the top corner of the stainless steel and galvanized steel plate were heated and melted, and the melted quantity of stainless steel was much more than that of the galvanized steel due to the thermal conductivity coefficient difference between the dissimilar materials. The microhardness test results shows that the microhardness value gradually increased from the side of the galvanized steel to the stainless steel in the joint, and it is good for improving the mechanical properties of joint. The tensile strength was a little higher than that of the brazing filler, and the fracture position of weld joint was at the base metal of galvanized steel plate.

  16. 78 FR 53159 - Standard for Welding, Cutting, and Brazing; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standard for Welding, Cutting, and Brazing; Extension of the... Budget's (OMB) approval of the information collection requirements contained in the Standard for...

  17. Manufacturing and High Heat Flux Testing of Brazed Flat-Type W/CuCrZr Plasma Facing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Feng, Fan; Chen, Lei; Cheng, Zhengkui; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Water-cooled flat-type W/CuCrZr plasma facing components with an interlayer of oxygen-free copper (OFC) have been developed by using vacuum brazing route. The OFC layer for the accommodation of thermal stresses was cast onto the surface of W at a temperature range of 1150 °C-1200 °C in a vacuum furnace. The W/OFC cast tiles were vacuum brazed to a CuCrZr heat sink at 940 °C using the silver-free filler material CuMnSiCr. The microstructure, bonding strength, and high heat flux properties of the brazed W/CuCrZr joint samples were investigated. The W/Cu joint exhibits an average tensile strength of 134 MPa, which is about the same strength as pure annealed copper. High heat flux tests were performed in the electron beam facility EMS-60. Experimental results indicated that the brazed W/CuCrZr mock-up experienced screening tests of up to 15 MW/m2 and cyclic tests of 9 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles without visible damage. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11205049) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2011GB110004)

  18. Vacuum brazing of alumina ceramic to titanium for biomedical implants using pure gold as the filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad S.

    One of the many promising applications of metal/ceramic joining is in biomedical implantable devices. This work is focused on vacuum brazing of C.P titanium to 96% alumina ceramic using pure gold as the filler metal. A novel method of brazing is developed where resistance heating of C.P titanium is done inside a thermal evaporator using a Ta heating electrode. The design of electrode is optimized using Ansys resistive heating simulations. The materials chosen in this study are biocompatible and have prior history in implantable devices approved by FDA. This research is part of Boston Retinal implant project to make a biocompatible implantable device (www.bostonretina.org). Pure gold braze has been used in the construction of single terminal feedthrough in low density hermetic packages utilizing a single platinum pin brazed to an alumina or sapphire ceramic donut (brazed to a titanium case or ferrule for many years in implantable pacemakers. Pure gold (99.99%) brazing of 96% alumina ceramic with CP titanium has been performed and evaluated in this dissertation. Brazing has been done by using electrical resistance heating. The 96% alumina ceramic disk was manufactured by high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) processing while the Ti ferrule and gold performs were purchased from outside. Hermetic joints having leak rate of the order of 1.6 x 10-8 atm-cc/ sec on a helium leak detector were measured. Alumina ceramics made by HTCC processing were centreless grounded utilizing 800 grit diamond wheel to provide a smooth surface for sputtering of a thin film of Nb. Since pure alumina demonstrates no adhesion or wetting to gold, an adhesion layer must be used on the alumina surface. Niobium (Nb), Tantalum (Ta) and Tungsten (W) were chosen for evaluation since all are refractory (less dissolution into molten gold), all form stable oxides (necessary for adhesion to alumina) and all are readily thin film deposited as metals. Wetting studies are also performed to determine the

  19. The activity of nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys as electrode materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christian Immanuel; Sellschopp, Kai; Tegel, Marcus; Rauscher, Thomas; Kieback, Bernd; Röntzsch, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In view of alkaline water electrolysis, the activities for the hydrogen evolution reaction of nanocrystalline Fe-based electrode materials were investigated and compared with the activities of polycrystalline Fe and Ni. Electrochemical methods were used to elucidate the overpotential value, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity. Structural properties of the electrode surface were determined with SEM, XRD and XPS analyses. Thus, a correlation between electrochemical and structural parameters was found. In this context, we report on a cyclic voltammetric activation procedure which causes a significant increase of the surface area of Fe-based electrodes leading to a boost in effective activity of the activated electrodes. It was found that the intrinsic activity of activated Fe-based electrodes is very high due to the formation of a nanocrystalline surface layer. In contrast, the activation procedure influences only the intrinsic activity of the Ni electrodes without the formation of a porous surface layer.

  20. Highly active nanoporous Pt-based alloy as anode and cathode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoting; Jiang, Yingying; Sun, Junzhe; Jin, Chuanhong; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we explore nanoporous PtPdAlCu (np-PtPdAlCu) quaternary alloy through ball-milling with the subsequent two-step dealloying strategy. The microstructure and catalytic performance of the np-PtPdAlCu catalyst have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical measurements. The np-PtPdAlCu catalyst exhibits an open bi-continuous interpenetrating ligament/channel structure with a length scale of 2.3 ± 0.5 nm. The np-PtPdAlCu catalyst shows 2 and 3.5 times enhancement in the mass activity and area specific activity towards methanol oxidation at anode respectively, compared to the Johnson Matthey (JM) Pt/C (40 wt.%) catalyst. Moreover, the CO stripping peak of np-PtPdAlCu is 0.49 V (vs. SCE), indicating a 180 mV negative shift in comparison with the Pt/C catalyst (0.67 V vs. SCE). In addition, the np-PtPdAlCu catalyst also shows an enhanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity at cathode compared to Pt/C. The present study provides a facile and effective route to design high-performance catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  1. A Synthetic Pseudo-Rh: NOx Reduction Activity and Electronic Structure of Pd–Ru Solid-solution Alloy Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Tomonaga, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Zulkifli, Nor Diana Binti; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Koyama, Michihisa; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Rh is one of the most important noble metals for industrial applications. A major fraction of Rh is used as a catalyst for emission control in automotive catalytic converters because of its unparalleled activity toward NOx reduction. However, Rh is a rare and extremely expensive element; thus, the development of Rh alternative composed of abundant elements is desirable. Pd and Ru are located at the right and left of Rh in the periodic table, respectively, nevertheless this combination of elements is immiscible in the bulk state. Here, we report a Pd–Ru solid-solution-alloy nanoparticle (PdxRu1-x NP) catalyst exhibiting better NOx reduction activity than Rh. Theoretical calculations show that the electronic structure of Pd0.5Ru0.5 is similar to that of Rh, indicating that Pd0.5Ru0.5 can be regarded as a pseudo-Rh. Pd0.5Ru0.5 exhibits better activity than natural Rh, which implies promising applications not only for exhaust-gas cleaning but also for various chemical reactions. PMID:27340099

  2. A Synthetic Pseudo-Rh: NOx Reduction Activity and Electronic Structure of Pd-Ru Solid-solution Alloy Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Tomonaga, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Zulkifli, Nor Diana Binti; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Koyama, Michihisa; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Rh is one of the most important noble metals for industrial applications. A major fraction of Rh is used as a catalyst for emission control in automotive catalytic converters because of its unparalleled activity toward NOx reduction. However, Rh is a rare and extremely expensive element; thus, the development of Rh alternative composed of abundant elements is desirable. Pd and Ru are located at the right and left of Rh in the periodic table, respectively, nevertheless this combination of elements is immiscible in the bulk state. Here, we report a Pd-Ru solid-solution-alloy nanoparticle (PdxRu1-x NP) catalyst exhibiting better NOx reduction activity than Rh. Theoretical calculations show that the electronic structure of Pd0.5Ru0.5 is similar to that of Rh, indicating that Pd0.5Ru0.5 can be regarded as a pseudo-Rh. Pd0.5Ru0.5 exhibits better activity than natural Rh, which implies promising applications not only for exhaust-gas cleaning but also for various chemical reactions. PMID:27340099

  3. A Synthetic Pseudo-Rh: NOx Reduction Activity and Electronic Structure of Pd–Ru Solid-solution Alloy Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Tomonaga, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Zulkifli, Nor Diana Binti; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Koyama, Michihisa; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2016-06-01

    Rh is one of the most important noble metals for industrial applications. A major fraction of Rh is used as a catalyst for emission control in automotive catalytic converters because of its unparalleled activity toward NOx reduction. However, Rh is a rare and extremely expensive element; thus, the development of Rh alternative composed of abundant elements is desirable. Pd and Ru are located at the right and left of Rh in the periodic table, respectively, nevertheless this combination of elements is immiscible in the bulk state. Here, we report a Pd–Ru solid-solution-alloy nanoparticle (PdxRu1-x NP) catalyst exhibiting better NOx reduction activity than Rh. Theoretical calculations show that the electronic structure of Pd0.5Ru0.5 is similar to that of Rh, indicating that Pd0.5Ru0.5 can be regarded as a pseudo-Rh. Pd0.5Ru0.5 exhibits better activity than natural Rh, which implies promising applications not only for exhaust-gas cleaning but also for various chemical reactions.

  4. Brazing of ceramic and graphite to metal in the fabrication of ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) antenna and feedthrough components

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.E.; Sluss, F.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Fabrication of some of the more critical components of ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antenna and feedthrough assemblies has involved the brazing of alumina ceramic and graphite to various metals. Copper end pieces have been successfully brazed to alumina cylinders for use in feedthroughs for TEXTOR and in feedthroughs and capacitors for a Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) antenna. Copper-plated Inconel rods and tubes have been armored with graphite for construction of Faraday shields on antennas for Doublet III-D and TFTR. Details of brazing procedures and test results, including rf performance, mechanical strength, and thermal capabilities, are presented. 14 figs.

  5. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  6. Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P < 0.05). In all cases, brazing joints ruptured at low levels of tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P < 0.001) between brazing and TIG or laser welding were found. The highest means were observed for TIG welding (699-754 MPa). Laser welding showed a significantly lower mean tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method. PMID:18617503

  7. Low-Temperature Forming of Beta Titanium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Woods, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Low cost methods for titanium structural fabrication using advanced cold-formable beta alloys were investigated for application in a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle. This work focuses on improving processing and structural efficiencies as compared with standard hot formed and riveted construction of alpha-beta alloy sheet structure. Mechanical property data and manufacturing parameters were developed for cold forming, brazing, welding, and processing Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al sheet, and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr on a more limited basis. Cost and structural benefits were assessed through the fabrication and evaluation of large structural panels. The feasibility of increasing structural efficiency of beta titanium structure by selective reinforcement with metal matrix composite was also explored.

  8. System-Level Design of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuator for Active Clearance Control in the High-Pressure Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes results of a numerical analysis evaluating the feasibility of high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) for active clearance control actuation in the high-pressure turbine section of a modern turbofan engine. The prototype actuator concept considered here consists of parallel HTSMA wires attached to the shroud that is located on the exterior of the turbine case. A transient model of an HTSMA actuator was used to evaluate active clearance control at various operating points in a test bed aircraft engine simulation. For the engine under consideration, each actuator must be designed to counteract loads from 380 to 2000 lbf and displace at least 0.033 inches. Design results show that an actuator comprised of 10 wires 2 inches in length is adequate for control at critical engine operating points and still exhibits acceptable failsafe operability and cycle life. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with integrator windup protection was implemented to control clearance amidst engine transients during a normal mission. Simulation results show that the control system exhibits minimal variability in clearance control performance across the operating envelope. The final actuator design is sufficiently small to fit within the limited space outside the high-pressure turbine case and is shown to consume only small amounts of bleed air to adequately regulate temperature.

  9. Tuning the activity of Pt alloy electrocatalysts by means of the lanthanide contraction.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Escribano, María; Malacrida, Paolo; Hansen, Martin H; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik G; Velázquez-Palenzuela, Amado; Tripkovic, Vladimir; Schiøtz, Jakob; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan E L; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-04-01

    The high platinum loadings required to compensate for the slow kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) impede the widespread uptake of low-temperature fuel cells in automotive vehicles. We have studied the ORR on eight platinum (Pt)-lanthanide and Pt-alkaline earth electrodes, Pt5M, where M is lanthanum, cerium, samarium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, thulium, or calcium. The materials are among the most active polycrystalline Pt-based catalysts reported, presenting activity enhancement by a factor of 3 to 6 over Pt. The active phase consists of a Pt overlayer formed by acid leaching. The ORR activity versus the bulk lattice parameter follows a high peaked "volcano" relation. We demonstrate how the lanthanide contraction can be used to control strain effects and tune the activity, stability, and reactivity of these materials. PMID:27034369

  10. Structural Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Lightweight, Brazed, Air-Cooled Turbine Rotor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Andre J., Jr.; Morgan, William C.

    1958-01-01

    A lightweight turbine rotor assembly was devised, and components were evaluated in a full-scale jet engine. Thin sheet-metal airfoils were brazed to radial fingers that were an integral part of a number of thin disks composing the turbine rotor. Passages were provided between the disks and in the blades for air cooling. The computed weight of the assembly was 50 percent less than that of a similar turbine of normal construction used in a conventional turbojet engine. Two configurations of sheet-metal test blades simulating the manner of attachment were fabricated and tested in a turbojet engine at rated speed and temperature. After 8-1/2 hours of operation pieces broke loose from the tip sections of the better blades. Severe cracking produced by vibration was determined as the cause of failure. Several methods of overcoming the vibration problem are suggested.

  11. Design and fabrication of brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich structural panels for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of two large brazed Rene 41 honeycomb panels, the establishment of a test plan, the design and fabrication of a test fixture to subject the panels to cyclic thermal gradients and mechanical loads equivalent to those imposed on an advanced space transportation vehicle during its boost and entry trajectories are discussed. The panels will be supported at four points, creating three spans. The outer spans are 45.7 cm (18 in.) and the center span 76.2 cm (30 in). Specimen width is 30.5 cm (12 in.). The panels were primarily designed by boost conditions simulated by subjecting the panels to liquid nitrogen, 77K (-320 F) on one side and 455K (360 F) on the other side and by mechanically imposing loads representing vehicle fuel pressure loads. Entry conditions were simulated by radiant heating to 1034K (1400 F). The test program subjected the panels to 500 boost thermal conditions. Results are presented.

  12. Heat transfer and flow characteristics of automotive brazed aluminum heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.J.; Wang, C.C.; Chang, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Extensive experiments on the heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of automotive brazed aluminum heat exchangers were carried out. In the present study, 18 samples of louvered-fin heat exchangers with different geometrical parameters, including tube width, louver length, louver pitch, fin height, and fin pitch, were tested in an induced open wind tunnel. Results are presented as plots of friction factor and Colburn j-factor against Reynolds number based on the volumetric hydraulic diameter in the range of 200 to 1,600. The comparisons between the Sahnoun and Webb model and the present test data are reported and good agreement was found. By introducing a finning factor, a simpler correlation of the Colburn j-factor is obtained. The heat transfer data for the Colburn j-factor are correlated within 10%, and those for the friction factor are within 15%.

  13. Nonlinear thermal and structural analysis of a brazed solar-central-receiver panel

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, L.M. Jr.; Kanouff, M.P.

    1981-07-01

    One part of the evaluation program for a molten sodium central receiver was to be a test of a reduced-scale panel at Sandia's Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque. The panel incorporates a new way of joining tubes - brazing to intermediate filler strips - which can affect the panel's lifetime. To calculate the stresses and strains for the worst-case section of the experimental panel, we have done a nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis with the MARC finite element computer code, which takes the temperature dependence of the material properties into account. From the results, tube design lifetimes are predicted. The analysis shows that concerns for cracking and reduction in lifetime are warranted, but a more detailed fracture analysis is necessary to determine whether there is a stable-crack-growth problem.

  14. Cobalt Alloy Implant Debris Induces Inflammation and Bone Loss Primarily through Danger Signaling, Not TLR4 Activation: Implications for DAMP-ening Implant Related Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Samelko, Lauryn; Landgraeber, Stefan; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim James

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt alloy debris has been implicated as causative in the early failure of some designs of current total joint implants. The ability of implant debris to cause excessive inflammation via danger signaling (NLRP3 inflammasome) vs. pathogen associated pattern recognition receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors; TLRs) remains controversial. Recently, specific non-conserved histidines on human TLR4 have been shown activated by cobalt and nickel ions in solution. However, whether this TLR activation is directly or indirectly an effect of metals or secondary endogenous alarmins (danger-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs) elicited by danger signaling, remains unknown and contentious. Our study indicates that in both a human macrophage cell line (THP-1) and primary human macrophages, as well as an in vivo murine model of inflammatory osteolysis, that Cobalt-alloy particle induced NLRP3 inflammasome danger signaling inflammatory responses were highly dominant relative to TLR4 activation, as measured respectively by IL-1β or TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, tissue histology and quantitative bone loss measurement. Despite the lack of metal binding histidines H456 and H458 in murine TLR4, murine calvaria challenge with Cobalt alloy particles induced significant macrophage driven in vivo inflammation and bone loss inflammatory osteolysis, whereas LPS calvaria challenge alone did not. Additionally, no significant increase (p<0.05) in inflammation and inflammatory bone loss by LPS co-challenge with Cobalt vs. Cobalt alone was evident, even at high levels of LPS (i.e. levels commiserate with hematogenous levels in fatal sepsis, >500pg/mL). Therefore, not only do the results of this investigation support Cobalt alloy danger signaling induced inflammation, but under normal homeostasis low levels of hematogenous PAMPs (<2pg/mL) from Gram-negative bacteria, seem to have negligible contribution to the danger signaling responses elicited by Cobalt alloy metal implant debris. This suggests the

  15. Identification of a cast iron alloy containing nonstrategic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. V.; Anton, D. L.; Lemkey, F. D.; Nowotny, H.; Bailey, R. S.; Favrow, L. H.; Smeggil, J. G.; Snow, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A program was performed to address the mechanical and environmental needs of Stirling engine heater head and regenerator housing components, while reducing the dependence on strategic materials. An alloy was developed which contained no strategic elemental additions per se. The base is iron with additions of manganese, molybdenum, carbon, silicon, niobium, and ferro-chromium. Such an alloy should be producible on a large scale at very low cost. The resulting alloy, designated as NASAUT 4G-Al, contained 15 Mn, 15 Cr, 2 Mo, 1.5 C, 1.0 Si, 1.0 Nb (in weight percent) with a balance of Fe. This alloy was optimized for chemistry, based upon tensile strength, creep-rupture strength, fracture behavior, and fatigue resistance up to 800 C. Alloys were also tested for environmental compatibility. The microstructure and mechanic properties (including hardness) were assessed in the as-cast condition and following several heat treatments, including one designed to simulate a required braze cycle. The alloy was fabricated and characterized in the form of both equiaxed and columnar-grained castings. The columnar grains were produced by directional solidification, and the properties were characterized in both the longitudinal and transverse orientations. The NASAUT 4G-Al alloy was found to be good in cyclic-oxidation resistance and excellent in both hydrogen and hot-corrosion resistance, especially in comparison to the baseline XF-818 alloy. The mechanical properties of yield strength, stress-rupture life, high-cycle-fatigue resistance, and low-cycle-fatigue resistance were good to excellent in comparison to the current alloy for this application, HS-31 (X-40), with precise results depending in a complex manner on grain orientation and temperature. If required, the ductility could be improved by lowering the carbon content.

  16. Effect of the composition of Ti alloy on the photocatalytic activities of Ti-based oxide nanotube arrays prepared by anodic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dingding; Wang, Yixin; Zhao, Yuwei; Yang, Yijia; Zhang, Lieyu; Mao, Xuhui

    2014-11-01

    Three types of Ti-based oxide nanotube arrays are prepared by anodic oxidation of pure Ti and Ti alloys (Ti-0.2Pd and Ti-6Al-4V) in the glycol-2 wt% H2O-0.3 wt% NH4F solution. The nanotube arrays are characterized by a series of techniques, including SEM, TEM, EIS, XRD, EDS, ICP, XPS and UV-vis DRS, to elucidate the effect of alloying elements on the properties of titania nanotube arrays. The results suggest that aluminium and vanadium elements greatly slow down the growth rate and therefore decrease the yield of nanotube arrays. Al and V deteriorate the photoreactivity of the resultant nanotube arrays. The palladium inside the Ti-0.2Pd alloy-derived nanotube arrays cannot be detected by EDS or XPS, but is quantitatively determined by ICP analysis. Incorporation of Pd significantly improves the photocatalytic activity of the resultant titania nanotube arrays powder. The presence of Pd element not only enhances the light absorption, but also facilitates the separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The uniform doping of Pd into the microstructure endows nanotube arrays with resistance to sulphur poison and preferable stability for organic degradation. This study suggests that anodization of Ti alloys, rather than pure Ti metal, allows to produce micron-sized high-performance photocatalysts for environmental and energy applications.

  17. On the mobility of vacancy clusters in reduced activation steels: an atomistic study in the Fe-Cr-W model alloy.

    PubMed

    Bonny, G; Castin, N; Bullens, J; Bakaev, A; Klaver, T C P; Terentyev, D

    2013-08-01

    Reduced activation steels are considered as structural materials for future fusion reactors. Besides iron and the main alloying element chromium, these steels contain other minor alloying elements, typically tungsten, vanadium and tantalum. In this work we study the impact of chromium and tungsten, being major alloying elements of ferritic Fe-Cr-W-based steels, on the stability and mobility of vacancy defects, typically formed under irradiation in collision cascades. For this purpose, we perform ab initio calculations, develop a many-body interatomic potential (EAM formalism) for large-scale calculations, validate the potential and apply it using an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo method to characterize the lifetime and diffusivity of vacancy clusters. To distinguish the role of Cr and W we perform atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations in Fe-Cr, Fe-W and Fe-Cr-W alloys. Within the limitation of transferability of the potentials it is found that both Cr and W enhance the diffusivity of vacancy clusters, while only W strongly reduces their lifetime. The cluster lifetime reduction increases with W concentration and saturates at about 1-2 at.%. The obtained results imply that W acts as an efficient 'breaker' of small migrating vacancy clusters and therefore the short-term annealing process of cascade debris is modified by the presence of W, even in small concentrations. PMID:23838265

  18. Gas- and plasma-driven hydrogen permeation through a reduced activation ferritic steel alloy F82H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haishan; Hirooka, Yoshi; Ashikawa, Naoko; Muroga, Takeo; Sagara, Akio

    2014-12-01

    The first wall of a magnetic fusion power reactor will be subjected to hydrogen isotope permeation by the two mechanisms: one is gas-driven and the other is plasma-driven. Hydrogen transport through a reduced activation ferritic steel alloy F82H has been investigated using a steady-state laboratory-scale plasma device. Permeation parameters including permeability, solubility and diffusivity have been measured in the temperature range from 150 to 520 °C. The surface recombination coefficient for hydrogen has also been estimated by a one-dimensional steady-state permeation model with the input data taken from experiments. Using these parameters, the hydrogen plasma-driven permeation flux and inventory for a 0.5 cm thick first wall around 500 °C are estimated to be ∼1.0 × 1013 atom cm-2 s-1 and ∼2 × 1016 atom cm-3, respectively. Also, the implications of all these data on reactor operation are discussed.

  19. Design and Control of a Proof-of-Concept Active Jet Engine Intake Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Gangbing; Ma, Ning; Penney, Nicholas; Barr, Todd; Lee, Ho-Jun; Arnold, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    The design and control of a novel proof-of-concept active jet engine intake using Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti or Nitinol) shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators is used to demonstrate the potential of an adaptive intake to improve the fuel efficiency of a jet engine. The Nitinol SMA material is selected for this research due to the material's ability to generate large strains of up to 5 percent for repeated operations, a high power-to-weight ratio, electrical resistive actuation, and easy fabrication into a variety of shapes. The proof-of-concept engine intake employs an overlapping leaf design arranged in a concentric configuration. Each leaf is mounted on a supporting bar that rotates upon actuation by SMA wires electrical resistive heating. Feedback control is enabled through the use of a laser range sensor to detect the movement of a leaf and determine the radius of the intake area. Due to the hysteresis behavior inherent in SMAs, a nonlinear robust controller is used to direct the SMA wire actuation. The controller design utilizes the sliding-mode approach to compensate for the nonlinearities associated with the SMA actuator. Feedback control experiments conducted on a fabricated proof-of-concept model have demonstrated the capability to precisely control the intake area and achieve up to a 25 percent reduction in intake area. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of engine intake area control using the proposed design.

  20. Internal corrosion testing of aluminum radiator tube alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.; Hindin, B.S.

    1998-12-31

    Aluminum radiator tubes must have several demanding properties to be successful including good heat transfer, high strength to withstand internal pressures, brazeability for attaching external fins and headers, corrosion resistance to cooling fluids, and long service life. Tubes having a wall thickness of approximately 320 microns (11.8 mils) must meet all these properties. A modified simulated service test (SST) of various aluminum radiator tube alloys was conducted to determine how well coolant-side alloys of eight different composite materials resisted corrosion. Both coupons and actual radiator tubes were used in these tests. Coolant-side alloys that were examined included 1145, low-copper 7072, low-iron 3003, 3003 plus zinc, and 3005. The results of these tests indicate that corrosion will tend to proceed laterally along the tube surface when it is anodic to the core alloy. A coolant-side alloy consisting of 3003 plus zinc exhibited advantages over 7072 because its pit density was lower. The role of microstructure in the corrosion behavior of composite brazing sheets is discussed.

  1. Novel High-Speed High Pressure Torsion Technology for Obtaining Fe-Mn-Si-Cr Shape Memory Alloy Active Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurău, Gheorghe; Gurău, Carmela; Potecaşu, Octavian; Alexandru, Petrică; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces an adapted high-speed high pressure torsion (HS-HPT) method of severe plastic deformation applied for obtaining shape memory alloy (SMA) active elements with revolution symmetry, able to develop axial displacement/force. Billets with circular crown forms were cut from Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr (mass%) SMA ingots and, by means of HS-HPT technology, were directly turned into modules, with truncated cone shell configurations. This process was performed, during time intervals of seconds, under the effect of high pressure (up to 1 GPa) cumulated with high rotation speed (hundreds of rotations per minute) applied on the active surfaces of sintered-carbide anvils, specially designed for this purpose. Due to pressure and friction, generated by rotation, the entire sample volume is heated and simultaneously deformed to final shape. During the process, microstructure fragmentation occurred enabling to obtain (ultra)fine grains and nanocrystalline areas, in spite of the heat developed by friction, which was removed by conduction at the contact surface between sample and anvils, before the occurrence of any recrystallization phenomena. When compressed between flat surfaces, the truncated cone modules developed a superelastic-like response, unique among Fe -Mn-Si base SMAs and, when heated in compressed state, they were able to develop either axial strokes or recovery forces by either free or constrained recovery shape memory effect (SME), respectively. By means of optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) marked structural changes caused by HT-HPT were revealed, along with fine and ultrafine crystalline grains. The presence of stress-induced ɛ-hexagonal close-packed ( hcp) martensite, together with nanocrystalline areas were confirmed by x-ray diffraction.

  2. Microstructure of arc brazed and diffusion bonded joints of stainless steel and SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elßner, M.; Weis, S.; Grund, T.; Wagner, G.; Habisch, S.; Mayr, P.

    2016-03-01

    Joint interfaces of aluminum and stainless steel often exhibit intermetallics of Al-Fe, which limit the joint strength. In order to reduce these brittle phases in joints of aluminum matrix composites (AMC) and stainless steel, diffusion bonding and arc brazing are used. Due to the absence of a liquid phase, diffusion welding can reduce the formation of these critical in- termetallics. For this joining technique, the influence of surface treatments and adjusted time- temperature-surface-pressure-regimes is investigated. On the other hand, arc brazing offers the advantage to combine a localized heat input with the application of a low melting filler and was conducted using the system Al-Ag-Cu. Results of the joining tests using both approaches are described and discussed with regard to the microstructure of the joints and the interfaces.

  3. Electrocatalytic oxidation of small organic molecules in acid medium: enhancement of activity of noble metal nanoparticles and their alloys by supporting or modifying them with metal oxides

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Pawel J.; Pieta, Izabela S.; Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Wadas, Anna; Marks, Diana; Klak, Karolina; Stobinski, Leszek; Cox, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Different approaches to enhancement of electrocatalytic activity of noble metal nanoparticles during oxidation of small organic molecules (namely potential fuels for low-temperature fuel cells such as methanol, ethanol and formic acid) are described. A physical approach to the increase of activity of catalytic nanoparticles (e.g. platinum or palladium) involves nanostructuring to obtain highly dispersed systems of high surface area. Recently, the feasibility of enhancing activity of noble metal systems through the formation of bimetallic (e.g. PtRu, PtSn, and PdAu) or even more complex (e.g. PtRuW, PtRuSn) alloys has been demonstrated. In addition to possible changes in the electronic properties of alloys, specific interactions between metals as well as chemical reactivity of the added components have been postulated. We address and emphasize here the possibility of utilization of noble metal and alloyed nanoparticles supported on robust but reactive high surface area metal oxides (e.g. WO3, MoO3, TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5, and CeO2) in oxidative electrocatalysis. This paper concerns the way in which certain inorganic oxides and oxo species can act effectively as supports for noble metal nanoparticles or their alloys during electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen and representative organic fuels. Among important issues are possible changes in the morphology and dispersion, as well as specific interactions leading to the improved chemisorptive and catalytic properties in addition to the feasibility of long time operation of the discussed systems. PMID:24443590

  4. Quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and activity towards ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammam, Malika; Easton, E. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    In this account, two series of quaternary PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, and Sn) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Sn) alloys catalysts have been synthesized and characterized by ICP, XRD, XPS, TEM and cyclic voltammetry. XRD spectra of each series illustrated that PtMnCuX/C (X = Fe, Co and Ni) and PtMnMoX/C (X = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) alloys have been formed without significant free Mn, Cu, Mo or X co-catalysts. For PtMnCuSn/C and PtMnMoSn/C, in addition to alloy formation, significant free Sn-oxides are present in each catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry revealed that all quaternary showed superior electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation compared to the ternary precursor. Also, shift of the onset potential of ethanol oxidation towards less positive values were also recorded with the quaternary alloys, demonstrating a facilitated oxidation with the quaternary alloys compared to ternary alloy precursor. The magnitude of the gain in potential depend on the alloy composition and PtMnMoSn/C was found to be the best of all synthetized quaternary alloys with an onset potential of ethanol oxidation of only 0.059 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  5. Two-beam Laser Brazing of Thin Sheet Steel for Automotive Industry Using Cu-base Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Reitemeyer, D.; Vollertsen, F.

    This work shows the potential of two-beam laser brazing for joining both Zn-coated steel and 22MnB5. Brazing of Zn-coated steel sheets using Cu-Si filler wire is already state of the art in car manufacturing. New press-hardened steels like 22MnB5 are more and more used in automotive industry, offering high potential to save costs and improve structural properties (reduced weight / higher stiffness). However, for joining of these ultra-high strength steels investigations are mandatory. In this paper, a novel approach using a two-beam laser brazing process and Cu-base filler material is presented. The use of Cu-base filler material leads to a reduced heat input, compared to currently applied welding processes, which may result in benefits concerning distortion, post processing and tensile strength of the joint. Reliable processing at desired high speeds is attained by means of laser-preheating. High feed rates prevent significant diffusion of copper into the base material.

  6. Composition-dependent electrocatalytic activity of palladium-iridium binary alloy nanoparticles supported on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the electro-oxidation of formic acid.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianming; Dou, Meiling; Liu, Haijing; Wang, Feng; Liu, Jingjun; Li, Zhilin; Ji, Jing

    2015-07-22

    Surface-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) supported Pd100-xIrx binary alloy nanoparticles (Pd100-xIrx/MWCNT) with tunable Pd/Ir atomic ratios were synthesized by a thermolytic process at varied ratios of bis(acetylacetonate) palladium(II) and iridium(III) 2,4-pentanedionate precursors and then applied as the electrocatalyst for the formic acid electro-oxidation. The X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed that the Pd100-xIrx alloy nanoparticles with the average size of 6.2 nm were uniformly dispersed on the MWCNTs and exhibited a single solid solution phase with a face-centered cubic structure. The electrocatalytic properties were evaluated through the cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests, and the results indicated that both the activity and stability of Pd100-xIrx/MWCNT were strongly dependent on the Pd/Ir atomic ratios: the best electrocatalytic performance in terms of onset potential, current density, and stability against CO poisoning was obtained for the Pd79Ir21/MWCNT. Moreover, compared with pure Pd nanoparticles supported on MWCNTs (Pd/MWCNT), the Pd79Ir21/MWCNT exhibited enhanced steady-state current density and higher stability, as well as maintained excellent electrocatalytic activity in high concentrated formic acid solution, which was attributed to the bifunctional effect through alloying Pd with transition metal. PMID:26132867

  7. Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like shape for oxygen evolution reaction with enhanced catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Tao; Wang, Wenliang; Zhou, Xiaoli; Zhang, Li; Wang, Chunde; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Weilai; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like wire shape has been achieved via a facile and moderate hydrothermal process at 120 °C for 1 h from the reaction of nickel nitrate and chloroplatinic acid in alkaline solution in the presence of ethanediamine and hydrazine hydrate. The holothuria-like alloyed NiPt wires are Ni-rich in composition (Ni23.6Pt) and uniform in diameter with many tiny tips outstretched from the wires surface. The holothuria-like wires are assembled from granular subunits with the assistance of capping molecular of ethanediamine and the wires display an improved oxygen evolution reaction catalytic activity.

  8. Silver deposition on polypyrrole films electrosynthesised onto Nitinol alloy. Corrosion protection and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Saugo, M; Flamini, D O; Brugnoni, L I; Saidman, S B

    2015-11-01

    The electrosynthesis of polypyrrole films onto Nitinol from sodium salicylate solutions of different concentrations is reported. The morphology and corrosion protection properties of the resulting coatings were examined and they both depend on the sodium salicylate concentration. The immobilisation of silver species in PPy films constituted by hollow rectangular microtubes was studied as a function of the polymer oxidation degree. The highest amount of silver was deposited when the coated electrode was prepolarised at -1.00V (SCE) before silver deposition, suggesting an increase in the amount of non-oxidised segments in the polymer. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the coating against the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria was evaluated. Both strains resulted sensitive to the modified coatings, obtaining a slightly better result against S. aureus. PMID:26249570

  9. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  10. Effect of chemically active medium on frequency dependence of magnetic losses in soft magnetic Fe-based amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulkina, N. A.; Ivanov, O. A.; Stepanova, E. A.; Pavlova, I. O.

    2013-03-01

    The effects of the electrolytic hydrogenation and oxidation and of the interaction of the surface ribbon with water and vapor on the frequency dependence of magnetic losses per magnetization-reversal cycle are studied based on the example of soft magnetic Fe81B13Si4C2 amorphous alloy, which exhibits a positive saturation magnetostriction. It was shown that, after the hydrogenation and oxidation of soft magnetic amorphous alloys, their frequency dependences of magnetic losses per magnetization-reversal cycle, which are reduced to unit induction, exhibit groups of hydrogen- and oxygen-related peaks in the frequency ranges of 35-55 and 55-80 Hz, which can be explained by the formation of O- A and H- A atomic pairs (where A are atoms of alloy components) and their reorientation in a magnetic field in the course of magnetization reversal at certain frequencies. The formation of analogous groups of peaks for samples of soft magnetic Fe-based amorphous alloys was observed after the interaction of the ribbon surface with water and vapor and after heat treatment in air. This fact confirms the possibility of the hydrogenation and oxidation of the alloys during the aforementioned processes.

  11. Lead alloys past present future

    SciTech Connect

    Bagshaw, N.E.

    1995-03-01

    The most critical non-active component in the lead acid battery is the grid of substrate. A review of the work on and grid alloys in the period 1960-1993 has been carried out by by the Advanced Lead-Acid Consortium, (ALABC), and, in this paper, the results are analyzed in relation to the effort expended in different alloy systems. Lead-antimony alloys and the effects on them of additions of arsenic, tin, and grain-refining elements (selenium, sulfur, copper), together with lead-calcium alloys and the effect on them of tin additions have received the greatest attention in the past.

  12. Use of a Ni60Ti shape memory alloy for active jet engine chevron application: I. Thermomechanical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, D. J.; Lagoudas, D. C.; Calkins, F. T.; Mabe, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    A shape memory alloy (SMA) with a composition of Ni60Ti40 (wt%) was chosen for the fabrication of active beam elements intended for use as cyclic actuators and incorporated into a morphing aerospace structure. The active structure is a variable-geometry chevron (VGC) designed to reduce jet engine noise in the take-off flight regime while maintaining efficiency in the cruise regime. This two-part work addresses the training, characterization and derived material properties of the new nickel-rich composition, the assessment of the actuation properties of the active beam actuator and the accurate analysis of the VGC and its subcomponents using a model calibrated from the material characterization. The characterization performed in part I of this work was intended to provide quantitative information used to predict the response of SMA beam actuators of the same composition and with the same heat treatment history. Material in the form of plates was received and ASTM standard tensile testing coupons were fabricated and tested. To fully characterize the material response as an actuator, various thermomechanical experiments were performed. Properties such as actuation strain and transformation temperatures as a function of applied stress were of primary interest. Results from differential scanning calorimetry, monotonic tensile loading and constant stress thermal loading for the as-received, untrained material are first presented. These show lower transformation temperatures, higher elastic stiffnesses (60-90 GPa) and lower recoverable transformation strains (≈1.5%) when compared to equiatomic NiTi (Nitinol). Stabilization (training) cycles were applied to the tensile specimens and characterization tests were repeated for the stable (trained) material. The effects of specimen training included the saturation of cyclically generated irrecoverable plastic strains and a broadening of the thermal transformation hysteresis. A set of final derived material properties for this

  13. Improved Electroformed Structural Copper and Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Hudson, W.; Babcock, B.; Edwards, R.

    1998-01-01

    Electroforming offers a superior means for fabricating internally cooled heat exchangers and structures subjected to thermal environments. Copper is deposited from many such applications because of the good thermal conductivity. It suffers from mediocre yield strength as a structural material and loses mechanical strength at intermediate temperatures. Mechanical properties similar to those of electroformed nickel are desired. Phase 1 examined innovative means to improve deposited copper structural performance. Yield strengths as high as 483 MPa (70 ksi) were obtained with useful ductility while retaining a high level of purity essential to good thermal conductivity. Phase 2 represents a program to explore new additive combinations in copper electrolytes to produce a more fine, equiaxed grain which can be thermally stabilized by other techniques such as alloying in modest degrees and dispersion strengthening. Evaluation of new technology - such as the codeposition of fullerness (diamond-like) particles were made to enhance thermal conductivity in low alloys. A test fire quality tube-bundle engine was fabricated using these copper property improvement concepts to show the superiority of the new coppers and fabrications methods over competitive technologies such as brazing and plasma deposition.

  14. Effect of material flow on joint strength in activation spot joining of Al alloy and steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Goro; Yogo, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki

    2014-08-01

    A new joining method for dissimilar metal sheets was developed where a rotated consumable rod of Al alloy is pressed onto an Al alloy sheet at the part overlapped with a mild steel sheet. The metal flow in the joining region is increased by the through-hole in the Al sheet and consumable Al rod. The rod creates the joint interface and pads out of the thinly joined parts through pressing. This produces a higher joint strength than that of conventional friction stir spot welding. Measurements of the joint interface showed the presence of a 5-10 nm thick amorphous layer consisting of Al and Mg oxides.

  15. Self-disintegrating Raney metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Oden, Laurance L.; Russell, James H.

    1979-01-01

    A method of preparing a Raney metal alloy which is capable of self-disintegrating when contacted with water vapor. The self-disintegrating property is imparted to the alloy by incorporating into the alloy from 0.4 to 0.8 weight percent carbon. The alloy is useful in forming powder which can be converted to a Raney metal catalyst with increased surface area and catalytic activity.

  16. New findings on the atomistic mechanisms active during mechanical milling of a Fe-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} model alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ressel, G.; Primig, S.; Parz, P.; Puff, W.; Leitner, H.; Clemens, H.

    2014-03-28

    In order to improve the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, several types of steels are mechanically alloyed with yttria. The processes that are active during milling differ dependent on the individual powder constituents. Nevertheless, some theories exist which try to describe the mechanism of producing a metastable phase during milling. However, even in the system iron–yttria, the mechanisms taking place during milling are still not well understood. By using the example of a simple iron–yttria model alloy, this paper attempts to elucidate the structure of mechanically milled powder particles and, consequently, to clarify the functionality of mechanical alloying in the last stage of milling. Positron annihilation experiments on milled materials revealed “open” volumes which are enriched in yttria. Electron backscatter diffraction and atom probe tomography as complimentary techniques allowed an identification of these “open” volumes as mainly vacancies, where enrichments of Y and O occur. From these results, it can be concluded that especially vacancies are responsible for producing a metastable phase, whereby yttria is dissolved in pure iron.

  17. Joining technologies for the 1990s: Welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical, explosive, solid-state, adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor); Stein, Bland A. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Society, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers Conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  18. Parameters optimization of laser brazing in crimping butt using Taguchi and BPNN-GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Youmin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Guojun; Yue, Chen; Gu, Yafei; Huang, Yu; Wang, Chunming; Shao, Xinyu

    2015-04-01

    The laser brazing (LB) is widely used in the automotive industry due to the advantages of high speed, small heat affected zone, high quality of welding seam, and low heat input. Welding parameters play a significant role in determining the bead geometry and hence quality of the weld joint. This paper addresses the optimization of the seam shape in LB process with welding crimping butt of 0.8 mm thickness using back propagation neural network (BPNN) and genetic algorithm (GA). A 3-factor, 5-level welding experiment is conducted by Taguchi L25 orthogonal array through the statistical design method. Then, the input parameters are considered here including welding speed, wire speed rate, and gap with 5 levels. The output results are efficient connection length of left side and right side, top width (WT) and bottom width (WB) of the weld bead. The experiment results are embed into the BPNN network to establish relationship between the input and output variables. The predicted results of the BPNN are fed to GA algorithm that optimizes the process parameters subjected to the objectives. Then, the effects of welding speed (WS), wire feed rate (WF), and gap (GAP) on the sum values of bead geometry is discussed. Eventually, the confirmation experiments are carried out to demonstrate the optimal values were effective and reliable. On the whole, the proposed hybrid method, BPNN-GA, can be used to guide the actual work and improve the efficiency and stability of LB process.

  19. Design of low loss helix circuits for interference fitted and brazed circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquez, A.

    1983-01-01

    The RF loss properties and thermal capability of brazed helix circuits and interference fitted circuits were evaluated. The objective was to produce design circuits with minimum RF loss and maximum heat transfer. These circuits were to be designed to operate at 10 kV and at 20 GHz using a gamma a approximately equal to 1.0. This represents a circuit diameter of only 0.75 millimeters. The fabrication of this size circuit and the 0.48 millimeter high support rods required considerable refinements in the assembly techniques and fixtures used on lower frequency circuits. The transition from the helices to the waveguide was designed and the circuits were matched from 20 to 40 GHz since the helix design is a broad band circuit and at a gamma a of 1.0 will operate over this band. The loss measurement was a transmission measurement and therefore had two such transitions. This resulting double-ended match required tuning elements to achieve the broad band match and external E-H tuners at each end to optimize the match for each frequency where the loss measurement was made. The test method used was a substitution method where the test fixture was replaced by a calibrated attenuator.

  20. ZIRCONIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Ames, D.P.

    1959-02-01

    A binary zirconiuin--antimony alloy is presented which is corrosion resistant and hard containing from 0.07% to 1.6% by weight of Sb. The alloys have good corrosion resistance and are useful in building equipment for the chemical industry.

  1. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  2. Effects of Thermal Cycling and Thermal Aging on the Hermeticity and Strength of Silver-Copper Oxide Air-Brazed Seals

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Coyle, Christopher A.; Darsell, Jens T.; Xia, Gordon; Hardy, John S.

    2005-12-01

    Thermal cycle and exposure tests were conducted on ceramic-to-metal joints prepared by a new sealing technique. Known as reactive air brazing, this joining method is currently being considered for use in sealing various high-temperature solid-state electrochemical devices, including planar solid oxide fuel cells (pSOFC). In order to simulate a typical pSOFC application, test specimens were prepared by joining ceramic anode/electrolyte bilayers to washers, of the same composition as the common frame materials employed in pSOFC stacks, using a filler metal composed of 4mol% CuO in silver. The brazed samples were exposure tested at 750°C for 200, 400, and 800hrs in both simulated fuel and air environments and thermally cycled at rapid rate (75°C/min) between room temperature and 750°C for as many as fifty cycles. Subsequent joint strength testing and microstructural analysis indicated that the samples exposure tested in air displayed little degradation with respect to strength, hermeticity, or microstructure out to 800hrs of exposure. Those tested in fuel showed no change in rupture strength or loss in hermeticity after 800hrs of high-temperature exposure, but did undergo microstructural change due to the dissolution of hydrogen into the silver-based braze material. Air brazed specimens subjected to rapid thermal cycling exhibited no loss in joint strength or hermeticity, but displayed initial signs of seal delamination along the braze/electrolyte interface after 50 cycles.

  3. Precipitation sensitivity to alloy composition in Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic steels developed for reduced activation for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Special austenitic steels are being designed in which alloying elements like Mo, Nb, and Ni are replaced with Mn, W, V, Ti, and/or Ta to reduce the long-term radioactivity induced by fusion reactor irradiation. However, the new steels still need to have properties otherwise similar to commercial steels like type 316. Precipitation strongly affects strength and radiation-resistance in austenitic steels during irradiation at 400--600/degree/C, and precipitation is also usually quite sensitive to alloy composition. The initial stage of development was to define a base Fe-Cr-Mn-C composition that formed stable austenite after annealing and cold-working, and resisted recovery or excessive formation of coarse carbide and intermetallic phases during elevated temperature annealing. These studies produced a Fe-12Cr-20Mn-0.25C base alloy. The next stage was to add the minor alloying elements W, Ti, V, P, and B for more strength and radiation-resistance. One of the goals was to produce fine MC precipitation behavior similar to the Ti-modified Fe-Cr-Ni prime candidate alloy (PCA). Additions of Ti+V+P+B produced fine MC precipitation along network dislocations and recovery/recrystallization resistance in 20% cold worked material aged at 800/degree/C for 166h, whereas W, Ti, W+Ti, or Ti+P+B additions did not. Addition of W+Ti+V+P+B also produced fine MC, but caused some sigma phase formation and more recrystallization as well. 29 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Influence of Chemical Composition of Mg Alloys on Surface Alloying by Diffusion Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirmke, J.; Zhang, M.-X.; St John, D. H.

    2012-05-01

    A recently developed technique of surface alloying by diffusion-coating has been used to produce coatings on Mg alloys with various Al and Zn contents. The experimental results show that both Al and Zn solutes in the alloy promote the diffusion of alloying elements through grain refinement of the substrate alloys and through reduction of diffusion active energy because of the reduction of melting temperature of the alloys. Therefore, the efficiency of surface alloying increases by diffusion coating. Thick, dense, uniform, and continuous layers of intermetallic compounds, which consist of a τ-phase layer and a β-phase layer, can be produced on the surface of various Mg alloys. The intermetallic compound layers not only have microhardness values that are 4 to 6 times higher than the substrate but also provide effective protection of the Mg alloys from corrosion in 5 pct NaCl solution at room temperature.

  5. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  6. Aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  7. The Effect of Active Phase of the Work Material on Machining Performance of a NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Yusuf; Karaca, Haluk E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Jawahir, I. S.

    2015-06-01

    Poor machinability with conventional machining processes is a major shortcoming that limits the manufacture of NiTi components. To better understand the effects of phase state on the machining performance of NiTi alloys, cutting temperature, tool-wear behavior, cutting force components, tool-chip contact length, chip thickness, and machined surface quality data were generated from a NiTi alloy using precooled cryogenic, dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), and preheated machining conditions. Findings reveal that machining NiTi in the martensite phase, which was achieved through precooled cryogenic machining, profoundly improved the machining performance by reducing cutting force components, notch wear, and surface roughness. Machining in the austenite state, achieved through preheating, did not provide any benefit over dry and MQL machining, and these processes were, in general, inferior to cryogenic machining in terms of machining performance, particularly at higher cutting speeds.

  8. R410A condensation inside a commercial brazed plate heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Giovanni A.

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents the heat transfer coefficients and the pressure drop measured during HFC-410A condensation inside a commercial brazed plate heat exchanger: the effects of saturation temperature, refrigerant mass flux and vapour super-heating are investigated. The heat transfer coefficients show weak sensitivity to saturation temperature and great sensitivity to refrigerant mass flux and vapour super-heating. At low refrigerant mass flux (<20 kg/m{sup 2} s) the saturated vapour condensation heat transfer coefficients are not dependent on mass flux and are well predicted by Nusselt [W. Nusselt, Die oberflachenkondensation des wasserdampfes, Energy 60 (1916) 541-546, 569-575] analysis for vertical surface: the condensation process is gravity controlled. For higher refrigerant mass flux (>20 kg/m{sup 2}s) the saturated vapour condensation heat transfer coefficients depend on mass flux and are well predicted by Akers et al. [W.W. Akers, H.A. Deans, O.K. Crosser, Condensing heat transfer within horizontal tubes, Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Series 55 (1959) 171-176] equation: forced convection condensation occurs. In the forced convection condensation region the heat transfer coefficients show a 30% increase for a doubling of the refrigerant mass flux. The condensation heat transfer coefficients of super-heated vapour are 8-10% higher than those of saturated vapour and are well predicted by Webb [R.L. Webb, Convective condensation of superheated vapor, ASME J. Heat Transfer 120 (1998) 418-421] model. A simple linear equation based on the kinetic energy per unit volume of the refrigerant flow is proposed for the computation of the frictional pressure drop. (author)

  9. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  10. Summary of Prior Work on Joining of Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Ian G; Tatlock, Gordon J; Badairy, H.; Chen, C-L.

    2009-08-01

    There is a range of joining techniques available for use with ODS alloys, but care should be exercised in matching the technique to the final duty requirements of the joint. The goal for joining ODS alloys is a joint with no local disruption of the distribution of the oxide dispersion, and no significant change in the size and orientation of the alloy microstructure. Not surprisingly, the fusion welding processes typically employed with wrought alloys produce the least satisfactory results with ODS alloys, but some versions, such as fusion spot welding, and the laser and electron-beam welding technologies, have demonstrated potential for producing sound joints. Welds made using solid-state spot welding reportedly have exhibited parent metal properties. Thus, it is possible to employ processes that result in significant disruption of the alloy microstructure, as long as the processing parameters are adjustment to minimize the extent of or influence of the changes in the alloy microstructure. Selection among these joining approaches largely depends on the particular application and component configuration, and an understanding of the relationships among processing, alloy microstructure, and final properties is key. Recent developments have resulted in friction welding evolving to be a prime method for joining ODS sheet products, and variants of brazing/diffusion bonding have shown excellent promise for use with tubes and pipes. The techniques that come closest to the goal defined above involve solid-state diffusion bonding and, in particular, it has been found that secondary recrystallization of joints made by pulsed plasma-assisted diffusion can produce the desired, continuous, large alloy grain structure through the joint. Such joints have exhibited creep rupture failure at >82% of the load needed to fail the monolithic parent alloy at 1000 C.

  11. Role of chemical composition in the enhanced catalytic activity of Pt-based alloyed ultrathin nanowires for the hydrogen oxidation reaction under alkaline conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Megan E. Scofield; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Zhou, Yuchen; Yue, Shiyu; Wang, Lei; Su, Dong; Tong, Xiao; Vukmirovic, Miomir B.; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2016-05-19

    With the increased interest in the development of hydrogen fuel cells as a plausible alternative to internal combustion engines, recent work has focused on creating alkaline fuel cells (AFC), which employ an alkaline environment. Working in alkaline as opposed to acidic media yields a number of tangible benefits, including (i) the ability to use cheaper and plentiful precious-metal-free catalysts, due to their increased stability, (ii) a reduction in the amount of degradation and corrosion of Pt-based catalysts, and (iii) a longer operational lifetime for the overall fuel cell configuration. However, in the absence of Pt, no catalyst has achieved activitiesmore » similar to those of Pt. Herein, we have synthesized a number of crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) (M = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, Au) in order to replace a portion of the costly Pt metal without compromising on activity while simultaneously adding in metals known to exhibit favorable synergistic ligand and strain effects with respect to the host lattice. In fact, our experiments confirm theoretical insights about a clear and correlative dependence between measured activity and chemical composition. We have conclusively demonstrated that our as-synthesized alloy NW catalysts yield improved hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) activities as compared with a commercial Pt standard as well as with our as-synthesized Pt NWs. The Pt7Ru3 NW system, in particular, quantitatively achieved an exchange current density of 0.493 mA/cm2, which is higher than the corresponding data for Pt NWs alone. In addition, the HOR activities follow the same expected trend as their calculated hydrogen binding energy (HBE) values, thereby confirming the critical importance and correlation of HBE with the observed activities.« less

  12. Platinum-ruthenium-palladium alloys for use as a fuel cell catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    A noble metal alloy composition for a fuel cell catalyst, a ternary alloy composition containing platinum, ruthenium and palladium. The alloy shows increased activity as compared to well-known catalysts.

  13. The Effect of Artificial Aging on The Bond Strength of Heat-activated Acrylic Resin to Surface-treated Nickel-chromium-beryllium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S.; Zinelis, Spiros; Al Taweel, Sara M.; Nagy, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The debonding load of heat-activated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin material to a nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) alloy conditioned by three different surface treatments and utilizing two different commercial bonding systems was investigated. Materials and Methods Denture resin (Lucitone-199) was bonded to Ni-Cr-Be alloy specimens treated with Metal Primer II, the Rocatec system with opaquer and the Rocatec system without opaquer. Denture base resin specimens bonded to non-treated sandblasted Ni-Cr-Be alloy were used as controls. Twenty samples for each treatment condition (80 specimens) were tested. The 80 specimens were divided into two categories, thermocycled and non-thermocycled, containing four groups of ten specimens each. The non-thermocycled specimens were tested after 48 hours’ storage in room temperature water. The thermocycled specimens were tested after 2,000 cycles in 4°C and 55°C water baths. The debonding load was calculated in Newtons (N), and collected data were subjected by non parametric test Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance on Ranks and Dunn’s post hoc test at the α = 0.05. Results The Metal Primer II and Rocatec system without opaquer groups produced significantly higher bond strengths (119.9 and 67.6 N), respectively, than did the sandblasted and Rocatec system with opaquer groups, where the bond strengths were 2.6 N and 0 N, respectively. The Metal Primer II was significantly different from all other groups (P<0.05). The bond strengths of all groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05) after thermocycling. Conclusions Although thermocycling had a detrimental effect on the debonding load of all surface treatments tested, the Metal Primer II system provided higher values among all bonding systems tested, before and after thermocycling. PMID:27335613

  14. Alloy chemistry and microstructural control to meet the demands of the automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine now under development by DOE/NASA as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, imposes severe materials requirements for the hot portion of the engine. Materials selected must be low cost and contain a minimum of strategic elements so that availability is not a problem. Heater head tubes contain high pressure hydrogen on the inside and are exposed to hot combustion gases on the outside surface. The cylinders and regenerator housings must be readily castable into complex shapes having varying wall thicknesses and be amenable to brazing and welding operations. Also, high strength, oxidation resistance, resistance to hydrogen permeation, cyclic operation, and long-life are required. A research program conducted by NASA Lewis focused on alloy chemistry and microstructural control to achieve the desired properties over the life of the engine. Results of alloy selection, characterization, evaluation, and actual engine testing of selected materials are presented.

  15. Alloy chemistry and microstructural control to meet the demands of the automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine now under development by DOE/NASA as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, imposes severe materials requirements for the hot portion of the engine. Materials selected must be low cost and contain a minimum of strategic elements so that availability is not a problem. Heater head tubes contain high pressure hydrogen on the inside and are exposed to hot combustion gases on the outside surface. The cylinders and regenerator housings must be readily castable into complex shapes having varying wall thicknesses and be amenable to brazing and welding operations. Also, high strength, oxidation resistance, resistance to hydrogen permeation, cyclic operation, and long-life are required. A research program conducted by NASA Lewis focused on alloy chemistry and microstructural control to achieve the desired properties over the life of the engine. Results of alloy selection, characterization, evaluation, and actual engine testing of selected materials are presented.

  16. Formation of Brittle Phases During Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Titanium to Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shouzheng; Li, Yajiang; Wang, Juan; Liu, Kun

    2014-04-01

    Welding of titanium alloy TA15 to aluminum alloy Al 2024 was conducted by pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding using AlSi12 filler metal. Formation process of phases near the Ti/Al interface was discussed. Titanium and aluminum were partially fusion welded in the upper part while brazed together in the middle and bottom parts of the joint. In the upper part of the joint, intermetallics Ti3Al + Ti5Si3, TiAl + Ti5Si3, and TiAl3 were formed as three layers orderly from the titanium side to the weld metal. In the middle and bottom parts of the joint, intermetallics Ti5Si3 and TiAl3 were formed as two layers near the Ti/Al interface.

  17. Determination of the activation enthalpy for migration of dislocations in plastically deformed 8006 Al-alloy by positron annihilation lifetime technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Mohammed; Abdel-Rahman, M.; Badawi, Emad A.; Abdel-Rahman, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The activation enthalpy for migration of dislocations of plastically deformed 8006 Al-alloy was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime technique. Plastic deformation using a hydraulic press produces mainly dislocations and may produce point defects. The type of defect was studied by isochronal annealing which determines the temperature range of recovery of each type. Only one type of defect (dislocations) was observed for the investigated sample and was found to be recovered within the range 455-700 K. Isothermal annealing by slow cooling was performed through this range and used in determination of the activation enthalpy of migration of dislocations which was found to be 0.26 ± 0.01 eV.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium-aluminium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Chukin, A. V.; Smolenski, V. V.; Novoselova, A. V.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga-Al alloys containing 0.014-20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium-aluminium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Chukin, A. V.; Smolenski, V. V.; Novoselova, A. V.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga-Al alloys containing 0.014-20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated.

  20. Multi-component nanoporous platinum-ruthenium-copper-osmium-iridium alloy with enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoting; Si, Conghui; Gao, Yulai; Frenzel, Jan; Sun, Junzhe; Eggeler, Gunther; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Multi-component nanoporous platinum-ruthenium-copper-osmium-iridium (np-PtRuCuOsIr) electrocatalyst has been facilely fabricated by chemical dealloying of mechanically alloyed AlCuPtRuOsIr precursor. The np-PtRuCuOsIr catalyst exhibits a typical three-dimensional bi-continuous interpenetrating ligament/channel structure with a length scale of ∼2.5 nm. The np-PtRuCuOsIr catalyst reaches a higher level in the mass activity (857.5 mA mgPt-1) and specific activity (3.0 mA cm-2) towards methanol oxidation compared to the commercial PtC catalyst (229.5 mA mgPt-1 and 0.5 mA cm-2 respectively). Moreover, the CO stripping peak of np-PtRuCuOsIr is 0.54 V (vs. SCE), 130 mV negative shift in comparison with the commercial PtC (0.67 V vs. SCE). The half-wave potential of np-PtRuCuOsIr is 0.900 V vs. RHE, 36 mV positive compared with that of the commercial PtC (0.864 V vs. RHE). The np-PtRuCuOsIr catalyst also shows 1.8 and 3.8 times enhancement in the mass and specific activity towards oxygen reduction than the commercial PtC. Moreover, the np-PtRuCuOsIr alloy exhibits superior oxygen reduction activities even after 15 K cycles, indicating its excellent long-term stability. The present np-PtRuCuOsIr can act as a promising candidate for the electrocatalyst in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).