Science.gov

Sample records for active breathing coordinator

  1. Coordination of breathing with nonrespiratory activities.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, James C

    2012-04-01

    Many articles in this section of Comprehensive Physiology are concerned with the development and function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for the control of breathing in vertebrate animals. The action of the respiratory CPG is extensively modified by cortical and other descending influences as well as by feedback from peripheral sensory systems. The central nervous system also incorporates other CPGs, which orchestrate a wide variety of discrete and repetitive, voluntary and involuntary movements. The coordination of breathing with these other activities requires interaction and coordination between the respiratory CPG and those governing the nonrespiratory activities. Most of these interactions are complex and poorly understood. They seem to involve both conventional synaptic crosstalk between groups of neurons and fluid identity of neurons as belonging to one CPG or another: neurons that normally participate in breathing may be temporarily borrowed or hijacked by a competing or interrupting activity. This review explores the control of breathing as it is influenced by many activities that are generally considered to be nonrespiratory. The mechanistic detail varies greatly among topics, reflecting the wide variety of pertinent experiments.

  2. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaza, E.; Symonds-Tayler, R.; Collins, D. J.; McDonald, F.; McNair, H. A.; Scurr, E.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.

    2015-02-01

    A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment.

  3. Reproducibility of liver position using active breathing coordinator for liver cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Hawkins, Maria; Dawson, Laura A. . E-mail: laura.dawson@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To measure the intrabreath-hold liver motion and the intrafraction and interfraction reproducibility of liver position relative to vertebral bodies using an active breathing coordinator (ABC) in patients with unresectable liver cancer treated with hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Tolerability of ABC and organ motion during ABC was assessed using kV fluoroscopy in 34 patients. For patients treated with ABC, repeat breath-hold CT scans in the ABC breath-hold position were acquired at simulation to estimate the volumetric intrafraction reproducibility of the liver relative to the vertebral bodies. In addition, preceding each radiation therapy fraction, with the liver immobilized using ABC, repeat anteroposterior (AP) megavoltage verification images were obtained. Off-line alignments were completed to determine intrafraction reproducibility (from repeat images obtained before one treatment) and interfraction reproducibility (from comparisons of the final image for each fraction with the AP) of diaphragm position relative to vertebral bodies. For each image set, the vertebral bodies were aligned, and the resultant craniocaudal (CC) offset in diaphragm position was measured. Liver position during ABC was also evaluated from kV fluoroscopy acquired at the time of simulation, kV fluoroscopy at the time of treatment, and from MV beam's-eye view movie loops acquired during treatment. Results: Twenty-one of 34 patients were screened to be suitable for ABC. The average free breathing range of these patients was 13 mm (range, 5-1 mm). Fluoroscopy revealed that the average maximal diaphragm motion during ABC breath-hold was 1.4 mm (range, 0-3.4 mm). The MV treatment movie loops confirmed diaphragm stability during treatment. For a measure of intrafraction reproducibility, an analysis of 36 repeat ABC computed tomography (CT) scans in 14 patients was conducted. The average mean difference in the liver surface position was -0.9 mm, -0

  4. Coordination of tongue activity during swallowing in mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Knösel, Michael; Klein, Sabine; Bleckmann, Annalen; Engelke, Wilfried

    2012-09-01

    Habitual mouth breathing is often accompanied by habitual anterior tongue thrust, instead of a lip closure, in order to create the anterior seal necessary for the initiation of physiological deglutition. We tested the null hypothesis of no significant influence of oral maneuver and the use of oral screens on tongue coordination and position during deglutition in 29 subjects (age = 6-16; mean = 9.69 years; 13/16 female/male) with habitual open-mouth posture using intraoral polysensography. The target parameters for swallowing were swallowing-associated nasal airflow interruption (NAI) and coordination of tongue-palate contact during NAI. Conventional myofunctional maneuvers could be facilitated and made more efficient, in terms of increasing the numbers of favorable early tongue-palate contacts typical of somatic swallowing, if accompanied by the application of an oral screen. Habitual open-mouth breathing does not necessarily coincide with distinctively pronounced proportions of late tongue-palate contact.

  5. The Use of the Active Breathing Coordinator Throughout Radical Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Juliet; McNair, Helen A.; Panakis, Niki; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; Evans, Phil M.; Brada, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To assess feasibility and reproducibility of an Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC) used throughout radical radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer, and compare lung dosimetric parameters between free-breathing and ABC plans. Methods and Materials: A total of 18 patients, recruited into an approved study, had free-breathing and ABC breath-hold treatment plans generated. Lung volume, the percentage volume of lung treated to a dose of {>=}20 Gy (V{sub 20}), and mean lung dose (MLD) were compared. Treatment (64 Gy in 32 fractions, 5 days/week) was delivered in breath-hold. Repeat breath-hold computed tomography scans were used to assess change in gross tumor volume (GTV) size and position. Setup error was also measured and potential GTV-planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated. Results: Seventeen of 18 patients completed radiotherapy using ABC daily. Intrafraction tumor position was consistent, but interfraction variation had mean (range) values of 5.1 (0-25), 3.6 (0-9.7), and 3.5 (0-16.6) mm in the superoinferior (SI), right-left (RL), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively. Tumor moved partially outside the PTV in 5 patients. Mean reduction in GTV from planning to end of treatment was 25% (p = 0.003). Potentially required PTV margins were 18.1, 11.9, and 11.9 mm in SI, RL, and AP directions. ABC reduced V{sub 20} by 13% (p = 0.0001), V{sub 13} by 12% (p = 0.001), and MLD by 13% (p < 0.001) compared with free-breathing; lung volume increased by 41% (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Clinically significant movements of GTV were seen during radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer using ABC. Image guidance is recommended with ABC. The use of ABC can reduce dose volume parameters determining lung toxicity, and might allow for equitoxic radiotherapy dose escalation.

  6. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx serve multiple functions in breathing, speaking, mastication and swallowing. Thus, the fine temporal coordination of feeding among breathing, mastication and swallowing is essential to provide proper food nutrition and to prevent pulmonary aspiration. This review paper will review the temporo-spatial coordination of the movements of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal structures during mastication and swallowing, and temporal coordination between breathing, mastication, and swallowing. PMID:20161022

  7. Analysis of coordination between breathing and walking rhythms in humans.

    PubMed

    Rassler, B; Kohl, J

    1996-12-01

    We investigated the coordination between breathing and walking in humans to elucidate whether the coordination degree depends more on metabolic load or on breathing or stride frequencies and whether coordination causes energetic economization expressed by reduction of oxygen uptake (VO2). Eighteen healthy volunteers walked on a treadmill at three load levels realized by different velocities and slopes. We analyzed the time intervals between step onset and the onset of inspiration or expiration related to stride duration (relative phase, phi) and computed the relative-phase histogram to assess the degree of coordination. The degree of coordination between breathing and stepping enhanced with increasing walking speed. Increased work load achieved by slope at constant walking speed improved coordination only slightly. No significant VO2 reduction due to coordination was found. VO2 was more strongly related to ventilation variations occurring during coordination. Also the sympathetic tone reflected by the spectral power of heart rate variability was not reduced during coordination. We conclude that during walking the coordination degree increases with increasing stride frequency and that coordination does not necessarily cause energetic economization.

  8. Variations in CT determination of target volume with active breath co-ordinate in radiotherapy for post-operative gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gui-Chao; Ma, Xue-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Li; Hu, Wei-Gang; Wang, Jia-Zhou; Li, Qi-Wen; Liang, Li-Ping; Shen, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate interobserver and inter-CT variations in using the active breath co-ordinate technique in the determination of clinical tumour volume (CTV) and normal organs in post-operative gastric cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Ten gastric cancer patients were enrolled in our study, and four radiation oncologists independently determined the CTVs and organs at risk based on the CT simulation data. To determine interobserver and inter-CT variation, we evaluated the maximum dimensions, derived volume and distance between the centres of mass (CMs) of the CTVs. We assessed the reliability in CTV determination among the observers by conformity index (CI). Results: The average volumes ± standard deviation (cm3) of the CTV, liver, left kidney and right kidney were 674 ± 138 (range, 332–969), 1000 ± 138 (range, 714–1320), 149 ± 13 (range, 104–183) and 141 ± 21 (range, 110–186) cm3, respectively. The average inter-CT distances between the CMs of the CTV, liver, left kidney and right kidney were 0.40, 0.56, 0.65 and 0.6 cm, respectively; the interobserver values were 0.98, 0.53, 0.16 and 0.15 cm, respectively. Conclusions: In the volume size of CTV for post-operative gastric cancer, there were significant variations among multiple observers, whereas there was no variation between different CTs. The slices in which variations more likely occur were the slices of the lower verge of the hilum of the spleen and porta hepatis, then the paraoesophageal lymph nodes region and abdominal aorta, and the inferior vena cava, and the variation in the craniocaudal orientation from the interobserver was more predominant than that from inter-CT. Advances in knowledge: First, this is the first study to evaluate the interobserver and inter-CT variations in the determination of the CTV and normal organs in gastric cancer with the use of the active breath co-ordinate technique. Second, we analysed the region where variations most likely occur

  9. SPECT Analysis of Cardiac Perfusion Changes After Whole-Breast/Chest Wall Radiation Therapy With or Without Active Breathing Coordinator: Results of a Randomized Phase 3 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Zellars, Richard; Bravo, Paco E.; Tryggestad, Erik; Hopfer, Kari; Myers, Lee; Tahari, Abdel; Asrari, Fariba; Ziessman, Harvey; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Cardiac muscle perfusion, as determined by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), decreases after breast and/or chest wall (BCW) irradiation. The active breathing coordinator (ABC) enables radiation delivery when the BCW is farther from the heart, thereby decreasing cardiac exposure. We hypothesized that ABC would prevent radiation-induced cardiac toxicity and conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating myocardial perfusion changes after radiation for left-sided breast cancer with or without ABC. Methods and Materials: Stages I to III left breast cancer patients requiring adjuvant radiation therapy (XRT) were randomized to ABC or No-ABC. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by SPECT scans (before and 6 months after BCW radiation) using 2 methods: (1) fully automated quantitative polar mapping; and (2) semiquantitative visual assessment. The left ventricle was divided into 20 segments for the polar map and 17 segments for the visual method. Segments were grouped by anatomical rings (apical, mid, basal) or by coronary artery distribution. For the visual method, 2 nuclear medicine physicians, blinded to treatment groups, scored each segment's perfusion. Scores were analyzed with nonparametric tests and linear regression. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 57 patients were enrolled and 43 were available for analysis. The cohorts were well matched. The apical and left anterior descending coronary artery segments had significant decreases in perfusion on SPECT scans in both ABC and No-ABC cohorts. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, controlling for pretreatment perfusion score, age, and chemotherapy, ABC was not significantly associated with prevention of perfusion deficits. Conclusions: In this randomized controlled trial, ABC does not appear to prevent radiation-induced cardiac perfusion deficits.

  10. Effect of breathing pattern on arm coordination symmetry in front crawl.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Chehensse, Amelie; Tourny-Chollet, Claire; Lemaitre, Frederic; Chollet, Didier

    2008-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between breathing pattern and arm coordination symmetry in 11 expert male swimmers who performed the front crawl at their 100-m race pace using seven randomized breathing patterns. Two indexes of coordination (IdCP and IdCNP) and a symmetry index (SI) based on the difference of IdCP - IdCNP were calculated. IdCP calculated the lag time between the beginning of arm propulsion on the nonpreferential breathing side and the end of arm propulsion on the preferential breathing side; IdCNP did the converse. The IdCP and IdCNP comparisons and the SI showed coordination asymmetries among the seven breathing patterns. Specifically, breathing to the preferential side led to an asymmetry, in contrast to the other breathing patterns, and the asymmetry was even greater when the swimmer breathed to his nonpreferential side. These findings highlight the effect of breathing laterality in that coordination was symmetric in patterns with breathing that was bilateral, axed (as in breathing with a frontal snorkel), or removed (as in apnea). One practical application is that arm coordination asymmetry can be prevented or reduced by using breathing patterns that balance the coordination. PMID:18714216

  11. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (P<0.05). Chewing cycle variance during mouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (P<0.05). Mouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  12. The Air We Breathe. Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

    This packet of materials is intended to provide teachers with an interdisciplinary approach to integrating air quality education into the existing curriculum of Connecticut schools. The unit is designed to complement the student booklet "The Air We Breathe," which is included. A major portion of the document is comprised of teaching activities.…

  13. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  14. Coordination-related changes in the rhythms of breathing and walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Rassler, B; Kohl, J

    2000-07-01

    Coordination of the respiratory rhythm with the rhythm of limb movements has often been observed during rhythmical exercise (e.g. in locomotion). It is usually associated with changes in the respiratory time course, but not in the locomotor rhythm. Therefore, we hypothesised that in walking, the extent of coordination-related changes (CRC) in respiratory parameters would increase with closer coordination. With respect to the controversially discussed question of a possible energetic advantage due to coordination, we devoted particular interest to the CRC in oxygen uptake (VO2). In addition, we investigated the incidence and the extent of CRC in the stepping rhythm. We examined 18 volunteers walking on a treadmill at three different workload levels, which were adjusted by altering either the velocity or slope of the treadmill. Each walking test was carried out twice, once with spontaneous breathing and once with breathing paced by a step-related acoustic signal to enhance the coordination between breathing and walking. No correlation was found between the CRC in the analysed parameters and the degree of coordination. However, the extent of CRC of ventilation and VO2 decreased with increasing workload. With the transition to coordination, increases and decreases of VO2 occurred about equally often. From this we conclude that energetic economisation in walking, as reflected by a reduction in VO2, is rather a side-effect of coordination, and is probably due to a more precise regulation of the breathing pattern. The economisation was more pronounced at higher work loads than at lower work loads. Our results revealed that coordination is also associated with changes in the stepping rate, which occurred more frequently when the variability of breathing was restricted by acoustic pacing of the breathing rhythm. This finding suggests that the choice of walking rhythm is not completely free, but can be influenced by the breathing rhythm. CRC in the walking rhythm might

  15. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Gagel, Bernd . E-mail: BGagel@UKAachen.de; Demirel, Cengiz M.P.; Kientopf, Aline; Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc; Stanzel, Sven; Breuer, Christian; Asadpour, Branka; Jansen, Thomas; Holy, Richard; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Eble, Michael J.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins.

  16. Shared Activity Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. In domains where agents have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus in real time. We briefly describe a largely unexplored class of real-time, distributed planning problems (inspired by interacting spacecraft missions), new challenges they pose, and a general approach to solving the problems. These problems involve self-interested agents that have infrequent communication but collaborate on joint activities. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities in a dynamic environment, a soft, real-time approach to reaching consensus during execution with limited communication, and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We apply SHAC to a realistic simulation of interacting Mars missions and illustrate the simplicity of protocol development.

  17. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, G; Yin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group, 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.

  18. Intra- and Inter-personal Coordination of Speech, Gesture and Breathing Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Koji; Furuyama, Nobuhiro; Takase, Hiroki

    This study is meant to contribute, from a psychological viewpoint, to the development of a ``symbiotic'' system, an intelligent system capable of ``living with'' human beings. We approach this by examining how people interact gesturally with each other, with a special focus on breathing movements. Within this general framework, the present paper reports two experiments conducted to examine the dynamics underlying intra- and inter-personal coordination of speech articulation, hand gesture movements, and breathing movements. The results reveal similarities as well as differences between intra- and inter-personal coordination, and we discuss their implications for existing theories of motor coordination, as well as for the development of human-machine symbiotic systems.

  19. The influence of volition on breathing-swallowing coordination in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bronwen N; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Jones, Richard D; Carroll, Grant J

    2007-12-01

    This research was designed to clarify the role of cortical modulation in the coordination of respiration and swallowing. Time-locked recordings of submental surface electromyography, nasal airflow, and thyroid acoustics were used to evaluate nonnutritive breathing-swallowing coordination (BSC) and swallowing apnea duration (SAD) of 20 healthy adults during 3 conditions. These conditions represented a continuum of volitional through nonvolitional swallowing control on the basis of a decreasing level of cortical activation: voluntarily initiated swallows during wakefulness, nonvolitional awake swallows, and reflexively initiated swallows during sleep. Differing proportions of swallows at the cusps between inspiration and expiration were found between the volitional and nonvolitional conditions, irrespective of the level of arousal. SAD was unaltered by condition. In conclusion, BSC is influenced by degree of volition but not by level of arousal. This implies that cortical influence on BSC is limited to conditions in which swallowing is voluntarily initiated and indirectly implicates the recruitment of the supplementary motor or insular cortices. SAD remained stable across conditions and may therefore be considered relatively impervious to suprabulbar influence.

  20. Continual coordination of shared activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B. J.; Barrett, A.

    2002-01-01

    Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. For domains with varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently achieve their goals. ShAC (Shared Activity Coordination) is a framework for designing coordination protocols and an algorithm for continually coordinating agents using these protocols during execution. We show how a variety of protocols can be constructed using this framework and describe how ShAC coordinates two rovers and an orbiter in a simulated Mars scenario.

  1. Impact loading and locomotor-respiratory coordination significantly influence breathing dynamics in running humans.

    PubMed

    Daley, Monica A; Bramble, Dennis M; Carrier, David R

    2013-01-01

    Locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), phase-locking between breathing and stepping rhythms, occurs in many vertebrates. When quadrupedal mammals gallop, 1∶1 stride per breath coupling is necessitated by pronounced mechanical interactions between locomotion and ventilation. Humans show more flexibility in breathing patterns during locomotion, using LRC ratios of 2∶1, 2.5∶1, 3∶1, or 4∶1 and sometimes no coupling. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence on the mechanical significance of LRC in running humans. Some studies suggest LRC improves breathing efficiency, but others suggest LRC is mechanically insignificant because 'step-driven flows' (ventilatory flows attributable to step-induced forces) contribute a negligible fraction of tidal volume. Yet, although step-driven flows are brief, they cause large fluctuations in ventilatory flow. Here we test the hypothesis that running humans use LRC to minimize antagonistic effects of step-driven flows on breathing. We measured locomotor-ventilatory dynamics in 14 subjects running at a self-selected speed (2.6±0.1 ms(-1)) and compared breathing dynamics in their naturally 'preferred' and 'avoided' entrainment patterns. Step-driven flows occurred at 1-2X step frequency with peak magnitudes of 0.97±0.45 Ls(-1) (mean ±S.D). Step-driven flows varied depending on ventilatory state (high versus low lung volume), suggesting state-dependent changes in compliance and damping of thoraco-abdominal tissues. Subjects naturally preferred LRC patterns that minimized antagonistic interactions and aligned ventilatory transitions with assistive phases of the step. Ventilatory transitions initiated in 'preferred' phases within the step cycle occurred 2x faster than those in 'avoided' phases. We hypothesize that humans coordinate breathing and locomotion to minimize antagonistic loading of respiratory muscles, reduce work of breathing and minimize rate of fatigue. Future work could address the potential consequences of

  2. Impact loading and locomotor-respiratory coordination significantly influence breathing dynamics in running humans.

    PubMed

    Daley, Monica A; Bramble, Dennis M; Carrier, David R

    2013-01-01

    Locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), phase-locking between breathing and stepping rhythms, occurs in many vertebrates. When quadrupedal mammals gallop, 1∶1 stride per breath coupling is necessitated by pronounced mechanical interactions between locomotion and ventilation. Humans show more flexibility in breathing patterns during locomotion, using LRC ratios of 2∶1, 2.5∶1, 3∶1, or 4∶1 and sometimes no coupling. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence on the mechanical significance of LRC in running humans. Some studies suggest LRC improves breathing efficiency, but others suggest LRC is mechanically insignificant because 'step-driven flows' (ventilatory flows attributable to step-induced forces) contribute a negligible fraction of tidal volume. Yet, although step-driven flows are brief, they cause large fluctuations in ventilatory flow. Here we test the hypothesis that running humans use LRC to minimize antagonistic effects of step-driven flows on breathing. We measured locomotor-ventilatory dynamics in 14 subjects running at a self-selected speed (2.6±0.1 ms(-1)) and compared breathing dynamics in their naturally 'preferred' and 'avoided' entrainment patterns. Step-driven flows occurred at 1-2X step frequency with peak magnitudes of 0.97±0.45 Ls(-1) (mean ±S.D). Step-driven flows varied depending on ventilatory state (high versus low lung volume), suggesting state-dependent changes in compliance and damping of thoraco-abdominal tissues. Subjects naturally preferred LRC patterns that minimized antagonistic interactions and aligned ventilatory transitions with assistive phases of the step. Ventilatory transitions initiated in 'preferred' phases within the step cycle occurred 2x faster than those in 'avoided' phases. We hypothesize that humans coordinate breathing and locomotion to minimize antagonistic loading of respiratory muscles, reduce work of breathing and minimize rate of fatigue. Future work could address the potential consequences of

  3. Non-invasive UWB sensing of astronauts' breathing activity.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Marco; Cerri, Graziano; Chiaraluce, Franco; Eusebi, Lorenzo; Russo, Paola

    2014-12-30

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed.

  4. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts' Breathing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Marco; Cerri, Graziano; Chiaraluce, Franco; Eusebi, Lorenzo; Russo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed. PMID:25558995

  5. Continual coordination through shared activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. In domains where agents have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus in real time. We briefly describe a largely unexplored class of realtime, distributed planning problems (inspired by interacting spacecraft missions), new challenges they pose, and a general approach to solving the problems. These problems involve self-interested agents that have infrequent communication but collaborate on joint activities. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities over the lifetimes of separate missions, a soft, real-time approach to reaching consensus during execution with limited communication, and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We apply SHAC to a realistic simulation of interacting Mars missions and illustrate the simplicity of protocol development.

  6. Health Activities Project (HAP): Breathing Fitness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing four activities which involve students in learning how to measure their…

  7. Acute theophylline exposure modulates breathing activity through a cervical contusion.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Kevin C; Alilain, Warren J

    2015-09-01

    Cervical spinal contusion injuries are the most common form of spinal cord injury (>50%) observed in humans. These injuries can result in the impaired ability to breathe. In this study we examine the role of theophylline in the rescue of breathing behavior after a cervical spinal contusion. Previous research in the C2 hemisection model has shown that acute administration of theophylline can rescue phrenic nerve activity and diaphragmatic EMG on the side ipsilateral to injury. However, this effect is dependent on intact and uninjured pathways. In this study we utilized a cervical contusion injury model that more closely mimics the human condition. This injury model can determine the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, in this case theophylline, on the isolated contused pathways of the spinal cord. Three weeks after a 150 kD C3/4 unilateral contusion subjects received a 15 mg/kg dose of theophylline prior to a contralateral C2 hemisection. Subjects that received theophylline were able to effectively utilize damaged pathways to breathe for up to 2 min, while subjects treated with saline were unable to support ventilation. Through these experiments, we demonstrate that theophylline can make injured pathways that mediate breathing more effective and therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic role in the critical time points immediately after injury.

  8. CO2 -Breathing Induced Reversible Activation of Mechanophore within Microgels.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Shiping

    2016-06-01

    In this work, CO2 -breathing induced reversible activation of mechanophore within microgels is reported. The microgels are prepared through soap-free emulsion polymerization of CO2 -switchable monomer 2-(diethylamino)ethyl-methacrylate, using spiropyran (SP) based mechanophore MA-SP-MA as cross-linker. The microgels can be swollen by CO2 aeration. The swelling of microgels activates the SP mechanophore into merocyanine, causing distinguished color and fluorescence change. Moreover, these transitions are highly reversible, and the initial states of microgels can be easily recovered by "washing off" CO2 with N2 . The present contribution represents the first example of CO2 -breathing activation of mechanophore within microgels. PMID:27125764

  9. Metronome Use for Coordination of Breaths and Cardiac Compressions Delivered by Minimally-Trained Caregivers During Two-Person CPR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor, IV; West, Sarah; Austin, Paul; Branson, Richard; Beck, George

    2005-01-01

    Astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) receive 40 hours of medical training over 18 months before each mission, including two-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (2CPR) as recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). Recent studies have concluded that the use of metronomic tones improves the coordination of 2CPR by trained clinicians. 2CPR performance data for minimally-trained caregivers has been limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether use of a metronome by minimally-trained caregivers (CMO analogues) would improve 2CPR performance. 20 pairs of minimally-trained caregivers certified in 2CPR via AHA guidelines performed 2CPR for 4 minutes on an instrumented manikin using 3 interventions: 1) Standard 2CPR without a metronome [NONE], 2) Standard 2CPR plus a metronome for coordinating compression rate only [MET], 3) Standard 2CPR plus a metronome for coordinating both the compression rate and ventilation rate [BOTH]. Caregivers were evaluated for their ability to meet the AHA guideline of 32 breaths-240 compressions in 4 minutes. All (100%) caregivers using the BOTH intervention provided the required number of ventilation breaths as compared with the NONE caregivers (10%) and MET caregivers (0%). For compressions, 97.5% of the BOTH caregivers were not successful in meeting the AHA compression guideline; however, an average of 238 compressions of the desired 240 were completed. None of the caregivers were successful in meeting the compression guideline using the NONE and MET interventions. This study demonstrates that use of metronomic tones by minimally-trained caregivers for coordinating both compressions and breaths improves 2CPR performance. Meeting the breath guideline is important to minimize air entering the stomach, thus decreasing the likelihood of gastric aspiration. These results suggest that manifesting a metronome for the ISS may augment the performance of 2CPR on orbit and thus may

  10. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  11. Effects of postnatal environmental tobacco smoke on non-nutritive swallowing-breathing coordination in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Duvareille, Charles; St-Hilaire, Marie; Samson, Nathalie; Bakirtzian, Parseh; Brisebois, Simon; Boheimier, Mathieu; Djeddi, Djamal-Dine; Doueik, Alexandre A; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-15

    While prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a well-known risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome, the effect of postnatal ETS exposure is less clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of postnatal ETS exposure on non-nutritive swallowing (NNS) and NNS-breathing coordination, which are crucial to prevent aspiration related-cardiorespiratory events. Eighteen newborn lambs (6 per group) were randomly exposed to either 10 cigarettes/day, 20 cigarettes/day or room air for 15 days. Lambs were instrumented for recording states of alertness, swallowing, electrocardiogram and breathing; recordings were performed in non-sedated lambs at the end of ETS exposure. Urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio confirmed relevant real-life exposure. Postnatal ETS exposure had no effect on NNS frequency but tended to decrease inspiratory NNS (p=0.07) during quiet sleep. No effect on respiratory or heart rate (p>0.6), apnea index (p=0.2) or sleep states (p=0.3) was observed. In conclusion, postnatal ETS exposure in lambs had only mild effects on NNS-breathing coordination. PMID:22947218

  12. Coordinated Neuronal Activity Enhances Corticocortical Communication.

    PubMed

    Zandvakili, Amin; Kohn, Adam

    2015-08-19

    Relaying neural signals between cortical areas is central to cognition and sensory processing. The temporal coordination of activity in a source population has been suggested to determine corticocortical signaling efficacy, but others have argued that coordination is functionally irrelevant. We reasoned that if coordination significantly influenced signaling, spiking in downstream networks should be preceded by transiently elevated coordination in a source population. We developed a metric to quantify network coordination in brief epochs, and applied it to simultaneous recordings of neuronal populations in cortical areas V1 and V2 of the macaque monkey. Spiking in the input layers of V2 was preceded by brief epochs of elevated V1 coordination, but this was not the case in other layers of V2. Our results indicate that V1 coordination influences its signaling to direct downstream targets, but that coordinated V1 epochs do not propagate through multiple downstream networks as in some corticocortical signaling schemes. PMID:26291164

  13. Continual coordination of spacecraft through shared activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B. J.; Barrett, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. In domains where agents have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus. ShAC (Shared Activity Coordination) is a framework for designing coordination protocols with an algorithm for continually coordinating agents using these protocols during execution. We show how to construct a wide range of protocols using this framework and describe how ShAC coordinates two rovers and an orbiter in a simulated Mars scenario.

  14. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P < 0·05). The resting and total duration of chewing were significantly prolonged (P < 0·05) and the active duration significantly shorter (P < 0·05) when breathing through the mouth compared with the nose. Significantly more chewing strokes were counted for mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P < 0·05). Taken together, the results indicate that mouth breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth.

  15. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding. PMID:25385777

  16. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue.

    PubMed

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-12-19

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding.

  17. Detection of pulmonary amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, M; Rechsteiner, T; Hofer, M; Boehler, A

    2013-12-01

    Amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is usually interpreted as an indication of oropharyngeal contamination despite the fact that amylase can be found in pulmonary excretions. The aim of this study was to recruit and refine an amylase assay in order to detect amylase activity in any EBC sample and to develop a method to identify EBC samples containing amylase of pulmonary origin. EBC was collected from 40 volunteers with an EcoScreen condenser. Amylase assays and methods to discriminate between oropharyngeal and pulmonary proteins were tested and developed using matched EBC and saliva samples. Our refined 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriosid (CNP-G3) assay was 40-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive commercial assay and allowed detection of amylase activity in 30 µl of EBC. We developed a dot-blot assay which allowed detection of salivary protein in saliva diluted up to 150 000-fold. By plotting amylase activity against staining intensity we identified a few EBC samples with high amylase activity which were aligned with diluted saliva. We believe that EBC samples aligned with diluted saliva contain amylase activity introduced during EBC collection and that all other EBC samples contain amylase activity of pulmonary origin and are basically free of oropharyngeal protein contamination.

  18. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Aerosol Breathing Zone Concentrations During Common Outdoor Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has been conducted on aerosol emission rates during various activities as well as aerosol transport into the breathing zone under idealized conditions. However, there has been little effort to link the two into a model for predicting a person’s breathing zone concentrat...

  19. Anatomic and Pathologic Variability During Radiotherapy for a Hybrid Active Breath-Hold Gating Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Gopan, Ellen; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung volume and position using a hybrid active breath-hold gating technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 159 repeat normal inspiration active breath-hold CTs were acquired weekly during radiotherapy for 9 lung cancer patients (12-21 scans per patient). A physician delineated the gross tumor volume (GTV), lungs, and spinal cord on the first breath-hold CT, and contours were propagated semiautomatically. Intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung position and volume were evaluated. Tumor centroid and border variability were quantified. Results: On average, intrafraction variability of lung and GTV centroid position was <2.0 mm. Interfraction population variability was 3.6-6.7 mm (systematic) and 3.1-3.9 mm (random) for the GTV centroid and 1.0-3.3 mm (systematic) and 1.5-2.6 mm (random) for the lungs. Tumor volume regressed 44.6% {+-} 23.2%. Gross tumor volume border variability was patient specific and demonstrated anisotropic shape change in some subjects. Interfraction GTV positional variability was associated with tumor volume regression and contralateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Inter-breath-hold reproducibility was unaffected by time point in the treatment course (p > 0.1). Increases in free-breathing tidal volume were associated with increases in breath-hold ipsilateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The breath-hold technique was reproducible within 2 mm during each fraction. Interfraction variability of GTV position and shape was substantial because of tumor volume and breath-hold lung volume change during therapy. These results support the feasibility of a hybrid breath-hold gating technique and suggest that online image guidance would be beneficial.

  20. Optical activity and Alfred Werner's coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz; Berke, Heinz

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted, that Pasteur's seminal discovery of the opposite optical activity of ammonium sodium tartrate enantiomorphs in solution gave the spark to organic stereochemistry and led to the development of the tetrahedron model by van't Hoff and Le Bel. The proof that chirality is inherently connected to octahedral coordination chemistry fostered greatly Werner's spatial views of metal complexes and his coordination theory. The actual proof of principle was established via separation of diastereomeric camphor sulfonate salts of racemic metal complexes. PMID:20928897

  1. Mindfulness-of-breathing exercise modulates EEG alpha activity during cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Bing-Canar, Hanaan; Pizzuto, Jacquelyne; Compton, Rebecca J

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated whether engaging in a mindful breathing exercise would affect EEG oscillatory activity associated with self-monitoring processes, based on the notion that mindfulness enhances attentional awareness. Participants were assigned to either an audio exercise in mindful breathing or an audio control condition, and then completed a Stroop task while EEG was recorded. The primary EEG measure of interest was error-related alpha suppression (ERAS), an index of self-monitoring in which alpha power is reduced, suggesting mental engagement, following errors compared to correct responses. Participants in the mindful-breathing condition showed increased alpha power during the listening exercise and enhanced ERAS during the subsequent Stroop task. These results indicate enhanced error-monitoring among those in the mindful-breathing group. PMID:27245493

  2. Update of technical coordinating committee activities

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Technical Coordinating Committee has its origins in the earliest days of implementing the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. Between 1982 and 1985, individuals in several of the states felt that coordination among the states would be beneficial to all by affording states a cost-effective method for sharing ideas, discussing alternatives, and presenting solutions to common problems. At the current time, the committee comprises members from each of the sited states. Various compacts, federal agencies, and industry groups participate in committee activities. The Low-Level Management Program provides support for the committee through the provision of logistical support and limited manpower allocation. Activities of the committee have recently focused on waste treatment and minimization technologies. The committee also has worked diligently to see the review of the 3RSTAT computer code completed. The committee has taken a position on various regulatory proposals the past year. The committee expects to continue its work until new sites are brought online.

  3. Respiratory Motion of The Heart and Positional Reproducibility Under Active Breathing Control

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Moran, Jean M.; Kessler, Marc L.; Marsh, Robin B. C; Balter, James M.; Pierce, Lori J. . E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To reduce cardiotoxicity from breast radiotherapy (RT), innovative techniques are under investigation. Information about cardiac motion with respiration and positional reproducibility under active breathing control (ABC) is necessary to evaluate these techniques. Methods and Materials: Patients requiring loco-regional RT for breast cancer were scanned by computed tomography using an ABC device at various breath-hold states, before and during treatment. Ten patients were studied. For each patient, 12 datasets were analyzed. Mutual information-based regional rigid alignment was used to determine the magnitude and reproducibility of cardiac motion as a function of breathing state. For each scan session, motion was quantified by evaluating the displacement of a point along the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with respect to its position at end expiration. Long-term positional reproducibility was also assessed. Results: Displacement of the LAD was greatest in the inferior direction, moderate in the anterior direction, and lowest in the left-right direction. At shallow breathing states, the average displacement of LAD position was up to 6 mm in the inferior direction. The maximum displacement in any patient was 2.8 cm in the inferior direction, between expiration and deep-inspiration breath hold. At end expiration, the long-term reproducibility (SD) of the LAD position was 3 mm in the A-P, 6 mm in the S-I, and 4 mm in the L-R directions. At deep-inspiration breath hold, long-term reproducibility was 3 mm in the A-P, 7 mm in the S-I, and 3 mm in the L-R directions. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the extent of LAD displacement that occurs with shallow breathing and with deep-inspiration breath hold. This information may guide optimization studies considering the effects of respiratory motion and reproducibility of cardiac position on cardiac dose, both with and without ABC.

  4. Coordinating activities between NOAA and other agencies.

    PubMed

    Fritz, A T; Buchman, M F

    1997-11-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) mandate protection of public health, welfare, and the environment at Superfund hazardous waste sites. The NCP requires lead response agenciesto integrate baseline risk assessments into the remedial process that "assess threats to the environment." EPA policy statements direct regional offices to perform thorough, consistent ecological risk assessments, and stress the importance of coordination and technical consultation with the natural resource trustees. As a Federal natural trustee, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) role and responsibilities within the CERCLA process also are defined and mandated by Federal law. NOAA is responsible for identifying sites in the coastal zone that may affect natural resources, evaluating injury to trust resources, and providing technical advice on assessments and remedial and restoration alternatives. Statutes require lead cleanup agencies and trustee agencies to notify and coordinate with each other during CERCLA response. Over the past ten years, NOAA has gained valuable experience and technical expertise in environmental assessments and in evaluating contaminated aquatic environments. NOAA fulfills its responsibilities through an effective network of Coastal Resource Coordinators (CRCs) who can rapidly respond to local technical requirements and priorities, and coordinate effectively with technical and trustee representatives. In addition to CRCs, an interdisciplinary support group provides technical expertise in the scientific disciplines required to respond to the needs of regional activities. NOAA provides CRCs to coastal EPA regional offices for technical support, and to act as liaisons with Federal and state natural resource trustee agencies. The CRCs help EPA and other lead response agencies identify and assess risks to coastal resources

  5. Coordinating activities between NOAA and other agencies.

    PubMed

    Fritz, A T; Buchman, M F

    1997-11-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) mandate protection of public health, welfare, and the environment at Superfund hazardous waste sites. The NCP requires lead response agenciesto integrate baseline risk assessments into the remedial process that "assess threats to the environment." EPA policy statements direct regional offices to perform thorough, consistent ecological risk assessments, and stress the importance of coordination and technical consultation with the natural resource trustees. As a Federal natural trustee, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) role and responsibilities within the CERCLA process also are defined and mandated by Federal law. NOAA is responsible for identifying sites in the coastal zone that may affect natural resources, evaluating injury to trust resources, and providing technical advice on assessments and remedial and restoration alternatives. Statutes require lead cleanup agencies and trustee agencies to notify and coordinate with each other during CERCLA response. Over the past ten years, NOAA has gained valuable experience and technical expertise in environmental assessments and in evaluating contaminated aquatic environments. NOAA fulfills its responsibilities through an effective network of Coastal Resource Coordinators (CRCs) who can rapidly respond to local technical requirements and priorities, and coordinate effectively with technical and trustee representatives. In addition to CRCs, an interdisciplinary support group provides technical expertise in the scientific disciplines required to respond to the needs of regional activities. NOAA provides CRCs to coastal EPA regional offices for technical support, and to act as liaisons with Federal and state natural resource trustee agencies. The CRCs help EPA and other lead response agencies identify and assess risks to coastal resources

  6. Coordination of autophagy with other cellular activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Qin, Zheng-hong

    2013-01-01

    The cell biological phenomenon of autophagy has attracted increasing attention in recent years, partly as a consequence of the discovery of key components of its cellular machinery. Autophagy plays a crucial role in a myriad of cellular functions. Autophagy has its own regulatory mechanisms, but this process is not isolated. Autophagy is coordinated with other cellular activities to maintain cell homeostasis. Autophagy is critical for a range of human physiological processes. The multifunctional roles of autophagy are explained by its ability to interact with several key components of various cell pathways. In this review, we focus on the coordination between autophagy and other physiological processes, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), energy homeostasis, aging, programmed cell death, the immune responses, microbial invasion and inflammation. The insights gained from investigating autophagic networks should increase our understanding of their roles in human diseases and their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23474706

  7. Use of Variable Pressure Suits, Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of variable pressure suits, intermittent recompression and Nitrox breathing mixtures to allow for multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a day. This new operational concept of multiple short EVAs requires short purge times and shorter prebreathes to assure rapid egress with a minimal loss of the vehicular air. Preliminary analysis has begun to evaluate the potential benefits of the intermittent recompression, and Nitrox breathing mixtures when used with variable pressure suits to enable reduce purges and prebreathe durations.

  8. Comparison between UWB and CW radar sensors for breath activity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisa, Stefano; Bernardi, Paolo; Cicchetti, Renato; Giusto, Roberto; Pittella, Erika; Piuzzi, Emanuele; Testa, Orlandino

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the ability of four radar sensors in detecting breath activity has been tested. In particular, range gating UWB, CMOS UWB, CW phase detecting, and FMCW radars have taken into account. Considering a realistic scenario, the radar antenna has been pointed towards the thorax of a breathing subject and the recorded signals have been compared with those of a piezoelectric belt placed around the thorax. Then the ability of the radars in detecting small movements has been tested by means of an oscillating copper plate placed at various distances from the radar antenna. All the considered radars were able to detect the plate movements with a distance-dependent resolution.

  9. Coordinated network activity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Draguhn, Andreas; Keller, Martin; Reichinnek, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus expresses a variety of highly organized network states which bind its individual neurons into collective modes of activity. These patterns go along with characteristic oscillations of extracellular potential known as theta, gamma, and ripple oscillations. Such network oscillations share some important features throughout the entire central nervous system of higher animals: they are restricted to a defined behavioral state, they are mostly generated by subthreshold synaptic activity, and they entrain active neurons to fire action potentials at strictly defined phases of the oscillation cycle, thereby providing a unifying 'zeitgeber' for coordinated multineuronal activity. Recent work from the hippocampus of rodents and humans has revealed how the resulting spatiotemporal patterns support the formation of neuronal assemblies which, in our present understanding, form the neuronal correlate of spatial, declarative, or episodic memories. In this review, we introduce the major types of spatiotemporal activity patterns in the hippocampus, describe the underlying neuronal mechanisms, and illustrate the concept of memory formation within oscillating networks. Research on hippocampus-dependent memory has become a key model system at the interface between cellular and cognitive neurosciences. The next step will be to translate our increasing insight into the mechanisms and systemic functions of neuronal networks into urgently needed new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24777128

  10. Coordinated network activity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Draguhn, Andreas; Keller, Martin; Reichinnek, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus expresses a variety of highly organized network states which bind its individual neurons into collective modes of activity. These patterns go along with characteristic oscillations of extracellular potential known as theta, gamma, and ripple oscillations. Such network oscillations share some important features throughout the entire central nervous system of higher animals: they are restricted to a defined behavioral state, they are mostly generated by subthreshold synaptic activity, and they entrain active neurons to fire action potentials at strictly defined phases of the oscillation cycle, thereby providing a unifying 'zeitgeber' for coordinated multineuronal activity. Recent work from the hippocampus of rodents and humans has revealed how the resulting spatiotemporal patterns support the formation of neuronal assemblies which, in our present understanding, form the neuronal correlate of spatial, declarative, or episodic memories. In this review, we introduce the major types of spatiotemporal activity patterns in the hippocampus, describe the underlying neuronal mechanisms, and illustrate the concept of memory formation within oscillating networks. Research on hippocampus-dependent memory has become a key model system at the interface between cellular and cognitive neurosciences. The next step will be to translate our increasing insight into the mechanisms and systemic functions of neuronal networks into urgently needed new therapeutic strategies.

  11. 30 CFR 229.122 - Coordination of audit activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination of audit activities. 229.122... MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Oil and Gas, Onshore Delegation Requirements § 229.122 Coordination of audit... resolution of any coordination problems encountered during the conduct of delegation activities....

  12. Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing Reverses Low Fetal Activity Levels in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Blyton, Diane M.; Skilton, Michael R.; Edwards, Natalie; Hennessy, Annemarie; Celermajer, David S.; Sullivan, Colin E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Preeclampsia affects 5% to 7% of pregnancies, is strongly associated with low birth weight and fetal death, and is accompanied by sleep disordered breathing. We hypothesized that sleep disordered breathing may link preeclampsia with reduced fetal movements (a marker of fetal health), and that treatment of sleep disordered breathing might improve fetal activity during sleep. Design, Setting, and Participants: First, a method of fetal movement recording was validated against ultrasound in 20 normal third trimester pregnancies. Second, fetal movement was measured overnight with concurrent polysomnography in 20 patients with preeclampsia and 20 control subjects during third trimester. Third, simultaneous polysomnography and fetal monitoring was done in 10 additional patients with preeclampsia during a control night and during a night of nasal CPAP. Intervention: Overnight continuous positive airway pressure. Measurements and Results: Women with preeclampsia had inspiratory flow limitation and an increased number of oxygen desaturations during sleep (P = 0.008), particularly during REM sleep. Preeclampsia was associated with reduced total fetal movements overnight (319 [SD 32]) versus controls (689 [SD 160], P < 0.0001) and a change in fetal movement patterns. The number of fetal hiccups was also substantially reduced in preeclampsia subjects (P < 0.0001). Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increased the number of fetal movements and hiccups (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Conclusions: The effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure in improving fetal movements suggests a pathogenetic role for sleep disordered breathing in the reduced fetal activity and possibly in the poorer fetal outcomes associated with preeclampsia. Citation: Blyton DM; Skilton MR; Edwards N; Hennessy A; Celermajer DS; Sullivan CE. Treatment of sleep disordered breathing reverses low fetal activity levels in preeclampsia. SLEEP 2013;36(1):15–21

  13. Abdominal muscle activity during breathing with and without inspiratory and expiratory loads in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Mesquita Montes, António; Baptista, João; Crasto, Carlos; de Melo, Cristina Argel; Santos, Rita; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Central Nervous System modulates the motor activities of all trunk muscles to concurrently regulate the intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. The study aims to evaluate the effect of inspiratory and expiratory loads on abdominal muscle activity during breathing in healthy subjects. Twenty-three higher education students (21.09±1.56years; 8males) breathed at a same rhythm (inspiration: two seconds; expiration: four seconds) without load and with 10% of the maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressures, in standing. Surface electromyography was performed to assess the activation intensity of rectus abdominis, external oblique and transversus abdominis/internal oblique muscles, during inspiration and expiration. During inspiration, transversus abdominis/internal oblique activation intensity was significantly lower with inspiratory load when compared to without load (p=0.009) and expiratory load (p=0.002). During expiration, the activation intensity of all abdominal muscles was significantly higher with expiratory load when compared to without load (p<0.05). The activation intensity of external oblique (p=0.036) and transversus abdominis/internal oblique (p=0.022) was significantly higher with inspiratory load when compared to without load. Transversus abdominis/internal oblique activation intensity was significantly higher with expiratory load when compared to inspiratory load (p<0.001). Transversus abdominis/internal oblique seems to be the most relevant muscle to modulate the intra-abdominal pressure for the breathing mechanics. PMID:27434376

  14. Short-Term Displacement and Reproducibility of the Breast and Nodal Targets Under Active Breathing Control

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Jean M. . E-mail: jmmoran@med.umich.edu; Balter, James M.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Marsh, Robin B. C; Herk, Marcel van; Pierce, Lori J.

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: The short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast or chest wall, and the internal mammary (IM), infraclavicular (ICV), and supraclavicular (SCV) nodal regions have been assessed as a function of breath-hold state using an active breathing control (ABC) device for patients receiving loco-regional breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients underwent computed tomographic scanning using an ABC device at breath-hold states of end-exhale and 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of vital capacity (VC). Patients underwent scanning before treatment and at one third and two thirds of the way through treatment. A regional registration was performed for each target using a rigid-body transformation with mutual information as a metric. Results: Between exhale and 40% of VC, the mean displacement was 0.27/0.34, 0.24/0.31, 0.22/0.19, and 0.13/0.19 cm anterior/superior for the breast or chest wall, and IM, ICV, and SCV nodes, respectively. At 80% of VC, the mean displacement from exhale was 0.84/.88, 0.76/.79, 0.70/0.79, and 0.54/0.56 cm anterior/superior for the breast or chest wall, and IM, ICV, and SCV nodes, respectively. The short-term reproducibility (standard deviation) was <0.3 and {<=}0.4 cm for 40% and 80% of VC, respectively. Displacements up to 1.9 cm were observed for individual patients. Conclusions: The short-term reproducibility of target position is {<=}0.4 cm using ABC for all structures for all breath-hold states. This information can be used to guide treatment planning optimization studies that consider the effect of motion on target and normal tissue doses with and without active breathing control.

  15. Quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography gated by active breathing control

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Bria P.; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) gated by active breathing control (ABC), which may be useful for image guidance in the presence of respiration. Comparisons were made between conventional ABC-CBCT (stop and go), fast ABC-CBCT (a method to speed up the acquisition by slowing the gantry instead of stopping during free breathing), and free breathing respiration correlated CBCT. Image quality was assessed in phantom. Accuracy of reconstructed voxel intensity, uniformity, and root mean square error were evaluated. Registration accuracy (bony and soft tissue) was quantified with both an anthropomorphic and a quality assurance phantom. Gantry angle accuracy was measured with respect to gantry speed modulation. Conventional ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 2.3 to 5.8 min. Fast ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 1.4 to 1.8 min, and respiratory correlated CBCT scans took 2.1 min to complete. Voxel intensity value for ABC gated scans was accurate relative to a normal clinical scan with all projections. Uniformity and root mean square error performance degraded as the number of projections used in the reconstruction of the fast ABC-CBCT scans decreased (shortest breath hold, longest free breathing segment). Registration accuracy for small, large, and rotational corrections was within 1 mm and 1 degree sign . Gantry angle accuracy was within 1 degree sign for all scans. For high-contrast targets, performance for image-guidance purposes was similar for fast and conventional ABC-CBCT scans and respiration correlated CBCT.

  16. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  17. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  18. Respiratory muscle activity during sleep-induced periodic breathing in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hudgel, D W; Hamilton, H B

    1994-11-01

    During spontaneous sleep-induced periodic breathing in elderly subjects, we have found that tidal volume oscillations are related to reciprocal oscillations in upper airway resistance. The purpose of this study was to address the mechanism of the relationship between oscillations in tidal volume and upper airway resistance in elderly subjects with sleep-induced periodic breathing. We hypothesized that the spontaneous periodic breathing observed in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep in elderly subjects would be closely related to fluctuations in upper airway resistance and not to changes in central motor drive to ventilatory pump muscles. Therefore, in eight healthy elderly subjects, we measured costal margin chest wall peak moving time average electrical inspiratory activity (CW EMG), ventilation variables, and upper airway resistance during sleep. Five of eight subjects had significant sine wave oscillations in upper airway resistance and tidal volume. For these five subjects, there was a reciprocal exponential relationship between peak upper airway inspiratory resistance and tidal volume or minute ventilation [r = -0.60 +/- 0.20 (SD) (P < 0.05) and -0.55 +/- 0.26 (P < 0.05), respectively], such that as resistance increased, ventilation decreased. The relationship between CW EMG and tidal volume or minute ventilation was quite low (r = 0.12 +/- 0.32 and -0.07 +/- 0.27, respectively). This study demonstrated that oscillations in ventilation during NREM sleep in elderly subjects were significantly related to fluctuations in upper airway resistance but were not related to changes in chest wall muscle electrical activity. Therefore, changes in upper airway caliber likely contribute to oscillations in ventilation seen during sleep-induced periodic breathing in the elderly.

  19. 34 CFR 75.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 75.580 Section 75.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.580 Coordination with other activities. A...

  20. Framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Jörn; Charoy, François; El Khoury, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Recent disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, have shown several issues for the coordination of human activities in these dynamic situations. Contemporary tools for the coordination used in the disaster response, such as e-mail, Whiteboards or phones, only allow for unstructured coordination, which can cause coordination problems. Hence, we discuss about the current information systems for coordinating the activities in a structured manner and identify their weaknesses in the context of a process modelling effort conducted together with experienced disaster managers. Afterwards, we propose a framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations. The framework presented in this paper has been implemented as an extension to an open collaboration service. This shows how it can be used in the context of other tools required for disaster response management, such as maps, pictures or videos of the situation. The work described here is the foundation for enabling inter-organisational coordination of activities relevant in other domains, e.g. enterprise support processes, production processes or distributed software development projects. Furthermore, comments by disaster managers show that the concepts are relevant for their work. The expected impact is a more effective and efficient coordination of human activities in dynamic situations by structuring what needs to be coordinated.

  1. Remembering the past with slow breathing associated with activity in the parahippocampus and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Yuri; Sugiyama, Haruko; Katayama, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Homma, Ikuo

    2012-07-19

    Breathing plays an important role in perception of odors and the experience of emotions. We used the dipole tracing method to analyze brain areas related to odor-induced autobiographical memory and emotions estimated from averaged electroencephalograms triggered by inspiration onset during odor presentation. Odor stimuli were perfumes subjects named that elicited a specific, pleasant and personal memory as well as two pleasant odors for controls. The perfumes induced specific emotional responses during memory retrieval, arousal level of the memory, feelings of pleasantness and a sense of familiarity with the odor. Respiration measurement indicated that tidal volume increased and respiratory frequency decreased during presentation of perfume stimuli, showing a deep and slow breathing pattern. Throughout the olfactory stimulation, electroencephalograms and respiration were simultaneously recorded. In the averaged potentials, low frequency oscillation was phase-locked to inspiration. Dipole analysis showed that perfumes activated more widespread areas of the right parahippocampal cortex and converged in the right amygdala compared to control odors. Slow breathing synchronized with odor-induced autobiographical memory and emotions may be subconsciously stored in the parahippocampal cortex and amygdala.

  2. 20 CFR 631.37 - Coordination activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Services under this part shall be integrated or coordinated with services and payments made available under...) and the unemployment compensation system consistent with the limitation on administrative expenses... compensation system and worker readjustment programs (section 314(f)). (c) Services under this part shall...

  3. Multiplayer Activities That Develop Mathematical Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Lauren J.; Tanimoto, Steven L.; Rothenberg, Alex I.; Hutama, Danny C.; Wong, Tina H.

    Four computer applications are presented that encourage students to develop "mathematical coordination"--the ability to manipulate numerical variables in cooperation with other students so as to achieve a definite goal. The programs enable a form of computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL). This paper describes the rationale and design of…

  4. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad breath. Mouthwashes, mints or chewing gum may make your breath fresher. If you have an underlying disorder, treating it may help eliminate the breath odor.

  5. 34 CFR 76.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 76.580 Section 76.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.580 Coordination with...

  6. Meta-Coordination Activities: Exploring Articulation Work in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of distributed activities is central to organizational work. The effective functioning of organizations hinges on their ability to manage interdependencies both within (intra-) and between (inter-) various departments. However, more than just the management of these individual dependencies is required for smooth coordination in…

  7. Magneto-impedance sensor for quasi-noncontact monitoring of breathing, pulse rate and activity status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corodeanu, S.; Chiriac, H.; Radulescu, L.; Lupu, N.

    2014-05-01

    Results on the development and testing of a novel magnetic sensor based on the detection of the magneto-impedance variation due to changes in the permeability of an amorphous wire are reported. The proposed application is the quasi-noncontact monitoring of the breathing frequency and heart rate for diagnosing sleep disorders. Patient discomfort is significantly decreased by transversally placing the sensitive element onto the surface of a flexible mattress in order to detect its deformation associated with cardiorespiratory activity and body movements. The developed sensor has a great application potential in monitoring the vital signs during sleep, with special advantages for children sleep monitoring.

  8. Oxygen control of breathing by an olfactory receptor activated by lactate

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andy J.; Ortega, Fabian E.; Riegler, Johannes; Madison, Daniel V.; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animals have evolved homeostatic responses to changes in oxygen availability that act on different time scales. Although the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional pathway that controls long term responses to low oxygen (hypoxia) has been established1, the pathway that mediates acute responses to hypoxia in mammals is not well understood. Here we show that the olfactory receptor Olfr78 is highly and selectively expressed in oxygen-sensitive glomus cells of the carotid body, a chemosensory organ at the carotid artery bifurcation that monitors blood oxygen and stimulates breathing within seconds when oxygen declines2. Olfr78 mutants fail to increase ventilation in hypoxia but respond normally to hypercapnia. Glomus cells are present in normal numbers and appear structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced carotid body activity is diminished. Lactate, a metabolite that rapidly accumulates in hypoxia and induces hyperventilation3–6, activates Olfr78 in heterologous expression experiments, induces calcium transients in glomus cells, and stimulates carotid sinus nerve activity through Olfr78. We propose that in addition to its role in olfaction, Olfr78 acts as a hypoxia sensor in the breathing circuit by sensing lactate produced when oxygen levels decline. PMID:26560302

  9. Active Breathing Control for Hodgkin's Disease in Childhood and Adolescence: Feasibility, Advantages, and Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Claude, Line . E-mail: claude@lyon.fnclcc.fr; Malet, Claude Phys.; Pommier, Pascal; Thiesse, Philippe; Chabaud, Sylvie; Carrie, Christian

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: The challenge in early Hodgkin's disease (HD) in children is to maintain good survival rates while sparing organs at risk. This study assesses the feasibility of active breathing control (ABC) in children, and compares normal tissue irradiation with and without ABC. Methods and Materials: Between May 2003 and June 2004, seven children with HD with mediastinal involvement, median age 15, were treated by chemotherapy and involved-field radiation therapy. A free-breathing computed tomography simulation scan and one additional scan during deep inspiration using ABC were performed. A comparison between planning treatment with clinical target volume including supraclavicular regions, mediastinum, and hila was performed, both in free breathing and using ABC. Results: For a prescription of 36 Gy, pulmonary dose-volume histograms revealed a mean reduction in lung volume irradiated at more than 20 Gy (V20) and 30 Gy (V30) of 25% and 26%, respectively, using ABC (p = 0.016). The mean volume of heart irradiated at 30 Gy or more decreased from 15% to 12% (nonsignificant). The mean dose delivered to breasts in girls was small in both situations (less than 2 Gy) and stable with or without ABC. Considering axillary irradiation, the mean dose delivered to breasts remained low (<9 Gy), without significant difference using ABC or not. The mean radiation dose delivered to thyroid was stable using ABC or not. Conclusions: Using ABC is feasible in childhood. The use of ABC decreases normal lung tissue irradiation. Concerning heart irradiation, a minimal gain is also shown. No significant change has been demonstrated concerning breast and thyroid irradiation.

  10. Antibacterial activity of silver camphorimine coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, João M S; Galvão, Adelino M; Guerreiro, Soraia I; Leitão, Jorge H; Suarez, Ana C; Carvalho, M Fernanda N N

    2016-04-28

    Five new silver camphorimine complexes of general formula [Ag(NO3)(Y)L] were synthesized and fully characterized using spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The structure of [Ag(NO3)(OC10H14NC6H4NC10H14O)] () was analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction, showing that it arranges as a coordination polymer formed by sequential Ag(NO3) units bridged by the bi-camphor ligand (). The antimicrobial properties of the new complexes were screened using the disk diffusion method and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were assessed against selected bacterial strains of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia contaminans. The lowest MICs were observed for , with estimated values of 72, 20, 32 and 19 μg mL(-1) for S. aureus, E. coli, B. contaminans, and P. aeruginosa, respectively. In the case of S. aureus, similar MIC values were obtained for silver nitrate and compound . All five compounds were bactericidal when used in concentrations equal or above the MIC value, as found by enumerating the total colony forming units (CFUs) after incubation in their presence. PMID:27007331

  11. Coordination and standardization of federal sedimentation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.

    1997-01-01

    - precipitation information critical to water resources management. Memorandum M-92-01 covers primarily freshwater bodies and includes activities, such as "development and distribution of consensus standards, field-data collection and laboratory analytical methods, data processing and interpretation, data-base management, quality control and quality assurance, and water- resources appraisals, assessments, and investigations." Research activities are not included.

  12. Reporter Phage and Breath Tests: Emerging Phenotypic Assays for Diagnosing Active Tuberculosis, Antibiotic Resistance, and Treatment Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Paras; Thaler, David S.; Maiga, Mamoudou; Timmins, Graham S.; Bishai, William R.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Larsen, Michelle H.; Jacobs, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) and its drug susceptibility remain a challenge. Phenotypic assays allow determination of antibiotic susceptibilities even if sequence data are not available or informative. We review 2 emerging diagnostic approaches, reporter phage and breath tests, both of which assay mycobacterial metabolism. The reporter phage signal, Green fluorescent protein (GFP) or β-galactosidase, indicates transcription and translation inside the recipient bacilli and its attenuation by antibiotics. Different breath tests assay, (1) exhaled antigen 85, (2) mycobacterial urease activity, and (3) detection by trained rats of disease-specific odor in sputum, have also been developed. When compared with culture, reporter phage assays shorten the time for initial diagnosis of drug susceptibility by several days. Both reporter phage and breath tests have promise as early markers to determine the efficacy of treatment. While sputum often remains smear and Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA positive early in the course of efficacious antituberculous treatment, we predict that both breath and phage tests will rapidly become negative. If this hypothesis proves correct, phage assays and breath tests could become important surrogate markers in early bactericidal activity (EBA) studies of new antibiotics. PMID:21996696

  13. Lessons Learned from Coordinating Relay Activities at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy E.; Hwang, Pauline; Waggoner, Bruce; McLaughlin, Bruce; Fieseler, Paul; Thomas, Reid; Bigwood, Maria; Herrera, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Mission Management Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was tasked with coordinating the relay of data between multiple spacecraft at Mars in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Missions in early 2004. The confluence of three orbiters (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express), two rovers (Spirit and Opportunity), and one lander (Beagle 2) has provided a challenging operational scenario that required careful coordination between missions to provide the necessary support and to avoid potential interference during simultaneous relay sessions. As these coordination efforts progressed, several important lessons were learned that should be applied to future Mars relay activities.

  14. Diaphragmatic amplitude and accessory inspiratory muscle activity in nasal and mouth-breathing adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Elaine; Boufleur, Jalusa; Soares, Juliana Corrêa; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic activity of the accessory inspiratory muscles and the diaphragmatic amplitude (DA) in nasal and mouth-breathing adults. The study evaluated 38 mouth-breathing (MB group) and 38 nasal-breathing (NB group) adults, from 18 to 30years old and both sexes. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to evaluate the amplitude and symmetry (POC%) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles at rest, during nasal slow inspiration at Lung Total Capacity (LTC) and, during rapid and abrupt inspiration: Sniff, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) and Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP). M-mode ultrasonography assessed the right diaphragm muscle amplitude in three different nasal inspirations: at tidal volume (TV), Sniff and inspiration at LTC. The SCM activity was significantly lower in the MB group during Sniff, PNIF (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney test) and MIP (p<0.01, t-test). The groups did not differ during rest and inspiration at LTC, regarding sEMG amplitude and POC%. DA was significantly lower in the MB group at TV (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney) and TLC (p=0.03, t-test). Mouth breathing reflected on lower recruitment of the accessory inspiratory muscles during fast inspiration and lower diaphragmatic amplitude, compared to nasal breathing.

  15. Temperature-activated layer-breathing vibrations in few-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Lui, Chun Hung; Ye, Zhipeng; Keiser, Courtney; Xiao, Xun; He, Rui

    2014-08-13

    We investigated the low-frequency Raman spectra of freestanding few-layer graphene (FLG) at varying temperatures (400-900 K) controlled by laser heating. At high temperature, we observed the fundamental Raman mode for the lowest-frequency branch of rigid-plane layer-breathing mode (LBM) vibration. The mode frequency redshifts dramatically from 81 cm(-1) for bilayer to 23 cm(-1) for 8-layer. The thickness dependence is well described by a simple model of coupled oscillators. Notably, the LBM Raman response is unobservable at room temperature, and it is turned on at higher temperature (>600 K) with a steep increase of Raman intensity. The observation suggests that the LBM vibration is strongly suppressed by molecules adsorbed on the graphene surface but is activated as desorption occurs at high temperature.

  16. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  17. Coordinating Computing, Network and Archiving activities within INAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasian, F.; Bodo, G.; Fini, L.; Garilli, B.; Longo, G.; Massimino, P.; Nanni, M.; Smareglia, R.

    When INAF was reformed, it was decided to create a `Computing, Network and Archives Service' within the Projects Department, in order to coordinate all computer-related activities and to properly harmonize management and development policies in the field. A `Computing, Network and Archives Committee' was immediately nominated for the duration of one year to cope with the immediate needs. The Committee has the task of identifying and making operational strategies to coordinate activities in the areas of interest, improving service to all users, implementing synergies and economies, while guaranteeing a single INAF contact point for all external institutions working in the field.

  18. Perspective: Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breat...

  19. Euro-VO-Coordination of virtual observatory activities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Françoise; Allen, Mark G.; Arviset, Christophe; Lawrence, Andy; Pasian, Fabio; Solano, Enrique; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    The European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO has been coordinating European VO activities through a series of projects co-funded by the European Commission over the last 15 years. The bulk of VO work in Europe is ensured by the national VO initiatives and those of intergovernmental agencies. VO activities at the European level coordinate the work in support of the three "pillars" of the Virtual Observatory: support to the scientific community, take-up by the data providers, and technological activities. Several Euro-VO projects have also provided direct support to selected developments and prototyping. This paper explains the methodology used by Euro-VO over the years. It summarises the activities which were performed and their evolutions at different stages of the development of the VO, explains the Euro-VO role with respect to the international and national levels of VO activities, details the lessons learnt for best practices for the coordination of the VO building blocks, and the liaison with other European initiatives, documenting the added-value of European coordination. Finally, the current status and next steps of Euro-VO are briefly addressed.

  20. Comparison of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (BCPR) Performance in the Absence and Presence of Timing Devices for Coordinating Delivery of Ventilatory Breaths and Cardiac Compressions in a Model of Adult Cardiopulmonary Arrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor, IV; West, Sarah; Austin, Paul; Branson, Richard; Beck, George

    2006-01-01

    Astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) receive 40 hours of medical training during the 18 months preceding each mission. Part of this training ilncludes twoperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) per training guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA). Recent studies concluded that the use of metronomic tones improves the coordination of CPR by trained clinicians. Similar data for bystander or "trained lay people" (e.g. CMO) performance of CPR (BCPR) have been limited. The purpose of this study was to evailuate whether use of timing devices, such as audible metronomic tones, would improve BCPR perfomance by trained bystanders. Twenty pairs of bystanders trained in two-person BCPR performled BCPR for 4 minutes on a simulated cardiopulmonary arrest patient using three interventions: 1) BCPR with no timing devices, 2) BCPR plus metronomic tones for coordinating compression rate only, 3) BCPR with a timing device and metronome for coordinating ventilation and compression rates, respectively. Bystanders were evaluated on their ability to meet international and AHA CPR guidelines. Bystanders failed to provide the recommended number of breaths and number of compressions in the absence of a timing device and in the presence of audible metronomic tones for only coordinating compression rate. Bystanders using timing devices to coordinate both components of BCPR provided the reco number of breaths and were closer to providing the recommended number of compressions compared with the other interventions. Survey results indicated that bystanders preferred to use a metronome for delivery of compressions during BCPR. BCPR performance is improved by timing devices that coordinate both compressions and breaths.

  1. Functional connectivity in raphé-pontomedullary circuits supports active suppression of breathing during hypocapnic apnea.

    PubMed

    Nuding, Sarah C; Segers, Lauren S; Iceman, Kimberly E; O'Connor, Russell; Dean, Jay B; Bolser, Donald C; Baekey, David M; Dick, Thomas E; Shannon, Roger; Morris, Kendall F; Lindsey, Bruce G

    2015-10-01

    Hyperventilation is a common feature of disordered breathing. Apnea ensues if CO2 drive is sufficiently reduced. We tested the hypothesis that medullary raphé, ventral respiratory column (VRC), and pontine neurons have functional connectivity and persistent or evoked activities appropriate for roles in the suppression of drive and rhythm during hyperventilation and apnea. Phrenic nerve activity, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, and other parameters were monitored in 10 decerebrate, vagotomized, neuromuscularly-blocked, and artificially ventilated cats. Multielectrode arrays recorded spiking activity of 649 neurons. Loss and return of rhythmic activity during passive hyperventilation to apnea were identified with the S-transform. Diverse fluctuating activity patterns were recorded in the raphé-pontomedullary respiratory network during the transition to hypocapnic apnea. The firing rates of 160 neurons increased during apnea; the rates of 241 others decreased or stopped. VRC inspiratory neurons were usually the last to cease firing or lose rhythmic activity during the transition to apnea. Mayer wave-related oscillations (0.04-0.1 Hz) in firing rate were also disrupted during apnea. Four-hundred neurons (62%) were elements of pairs with at least one hyperventilation-responsive neuron and a correlational signature of interaction identified by cross-correlation or gravitational clustering. Our results support a model with distinct groups of chemoresponsive raphé neurons contributing to hypocapnic apnea through parallel processes that incorporate disfacilitation and active inhibition of inspiratory motor drive by expiratory neurons. During apnea, carotid chemoreceptors can evoke rhythm reemergence and an inspiratory shift in the balance of reciprocal inhibition via suppression of ongoing tonic expiratory neuron activity. PMID:26203111

  2. Functional connectivity in raphé-pontomedullary circuits supports active suppression of breathing during hypocapnic apnea

    PubMed Central

    Nuding, Sarah C.; Segers, Lauren S.; Iceman, Kimberly E.; O'Connor, Russell; Dean, Jay B.; Bolser, Donald C.; Baekey, David M.; Dick, Thomas E.; Shannon, Roger; Morris, Kendall F.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperventilation is a common feature of disordered breathing. Apnea ensues if CO2 drive is sufficiently reduced. We tested the hypothesis that medullary raphé, ventral respiratory column (VRC), and pontine neurons have functional connectivity and persistent or evoked activities appropriate for roles in the suppression of drive and rhythm during hyperventilation and apnea. Phrenic nerve activity, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, and other parameters were monitored in 10 decerebrate, vagotomized, neuromuscularly-blocked, and artificially ventilated cats. Multielectrode arrays recorded spiking activity of 649 neurons. Loss and return of rhythmic activity during passive hyperventilation to apnea were identified with the S-transform. Diverse fluctuating activity patterns were recorded in the raphé-pontomedullary respiratory network during the transition to hypocapnic apnea. The firing rates of 160 neurons increased during apnea; the rates of 241 others decreased or stopped. VRC inspiratory neurons were usually the last to cease firing or lose rhythmic activity during the transition to apnea. Mayer wave-related oscillations (0.04–0.1 Hz) in firing rate were also disrupted during apnea. Four-hundred neurons (62%) were elements of pairs with at least one hyperventilation-responsive neuron and a correlational signature of interaction identified by cross-correlation or gravitational clustering. Our results support a model with distinct groups of chemoresponsive raphé neurons contributing to hypocapnic apnea through parallel processes that incorporate disfacilitation and active inhibition of inspiratory motor drive by expiratory neurons. During apnea, carotid chemoreceptors can evoke rhythm reemergence and an inspiratory shift in the balance of reciprocal inhibition via suppression of ongoing tonic expiratory neuron activity. PMID:26203111

  3. Functional connectivity in raphé-pontomedullary circuits supports active suppression of breathing during hypocapnic apnea.

    PubMed

    Nuding, Sarah C; Segers, Lauren S; Iceman, Kimberly E; O'Connor, Russell; Dean, Jay B; Bolser, Donald C; Baekey, David M; Dick, Thomas E; Shannon, Roger; Morris, Kendall F; Lindsey, Bruce G

    2015-10-01

    Hyperventilation is a common feature of disordered breathing. Apnea ensues if CO2 drive is sufficiently reduced. We tested the hypothesis that medullary raphé, ventral respiratory column (VRC), and pontine neurons have functional connectivity and persistent or evoked activities appropriate for roles in the suppression of drive and rhythm during hyperventilation and apnea. Phrenic nerve activity, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, and other parameters were monitored in 10 decerebrate, vagotomized, neuromuscularly-blocked, and artificially ventilated cats. Multielectrode arrays recorded spiking activity of 649 neurons. Loss and return of rhythmic activity during passive hyperventilation to apnea were identified with the S-transform. Diverse fluctuating activity patterns were recorded in the raphé-pontomedullary respiratory network during the transition to hypocapnic apnea. The firing rates of 160 neurons increased during apnea; the rates of 241 others decreased or stopped. VRC inspiratory neurons were usually the last to cease firing or lose rhythmic activity during the transition to apnea. Mayer wave-related oscillations (0.04-0.1 Hz) in firing rate were also disrupted during apnea. Four-hundred neurons (62%) were elements of pairs with at least one hyperventilation-responsive neuron and a correlational signature of interaction identified by cross-correlation or gravitational clustering. Our results support a model with distinct groups of chemoresponsive raphé neurons contributing to hypocapnic apnea through parallel processes that incorporate disfacilitation and active inhibition of inspiratory motor drive by expiratory neurons. During apnea, carotid chemoreceptors can evoke rhythm reemergence and an inspiratory shift in the balance of reciprocal inhibition via suppression of ongoing tonic expiratory neuron activity.

  4. A new redox-active coordination polymer with cobalticinium dicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mitsuru; Hayakawa, Yuri; Miyazawa, Makoto; Oyama, Aiko; Unoura, Kei; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Tetsuyoshi; Maeda, Kenji; Uchida, Fumio

    2004-09-20

    A new two-dimensional coordination polymer with cobalticinium 1,1'-dicarboxylate (ccdc) incorporated in the framework has been prepared, the ccdc functioning as unique monoanionic dicarboxylate ligands. The compound shows a high redox activity based on the ccdc units.

  5. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of planning process activities. 450.208 Section 450.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...

  6. An efficient algorithm to identify coordinately activated transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haiyan

    2010-03-01

    Identification of transcription factor (TF) activities associated with a certain physiological/experimental condition is one of the preliminary steps to reconstruct transcriptional regulatory networks and to identify signal transduction pathways. TF activities are often indicated by the activities of its target genes. Existing studies on identifying TF activities through target genes usually assume the equivalence between co-regulation and co-expression. However, genes with correlated expression profiles may not be co-regulated. In the mean time, although multiple TFs can be activated coordinately, there is a lack of efficient methods to identify coordinately activated TFs. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm embedding a dynamic programming procedure to identify a subset of TFs that are potentially coordinately activated under a given condition by utilizing ranked lists of differentially expressed target genes. Applying our algorithm to microarray expression data sets for a number of diseases, our approach found subsets of TFs that are highly likely associated with the given disease processes. PMID:20060041

  7. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  8. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  9. Understanding the rhythm of breathing: so near yet so far

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jack L.; Del Negro, Christopher A.; Gray, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms leading from DNA to molecules to neurons to networks to behavior is a major goal for neuroscience, but largely out of reach for many fundamental and interesting behaviors. The neural control of breathing may be a rare exception, presenting a unique opportunity to understand how the nervous system functions normally, how it balances inherent robustness with a highly regulated lability, how it adapts to rapidly and slowly changing conditions, and how particular dysfunctions result in disease. Why can we assert this? First and foremost, the functions of breathing are clearly definable, starting with its regulatory job of maintaining blood (and brain) O2, CO2 and pH; failure is not an option. Breathing is also an essential component of many vocal and emotive behaviors including, e.g., crying, laughing, singing, and sniffing, and must be coordinated with such vital behaviors as suckling and swallowing, even at birth. Second, the regulated variables, O2, CO2 and pH (and temperature in non-primate mammals), are continuous and are readily and precisely quantifiable, as is ventilation itself along with the underlying rhythmic motor activity, i.e., respiratory muscle EMGs. Third, we breathe all the time, except for short breaks as during breath-holding (which can be especially long in diving or hibernating mammals) or sleep apnea. Mammals (including humans) breathe in all behavioral states, e.g., sleep-wake, rest, exercise, panic, or fear, during anesthesia and even following decerebration. Moreover, essential aspects of the neural mechanisms driving breathing, including rhythmicity, are present at levels of reduction down to a medullary slice. Fourth, the relevant circuits exhibit a remarkable combination of extraordinary reliability, starting ex utero with the first air breath – intermittent breathing movements actually start in utero during the third trimester – and continuing for as many as ~109 breaths, as well as considerable lability

  10. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs.

  11. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. PMID:25532022

  12. Cardiac and Sympathetic Activation are Reduced in Children with Down Syndrome and Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    O’Driscoll, Denise M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.; Davey, Margot J.; Hope, Sarah A.; Anderson, Vicki; Trinder, John; Walker, Adrian M.; Nixon, Gillian M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) occurs at an increased incidence in children with Down Syndrome (DS) compared to the general pediatric population. We hypothesized that, compared with typically developing (TD) children with SDB, children with DS have a reduced cardiovascular response with delayed reoxygenation after obstructive respiratory events, and reduced sympathetic drive, providing a potential explanation for their increased risk of pulmonary hypertension. Design: Beat-by-beat heart rate (HR) was analyzed over the course of obstructive events (pre, early, late, post-event) and compared between groups. Also compared were the time for oxygen resaturation post-event and overnight urinary catecholamines. Setting: Pediatric sleep laboratory. Patients: Sixty-four children aged 2-17 y referred for investigation of SDB (32 DS; 32 TD) matched for age and obstructive apnea/hypopnea index. Measurement and Results: Children underwent overnight polysomnography with overnight urine collection. Compared to TD children, those with DS had significantly reduced HR changes post-event during NREM (DS: 21.4% ± 1.8%, TD: 26.6% ± 1.6%, change from late to post-event, P < 0.05). The time to resaturation post-event was significantly increased in the DS group (P < 0.05 for both NREM and REM sleep). Children with DS had significantly reduced overnight urinary noradrenaline (P < 0.01), adrenaline (P < 0.05) and dopamine levels (P < 0.01) compared with TD children. Conclusion: Children with DS and SDB exhibit a compromised acute cardio-respiratory response and dampened sympathetic response to SDB compared with TD children with SDB. These data may reflect autonomic dysfunction in children with DS that may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular complications such as pulmonary hypertension. Citation: O’Driscoll DM; Horne RSC; Davey MJ; Hope SA; Anderson V; Trinder J; Walker AM; Nixon GM. Cardiac and sympathetic activation are reduced in children with down

  13. Attraction and social coordination: mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    McGarva, Andrew R; Warner, Rebecca M

    2003-05-01

    To investigate factors that affect the mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms, female general psychology students paired according to attitude similarity questionnaires engaged in 40-minute introductory conversations. Fourier analyses performed on speakers' on-off vocal activity demonstrated periodic oscillations in talkativeness. Although some dyads coordinated their vocal activity rhythms, speech accommodation was not predicted by attitude similarity or attraction and did not affect ratings of conversation quality. These rhythms of dialogue appear resistant to change, their behavioral momentum rooted perhaps in an underlying chronobiology. PMID:12845943

  14. Attraction and social coordination: mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    McGarva, Andrew R; Warner, Rebecca M

    2003-05-01

    To investigate factors that affect the mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms, female general psychology students paired according to attitude similarity questionnaires engaged in 40-minute introductory conversations. Fourier analyses performed on speakers' on-off vocal activity demonstrated periodic oscillations in talkativeness. Although some dyads coordinated their vocal activity rhythms, speech accommodation was not predicted by attitude similarity or attraction and did not affect ratings of conversation quality. These rhythms of dialogue appear resistant to change, their behavioral momentum rooted perhaps in an underlying chronobiology.

  15. From Spontaneous Motor Activity to Coordinated Behaviour: A Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Hugo Gravato; Bharadwaj, Arjun; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the developmental path that links the primary behaviours observed during foetal stages to the full fledged behaviours observed in adults is still beyond our understanding. Often theories of motor control try to deal with the process of incremental learning in an abstract and modular way without establishing any correspondence with the mammalian developmental stages. In this paper, we propose a computational model that links three distinct behaviours which appear at three different stages of development. In order of appearance, these behaviours are: spontaneous motor activity (SMA), reflexes, and coordinated behaviours, such as locomotion. The goal of our model is to address in silico four hypotheses that are currently hard to verify in vivo: First, the hypothesis that spinal reflex circuits can be self-organized from the sensor and motor activity induced by SMA. Second, the hypothesis that supraspinal systems can modulate reflex circuits to achieve coordinated behaviour. Third, the hypothesis that, since SMA is observed in an organism throughout its entire lifetime, it provides a mechanism suitable to maintain the reflex circuits aligned with the musculoskeletal system, and thus adapt to changes in body morphology. And fourth, the hypothesis that by changing the modulation of the reflex circuits over time, one can switch between different coordinated behaviours. Our model is tested in a simulated musculoskeletal leg actuated by six muscles arranged in a number of different ways. Hopping is used as a case study of coordinated behaviour. Our results show that reflex circuits can be self-organized from SMA, and that, once these circuits are in place, they can be modulated to achieve coordinated behaviour. In addition, our results show that our model can naturally adapt to different morphological changes and perform behavioural transitions. PMID:25057775

  16. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  17. Relationships between coordination, active drag and propelling efficiency in crawl.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Schnitzler, Christophe; Bideault, Gautier; Alberty, Morgan; Chollet, Didier; Toussaint, Huub Martin

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the relationships between the index of coordination (IdC) and active drag (D) assuming that at constant average speed, average drag equals average propulsion. The relationship between IdC and propulsive efficiency (ep) was also investigated at maximal speed. Twenty national swimmers completed two incremental speed tests swimming front crawl with arms only in free condition and using a measurement of active drag system. Each test was composed of eight 25-m bouts from 60% to 100% of maximal intensity whereby each lap was swum at constant speed. Different regression models were tested to analyse IdC-D relationship. Correlation between IdC and ep was calculated. IdC was linked to D by linear regression (IdC=0.246·D-27.06; R(2)=0.88, P<.05); swimmers switched from catch-up to superposition coordination mode at a speed of ∼1.55ms(-1) where average D is ∼110N. No correlation between IdC and ep at maximal speed was found. The intra-individual analysis revealed that coordination plays an important role in scaling propulsive forces with higher speed levels such that these are adapted to aquatic resistance. Inter-individual analysis showed that high IdC did not relate to a high ep suggesting an individual optimization of force and power generation is at play to reach high speeds.

  18. Influence of different proton pump inhibitors on activity of cytochrome P450 assessed by [(13)C]-aminopyrine breath test.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Chise; Uchida, Shinya; Yamade, Mihoko; Nishino, Masafumi; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Namiki, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hishida, Akira; Furuta, Takahisa

    2012-03-01

    Aminopyrine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver. The investigators evaluated influences of different PPIs on CYP activity as assessed by the [(13)C]-aminopyrine breath test ([(13)C]-ABT). Subjects were 15 healthy volunteers with different CYP2C19 status (5 rapid metabolizers [RMs], 5 intermediate metabolizers [IMs], and 5 poor metabolizers [PMs]). Breath samples were collected before and every 15 to 30 minutes for 3 hours after oral ingestion of [(13)C]-aminopyrine 100 mg on day 8 of each of the following regimens: control; omeprazole 20 mg and 80 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, and rabeprazole 20 mg. Changes in carbon isotope ratios in carbon dioxide ((13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2)) in breath samples were measured by infrared spectrometry and expressed as delta-over-baseline (DOB) ratios (‰). Mean areas under the curve of DOB from 0 to 3 h (AUC(0-3h) of DOB) were significantly decreased by omeprazole 20 mg and lansoprazole 30 mg but not by rabeprazole 20 mg. Conversely, higher PPI dose (ie, omeprazole 80 mg) seemed to further decrease AUC(0-3h) of DOB in RMs but increased it in PMs. Omeprazole and lansoprazole at the standard doses inhibit CYP activity but rabeprazole does not, whereas high-dose omeprazole seems to induce CYPs. PMID:21415279

  19. Oral Adherence Monitoring Using a Breath Test to Supplement Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Timothy E.; Booth, Matthew; Wasdo, Scott; Wishin, Judith; Quinn, Brian; Gonzalez, Daniel; Derendorf, Hartmut; McGorray, Susan P.; Simoni, Jane; Melker, Richard J.; Dennis, Donn M.

    2012-01-01

    A breath-based adherence system to document ingestion of oral medications (e.g., HAART) was investigated. Specifically, the food additive 2-butanol, which can be easily packaged with a drug, is converted via alcohol dehydrogenase to the volatile metabolite 2-butanone that rapidly appears in breath, indicating adherence. In healthy adults using a portable sensor and GC-MS, the following experiments were performed: yield of 2-butanone in breath following ingestion of 2-butanol, adherence system accuracy, and potential interference of the adherence system by food or misplacement of 2-butanol on the tongue. During feasibility testing, every subject exhaled 2-butanone with 6.6±1.5 min to peak concentrations of 548±235 ppb following ingestion of 2-butanol (40 mg). ROC areas at 5 and 10 min were 0.95 (0.86–1.00) and 3 1.00 (1.00–1.00). Food did not interfere. Tongue application resulted in large concentrations of 2-butanol, but not 2-butanone. A breath test to provide definitive evidence of oral medication adherence appears technically feasible. PMID:23001413

  20. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  1. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles are left in your mouth, they can rot ... Flossing once a day helps get rid of particles wedged between your teeth. Also, visit your dentist ...

  2. Classification of physical activities based on body-segments coordination.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Numerous innovations based on connected objects and physical activity (PA) monitoring have been proposed. However, recognition of PAs requires robust algorithm and methodology. The current study presents an innovative approach for PA recognition. It is based on the heuristic definition of postures and the use of body-segments coordination obtained through external sensors. The first part of this study presents the methodology required to define the set of accelerations which is the most appropriate to represent the particular body-segments coordination involved in the chosen PAs (here walking, running, and cycling). For that purpose, subjects of different ages and heterogeneous physical conditions walked, ran, cycled, and performed daily activities at different paces. From the 3D motion capture, vertical and horizontal accelerations of 8 anatomical landmarks representative of the body were computed. Then, the 680 combinations from up to 3 accelerations were compared to identify the most appropriate set of acceleration to discriminate the PAs in terms of body segment coordinations. The discrimination was based on the maximal Hausdorff Distance obtained between the different set of accelerations. The vertical accelerations of both knees demonstrated the best PAs discrimination. The second step was the proof of concept, implementing the proposed algorithm to classify PAs of new group of subjects. The originality of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to use the subject's specific measures as reference data. With the proposed algorithm, 94% of the trials were correctly classified. In conclusion, our study proposed a flexible and extendable methodology. At the current stage, the algorithm has been shown to be valid for heterogeneous subjects, which suggests that it could be deployed in clinical or health-related applications regardless of the subjects' physical abilities or characteristics.

  3. Classification of physical activities based on body-segments coordination.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Numerous innovations based on connected objects and physical activity (PA) monitoring have been proposed. However, recognition of PAs requires robust algorithm and methodology. The current study presents an innovative approach for PA recognition. It is based on the heuristic definition of postures and the use of body-segments coordination obtained through external sensors. The first part of this study presents the methodology required to define the set of accelerations which is the most appropriate to represent the particular body-segments coordination involved in the chosen PAs (here walking, running, and cycling). For that purpose, subjects of different ages and heterogeneous physical conditions walked, ran, cycled, and performed daily activities at different paces. From the 3D motion capture, vertical and horizontal accelerations of 8 anatomical landmarks representative of the body were computed. Then, the 680 combinations from up to 3 accelerations were compared to identify the most appropriate set of acceleration to discriminate the PAs in terms of body segment coordinations. The discrimination was based on the maximal Hausdorff Distance obtained between the different set of accelerations. The vertical accelerations of both knees demonstrated the best PAs discrimination. The second step was the proof of concept, implementing the proposed algorithm to classify PAs of new group of subjects. The originality of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to use the subject's specific measures as reference data. With the proposed algorithm, 94% of the trials were correctly classified. In conclusion, our study proposed a flexible and extendable methodology. At the current stage, the algorithm has been shown to be valid for heterogeneous subjects, which suggests that it could be deployed in clinical or health-related applications regardless of the subjects' physical abilities or characteristics. PMID:27441831

  4. Use of Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Abercromby, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's plans for lunar surface exploration include pressurized suitport rovers that are quickly ingressed and egressed with minimal consumables losses. This capability enables crewmembers to perform multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a single day versus a single 8-hr EVA. Modeling work and empirical human and animal data indicate that intermittent recompressions between EVA suit pressure and cabin pressure reduce decompression stress. Savings in crew time and gas losses may also be achieved if the N2 purge is shortened to 2 minutes, achieving 80% O2 (vs. 8 minutes, 95% O2). METHODS: A validated Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model was used to predict decompression stress using 80% and 95% O2 breathing mixtures during 3 x 2-hr EVAs (4.3 PSIA) with 1hr recompressions back to 8.0 PSIA (32% O2) versus a single 8-hr EVA. 15 minutes was spent at 6.0 PSIA before depressurizations to 4.3 PSIA; initial EVA tasks could be performed during this time. Model validation was based on significant prediction (p<0.001) and goodness of fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 altitude exposures (McFadden s rho-squared=0.214). RESULTS: A 2.2% predicted increase in DCS risk due to the shortened purge is more than compensated for by a predicted 2.5% reduction in DCS risk due to intermittent recompression. 15 minutes at 80% O2, 6.0 PSIA prior to a 4.3 PSIA EVA prevents supersaturation in the brain and spinal cord (5-10 minute half-time compartments) and reduces tissue tensions in 40 min compartments, where most of the body s inert gas is located, to approximately the same levels (4.39 vs 4.00 PSIA) as achieved during a 40 min 95% O2 prebreathe at 10.2 PSIA. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent recompressions between lunar EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements, decompression stress, and/or suit operating pressures.

  5. Bubbles, microparticles, and neutrophil activation: changes with exercise level and breathing gas during open-water SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Thom, Stephen R; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bogush, Marina; Yang, Ming; Bhopale, Veena M; Pollock, Neal W; Ljubkovic, Marko; Denoble, Petar; Madden, Dennis; Lozo, Mislav; Dujic, Zeljko

    2013-05-15

    The study goal was to evaluate responses in humans following decompression from open-water SCUBA diving with the hypothesis that exertion underwater and use of a breathing mixture containing more oxygen and less nitrogen (enriched air nitrox) would alter annexin V-positive microparticle (MP) production and size changes and neutrophil activation, as well as their relationships to intravascular bubble formation. Twenty-four divers followed a uniform dive profile to 18 m of sea water breathing air or 22.5 m breathing 32% oxygen/68% nitrogen for 47 min, either swimming with moderately heavy exertion underwater or remaining stationary at depth. Blood was obtained pre- and at 15 and 120 min postdive. Intravascular bubbles were quantified by transthoracic echocardiography postdive at 20-min intervals for 2 h. There were no significant differences in maximum bubble scores among the dives. MP number increased 2.7-fold, on average, within 15 min after each dive; only the air-exertion dive resulted in a significant further increase to 5-fold over baseline at 2 h postdive. Neutrophil activation occurred after all dives. For the enriched air nitrox stationary at depth dive, but not for other conditions, the numbers of postdive annexin V-positive particles above 1 μm in diameter were correlated with intravascular bubble scores (correlation coefficients ∼0.9, P < 0.05). We conclude that postdecompression relationships among bubbles, MPs, platelet-neutrophil interactions, and neutrophil activation appear to exist, but more study is required to improve confidence in the associations.

  6. Oxygen-18 isotope of breath CO2 linking to erythrocytes carbonic anhydrase activity: a biomarker for pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chiranjit; Banik, Gourab D.; Maity, Abhijit; Som, Suman; Chakraborty, Arpita; Selvan, Chitra; Ghosh, Shibendu; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Pradhan, Manik

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA), a well-characterized metalloenzyme, is associated with oxygen-18 ( 18O)-isotopic fractionations of CO2. To investigate how CA activity links the 18O of breath CO2 to pre-diabetes (PD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) during metabolism, we studied pre- and post-dose CA activities in erythrocytes with simultaneous monitoring of 18O/ 16O-isotope ratios of breath CO2 and thereafter elucidated potential metabolic pathways underlying CA alteration in the pathogenesis of T2D. Here we show that the post-dose CA activity in both T2D and PD was markedly enhanced, whereas the non-diabetic controls (NDC) exhibited a considerable reduction in post-dose CA activity when compared with their basal CA activities. However, T2D and PD exhibited isotopic enrichments of 18O in breath CO2, while a marked depletion of 18O in CO2 was manifested in NDC. Thus, the isotopic enrichments and depletions of 18O in breath CO2 were well correlated with the changes in CA activities for controls, PD and T2D. Our findings suggest the changes in CA activities in erythrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2D and the breath C 18O 16O regulated by the CA activity as a potential biomarker for non-invasive assessment of T2D, and thus may open a new method for treating T2D. PMID:25633556

  7. A Lamellar Coordination Polymer with Remarkable Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ricardo F; Antunes, Margarida M; Silva, Patrícia; Barbosa, Paula; Figueiredo, Filipe; Linden, Anthony; Rocha, João; Valente, Anabela A; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2016-09-01

    A positively charged lamellar coordination polymer based on a flexible triphosphonic acid linker is reported. [Gd(H4 nmp)(H2 O)2 ]Cl⋅2 H2 O (1) [H6 nmp=nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid)] was obtained by a one-pot approach by using water as a green solvent and by forcing the inclusion of additional acid sites by employing HCl in the synthesis. Compound 1 acts as a versatile heterogeneous acid catalyst with outstanding activity in organic reactions such as alcoholysis of styrene oxide, acetalization of benzaldehyde and cyclohexanaldehyde and ketalization of cyclohexanone. For all reaction systems, very high conversions were reached (92-97 %) in only 15-30 min under mild conditions (35 °C, atmospheric pressure). The coordination polymer exhibits a protonic conductivity of 1.23×10(-5)  S cm(-1) at 98 % relative humidity and 40 °C. PMID:27505712

  8. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  9. 48 CFR 2452.237-72 - Coordination of data collection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Coordination of data... Provisions and Clauses 2452.237-72 Coordination of data collection activities. As prescribed in 2437.110(c... identical information from ten or more public respondents. Coordination of Data Collection Activities...

  10. [EFFECT OF VOLUNTARY BREATH-HOLDING AND COGNITIVE LOADS ON REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND BIOELECTRIC ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN].

    PubMed

    Moreva, T I; Pasekova, O B; Kriushev, E S; Dobrokvashina, E I; Moreva, O V; Builov, S P; Smirnov, O A; Bragin, L Kh; Voronkov, Iu I

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and bioelectric activity were studied in 10 normal volunteers in order to assess cerebrovascular reactivity during different types of functional testing. The transcranial Doppler was used to measure linear blood velocity (LBV) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during maximal voluntary breath-holding (apnea), controlled verbal association test and tactile memory test. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) registered the bioelectric activity of the brain cortex. Both investigations were performed continuously in the course of each test. Breath-holding induced a smooth symmetric increase of CMA blood velocity; LBV rose to maximum values in the majority of the volunteered subjects. Two subjects with small focal changes in the brain's white matter displayed an asymmetric blood flow reaction to apnea. Gain in LBV was materially less during the cognitive tests; the verbal test decreased LBV in one half of the subjects and increased LBV in the other. The tactile memory test increased LBV which was particularly high in the left CMA of all subjects. LBV dynamics during the cognitive tests was essentially different from what was observed in apnea. Blood flow variations in the course of equally the verbal and tactile tests had a regular undulatory character. Concurrent LBV and EEG monitoring made it possible to compare and contrast dynamics of the cerebral blood velocity and bioelectric activity directly during testing and thus to reveal peculiar reactions of the cerebral blood flow to cognitive and physiological testing.

  11. 75 FR 15496 - Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA...

  12. 75 FR 2595 - Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)...

  13. Bacterial Cyclic AMP-Phosphodiesterase Activity Coordinates Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kalivoda, Eric J.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Stella, Nicholas A.; Schmitt, Matthew J.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections are a major contributor to human disease, and the capacity for surface attachment and biofilm formation are key attributes for the pathogenesis of microbes. Serratia marcescens type I fimbriae-dependent biofilms are coordinated by the adenylate cyclase, CyaA, and the cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. This study uses S. marcescens as a model system to test the role of cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity in controlling biofilm formation. Herein we describe the characterization of a putative S. marcescens cAMP-phosphodiesterase gene (SMA3506), designated as cpdS, and demonstrated to be a functional cAMP-phosphodiesterase both in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of cpdS resulted in defective biofilm formation and reduced type I fimbriae production, whereas multicopy expression of cpdS conferred a type I fimbriae-dependent hyper-biofilm. Together, these results support a model in which bacterial cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity modulates biofilm formation. PMID:23923059

  14. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  15. Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lopes, V P; Rodrigues, L P; Maia, J A R; Malina, R M

    2011-10-01

    This study considers relationships among motor coordination (MC), physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) in children followed longitudinally from 6 to 10 years. It is hypothesized that MC is a significant and primary predictor of PA in children. Subjects were 142 girls and 143 boys. Height, weight and skinfolds; PA (Godin-Shephard questionnaire); MC (Körperkoordination Test für Kinder); and PF (five fitness items) were measured. Hierarchical linear modeling with MC and PF as predictors of PA was used. The retained model indicated that PA at baseline differed significantly between boys (48.3 MET/week) and girls (40.0 MET/week). The interaction of MC and 1 mile run/walk had a positive influence on level of PA. The general trend for a decrease in PA level across years was attenuated or amplified depending on initial level of MC. The estimated rate of decline in PA was negligible for children with higher levels of MC at 6 years, but was augmented by 2.58 and 2.47 units each year, respectively, for children with low and average levels of initial MC. In conclusion MC is an important predictor of PA in children 6-10 years of age.

  16. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of an automatic computer controlled second generation breathing metabolic simulator (BMS). The simulator is used for evaluating and testing respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support, and resuscitation equipment. Any desired sequence of metabolic activities can be simulated on the device for up to 15 hours. The computer monitors test procedures and provides printouts of test results.

  17. Photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials: Photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via the loading of PANI nanofibers on surface of coordination polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Xu, Xinxin Liu, Lu; Wang, Yi

    2013-09-15

    To enhance photocatalytic property of coordination polymer in visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst was synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on the surface of coordination polymer. The photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated. Compared with pure coordination polymer photocatalyst, which can decompose RhB merely under UV light irradiation, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst displays more excellent photocatalytic activity in visible light region. Furthermore, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst exhibits outstanding stability during the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material, which displays excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light was firstly synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on surface of coordination polymer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • This PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material represents the first conductive polymer loaded coordination polymer composite material. • PANI/coordination polymer composite material displays more excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO in visible light region. • The “combination” of coordination polymer and PANI will enable us to design high-activity, high-stability and visible light driven photocatalyst in the future.

  18. Influence of breathing mode and activity level on the regional deposition of inhaled particles and implications for regulatory standards

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.J.; Martonen, T.B.; Menache, M.G.; Spektor, D.M.; Lippmann, M.

    1985-09-01

    Particulate size-selective sampling is an important consideration in determining ambient air quality standards and threshold limit values for workplace exposures. Hazard evaluations, as well as risk analyses, can benefit from an improved understanding of factors affecting regional respiratory tract deposition of particles in man. Here, thoracic deposition and its component parts are examined, as a function of particulate size, for ventilation rates ranging from normal respiration to heavy exercise in individuals who are habitual mouth breathers and in those who normally employ oronasal breathing when minute ventilations exceed approximately 35 1/Lmin. The logistic models yielded significantly improved fits of the experimental data compared to previously used linear regression models. The analyses demonstrate that the activity level of the exposed population should be taken into account to assess the potential health consequences from ambient or workplace exposures.

  19. Coordinating the activities of a planner and an execution agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, Austin

    1989-01-01

    A research program was defined that will explore the link between planning and execution systems. A simple scenario was defined in which a very capable off-line planning system interacts with the user and a smaller, less capable, on-line real-time system executing plans and reacting to faults. However, the on-line execution system may have a more flexible representation of the plans it is executing. This imbalance in the capabilities of the two agents involved should clarify some of the research objectives and give an experimental framework for the work. The task is to investigate the knowledge representations and communication protocols needed to link a user stating some requirements for a task to be carried out through a planning system to the (remote) execution agent that can carry out the user's wishes. The notion that a single representation can encapsulate the expression of the user's requirements, the capabilities for action, the communication to the execution agent, the successful or faulty response from the execution agent and the means of keeping the user informed, is examined. Methods of creating plan patches to update the plans separately held by each of the parties involved to keep them in step as they each react to changing circumstances in real-time is investigated. This involves the specification of plan patch attachment points that can be understood by the recipient. Transaction based methods are also investigated for coordinating the activities of the planner with those of the execution agent and user. The trial application area for the research is in the command and control of an advanced Earth Observation Space Platform.

  20. Method for the evaluation of structure-activity relationship information associated with coordinated activity cliffs.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-14

    Activity cliffs are generally defined as pairs of active compounds having a large difference in potency. Although this definition of activity cliffs focuses on compound pairs, the vast majority of cliffs are formed in a coordinated manner. This means that multiple highly and weakly potent compounds form series of activity cliffs, which often overlap. In activity cliff networks, coordinated cliffs emerge as disjoint activity cliff clusters. Recently, we have identified all cliff clusters from current bioactive compounds and analyzed their topologies. For structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, activity cliff clusters are of high interest, since they contain more SAR information than cliffs that are individually considered. For medicinal chemistry applications, a key question becomes how to best extract SAR information from activity cliff clusters. This represents a challenging problem, given the complexity of many activity cliff configurations. Herein we introduce a generally applicable methodology to organize activity cliff clusters on the basis of structural relationships, prioritize clusters, and systematically extract SAR information from them. PMID:25014781

  1. Summary of Session Activities: Coordination of Environmental Education Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, Michael; Mahootian, Farzad

    1995-01-01

    In this session, we address four fundamental questions related to environmental fields with emphasis on education. These are: What are the goals, objectives, and practical opportunities for coordinating our projects? How can we improve awareness of, interest in, access to, and support the products of our work? How can we build relationships between projects for scientific, educational, technical, and programmatic benefit? How can we evaluate the effectiveness of coordination efforts. In this working session, we produced answers to these questions and proposed a structure for future collaboration.

  2. What Controls Your Breathing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  3. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  4. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... less than a minute before a child regains consciousness and resumes breathing normally. Breath-holding spells can ... spells cause kids to stop breathing and lose consciousness for up to a minute. In the most ...

  5. Active head rotations and eye-head coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangemeister, W. H.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that head movements play an important role in gaze. The interaction between eye and head movements involves both their shared role in directing gaze and the compensatory vestibular ocular reflex. The dynamics of head trajectories are discussed, taking into account the use of parameterization to obtain the peak velocity, peak accelerations, the times of these extrema, and the duration of the movement. Attention is given to the main sequence, neck muscle EMG and details of the head-movement trajectory, types of head model accelerations, the latency of eye and head movement in coordinated gaze, gaze latency as a function of various factors, and coordinated gaze types. Clinical examples of gaze-plane analysis are considered along with the instantaneous change of compensatory eye movement (CEM) gain, and aspects of variability.

  6. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead to ...

  7. A CLINICAL GUIDE TO THE ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF BREATHING PATTERN DISORDERS IN THE PHYSICALLY ACTIVE: PART 1

    PubMed Central

    Hansen-Honeycutt, Jena; Nasypany, Alan; Baker, Russell T.; May, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate assessment and interventions for breathing patterns prior to assessment of the patient's musculoskeletal complaint may be beneficial. Breathing pattern disorders (BPDs) are remediable and influenced by biochemical, biomechanical, psychological, and/or unknown factors. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to demonstrate the integratration of a BPD assessment into a standard clinical musculoskeletal orthopedic examination. Clinical Assessment The observation of a patient's breathing pattern begins when they enter the clinic, is followed by palpation and orthopedic tests, which allows for proper classification of BPDs. Outcomes Disease-oriented measures guide the assessment and classification of BPD, while patient-oriented measures describe clinically important differences among patient values. Classification There are many possible variations of classifications of BPD, however, six primary dysfunctions found in the literature have become the foundation of the BPD assessment. Discussion and Conclusion Restoring proper breathing mechanics and neuromuscular motor control patterns during breathing may result in a decrease in pain, improved patient outcomes, and overall patient well being associated with their primary musculoskeletal complaint. A comprehensive evaluation of breathing patterns, as a part of an orthopedic examination, may guide a clinician in providing effective and appropriate treatments to decrease pain and improve function. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:27757292

  8. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  9. Comparison of active cycle of breathing and high-frequency oscillation jacket in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gillian E; Pike, Sarah E; Jaffé, Adam; Bush, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    High-frequency chest compressions (HFCC) have been suggested as an alternative to conventional chest physiotherapy to aid sputum clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to compare the active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT) with the Hayek Oscillator Cuirass, performing HFCC on secretion clearance in children with CF during an exacerbation. Ten children (7 males; median age, 14 years; range, 9-16) received either two supervised sessions using HFCC or two self-treatment ACBT sessions in random order on successive days. Baseline pulmonary function was similar prior to treatments. Sputum weight increased significantly with ACBT compared with HFCC during treatment (5.2 g vs. 1.1 g, P < 0.005, morning; 4.1 g vs. 0.7 g, P < 0.01, afternoon). Pulmonary function improved significantly after morning ACBT (forced vital capacity (FVC): 2.67 l to 2.76 l, P < 0.03; forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1): 1.59 l to 1.62 l, P < 0.03). Following afternoon ACBT, there was a significant increase in FVC (2.64 to 2.79, P < 0.02), but no significant change in FEV1. Pulmonary function did not change at any time following HFCC. Compared with ACBT, HFCC by Hayek Cuirass is not an effective airway clearance treatment modality for children with CF during an infective exacerbation.

  10. 48 CFR 2452.237-72 - Coordination of data collection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identical information from ten or more public respondents. Coordination of Data Collection Activities (APR... identical information from ten or more public respondents, the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C....

  11. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Andersen, Lars L; Kirk, Niels; Pedersen, Mogens T; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized with 7 functional coordination exercises 12 times during 4 weeks before testing. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from rectus abdominus, erector spinae, obliquus externus, and trapezius during the exercises with 2-4 levels of progression. Electromyography was normalized to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value < 0.05 was considered significant. All recorded muscles reached sufficiently high levels of activity during the coordination exercises for strength gain (>60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role for the attained muscle activity. Body position during the exercises was important for the activity of the erector spinae, and level of progression was important for the activity of the trapezius. The findings indicate that depending on type, body position, and level of progression, functional coordination training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles.

  12. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  13. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  14. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  15. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  16. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described... supporting a finding of substantially different coastal effects than originally described and the...

  17. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    PubMed

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists.

  18. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    PubMed

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists. PMID:27554491

  19. [History and activities of the Rescue Coordination Center].

    PubMed

    Hausman, A

    1983-01-01

    The founder and first director of the C.C.R. enumerates the principles that led to the conception and the achievement of the C.C.R. He reviews the principal rescue activities during these 25 years and mentions the development of supplementary activities on safety, ergonomics and respiratory protection during the last few years.

  20. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  1. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  2. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  3. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  4. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  5. Active water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using an electroosmotic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, T.; O'Hayre, R.; Litster, S.; Prinz, F. B.; Santiago, J. G.

    In a typical air-breathing fuel cell design, ambient air is supplied to the cathode by natural convection and dry hydrogen is supplied to a dead-ended anode. While this design is simple and attractive for portable low-power applications, the difficulty in implementing effective and robust water management presents disadvantages. In particular, excessive flooding of the open-cathode during long-term operation can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. To overcome this limitation, we report here on a novel air-breathing fuel cell water management design based on a hydrophilic and electrically conductive wick in conjunction with an electroosmotic (EO) pump that actively pumps water out of the wick. Transient experiments demonstrate the ability of the EO-pump to "resuscitate" the fuel cell from catastrophic flooding events, while longer term galvanostatic measurements suggest that the design can completely eliminate cathode flooding using less than 2% of fuel cell power, and lead to stable operation with higher net power performance than a control design without EO-pump. This demonstrates that active EO-pump water management, which has previously only been demonstrated in forced-convection fuel cell systems, can also be applied effectively to miniaturized (<5 W) air-breathing fuel cell systems.

  6. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  7. Subcellular and Dynamic Coordination between Src Activity and Cell Protrusion in Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Yue; Qian, Tongcheng; Wu, Yiqian; Seong, Jihye; Gong, Ya; Ma, Hongwei; Wang, Yingxiao; Lu, Shaoying

    2015-01-01

    Migration of endothelial cells is essential for wound healing and angiogenesis. Src kinase activity plays important roles at the protrusions of migrating endothelial cells. However, the spatiotemporal coordination between Src kinase activity and the protrusion of cell edge remains unclear. Therefore, we investigate these coordinated molecular events at the initiation of cell migration, by integrating microfabrication, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, and automated computational image analysis. We demonstrate that the physical release of restrictive micropattern triggered a significant decrease of Src activity at the protrusive edge of endothelial cells. Computational cross-correlation analysis reveals that the decrease of Src activity occurred earlier in time, and was well-coordinated with the protrusion of cell edge in polarized cells, but not in non-polarized cells. These results suggest that the spatiotemporal control of Src kinase activity is well-coordinated with cell polarization and protrusion in endothelial cells upon the release of physical constraint, as that experienced by endothelial cells sprouting from stiff tumor micro-environment during angiogenesis. Therefore, our integrative approach enabled the discovery of a new model where Src is de-activated in coordination with membrane protrusion, providing important insights into the regulation of endothelial migration and angiogenesis. PMID:26261043

  8. Simulating Activities: Relating Motives, Deliberation and Attentive Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied "off-task" activities (e.g., waiting), non-intellectual motives (e.g., hunger), sustaining a goal state (e.g., playful interaction), and coupled perceptual-motor dynamics (e.g., following someone). These aspects of human behavior have been considered in bits and pieces in past research, identified as scripts, human factors, behavior settings, ensemble, flow experience, and situated action. More broadly, activity theory provides a comprehensive framework relating motives, goals, and operations. This paper ties these ideas together, using examples from work life in a Canadian High Arctic research station. The emphasis is on simulating human behavior as it naturally occurs, such that "working" is understood as an aspect of living. The result is a synthesis of previously unrelated analytic perspectives and a broader appreciation of the nature of human cognition. Simulating activities in this comprehensive way is useful for understanding work practice, promoting learning, and designing better tools, including human-robot systems.

  9. A novel excitatory network for the control of breathing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tatiana M; Garcia, Alfredo J; Baertsch, Nathan A; Pollak, Julia; Bloom, Jacob C; Wei, Aguan D; Rai, Karan G; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2016-08-01

    Breathing must be tightly coordinated with other behaviours such as vocalization, swallowing, and coughing. These behaviours occur after inspiration, during a respiratory phase termed postinspiration. Failure to coordinate postinspiration with inspiration can result in aspiration pneumonia, the leading cause of death in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here we describe an excitatory network that generates the neuronal correlate of postinspiratory activity in mice. Glutamatergic-cholinergic neurons form the basis of this network, and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-mediated inhibition establishes the timing and coordination relative to inspiration. We refer to this network as the postinspiratory complex (PiCo). The PiCo has autonomous rhythm-generating properties and is necessary and sufficient for postinspiratory activity in vivo.The PiCo also shows distinct responses to neuromodulators when compared to other excitatory brainstem networks. On the basis of the discovery of the PiCo, we propose that each of the three phases of breathing is generated by a distinct excitatory network: the pre-Bötzinger complex, which has been linked to inspiration; the PiCo, as described here for the neuronal control of postinspiration; and the lateral parafacial region (pF(L)), which has been associated with active expiration, a respiratory phase that is recruited during high metabolic demand. PMID:27462817

  10. Coordinated Activities of Human Dicer Domains in Regulatory RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Enbo; Zhou, Kaihong; Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The conserved ribonuclease Dicer generates microRNAs and short interfering RNAs that guide gene silencing in eukaryotes. The specific contributions of human Dicer's structural domains to RNA product length and substrate preference are incompletely understood, due in part to the difficulties of Dicer purification. Here we show that active forms of human Dicer can be assembled from recombinant polypeptides expressed in bacteria. Using this system, we find that three distinct modes of RNA recognition give rise to Dicer's fidelity and product length specificity. The first involves anchoring one end of a dsRNA helix within the PAZ domain, which can assemble in trans with Dicer's catalytic domains to reconstitute an accurate but non-substrate-selective dicing activity. The second entails non-specific RNA binding by the double-stranded RNA binding domain (dsRBD), an interaction that is essential for substrate recruitment in the absence of the PAZ domain. The third mode of recognition involves hairpin RNA loop recognition by the helicase domain, which ensures efficient processing of specific substrates. These results reveal distinct interactions of each Dicer domain with different RNA structural features, and provide a facile system for investigating the molecular mechanisms of human miRNA biogenesis. PMID:22727743

  11. Can Gymnastic Teacher Predict Leisure Activity Preference among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hanna-Kassis, Amany; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze: (1) whether significant differences exist between children with typical development and children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) in their preference to participate in leisure activities (2) whether the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) evaluation predicts participation preference.…

  12. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  13. Physical Activity and Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Hay, John; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Liu, Jian; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with a child's activities of daily living. Activities that most young children engage in such as running, walking, and jumping are important for the proper development of fitness and overall health. However, children…

  14. Rapid and enhanced activation of microporous coordination polymers by flowing supercritical CO.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Matzger, Adam J.; Liu, Baojian; Wong-Foy, Antek G.

    2016-07-19

    Flowing supercritical CO.sub.2 is used to activate metal organic framework materials (MOF). MOFs are activated directly from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) thus avoiding exchange with a volatile solvent. Most MCPs display increased surface areas directly after treatment although those with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers benefit from additional heating.

  15. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  16. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  17. Modeling spontaneous activity across an excitable epithelium: Support for a coordination scenario of early neural evolution

    PubMed Central

    de Wiljes, Oltman O.; van Elburg, Ronald A. J.; Biehl, Michael; Keijzer, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Internal coordination models hold that early nervous systems evolved in the first place to coordinate internal activity at a multicellular level, most notably the use of multicellular contractility as an effector for motility. A recent example of such a model, the skin brain thesis, suggests that excitable epithelia using chemical signaling are a potential candidate as a nervous system precursor. We developed a computational model and a measure for whole body coordination to investigate the coordinative properties of such excitable epithelia. Using this measure we show that excitable epithelia can spontaneously exhibit body-scale patterns of activation. Relevant factors determining the extent of patterning are the noise level for exocytosis, relative body dimensions, and body size. In smaller bodies whole-body coordination emerges from cellular excitability and bidirectional excitatory transmission alone. Our results show that basic internal coordination as proposed by the skin brain thesis could have arisen in this potential nervous system precursor, supporting that this configuration may have played a role as a proto-neural system and requires further investigation. PMID:26441620

  18. Catalytic activity of unsaturated coordinated Cu-MOF to the hydroxylation of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Lijuan; Chen, Chao; Lan, Fan; Deng, Shengjun; Xiao, Weiming; Zhang, Ning

    2011-05-01

    A 2D metal-organic framework [Cu 2 (BPTC) (Im) 4(H 2O) (DMF)] n ( 1) with unsaturated coordinated Cu(II) sites has been prepared under solvothermal condition, and applied to the hydroxylation of phenol after activating. The catalytic results indicate that 1a (the activated 1) exhibits an obvious activity for phenol hydroxylation at 40 °C for 4 h. Compared to the control experiments where the free Cu(II) (from Cu(OAc) 2 salt) has been utilized as the catalysts, 1a shows the higher selectivity to diphenols. This suggests that the coordinated environment of unsaturated coordinated Cu(II) sites in the 2D layer play the key role in the phenol hydroxylation.

  19. Supramolecular coordination and antimicrobial activities of constructed mixed ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Abou-Dobara, M. I.; Seyam, H. A.

    2013-03-01

    A novel series of copper(II) and palladium(II) with 4-derivatives benzaldehyde pyrazolone (Ln) were synthesized. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared by using 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as second ligand. The structure of these complexes was identified and confirm by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and magnetic moment measurements as well as thermal analysis. The ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through ON donor sites. ESR spectra show the simultaneous presence of a planar trans and a nearly planar cis isomers in the 1:2 ratio for all N,O complexes [Cu(Ln)2]Cl2ṡ2H2O. Schiff bases (Ln) were tested against bacterial species; namely two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium italicum and Alternaria alternata). The tested compounds have antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus and K. pneumoniae.

  20. Evaluation of CYP2D6 enzyme activity using a Dextromethorphan Breath Test in Women Receiving Adjuvant Tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Safgren, Stephanie L.; Suman, Vera J.; Kosel, Matthew L.; Gilbert, Judith A; Buhrow, Sarah A.; Black, John L.; Northfelt, Donald W.; Modak, Anil S.; Rosen, David; Ingle, James N.; Ames, Matthew M.; Reid, Joel M.; Goetz, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In tamoxifen-treated patients, breast cancer recurrence differs according to CYP2D6 genotype and endoxifen steady state concentrations (Endx Css). The 13Cdextromethorphan breath test (DM-BT), labeled with 13C at the O-CH3 moiety, measures CYP2D6 enzyme activity. We sought to examine the ability of the DM-BT to identify known CYP2D6 genotypic poor metabolizers and examine the correlation between DMBT and Endx Css. Methods DM-BT and tamoxifen pharmacokinetics were obtained at baseline (b), 3 month (3m) and 6 months (6m) following tamoxifen initiation. Potent CYP2D6 inhibitors were prohibited. The correlation between bDM-BT with CYP2D6 genotype and Endx Css was determined. The association between bDM-BT (where values ≤0.9 is an indicator of poor in vivo CYP2D6 metabolism) and Endx Css (using values ≤ 11.2 known to be associated with poorer recurrence free survival) was explored. Results 91 patients were enrolled and 77 were eligible. CYP2D6 genotype was positively correlated with b, 3m and 6m DMBT (r ranging from 0.457-0. 60 p < 0.001). Both CYP2D6 genotype (r = 0.47; 0.56, p <.0001), and bDM-BT (r=0.60; 0.54; p<.001) were associated with 3m and 6m Endx Css respectively. Seven of 9 patients (78%) with low (≤11.2 nM) 3m Endx Css also had low DM-BT (≤0.9) including 2/2 CYP2D6 PM/PM and 5/5 IM/PM. In contrast, 1 of 48 pts (2%) with a low DM-BT had Endx Css > 11.2 nM. Conclusions In patients not taking potent CYP2D6 inhibitors, DM-BT was associated with CYP2D6 genotype and 3m and 6 m Endx Css but did not provide better discrimination of Endx Css compared to CYP2D6 genotype alone. Further studies are needed to identify additional factors which alter Endx Css. PMID:25714002

  1. 'Unconventional' coordination chemistry by metal chelating fragments in a metalloprotein active site.

    PubMed

    Martin, David P; Blachly, Patrick G; Marts, Amy R; Woodruff, Tessa M; de Oliveira, César A F; McCammon, J Andrew; Tierney, David L; Cohen, Seth M

    2014-04-01

    The binding of three closely related chelators: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (allothiomaltol, ATM), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiomaltol, TM), and 3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiopyromeconic acid, TPMA) to the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) has been investigated. Two of these ligands display a monodentate mode of coordination to the active site Zn(2+) ion in hCAII that is not recapitulated in model complexes of the enzyme active site. This unprecedented binding mode in the hCAII-thiomaltol complex has been characterized by both X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, the steric restrictions of the active site force the ligands into a 'flattened' mode of coordination compared with inorganic model complexes. This change in geometry has been shown by density functional computations to significantly decrease the strength of the metal-ligand binding. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the mode of binding by small metal-binding groups can be significantly influenced by the protein active site. Diminishing the strength of the metal-ligand bond results in unconventional modes of metal coordination not found in typical coordination compounds or even carefully engineered active site models, and understanding these effects is critical to the rational design of inhibitors that target clinically relevant metalloproteins.

  2. Breath Tests to Assess Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Manuele; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Erpecum, Karel J van; Savarino, Vincenzo; Giannini, Edoardo G

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Alcohol related Liver Disease (ALD) continues to rise all over the world due to changing drinking behaviour of the population. Liver disease due to excessive alcohol consumption causes significant morbidity and mortality, and poses a substantial economic burden to the health care resources. Early diagnosis and treatment of ALD may help prevent progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The last decade has seen a rising interest in potential use of non-invasive tests in clinical practice, including diagnosis and monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Over the past few decades, breath testing has been investigated extensively in the diagnosis of ALD, and has shown promising results in predicting the early stages of ALD. A variety of breath tests have been utilised in this regard including the13Clabelled breath tests, aminopyrine breath test , galactose breath test , methacetin breath test, and keto-isocaproic acid breath test. These tests have demonstrated good results in identification of both significant and severe liver disease among patients with ALD. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are chemicals, which can be quantified in breath and other biological fluids, and represent physio-pathological activities within an individual. Alteration in the pattern of breath VOCs can be correlated with a number of diseases including ALD. Early stages of ALD can be detected using these breath tests, which can lead to adoption of preventive measures to reduce the progression of liver disease. This review focuses on the clinical utility of current and future breath tests, including breath VOC, as a non-invasive means of predicting early stages of ALD. PMID:27515960

  3. Breathe easy.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    Staff at a children's hospice and the respiratory nurse team at an acute hospital are working together to help young people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy lead more active lives. The young people receive a non-invasive form of ventilation that can be used at home.

  4. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  5. Soluble porous coordination polymers by mechanochemistry: from metal-containing films/membranes to active catalysts for aerobic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Haiying; Veith, Gabriel M; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-14

    Soluble porous coordination polymers from mechanochemical synthesis are presented through a coordination polymerization between highly contorted, rigid tetraphenol and a broad variety of transition metal ions. These polymers can be easily cast as metal-containing films or freestanding membranes. Importantly, as-made coordination polymers are highly active and stable in the aerobic oxidation of allylic C-H bonds. PMID:25389070

  6. Co-ordination of contractile activity in guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatics.

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, M J; von der Weid, P Y; Brock, J A; Van Helden, D F

    1997-01-01

    1. Intraluminally perfused lymphatic vessels from the mesentery of the guinea-pig were examined in vitro to investigate their contractile activity and the co-ordination of this activity between adjacent lymphangions. 2. Lymphangions constricted at fairly regular intervals and exhibited 'refractory' periods of up to 3 s during which constrictions did not occur. 3. The contractile activity of adjacent lymphangions was highly co-ordinated. 4. The smooth muscle was found to be continuous between the adjacent lymphangions for the majority of valve regions examined morphologically (52 of 63 preparations). 5. Mechanical and electrical coupling between adjacent lymphangions was indicated, as some lymphangions underwent transient dilatations just prior to constriction, whereas direct electrophysiological measurements showed that the smooth muscle of most adjacent lymphangions was electrically coupled across the valve (15 out of 20 pairs of lymphangions). 6. It is concluded that perfused lymphangions of guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels rhythmically constrict, with the contractile activity of adjacent lymphangions highly co-ordinated. The findings also indicate that transmission of both mechanical and electrical signals between the adjacent lymphangions contribute to the co-ordination of their contractile activity. Images Figure 4 PMID:9097947

  7. P2Y1 receptors expressed by C1 neurons determine peripheral chemoreceptor modulation of breathing, sympathetic activity, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Wenker, Ian C; Sobrinho, Cleyton R; Takakura, Ana C; Mulkey, Daniel K; Moreira, Thiago S

    2013-08-01

    Catecholaminergic C1 cells of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are key determinants of the sympathoexcitatory response to peripheral chemoreceptor activation. Overactivation of this reflex is thought to contribute to increased sympathetic activity and hypertension; however, molecular mechanisms linking peripheral chemoreceptor drive to hypertension remain poorly understood. We have recently determined that activation of P2Y1 receptors in the RVLM mimicked effects of peripheral chemoreceptor activation. Therefore, we hypothesize that P2Y1 receptors regulate peripheral chemoreceptor drive in this region. Here, we determine whether P2Y1 receptors are expressed by C1 neurons in the RVLM and contribute to peripheral chemoreceptor control of breathing, sympathetic activity, and blood pressure. We found that injection of a specific P2Y1 receptor agonist (MRS2365) into the RVLM of anesthetized adult rats increased phrenic nerve activity (≈55%), sympathetic nerve activity (38 ± 6%), and blood pressure (23 ± 1 mm Hg), whereas application of a specific P2Y1 receptor antagonist (MRS2179) decreased peripheral chemoreceptor-mediated activation of phrenic nerve activity, sympathetic nerve activity, and blood pressure. To establish that P2Y1 receptors are expressed by C1 cells, we determine in the brain slice preparation using cell-attached recording techniques that cells responsive to MRS2365 are immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of C1 cells), and we determine in vivo that C1-lesioned animals do not respond to RVLM injection of MRS2365. These data identify P2Y1 receptors as key determinants of peripheral chemoreceptor regulation of breathing, sympathetic nerve activity, and blood pressure.

  8. Underwater Stroke Kinematics During Breathing and Breath-holding Front Crawl Swimming.

    PubMed

    Vezos, Nickos; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Aggeloussis, Nickos; Kasimatis, Panagiotis; Christoforidis, Christos; Mavromatis, Giorgos

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05), the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05) and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05). On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05) and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05) were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing. Key pointsThe breathing action increases the duration of the total underwater pull.The breathing action increases the absolute backward displacement of the hand.The breathing action caused significant modifications in the overall motor pattern, possibly due to body roll during breathing. PMID:24149225

  9. Allosteric activation of membrane-bound glutamate receptors using coordination chemistry within living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Kubota, Ryou; Michibata, Yukiko; Sakakura, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Numata, Tomohiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-10-01

    The controlled activation of proteins in living cells is an important goal in protein-design research, but to introduce an artificial activation switch into membrane proteins through rational design is a significant challenge because of the structural and functional complexity of such proteins. Here we report the allosteric activation of two types of membrane-bound neurotransmitter receptors, the ion-channel type and the G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors, using coordination chemistry in living cells. The high programmability of coordination chemistry enabled two His mutations, which act as an artificial allosteric site, to be semirationally incorporated in the vicinity of the ligand-binding pockets. Binding of Pd(2,2‧-bipyridine) at the allosteric site enabled the active conformations of the glutamate receptors to be stabilized. Using this approach, we were able to activate selectively a mutant glutamate receptor in live neurons, which initiated a subsequent signal-transduction pathway.

  10. Allosteric activation of membrane-bound glutamate receptors using coordination chemistry within living cells.

    PubMed

    Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Kubota, Ryou; Michibata, Yukiko; Sakakura, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Numata, Tomohiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-10-01

    The controlled activation of proteins in living cells is an important goal in protein-design research, but to introduce an artificial activation switch into membrane proteins through rational design is a significant challenge because of the structural and functional complexity of such proteins. Here we report the allosteric activation of two types of membrane-bound neurotransmitter receptors, the ion-channel type and the G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors, using coordination chemistry in living cells. The high programmability of coordination chemistry enabled two His mutations, which act as an artificial allosteric site, to be semirationally incorporated in the vicinity of the ligand-binding pockets. Binding of Pd(2,2'-bipyridine) at the allosteric site enabled the active conformations of the glutamate receptors to be stabilized. Using this approach, we were able to activate selectively a mutant glutamate receptor in live neurons, which initiated a subsequent signal-transduction pathway. PMID:27657873

  11. A barium based coordination polymer for the activity assay of deoxyribonuclease I.

    PubMed

    Song, Chan; Wang, Guan-Yao; Wang, Ya-Ling; Kong, De-Ming; Wang, Yong-Jian; Li, Yue; Ruan, Wen-Juan

    2014-10-01

    A new coordination polymer which shows an unusual 2D inorganic connectivity was constructed. This compound exhibits distinct fluorescence quenching ability to the dye-labeled single-stranded DNA probes with different lengths, based on which an analytical method was developed for the activity assay of deoxyribonuclease I.

  12. Activities and Participation in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, L. C.; Cardoso, A. A.; Missiuna, C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review all literature published in peer reviewed journals from January 1995 to July 2008 in order to summarize and describe the activity limitations and participation restrictions of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Methods: Multiple databases were systematically searched for articles related to…

  13. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  14. 3 CFR - Designation of the National Science and Technology Council to Coordinate Certain Activities Under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of the National Science and Technology Council to Coordinate Certain Activities Under the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of July 22, 2010 Designation of the National Science...

  15. Physical activity, physical fitness, gross motor coordination, and metabolic syndrome: focus of twin research in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, José António Ribeiro; Santos, Daniel; de Freitas, Duarte Luis; Thomis, Martine

    2013-02-01

    A very brief history of Portuguese twin research in sport and human movement sciences is presented. Recruitment procedures, zygosity determination, and phenotypes are given for twins and their parents from the mainland, and Azores and Madeira archipelagos. Preliminary findings are mostly related to physical activity, health-related physical fitness, gross motor coordination, neuromotor development, and metabolic syndrome traits.

  16. State Research Coordinating Unit Activities for the Period July 1, 1971-December 31, 1971. Semiannual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This semiannual report summarizes research activities of the State Research Coordinating Units conducted under Section 131(b) of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 during the first half of fiscal year 1972. The purpose of the report is to facilitate exchange of information and reduce duplication of effort among the states by providing…

  17. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  18. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Sex, and Activity Deficit over Time: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participation Trajectories in Children with and without Coordination Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Veldhuizen, Scott; Missiuna, Cheryl; Faught, Brent E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to participate in active play less than typically developing children. However, it is not known whether the activity deficit between children with and without DCD widens or diminishes over time. Method: Data were obtained from a large, prospective cohort study of children…

  19. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  20. Coordination number of zinc ions in the phosphotriesterase active site by molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics.

    PubMed

    Koca, Jaroslav; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Rittenhouse, Robert C; Ornstein, Rick L

    2003-02-01

    We have run several molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on zinc-containing phosphotriesterase (PTE) with two bound substrates, sarin and paraoxon, and with the substrate analog diethyl 4-methylbenzylphosphonate. A standard nonbonded model was employed to treat the zinc ions with the commonly used charge of +2. In all the trajectories, we observed a tightly bound water (TBW) molecule in the active site that was coordinated to the less buried zinc ion. The phosphoryl oxygen of the substrate/inhibitor was found to be coordinated to the same zinc ion so that, considering all ligands, the less buried zinc was hexa-coordinated. The hexa-coordination of this zinc ion was not seen in the deposited X-ray pdb files for PTE. Several additional MD simulations were then performed using different charges (+1, +1.5) on the zinc ions, along with ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, to evaluate the following possibilities: the crystal diffraction data were not correctly interpreted; the hexa-coordinated zinc ion in PTE is only present in solution and not in the crystal; and the hexa-coordinated zinc ion in PTE is an artifact of the force field used. A charge of +1.5 leads to a coordination number (CN) of 5 on both zinc ions, which is consistent with the results from ab initio and DFT calculations and with the latest high resolution X-ray crystal structure. The commonly used charge of +2 produces a CN of 6 on the less buried zinc. The CN on the more buried zinc ion is 5 when the substrate/inhibitor is present in the simulation, and increases to 6 when the substrate/inhibitor is removed prior to the simulation. The results of both of the MD and quantum mechanical calculations lead to the conclusion that the zinc ions in the PTE active site are both penta-coordinated, and that the MD simulations performed with the charge of +2 overestimate the CN of the zinc ions in the PTE active site. The overall protein structures in the simulations remain unaffected by the

  1. Active Breathing Control in Combination With Ultrasound Imaging: A Feasibility Study of Image Guidance in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Liver Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther; Meer, Skadi van der; Hendry, Janet; Buijsen, Jeroen; Visser, Peter; Fontanarosa, Davide; Lachaine, Martin; Lammering, Guido; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate tumor positioning in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of liver lesions is often hampered by motion and setup errors. We combined 3-dimensional ultrasound imaging (3DUS) and active breathing control (ABC) as an image guidance tool. Methods and Materials: We tested 3DUS image guidance in the SBRT treatment of liver lesions for 11 patients with 88 treatment fractions. In 5 patients, 3DUS imaging was combined with ABC. The uncertainties of US scanning and US image segmentation in liver lesions were determined with and without ABC. Results: In free breathing, the intraobserver variations were 1.4 mm in left-right (L-R), 1.6 mm in superior-inferior (S-I), and 1.3 mm anterior-posterior (A-P). and the interobserver variations were 1.6 mm (L-R), 2.8 mm (S-I), and 1.2 mm (A-P). The combined uncertainty of US scanning and matching (inter- and intraobserver) was 4 mm (1 SD). The combined uncertainty when ABC was used reduced by 1.7 mm in the S-I direction. For the L-R and A-P directions, no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: 3DUS imaging for IGRT of liver lesions is feasible, although using anatomic surrogates in the close vicinity of the lesion may be needed. ABC-based breath-hold in midventilation during 3DUS imaging can reduce the uncertainty of US-based 3D table shift correction.

  2. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively.

  3. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively. PMID:26285591

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, J; Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Fukumizu, M; Iwakawa, Y

    2000-07-01

    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells.

  5. Chitosan-Copper (II) complex as antibacterial agent: synthesis, characterization and coordinating bond- activity correlation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekahlia, S.; Bouzid, B.

    2009-11-01

    The antimicrobial activity of chitosan is unstable and sensitive to many factors such as molecular weight. Recent investigations showed that low molecular weight chitosan exhibited strong bactericidal activities compared to chitosan with high molecular weight. Since chitosan degradation can be caused by the coordinating bond, we attempt to synthesize and characterize the chitosan-Cu (II) complex, and thereafter study the coordinating bond effect on its antibacterial activity against Salmonella enteritidis. Seven chitosan-copper complexes with different copper contents were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, XRD and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results indicated that for chitosan-Cu (II) complexes with molar ratio close to 1:1, the inhibition rate reached 100%.

  6. Upper extremity kinematics and body roll during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Payton, C J; Bartlett, R M; Baltzopoulos, V; Coombs, R

    1999-09-01

    Front crawl swimmers often restrict the number of breaths they take during a race because of the possible adverse effects of the breathing action on resistance or stroke mechanics. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in the kinematics of the trunk and upper extremity used during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front crawl swimming. Six male swimmers performed trials at their 200 m race pace under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater arm stroke was filmed from the front and side using video cameras suspended over periscope systems. Video recordings were digitized at 50 Hz and the three-dimensional coordinates of the upper extremity obtained using a direct linear transformation algorithm. Body roll angles were obtained by digitizing video recordings of a balsa wood fin attached to the swimmers' backs. The swimmers performed the breathing action without any decrement in stroke length (mean +/- s: breathing 2.24 +/- 0.27 m; breath-holding 2.15 +/- 0.22 m). Stroke widths were similar in the breathing (0.28 +/- 0.07 m) and breath-holding (0.27 +/- 0.07 m) trials, despite swimmers rolling further when taking a breath (66 +/- 5 degrees) than when not (57 +/- 4 degrees). The timing of the four underwater phases of the stroke was also unaffected by the breathing action, with swimmers rolling back towards the neutral position during the insweep phase. In conclusion, the results suggest that front crawl swimmers can perform the breathing action without it interfering with their basic stroke parameters. The insweep phase of the stroke assists body roll and not vice versa as suggested in previous studies.

  7. Automatic generation of active coordinates for quantum dynamics calculations: Application to the dynamics of benzene photochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Lasorne, Benjamin; Sicilia, Fabrizio; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.; Worth, Graham A.; Blancafort, Lluis

    2008-03-28

    A new practical method to generate a subspace of active coordinates for quantum dynamics calculations is presented. These reduced coordinates are obtained as the normal modes of an analytical quadratic representation of the energy difference between excited and ground states within the complete active space self-consistent field method. At the Franck-Condon point, the largest negative eigenvalues of this Hessian correspond to the photoactive modes: those that reduce the energy difference and lead to the conical intersection; eigenvalues close to 0 correspond to bath modes, while modes with large positive eigenvalues are photoinactive vibrations, which increase the energy difference. The efficacy of quantum dynamics run in the subspace of the photoactive modes is illustrated with the photochemistry of benzene, where theoretical simulations are designed to assist optimal control experiments.

  8. Twinning in fcc lattice creates low-coordinated catalytically active sites in porous gold.

    PubMed

    Krajčí, Marian; Kameoka, Satoshi; Tsai, An-Pang

    2016-08-28

    We describe a new mechanism for creation of catalytically active sites in porous gold. Samples of porous gold prepared by de-alloying Al2Au exhibit a clear correlation between the catalytic reactivity towards CO oxidation and structural defects in the fcc lattice of Au. We have found that on the stepped {211} surfaces quite common twin boundary defects in the bulk structure of porous gold can form long close-packed rows of atoms with the coordination number CN = 6. DFT calculations confirm that on these low-coordinated Au sites dioxygen chemisorbs and CO oxidation can proceed via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with the activation energy of 37 kJ/mol or via the CO-OO intermediate with the energy barrier of 19 kJ/mol. The existence of the twins in porous gold is stabilized by the surface energy.

  9. Twinning in fcc lattice creates low-coordinated catalytically active sites in porous gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajčí, Marian; Kameoka, Satoshi; Tsai, An-Pang

    2016-08-01

    We describe a new mechanism for creation of catalytically active sites in porous gold. Samples of porous gold prepared by de-alloying Al2Au exhibit a clear correlation between the catalytic reactivity towards CO oxidation and structural defects in the fcc lattice of Au. We have found that on the stepped {211} surfaces quite common twin boundary defects in the bulk structure of porous gold can form long close-packed rows of atoms with the coordination number CN = 6. DFT calculations confirm that on these low-coordinated Au sites dioxygen chemisorbs and CO oxidation can proceed via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with the activation energy of 37 kJ/mol or via the CO-OO intermediate with the energy barrier of 19 kJ/mol. The existence of the twins in porous gold is stabilized by the surface energy.

  10. Twinning in fcc lattice creates low-coordinated catalytically active sites in porous gold.

    PubMed

    Krajčí, Marian; Kameoka, Satoshi; Tsai, An-Pang

    2016-08-28

    We describe a new mechanism for creation of catalytically active sites in porous gold. Samples of porous gold prepared by de-alloying Al2Au exhibit a clear correlation between the catalytic reactivity towards CO oxidation and structural defects in the fcc lattice of Au. We have found that on the stepped {211} surfaces quite common twin boundary defects in the bulk structure of porous gold can form long close-packed rows of atoms with the coordination number CN = 6. DFT calculations confirm that on these low-coordinated Au sites dioxygen chemisorbs and CO oxidation can proceed via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with the activation energy of 37 kJ/mol or via the CO-OO intermediate with the energy barrier of 19 kJ/mol. The existence of the twins in porous gold is stabilized by the surface energy. PMID:27586937

  11. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-06-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.

  12. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-06-10

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.

  13. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation. PMID:26059552

  14. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal–nitrogen coordination

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon–nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation. PMID:26059552

  15. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder Subjects and methods 37 cases with developmental coordination disorder and 35 healthy age-matched peers were included in this study. Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test was used for evaluating the sensory integration and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) was used for evaluating the activities of daily living. Results Significant differences were found in the visual shape perception, position in space, and design copying (p < 0.05). According to the results of somatosensory perception tests, significant differences were found in kinesthesia, manual form perception, finger identification, figure-ground perception, localization of tactile stimuli, double tactile stimuli perception (p < 0.05). Control group was better in motor planning (p < 0.05). Comprehension, expression, social communication, problem solving, and memory skills were significant in favor of the control group (p < 0.05). Graphestesia and self-care domain was found to be correlated (r = 0,491, p = 0.002) between the groups. Discussion Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder. PMID:22546072

  16. Simulated breath waveform control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Subsystem was developed which provides twelve waveform controls to breath drive mechanism. Twelve position, magnetically actuated rotary switch is connected to one end of crankshaft drive, such that it makes one complete revolution for each simulated breath. Connections with common wired point are included in modifications made to standard motor speed controller.

  17. Coordinated activation of the secretory pathway during notochord formation in the Xenopus embryo

    PubMed Central

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Zhao, Hui; Rebbert, Martha L.; Dawid, Igor B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We compared the transcriptome in the developing notochord of Xenopus laevis embryos with that of other embryonic regions. A coordinated and intense activation of a large set of secretory pathway genes was observed in the notochord, but not in notochord precursors in the axial mesoderm at early gastrula stage. The genes encoding Xbp1 and Creb3l2 were also activated in the notochord. These two transcription factors are implicated in the activation of secretory pathway genes during the unfolded protein response, where cells react to the stress of a build-up of unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum. Xbp1 and Creb3l2 are differentially expressed but not differentially activated in the notochord. Reduction of expression of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 by injection of antisense morpholinos led to strong deficits in notochord but not somitic muscle development. In addition, the expression of some, but not all, genes encoding secretory proteins was inhibited by injection of xbp1 morpholinos. Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 in animal explants could activate a similar subset of secretory pathway genes. We conclude that coordinated activation of a battery of secretory pathway genes mediated by Xbp1 and Creb/ATF factors is a characteristic and necessary feature of notochord formation. PMID:19793890

  18. Breathing in fetal lambs: the effect of brain stem section.

    PubMed

    Dawes, G S; Gardner, W N; Johnston, B M; Walker, D W

    1983-02-01

    The effects of section of the brain stem caudally (through the upper pons or mid-collicular) or rostrally (through the caudal hypothalamus or anterior commissure-suprachiasmatic nucleus) were studied in fetal lambs from 118 days gestation, after recovery in utero. In lambs sectioned caudally, breathing movements and electrocortical activity were dissociated. After some days recovery breathing tended to become continuous, with an abnormal prolongation of inspiratory time. Isocapnic hypoxia caused an increase in the rate and amplitude of breathing. After carotid denervation hypoxia still caused an increase in the amplitude of breathing. In lambs sectioned rostrally, there was also dissociation between breathing movements and electrocortical activity. Breathing remained episodic, with an incidence similar to that of intact fetal lambs. In two lambs after 10 days of recovery the breathing and electrocortical rhythms returned, from time to time, to their normal phasic relationship. Isocapnic hypoxia caused a diminution or arrest of breathing, as in intact lambs. The cardiovascular effects of transection were examined. Baroreflex sensitivity was normal in those lambs sectioned caudally and enhanced in those sectioned rostrally. It is concluded first that as a result of rostral section, independent episodic rhythms of fetal breathing and electrocortical activity can be dissociated. Secondly, moderate isocapnic hypoxia causes arrest of fetal breathing indirectly, requiring the integrity of a suprapontine mechanism. And thirdly, after caudal section of the brain stem, hypoxia causes enhancement of fetal breathing efforts, independently of the carotid chemoreceptors. Possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:6875894

  19. Fabrication of a PANI/CPs composite material: a feasible method to enhance the photocatalytic activity of coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Cui, Zhong-Ping; Qi, Ji; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2013-03-21

    To improve the photocatalytic activity of a coordination polymer in the visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) was loaded onto its surface through a facile in situ chemical oxidation polymerization process. The resulting PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials with excellent stability exhibit significantly higher photocatalytic activities than the pure coordination polymer photocatalyst on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. This enhancement can be ascribed to the introduction of PANI on the surface of the coordination polymer, which leads to efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs as well as a significant expansion of the photoresponse region. Finally, we discussed the influence of acidity on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of the composite material. An optimal condition to obtain the PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material with excellent photocatalytic activity has been obtained.

  20. The non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test detects hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction as a marker of disease activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT) in patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Methods 118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative 13C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%)). cPDR1.5h was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p < 0.001). 13C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36). The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1). Conclusion The 13C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial) function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:21810560

  1. Network activity-independent coordinated gene expression program for synapse assembly

    PubMed Central

    Valor, Luis M.; Charlesworth, Paul; Humphreys, Lawrence; Anderson, Chris N. G.; Grant, Seth G. N.

    2007-01-01

    Global biological datasets generated by genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics provide new approaches to understanding the relationship between the genome and the synapse. Combined transcriptome analysis and multielectrode recordings of neuronal network activity were used in mouse embryonic primary neuronal cultures to examine synapse formation and activity-dependent gene regulation. Evidence for a coordinated gene expression program for assembly of synapses was observed in the expression of 642 genes encoding postsynaptic and plasticity proteins. This synaptogenesis gene expression program preceded protein expression of synapse markers and onset of spiking activity. Continued expression was followed by maturation of morphology and electrical neuronal networks, which was then followed by the expression of activity-dependent genes. Thus, two distinct sequentially active gene expression programs underlie the genomic programs of synapse function. PMID:17360580

  2. Synthesis, structural characterization and microbial activity of 2D Ag(I)-5-aminoisophthalate coordination polymer with a new coordination mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günay, Handan; Çolak, Alper Tolga; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; Tunç, Tuncay; Çolak, Ferdağ

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a novel polynuclear Ag(I)-5-aminoisophthalate complex [Ag(μ4-Haip)]n (1) (H2aip = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) has been synthesized. The molecular structure of this complex has been determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction. The two-dimensional polynuclear complex is crystallized in the triclinic crystal system with space group P-1. The Ag(I) ion is four-coordinated by three carboxylate oxygen atoms of three different Haip ligands and one nitrogen atom in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Furthermore, a novel coordination mode has shown by H2aip. This complex exhibits photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. Antimicrobial activity of complex was evaluated by the agar diffusion method. The complex showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganism strains (Gram positive, gram negative bacteria, clinic isolate yeast and mold). Moreover this complex showed particularly high antifungal activity against yeast and mold.

  3. 20 CFR 641.335 - How should the Governor address the coordination of SCSEP services with activities funded under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... coordination of SCSEP services with activities funded under title I of WIA? 641.335 Section 641.335 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM The State Senior Employment Services Coordination Plan § 641.335...

  4. Peroxidase-like oxidative activity of a manganese-coordinated histidyl bolaamphiphile self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2015-10-01

    A peroxidase-like catalyst was constructed through the self-assembly of histidyl bolaamphiphiles coordinated to Mn2+ ions. The prepared catalyst exhibited oxidation activity for the organic substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The histidyl bolaamphiphiles of bis(N-alpha-amido-histidine)-1,7-heptane dicarboxylates self-assembled to make spherical structures in an aqueous solution. Subsequent association of Mn2+ ions with the histidyl imidazoles in the self-assembly produced catalytic active sites. The optimal Mn2+ ion concentration was determined and coordination of the Mn2+ ion with multiple histidine imidazoles was investigated using spectroscopy analysis. The activation energy of the produced catalysts was 55.0 kJ mol-1, which was comparable to other peroxidase-mimetic catalysts. A detailed kinetics study revealed that the prepared catalyst followed a ping-pong mechanism and that the turnover reaction was promoted by increasing the substrate concentration. Finally, application of the prepared catalyst for glucose detection was demonstrated through cascade enzyme catalysis. This study demonstrated a facile way to prepare an enzyme-mimetic catalyst through the self-assembly of an amphiphilic molecule containing amino acid segments.A peroxidase-like catalyst was constructed through the self-assembly of histidyl bolaamphiphiles coordinated to Mn2+ ions. The prepared catalyst exhibited oxidation activity for the organic substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The histidyl bolaamphiphiles of bis(N-alpha-amido-histidine)-1,7-heptane dicarboxylates self-assembled to make spherical structures in an aqueous solution. Subsequent association of Mn2+ ions with the histidyl imidazoles in the self-assembly produced catalytic active sites. The optimal Mn2+ ion concentration was determined and coordination of the Mn2+ ion with multiple histidine imidazoles was investigated using spectroscopy

  5. Cdk1 activity acts as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle progression with periodic transcription

    PubMed Central

    Banyai, Gabor; Baïdi, Feriel; Coudreuse, Damien; Szilagyi, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and requires the periodic expression of particular gene clusters in different cell cycle phases. However, the interplay between the networks that generate these transcriptional oscillations and the core cell cycle machinery remains largely unexplored. In this work, we use a synthetic regulable Cdk1 module to demonstrate that periodic expression is governed by quantitative changes in Cdk1 activity, with different clusters directly responding to specific activity levels. We further establish that cell cycle events neither participate in nor interfere with the Cdk1-driven transcriptional program, provided that cells are exposed to the appropriate Cdk1 activities. These findings contrast with current models that propose self-sustained and Cdk1-independent transcriptional oscillations. Our work therefore supports a model in which Cdk1 activity serves as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle transitions with the expression of critical genes to bring about proper cell cycle progression. PMID:27045731

  6. Classifying geometric variability by dominant eigenmodes of deformation in regressing tumours during active breath-hold lung cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Ahmed M; Weiss, Elisabeth; Sleeman, William C; Hugo, Geoffrey D

    2012-01-21

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a lung tumour interfraction geometric variability classification scheme as a means to guide adaptive radiotherapy and improve measurement of treatment response. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to generate statistical shape models of the gross tumour volume (GTV) for 12 patients with weekly breath hold CT scans. Each eigenmode of the PCA model was classified as 'trending' or 'non-trending' depending on whether its contribution to the overall GTV variability included a time trend over the treatment course. Trending eigenmodes were used to reconstruct the original semi-automatically delineated GTVs into a reduced model containing only time trends. Reduced models were compared to the original GTVs by analyzing the reconstruction error in the GTV and position. Both retrospective (all weekly images) and prospective (only the first four weekly images) were evaluated. The average volume difference from the original GTV was 4.3% ± 2.4% for the trending model. The positional variability of the GTV over the treatment course, as measured by the standard deviation of the GTV centroid, was 1.9 ± 1.4 mm for the original GTVs, which was reduced to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm for the trending-only model. In 3/13 cases, the dominant eigenmode changed class between the prospective and retrospective models. The trending-only model preserved GTV and shape relative to the original GTVs, while reducing spurious positional variability. The classification scheme appears feasible for separating types of geometric variability by time trend.

  7. Classifying geometric variability by dominant eigenmodes of deformation in regressing tumours during active breath-hold lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Ahmed M.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Sleeman, William C., IV; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a lung tumour interfraction geometric variability classification scheme as a means to guide adaptive radiotherapy and improve measurement of treatment response. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to generate statistical shape models of the gross tumour volume (GTV) for 12 patients with weekly breath hold CT scans. Each eigenmode of the PCA model was classified as ‘trending’ or ‘non-trending’ depending on whether its contribution to the overall GTV variability included a time trend over the treatment course. Trending eigenmodes were used to reconstruct the original semi-automatically delineated GTVs into a reduced model containing only time trends. Reduced models were compared to the original GTVs by analyzing the reconstruction error in the GTV and position. Both retrospective (all weekly images) and prospective (only the first four weekly images) were evaluated. The average volume difference from the original GTV was 4.3% ± 2.4% for the trending model. The positional variability of the GTV over the treatment course, as measured by the standard deviation of the GTV centroid, was 1.9 ± 1.4 mm for the original GTVs, which was reduced to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm for the trending-only model. In 3/13 cases, the dominant eigenmode changed class between the prospective and retrospective models. The trending-only model preserved GTV and shape relative to the original GTVs, while reducing spurious positional variability. The classification scheme appears feasible for separating types of geometric variability by time trend.

  8. Classifying geometric variability by dominant eigenmodes of deformation in regressing tumours during active breath hold lung cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Ahmed M.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Sleeman, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a lung tumour interfraction geometric variability classification scheme as a means to guide adaptive radiotherapy and improve measurement of treatment response. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to generate statistical shape models of the gross tumour volume (GTV) for 12 patients with weekly breath hold CT scans. Each eigenmode of the PCA model was classified as ‘trending’ or ‘non-trending’ depending on whether its contribution to the overall GTV variability included a time trend over the treatment course. Trending eigenmodes were used to reconstruct the original semi-automatically delineated GTVs into a reduced model containing only time trends. Reduced models were compared to the original GTVs by analyzing reconstruction error in the GTV volume and position. Both retrospective (all weekly images) and prospective (only the first four weekly images) were evaluated. Average volume difference from the original GTV was 4.3% ± 2.4% for the trending model. The positional variability of the GTV over the treatment course, as measured by the standard deviation of the GTV centroid, was 1.9 ± 1.4 mm for the original GTVs, which was reduced to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm for the trending only model. In 3/13 cases the dominant eigenmode changed class between the prospective and retrospective models. The trending only model preserved GTV volume and shape relative to the original GTVs, while reducing spurious positional variability. The classification scheme appears feasible for separating types of geometric variability by time trend. PMID:22172998

  9. Shared Investment Projects and Forecasting Errors: Setting Framework Conditions for Coordination and Sequencing Data Quality Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments’ efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that—in some setups—a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm’s point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that—in particular for relatively good forecasters—most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model. PMID:25803736

  10. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model. PMID:25803736

  11. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  12. Self-contained breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Giorgini, E. A.; Simmonds, M. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A self-contained breathing apparatus with automatic redundant fluid pressure controls and a facemask mounted low pressure whistle alarm is described. The first stage of the system includes pair of pressure regulators connected in parallel with different outlet pressures, both of which reduce the pressure of the stored supply gas to pressures compatible with the second stage breathing demand regulator. A primary regulator in the first stage delivers a low output pressure to the demand regulator. In the event of a failure closed condition of the primary regulator an automatic transfer valve switches on the backup regulator. A warning that the supply pressure has been depleted is also provided by a supply pressure actuated transfer valve which transfers the output of the first stage pressure regulators from the primary to the backup regulator. The alarm is activated in either the failure closed condition or if the supply pressure is reduced to a dangerously low level.

  13. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  14. Stop, Breathe & Think app.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie

    2014-07-15

    The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives.

  15. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  16. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon dioxide and not enough oxygen in blood (obesity hypoventilation ... for anemia), and oximetry or blood oxygen or carbon dioxide levels. Your doctor also may obtain a chest ...

  17. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guo-Jie Jason; Holcomb, Michael C.; Thomas, Jeffrey H.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. However, systematic methods of studying how mechanical stress and feedback help to harmonize cellular activities within a tissue have yet to be developed. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity. Our particle-based AGF model will be useful in analyzing mechanical feedback effects in a wide variety of morphogenesis and organogenesis phenomena.

  18. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains.

    PubMed

    Jason Gao, Guo-Jie; Holcomb, Michael C; Thomas, Jeffrey H; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-10-19

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. However, systematic methods of studying how mechanical stress and feedback help to harmonize cellular activities within a tissue have yet to be developed. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity. Our particle-based AGF model will be useful in analyzing mechanical feedback effects in a wide variety of morphogenesis and organogenesis phenomena. PMID:27545101

  19. Coordinated activation of distinct Ca2+ sources and metabotropic glutamate receptors encodes Hebbian synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Tigaret, Cezar M.; Olivo, Valeria; Sadowski, Josef H.L.P.; Ashby, Michael C.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    At glutamatergic synapses, induction of associative synaptic plasticity requires time-correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes to activate postsynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The magnitudes of the ensuing Ca2+ transients within dendritic spines are thought to determine the amplitude and direction of synaptic change. In contrast, we show that at mature hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses the magnitudes of Ca2+ transients during plasticity induction do not match this rule. Indeed, LTP induced by time-correlated pre- and postsynaptic spikes instead requires the sequential activation of NMDARs followed by voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels within dendritic spines. Furthermore, LTP requires inhibition of SK channels by mGluR1, which removes a negative feedback loop that constitutively regulates NMDARs. Therefore, rather than being controlled simply by the magnitude of the postsynaptic calcium rise, LTP induction requires the coordinated activation of distinct sources of Ca2+ and mGluR1-dependent facilitation of NMDAR function. PMID:26758963

  20. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  1. SATB1 packages densely-looped, transciptionally-active chromatinfor coordinated expression of cytokine genes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Shutao; Lee, Charles C.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-05-23

    SATB1 is an important regulator of nuclear architecture that anchors specialized DNA sequences onto its cage-like network and recruits chromatin remodeling/modifying factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4, and Il13 from the 200kb cytokine gene cluster region of mouse chromosome 11 during T-helper 2 (Th2)-cell activation. We show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is rapidly induced to form a unique transcriptionally-active chromatin structure that includes the cytokine gene region. Chromatin is folded into numerous small loops all anchored by SATB1, is histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9/14, and associated with Th2-specific factors, GATA3, STAT6, c-Maf, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme Brg-1, and RNA polymerase II across the 200kb region. Before activation, the chromatin displays some of these features, such as association with GATA3 and STAT6, but these were insufficient for cytokine gene expression. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is not only required for chromatin folding into dense loops, but also for c-Maf induction and subsequently for Il4, Il5, and Il13 transcription. Our results show that SATB1 is an important determinant for chromatin architecture that constitutes a novel higher-order, transcriptionally-active chromatin structure upon Th2-cell activation.

  2. Redox activity and multiple copper(I) coordination of 2His-2Cys oligopeptide.

    PubMed

    Choi, DongWon; Alshahrani, Aisha A; Vytla, Yashodharani; Deeconda, Manogna; Serna, Victor J; Saenz, Robert F; Angel, Laurence A

    2015-02-01

    Copper binding motifs with their molecular mechanisms of selective copper(I) recognition are essential molecules for acquiring copper ions, trafficking copper to specific locations and controlling the potentially damaging redox activities of copper in biochemical processes. The redox activity and multiple Cu(I) binding of an analog methanobactin peptide-2 (amb2) with the sequence acetyl-His1-Cys2-Tyr3-Pro4-His5-Cys6 was investigated using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry analyses. The Cu(II) titration of amb2 showed oxidation of amb2 via the formation of intra- and intermolecular Cys-Cys disulfide bridges and the multiple Cu(I) coordination by unoxidized amb2 or the partially oxidized dimer and trimer of amb2. The principal product of these reactions was [amb2 + 3Cu(I)](+) which probably coordinates the three Cu(I) ions via two bridging thiolate groups of Cys2 and Cys6 and the δN6 of the imidazole groups of His6, as determined by geometry optimized structures at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. The products observed by IM-MS showed direct correlation to spectral changes associated with disulfide bond formation in the UV-Vis spectrophotometric study. The results show that IM-MS analysis is a powerful technique for unambiguously determining the major ion species produced during the redox and metal binding chemistry of oligopeptides.

  3. Difference in Activity in the Supplementary Motor Area Depending on Limb Combination of Hand–Foot Coordinated Movements

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kento; Kawashima, Saeko; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Periodic interlimb coordination shows lower performance when the ipsilateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and right foot) are simultaneously moved than when the contralateral hand and foot (e.g., right hand and left foot) are simultaneously moved. The present study aimed to investigate how brain activity that is related to the dependence of hand–foot coordination on limb combination, using functional magnetic imaging. Twenty-one right-handed subjects performed periodic coordinated movements of the ipsilateral or contralateral hand and foot in the same or opposite direction in the sagittal plane. Kinematic data showed that performance was lower for the ipsilateral hand–foot coordination than for the contralateral one. A comparison of brain activity between the same and opposite directions showed that there was a greater activation of supplementary motor area for ipsilateral hand–foot coordination as compared to that seen during contralateral hand–foot coordination. We speculate that this might reflect a difference in the degree of inhibition of the neural circuit that disrupts opposite directional movements between ipsilateral and contralateral hand–foot coordinated movements. PMID:27757079

  4. Loading of a coordination polymer nanobelt on a functional carbon fiber: a feasible strategy for visible-light-active and highly efficient coordination-polymer-based photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Hong-Yu; Li, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2015-02-23

    To improve the photocatalytic properties of coordination polymers under irradiation in the visible-light region, coordination polymer nanobelts (CPNB) were loaded on functional carbon fiber (FCF) through the use of a simple colloidal blending process. The resulting coordination polymer nanobelt loaded functional carbon fiber composite material (CPNB/FCF) exhibited dramatically improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. Optical and electrochemical methods illustrated the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CPNB/FCF originated from high separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of CPNB and FCF, which was produced by the synergy effect between them. In the composite material, the role of FCF could be described as photosensitizer and good electron transporter. For FCF, the number of functional groups on its surface has a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting CPNB/FCF composite material, and an ideal FCF carrier was obtained as a highly efficient CPNB/FCF photocatalyst. CPNB/FCF showed outstanding stability during the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB); thus, the material is suitable for use as a photocatalyst in the treatment of organic dyes in water.

  5. Transition Metal Ions in Zeolites: Coordination and activation of O2

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Pieter J.; Woertink, Julia S.; Sels, Bert F.; Solomon, Edward I.; Schoonheydt, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites containing transition metal ions (TMI) often show promising activity as heterogeneous catalysts in pollution abatement and selective oxidation reactions. In this paper, two aspects of research on the TMI Cu, Co and Fe in zeolites are discussed: (i) coordination to the lattice and (ii) activated oxygen species. At low loading, TMI preferably occupy exchange sites in six-membered oxygen rings (6MR) where the TMI preferentially coordinate with the oxygen atoms of Al tetrahedra. High TMI loadings result in a variety of TMI species formed at the zeolite surface. Removal of the extra-lattice oxygens during high temperature pretreatments can result in auto-reduction. Oxidation of reduced TMI sites often results in the formation of highly reactive oxygen species. In Cu-ZSM-5, calcination with O2 results in the formation of a species, which was found to be a crucial intermediate in both the direct decomposition of NO and N2O and the selective oxidation of methane into methanol. An activated oxygen species, called α-oxygen, is formed in Fe-ZSM5 and reported to be the active site in the partial oxidation of methane and benzene into methanol and phenol, respectively. However, this reactive α-oxygen can only be formed with N2O, not with O2. O2 activated Co intermediates in Faujasite (FAU) zeolites can selectively oxidize α-pinene and epoxidize styrene. In Co-FAU, CoIII superoxo and peroxo complexes are suggested to be the active cores, whereas in Cu and Fe-ZSM-5 various monomeric and dimeric sites have been proposed, but no consensus has been obtained. Very recently, the active site in Cu-ZSM-5 was identified as a bent [Cu-O-Cu]2+ core (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 18908-18913). Overall, O2 activation depends on the interplay of structural factors such as type of zeolite, size of the channels and cages and chemical factors such as Si/Al ratio and the nature, charge and distribution of the charge balancing cations. The presence of several different TMI sites

  6. Coordinated Action of Fast and Slow Reserves for Optimal Sequential and Dynamic Emergency Reserve Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkuti, Surender Reddy; Bijwe, P. R.; Abhyankar, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an optimal dynamic reserve activation plan after the occurrence of an emergency situation (generator/transmission line outage, load increase or both). An optimal plan is developed to handle the emergency situation, using coordinated action of fast and slow reserves, for secure operation with minimum overall cost. This paper considers the reserves supplied by generators (spinning reserves) and loads (demand-side reserves). The optimal backing down of costly/fast reserves and bringing up of slow reserves in each sub-interval in an integrated manner is proposed. The simulation studies are performed on IEEE 30, 57 and 300 bus test systems to demonstrate the advantage of proposed integrated/dynamic reserve activation plan over the conventional/sequential approach.

  7. Normal coordinate analysis and fungicidal activity study on anilazine and its related compound using spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeja Mol, Gilbert Pushpam; Arul Dhas, Deva Dhas; Hubert Joe, Isaac; Balachandran, Sreedharan

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of anilazine have been recorded in the range 400-4000 cm-1 and 50-3500 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometrical parameters of the compound were calculated using B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The distribution of the vibrational bands were carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The 1H and 13C nuclear spectra have been recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 190-900 nm and the electronic properties were determined by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Anilazine was screened for its antifungal activity. Molecular docking studies are conducted to predict its fungicidal activity.

  8. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-Chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ3, but not in those by integrin α5β1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  9. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y-S; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ₃, but not in those by integrin α₅β₁. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  10. Control of breathing in invertebrate model systems.

    PubMed

    Bell, Harold J; Syed, Naweed I

    2012-07-01

    The invertebrates have adopted a myriad of breathing strategies to facilitate the extraction of adequate quantities of oxygen from their surrounding environments. Their respiratory structures can take a wide variety of forms, including integumentary surfaces, lungs, gills, tracheal systems, and even parallel combinations of these same gas exchange structures. Like their vertebrate counterparts, the invertebrates have evolved elaborate control strategies to regulate their breathing activity. Our goal in this article is to present the reader with a description of what is known regarding the control of breathing in some of the specific invertebrate species that have been used as model systems to study different mechanistic aspects of the control of breathing. We will examine how several species have been used to study fundamental principles of respiratory rhythm generation, central and peripheral chemosensory modulation of breathing, and plasticity in the control of breathing. We will also present the reader with an overview of some of the behavioral and neuronal adaptability that has been extensively documented in these animals. By presenting explicit invertebrate species as model organisms, we will illustrate mechanistic principles that form the neuronal foundation of respiratory control, and moreover appear likely to be conserved across not only invertebrates, but vertebrate species as well. PMID:23723022

  11. Activation of Opioid μ-Receptors, but not δ- or κ-Receptors, Switches Pulmonary C-Fiber-Mediated Rapid Shallow Breathing into An Apnea in Anesthetized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhang, Cancan; Zhou, Moxi; Xu, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Rapid shallow breathing (RSB) is mainly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs). We asked whether this RSB could be modulated by opioid. In anesthetized rats right atrial bolus injection of phenylbiguanide (PBG) to evoke RSB was repeated after: 1) intravenously giving fentanyl (μ-receptor agonist), DPDPE (δ-receptor agonist), or U-50488H (κ-receptor agonist); 2) fentanyl (iv) following naloxone methiodide, a peripheral opioid receptor antagonist; 3) bilateral microinjection of fentanyl into the nodose ganglia; 4) fentanyl (iv) with pre-blocking histamine H1 and H2 receptors by diphenhydramine and ranitidine. Systemic fentanyl challenge, but not DPDPE or U-50488H, switched the PBG-induced RSB to a long lasting apnea. This switch was blocked by naloxone methiodide rather than diphenhydramine and ranitidine. After microinjecting fentanyl into the nodose ganglia, PBG also produced an apnea. Our results suggest that activating μ-receptors is capable of turning the PCF-mediated RSB into an apnea, at least partly, via facilitating PCFs’ activity and this switching effect appears independent of the released histamine. PMID:22796630

  12. Nitric oxide rectifies acid-base disturbance and modifies thyroid hormone activity during net confinement of air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch).

    PubMed

    Peter, Valsa S

    2013-01-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), a short-lived freely diffusible radical gas that acts as an important biological signal, regulates an impressive spectrum of physiological functions in vertebrates including fishes. The action of NO, however, on thyroid hormone status and its role in the integration of acid-base, osmotic and metabolic balances during stress are not yet delineated in fish. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, was employed in the present study to investigate the role of NO in the stressed air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus. Short-term SNP treatment (1 mM; 30 min) interacted negatively with thyroid axis, as evident in the fall of plasma thyroxine in both stressed and non-stressed fish. In contrast, the cortisol responsiveness to NO was negligible. SNP challenge produced systemic alkalosis, hypocapnia and hyperglycemia in non-stressed fish. Remarkable acid-base compensation was found in fish kept for 60 min net confinement where a rise in blood pH and HCO(3) content occurred with a reduction in PCO(2) content. SNP challenge in these fish, on the contrary, produced a rise in oxygen load together with hypocapnia but without an effect on HCO(3) content, indicating a modulator role of NO in respiratory gas transport during stress response. SNP treatment reduced Na(+), K(+) ATPase activity in the gill, intestine and liver of both stressed and non-stressed fish, and this suggests that stress state has little effect on the NO-driven osmotic competence of these organs. On the other hand, a modulatory effect of NO was found in the kidney which showed a differential response to SNP, emphasizing a key role of NO in kidney ion transport and its sensitivity to stressful condition. H(+)-ATPase activity, an index of H(+) secretion, downregulated in all the organs of both non-stressed and stressed fish except in the gill of non-stressed fish and this supports a role for NO in promoting alkalosis. The data indicate that, (1) NO interacts antagonistically with T(4), (2) modifies

  13. Cadmium Activates Multiple Signaling Pathways That Coordinately Stimulate Akt Activity to Enhance c-Myc mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jia-Shiuan; Chao, Cheng-Han; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a known environmental carcinogen. Exposure of Cd leads to the activation of several proto-oncogenes in cells. We investigated here the mechanism of c-Myc expression in hepatic cells under Cd treatment. The c-Myc protein and mRNA levels increased in dose- and time-dependent manners in HepG2 cells with Cd treatment. This increase was due to an increase in c-Myc mRNA stability. To explore the mechanism involved in enhancing the mRNA stability, several cellular signaling factors that evoked by Cd treatment were analyzed. PI3K, p38, ERK and JNK were activated by Cd. However, ERK did not participate in the Cd-induced c-Myc expression. Further analysis revealed that mTORC2 was a downstream factor of p38. PI3K, JNK and mTORC2 coordinately activated Akt. Akt was phosphorylated at Thr450 in the untreated cells. Cd treatment led to additional phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. Blocking any of the three signaling factors resulted in the reduction of phosphorylation level at all three Akt sites. The activated Akt phosphorylated Foxo1 and allowed the modified protein to translocate into the cytoplasm. We conclude that Cd-induced accumulation of c-Myc requires the activation of several signaling pathways. The signals act coordinately for Akt activation and drive the Foxo1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Reduction of Foxo1 in the nucleus reduces the transcription of its target genes that may affect c-Myc mRNA stability, resulting in a higher accumulation of the c-Myc proteins. PMID:26751215

  14. Coordinated integrin activation by actin-dependent force during T-cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Nordenfelt, Pontus; Elliott, Hunter L.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    For a cell to move forward it must convert chemical energy into mechanical propulsion. Force produced by actin polymerization can generate traction across the plasma membrane by transmission through integrins to their ligands. However, the role this force plays in integrin activation is unknown. Here we show that integrin activity and cytoskeletal dynamics are reciprocally linked, where actin-dependent force itself appears to regulate integrin activity. We generated fluorescent tension-sensing constructs of integrin αLβ2 (LFA-1) to visualize intramolecular tension during cell migration. Using quantitative imaging of migrating T cells, we correlate tension in the αL or β2 subunit with cell and actin dynamics. We find that actin engagement produces tension within the β2 subunit to induce and stabilize an active integrin conformational state and that this requires intact talin and kindlin motifs. This supports a general mechanism where localized actin polymerization can coordinate activation of the complex machinery required for cell migration. PMID:27721490

  15. Coordinated nuclease activities counteract Ku at single-ended DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Chanut, Pauline; Britton, Sébastien; Coates, Julia; Jackson, Stephen P.; Calsou, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Repair of single-ended DNA double-strand breaks (seDSBs) by homologous recombination (HR) requires the generation of a 3′ single-strand DNA overhang by exonuclease activities in a process called DNA resection. However, it is anticipated that the highly abundant DNA end-binding protein Ku sequesters seDSBs and shields them from exonuclease activities. Despite pioneering works in yeast, it is unclear how mammalian cells counteract Ku at seDSBs to allow HR to proceed. Here we show that in human cells, ATM-dependent phosphorylation of CtIP and the epistatic and coordinated actions of MRE11 and CtIP nuclease activities are required to limit the stable loading of Ku on seDSBs. We also provide evidence for a hitherto unsuspected additional mechanism that contributes to prevent Ku accumulation at seDSBs, acting downstream of MRE11 endonuclease activity and in parallel with MRE11 exonuclease activity. Finally, we show that Ku persistence at seDSBs compromises Rad51 focus assembly but not DNA resection. PMID:27641979

  16. Coordinated nuclease activities counteract Ku at single-ended DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Chanut, Pauline; Britton, Sébastien; Coates, Julia; Jackson, Stephen P; Calsou, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Repair of single-ended DNA double-strand breaks (seDSBs) by homologous recombination (HR) requires the generation of a 3' single-strand DNA overhang by exonuclease activities in a process called DNA resection. However, it is anticipated that the highly abundant DNA end-binding protein Ku sequesters seDSBs and shields them from exonuclease activities. Despite pioneering works in yeast, it is unclear how mammalian cells counteract Ku at seDSBs to allow HR to proceed. Here we show that in human cells, ATM-dependent phosphorylation of CtIP and the epistatic and coordinated actions of MRE11 and CtIP nuclease activities are required to limit the stable loading of Ku on seDSBs. We also provide evidence for a hitherto unsuspected additional mechanism that contributes to prevent Ku accumulation at seDSBs, acting downstream of MRE11 endonuclease activity and in parallel with MRE11 exonuclease activity. Finally, we show that Ku persistence at seDSBs compromises Rad51 focus assembly but not DNA resection. PMID:27641979

  17. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, G. Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R.P.; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C.; Bowie, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits. PMID:26924438

  18. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dawe, G Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R P; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C; Bowie, Derek

    2016-03-16

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits. PMID:26924438

  19. Pathway connectivity and signaling coordination in the yeast stress-activated signaling network

    PubMed Central

    Chasman, Deborah; Ho, Yi-Hsuan; Berry, David B; Nemec, Corey M; MacGilvray, Matthew E; Hose, James; Merrill, Anna E; Lee, M Violet; Will, Jessica L; Coon, Joshua J; Ansari, Aseem Z; Craven, Mark; Gasch, Audrey P

    2014-01-01

    Stressed cells coordinate a multi-faceted response spanning many levels of physiology. Yet knowledge of the complete stress-activated regulatory network as well as design principles for signal integration remains incomplete. We developed an experimental and computational approach to integrate available protein interaction data with gene fitness contributions, mutant transcriptome profiles, and phospho-proteome changes in cells responding to salt stress, to infer the salt-responsive signaling network in yeast. The inferred subnetwork presented many novel predictions by implicating new regulators, uncovering unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways, and pointing to previously unknown ‘hubs’ of signal integration. We exploited these predictions to show that Cdc14 phosphatase is a central hub in the network and that modification of RNA polymerase II coordinates induction of stress-defense genes with reduction of growth-related transcripts. We find that the orthologous human network is enriched for cancer-causing genes, underscoring the importance of the subnetwork's predictions in understanding stress biology. PMID:25411400

  20. The influence of crossbite on the coordinated electromyographic activity of human masticatory muscles during mastication.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G

    1999-07-01

    The analysis of the masticatory muscle activity in subjects with altered occlusal relationships could provide useful data of the functional impact of morphological discrepancies. Thirty subjects aged 16-18 years, with a sound, full permanent dentition, bilateral angle class I, and an overjet and overbite between 2 and 5 mm, were examined. The control group (10 male, 10 female) had no crossbite, while the crossbite group (four male, six female) had a posterior unilateral crossbite (five on the left side, five on the right side). The electromyographic activity of the left and right masseter and temporalis anterior muscles was recorded during 15 s of unilateral (left and right) chewing of gum, and expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary clench on cotton rolls. For each subject, the masticatory frequency, the confidence ellipse of the simultaneous differential left-right masseter and temporal activity (Lissajous figure), and an index of muscular symmetry, were computed to assess muscular coordination. In the crossbite subjects, the four analysed muscles appeared to contract with altered and asymmetric patterns. A large variability was found, and the confidence ellipses calculated for the chewing tests performed on the crossed sides were not significant, while the confidence ellipses of the uncrossed side chewing were different from the ellipses computed in the normal occlusion group. The altered occlusal relationship influenced the coordination of the masticatory muscles during chewing on both sides. The functional alteration was more apparent when the side with the altered morphology was directly involved, i.e. when chewing was performed on the crossbite side.

  1. Breathing: Rhythmicity, Plasticity, Chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jack L.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2010-01-01

    Breathing is a vital behavior that is particularly amenable to experimental investigation. We review recent progress on three problems of broad interest. (i) Where and how is respiratory rhythm generated? The preBötzinger Complex is a critical site, whereas pacemaker neurons may not be essential. The possibility that coupled oscillators are involved is considered. (ii) What are the mechanisms that underlie the plasticity necessary for adaptive changes in breathing? Serotonin-dependent long-term facilitation following intermittent hypoxia is an important example of such plasticity, and a model that can account for this adaptive behavior is discussed. (iii) Where and how are the regulated variables CO2 and pH sensed? These sensors are essential if breathing is to be appropriate for metabolism. Neurons with appropriate chemosensitivity are spread throughout the brainstem; their individual properties and collective role are just beginning to be understood. PMID:12598679

  2. A Wolf Pack Algorithm for Active and Reactive Power Coordinated Optimization in Active Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, H. M.; Jiang, X. J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an active and reactive power dynamic optimization model for active distribution network (ADN), whose control variables include the output of distributed generations (DGs), charge or discharge power of energy storage system (ESS) and reactive power from capacitor banks. To solve the high-dimension nonlinear optimization model, a new heuristic swarm intelligent method, namely wolf pack algorithm (WPA) with better global convergence and computational robustness, is adapted so that the network loss minimization can be achieved. In this paper, the IEEE33-bus system is used to show the effectiveness of WPA technique compared with other techniques. Numerical tests on the modified IEEE 33-bus system show that WPA for active and reactive multi-period optimization of ADN is exact and effective.

  3. Changes in cytochrome P4501A activity during development in common tern chicks fed polychlorinated biphenyls, as measured by the caffeine breath test

    SciTech Connect

    Feyk, L.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Van den Berg, M.

    2000-03-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) activity is often used as a biomarker of exposure of wildlife to polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons and is usually measured ex vivo in liver tissue. A caffeine breath test (CBT) with radiolabeled substrate ({sup 14}C-caffeine) was used to measure in vivo CYP1A activity twice during development in 14 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks treated with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons. Tern hatchlings were fed fish spiked with 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) such that the diet contained an average of 23, 99, or 561 pg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents per gram of fish for 21 d. Sixteen additional common tern chicks were similarly dosed with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons but were not subjected to the CBT procedure. In weeks 1 and 2, caffeine N-demethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity on day 21 were elevated in birds that received the greatest PCB dose. There was less constitutive and greater induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity than caffeine N-demethylation. The {sup 14}C-CBT was less invasive than the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay. Only one morphological parameter differed significantly between CBT subjects and no-CBT subjects fed the same level of PCBs. Bursa weight was significantly less in control CBT subjects than in control no-CBT subjects, but bursa weights did not differ among CBT and no-CBT birds from the two PCB treatment groups. No alterations of survival or growth occurred in CBT subjects compared with no-CBT subjects.

  4. Photostimulation of retrotrapezoid nucleus Phox2b-expressing neurons in vivo produces long-lasting activation of breathing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Stephen B.G.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Fortuna, Michal G.; Depuy, Seth D.; West, Gavin H.; Harris, Thurl E.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The retrotrapezoid “nucleus” (RTN), located in the rostral ventrolateral medullary reticular formation, contains a bilateral cluster of about 1000 glutamatergic non catecholaminergic Phox2b-expressing propriobulbar neurons that are activated by CO2 in vivo and by acidification in vitro. These cells are thought to function as central respiratory chemoreceptors but this theory still lacks a crucial piece of evidence, namely that stimulating these particular neurons selectively in vivo increases breathing. The present study carried out in anesthetized rats seeks to test whether this expectation is correct. We injected into the left RTN a lentivirus that expresses the light-activated cationic channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2, H134R mutation, fused to the fluorescent protein mCherry) under the control of the Phox2-responsive promoter PRSx8. Transgene expression was restricted to 423 ± 38 Phox2b-expressing neurons per rat consisting of non-catecholaminergic and C1 adrenergic neurons (3/2 ratio). Photostimulation delivered to the RTN region in vivo via a fiberoptic activated the CO2-sensitive neurons vigorously, produced a long-lasting (t1/2 = 11 s) increase in phrenic nerve activity and caused a small and short-lasting cardiovascular stimulation. Selective lesions of the C1 cells eliminated the cardiovascular response but left the respiratory stimulation intact. In rats with C1 cell lesions, the mCherry-labeled axon terminals originating from the transfected non-catecholaminergic neurons were present exclusively in the lower brainstem regions that contain the respiratory pattern generator. These results provide strong evidence that the Phox2b-expressing non-catecholaminergic neurons of the RTN region function as central respiratory chemoreceptors. PMID:19420248

  5. Effective coordination number: A simple indicator of activation energies for NO dissociation on Rh(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Prasenjit; Pushpa, Raghani; Gironcoli, Stefano de

    2009-12-15

    We have used density-functional theory to compute the activation energy for the dissociation of NO on two physical and two hypothetical systems: unstrained and strained Rh(100) surfaces and monolayers of Rh atoms on strained and unstrained MgO(100) surfaces. We find that the activation energy, relative to the gas phase, is reduced when a monolayer of Rh is placed on MgO, due both to the chemical nature of the substrate and the strain imposed by the substrate. The former effect is the dominant one, though both effects are of the same order of magnitude. We find that both effects are encapsulated in a simple quantity which we term as the 'effective coordination number'(n{sub e}); the activation energy is found to vary linearly with n{sub e}. We have compared the performance of n{sub e} as a predictor of activation energy of NO dissociation on the above-mentioned Rh surfaces with the two well-established indicators, namely, the position of the d-band center and the coadsorption energy of N and O. We find that for the present systems n{sub e} performs as well as the other two indicators.

  6. Heterogeneity of dynein structure implies coordinated suppression of dynein motor activity in the axoneme.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Aditi; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Axonemal dyneins provide the driving force for flagellar/ciliary bending. Nucleotide-induced conformational changes of flagellar dynein have been found both in vitro and in situ by electron microscopy, and in situ studies demonstrated the coexistence of at least two conformations in axonemes in the presence of nucleotides (the apo and the nucleotide-bound forms). The distribution of the two forms suggested cooperativity between adjacent dyneins on axonemal microtubule doublets. Although the mechanism of such cooperativity is unknown it might be related to the mechanism of bending. To explore the mechanism by which structural heterogeneity of axonemal dyneins is induced by nucleotides, we used cilia from Tetrahymena thermophila to examine the structure of dyneins in a) the intact axoneme and b) microtubule doublets separated from the axoneme, both with and without additional pure microtubules. We also employed an ATPase assay on these specimens to investigate dynein activity functionally. Dyneins on separated doublets show more activation by nucleotides than those in the intact axoneme, both structurally and in the ATPase assay, and this is especially pronounced when the doublets are coupled with added microtubules, as expected. Paralleling the reduced ATPase activity in the intact axonemes, a lower proportion of these dyneins are in the nucleotide-bound form. This indicates a coordinated suppression of dynein activity in the axoneme, which could be the key for understanding the bending mechanism.

  7. Open Discussion Session: Challenges and Advancements in Coordinated Space Weather Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti

    2016-07-01

    Besides addressing the key questions in space weather research the Cospar/ILWS Roadmap presents also recommendations for teaming in the research environment and for collaboration between agencies and communities. Coordinated work of different research groups facilitate our efforts for a holistic view on the entire Sun-Earth system with its complicated feedback processes in different scale sizes. Seamless knowledge transfer from research to operational services is a crucial factor for the success of space weather research field. In this open discussion session we encourage the participants to share their views on most important challenges and advancements in our field, both in science and in collaboration. We also welcome comments on the roadmap recommendations and guidance for similar activities in the future.

  8. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    PubMed Central

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  9. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    PubMed Central

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  10. Coordinated electromyographic activity of the human masseter and temporalis anterior muscles during mastication.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C

    1996-01-01

    The present report aimed at evaluating the within- and between-subject electromyographic coordination between the masseter (M) and temporalis anterior (T) muscles during the performance of a standardized chewing task. Electromyographic activity of M and T muscles was recorded in 60 young healthy adults (30 men, 30 women) during two 15-s unilateral mastications of gum. Left-right differential potentials (delta M = MR-ML, delta T = TR-TL) were computed and the square root of (delta M2 + delta T2) moduli were calculated. The maximum modulus relative to each masticatory cycle was located, and each modulus and differential potential were expressed as a % of the maximum modulus for each subject and chewing trial. For each subject and chewing side, the masticatory frequency was computed, and statistics of the moduli as %s of the maximum were determined by means of bivariate analysis. Within-subject repeatability of the unilateral chewing patterns was good. Mean population values for the modulus position (bivariate analysis), chewing frequency, and maximum modulus of the differential potentials (univariate statistics) were computed. A significant gender difference was found for the masticatory frequency, with larger values in men than in women. Conversely, no gender or side differences were found for the mean values of the maximum modulus or for the mean position of the percentage moduli. The chewing test applied allowed the evaluation of the neuromuscular coordination during the performance of a standardized physiologic activity. In particular, it quantified the within-subject and chewing side repeatability of the muscular pattern.

  11. Redox activity and multiple copper(I) coordination of 2His-2Cys oligopeptide.

    PubMed

    Choi, DongWon; Alshahrani, Aisha A; Vytla, Yashodharani; Deeconda, Manogna; Serna, Victor J; Saenz, Robert F; Angel, Laurence A

    2015-02-01

    Copper binding motifs with their molecular mechanisms of selective copper(I) recognition are essential molecules for acquiring copper ions, trafficking copper to specific locations and controlling the potentially damaging redox activities of copper in biochemical processes. The redox activity and multiple Cu(I) binding of an analog methanobactin peptide-2 (amb2) with the sequence acetyl-His1-Cys2-Tyr3-Pro4-His5-Cys6 was investigated using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry analyses. The Cu(II) titration of amb2 showed oxidation of amb2 via the formation of intra- and intermolecular Cys-Cys disulfide bridges and the multiple Cu(I) coordination by unoxidized amb2 or the partially oxidized dimer and trimer of amb2. The principal product of these reactions was [amb2 + 3Cu(I)](+) which probably coordinates the three Cu(I) ions via two bridging thiolate groups of Cys2 and Cys6 and the δN6 of the imidazole groups of His6, as determined by geometry optimized structures at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. The products observed by IM-MS showed direct correlation to spectral changes associated with disulfide bond formation in the UV-Vis spectrophotometric study. The results show that IM-MS analysis is a powerful technique for unambiguously determining the major ion species produced during the redox and metal binding chemistry of oligopeptides. PMID:25800013

  12. Coordinated motor activity in simulated spinal networks emerges from simple biologically plausible rules of connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dale, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    The spinal motor circuits of the Xenopus embryo have been simulated in a 400-neuron network. To explore the consequences of differing patterns of synaptic connectivity within the network for the generation of the motor rhythm, a system of biologically plausible rules was devised to control synapse formation by three parameters. Each neuron had an intrinsic probability of synapse formation (P(soma), specified by a space constant lambda) that was a monotonically decreasing function of its soma location in the rostro-caudal axis of the simulated network. The neurons had rostral and caudal going axons of specified length (L(axon)) associated with a probability of synapse formation (P(axon)). The final probability of synapse formation was the product of P(soma) and P(axon). Realistic coordinated activity only occurred when L(axon) and the probabilities of interconnection were sufficiently high. Increasing the values of the three network parameters reduced the burst duration, cycle period, and rostro-caudal delay and increased the reliability with which the network functioned as measured by the coefficient of variance of these parameters. Whereas both L(axon) and P(axon) had powerful and consistent effects on network output, the effects of lambda on burst duration and rostro-caudal delay were more variable and depended on the values of the other two parameters. This network model can reproduce the rostro-caudal coordination of swimming without using coupled oscillator theory. The changes in network connectivity and resulting changes in activity explored by the model mimic the development of the motor pattern for swimming in the real embryo.

  13. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G.; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-na; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional “keystone” role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  14. Inhaled corticosteroids do not reduce initial high activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in exhaled breath condensates of children with asthma exacerbation: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagórska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Litwiniuk, Małgorzata; Kulus, Marek; Grzela, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the key component of asthma treatment. However, it is unclear whether they could control the activity and level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is an important factor in asthma-associated inflammation and airway remodeling. Therefore, the aim of this proof of concept study was to analyze the influence of increased doses of ICS on MMP-9 in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of patients with allergic asthma exacerbation. Apart from MMP-9, the assessment concerned selected inflammation markers - exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and cytokines (IL-8 and TNF). The study involved a small group (n = 4) of individuals with asthma exacerbation. The intervention concerned increased doses of ICS with β-mimetics for 4 weeks. In addition to clinical evaluation, eNO measurements and EBC collections were done before and after 4 weeks of intense ICS treatment. The biochemical assessment of EBC concerned MMP-9, IL-8 and TNF. The data were compared to results of healthy controls (n = 6). The initial levels of eNO, MMP-9 and TNF in EBC were higher in the asthma group than in controls. In all subjects IL-8 levels were below the detection limit. After 4 weeks of ICS treatment in all patients we observed improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Interestingly, despite reduction of eNO and TNF, the activity of MMP-9/EBC remained on the initial level. Practical relevance of our results is limited by a small group. Nevertheless, our data suggest that ICS, although sufficient to control symptoms and inflammatory markers, may be ineffective to reduce MMP-9/EBC activity in asthma exacerbation and, possibly, airway remodeling. PMID:27536209

  15. Could transient hypoxia be associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in sleep bruxism in the absence of sleep-disordered breathing? A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Dumais, I E; Lavigne, G J; Carra, M C; Rompré, P H; Huynh, N T

    2015-11-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth during sleep. Sleep bruxism activity is characterised by rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). Many but not all RMMA episodes are associated with sleep arousal. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether transient oxygen saturation level change can be temporally associated with genesis of RMMA/SB. Sleep laboratory or home recordings data from 22 SB (tooth grinding history in the absence of reported sleep-disordered breathing) and healthy subjects were analysed. A total of 143 RMMA/SB episodes were classified in four categories: (i) no arousal + no body movement; (ii) arousal + no body movement; (iii) no arousal + body movement; (iv) arousal + body movement. Blood oxygen levels (SaO2 ) were assessed from finger oximetry signal at the baseline (before RMMA), and during RMMA. Significant variation in SaO2 over time (P = 0·001) was found after RMMA onset (+7 to +9 s). No difference between categories (P = 0·91) and no interaction between categories and SaO2 variation over time (P = 0·10) were observed. SaO2 of six of 22 subjects (27%) remained equal or slight increase after the RMMA/SB onset (+8 s) compared to baseline; 10 subjects (45%) slightly decreased (drop 0·01-1%) and the remaining (27%) decreased between 1% and 2%. These preliminary findings suggest that a subgroup of SB subjects had (i) a minor transient hypoxia potentially associated with the onset of RMMA episodes, and this (ii) independently of concomitant sleep arousal or body movements.

  16. Inhaled corticosteroids do not reduce initial high activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in exhaled breath condensates of children with asthma exacerbation: a proof of concept study

    PubMed Central

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagórska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Litwiniuk, Małgorzata; Kulus, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the key component of asthma treatment. However, it is unclear whether they could control the activity and level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is an important factor in asthma-associated inflammation and airway remodeling. Therefore, the aim of this proof of concept study was to analyze the influence of increased doses of ICS on MMP-9 in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of patients with allergic asthma exacerbation. Apart from MMP-9, the assessment concerned selected inflammation markers – exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and cytokines (IL-8 and TNF). The study involved a small group (n = 4) of individuals with asthma exacerbation. The intervention concerned increased doses of ICS with β-mimetics for 4 weeks. In addition to clinical evaluation, eNO measurements and EBC collections were done before and after 4 weeks of intense ICS treatment. The biochemical assessment of EBC concerned MMP-9, IL-8 and TNF. The data were compared to results of healthy controls (n = 6). The initial levels of eNO, MMP-9 and TNF in EBC were higher in the asthma group than in controls. In all subjects IL-8 levels were below the detection limit. After 4 weeks of ICS treatment in all patients we observed improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Interestingly, despite reduction of eNO and TNF, the activity of MMP-9/EBC remained on the initial level. Practical relevance of our results is limited by a small group. Nevertheless, our data suggest that ICS, although sufficient to control symptoms and inflammatory markers, may be ineffective to reduce MMP-9/EBC activity in asthma exacerbation and, possibly, airway remodeling. PMID:27536209

  17. Transcriptional activation by pRB and its coordination with SWI/SNF recruitment.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Stephen; Beck, George R; Moran, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    A central question in cancer biology is why most tumor susceptibility genes are linked with only limited types of cancer. Human germ-line mutation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene Rb1 is closely linked with just retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma, although the gene is universally expressed. Functional analysis of pRB and its close relatives, p107 and p130, has largely focused on their roles in repression of proliferation across all tissue types, but genetic evidence indicates an active requirement for pRB in osteoblast differentiation that correlates more directly with osteosarcoma susceptibility. Still, potential promoter targets of pRB and its role in normally differentiating osteoblasts remain insufficiently characterized. Here, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, alkaline phosphatase, is identified as a direct promoter activation target of pRB. One role of pRB on this promoter is to displace the histone lysine demethylase KDM5A, thereby favoring trimethylation of H3K4, a promoter activation mark. A major new aspect of pRB-mediated transcriptional activation revealed in this promoter analysis is its role in recruitment of an activating SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. SWI/SNF is a critical coordinator of tissue-specific gene expression. In osteoblasts, SWI/SNF complexes containing the BRM ATPase repress osteoblast-specific genes to maintain the precursor state, whereas the alternative ATPase BRG1 distinguishes an activating SWI/SNF complex necessary for RNA polymerase-II recruitment. A switch from BRM to BRG1 on the alkaline phosphatase promoter marks the onset of differentiation and is accomplished in a precise two-step mechanism. Dissociation of BRM-containing SWI/SNF depends on p300, and association of BRG1-containing SWI/SNF depends on pRB.

  18. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  19. Mirror neuron activation in children with developmental coordination disorder: A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jess E; Licari, Melissa K; Billington, Jac; Chen, Yihui; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Werner, Julie; Winsor, Anne M; Bynevelt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal cortical areas that may contribute to the movement difficulties seen in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Specifically, we hypothesized that there may be a deficit in the mirror neuron system (MNS), a neural system that responds to both performed and observed actions. Using functional MRI, 14 boys with DCD (x=10.08 years ± 1.31, range=7.83-11.58 years) and 12 typically developing controls (x=10.10 years ± 1.15, range=8.33-12.00 years) were scanned observing, executing and imitating a finger sequencing task using their right hand. Cortical activations of mirror neuron regions, including posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), ventral premotor cortex, anterior inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal sulcus were examined. Children with DCD had decreased cortical activation mirror neuron related regions, including the precentral gyrus and IFG, as well as in the posterior cingulate and precuneus complex when observing the sequencing task. Region of interest analysis revealed lower activation in the pars opercularis, a primary MNS region, during imitation in the DCD group compared to controls. These findings provide some preliminary evidence to support a possible MNS dysfunction in children with DCD. PMID:26523778

  20. M2L4 coordination capsules with tunable anticancer activity upon guest encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmedova, Anife; Mihaylova, Rositsa; Momekova, Denitsa; Shestakova, Pavletta; Stoykova, Silviya; Zaharieva, Joana; Yamashina, Masahiro; Momekov, Georgi; Akita, Munetaka; Yoshizawa, Michito

    2016-08-16

    Metallosupramolecular cages and capsules have gained increasing popularity as both molecular containers and anticancer agents. For successful combination of these properties a thorough analysis of the effect of guest encapsulation on the host's cytotoxic properties is highly required. Here we report on the cytotoxicity modulation of Pt(ii) and Pd(ii)-linked M2L4 coordination capsules upon encapsulation of guest molecules such as pyrene and caffeine. The anticancer activity of the capsules against various human cancer cells (HT-29, T-24, HL-60 and its resistant counterparts HL-60/Dox and HL-60/CDDP) significantly altered upon the guest encapsulation. The encapsulation of pyrene molecules causes a decrease in the cytotoxicity of the Pt(ii) capsule, which is stronger than that of the Pd(ii) capsule. The cytotoxicities of the caffeine containing capsules are lower than that of the empty capsules (except for HL-60), but still superior to cisplatin under the same conditions. The observed trends in the anticancer activity of the capsules and their host-guest complexes correlate with their different stabilities toward glutathione, estimated by NMR-based kinetic experiments. Mechanistic insights into the observed cytotoxicities are obtained by fluorescence microscopy imaging of tumor cells treated with the capsules and their pyrene complexes. The data suggest the glutathione-triggered disassembly of the capsular structures as a potential activation pathway for their cytotoxicities. PMID:27488015

  1. Tex10 Coordinates Epigenetic Control of Super-Enhancer Activity in Pluripotency and Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Junjun; Huang, Xin; Shao, Ningyi; Zhou, Hongwei; Lee, Dung-Fang; Faiola, Francesco; Fidalgo, Miguel; Guallar, Diana; Saunders, Arven; Shliaha, Pavel V.; Wang, Hailong; Waghray, Avinash; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Sánchez-Priego, Carlos; Li, Dan; Yuan, Ye; Lemischka, Ihor R.; Shen, Li; Kelley, Kevin; Deng, Haiteng; Shen, Xiaohua; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Super-enhancers (SEs) are large clusters of transcriptional enhancers that are co-occupied by multiple lineage specific transcription factors driving expression of genes that define cell identity. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), SEs are highly enriched for the core pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. In this study, we sought to dissect the molecular control mechanism of SE activity in pluripotency and reprogramming. Starting from a protein interaction network surrounding Sox2, we identified Tex10 as a key pluripotency factor that plays a functionally significant role in ESC self-renewal, early embryo development, and reprogramming. Tex10 is enriched at SEs in a Sox2-dependent manner and coordinates histone acetylation and DNA demethylation at SEs. Tex10 activity is also important for pluripotency and reprogramming in human cells. Our study therefore highlights Tex10 as a core component of the pluripotency network and sheds light on its role in epigenetic control of SE activity for cell fate determination. PMID:25936917

  2. Mcm10 coordinates the timely assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase.

    PubMed

    Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Mcm10 is an essential replication factor that is required for DNA replication in eukaryotes. Two key steps in the initiation of DNA replication are the assembly and activation of Cdc45-Mcm2-7-GINS (CMG) replicative helicase. However, it is not known what coordinates helicase assembly with helicase activation. We show in this manuscript, using purified proteins from budding yeast, that Mcm10 directly interacts with the Mcm2-7 complex and Cdc45. In fact, Mcm10 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2-7 complex in vitro. To study the role of Mcm10 in more detail in vivo we used an auxin inducible degron in which Mcm10 is degraded upon addition of auxin. We show in this manuscript that Mcm10 is required for the timely recruitment of Cdc45 and GINS recruitment to the Mcm2-7 complex in vivo during early S phase. We also found that Mcm10 stimulates Mcm2 phosphorylation by DDK in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicate that Mcm10 plays a critical role in coupling replicative helicase assembly with helicase activation. Mcm10 is first involved in the recruitment of Cdc45 to the Mcm2-7 complex. After Cdc45-Mcm2-7 complex assembly, Mcm10 promotes origin melting by stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, which thereby leads to GINS attachment to Mcm2-7.

  3. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Takaoka, Motoko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-08-01

    Turmeric is widely used in Indian cuisine. The main constituents of turmeric are curcumin and its analogues, which are well-known antioxidant compounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that turmeric in curry might increase bowel motility and activate hydrogen-producing bacterial flora in the colon, thereby increasing the concentration of breath hydrogen. Eight healthy subjects fasted for 12 h and ingested curry and rice with or without turmeric (turmeric knockout curry). Breath-hydrogen concentrations were analyzed every 15 min for 6 h by gas chromatography with a semiconductor detector. Curry with turmeric significantly increased the area under the curve of breath hydrogen and shortened small-bowel transit time, compared with curry not containing turmeric. These results suggested that dietary turmeric activated bowel motility and carbohydrate colonic fermentation. PMID:19034660

  4. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  5. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  6. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  7. Coronal Magnetography of Solar Active Regions Using Coordinated SOHO/CDS and VLA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the coronal magnetographic technique to SOHO (Solar Heliospheric Observatory) /CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer) EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation) and coordinated VLA microwave observations of solar active regions to derive the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field. A CDS observing plan was developed for obtaining spectra needed to derive active region differential emission measures (DEMs) required for coronal magnetography. VLA observations were proposed and obtained. SOHO JOP 100 was developed, tested, approved, and implemented to obtain coordinated CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer)/EIT (Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope)/ VLA (Very Large Array)/ TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer)/ SXT (Solar X Ray Telescope) observations of active regions on April 12, May 9, May 13, and May 23. Analysis of all four data sets began, with heaviest concentration on COS data. It is found that 200-pixel (14 A in NIS1) wavelength windows are appropriate for extracting broadened Gaussian line profile fit parameters for lines including Fe XIV at 334.2, Fe XVI at 335.4, Fe XVI at 360.8, and Mg IX at 368.1 over the 4 arcmin by 4 arcmin CDS field of view. Extensive efforts were focused on learning and applying were focused on learning and applying CDS software, and including it in new IDL procedures to carry out calculations relating to coronal magnetography. An important step is to extract Gaussian profile fits to all the lines needed to derive the DEM in each spatial pixel of any given active region. The standard CDS absolute intensity calibration software was applied to derived intensity images, revealing that ratios between density-insensitive lines like Fe XVI 360.8/335.4 yield good agreement with theory. However, the resulting absolute intensities of those lines are very high, indicating that revisions to the CDS absolute intensity calibrations remain to be included in the CDS software, an essential step to

  8. Laterality of movement-related activity reflects transformation of coordinates in ventral premotor cortex and primary motor cortex of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Kiyoshi

    2007-10-01

    The ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and the primary motor cortex (MI) of monkeys participate in various sensorimotor integrations, such as the transformation of coordinates from visual to motor space, because the areas contain movement-related neuronal activity reflecting either visual or motor space. In addition to relationship to visual and motor space, laterality of the activity could indicate stages in the visuomotor transformation. Thus we examined laterality and relationship to visual and motor space of movement-related neuronal activity in the PMv and MI of monkeys performing a fast-reaching task with the left or right arm, toward targets with visual and motor coordinates that had been dissociated by shift prisms. We determined laterality of each activity quantitatively and classified it into four types: activity that consistently depended on target locations in either head-centered visual coordinates (V-type) or motor coordinates (M-type) and those that had either differential or nondifferential activity for both coordinates (B- and N-types). A majority of M-type neurons in the areas had preferences for reaching movements with the arm contralateral to the hemisphere where neuronal activity was recorded. In contrast, most of the V-type neurons were recorded in the PMv and exhibited less laterality than the M-type. The B- and N-types were recorded in the PMv and MI and exhibited intermediate properties between the V- and M-types when laterality and correlations to visual and motor space of them were jointly examined. These results suggest that the cortical motor areas contribute to the transformation of coordinates to generate final motor commands.

  9. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  10. Posttranslational regulation of coordinated enzyme activities in the Pup-proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Elharar, Yifat; Roth, Ziv; Hecht, Nir; Rotkopf, Ron; Khalaila, Isam; Gur, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The proper functioning of any biological system depends on the coordinated activity of its components. Regulation at the genetic level is, in many cases, effective in determining the cellular levels of system components. However, in cases where regulation at the genetic level is insufficient for attaining harmonic system function, posttranslational regulatory mechanisms are often used. Here, we uncover posttranslational regulatory mechanisms in the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup)-proteasome system (PPS), the bacterial equivalent of the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system. Pup, a ubiquitin analog, is conjugated to proteins through the activities of two enzymes, Dop (deamidase of Pup) and PafA (proteasome accessory factor A), the Pup ligase. As Dop also catalyzes depupylation, it was unclear how PPS function could be maintained without Dop and PafA canceling the activity of the other, and how the two activities of Dop are balanced. We report that tight Pup binding and the limited degree of Dop interaction with high-molecular-weight pupylated proteins results in preferred Pup deamidation over protein depupylation by this enzyme. Under starvation conditions, when accelerated protein pupylation is required, this bias is intensified by depletion of free Dop molecules, thereby minimizing the chance of depupylation. We also find that, in contrast to Dop, PafA presents a distinct preference for high-molecular-weight protein substrates. As such, PafA and Dop act in concert, rather than canceling each other's activity, to generate a high-molecular-weight pupylome. This bias in pupylome molecular weight distribution is consistent with the proposed nutritional role of the PPS under starvation conditions. PMID:26951665

  11. Enzyme Design From the Bottom Up: An Active Nickel Electrocatalyst with a Structured Peptide Outer Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Reback, Matthew L.; Buchko, Garry W.; Kier, Brandon L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Xiong, Yijia; Lense, Sheri; Hou, Jianbo; Roberts, John A.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Raugei, Simone; Squier, Thomas C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-02-03

    Functional, peptide-containing metal complexes with a well-defined peptide structure have the potential to enhance molecular catalysts via an enzyme-like outer coordination sphere. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of an active, peptide-based metal complex built upon the well characterized hydrogen production catalyst, Ni(PPh2NPh)2. The incorporated peptide maintains its B-hairpin structure when appended to the metal core, and the electrocatalytic activity of the peptide-based metal complex (~100,000 s-1) is fully retained. The combination of an active molecular catalyst with a structured peptide outer coordination sphere provides a scaffold that permits the incorporation of features of an enzyme-like outer-coordination sphere necessary to create molecular electrocatalysts with en-hanced functionality.

  12. Coordination of MYH DNA glycosylase and APE1 endonuclease activities via physical interactions

    PubMed Central

    Luncsford, Paz J.; Manvilla, Brittney A.; Patterson, Dimeka N.; Malik, Shuja S.; Jin, Jin; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Gunther, Randall; Kalvakolanu, Snigdha; Lipinski, Leonora J.; Yuan, Weirong; Lu, Wuyuan; Drohat, Alexander C.; Lu-Chang, A-Lien; Toth, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    MutY homologue (MYH) is a DNA glycosylase which excises adenine paired with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG, or G°) during base excision repair (BER). Base excision by MYH results in an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site in the DNA where the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone remains intact. A key feature of MYH activity is its physical interaction and coordination with AP endonuclease I (APE1), which subsequently nicks DNA 5' to the AP site. Because AP sites are mutagenic and cytotoxic, they must be processed by APE1 immediately after the action of MYH glycosylase. Our recent reports show that the interdomain connector (IDC) of human MYH (hMYH) maintains interactions with hAPE1 and the human checkpoint clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex. In this study, we used NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments to determine hMYH-binding site on hAPE1. Chemical shift perturbations indicate that the hMYH IDC peptide binds to the DNA-binding site of hAPE1 and an additional site which is distal to the APE1 DNA-binding interface. In these two binding sites, N212 and Q137 of hAPE1 are key mediators of the MYH/APE1 interaction. Intriguingly, despite the fact that hHus1 and hAPE1 both interact with the MYH IDC, hHus1 does not compete with hAPE1 for binding to hMYH. Rather, hHus1 stabilizes the hMYH/hAPE1 complex both in vitro and in cells. This is consistent with a common theme in BER, namely that the assembly of protein-DNA complexes enhances repair by efficiently coordinating multiple enzymatic steps while simultaneously minimizing the release of harmful repair intermediates. PMID:24209961

  13. Photodynamic activity and binding of sulfonated metallophthalocyanines to phospholipid membranes: contribution of metal-phosphate coordination.

    PubMed

    Pashkovskaya, Alina A; Sokolenko, Elena A; Sokolov, Valeri S; Kotova, Elena A; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2007-10-01

    Photosensitized efficacy of tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines of zinc, aluminum and nickel (ZnPcS(4), AlPcS(4) and NiPcS(4), respectively) as studied by gramicidin channel (gA) photoinactivation was compared with adsorption of the dyes on the surface of a bilayer lipid membrane as measured by the inner field compensation method. The adsorption of the negatively charged phthalocyanines on diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) membranes led to formation of a negative boundary potential difference between the membrane/water interfaces. Good correlation was shown between the photodynamic activity and the membrane binding of the three metallophthalocyanines. ZnPcS(4) appeared to be the most potent of these photosensitizers, while NiPcS(4) was completely ineffective. All of these phthalocyanines displayed no binding and negligible gA photoinactivation with membranes formed of glycerol monooleate (GMO), whereas Rose Bengal exhibited significant binding and photodynamic efficacy with GMO membranes. Gramicidin photoinactivation in the presence of AlPcS(4), being insensitive to the ionic strength of the bathing solution, was inhibited by fluoride and attenuated by phosphate ions. A blue shift of the fluorescence peak position of ZnPcS(4) dissolved in ethanol was elicited by phosphate, similarly to fluoride, which was indicative of the coordination interaction of these ions with the central metal atom of the phthalocyanine macrocycle. This interaction was enhanced in the medium modeling the water-membrane interface. The results obtained imply that binding of tetrasulfonated metallophthalocyanines to phospholipid membranes is determined primarily by metal-phosphate coordination.

  14. Coordination of bat sonar activity and flight for the exploration of three-dimensional objects.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Geberl, Cornelia; Dera, Thomas; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    The unique combination of flight and echolocation has opened the nocturnal air space as a rich ecological niche for bats. By analysing echoes of their sonar emissions, bats discriminate and recognize three-dimensional (3-D) objects. However, in contrast to vision, the 3-D information that can be gained by ensonifying an object from only one observation angle is sparse. To date, it is unclear how bats synchronize echolocation and flight activity to explore the 3-D shape of ensonified objects. We have devised an experimental design that allows creating 3-D virtual echo-acoustic objects by generating in real-time echoes from the bat's emissions that depend on the bat's position relative to the virtual object. Bats were trained to evaluate these 3-D virtual objects differing in their azimuthal variation of either echo amplitude or spectral composition. The data show that through a very effective coordination of sonar and flight activity, bats analyse an azimuthal variation of echo amplitude with a resolution of approximately 16 dB and a variation of echo centre frequency of approximately 19%. Control experiments show that the bats can detect not only these variations but also perturbations in the spatial arrangement of these variations. The current experimental paradigm shows that echolocating bats assemble echo-acoustic object information - acquired sequentially in flight - to reconstruct the 3-D shape of the ensonified object. Unlike previous approaches, the recruitment of virtual objects allows for a direct quantification of this reconstruction success in a highly controlled experimental approach.

  15. [Aluminum coordination and active sites on aluminas, Y-zeolites and pillared layered silicates]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fripiat, J.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report is organized in four sections. In the first the authors will outline structural features which are common to all fine grained alumina, as well as to non-framework alumina in zeolites. This section will be followed by a study of the surface vs. bulk coordination of aluminum. The third section will deal with measurement of the number of acid sites and the scaling of their strength. The fourth and last section will describe three model reactions: the isomerization of 1-butene and of 2 cis-butene; the isomerization and disproportionation of oxtho-xylene; and the transformation of trichloroethane into vinyl chloride followed by the polymerization of the vinyl chloride. The relationship between chemical activity and selectivity and what is known of the local structure of the active catalytic sites will be underlined. Other kinds of zeolites besides Y zeolite have been studied. Instead of the aluminum pillared silicates they found it more interesting to study the substitution of silicon by aluminum in a layered structure containing a permanent porosity (aluminated sepiolite).

  16. Coordinated transporter activity shapes high-affinity iron acquisition in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Chana; Lis, Hagar; Finkel, Omri M; Schmetterer, Georg; Shaked, Yeala; Keren, Nir

    2014-01-01

    Iron bioavailability limits biological activity in many aquatic and terrestrial environments. Broad scale genomic meta-analyses indicated that within a single organism, multiple iron transporters may contribute to iron acquisition. Here, we present a functional characterization of a cyanobacterial iron transport pathway that utilizes concerted transporter activities. Cyanobacteria are significant contributors to global primary productivity with high iron demands. Certain cyanobacterial species employ a siderophore-mediated uptake strategy; however, many strains possess neither siderophore biosynthesis nor siderophore transport genes. The unicellular, planktonic, freshwater cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, employs an alternative to siderophore-based uptake-reduction of Fe(III) species before transport through the plasma membrane. In this study, we combine short-term radioactive iron uptake and reduction assays with a range of disruption mutants to generate a working model for iron reduction and uptake in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We found that the Fe(II) transporter, FeoB, is the major iron transporter in this organism. In addition, we uncovered a link between a respiratory terminal oxidase (Alternate Respiratory Terminal Oxidase) and iron reduction - suggesting a coupling between these two electron transfer reactions. Furthermore, quantitative RNA transcript analysis identified a function for subunits of the Fe(III) transporter, FutABC, in modulating reductive iron uptake. Collectively, our results provide a molecular basis for a tightly coordinated, high-affinity iron transport system. PMID:24088625

  17. Social reward requires coordinated activity of nucleus accumbens oxytocin and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Dölen, Gül; Darvishzadeh, Ayeh; Huang, Kee Wui; Malenka, Robert C

    2013-09-12

    Social behaviours in species as diverse as honey bees and humans promote group survival but often come at some cost to the individual. Although reinforcement of adaptive social interactions is ostensibly required for the evolutionary persistence of these behaviours, the neural mechanisms by which social reward is encoded by the brain are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that in mice oxytocin acts as a social reinforcement signal within the nucleus accumbens core, where it elicits a presynaptically expressed long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in medium spiny neurons. Although the nucleus accumbens receives oxytocin-receptor-containing inputs from several brain regions, genetic deletion of these receptors specifically from dorsal raphe nucleus, which provides serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) innervation to the nucleus accumbens, abolishes the reinforcing properties of social interaction. Furthermore, oxytocin-induced synaptic plasticity requires activation of nucleus accumbens 5-HT1B receptors, the blockade of which prevents social reward. These results demonstrate that the rewarding properties of social interaction in mice require the coordinated activity of oxytocin and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens, a mechanistic insight with implications for understanding the pathogenesis of social dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism. PMID:24025838

  18. Spectroscopic properties and the catalytic activity of new organo-lead supramolecular coordination polymer containing quinoxaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Abdou, Safaa N.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP) 3∞[ Cu2(CN)3(Me3Pb)(qox)], 1, as the first example of the CuCN SCP containing the (Me3Pb) fragment, was explored to investigate its catalytic and photo-catalytic activities. The structure of 1 contains two chemically identical but crystallographically different [Cu2(CN)3ṡMe3Pbṡqox]2 units with four Cu(I) sites assuming distorted TP-3 geometry. Two non-linear chains of equal abundance are formed producing corrugated parallel chains which are connected laterally by quinoxaline creating 2D-layers which are arranged parallel in an (AB⋯AB⋯AB)n fashion forming 3D-network. IR, mass, electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are also investigated. The SCP 1 is diamagnetic and exhibits good catalytic and photo-catalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The reaction is first order with respect to MB dye. The irradiation of the reaction with UV-light enhanced the rate of MB mineralization. The efficiency of recycled the 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye were investigated.

  19. Spectroscopic properties and the catalytic activity of new organo-lead supramolecular coordination polymer containing quinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H; Abdou, Safaa N

    2015-01-25

    The 3D-supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP) (3)∞[ Cu2(CN)3(Me3Pb)(qox)], 1, as the first example of the CuCN SCP containing the (Me3Pb) fragment, was explored to investigate its catalytic and photo-catalytic activities. The structure of 1 contains two chemically identical but crystallographically different [Cu2(CN)3⋅Me3Pb⋅qox]2 units with four Cu(I) sites assuming distorted TP-3 geometry. Two non-linear chains of equal abundance are formed producing corrugated parallel chains which are connected laterally by quinoxaline creating 2D-layers which are arranged parallel in an (AB⋯AB⋯AB)n fashion forming 3D-network. IR, mass, electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are also investigated. The SCP 1 is diamagnetic and exhibits good catalytic and photo-catalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The reaction is first order with respect to MB dye. The irradiation of the reaction with UV-light enhanced the rate of MB mineralization. The efficiency of recycled the 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye were investigated.

  20. Spectroscopic properties and the catalytic activity of new organo-lead supramolecular coordination polymer containing quinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H; Abdou, Safaa N

    2015-01-25

    The 3D-supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP) (3)∞[ Cu2(CN)3(Me3Pb)(qox)], 1, as the first example of the CuCN SCP containing the (Me3Pb) fragment, was explored to investigate its catalytic and photo-catalytic activities. The structure of 1 contains two chemically identical but crystallographically different [Cu2(CN)3⋅Me3Pb⋅qox]2 units with four Cu(I) sites assuming distorted TP-3 geometry. Two non-linear chains of equal abundance are formed producing corrugated parallel chains which are connected laterally by quinoxaline creating 2D-layers which are arranged parallel in an (AB⋯AB⋯AB)n fashion forming 3D-network. IR, mass, electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are also investigated. The SCP 1 is diamagnetic and exhibits good catalytic and photo-catalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The reaction is first order with respect to MB dye. The irradiation of the reaction with UV-light enhanced the rate of MB mineralization. The efficiency of recycled the 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye were investigated. PMID:25124847

  1. Small molecule regulation of self-association and catalytic activity in a supramolecular coordination complex.

    PubMed

    McGuirk, C Michael; Stern, Charlotte L; Mirkin, Chad A

    2014-03-26

    Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of the first weak-link approach (WLA) supramolecular construct that employs the small molecule regulation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions for the in situ control of catalytic activity. A biaryl urea group, prone to self-aggregation, was functionalized with a phosphinoalkyl thioether (P,S) hemilabile moiety and incorporated into a homoligated Pt(II) tweezer WLA complex. This urea-containing construct, which has been characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study, can be switched in situ from a rigid fully closed state to a flexible semiopen state via Cl(-) induced changes in the coordination mode at the Pt(II) structural node. FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy studies were used to demonstrate that while extensive urea self-association persists in the flexible semiopen complex, these interactions are deterred in the rigid, fully closed complex because of geometric and steric restraints. Consequently, the urea moieties in the fully closed complex are able to catalyze a Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone to generate 2-acetyl-5-norbornene. The free urea ligand and the semiopen complex show no such activity. The successful incorporation and regulation of a hydrogen bond donating catalyst in a WLA construct open the doors to a vast and rapidly growing catalogue of allosteric catalysts for applications in the detection and amplification of organic analytes.

  2. Coordinated ventilation and spiracle activity produce unidirectional airflow in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Erica C; McHenry, Matthew J; Bradley, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Insects exchange respiratory gases via an extensive network of tracheal vessels that open to the surface of the body through spiracular valves. Although gas exchange is known to increase with the opening of these spiracles, it is not clear how this event relates to gas flow through the tracheal system. We examined the relationship between respiratory airflow and spiracle activity in a ventilating insect, the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, to better understand the complexity of insect respiratory function. Using simultaneous video recordings of multiple spiracular valves, we found that abdominal spiracles open and close in unison during periods of ventilation. Additionally, independent recordings of CO2 release from the abdominal and thoracic regions and observations of hyperoxic tracer gas movement indicate that air is drawn into the thoracic spiracles and expelled from the abdominal spiracles. Our video recordings suggest that this unidirectional flow is driven by abdominal contractions that occur when the abdominal spiracles open. The spiracles then close as the abdomen relaxes and fills with air from the thorax. Therefore, the respiratory system of the hissing cockroach functions as a unidirectional pump through the coordinated action of the spiracles and abdominal musculature. This mechanism may be employed by a broad diversity of large insects that respire by active ventilation. PMID:24031063

  3. The management of tumor motions in the stereotactic irradiation to lung cancer under the use of Abches to control active breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Tarohda, Tohru I.; Ishiguro, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Kouhei; Kohda, Yukihiko; Onishi, Hiroaki; Aoki, Tetsuya; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Breathing control is crucial to ensuring the accuracy of stereotactic irradiation for lung cancer. This study monitored respiration in patients with inoperable nonsmall-cell lung cancer using a respiration-monitoring apparatus, Abches, and investigated the reproducibility of tumor position in these patients. Methods: Subjects comprised 32 patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer who were administered stereotactic radiotherapy under breath-holding conditions monitored by Abches. Computed tomography (CT) was performed under breath-holding conditions using Abches (Abches scan) for treatment planning. A free-breathing scan was performed to determine the range of tumor motions in a given position. After the free-breathing scan, Abches scan was repeated and the tumor position thus defined was taken as the intrafraction tumor position. Abches scan was also performed just before treatment, and the tumor position thus defined was taken as the interfraction tumor position. To calculate the errors, tumor positions were compared based on Abches scan for the initial treatment plan. The error in tumor position was measured using the BrainSCAN treatment-planning device, then compared for each lung lobe. Results: Displacements in tumor position were calculated in three dimensions (i.e., superior-inferior (S-I), left-right (L-R), and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimensions) and recorded as absolute values. For the whole lung, average intrafraction tumor displacement was 1.1 mm (L-R), 1.9 mm (A-P), and 2.0 mm (S-I); the average interfraction tumor displacement was 1.1 mm (L-R), 2.1 mm (A-P), and 2.0 mm (S-I); and the average free-breathing tumor displacement was 2.3 mm (L-R), 3.5 mm (A-P), and 7.9 mm (S-I). The difference between using Abches and free breathing could be reduced from approximately 20 mm at the maximum to approximately 3 mm in the S-I direction for both intrafraction and interfraction positions in the lower lobe. In addition, maximum intrafraction tumor

  4. Breathing air trailer acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1994-09-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) will document compliance with the requirements of WHC-S-0251 Rev. 0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment being tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a Design and Fabrication procurement activity for use in the core sampling program. The ATP was written by the Seller and will be performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing the test at the Seller`s location. This test procedure is to verify that the American Bristol Industries, Inc., Model 5014-0001 low pressure Mobile Breathing Air Trailer, meets or exceeds the requirements of the Westinghouse Hanford specification.

  5. A practical approach for active camera coordination based on a fusion-driven multi-agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Alvaro Luis; Molina, José M.; Patricio, Miguel A.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system architecture to manage spatially distributed active (or pan-tilt-zoom) cameras. Traditional video surveillance algorithms are of no use for active cameras, and we have to look at different approaches. Such multi-sensor surveillance systems have to be designed to solve two related problems: data fusion and coordinated sensor-task management. Generally, architectures proposed for the coordinated operation of multiple cameras are based on the centralisation of management decisions at the fusion centre. However, the existence of intelligent sensors capable of decision making brings with it the possibility of conceiving alternative decentralised architectures. This problem is approached by means of a MAS, integrating data fusion as an integral part of the architecture for distributed coordination purposes. This paper presents the MAS architecture and system agents.

  6. Improving estimation of cardiac vagal tone during spontaneous breathing using a paced breathing calibration.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Grossman, Paul; Coyle, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a commonly employed non-invasive measure of cardiac vagal control. It has been demonstrated that respiratory parameters such as tidal volume and respiratory frequency can change RSA without altering tonic vagal activity. Thus, within-individual comparisons of cardiac vagal control across different behavioral tasks might benefit from an adjustment for respiratory confounds. We tested an adjustment method using transfer function analysis and paced breathing at 3 different respiratory frequencies as the basis for regressing out respiratory related RSA changes in a task where breathing was not controlled. Electrocardiogram and calibrated respiration were recorded with the LifeShirt system from 15 young adult participants. Time series of RR intervals and lung volume change were computed and the respiration-to-RR-interval transfer-function magnitude (RSA-TF, in ms/liter) estimated. Mean (SD) of RSA-TF was 142 (68) at 9 breaths/min, 78 (52) at 13.5 breaths/min, 57 (43) at 18 breaths/min, and 121 (56) during baseline, with a respiratory frequency of 12.5 (3.8) breaths/min. At baseline, measured and predicted RSA-TF values (mean 94 +/- 82) differed significantly and correlated only moderately (r = 0.67). Factors contributing to a less than perfect correlation included slightly elevated subjective anxiety levels and hyperventilation during paced breathing, both of which may have affected cardiac vagal tone. This study demonstrates a novel procedure for computing a respiratory unrelated RSA index. Results provide some support for the utility of this adjustment method for improving the estimation of cardiac vagal tone from RSA, but also indicate that the paced breathing procedure may need to be further refined.

  7. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  8. Active Hydrogenation Catalyst with a Structured, Peptide-Based Outer-Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Buchko, Garry W.; Reback, Matthew L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Linehan, John C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-10-05

    The synthesis, catalytic activity, and structural features of a rhodium-based hydrogenation catalyst containing a phosphine ligand coupled to a 14-residue peptide are reported. Both CD and NMR spectroscopy show that the peptide adopts a helical structure in 1:1:1 TFE/MeCN/H2O that is maintained when the peptide is attached to the ligand and when the ligand is attached to the metal complex. The metal complex hydrogenates aqueous solutions of 3-butenol to 1-butanol at 360 ± 50 turnovers/Rh/h at 294 K. This peptide- based catalyst represents a starting point for developing and characterizing a peptide-based outer-coordination sphere that can be used to introduce enzyme-like features into molecular catalysts. This work was funded by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geoscience and Biosciences Division (AJ, JCL and WJS), the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (GWB, MLR and WJS). Part of the research was conducted at the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Biolog-ical and Environmental Research (BER) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 coordinates organ determinacy and axial polarity in Arabidopsis by directly activating ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous organ formation is a hallmark of plant development that requires organ-specific gene activity to establish determinacy and axial patterning, yet the molecular mechanisms that coordinate these events remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the organ-specific BTB-POZ domain proteins BL...

  10. The Risk of Reduced Physical Activity in Children with Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Lingam, Raghu; Mattocks, Calum; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy; Emond, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder have an increased risk of reduced moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), using data from a large population based study. Prospectively collected data from 4331 children (boys = 2065, girls = 2266) who had completed motor…

  11. Heterogeneity in the Histidine-brace Copper Coordination Sphere in Auxiliary Activity Family 10 (AA10) Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Amanda K; Wilson, Michael T; Hough, Michael A; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Walton, Paul H; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2016-06-10

    Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. The active site copper in LPMOs is coordinated by a histidine-brace. This utilizes the amino group and side chain of the N-terminal His residue with the side chain of a second His residue to create a T-shaped arrangement of nitrogen ligands. We report a structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic appraisal of copper binding to the histidine-brace in an auxiliary activity family 10 (AA10) LPMO from Streptomyces lividans (SliLPMO10E). Unexpectedly, we discovered the existence of two apo-SliLPMO10E species in solution that can each bind copper at a single site with distinct kinetic and thermodynamic (exothermic and endothermic) properties. The experimental EPR spectrum of copper-bound SliLPMO10E requires the simulation of two different line shapes, implying two different copper-bound species, indicative of three and two nitrogen ligands coordinating the copper. Amino group coordination was probed through the creation of an N-terminal extension variant (SliLPMO10E-Ext). The kinetics and thermodynamics of copper binding to SliLPMO10E-Ext are in accord with copper binding to one of the apo-forms in the wild-type protein, suggesting that amino group coordination is absent in the two-nitrogen coordinate form of SliLPMO10E. Copper binding to SliLPMO10B was also investigated, and again it revealed the presence of two apo-forms with kinetics and stoichiometry of copper binding identical to that of SliLPMO10E. Our findings highlight that heterogeneity exists in the active site copper coordination sphere of LPMOs that may have implications for the mechanism of loading copper in the cell. PMID:27129229

  12. Hypoxia switches episodic breathing to singlet breathing in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) via a tropisetron-sensitive mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephen M.; Krisp, Ashley R.; Bartman, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced changes in the chelonian breathing pattern are poorly understood. Thus, breathing was measured in freely swimming adult red-eared slider turtles breathing air prior to breathing nitrogen for 4 h. Ventilation increased 10-fold within 10 min due to increased breath frequency and tidal volume. Breaths/episode decreased by ~50% within after 1 h of hypoxia while the number of singlet breaths increased from 3.1 ± 1.6 singlets/h to a maximum of 66.1 ± 23.5 singlets/h. Expiratory and inspiratory duration increased during hypoxia. For doublet and triplet breaths, expiratory duration increased during the first breath only, while inspiratory duration increased for all breaths. Tropisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 5 mg/kg) administration prior to hypoxia attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in singlet breath frequency. Along with results from previous in vitro studies, this study suggests that 5-HT3 receptor activation may be required for the hypoxia-induced increase in singlet breathing pattern in red-eared slider turtles. PMID:25543027

  13. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Stecyk, Jonathan A. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake () in normoxia (19.8 kPa PO2) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard was reduced by ∼30–50%. Pcrit was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in Pcrit, gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. PMID:25394628

  14. [Breath-hold diving--an increasing adventure sport with medical risks].

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Peter; Gennser, Mikael

    2004-02-26

    Breath-hold diving as a recreational and competitive sports activity is on the increase. In this review physiological limitations and medical risks associated with breath-hold diving are discussed. Specific topics include hypoxia, ascent blackout, hyperventilation, squeeze or barotrauma of descent including effects on the pulmonary system, glossopharyngeal breathing, and decompression illness. It is also concluded that the health requirements for competitive breath-hold diving should follow essentially the same standards as used for SCUBA-diving.

  15. Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

    2014-01-01

    With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a “breath-print” that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

  16. Coordination chemistry and biological activity of 5'-OH modified quinoline-B12 derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zelenka, Karel; Brandl, Helmut; Spingler, Bernhard; Zelder, Felix

    2011-10-14

    The consequences of structural modifications at the 5'-OH ribofuranotide moiety of quinoline modified B12 derivatives are discussed in regard of the coordination chemistry, the electrochemical properties and the biological behaviour of the compound.

  17. Porcine MHC classical class I genes are coordinately expressed in superantigen-activated mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Yoshie; Ohshima, Shino; Kita, Yuki F; Shimada, Shin; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Shiina, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Ando, Asako

    2012-08-15

    The expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classical class I genes is important for the adaptive immune response to target virus-infected cells and cancer cells. The up-regulation of the MHC is achieved by hormonal/cytokine signals including IFN-γ-inducible elements. The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), the MHC class I region of pigs, consists of the duplicated classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3, but the molecular mechanisms involved in their up-regulation after T cell stimulation have not been fully elucidated. In order to better understand some of the putative regulatory mechanisms of SLA class I gene expression in activated T cells, we examined the coordinated expression of the SLA classical class I, IFN-γ and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLA homozygous Clawn miniature swine stimulated for 72 h with either IFN-γ or an enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus. This enterotoxin, toxic shock syndrome-1 (TSST-1), is known to act as a superantigen (sAG) to activate the T cells in various vertebrate species. We showed by using mAbs and flow cytometry that the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell number of swine PBMCs was also increased by TSST-1 and to a lesser degree by IFN-γ. Time course analyses of the expression of the IFN-γ, IRF-1 and the three classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2, and SLA-3, in PBMCs by quantitative real-time PCR revealed a transitory response to TSST-1 or IFN-γ stimulation. The IFN-γ mRNA levels in the PBMCs were continuously up-regulated over the first 48 h by TSST-1 or IFN-γ. In contrast, SLA class I expression moderately increased at 24h and then decreased to a baseline level or less at 72 h of IFN-γ or TSST-1 stimulation. The three classical SLA class I genes showed similar expression kinetics, although SLA-3 mRNA level was consistently lower than those of SLA-1 and -2. The expression of IRF-1, a modulator of SLA expression, showed similar

  18. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, S; Eder, G; Bolle, I; Tsuda, A; Schulz, H

    2009-10-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-mum sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathing 90-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats placed in a size-adjusted body plethysmograph box. Instrumental dead space of the system was minimized down to 310 microl (i.e., approximately 20% of respiratory dead space). The system allows continuous monitoring of particle concentration in the respired volume. Breathing parameters, such as respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (Vt), as well as inspiration/expiration times, were also monitored at different levels of anesthesia. The results showed that Vt typically varied between 1.5 and 4.0 ml for regular breathing and between 4.0 and 10.0 ml for single-sigh breaths; f ranged from 40 to 200 breaths/min. Corresponding deposition values varied between 5 and 50%, depending on breath-by-breath breathing patterns. The best fit of deposition (D) was achieved by a bilinear function of Vt and f and found to be D = 11.0 - 0.09.f + 3.75.Vt. We conclude that our approach provides more realistic conditions for the measurement of deposition than conventional models using ventilated animals and allows us to analyze the correlation between breath-specific deposition and spontaneous breathing patterns.

  19. Hydrazone chelators for the treatment of iron overload disorders: iron coordination chemistry and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Paul V; Chin, Piao; Sharpe, Philip C; Richardson, Des R

    2007-08-14

    The potentially tridentate ligand 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (HPCIH) and its analogues are an emerging class of orally effective Fe chelators that show great promise for the treatment of Fe overload diseases. Herein, we present an extensive study of the Fe coordination chemistry of the HPCIH analogues including the first crystallographically characterised Fe(II) complex of these chelators. Unlike most other clinically effective Fe chelators, the HPCIH analogues bind Fe(II) and not Fe(III). In fact, these chelators form low-spin bis-ligand Fe(II) complexes, although NMR suggests that the complexes are close to the high-spin/low-spin crossover. All the Fe complexes show a high potential Fe(III/II) redox couple (> 500 mV vs. NHE) and cyclic voltammetry in aqueous or mixed aqueous/organic solvents is irreversible as a consequence of a rapid hydration reaction that occurs upon oxidation. A number of the HPCIH analogues show high activity at inducing Fe efflux from cells and also at preventing Fe uptake by cells from the serum Fe transport protein transferrin. As a class of ligands, these chelators are more effective at reducing Fe uptake from transferrin than inducing Fe mobilisation from cells. This may be related to their ability to intercept Fe(II) after its release from transferrin within the cell. Our studies indicate that their Fe chelation efficacy is due, at least in part, to the fact that these ligands and their Fe(II) complexes are neutral at physiological pH (7.4) and sufficiently lipophilic to permeate cell membranes. PMID:17893768

  20. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test

    PubMed Central

    YUASA, Hisashi; KUMITA, Mikio; HONDA, Takeshi; KIMURA, Kazushi; NOZAKI, Kosuke; EMI, Hitoshi; OTANI, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker’s respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns. PMID:25382381

  1. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  2. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  3. Cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, psychosocial adjustment, reading and writing in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chuang, I-Ching; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A parent-report questionnaire, the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Chinese version (DCDQ-C), was used to screen first to third graders from 13 mainstream schools in Taipei. Two standardized motor tests were then administered to those who scored below 10% on the DCDQ-C. Tests of activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment were then administered to this sample. Thirty-eight children identified as DCD, 32 as suspect for DCD and 82 as normal comparison were included in the final sample. Multivariate analysis of variance comparing the three groups (DCD, suspect DCD, and comparison) revealed that both children with DCD and suspect for DCD obtained significantly poorer scores on measures of attention and reading, and were more hyperactive than comparison children. Children with DCD and suspect for DCD were also reported to have more internalizing and social problems than children without motor problems. No significant differences, however, were noted between children with different degree of motor coordination problems (categorized as DCD and suspect for DCD) on any measure. Furthermore, a high percentage of children in both the DCD and suspect groups fell in the clinical range of attention, activity level and psychosocial adjustment problems. The results revealed a high risk for these problems in nonreferred children with motor coordination problems. The high percentage of clinical range behavioral problems warrants attention of clinicians who work with children with motor coordination difficulties to the need to promote early identification and referral.

  4. Particle concentration in exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, C.I.; Stampfer, J.F.

    1987-11-01

    Measurements were made of the number of concentration of particles in exhaled breath under various conditions of exercise. A laser light scattering particle spectrometer was used to count particles exhaled by test subjects wearing respirators in a challenge environment of clean, dry air. Precautions were taken to ensure that particles were not generated by the respirators and that no extraneous water or other particles were produced in the humid exhaled air. The number of particles detected in exhales air varied over a range from <0.10 to approx. 4 particles/cm/sup 3/ depending upon the test subject and his activity. Subjects at rest exhaled the lowest concentration of particles, whereas exercises producing a faster respiration rate caused increased exhalation of particles. Exhaled particle concentration can limit the usefulness of nondiscriminating, ambient challenge aerosols for the fit testing of highly protective respirators.

  5. Redox-active porous coordination polymer based on trinuclear pivalate: Temperature-dependent crystal rearrangement and redox-behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lytvynenko, Anton S.; Kiskin, Mikhail A.; Dorofeeva, Victoria N.; Mishura, Andrey M.; Titov, Vladimir E.; Kolotilov, Sergey V.; Eremenko, Igor L.; Novotortsev, Vladimir M.

    2015-03-15

    Linking of trinuclear pivalate Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6} (Piv=O{sub 2}CC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) by 2,6-bis(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (L) resulted in formation of 1D-porous coordination polymer Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)·Solv, which was characterized in two forms: DMSO solvate Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)(DMSO)·2.5DMSO (1) or water solvate Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)(H{sub 2}O) (2). X-ray structure of 1 was determined. Crystal lattice of 1 at 160 K contained open channels, filled by captured solvent, while temperature growth to 296 K led to the crystal lattice rearrangement and formation of closed voids. Redox-behavior of 2 was studied by cyclic voltammetry for a solid compound, deposited on glassy-carbon electrode. Redox-activity of L preserved upon incorporation in the coordination polymer. The presence of pores in desolvated sample Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L) was confirmed by the measurements of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K. Potential barriers of the different molecules diffusion through pores were estimated by the means of molecular mechanics. - Graphical abstract: Redox-behavior of 1D-porous coordination polymer Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)(H{sub 2}O) was studied by cyclic voltammetry in thin film, deposited on glassy-carbon electrode. Redox-activity of L preserved upon incorporation in the coordination polymer. Potential barriers of different molecules diffusion through pores were estimated by the means of molecular mechanics. - Highlights: • Porous 1D coordination polymer was synthesized. • Temperature growth led to pores closing due to crystal lattice rearrangement. • Redox-activity of ligand preserved upon incorporation into coordination polymer. • Redox-properties of solid coordination polymer were studied in thin film. • Diffusion barriers were evaluated by molecular mechanics.

  6. Tripyrrindione as a Redox-Active Ligand: Palladium(II) Coordination in Three Redox States.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Ritika; Loughrey, Jonathan J; Astashkin, Andrei V; Shearer, Jason; Tomat, Elisa

    2015-12-01

    The tripyrrin-1,14-dione scaffold of urinary pigment uroerythrin coordinates divalent palladium as a planar tridentate ligand. Spectroscopic, structural and computational investigations reveal that the tripyrrindione ligand binds as a dianionic radical, and the resulting complex is stable at room temperature. One-electron oxidation and reduction reactions do not alter the planar coordination sphere of palladium(II) and lead to the isolation of two additional complexes presenting different redox states of the ligand framework. Unaffected by stability problems common to tripyrrolic fragments, the tripyrrindione ligand offers a robust platform for ligand-based redox chemistry.

  7. Commentary on eupneic breathing patterns and gasping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Diethelm W

    2003-12-16

    The term "eupneic activity pattern" is a trivial phenotypical description of a particular activity pattern in respiratory nerves as recorded under in vivo like experimental conditions. This term is, however, inadequate, because Eupnea describes a behavioral breathing performance that is trouble-free occurring without conscious effort. Obviously, the term "eupneic activity pattern" is meant to describe a neural activity that is normal and comparable with quiet breathing conditions. The various in vivo, in situ and in vitro preparations all generate their specific "normal" activity patterns, when the conditions are undisturbed. The commentary describes some of the numerous reasons why such normal activity patterns must be different in the various preparations without indicating their pathological operation. The conclusion is that special considerations are necessary for any extension of the in vitro and in situ findings into in vivo situations, because the capacity of the respiratory network is greatly reduced and thus not comparable with conditions leading to "eupneic breathing" in the fully intact animal.

  8. A new insight into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimenko, Sergey V.; Bykov, Victor G.; Shestakov, Nikolay V.; Grib, Nikolay N.; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    This study provides new insights into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults and methods of their modeling. Monthly averaged coordinate time series were analyzed for several pairs of collocated GPS sites situated near the active fault intersection area, in close proximity to the central part of the northern boundary of the Amurian plate and the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault zone. It is concluded that the observed seasonal variations are best described by a breather function which is one of the solutions of the well-known sine-Gordon equation. The obtained results suggest that, in this case, the source of seasonal variations may be caused by the appearance of solitary strain waves in the fault intersection system, which may be qualitatively treated as standing waves of compression-extension of the geological medium. Based on statistical testing, the limits of applicability of the suggested model have been established.

  9. Collaborative Construction of Task Activity: Coordinating Multiple Resources in a High School Physics Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Cecilia E.

    1999-01-01

    Documents the collaborative coordination of multiple resources--talk, gesture, and writing--as represented in the interaction among three high school seniors working on a physics laboratory task. Through close analysis of the moment-to-moment construction of task, the study draws attention to complex yet taken-for-granted practices that are…

  10. SATB1 Packages Densely Looped, Transcriptionally Active Chromatin for Coordinated Expression of Cytokine Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SATB1 (special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1) organizes cell type–specific nuclear architecture by anchoring specialized DNA sequences and recruiting chromatin remodeling factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4 and...

  11. Flexibility and Coordination among Acts of Visualization and Analysis in a Pattern Generalization Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per; Juter, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at exploring processes of flexibility and coordination among acts of visualization and analysis in students' attempt to reach a general formula for a three-dimensional pattern generalizing task. The investigation draws on a case-study analysis of two 15-year-old girls working together on a task in which they are asked to calculate…

  12. Dominance of the proximal coordinate frame in determining the locations of hippocampal place cell activity during navigation.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jennifer J; Neunuebel, Joshua P; Knierim, James J

    2008-01-01

    The place-specific activity of hippocampal cells provides downstream structures with information regarding an animal's position within an environment and, perhaps, the location of goals within that environment. In rodents, recent research has suggested that distal cues primarily set the orientation of the spatial representation, whereas the boundaries of the behavioral apparatus determine the locations of place activity. The current study was designed to address possible biases in some previous research that may have minimized the likelihood of observing place activity bound to distal cues. Hippocampal single-unit activity was recorded from six freely moving rats as they were trained to perform a tone-initiated place-preference task on an open-field platform. To investigate whether place activity was bound to the room- or platform-based coordinate frame (or both), the platform was translated within the room at an "early" and at a "late" phase of task acquisition (Shift 1 and Shift 2). At both time points, CA1 and CA3 place cells demonstrated room-associated and/or platform-associated activity, or remapped in response to the platform shift. Shift 1 revealed place activity that reflected an interaction between a dominant platform-based (proximal) coordinate frame and a weaker room-based (distal) frame because many CA1 and CA3 place fields shifted to a location intermediate to the two reference frames. Shift 2 resulted in place activity that became more strongly bound to either the platform- or room-based coordinate frame, suggesting the emergence of two independent spatial frames of reference (with many more cells participating in platform-based than in room-based representations).

  13. Development of a database for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis: Summary report of the third research coordination meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, Richard M.; Firestone, Richard B.; Pavi, ???

    2003-04-01

    The main discussions and conclusions from the Third Co-ordination Meeting on the Development of a Database for Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis are summarized in this report. All results were reviewed in detail, and the final version of the TECDOC and the corresponding software were agreed upon and approved for preparation. Actions were formulated with the aim of completing the final version of the TECDOC and associated software by May 2003.

  14. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  15. Yoga breathing, meditation, and longevity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard P; Gerbarg, Patricia L

    2009-08-01

    Yoga breathing is an important part of health and spiritual practices in Indo-Tibetan traditions. Considered fundamental for the development of physical well-being, meditation, awareness, and enlightenment, it is both a form of meditation in itself and a preparation for deep meditation. Yoga breathing (pranayama) can rapidly bring the mind to the present moment and reduce stress. In this paper, we review data indicating how breath work can affect longevity mechanisms in some ways that overlap with meditation and in other ways that are different from, but that synergistically enhance, the effects of meditation. We also provide clinical evidence for the use of yoga breathing in the treatment of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and for victims of mass disasters. By inducing stress resilience, breath work enables us to rapidly and compassionately relieve many forms of suffering.

  16. Breath measurements as volatile organic compound biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L; Buckley, T; Pellizzari, E; Gordon, S

    1996-01-01

    A brief review of the uses of breath analysis in studies of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's large-scale Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Studies have measured concentrations of 32 target VOCs in the exhaled breath of about 800 residents of various U.S. cities. Since the previous 12-hr integrated personal air exposures to the same chemicals were also measured, the relation between exposure and body burden is illuminated. Another major use of the breath measurements has been to detect unmeasured pathways of exposure; the major impact of active smoking on exposure to benzene and styrene was detected in this way. Following the earlier field studies, a series of chamber studies have provided estimates of several important physiological parameters. Among these are the fraction, f, of the inhaled chemical that is exhaled under steady-state conditions and the residence times. tau i in several body compartments, which may be associated with the blood (or liver), organs, muscle, and fat. Most of the targeted VOCs appear to have similar residence times of a few minutes, 30 min, several hours, and several days in the respective tissue groups. Knowledge of these parameters can be helpful in estimating body burden from exposure or vice versa and in planning environmental studies, particularly in setting times to monitor breath in studies of the variation with time of body burden. Improvements in breath methods have made it possible to study short-term peak exposure situations such as filling a gas tank or taking a shower in contaminated water. PMID:8933027

  17. Rapid shallow breathing index

    PubMed Central

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  18. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    PubMed

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  19. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  20. Growth of breath figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.; Knobler, C. M.

    1986-09-01

    Measurements are reported of the growth of breath figures, the patterns that form when a vapor is condensed onto a cold surface. Water vapor was condensed on glass slides and the pattern was studied by direct observation and light scattering as a function of the contact angle theta, flux F, degree of supersaturation ΔT, and time t. When theta=0°, a uniform layer forms whose thickness grows as t at constant F and ΔT. For theta=90°, droplets are formed; at constant F and T, the radius of an isolated droplet grows as t0.23, but, as a result of coalescences, the average droplet radius grows as t0.75. The droplet growth process is self-similar-coalescences simply rescale the distances and leave the basic droplet pattern unaltered.

  1. Coordination and conformational isomers in mononuclear iron complexes with pertinence to the [FeFe] hydrogenase active site.

    PubMed

    Orthaber, Andreas; Karnahl, Michael; Tschierlei, Stefanie; Streich, Daniel; Stein, Matthias; Ott, Sascha

    2014-03-21

    A series of six mononuclear iron complexes of the type [Fe(X-bdt)(P(R)2N(Ph)2)(CO)] (P(R)2N(Ph)2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphaoctane, bdt = benzenedithiolate with X = H, Cl2 or Me and R = Ph, Bn, Cyc or tert-Bu) was prepared. This new class of penta-coordinate iron complexes contains a free coordination site and a pendant base as essential structural features of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site. The bidentate nature of the P(R)2N(Ph)2 ligands was found to be crucial for the preferential formation of coordinatively unsaturated penta-coordinate complexes, which is supported by first principle calculations. IR-spectroscopic data suggest the presence of coordination isomers around the metal center, as well as multiple possible conformers of the P(R)2N(Ph)2 ligand. This finding is further corroborated by X-ray crystallographic and computational studies. (31)P{(1)H}-NMR- and IR-spectroscopic as well as electrochemical measurements show that the electronic properties of the complexes are strongly, and independently, influenced by the P-substituents at the P(R)2N(Ph)2 ligand as well as by modifications of the bdt bridge. These results illustrate the advantages of this modular platform, which allows independent and selective tuning through site specific modifications. Potential catalytic intermediates, namely singly reduced and protonated complexes, have been further investigated by spectroscopic methods and exhibit remarkable stability. Finally, their general capacity for electro-catalytic reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen was verified.

  2. Act as NARSTO Management Coordinator and Conduct Research In Support of NARSTO Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, William T.

    2014-01-22

    This grant funded the position of NARSTO Management Coordinator. NARSTO was a public-private partnership with members from government, utilities, industry, and academe in Canada, the United States and Mexico. NARSTO planed and coordinated independently sponsored projects and tasks designed to identify and resolve policy-relevant science questions related to a) Anthropogenic and biogenic air-pollution sources and emissions, b) The complex physical and chemical processes affecting the accumulation of pollutants in the troposphere (including greenhouse gases and aerosols), c) The potential of certain pollutants to react and generate oxidants and fine particles in the troposphere, d) The development, intercomparison, and application of atmospheric models, e) The development of monitoring studies and methodologies needed to assess emission control effectiveness for selected greenhouse gases and aerosols, air pollutants and their precursors, and f) The attainment of the national air-quality and climate-stabilization goals and standards established by each member Nation

  3. Breathing abnormalities in a female mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher M; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Oginsky, Max F; Jiang, Chun

    2015-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a female neurodevelopmental disease with breathing abnormalities. To understand whether breathing defects occur in the early lives of a group of female Mecp2(+/-) mice, a mouse model of RTT, and what percentage of mice shows RTT-like breathing abnormality, breathing activity was measured by plethysmography in conscious mice. Breathing frequency variation and central apnea in a group of Mecp2(+/-) females displayed a distribution pattern similar to Mecp2(-/Y) males, while the rest resembled the wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained using the k-mean clustering statistics analysis. With two independent methods, about 20% of female Mecp2(+/-) mice showed RTT-like breathing abnormalities that began as early as 3 weeks of age in the Mecp2(+/-) mice, and were suppressed with 3% CO2. The finding that only a small proportion of Mecp2(+/-) mice develops RTT-like breathing abnormalities suggests incomplete allele inactivation in the RTT-model Mecp2(+/-) mice.

  4. The immune response to resistive breathing.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, T; Roussos, C; Zakynthinos, S

    2004-12-01

    Resistive breathing is an "immune challenge" for the body, initiating an inflammatory response consisting of an elevation of plasma cytokines, and the recruitment and activation of lymphocyte subpopulations. These cytokines do not originate from monocytes, but are, instead, produced within the diaphragm, secondary to the increased muscle activation. Oxidative stress is a major stimulus for the cytokine induction, secondary to resistive breathing. The production of cytokines within the diaphragm may be mediating the diaphragm muscle fibre injury that occurs with strenuous contractions, or contributing towards the expected repair process. These cytokines may also compromise diaphragmatic contractility or contribute towards the development of muscle cachexia. They may also have systemic effects, mobilising glucose from the liver and free fatty acid from the adipose tissue to the strenuously working respiratory muscles. At the same time, they stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to production of adrenocorticotropin and beta-endorphins. The adrenocorticotropin response may represent an attempt of the organism to reduce the injury occurring in the respiratory muscles via the production of glucocorticoids and the induction of the acute phase-response proteins. The beta-endorphin response would decrease the activation of the respiratory muscles and change the pattern of breathing, which becomes more rapid and shallow, possibly in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent further injury to the respiratory muscles. PMID:15572550

  5. Coordination of Mars Orbiting Assets to Support Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neelon, Joseph G.; Wallace, Mark; Craig, Lynn E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA policy requires continuous telecommunications with missions during the execution of their critical events, which implies constraints on where missions to other planets may land or inject into orbit. JPL is working to establish a telecommunications network at Mars to provide contact with inbound missions to Mars and assets that have landed on the Martian surface, thus reducing the constraints on where critical events may be performed. Coordination of network assets is required to cover an inbound mission's critical event, such as EDL. This paper describes the development of a tool to evaluate EDL coverage capability of Mars network assets over a specified launch date/arrival date space.

  6. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended.

  7. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended. PMID:26123622

  8. More air-breathing spaceplane projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Diane L.

    1989-08-01

    The development and funding of current air-breathing spaceplane projects are discussed. The research considered includes: West Germany's Saenger, the UK's Hotol, the US's NASP, India's hyperplane, and the hypersonic activities of France, Japan, and the USSR. The basic characteristics of a spaceplace are: a reduction in launch costs, reusability, easier ground operations and launch preparation, short turnaround times, horizontal take-off and landing, and reliability and safety. Various types of power-plant concepts for the spaceplane, such as turbojet, ramjet, and scramjet, are described and diagrams are presented. The design of the airframe, aerodynamic heating, payload capacity, and the cost for developing an air-breathing spaceplane are examined. Applications for the spaceplane are proposed.

  9. Influence of breathing mode and activity level on the regional deposition of inhaled particles and implications for regulatory standards (March 1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.J.; Martonen, T.B.; Menache, M.G.; Graham, R.C.; Spektor, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    Particulate-size-selective sampling is an important consideration in determining ambient air-quality standards and threshold limit values for workplace exposures. Hazard evaluations, as well as risk analyses, can benefit from an improved understanding of factors affecting regional respiratory tract deposition of particles in man. Here, thoracic deposition and its component parts are examined, as a function of particulate size, for ventilation rates ranging from normal respiration to heavy exercise in individuals who are habitual mouth breathers and in those who normally employ oronasal breathing when minute ventilations exceed approximately 35 Lmin-1. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to fit logistic models of the form Y = (1+e alpha+beta log X)-1 to data from tests measuring extrathoracic (ET) and tracheobronchial (TB) deposition.

  10. Relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: temporal aspects.

    PubMed

    Raz-Silbiger, S; Lifshitz, N; Katz, N; Steinhart, S; Cermak, S A; Weintraub, N

    2015-03-01

    The study examined the relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life (QOL), within a temporal context (school year vs. summer vacation and school days vs. weekends). Parents of 22 children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and of 55 typically developing children, aged 6-11, filled out two questionnaires relating to their children's participation in leisure activities (vigorous, moderate and sedentary) and QOL. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) was administered to their children. Results showed that among the children with DCD, balance scores positively correlated with participation in sedentary activities, and in both groups both balance and aiming and catching were related to the physical and school aspects of QOL. Furthermore, participation in vigorous activities in the summer was positively correlated with social and school QOL. In contrast, among typically developing children, participation in vigorous activities during the school year was negatively correlated with school QOL. Finally, in both groups, participation in sedentary activities during school days was negatively correlated with school QOL. These results suggest that the parents' perceptions of their children's QOL may be related to the level of activeness of the leisure activities but also to temporal aspects. Therefore, it is important that therapists and educators consider the temporal aspects, when consulting with parents and their children regarding participation in leisure activities.

  11. An oncogene-tumor suppressor cascade drives metastatic prostate cancer by coordinately activating Ras and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Min, Junxia; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Fedele, Giuseppe; McLaughlin, Sara K.; Reczek, Elizabeth E.; De Raedt, Thomas; Guney, Isil; Strochlic, David E.; Laura, E.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bronson, Roderick T.; Ryeom, Sandra; Hahn, William C.; Loda, Massimo; Cichowski, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for the majority of prostate cancer-related deaths; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie this process. Here we identify an oncogene-tumor suppressor cascade that promotes prostate cancer initiation and metastasis by coordinately activating Ras and NF-κB. Specifically, we show that loss of the RasGAP gene DAB2IP induces metastatic prostate cancer in a murine model. Notably, DAB2IP functions as a signaling scaffold that coordinately regulates Ras and NF-κB through distinct domains to promote tumor initiation and metastasis, respectively. DAB2IP is suppressed in human prostate cancer where expression inversely correlates with tumor grade and predicts prognosis. Moreover, we report that epigenetic silencing of DAB2IP is a key mechanism by which the polycomb-group protein EZH2 activates Ras, NF-κB, and triggers metastasis. These studies define the mechanism by which two major pathways can be simultaneously activated in metastatic prostate cancer and establish EZH2 as a driver of metastasis. PMID:20154697

  12. Coordination sphere of the third metal site is essential to the activity and metal selectivity of alkaline phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Koutsioulis, Dimitris; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Mäki, Seija; Guthrie, Ellen; Feller, Georges; Bouriotis, Vassilis; Heikinheimo, Pirkko

    2010-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are commercially applied enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters by a reaction involving three active site metal ions. We have previously identified H135 as the key residue for controlling activity of the psychrophilic TAB5 AP (TAP). In this article, we describe three X-ray crystallographic structures on TAP variants H135E and H135D in complex with a variety of metal ions. The structural analysis is supported by thermodynamic and kinetic data. The AP catalysis essentially requires octahedral coordination in the M3 site, but stability is adjusted with the conformational freedom of the metal ion. Comparison with the mesophilic Escherichia coli, AP shows differences in the charge transfer network in providing the chemically optimal metal combination for catalysis. Our results provide explanation why the TAB5 and E. coli APs respond in an opposite way to mutagenesis in their active sites. They provide a lesson on chemical fine tuning and the importance of the second coordination sphere in defining metal specificity in enzymes. Understanding the framework of AP catalysis is essential in the efforts to design even more powerful tools for modern biotechnology. PMID:19916164

  13. Enzyme design from the bottom up: an active nickel electrocatalyst with a structured peptide outer coordination sphere.

    PubMed

    Reback, Matthew L; Buchko, Garry W; Kier, Brandon L; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Xiong, Yijia; Lense, Sheri; Hou, Jianbo; Roberts, John A S; Sorensen, Christina M; Raugei, Simone; Squier, Thomas C; Shaw, Wendy J

    2014-02-01

    Catalytic, peptide-containing metal complexes with a well-defined peptide structure have the potential to enhance molecular catalysts through an enzyme-like outer coordination sphere. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of an active, peptide-based metal complex built upon the well-characterized hydrogen production catalyst [Ni(P(Ph)2N(Ph))2](2+) (P(Ph)2N(Ph)=1,3,6-triphenyl-1-aza-3,6-diphosphacycloheptane). The incorporated peptide maintains its β-hairpin structure when appended to the metal core, and the electrocatalytic activity of the peptide-based metal complex (≈100,000 s(-1)) is enhanced compared to the parent complex ([Ni(P(Ph)2N(APPA))2](2+); ≈50,500 s(-1)). The combination of an active molecular catalyst with a structured peptide provides a scaffold that permits the incorporation of features of an enzyme-like outer-coordination sphere necessary to create molecular electrocatalysts with enhanced functionality.

  14. Neural Control of Breathing and CO2 Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, central command and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation. PMID:26335642

  15. Neural Control of Breathing and CO2 Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, central command and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation.

  16. Deodorization of garlic breath volatiles by food and food components.

    PubMed

    Munch, Ryan; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-04-01

    The ability of foods and beverages to reduce allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl sulfide on human breath after consumption of raw garlic was examined. The treatments were consumed immediately following raw garlic consumption for breath measurements, or were blended with garlic prior to headspace measurements. Measurements were done using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer. Chlorophyllin treatment demonstrated no deodorization in comparison to the control. Successful treatments may be due to enzymatic, polyphenolic, or acid deodorization. Enzymatic deodorization involved oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by enzymes, with the oxidized polyphenols causing deodorization. This was the probable mechanism in raw apple, parsley, spinach, and mint treatments. Polyphenolic deodorization involved deodorization by polyphenolic compounds without enzymatic activity. This probably occurred for microwaved apple, green tea, and lemon juice treatments. When pH is below 3.6, the enzyme alliinase is inactivated, which causes a reduction in volatile formation. This was demonstrated in pH-adjusted headspace measurements. However, the mechanism for volatile reduction on human breath (after volatile formation) is unclear, and may have occurred in soft drink and lemon juice breath treatments. Whey protein was not an effective garlic breath deodorant and had no enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, or acidity. Headspace concentrations did not correlate well to breath treatments.

  17. Active Collisions in Altered Gravity Reveal Eye-Hand Coordination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    White, Olivier; Lefèvre, Philippe; Wing, Alan M.; Bracewell, R. Martyn; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Most object manipulation tasks involve a series of actions demarcated by mechanical contact events, and gaze is usually directed to the locations of these events as the task unfolds. Typically, gaze foveates the target 200 ms in advance of the contact. This strategy improves manual accuracy through visual feedback and the use of gaze-related signals to guide the hand/object. Many studies have investigated eye-hand coordination in experimental and natural tasks; most of them highlighted a strong link between eye movements and hand or object kinematics. In this experiment, we analyzed gaze strategies in a collision task but in a very challenging dynamical context. Participants performed collisions while they were exposed to alternating episodes of microgravity, hypergravity and normal gravity. First, by isolating the effects of inertia in microgravity, we found that peak hand acceleration marked the transition between two modes of grip force control. Participants exerted grip forces that paralleled load force profiles, and then increased grip up to a maximum shifted after the collision. Second, we found that the oculomotor strategy adapted visual feedback of the controlled object around the collision, as demonstrated by longer durations of fixation after collision in new gravitational environments. Finally, despite large variability of arm dynamics in altered gravity, we found that saccades were remarkably time-locked to the peak hand acceleration in all conditions. In conclusion, altered gravity allowed light to be shed on predictive mechanisms used by the central nervous system to coordinate gaze, hand and grip motor actions during a mixed task that involved transport of an object and high impact loads. PMID:22984488

  18. Active collisions in altered gravity reveal eye-hand coordination strategies.

    PubMed

    White, Olivier; Lefèvre, Philippe; Wing, Alan M; Bracewell, R Martyn; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Most object manipulation tasks involve a series of actions demarcated by mechanical contact events, and gaze is usually directed to the locations of these events as the task unfolds. Typically, gaze foveates the target 200 ms in advance of the contact. This strategy improves manual accuracy through visual feedback and the use of gaze-related signals to guide the hand/object. Many studies have investigated eye-hand coordination in experimental and natural tasks; most of them highlighted a strong link between eye movements and hand or object kinematics. In this experiment, we analyzed gaze strategies in a collision task but in a very challenging dynamical context. Participants performed collisions while they were exposed to alternating episodes of microgravity, hypergravity and normal gravity. First, by isolating the effects of inertia in microgravity, we found that peak hand acceleration marked the transition between two modes of grip force control. Participants exerted grip forces that paralleled load force profiles, and then increased grip up to a maximum shifted after the collision. Second, we found that the oculomotor strategy adapted visual feedback of the controlled object around the collision, as demonstrated by longer durations of fixation after collision in new gravitational environments. Finally, despite large variability of arm dynamics in altered gravity, we found that saccades were remarkably time-locked to the peak hand acceleration in all conditions. In conclusion, altered gravity allowed light to be shed on predictive mechanisms used by the central nervous system to coordinate gaze, hand and grip motor actions during a mixed task that involved transport of an object and high impact loads.

  19. Understanding physical activity and motivations for children with developmental coordination disorder: an investigation using the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Matthew Y W; Cairney, John; Hay, John A; Faught, Brent E

    2013-11-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, affecting approximately 5-6% of children. Previous research has consistently found children with DCD being less physically active compared to typically-developing (TD) children; however, the psychosocial factors associated with physical activity for children with DCD are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine how theory-based physical activity cognitions impacts physical activity behaviors for children with and without DCD. Participants included a sample of boys (N=61, Mage=13.25 ±.46) with DCD (n=19) and without DCD (n=42), drawn from a larger prospective cohort study. A questionnaire with psychosocial measures was first administered, and accelerometers were used to assess their physical activity behavior over the subsequent week. Findings indicate that DCD was significantly associated with lower physical activity (F(1,58)=6.51, p<.05), and poorer physical activity cognitions (F(4,56) Wilks Lambda=2.78, p<.05). Meditational analyses found attitudes (B=.23, p<.05) and subjective norms (B=.31, p<.05) partially mediating the relationship between DCD and physical activity. Overall, this study further confirms that the activity deficit that exists among boys with DCD, and that the relationship is partially mediated through some physical activity cognitions. Interventions should target the perceived approval of influential people, and the personal evaluations of physical activity for boys with motoric difficulties. These findings further emphasizes the discrepancy in physical activity that exist between boys with DCD and TD boys, and highlight the need to better understand the psychological factors related to physical activity for children with DCD.

  20. Beyond the Active Site: The Impact of the Outer Coordination Sphere on Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Dutta, Arnab; Reback, Matthew L.; Linehan, John C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-08-19

    Hydrogenase enzymes provide inspiration for investigations of molecular catalysts utilizing structural and functional mimics of the active site. However, the resulting active site mimics cannot match the combination of high rates and low overpotentials of the enzyme, suggesting that the rest of the protein scaffold, i.e., the outer coordination sphere, is necessary for the efficiency of hydrogenase. Therefore, inclusion of outer coordination sphere elements onto molecular catalysts may enable us to achieve and ultimately surpass the overall enzymatic efficiency. In an effort to identify and include the missing enzymatic features, there has been recent effort to understand the effect of outer coordination sphere elements on molecular catalysts for hydrogen oxidation and production. Our focus has been to utilize amino acid or peptide based scaffolds on an active functional mimic for hydrogen oxidation and production, [Ni(PR2NR’2)2]2+. This bottom-up approach, i.e, building an outer coordination sphere around a functional molecular catalyst, has allowed us to evaluate individual contributions to catalysis, including enhancing proton movement, concentrating substrate and introducing structural features to control reactivity. Collectively, these studies have resulted in catalysts that can operate faster, can operate at lower overpotentials, have enhanced water solubility, and/or can provide more stability to oxygen or extreme conditions such as strongly acidic or basic conditions than their unmodified parent complexes. Common mechanisms have yet to be defined to predictably control these processes but our growing knowledge in this area is essential for the eventual mimicry of enzymes for developing efficient molecular catalysts for practical use. This account reviews previously published work supported by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Physical Bioscience program, the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the USDOE, BES, the Center for

  1. Analysis of exhaled breath by laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrall, Karla D.; Toth, James J.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of our work is two fold: (1) to develop a portable rapid laser based breath analyzer for monitoring metabolic processes, and (2) predict these metabolic processes through physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Small infrared active molecules such as ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethane are present in exhaled breath and can be readily detected by laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition, many of the stable isotopomers of these molecules can be accurately detected, making it possible to follow specific metabolic processes. Potential areas of applications for this technology include the diagnosis of certain pathologies (e.g. Helicobacter Pylori infection), detection of trauma due to either physical or chemical causes and monitoring nutrient uptake (i.e., malnutrition). In order to understand the origin and elucidate the metabolic processes associated with these small molecules, we are employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. A PBPK model is founded on known physiological processes (i.e., blood flow rates, tissue volumes, breathing rate, etc.), chemical-specific processes (i.e., tissue solubility coefficients, molecular weight, chemical density, etc.), and on metabolic processes (tissue site and rate of metabolic biotransformation). Since many of these processes are well understood, a PBPK model can be developed and validated against the more readily available experimental animal data, and then by extrapolating the parameters to apply to man, the model can predict chemical behavior in humans.

  2. Coordination of wingbeat and respiration in birds. II. "Fictive" flight.

    PubMed

    Funk, G D; Steeves, J D; Milsom, W K

    1992-09-01

    To determine whether an interaction between central respiratory and locomotor networks may be involved in the observed coordination of wingbeat and respiratory rhythms during free flight in birds, we examined the relationship between wingbeat and respiratory activity in decerebrate Canada geese and Pekin ducks before and after paralysis. Locomotor activity was induced through electrical stimulation of brain stem locomotor regions. Respiratory frequency (fv) was monitored via pneumotachography and intercostal electromyogram recordings before paralysis and via intercostal and cranial nerve IX electroneurogram recordings after paralysis. Wingbeat frequency (fW) was monitored using pectoralis major electromyogram recordings before, and electroneurogram recordings after, paralysis. Respiratory and cardiovascular responses of decerebrate birds during active (nonparalyzed) and "fictive" (paralyzed) wing activity were qualitatively similar to those of a variety of vertebrate species to exercise. As seen during free flight, wingbeat and respiratory rhythms were always coordinated during electrically induced wing activity. Before paralysis during active wing flapping, coupling ratios (fW/fv) of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 (wingbeats per breath) were observed. After paralysis, fW and fv remained coupled; however, 1:1 coordination predominated. All animals tested (n = 9) showed 1:1 coordination. Two animals also showed brief periods of 2:1 coupling. It is clear that locomotor and respiratory networks interact on a central level to produce a synchronized output. The observation that the coordination between fW and fv differs in paralyzed and nonparalyzed birds suggests that peripheral feedback is involved in the modulation of a centrally derived coordination.

  3. Reprogramming metabolism by histone methyltransferase NSD2 drives endocrine resistance via coordinated activation of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjian; Duan, Zhijian; Nugent, Zoann; Zou, June X; Borowsky, Alexander D; Zhang, Yanhong; Tepper, Clifford G; Li, Jian Jian; Fiehn, Oliver; Xu, Jianzhen; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Murphy, Leigh C; Chen, Hong-Wu

    2016-08-10

    Metabolic reprogramming such as the aerobic glycolysis or Warburg effect is well recognized as a common feature of tumorigenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic alterations for tumor therapeutic resistance are poorly understood. Through gene expression profiling analysis we found that histone H3K36 methyltransferase NSD2/MMSET/WHSC1 expression was highly elevated in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines and clinical tumors. IHC analysis indicated that NSD2 protein overexpression was associated with the disease recurrence and poor survival. Ectopic expression of NSD2 wild type, but not the methylase-defective mutant, drove endocrine resistance in multiple cell models and xenograft tumors. Mechanistically, NSD2 was recruited to and methylated H3K36me2 at the promoters of key glucose metabolic enzyme genes. Its overexpression coordinately up-regulated hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), two key enzymes of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), as well as TP53-induced glycolysis regulatory phosphatase TIGAR. Consequently, NSD2-driven tamoxifen-resistant cells and tumors displayed heightened PPP activity, elevated NADPH production, and reduced ROS level, without significantly altered glycolysis. These results illustrate a coordinated, epigenetic activation of key glucose metabolic enzymes in therapeutic resistance and nominate methyltransferase NSD2 as a potential therapeutic target for endocrine resistant breast cancer.

  4. p21-Activated kinases 1 and 3 control brain size through coordinating neuronal complexity and synaptic properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wayne; Zhou, Zikai; Asrar, Suhail; Henkelman, Mark; Xie, Wei; Jia, Zhengping

    2011-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms that coordinate postnatal brain enlargement, synaptic properties, and cognition remain an enigma. Here, we demonstrate that neuronal complexity controlled by p21-activated kinases (PAKs) is a key determinant for postnatal brain enlargement and synaptic properties. We showed that double-knockout (DK) mice lacking both PAK1 and PAK3 were born healthy, with normal brain size and structure, but severely impaired in postnatal brain growth, resulting in a dramatic reduction in brain volume. Remarkably, the reduced brain size was accompanied by minimal changes in total cell count, due to a significant increase in cell density. However, the DK neurons have smaller soma, markedly simplified dendritic arbors/axons, and reduced synapse density. Surprisingly, the DK mice had elevated basal synaptic responses due to enhanced individual synaptic potency but were severely impaired in bidirectional synaptic plasticity. The actions of PAK1 and PAK3 are possibly mediated by cofilin-dependent actin regulation, because the activity of cofilin and the properties of actin filaments were altered in the DK mice. These results reveal an essential in vivo role of PAK1 and PAK3 in coordinating neuronal complexity and synaptic properties and highlight the critical importance of dendrite/axon growth in dictating postnatal brain growth and attainment of normal brain size and function.

  5. Methylene bridge regulated geometrical preferences of ligands in cobalt(III) coordination chemistry and phenoxazinone synthase mimicking activity.

    PubMed

    Panja, Anangamohan; Shyamal, Milan; Saha, Amrita; Mandal, Tarun Kanti

    2014-04-14

    Two new azide bound cobalt(III) complexes, [Co(L(1))(N3)3] (fac-1) and [Co(L(2))(N3)3] (mer-2), where L(1) is bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and L(2) is (2-pyridylmethyl)(2-pyridylethyl)amine, derived from tridentate reduced Schiff-base ligands have been reported. Interestingly, a methylene bridge regulated preferential coordination mode of ligands is noticed in their crystal structures: it is found in a facial arrangement in fac-1 and has a meridional disposition in mer-2. Both complexes show phenoxazinone synthase-like activity and the role of the structural factor on the catalytic activity is also explored. Moreover, the easily reducible cobalt(III) center in mer-2 favors the oxidation of o-aminophenol. The ESI-MS positive spectra together with UV-vis spectroscopy clearly suggest the formation of a catalyst-substrate adduct by substitution of the coordinated azide ions in the catalytic cycle.

  6. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  7. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  8. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  9. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  10. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  11. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  12. Coordinated Regulation of PPARγ Expression and Activity through Control of Chromatin Structure in Adipogenesis and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Oger, Frédérik; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is required for differentiation and function of mature adipocytes. Its expression is induced during adipogenesis where it plays a key role in establishing the transcriptome of terminally differentiated white fat cells. Here, we review findings indicating that PPARγ expression and activity are intricately regulated through control of chromatin structure. Hierarchical and combinatorial activation of transcription factors, noncoding RNAs, and chromatin remodelers allows for temporally controlled expression of PPARγ and its target genes through sequential chromatin remodelling. In obesity, these regulatory pathways may be altered and lead to modified PPARγ activity. PMID:22991504

  13. In Vitro Antihepatoma Activity of Novel 3D-Copper Cyanide Supramolecular Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Noura M; Sultan, Ahmed S; Malki, Ahmed M; Khamis, Hossam; El-Ziady, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of novel 3D-organocopper supramolecular coordination polymers (SCPs) on the invasive potential of HepG2 cells. Chemoprevention could represent an important means to inhibit the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. The inhibitory effect of an SCP compound on the proliferation of HepG2 hepatoma cells was evaluated by cell vibility assay. DNA ladder bands were observed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. The influence of the SCP compound on phosphorylated ERK1/2, Bcl-2, and β-catenin protein expression of HepG2 cells was analyzed by Western blot. The SCP compound exerted an inhibitory effect on HepG2 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was confirmed by examination of cell morphology and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylated ERK1/2 and β-catenin protein expression was inhibited after 24 h of treatment with the SCP compound, and that this event was associated with decreased Bcl-2 expression. We concluded that SCP can effectively inhibit the invasive potential of the ERK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells by altering apoptosis and by inhibiting Bcl-2 and β-catenin, which may play a significant role in this process.

  14. Transcription factors of Lotus: regulation of isoflavonoid biosynthesis requires coordinated changes in transcription factor activity.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Dale; Stranne, Maria; Mikkelsen, Lisbeth; Pakseresht, Nima; Welham, Tracey; Hiraka, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Sato, Shusei; Paquette, Suzanne; Wang, Trevor L; Martin, Cathie; Bailey, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Isoflavonoids are a class of phenylpropanoids made by legumes, and consumption of dietary isoflavonoids confers benefits to human health. Our aim is to understand the regulation of isoflavonoid biosynthesis. Many studies have shown the importance of transcription factors in regulating the transcription of one or more genes encoding enzymes in phenylpropanoid metabolism. In this study, we coupled bioinformatics and coexpression analysis to identify candidate genes encoding transcription factors involved in regulating isoflavonoid biosynthesis in Lotus (Lotus japonicus). Genes encoding proteins belonging to 39 of the main transcription factor families were examined by microarray analysis of RNA from leaf tissue that had been elicited with glutathione. Phylogenetic analyses of each transcription factor family were used to identify subgroups of proteins that were specific to L. japonicus or closely related to known regulators of the phenylpropanoid pathway in other species. R2R3MYB subgroup 2 genes showed increased expression after treatment with glutathione. One member of this subgroup, LjMYB14, was constitutively overexpressed in L. japonicus and induced the expression of at least 12 genes that encoded enzymes in the general phenylpropanoid and isoflavonoid pathways. A distinct set of six R2R3MYB subgroup 2-like genes was identified. We suggest that these subgroup 2 sister group proteins and those belonging to the main subgroup 2 have roles in inducing isoflavonoid biosynthesis. The induction of isoflavonoid production in L. japonicus also involves the coordinated down-regulation of competing biosynthetic pathways by changing the expression of other transcription factors. PMID:22529285

  15. Electronic, optical, and computational studies of a redox-active napthalenediimide-based coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Leong, Chanel F; Chan, Bun; Faust, Thomas B; Turner, Peter; D'Alessandro, Deanna M

    2013-12-16

    The new one-dimensional coordination framework (Zn(DMF)NO3)2(NDC)(DPMNI), where NDC = 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate and DPMNI = N,N'-bis(4-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxydiimide, which has been crystallographically characterized, exhibits two redox-accessible states due to the successive reduction of the naphthalenediimide (NDI) ligand core. Solid-state electrochemical and vis-near-IR spectroelectrochemical measurements coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations enabled the origins of the optical transitions in the spectra of the monoradical anion and dianion states of the material to be assigned. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed that the paramagnetic radical anion state of the DPMNI core could be accessed upon broad-spectrum white light irradiation of the material, revealing a long-lived excited state, possibly stabilized by charge delocalization which arises from extensive π-π* stacking interactions between alternating NDC and NDI aromatic cores which are separated by a distance of 3.580(2) Å. PMID:24283401

  16. Mixed ligand coordination polymers with flexible bis-imidazole linker and angular sulfonyldibenzoate: Crystal structure, photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Rachuri, Yadagiri; Parmar, Bhavesh; Suresh, Eringathodi

    2014-05-01

    Four ternary coordination polymers (CPs) namely, ([Ni(SDB)(BITMB)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (CP1), ([Cd(SDB)(BITMB) (H{sub 2}O)]·(THF)(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (CP2), ([Zn{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(THF){sub 2}){sub n} (CP3) and ([Co{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(Dioxane){sub 3}){sub n} (CP4) composed of angular dicarboxylate SDB (4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoate) and N-donor BITMB (1,3-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethyl benzene) have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and other physico-chemical techniques. CP1 possesses one-dimensional ribbon type metal–organic motifs glued together by H-bonds and π⋯π interactions, whereas CP2–CP4, exhibit non-interpenetrated sql networks supported by weak supramolecular interactions. Structural diversity of these CPs can be attributed to the coordination geometry adopted by the metal nodes, versatile coordination modes of SDB and conformational flexibility of BITMB. Solid state luminescence properties of CP1–CP4 were explored. Photocatalytic performance of all CPs for the decomposition of metanil yellow by dilute hydrogen peroxide in the presence of visible light was also investigated. 25–83% dye removal from aqueous solutions in the presence of CP1–CP4 was observed. - Graphical abstract: Four new ternary transition metal CPs have been hydrothermally prepared and their structural aspects as well as photocatalytic activity for decolourization of metanil yellow (MY) dye have been investigated. - Highlights: • Four ternary coordination polymers containing Ni, Cd, Zn and Co center are prepared. • Crystal structure and thermal stability of all four CPs has been described. • PL and diffuse reflectance spectra of synthesized CPs have also been examined. • Band gap values suggest semiconducting behavior of prepared CPs. • Photocatalytic activity of CPs for oxidative degradation of metanil yellow is studied.

  17. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  18. Rac1-Rab11-FIP3 regulatory hub coordinates vesicle traffic with actin remodeling and T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Jérôme; Del Río-Iñiguez, Iratxe; Lasserre, Rémi; Agüera-Gonzalez, Sonia; Cuche, Céline; Danckaert, Anne; McCaffrey, Mary W; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The immunological synapse generation and function is the result of a T-cell polarization process that depends on the orchestrated action of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and of intracellular vesicle traffic. However, how these events are coordinated is ill defined. Since Rab and Rho families of GTPases control intracellular vesicle traffic and cytoskeleton reorganization, respectively, we investigated their possible interplay. We show here that a significant fraction of Rac1 is associated with Rab11-positive recycling endosomes. Moreover, the Rab11 effector FIP3 controls Rac1 intracellular localization and Rac1 targeting to the immunological synapse. FIP3 regulates, in a Rac1-dependent manner, key morphological events, like T-cell spreading and synapse symmetry. Finally, Rab11-/FIP3-mediated regulation is necessary for T-cell activation leading to cytokine production. Therefore, Rac1 endosomal traffic is key to regulate T-cell activation.

  19. Baking together-the coordination of actions in activities involving people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Majlesi, Ali Reza; Ekström, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explores interaction and collaboration between people with dementia and their spouses in relation to the performance of household chores with the focus on instruction as an interactional context to engage the person with dementia in collaboration to accomplish joint activities. Dementia is generally associated with pathological changes in people's cognitive functions such as diminishing memory functions, communicative abilities and also diminishing abilities to take initiative as well as to plan and execute tasks. Using video recordings of everyday naturally occurring activities, we analyze the sequential organization of actions (see Schegloff, 2007) oriented toward the accomplishment of a joint multi-task activity of baking. The analysis shows the specific ways of collaboration through instructional activities in which the person with dementia exhibits his competence and skills in accomplishing the given tasks through negotiating the instructions with his partner and carrying out instructed actions. Although the driving force of the collaboration seems to be a series of directive sequences only initiated by the partner throughout the baking activity, our analyses highlight how the person with dementia can actively use the material environment-including collaborating partners-to compensate for challenges and difficulties encountered in achieving everyday tasks. The sequential organization of instructions and instructed actions are in this sense argued to provide an interactional environment wherein the person with dementia can make contributions to the joint activity in an efficient way. While a collaborator has been described as necessary for a person with dementia to be able to partake in activities, this study shows that people with dementia are not only guided by their collaborators in joint activities but they can also actively use their collaborators in intricate compensatory ways.

  20. Baking together-the coordination of actions in activities involving people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Majlesi, Ali Reza; Ekström, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explores interaction and collaboration between people with dementia and their spouses in relation to the performance of household chores with the focus on instruction as an interactional context to engage the person with dementia in collaboration to accomplish joint activities. Dementia is generally associated with pathological changes in people's cognitive functions such as diminishing memory functions, communicative abilities and also diminishing abilities to take initiative as well as to plan and execute tasks. Using video recordings of everyday naturally occurring activities, we analyze the sequential organization of actions (see Schegloff, 2007) oriented toward the accomplishment of a joint multi-task activity of baking. The analysis shows the specific ways of collaboration through instructional activities in which the person with dementia exhibits his competence and skills in accomplishing the given tasks through negotiating the instructions with his partner and carrying out instructed actions. Although the driving force of the collaboration seems to be a series of directive sequences only initiated by the partner throughout the baking activity, our analyses highlight how the person with dementia can actively use the material environment-including collaborating partners-to compensate for challenges and difficulties encountered in achieving everyday tasks. The sequential organization of instructions and instructed actions are in this sense argued to provide an interactional environment wherein the person with dementia can make contributions to the joint activity in an efficient way. While a collaborator has been described as necessary for a person with dementia to be able to partake in activities, this study shows that people with dementia are not only guided by their collaborators in joint activities but they can also actively use their collaborators in intricate compensatory ways. PMID:27531451

  1. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  2. The loading of coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts on activated carbon fiber: a feasible strategy to obtain visible light active and highly efficient polyoxometalate based photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tingting; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Huili; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xia; Ou, Jinzhao; Mei, Mingliang

    2015-02-01

    To enhance the photocatalytic properties of coordination complex modified polyoxometalates (CC/POMs) in the visible light region, its nanobelts (CC/POMNBs) were loaded on activated carbon fiber (ACF) through a simple colloidal blending process. The resulting coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts loaded activated carbon fiber composite materials (CC/POMNBs/ACF) exhibited dramatic photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. Optical and electrochemical methods illustrated the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CC/POMNBs/ACF, which originates from the high separation efficiency of the photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of the CC/POMNBs and ACF, which results from the synergistic effects between them. In the composite material, the role of ACF could be described as a photosensitizer and a good electron transporter. Furthermore, the influence of the mass ratio between the CC/POMNBs and ACF on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting composite material was discussed, and an ideal value to obtain highly efficient photocatalysts was obtained. The results suggested that the loading of CC/POMNBs on the surface of ACF would be a feasible strategy to enhance their photocatalytic activity.

  3. Scientific coordination of activities for university participation in mission to planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, Michael W.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes Universities Space Research Association (USRA) activities in support of the University Participation in Mission to Planet Earth. Specifically it addresses the following areas: personnel assigned to the effort, travel, consultant participants, technical progress, and contract spending.

  4. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  5. Alternative activation deprives macrophages of a coordinated defense program to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kahnert, Antje; Seiler, Peter; Stein, Maik; Bandermann, Silke; Hahnke, Karin; Mollenkopf, Hans; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2006-03-01

    A potent Th1 immune response is critical to the control of tuberculosis. The impact of an additive Th2 response on the course of disease has so far been insufficiently characterized, despite increased morbidity after co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Th2-eliciting helminths and possible involvement of Th2 polarization in reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Here, we describe the gene expression profile of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages alternatively activated by IL-4 in response to infection with M. tuberculosis. Comparison of transcriptional profiles of infected IL-4- and IFN-gamma-activated macrophages revealed delayed and partially diminished responses to intracellular bacteria in alternatively activated macrophages, characterized by reduced exposure to nitrosative stress and increased iron availability, respectively. Alternative activation of host macrophages correlated with elevated expression of the M. tuberculosis iron storage protein bacterioferritin as well as reduced expression of the mycobactin synthesis genes mbtI and mbtJ. The extracellular matrix-remodeling enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 was induced in alternatively activated macrophages in vitro, and MMP-12-expressing macrophages were abundant at late, but not early, stages of tuberculosis in murine lungs. Our findings emphasize that alternative activation deprives macrophages of control mechanisms that limit mycobacterial growth in vivo, thus supporting intracellular persistence of M. tuberculosis. PMID:16479545

  6. How do persons with chronic low back pain speed up and slow down? Trunk-pelvis coordination and lumbar erector spinae activity during gait.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Claudine J C; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Meijer, Onno G; Beek, Peter J

    2006-02-01

    In healthy walking, the timing between trunk and pelvic rotations, as well as erector spinae (ES) activity varies systematically with walking velocity, whereas a comparable velocity-dependent adaptation of trunk-pelvis coordination is often reduced or absent in persons with low back pain (LBP). Based on the hypothesis that trunk-pelvis coordination is linked to overall gait stability, persons with LBP can be expected to have difficulties in dealing with perturbations. We examined the ability of 12 persons with LBP and 12 controls to adapt trunk and pelvis rotations and ES activity to sudden changes in velocity. 3D angular movements of thoracic, lumbar, and pelvic segments and surface EMG were recorded during treadmill walking at six different velocities, which increased or decreased unexpectedly. Relative phases of segmental rotations were determined and (in-)variant properties of kinematics and ES activity were studied using principal component analysis. Compared to healthy controls, persons with LBP exhibited a reduced ability to adapt trunk-pelvis coordination and ES muscle activity to changes in velocity. Altered coordination and muscular control may reflect an attempt to stabilise the spine and prevent the occurrence of unexpected perturbations. The assessment of gait patterns in terms of coordination may help clinicians to quantify movement impairments and may suggest interventions aimed at facilitating the emergence of desired coordination patterns.

  7. Coordinate activation of human platelet protease-activated receptor-1 and -4 in response to subnanomolar alpha-thrombin.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Frederick A; Dewar, Lori; Craven, Sharon J; Song, Yingqi; Cedrone, Aisha; Freedman, John; Fenton, John W

    2008-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that human platelets activated with SFLLRN release PAR-1 activation peptide, PAR-1-(1-41), even in the presence of hirudin. This observation suggests that during their activation, platelets generate a protease that activates PAR-1. In this study, PAR-1 and -4 activation peptides were detected 10 s after activation peptides was complete at 10 s. Generation of both PAR-1 and -4 activation peptides in response to 1 nm alpha-thrombin was significantly inhibited by affinity-purified anti-PAR-1-(35-62) IgY, anti-PAR-4-(34-54) IgY, and by the specific PAR-1 antagonist BMS 200261, but not by the PAR-4 antagonist YD3. Effective inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to 1.0 nm alpha-thrombin occurred only in the presence of both anti-PAR span antibodies. We conclude that platelet activation initiated with activation. Inhibiting the activation of either PAR inhibits activation of the other. Both PAR-1 and -4 activation must be inhibited to prevent platelet activation subsequent to thrombin binding to platelets. The more efficient generation of PAR activation peptides by platelets activated with SFLLRN or AYGPKF, compared with alpha-thrombin, indicates that a platelet-derived serine protease that is inactivated by soybean trypsin inhibitor propagates PAR-1 and -4 activation. PMID:18682394

  8. Coordination of spinal locomotor activity in the lamprey: long-distance coupling of spinal oscillators.

    PubMed

    McClellan, A D; Hagevik, A

    1999-05-01

    The extent and strength of long-distance coupling between locomotor networks in the rostral and caudal spinal cord of larval lamprey were examined with in vitro brain/spinal cord preparations, in which spinal locomotor activity was initiated by chemical microstimulation in the brain, as well as with computer modeling. When locomotor activity and short-distance coupling were blocked in the middle spinal cord for at least 40 segments, burst activity in the rostral and caudal spinal cord was still coupled 1:1, indicating that long-distance coupling is extensive. However, in the absence of short-distance coupling, intersegmental phase lags were not constant but decreased significantly with increasing cycle times, suggesting that long-distance coupling maintains a relatively constant delay rather than a constant phase lag between rostral and caudal bursts. In addition, under these conditions, intersegmental phase lags, measured between rostral and caudal burst activity, were significantly less than normal, and the decrease was greater for longer distances between rostral and caudal locomotor networks. The above result could be mimicked by a computer model consisting of pairs of oscillators in the rostral, middle, and caudal spinal cord that were connected by short- and long-distance coupling. With short-distance coupling blocked in the middle spinal cord, strychnine was applied to either the rostral or caudal spinal cord to convert the pattern locally from right-left alternation to synchronous burst activity. Synchronous burst activity in the rostral spinal cord resulted in a reduction in right-left phase values for burst activity in the caudal cord. These results also could be mimicked by the computer model. Strychnine-induced synchronous burst activity in the caudal spinal cord did not appear to alter the right-left phase values of rostral burst activity. Taken together, the experimental and modeling results suggest that the descending and ascending components of long

  9. Between molecules and experience: role of early patterns of coordinated activity for the development of cortical maps and sensory abilities.

    PubMed

    Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L

    2010-09-01

    Sensory systems processing information from the environment rely on precisely formed and refined neuronal networks that build maps of sensory receptor epithelia at different subcortical and cortical levels. These sensory maps share similar principles of function and emerge according to developmental processes common in visual, somatosensory and auditory systems. Whereas molecular cues set the coarse organization of cortico-subcortical topography, its refinement is known to succeed under the influence of experience-dependent electrical activity during critical periods. However, coordinated patterns of activity synchronize the cortico-subcortical networks long before the meaningful impact of environmental inputs on sensory maps. Recent studies elucidated the cellular and network mechanisms underlying the generation of these early patterns of activity and highlighted their similarities across species. Moreover, the experience-independent activity appears to act as a functional template for the maturation of sensory networks and cortico-subcortical maps. A major goal for future research will be to analyze how this early activity interacts with the molecular cues and to determine whether it is permissive or rather supporting for the establishment of sensory topography. PMID:20381527

  10. Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE): An approach for modeling functional co-activation architecture based on neuroimaging coordinates.

    PubMed

    Chu, Congying; Fan, Lingzhong; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yong; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-08-15

    Recent progress in functional neuroimaging has prompted studies of brain activation during various cognitive tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis has been utilized to discover the brain regions that are consistently activated across experiments. However, within-experiment co-activation relationships, which can reflect the underlying functional relationships between different brain regions, have not been widely studied. In particular, voxel-wise co-activation, which may be able to provide a detailed configuration of the co-activation network, still needs to be modeled. To estimate the voxel-wise co-activation pattern and deduce the co-activation network, a Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE) method was proposed to model within-experiment activations for the purpose of defining the co-activations. A permutation test was adopted as a significance test. Moreover, the co-activations were automatically separated into local and long-range ones, based on distance. The two types of co-activations describe distinct features: the first reflects convergent activations; the second represents co-activations between different brain regions. The validation of CoPE was based on five simulation tests and one real dataset derived from studies of working memory. Both the simulated and the real data demonstrated that CoPE was not only able to find local convergence but also significant long-range co-activation. In particular, CoPE was able to identify a 'core' co-activation network in the working memory dataset. As a data-driven method, the CoPE method can be used to mine underlying co-activation relationships across experiments in future studies.

  11. Hedgehog signal activation coordinates proliferation and differentiation of fetal liver progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Tohru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2009-09-10

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays crucial roles in development and homeostasis of various organs. In the adult liver, it regulates proliferation and/or viability of several types of cells, particularly under injured conditions, and is also implicated in stem/progenitor cell maintenance. However, the role of this signaling pathway during the normal developmental process of the liver remains elusive. Although Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the ventral foregut endoderm from which the liver derives, the expression disappears at the onset of the liver bud formation, and its possible recurrence at the later stages has not been investigated. Here we analyzed the activation and functional relevance of Hh signaling during the mouse fetal liver development. At E11.5, Shh and an activation marker gene for Hh signaling, Gli1, were expressed in Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts, the fetal liver progenitor cells, and the expression was rapidly decreased thereafter as the development proceeded. In the culture of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts isolated from the E11.5 liver, activation of Hh signaling stimulated their proliferation and this effect was cancelled by a chemical Hh signaling inhibitor, cyclopamine. In contrast, hepatocyte differentiation of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts in vitro as manifested by the marker gene expression and acquisition of ammonia clearance activity was significantly inhibited by forced activation of Hh signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate the temporally restricted manner of Hh signal activation and its role in promoting the hepatoblast proliferation, and further suggest that the pathway needs to be shut off for the subsequent hepatic differentiation of hepatoblasts to proceed normally.

  12. Systematic assessment of coordinated activity cliffs formed by kinase inhibitors and detailed characterization of activity cliff clusters and associated SAR information.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-27

    From currently available kinase inhibitors and their activity data, clusters of coordinated activity cliffs were systematically derived and subjected to cluster index and index map analysis. Type I-like inhibitors with well-defined IC50 measurements were found to provide a large knowledge base of activity cliff clusters for 266 targets from nine kinase groups. On the basis of index map analysis, these clusters were systematically organized according to structural similarity of inhibitors and activity cliff diversity and prioritized for structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis. From prioritized clusters, interpretable SAR information can be extracted. It is also shown that activity cliff clusters formed by ATP site-directed inhibitors often represent local SAR environments of rather different complexity and interpretability. In addition, activity cliff clusters including promiscuous kinase inhibitors have been determined. Only a small subset of inhibitors was found to change activity cliff roles in different clusters. The activity cliff clusters described herein and their index map organization substantially enrich SAR information associated with kinase inhibitors in compound subsets of limited size. The cluster and index map information is made available upon request to provide opportunities for further SAR exploration. On the basis of our analysis and the data provided, activity cliff clusters and corresponding inhibitor series for kinase targets of interest can be readily selected.

  13. Autophosphorylation and Pin1 binding coordinate DNA damage-induced HIPK2 activation and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Bitomsky, Nadja; Conrad, Elisa; Moritz, Christian; Polonio-Vallon, Tilman; Sombroek, Dirk; Schultheiss, Kathrin; Glas, Carolina; Greiner, Vera; Herbel, Christoph; Mantovani, Fiamma; del Sal, Giannino; Peri, Francesca; Hofmann, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive genome damage activates the apoptosis response. Protein kinase HIPK2 is a key regulator of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Here, we deciphered the molecular mechanism of HIPK2 activation and show its relevance for DNA damage-induced apoptosis in cellulo and in vivo. HIPK2 autointeracts and site-specifically autophosphorylates upon DNA damage at Thr880/Ser882. Autophosphorylation regulates HIPK2 activity and mutation of the phosphorylation-acceptor sites deregulates p53 Ser46 phosphorylation and apoptosis in cellulo. Moreover, HIPK2 autophosphorylation is conserved between human and zebrafish and is important for DNA damage-induced apoptosis in vivo. Mechanistically, autophosphorylation creates a binding signal for the phospho-specific isomerase Pin1. Pin1 links HIPK2 activation to its stabilization by inhibiting HIPK2 polyubiquitination and modulating Siah-1–HIPK2 interaction. Concordantly, Pin1 is required for DNA damage-induced HIPK2 stabilization and p53 Ser46 phosphorylation and is essential for induction of apotosis both in cellulo and in zebrafish. Our results identify an evolutionary conserved mechanism regulating DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PMID:24145406

  14. Metal based isatin-derived sulfonamides: their synthesis, characterization, coordination behavior and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Nasim, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Khalid M

    2009-06-01

    Some isatin derived sulfonamides and their transition metal [Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II)] complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The structure of synthesized compounds and their nature of bonding have been inferred on the basis of their physical (magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements), analytical (elemental analyses) and spectral (IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) properties. An octahedral geometry has been suggested for Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) and square-planar for Cu(II) complexes. In order to assess the antibacterial and antifungal behavior, the ligands and their metal(II) complexes were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative species, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi and two Gram-positive species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and, for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. In vitro cytotoxic properties of all the compounds were also studied against Artemia salina by brine shrimp bioassay. The results of average antibacterial/antifungal activity showed that zinc(II) complexes were found to be the most active against one or more bacterial/fungal strains as compared to the other metal complexes. PMID:18825557

  15. Goat fetuses disconnected from the placenta, but reconnected to an artificial placenta, display intermittent breathing movements.

    PubMed

    Kozuma, S; Nishina, H; Unno, N; Kagawa, H; Kikuchi, A; Fujii, T; Baba, K; Okai, T; Kuwabara, Y; Taketani, Y

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether placental factors are involved in the intermittent breathing movements in goat fetuses, we assessed electrocortical activity (ECoA) and tracheal pressure in 5 fetuses (124-135 days) separated from the placenta and connected for 48 h to an extrauterine fetal incubation system that provided umbilical arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The fetal physiological condition on this system was almost the same as that in utero for at least 48 h after the preparation. All fetuses showed intermittent low-voltage ECoA and breathing movements. The breathing movements occurred almost exclusively during periods of low- voltage ECoA. The proportions of time spent in low-voltage ECoA and breathing movements were 48-57% and 46-56%, respectively. In conclusion, breathing movements of fetuses on the extrauterine incubation system were episodic, suggesting that intermittent breathing movements are intrinsic to fetuses, independent of placenta-derived factors.

  16. Topoisomerase inhibition, nucleolytic and electrolytic contribution on DNA binding activity exerted by biological active analogue of coordination compounds.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mohan N; Bhatt, Bhupesh S; Dosi, Promise A

    2012-04-01

    The neutral mononuclear copper complexes with the quinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin and bipyridine derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. Complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity against three Gram((-)) and two Gram((+)) bacteria, and study suggests inhibition of gyrase activity by metal complexes as the possible mechanism. The nucleolytic activity of adducts was carried out on double stranded pUC19 DNA using gel electrophoresis in the presence of radical scavenging agents that suggest hydrolytic cleavage mechanism for plasmid DNA.

  17. Tumor, Lymph Node, and Lymph Node-to-Tumor Displacements Over a Radiotherapy Series: Analysis of Interfraction and Intrafraction Variations Using Active Breathing Control (ABC) in Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Robertson, Scott P.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate errors in soft tissue-based image guidance due to relative changes between primary tumor (PT) and affected lymph node (LN) position and volume, and to compare the results with bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs and LNs during radiotherapy of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Weekly repeated breath-hold computed tomography scans were acquired in 17 lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PTs and affected LNs were manually contoured on all scans after rigid registration. Interfraction and intrafraction displacements in the centers of mass of PTs and LNs relative to bone, as well as LNs relative to PTs (LN-PT), were calculated. Results: The mean volume after 5 weeks was 65% for PTs and 63% for LNs. Systematic and random interfraction displacements were 2.6 to 4.6 mm and 2.7 to 2.9 mm, respectively, for PTs; 2.4 to 3.8 mm and 1.4 to 2.7 mm, respectively, for LNs; and 2.3 to 3.9 mm and 1.9 to 2.8 mm, respectively, for LN-PT. Systematic and random intrafraction displacements were less than 1 mm except in the superoinferior direction. Interfraction LN-PT displacements greater than 3 mm were observed in 67% of fractions and require a safety margin of 12 mm in the lateral direction, 11 mm in the anteroposterior direction, and 9 mm in the superoinferior direction. LN-PT displacements displayed significant time trends (p < 0.0001) and depended on the presence of pathoanatomic conditions of the ipsilateral lung, such as atelectasis. Conclusion: Interfraction LN-PT displacements were mostly systematic and comparable to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs or LNs alone. Time trends, large volume changes, and the influence of pathoanatomic conditions underline the importance of soft tissue-based image guidance and the potential of plan adaptation.

  18. Tumor, Lymph node and Lymph Node-to-Tumor Displacements over a Radiotherapy Series: Analysis of Inter- and Intrafraction Variations using Active Breathing Control (ABC) in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Robertson, Scott P.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate errors in soft tissue-based image guidance due to relative changes between primary tumor (PT) and affected lymph node (LN) position and volume, and to compare the results to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs and LNs during radiotherapy of lung cancer. Materials and Methods Weekly repeated breath hold CT scans were acquired in 17 lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PTs and affected LNs were manually contoured on all scans after rigid registration. Inter- and intrafraction displacements in the centers of mass of PTs and LNs relative to bone, and LNs relative to PTs (LN-PT) were calculated. Results The mean volume after 5 weeks was 65% for PTs and 63% for LNs. Systematic/random interfraction displacements were 2.6 – 4.6 mm/2.7 – 2.9 mm for PTs, 2.4 – 3.8 mm/1.4 – 2.7 mm for LNs, and 2.3 – 3.9 mm/1.9 – 2.8 mm for LN-PT. Systematic/random intrafraction displacements were < 1 mm except in superior-inferior direction. Interfraction LN-PT displacements > 3 mm were observed in 67% of fractions and require a safety margin of 12 mm in lateral, 11 mm in anteroposterior and 9 mm in superior-inferior direction. LN-PT displacements displayed significant time trends (p<0.0001) and depended on the presence of pathoanatomical conditions of the ipsilateral lung, such as atelectasis. Conclusion Interfraction LN-PT displacements were mostly systematic and comparable to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs or LNs alone. Time trends, large volume changes and the influence of pathoanatomical conditions underline the importance of soft tissue-based image guidance and the potential of plan adaptation. PMID:22197237

  19. Electromyographic Activity of Hand Muscles in a Motor Coordination Game: Effect of Incentive Scheme and Its Relation with Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    Censolo, Roberto; Craighero, Laila; Ponti, Giovanni; Rizzo, Leonzio; Canto, Rosario; Fadiga, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Background A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI), the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory. PMID:21464986

  20. Coordinating Government Funding of File System and I/O Research through the High End Computing University Research Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, Gary; Nunez, James; Bent, John; Ross, Rob; Ward, Lee; Poole, Steve; Felix, Evan J.; Salmon, Ellen; Bancroft, Marti

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the High End Computing Revitalization Task Force designated file systems and I/O as an area in need of national focus. The purpose of the High End Computing Interagency Working Group (HECIWG) is to coordinate government spending on File Systems and 1I0 (FSIO) R&D by all the government agencies that are involved in High End Computing. The HECIWG tasked a smaller advisory group to list, categorize, and prioritize HEC VO and File Systems R&D needs. In 2005, leaders in FSIO from academia, industry and government agencies collaborated to Jist and prioritize areas of research in HEC FSIO. This led to a very successful High End Computing University Research Activity (HECURA) call from NSF in 2006 and has prompted a new HECURA call from NSF in 2009. This paper serves as both a review of the 2008 HEC FSIO identified research gaps as well as a preview of this forthcoming HECURA call.

  1. Coordinated Observations of the Active Binary σ 2 CrB with Chandra, EUVE, and the VLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, R. A.; Brown, A.; Ayres, T. R.; Krishnamurthi, A.; Linsky, J. L.

    2000-10-01

    We report on coordinated observations of the short-period active binary σ 2 CrB (F6V + G0V, P orb=1.14 d) taken with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, and the Very Large Array. EUVE observations span more than 7 orbital periods of the system. Centered in the middle of the nine day EUVE observation is a Chandra ACIS-S+HETGS grating observation lasting 85 ks and an overlapping 12 hour multifrequency VLA observation. We discuss the coronal variability, present high-resolution X-ray spectra and preliminary analysis including the search for flares, and tie the thermal high temperature emission together with nonthermal coronal emission. RAO acknowledges funding from a NASA GSRP fellowship, grant NGT5-50241. AB and TRA acknowledge funding from NASA grant NAG5-3226, and JLL acknowledges support from NASA through grants S-56500-D and H-04630D.

  2. HYSCORE Analysis of the Effects of Substrates on Coordination of Water to the Active Site Iron in Tyrosine Hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    McCracken, John; Eser, Bekir E; Mannikko, Donald; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-06-23

    Tyrosine hydroxylase is a mononuclear non-heme iron monooxygenase found in the central nervous system that catalyzes the hydroxylation of tyrosine to yield L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catalysis requires the binding of tyrosine, a tetrahydropterin, and O₂ at an active site that consists of a ferrous ion coordinated facially by the side chains of two histidines and a glutamate. We used nitric oxide as a surrogate for O₂ to poise the active site iron in an S = ³/₂ {FeNO}⁷ form that is amenable to electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The pulsed EPR method of hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy was then used to probe the ligands at the remaining labile coordination sites on iron. For the complex formed by the addition of tyrosine and nitric oxide, TyrH/NO/Tyr, orientation-selective HYSCORE studies provided evidence of the coordination of one H₂O molecule characterized by proton isotropic hyperfine couplings (A(iso) = 0.0 ± 0.3 MHz) and dipolar couplings (T = 4.4 and 4.5 ± 0.2 MHz). These data show complex HYSCORE cross peak contours that required the addition of a third coupled proton, characterized by an A(iso) of 2.0 MHz and a T of 3.8 MHz, to the analysis. This proton hyperfine coupling differed from those measured previously for H₂O bound to {FeNO}⁷ model complexes and was assigned to a hydroxide ligand. For the complex formed by the addition of tyrosine, 6-methyltetrahydropterin, and NO, TyrH/NO/Tyr/6-MPH₄, the HYSCORE cross peaks attributed to H₂O and OH⁻ for the TyrH/NO/Tyr complex were replaced by a cross peak due to a single proton characterized by an A(iso) of 0.0 MHz and a dipolar coupling (T = 3.8 MHz). This interaction was assigned to the N₅ proton of the reduced pterin.

  3. Progress and status of the IAEA coordinated research project: production of Mo-99 using LEU fission or neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Ira N.; Adelfang, Pablo E-mail: P.Adelfang@iaea.org; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2008-07-15

    Since late 2004, the IAEA has developed and implemented a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to assist countries interested in initiating indigenous, small-scale production of Mo-99 to meet local nuclear medicine requirements. The objective of the CRP is to provide interested countries with access to non-proprietary technologies and methods to produce Mo-99 using LEU foil or LEU mini-plate targets, or for the utilization of n,gamma neutron activation, e.g. through the use of gel generators. The project has made further progress since the RERTR 2006 meeting, with a Technical Workshop on Operational Aspects of Mo99 Production held 28-30 November 2006 in Vienna and the Second Research Coordination Meeting held in Bucharest, Romania 16-20 April 2007. The paper describes activities carried out as noted above, and as well as the provision of LEU foils to a number of participants, and the progress by a number of groups in preparing for LEU target assembly and disassembly, irradiation, chemical processing, and waste management. The participants' progress in particular on thermal hydraulics computations required for using LEU targets is notable, as also the progress in gel generator plant operations in India and Kazakhstan. Poland has joined as a new research agreement holder and an application by Egypt to be a contract holder is undergoing internal review in the IAEA and is expected to be approved. The IAEA has also participated in several open meetings of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Study on Producing Medical Radioisotopes without HEU, which will also be discussed in the paper. (author)

  4. Metallo-beta-lactamases (classification, activity, genetic organization, structure, zinc coordination) and their superfamily.

    PubMed

    Bebrone, Carine

    2007-12-15

    One strategy employed by bacterial strains to resist beta-lactam antibiotics is the expression of metallo-beta-lactamases requiring Zn(2+) for activity. In the last few years, many new zinc beta-lactamases have been described and several pathogens are now known to synthesize members of this class. Metallo-beta-lactamases are especially worrisome due to: (1) their broad activity profiles that encompass most beta-lactam antibiotics, including the carbapenems; (2) potential for horizontal transference; and (3) the absence of clinically useful inhibitors. On the basis of the known sequences, three different lineages, identified as subclasses B1, B2, and B3 have been characterized. The three-dimensional structure of at least one metallo-beta-lactamase of each subclass has been solved. These very similar 3D structures are characterized by the presence of an alphabetabetaalpha-fold. In addition to metallo-beta-lactamases which cleave the amide bond of the beta-lactam ring, the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily includes enzymes which hydrolyze thiol-ester, phosphodiester and sulfuric ester bonds as well as oxydoreductases. Most of the 6000 members of this superfamily share five conserved motifs, the most characteristic being the His116-X-His118-X-Asp120-His121 signature. They all exhibit an alphabetabetaalpha-fold, similar to that found in the structure of zinc beta-lactamases. Many members of this superfamily are involved in mRNA maturation and DNA reparation. This fact suggests the hypothesis that metallo-beta-lactamases may be the result of divergent evolution starting from an ancestral protein which did not have a beta-lactamase activity.

  5. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  6. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  7. Breathing detection with a portable impedance measurement system: first measurements.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jerome; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    For monitoring the health status of individuals, detection of breathing and heart activity is important. From an electrical point of view, it is known that breathing and heart activity change the electrical impedance distribution in the human body over the time due to ventilation (high impedance) and blood shifts (low impedance). Thus, it is possible to detect both important vital parameters by measuring the impedance of the thorax or the region around lung and heart. For some measurement scenarios it is also essential to detect these parameters contactless. For instance, monitoring bus drivers health could help to limit accidents, but directly connected systems limit the drivers free moving space. One measurement technology for measuring the impedance changes in the chest without cables is the magnetic impedance tomography (MIT). This article describes a portable measurement system we developed for this scenario that allows to measure breathing contactless. Furthermore, first measurements with five volunteers were performed and analyzed.

  8. Redox-active and DNA-binding coordination complexes of clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Betanzos-Lara, Soledad; Chmel, Nikola P; Zimmerman, Matthew T; Barrón-Sosa, Lidia R; Garino, Claudio; Salassa, Luca; Rodger, Alison; Brumaghim, Julia L; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Barba-Behrens, Norah

    2015-02-28

    DNA interactions of anticancer mononuclear Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+) complexes with the biologically active ligand clotrimazole (clotri) are reported. To fully characterize DNA binding modes for these complexes of the formulae [M(clotri)2Cl2]·nH2O (1-4), [M(clotri)2Br2]·nH2O (5,6), [M(clotri)3NO3]NO3·nH2O (9), and [M(clotri)3(NO3)2] (10), circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy, UV melting experiments, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ethidium bromide (EtBr) displacement methods were used. Results indicate mixed electrostatic interactions, possibly through groove binding, that result in accretion and coiling of DNA. Electrochemical studies indicate that the Cu(2+) complex 9 readily reduces to the reactive-oxygen-species-generating Cu(+), which oxidatively damages DNA. There is a subtle correlation between log P values, calculated electrostatic potentials, and cytotoxicity of the complexes. The extent of cell-nucleus DNA-metal adduct formation in the HeLa cervix-uterine carcinoma cell line does not necessarily correlate with cytotoxicity, indicating that the nature of DNA lesions may be crucial to activity. PMID:25561277

  9. A Coordinated Study of Flares and Active Regions on the by Draconis-Type Star CC Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    We propose to observe the 1.56 day period spectroscopic binary CC Eri (K7Ve + dM?) continuously over its complete orbital period in order (1) to measure the ultraviolet emission from it's active regions and it's quiescent atmosphere separately and (2) to study flares that likely will occur during the observing run. CC Eri is the second brightest member of the BY Draconis class of spotted cool dwarfs, it has the shortest known orbital and rotational period, and it has the fastest rotational velocity of the BY Dra class. For these reasons it is likely a very active member and probably has one of the brightest ultraviolet emission line spectrum of its class. Since only one IUE spectrum has so far been obtained of this important object, we propose to begin a detailed study of its ultraviolet emission properties leading to a high-dispersion SWP observation next year. We will obtain a continuous series of SWP-LO and LWP-LO spectra over the full orbital (= rotational period) in order to identify bright active regions (from the rotational modulation of emission line fluxes) and to correlate the location of these active regions with dark starspots, whose positions will be determined from contemporaneous optical photometry and spectroscopy. We also will study the time behavior of flares in different spectral lines and with coordinated optical photometry and VLA radio observations. Flares with U-magnitude enhancements greater than I magnitude are known to occur on average once every 12 hours. We plan to model the quiescent, active, and flaring atmospheres separately using emission measure diagnostics. CC Eri is an excellent candidate for this study, because it usually has a large amplitude photometric variation indicating an asymmetric distribution of spots (and thus active regions) across its surface, while it's flares are few but energetic. IUE is particularly well suited for such modulation studies.

  10. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  11. CDK1-Cyclin B1 Activates RNMT, Coordinating mRNA Cap Methylation with G1 Phase Transcription.

    PubMed

    Aregger, Michael; Kaskar, Aneesa; Varshney, Dhaval; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Elena; Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A; Weidlich, Simone; Cowling, Victoria H

    2016-03-01

    The creation of translation-competent mRNA is dependent on RNA polymerase II transcripts being modified by addition of the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap. The factors that mediate splicing, nuclear export, and translation initiation are recruited to the transcript via the cap. The cap structure is formed by several activities and completed by RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase), which catalyzes N7 methylation of the cap guanosine. We report that CDK1-cyclin B1 phosphorylates the RNMT regulatory domain on T77 during G2/M phase of the cell cycle. RNMT T77 phosphorylation activates the enzyme both directly and indirectly by inhibiting interaction with KPNA2, an RNMT inhibitor. RNMT T77 phosphorylation results in elevated m7G cap methyltransferase activity at the beginning of G1 phase, coordinating mRNA capping with the burst of transcription that occurs following nuclear envelope reformation. RNMT T77 phosphorylation is required for the production of cohort of proteins, and inhibiting T77 phosphorylation reduces the cell proliferation rate. PMID:26942677

  12. CDK1-Cyclin B1 Activates RNMT, Coordinating mRNA Cap Methylation with G1 Phase Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Aregger, Michael; Kaskar, Aneesa; Varshney, Dhaval; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Elena; Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A.; Weidlich, Simone; Cowling, Victoria H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The creation of translation-competent mRNA is dependent on RNA polymerase II transcripts being modified by addition of the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap. The factors that mediate splicing, nuclear export, and translation initiation are recruited to the transcript via the cap. The cap structure is formed by several activities and completed by RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase), which catalyzes N7 methylation of the cap guanosine. We report that CDK1-cyclin B1 phosphorylates the RNMT regulatory domain on T77 during G2/M phase of the cell cycle. RNMT T77 phosphorylation activates the enzyme both directly and indirectly by inhibiting interaction with KPNA2, an RNMT inhibitor. RNMT T77 phosphorylation results in elevated m7G cap methyltransferase activity at the beginning of G1 phase, coordinating mRNA capping with the burst of transcription that occurs following nuclear envelope reformation. RNMT T77 phosphorylation is required for the production of cohort of proteins, and inhibiting T77 phosphorylation reduces the cell proliferation rate. PMID:26942677

  13. Programmed cell death in plants: a pathogen-triggered response activated coordinately with multiple defense functions.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J T; Guo, A; Klessig, D F; Ausubel, F M

    1994-05-20

    In plants, the hypersensitive response (HR) to pathogens involves rapid cell death, which is hypothesized to arise from the activation of a cell death program. We describe mutant A. thaliana plants that contain lesions in a single accelerated cell death (ACD) gene called ACD2 and that bypass the need for pathogen exposure to induce the HR. acd2 plants that develop spontaneous lesions show typical HR characteristics both within the necrotic tissue and within the healthy part of the plant, including: modification of plant cell walls, resistance to bacterial pathogens, and accumulation of defense-related gene transcripts, the signal molecule salicylic acid and an antimicrobial compound. We propose that the ACD2 gene is involved in a pathway(s) that negatively regulates a genetically programmed HR.

  14. Functional analysis and intervention for breath holding.

    PubMed

    Kern, L; Mauk, J E; Marder, T J; Mace, F C

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome. The results showed that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. The intervention, consisting of extinction, scheduled attention, and use of a picture card communication system, resulted in decreased breath holding.

  15. 42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... service life indicator or warning device; (7) Hand-operated valves; (8) Breathing bag; (9) Safety relief valve or safety relief system; and (10) Harness. (b) The components of each self-contained breathing... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  16. 42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... service life indicator or warning device; (7) Hand-operated valves; (8) Breathing bag; (9) Safety relief valve or safety relief system; and (10) Harness. (b) The components of each self-contained breathing... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  17. 42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... service life indicator or warning device; (7) Hand-operated valves; (8) Breathing bag; (9) Safety relief valve or safety relief system; and (10) Harness. (b) The components of each self-contained breathing... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  18. Coordination and activation of Al-H and Ga-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Joseph A B; Riddlestone, Ian M; Turner, Joshua; Kaufman, Paul A; Tirfoin, Remi; Phillips, Nicholas; Aldridge, Simon

    2014-12-22

    The modes of interaction of donor-stabilized Group 13 hydrides (E=Al, Ga) were investigated towards 14- and 16-electron transition-metal fragments. More electron-rich N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized alanes/gallanes of the type NHC⋅EH3 (E=Al or Ga) exclusively generate κ(2) complexes of the type [M(CO)4 (κ(2)-H3 E⋅NHC)] with [M(CO)4 (COD)] (M=Cr, Mo), including the first κ(2) σ-gallane complexes. β-Diketiminato ('nacnac')-stabilized systems, {HC(MeCNDipp)2 }EH2 , show more diverse reactivity towards Group 6 carbonyl reagents. For {HC(MeCNDipp)2 }AlH2, both κ(1) and κ(2) complexes were isolated, while [Cr(CO)4 (κ(2)-H2 Ga{(NDippCMe)2 CH})] is the only simple κ(2) adduct of the nacnac-stabilized gallane which can be trapped, albeit as a co-crystallite with the (dehydrogenated) gallylene system [Cr(CO)5 (Ga{(NDippCMe)2 CH})]. Reaction of [Co2 (CO)8] with {HC(MeCDippN)2 }AlH2 generates [(OC)3 Co(μ-H)2 Al{(NdippCme)2 CH}][Co(CO)4] (12), which while retaining direct AlH interactions, features a hitherto unprecedented degree of bond activation in a σ-alane complex. PMID:25358970

  19. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 coordinates Rab5 activity and transferrin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Muralidharan; Lee, Unn Hwa; Yoon, Nal Ae; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ko, Myoung Seok; Seol, Wongi; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg; Lee, Byung Ju; Moon, Chang Hoon; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 regulates the early endocytic pathway of transferrin (Tfn), and Rab5 deactivation is required for Tfn recycling. Rab5 deactivation is achieved by RabGAP5, a GTPase-activating protein, on the endosomes. Here we report that recruitment of RabGAP5 is insufficient to deactivate Rab5 and that developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) is required for Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. DRG2 was associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate–containing endosomes. It colocalized and interacted with EEA1 and Rab5 on endosomes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–dependent manner. DRG2 depletion did not affect Tfn uptake and recruitment of RabGAP5 and Rac1 to Rab5 endosomes. However, it resulted in impairment of interaction between Rab5 and RabGAP5, Rab5 deactivation on endosomes, and Tfn recycling. Ectopic expression of shRNA-resistant DRG2 rescued Tfn recycling in DRG2-depleted cells. Our results demonstrate that DRG2 is an endosomal protein and a key regulator of Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. PMID:26582392

  20. Drive mechanism for production of simulated human breath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Lambert, J. W.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Simulated breath drive mechanism was developed as subsystem to breathing metabolic simulator. Mechanism reproduces complete range of human breath rate, breath depth, and breath waveform, as well as independently controlled functional residual capacity. Mechanism was found capable of simulating various individual human breathing characteristics without any changes of parts.

  1. Coordination behavior and antifungicidal, antibacterial, and antifertility activities of dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes of biologically active heterocyclic benzothiazolines.

    PubMed

    Kanoongo, N; Singh, R V; Tandon, J P; Goyal, R B

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization, and structural aspects of a new class of dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes with biologically active benzothiazolines, 2-(2-pyridyl) benzothiazoline, 2-(2-thienyl) benzothiazoline, 2-(2-furyl) benzothiazoline, 2-(3-indolyl) benzothiazoline, glyoxal benzothiazoline, biacetylbenzothiazoline, benzil benzothiazoline, and terphthaldehyde benzothiazoline have been described. The newly synthesized complexes, [MoO2(Bzt)2] and [MoO2(Bzt')] (where BztH and Bzt'H2 represent benzothazoline molecules) have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations, and magnetic studies. Based on IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and electronic spectral studies, distorted octahedral geometry with cis-MoO2 group has been indicated for the resulting complexes. Two benzothiazolines and their corresponding metal complexes were screened for their antifungicidal and antibacterial activity on several fungi and bacteria and found to be quite active in this respect. In addition, antifertility activity of representative ligands and their molybdenum complexes was also evaluated and discussed in male mice.

  2. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1HOP1 Receptor Activation Coordinates Multiple Neurotrophic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    May, Victor; Lutz, Eve; MacKenzie, Christopher; Schutz, Kristin C.; Dozark, Kate; Braas, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    MAPK and Akt pathways are predominant mediators of trophic signaling for many neuronal systems. Among the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/glucagon family of related peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) binding to specific PAC1 receptor isoforms can engage multiple signaling pathways and promote neuroprotection through mechanisms that are not well understood. Using a primary sympathetic neuronal system, the current studies demonstrate that PACAP activation of PAC1HOP1 receptors engages both MAPK and Akt neurotrophic pathways in an integrated program to facilitate neuronal survival after growth factor withdrawal. PACAP not only stimulated prosurvival ERK1/2 and ERK5 activation but also abrogated SAPK/JNK and p38 MAPK signaling in parallel. In contrast to the potent and rapid effects of PACAP in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, PACAP stimulated Akt phosphorylation in a late phase of PAC1HOP1 receptor signaling. From inhibitor and immunoprecipitation analyses, the PACAP/PAC1HOP1 receptor-mediated Akt responses did not represent transactivation mechanisms but appeared to depend on Gαq/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ activity and vesicular internalization pathways. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ-selective inhibitors blocked PACAP-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in primary neuronal cultures and in PAC1HOP1-overexpressing cell lines; RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the receptor effectors attenuated PACAP-mediated Akt activation. Similarly, perturbation of endocytic pathways also blocked Akt phosphorylation. Between ERK and Akt pathways, PACAP-stimulated Akt signaling was the primary cascade that attenuated cultured neuron apoptosis after growth factor withdrawal. The partitioning of PACAP-mediated Akt signaling in endosomes may be a key mechanism contributing to the high spatial and temporal specificity in signal transduction necessary for survival pathways. PMID:20093365

  3. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies.

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some organometallic complexes derived from thio-Schiff base ligands

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Two series of mono- and binuclear complexes cyclic or acyclic thio-ferocine Schiff base ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-aminobenzenthiol (L) with monoacetyl ferrocene in the molar ratio 1:1 or in the molar ratio 1:2 for diacetyl ferocine have been prepared. The condensation reactions yield the corresponding Schiff Base ligands, HLa-Maf and H2Lb-Daf. The chelation of the ligands to metal ions occurs through the sulfur of the thiol group as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligands. HLa-Maf acts as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate, while H2Lb-Daf behaves as twice negatively cargend tetradentate ligand. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analysis, infrared, ultraviolet–visible spectra, as well as 1H NMR spectra. Reactions of the Schiff bases ligands with ruthenium(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. The properties of the newly prepared complexes were analyse by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR as well as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The metal complexes exhibits different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral and square pyramidal coordination. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi to study their biological activity. All the complexes exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms. PMID:24070648

  5. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) Field Campaign.

    PubMed

    Marteinsson, Viggó; Vaishampayan, Parag; Kviderova, Jana; Mapelli, Francesca; Medori, Mauro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Aguilera, Angeles; Hamisch, Domenica; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Magnússon, Sveinn; Marasco, Ramona; Borin, Sara; Calzada, Abigail; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; González-Toril, Elena; Amils, Ricardo; Elster, Josef; Hänsch, Robert

    2013-02-25

    Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C) and pH (2 to 4). Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus), indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h) deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA) analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some organometallic complexes derived from thio-Schiff base ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Two series of mono- and binuclear complexes cyclic or acyclic thio-ferocine Schiff base ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-aminobenzenthiol (L) with monoacetyl ferrocene in the molar ratio 1:1 or in the molar ratio 1:2 for diacetyl ferocine have been prepared. The condensation reactions yield the corresponding Schiff Base ligands, HLa-Maf and H2Lb-Daf. The chelation of the ligands to metal ions occurs through the sulfur of the thiol group as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligands. HLa-Maf acts as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate, while H2Lb-Daf behaves as twice negatively cargend tetradentate ligand. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analysis, infrared, ultraviolet-visible spectra, as well as 1H NMR spectra. Reactions of the Schiff bases ligands with ruthenium(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. The properties of the newly prepared complexes were analyse by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR as well as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The metal complexes exhibits different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral and square pyramidal coordination. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi to study their biological activity. All the complexes exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  7. Rhythmic motor activity and interlimb co-ordination in the developing pouch young of a wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S M

    1997-01-01

    1. The forelimb motor behaviour of developing wallaby was studied. A clock-like alternating movement was reactivated whenever the animal was removed from the pouch. 2. Forelimb stepping frequency increased during the first 3 weeks of development, while the phase relationship remained constant. Forelimb activity could be affected by altering the afferent feedback from the contralateral limb, or an increase in ambient temperature. 3. In vitro experiments were performed using an isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation from animals up to 6 weeks postnatal. Fictive locomotor activity could be evoked by electrical stimulation or bath-applied NMDA (< 10 microM). 4. Bath-applied strychnine (10-25 microM) and bicuculline (10-50 microM) disrupted the phase relationship between motor pools, while rhythmic motor discharge remained in the absence of these inhibitory pathways. 5. The present findings indicate that the pattern generator that underlies the robust forelimb movement during the first journey to the pouch is retained for different motor functions during in-pouch development. The neural network that underlies such behaviour can be divided into two major components, a rhythm generator within each hemicord, and a pattern co-ordinating pathway which involve both glycinergic and GABAergic interneurones. PMID:9218221

  8. Novel nano coordination polymer based synthesis of porous ZnO hexagonal nanodisk for higher gas sorption and photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakibuddin, M.; Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar

    2016-01-01

    Zinc(II)-based nano co-ordination polymers (NCPs) are first prepared at room temperature from three different isomers of dihydroxysalophen (DHS) ligand with Zn(OAc)2·2H2O and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) in DMF solvent. Facile calcinations of [Zn (DHS) (BDC)]·nH2O (shortly denoted as Zn(II)-based NCP) at ambient conditions produces porous ZnO hexagonal nanodisks. Moreover, a novel approach has been introduced to observe the effect of ligand of the NCP on the physico-chemical properties of the as-synthesized ZnO. The porous ZnO nanodisks are characterized by FT-IR, PXRD, TEM, FESEM, EDX and BET analysis, and the results exhibit that they possess different sizes, surface areas and porosities. Nitrogen gas sorption capacity and photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared ZnO nanodisks are also checked, and it is noticed that they differ in these physico-chemical properties due to having different porosities and surface areas. A comparative study is also done with commercially available ZnO; interestingly, the commercial ZnO exhibited lower surface area, gas sorption and photocatalytic activity compared to the ZnO nanodisks. Hence, preparation of the ZnO through the NCP route and tuning their physico-chemical properties would offer new directions in synthesis of various nano metal oxides of unique properties.

  9. Developmental coordination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Physical causes and other types of learning disabilities must be ruled out before the diagnosis can be confirmed. ... Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems ... wanting to participate in physical activities (such as sports)

  10. A Model to Predict the Breathing Zone Concentrations of Particles Emitted from Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perfo...

  11. Technology coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Steven

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology coordination are provided. Topics covered include: technology coordination process to date; goals; how the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) can support the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA); how OSSA can support OAST; steps to technology transfer; and recommendations.

  12. Small reduction of neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex area induces abnormal breathing periods in awake goats.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, J M; Pan, L G; Klum, L; Leekley, T; Bastastic, J; Hodges, M R; Feroah, T; Davis, S; Forster, H V

    2004-11-01

    In awake rats, >80% bilateral reduction of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R)-expressing neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötzC) resulted in hypoventilation and an "ataxic" breathing pattern (Gray PA, Rekling JC, Bocchiaro CM, Feldman JL, Science 286: 1566-1568, 1999). Accordingly, the present study was designed to gain further insight into the role of the pre-BötzC area NK1R-expressing neurons in the control of breathing during physiological conditions. Microtubules were chronically implanted bilaterally into the medulla of adult goats. After recovery from surgery, the neurotoxin saporin conjugated to substance P, specific for NK1R-expressing neurons, was bilaterally injected (50 pM in 10 microl) into the pre-BötzC area during the awake state (n = 8). In unoperated goats, 34 +/- 0.01% of the pre-BötzC area neurons are immunoreactive for the NK1R, but, in goats after bilateral injection of SP-SAP into the pre-BötzC area, NK1R immunoreactivity was reduced to 22.5 +/- 2.5% (29% decrease, P < 0.01). Ten to fourteen days after the injection, the frequency of abnormal breathing periods was sixfold greater than before injection (107.8 +/- 21.8/h, P < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of these periods were breaths of varying duration and volume with an altered respiratory muscle activation pattern, whereas the remaining were rapid, complete breaths with coordinated inspiratory-expiratory cycles. The rate of occurrence and characteristics of abnormal breathing periods were not altered during a CO2 inhalation-induced hyperpnea. Pathological breathing patterns were eliminated during non-rapid eye movement sleep in seven of eight goats, but they frequently occurred on arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. We conclude that a moderate reduction in pre-BötzC NK1R-expressing neurons results in state-dependent transient changes in respiratory rhythm and/or eupneic respiratory muscle activation patterns. PMID:15247160

  13. 6. Coordination and control.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Any complex operation requires a system for management. In most societies, disaster management is the responsibility of the government. Coordination and control is a system that provides the oversight for all of the disaster management functions. The roles and responsibilities of a coordination and control centre include: (1) planning; (2) maintenance of inventories; (3) activation of the disaster response plan; (4) application of indicators of function; (5) surveillance; (6) information management; (7) coordination of activities of the BSFs; (8) decision-making; (9) priority setting; (10) defining overarching goal and objectives for interventions; (11) applying indicators of effectiveness; (12) applying indicators of benefit and impact; (13) exercising authority; (14) managing resources; (15) initiating actions; (16) preventing influx of unneeded resources; (17) defining progress; (18) providing information; (19) liasing with responding organisations; and (20) providing quality assurance. Coordination and control is impossible without communications. To accomplish coordination and control, three factors must be present: (1) mandate; (2) power and authority; and (3) available resources. Coordination and control is responsible for the evaluation of the effectiveness and benefits/impacts of all interventions. Coordination and control centres (CCCs) are organised hierarchically from the on-scene CCCs (incident command) to local provincial to national CCCs. Currently, no comprehensive regional and international CCCs have been universally endorsed. Systems such as the incident command system, the unified command system, and the hospital incident command system are described as are the humanitarian reform movement and the importance of coordination and control in disaster planning and preparedness.

  14. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine.

  15. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section 84.85 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  16. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained...

  17. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.122 Section 84.122 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  18. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained...

  19. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section 84.85 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  20. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.122 Section 84.122 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  1. Tax-interacting protein 1 coordinates the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases and regulates the infiltrative growth of human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailun; Han, Miaojun; Whetsell, William; Wang, Jialiang; Rich, Jeremy; Hallahan, Dennis; Han, Zhaozhong

    2014-01-01

    PDZ domains represent one group of the major structural units that mediate protein interactions in intercellular contact, signal transduction and assembly of biological machineries. TIP-1 protein is composed of a single PDZ domain that distinguishes TIP-1 from other PDZ domain proteins that more often contain multiple protein domains and function as scaffolds for protein complex assembly. However, the biological functions of TIP-1, especially in cell transformation and tumor progression, are still controversial as observed in a variety of cell types. In this study, we have identified ARHGEF7, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho GTPases, as one novel TIP-1 interacting protein in human glioblastoma cells. We found that the presence of TIP-1 protein is essential to the intracellular redistribution of ARHGEF7 and rhotekin, one Rho effector, and the spatiotemporally coordinated activation of Rho GTPases (RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1) in migrating glioblastoma cells. TIP-1 knockdown resulted in both aberrant localization of ARHGEF7 and rhotekin, as well as abnormal activation of Rho GTPases that was accompanied with impaired motility of glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, TIP-1 knockdown suppressed tumor cell dispersal in orthotopic glioblastoma murine models. We also observed high levels of TIP-1 expression in human glioblastoma specimens, and the elevated TIP-1 levels are associated with advanced staging and poor prognosis in glioma patients. Although more studies are needed to further dissect the mechanism(s) by which TIP-1 modulates the intracellular redistribution and activation of Rho GTPases, this study suggests that TIP-1 holds potential as both a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target of malignant gliomas. PMID:23563176

  2. Poisson Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  3. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  4. A novel one-dimensional manganese(II) coordination polymer containing both dicyanamide and pyrazinamide ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, X-ray studies and evaluation of biological activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizi, Leila; Chiniforoshan, Hossein; McArdle, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    A novel 1D coordination polymer {[Mn(μ1,5-dca)2(PZA)2](PZA)2}n, 1, has been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The coordination mode of dicyanamide (dca) and pyrazinamide (PZA) ligands was inferred by IR spectroscopy. The compound 1 was evaluated for in vitro antimycobacterial and antitumor activities. It demonstrated better in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis than pyrazinamide and its MIC value was determined. Complex 1 was also screened for its in vitro antitumor activity towards LM3 and LP07 murine cancer cell lines. In addition, the antibacterial activity of complex 1 has been tested against Gram(+) and Gram(-) bacteria and it has shown promising broad range anti-bacterial activity.

  5. Hybrid coordination-network-engineering for bridging cascaded channels to activate long persistent phosphorescence in the second biological window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xixi; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruili; Ren, Jinjun; Gecevicius, Mindaugas; Wu, Yiling; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal; Dong, Guoping; Zhou, Shifeng; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel “Top-down” strategy to design the long phosphorescent phosphors in the second biological transparency window via energy transfer. Inherence in this approach to material design involves an ingenious engineering for hybridizing the coordination networks of hosts, tailoring the topochemical configuration of dopants, and bridging a cascaded tunnel for transferring the persistent energy from traps, to sensitizers and then to acceptors. Another significance of this endeavour is to highlight a rational scheme for functionally important hosts and dopants, Cr/Nd co-doped Zn1-xCaxGa2O4 solid solutions. Such solid-solution is employed as an optimized host to take advantage of its characteristic trap site level to establish an electron reservoir and network parameters for the precipitation of activators Nd3+ and Cr3+. The results reveal that the strategy employed here has the great potential, as well as opens new opportunities for future new-wavelength, NIR phosphorescent phosphors fabrication with many potential multifunctional bio-imaging applications.

  6. Hybrid coordination-network-engineering for bridging cascaded channels to activate long persistent phosphorescence in the second biological window

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xixi; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruili; Ren, Jinjun; Gecevicius, Mindaugas; Wu, Yiling; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal; Dong, Guoping; Zhou, Shifeng; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel “Top-down” strategy to design the long phosphorescent phosphors in the second biological transparency window via energy transfer. Inherence in this approach to material design involves an ingenious engineering for hybridizing the coordination networks of hosts, tailoring the topochemical configuration of dopants, and bridging a cascaded tunnel for transferring the persistent energy from traps, to sensitizers and then to acceptors. Another significance of this endeavour is to highlight a rational scheme for functionally important hosts and dopants, Cr/Nd co-doped Zn1−xCaxGa2O4 solid solutions. Such solid-solution is employed as an optimized host to take advantage of its characteristic trap site level to establish an electron reservoir and network parameters for the precipitation of activators Nd3+ and Cr3+. The results reveal that the strategy employed here has the great potential, as well as opens new opportunities for future new-wavelength, NIR phosphorescent phosphors fabrication with many potential multifunctional bio-imaging applications. PMID:26843129

  7. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) Field Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Marteinsson, Viggó; Vaishampayan, Parag; Kviderova, Jana; Mapelli, Francesca; Medori, Mauro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Aguilera, Angeles; Hamisch, Domenica; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Magnússon, Sveinn; Marasco, Ramona; Borin, Sara; Calzada, Abigail; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; González-Toril, Elena; Amils, Ricardo; Elster, Josef; Hänsch, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C) and pH (2 to 4). Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus), indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h) deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA) analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches. PMID:25371340

  8. Parallel Allostery by cAMP and PDE Coordinates Activation and Termination Phases in cAMP Signaling.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Srinath; Tulsian, Nikhil Kumar; Chandramohan, Arun; Anand, Ganesh S

    2015-09-15

    The second messenger molecule cAMP regulates the activation phase of the cAMP signaling pathway through high-affinity interactions with the cytosolic cAMP receptor, the protein kinase A regulatory subunit (PKAR). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes responsible for catalyzing hydrolysis of cAMP to 5' AMP. It was recently shown that PDEs interact with PKAR to initiate the termination phase of the cAMP signaling pathway. While the steps in the activation phase are well understood, steps in the termination pathway are unknown. Specifically, the binding and allosteric networks that regulate the dynamic interplay between PKAR, PDE, and cAMP are unclear. In this study, PKAR and PDE from Dictyostelium discoideum (RD and RegA, respectively) were used as a model system to monitor complex formation in the presence and absence of cAMP. Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to monitor slow conformational transitions in RD, using disordered regions as conformational probes. Our results reveal that RD regulates its interactions with cAMP and RegA at distinct loci by undergoing slow conformational transitions between two metastable states. In the presence of cAMP, RD and RegA form a stable ternary complex, while in the absence of cAMP they maintain transient interactions. RegA and cAMP each bind at orthogonal sites on RD with resultant contrasting effects on its dynamics through parallel allosteric relays at multiple important loci. RD thus serves as an integrative node in cAMP termination by coordinating multiple allosteric relays and governing the output signal response.

  9. A Two-Step Mechanism for Cell Fate Decision by Coordination of Nuclear and Mitochondrial p53 Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Li, Jun; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 has a crucial role in the DNA damage response. Here, we proposed an integrated model of the p53 network and explored how the nuclear and mitochondrial p53 pathways are coordinated to determine cell fates after -irradiation in radiosensitive tissues. Using numerical simulations, we found that depending on the extent of DNA damage, cells may survive, commit apoptosis after cell cycle arrest, or undergo apoptosis soon after irradiation. There exists a large cell-to-cell variability in outcome because of stochasticity in the generation and repair of DNA damage as well as cellular heterogeneity. At the cell population level, there occur two waves of apoptosis: a fast wave mediated by mitochondrial p53 within three hours postirradiation, and a slow wave mediated by nuclear p53 after eight hours postirradiation. Thus, we propose a two-step mechanism for cell fate decision. The first step is to decide whether DNA damage is severe enough to trigger apoptosis directly through the mitochondrial p53 pathway, while the second step is to determine whether the damage is fixed after cell cycle arrest. Such a mechanism may represent an efficient and reliable control mode, avoiding unnecessary death or greatly promoting the execution of apoptosis. It was also demonstrated that nuclear p53 can inhibit the pro-apoptotic activity of mitochondrial p53 by transactivating p21, and Mdm2 can facilitate apoptosis by promoting the mono-ubiquitination of p53. These results are either in good agreement with experimental observations or experimentally testable. Our work suggests that both the transcription-independent and -dependent p53 activities are indispensable for a reliable choice of cell fate and also provides clues to therapeutic manipulation of the p53 pathway in cancer treatment. PMID:22679490

  10. The Small Breathing Amplitude at the Upper Lobes Favors the Attraction of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lesions and Helps to Understand the Evolution toward Active Disease in An Individual-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Prats, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can induce two kinds of lesions, namely proliferative and exudative. The former are based on the presence of macrophages with controlled induction of intragranulomatous necrosis, and are even able to stop its physical progression, thus avoiding the induction of active tuberculosis (TB). In contrast, the most significant characteristic of exudative lesions is their massive infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which favor enlargement of the lesions and extracellular growth of the bacilli. We have built an individual-based model (IBM) (known as “TBPATCH”) using the NetLogo interface to better understand the progression from Mtb infection to TB. We have tested four main factors previously identified as being able to favor the infiltration of Mtb-infected lesions with PMNs, namely the tolerability of infected macrophages to the bacillary load; the capacity to modulate the Th17 response; the breathing amplitude (BAM) (large or small in the lower and upper lobes respectively), which influences bacillary drainage at the alveoli; and the encapsulation of Mtb-infected lesions by the interlobular septae that structure the pulmonary parenchyma into secondary lobes. Overall, although all the factors analyzed play some role, the small BAM is the major factor determining whether Mtb-infected lesions become exudative, and thus induce TB, thereby helping to understand why this usually takes place in the upper lobes. This information will be very useful for the design of future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against TB. PMID:27065951

  11. Patterns of cortico-limbic activations during visual processing of sad faces in depression patients: a coordinate-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Han

    2014-01-01

    The author retrieved 10 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies about visual tasks for emotional faces in subjects with depression. The activation foci were then summarized and entered into a coordinate-based meta-analysis. The depression group showed significantly increased activations in the left striatum and left parahippocampal gyrus; the control group showed increased activations in the left medial frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right thalamus, left anterior cingulate, and superior frontal gyrus. The study suggests that depression patients have limbic activations, and controls have fronto-thalamic activations with visual processing of emotional faces.

  12. Changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity evaluated by the [(13)C]-pantoprazole breath test after co-administration of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following percutaneous coronary intervention and correlation to platelet reactivity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrien; Modak, Anil; Déry, Ugo; Roy, Mélanie; Rinfret, Stéphane; Bertrand, Olivier F; Larose, Éric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Barbeau, Gérald; Gleeton, Onil; Nguyen, Can Manh; Proulx, Guy; Noël, Bernard; Roy, Louis; Paradis, Jean-Michel; De Larochellière, Robert; Déry, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin is used for the prevention of cardiovascular events following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). These agents increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. To prevent these events, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are routinely prescribed. It has been reported that with the exception of pantoprazole and dexlanzoprazole, PPIs can impede conversion of clopidogrel by cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) to its active metabolite, a critical step required for clopidogrel efficacy. Changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (phenotype) and its correlation with platelet reactivity following PPI therapy has not yet been fully described. In this study we attempted to determine if the [ (13)C]-pantoprazole breath test (Ptz-BT) can evaluate changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (phenoconversion) following the administration of PPI in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients treated with DAPT after PCI. Thirty (30) days after successful PCI with stent placement, 59 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of the Influence of Statins and Proton Pump Inhibitors on Clopidogrel Antiplatelet Effects (SPICE) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00930670) were recruited to participate in this sub study. Patients were randomized to one of 4 antacid therapies (omeprazole, esomeprazole. pantoprazole or ranitidine). Subjects were administered the Ptz-BT and platelet function was evaluated by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and light transmittance aggregometry before and 30 d after treatment with antacid therapy. Patients randomized to esomeprazole and omeprazole had greater high on-treatment platelet reactivity and lowering of CYP2C19 enzyme activity at Day 60 after 30 d of PPI therapy. Patients randomized to ranitidine and pantoprazole did not show any changes in platelet activity or CYP 2C19 enzyme activity. In patients treated with esomeprazole and omeprazole, changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity

  13. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth.

    PubMed

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2006-04-26

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein, and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated, and died in the first postnatal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the CNS. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that although alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and thus the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior, and neonatal demise.

  14. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  15. L- and D-proline thiosemicarbazone conjugates: coordination behavior in solution and the effect of copper(II) coordination on their antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Milunovic, Miljan N M; Enyedy, Éva A; Nagy, Nóra V; Kiss, Tamás; Trondl, Robert; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Krachler, Regina; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Arion, Vladimir B

    2012-09-01

    Two enantiomerically pure thiosemicarbazone-proline conjugates with enhanced aqueous solubility, namely, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-(S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate-5-methylbenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [L-Pro-STSC or (S)-H(2)L] and 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-(R)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate-5-methylbenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [D-Pro-STSC or (R)-H(2)L] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (UV-vis and (1)H and (13)C NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The metal complexation behavior of L-Pro-STSC, stoichiometry, and thermodynamic stability of iron(II), iron(III), copper(II), and zinc(II) complexes in 30% (w/w) dimethyl sulfoxide/H(2)O solvent mixture have been studied by pH-potentiometric, UV-vis-spectrophotometric, circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, (1)H NMR spectroscopic, and spectrofluorimetric measurements. By the reaction of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O with (S)-H(2)L and (R)-H(2)L, respectively, the complexes [Cu[(S)-H(2)L]Cl]Cl and [Cu[(R)-H(2)L]Cl]Cl have been prepared and comprehensively characterized. An X-ray diffraction study of [Cu[(R)-H(2)L]Cl]Cl showed the formation of a square-planar copper(II) complex, which builds up stacks with interplanar separation of 3.3 Å. The antiproliferative activity of two chiral ligands and their corresponding copper(II) complexes has been tested in two human cancer cell lines, namely, SW480 (colon carcinoma) and CH1 (ovarian carcinoma). The thiosemicarbazone-proline conjugates L- and D-Pro-STSC show only moderate cytotoxic potency with IC(50) values of 62 and 75 μM, respectively, in CH1 cells and >100 μM in SW480 cells. However, the corresponding copper(II) complexes are 13 and 5 times more potent in CH1 cells, based on a comparison of IC(50) values, and in SW480 cells the increase in the antiproliferative activity is even higher. In both tested cell lines, L-Pro-STSC as well as its copper(II) complex show slightly stronger antiproliferative activity than the

  16. L- and D-proline thiosemicarbazone conjugates: coordination behavior in solution and the effect of copper(II) coordination on their antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Milunovic, Miljan N M; Enyedy, Éva A; Nagy, Nóra V; Kiss, Tamás; Trondl, Robert; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Krachler, Regina; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Arion, Vladimir B

    2012-09-01

    Two enantiomerically pure thiosemicarbazone-proline conjugates with enhanced aqueous solubility, namely, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-(S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate-5-methylbenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [L-Pro-STSC or (S)-H(2)L] and 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-(R)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate-5-methylbenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [D-Pro-STSC or (R)-H(2)L] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (UV-vis and (1)H and (13)C NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The metal complexation behavior of L-Pro-STSC, stoichiometry, and thermodynamic stability of iron(II), iron(III), copper(II), and zinc(II) complexes in 30% (w/w) dimethyl sulfoxide/H(2)O solvent mixture have been studied by pH-potentiometric, UV-vis-spectrophotometric, circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, (1)H NMR spectroscopic, and spectrofluorimetric measurements. By the reaction of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O with (S)-H(2)L and (R)-H(2)L, respectively, the complexes [Cu[(S)-H(2)L]Cl]Cl and [Cu[(R)-H(2)L]Cl]Cl have been prepared and comprehensively characterized. An X-ray diffraction study of [Cu[(R)-H(2)L]Cl]Cl showed the formation of a square-planar copper(II) complex, which builds up stacks with interplanar separation of 3.3 Å. The antiproliferative activity of two chiral ligands and their corresponding copper(II) complexes has been tested in two human cancer cell lines, namely, SW480 (colon carcinoma) and CH1 (ovarian carcinoma). The thiosemicarbazone-proline conjugates L- and D-Pro-STSC show only moderate cytotoxic potency with IC(50) values of 62 and 75 μM, respectively, in CH1 cells and >100 μM in SW480 cells. However, the corresponding copper(II) complexes are 13 and 5 times more potent in CH1 cells, based on a comparison of IC(50) values, and in SW480 cells the increase in the antiproliferative activity is even higher. In both tested cell lines, L-Pro-STSC as well as its copper(II) complex show slightly stronger antiproliferative activity than the

  17. Modifications of laccase activities of copper efflux oxidase, CueO by synergistic mutations in the first and second coordination spheres of the type I copper center.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kunishige; Kogi, Hiroki; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-02-15

    The redox potential of type I copper in the Escherichia coli multicopper oxidase CueO was shifted in the positive or negative direction as a result of the single, double, and triple mutations in the first and second coordination spheres: the formation of the NH···S(-)(Cys500 ligand) hydrogen bond, the breakdown of the NH(His443 ligand)···O(-)(Asp439) hydrogen bond, and the substitution of the Met510 ligand for the non-coordinating Leu or coordinating Gln. Laccase activities of CueO were maximally enhanced 140-fold by virtue of the synergistic effect of mild mutations at and at around the ligand groups to type I copper.

  18. Slow Breathing and Hypoxic Challenge: Cardiorespiratory Consequences and Their Central Neural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Hugo D.; Nicotra, Alessia; Chiesa, Patrizia A.; Nagai, Yoko; Gray, Marcus A.; Minati, Ludovico; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Controlled slow breathing (at 6/min, a rate frequently adopted during yoga practice) can benefit cardiovascular function, including responses to hypoxia. We tested the neural substrates of cardiorespiratory control in humans during volitional controlled breathing and hypoxic challenge using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy volunteers were scanned during paced (slow and normal rate) breathing and during spontaneous breathing of normoxic and hypoxic (13% inspired O2) air. Cardiovascular and respiratory measures were acquired concurrently, including beat-to-beat blood pressure from a subset of participants (N = 7). Slow breathing was associated with increased tidal ventilatory volume. Induced hypoxia raised heart rate and suppressed heart rate variability. Within the brain, slow breathing activated dorsal pons, periaqueductal grey matter, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus and lateral and anterior insular cortices. Blocks of hypoxia activated mid pons, bilateral amygdalae, anterior insular and occipitotemporal cortices. Interaction between slow breathing and hypoxia was expressed in ventral striatal and frontal polar activity. Across conditions, within brainstem, dorsal medullary and pontine activity correlated with tidal volume and inversely with heart rate. Activity in rostroventral medulla correlated with beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate variability. Widespread insula and striatal activity tracked decreases in heart rate, while subregions of insular cortex correlated with momentary increases in tidal volume. Our findings define slow breathing effects on central and cardiovascular responses to hypoxic challenge. They highlight the recruitment of discrete brainstem nuclei to cardiorespiratory control, and the engagement of corticostriatal circuitry in support of physiological responses that accompany breathing regulation during hypoxic challenge. PMID:25973923

  19. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS1) have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S.; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M.; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated and died in the first post-natal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the central nervous system. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the Pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that while alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and so the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior and neonatal demise. PMID:16641247

  20. Impact of breathing 100% oxygen on radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Kenneth T; Payne, Valerie; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Walb, Matthew C; Munley, Michael T; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J; Robbins, Mike E

    2014-11-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O(2) during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O(2) for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O(2)) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O(2) received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O(2) was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O(2) during an EVA. PMID:25338095

  1. Impact of Breathing 100% Oxygen on Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Payne, Valerie; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Walb, Matthew C.; Munley, Michael T.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2015-01-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O2 for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O2) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O2 received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O2 was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. PMID:25338095

  2. Effect of experimentally induced low back pain on postural sway with breathing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W

    2005-09-01

    Although breathing perturbs balance, in healthy individuals little sway is detected in ground reaction forces because small movements of the spine and lower limbs compensate for the postural disturbance. When people have chronic low back pain (LBP), sway at the ground is increased, possibly as a result of reduced compensatory motion of the trunk. The aim of this study was to determine whether postural compensation for breathing is reduced during experimentally induced pain. Subjects stood on a force plate with eyes open, eyes closed, and while breathing with hypercapnoea before and after injection of hypertonic saline into the right lumbar longissimus muscle to induce LBP. Motion of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower limbs was measured with four inclinometers fixed over bony landmarks. During experimental pain, motion of the trunk in association with breathing was reduced. However, despite this reduction in motion, there was no increase in postural sway with breathing. These data suggest that increased body sway with breathing in people with chronic LBP is not simply because of reduced trunk movement, but instead, indicates changes in coordination by the central nervous system that are not replicated by experimental nociceptor stimulation.

  3. ∆Np73 is capable of inducing apoptosis by co-ordinately activating several BH3-only proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Carrera, Dámaso; García-Puga, Mikel; Yáñez, Lucrecia; Romón, Íñigo; Pipaón, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of p53 is one of the most relevant events in human cancer, since it allows transformed cells to escape their own proliferation control and leave them irresponsive to drugs that aim to damage their DNA. When p53 falls, other members of its family may become targets to attack tumoural cells. p73 has shown capacity to mediate these attacks. However, its N-terminal truncated isoforms have been associated with oncogenesis due to their capacity to act as dominant negatives of p53 and the transactivation (TA) isoforms of p73. We previously found a relationship between the overexpression of N-terminus-truncated p73 isoform (∆Np73) and that of the proapoptotic gene Bcl-2-interacting killer (BIK). In the present report we demonstrate that ∆Np73-α has the capacity to induce apoptosis through the co-ordinated activation of a group of genes harbouring GC-rich elements in their regulatory regions. ∆Np73-α synergizes with specificity protein (Sp1) on these elements but the overall response of these genes probably depends on the additional presence of consensus p53 elements. We explore the domains of ∆Np73-α involved in this transactivation capacity and found divergences with the previously described functions for them. Moreover, we found that the transforming mutation V12 of HRas impairs this transactivation capacity of ∆Np73-α, further supporting the anti-tumoural function of this later. Our data add complexity to the action of p73 on the induction of apoptosis and tumourogenesis, opening new interpretations to the expression profile of p73 isoforms in different human neoplasias. PMID:26182360

  4. Sensitivity of brain cholinesterase activity to diazinon (BASUDIN 50EC) and fenobucarb (BASSA 50EC) insecticides in the air-breathing fish Channa striata (Bloch, 1793).

    PubMed

    Van Cong, Nguyen; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2006-05-01

    With the expansion of agricultural areas within the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam, a concurrent, dramatic increase has occurred in agrochemical usage. To date, little consideration has been given to the negative impacts of this agricultural activity on the aquatic resources of the region. Both acute toxicity and subacute effects on brain cholinesterase (ChE) of two of the most commonly used insecticides, diazinon and fenobucarb, on adult native snakehead (Channa striata) were evaluated in a static, nonrenewable system, the environmental parameters of which, such as dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and pH, fluctuated similarly to field conditions. Four levels of insecticides, from 0.008 to 0.52 mg/L (for diazinon) and from 0.11 to 9.35 mg/L (for fenobucarb), were tested to assess the effects on the brain ChE activity of the snakehead up to 30 and 10 d for diazinon and fenobucarb, respectively. Diazinon was highly toxic to this fish species, with a 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) of only 0.79 mg/L, and it also caused long-term ChE inhibition, with activity still significantly inhibited by 30% after 30 d for the three highest concentrations. Fenobucarb was less toxic to this species, with a 96-h LC50 of 11.4 mg/L. Fenobucarb caused more rapid ChE inhibition but also rapid recovery. The results of the present study indicate an urgent need to regulate the usage of these pesticides in the Mekong River Delta. PMID:16704077

  5. Qigong--Chinese breathing exercise.

    PubMed

    Koh, T C

    1982-01-01

    Qigong is an ancient Chinese breathing exercise with meditation which is being developed today for therapy of chronic illnesses in the People's Republic of China. It is claimed to cure gastric ulcers, hypertension, anxiety neurosis, otitis media, cancer and has even been used as a form of anaesthesia. Although the physiological effects produced by Qigong resemble those of meditation, there are certain features that are unique and often mysterious. Research in the future may prove Qigong to be a useful adjunct in the practice of medicine.

  6. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... size of the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and ... volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, while the pressure within it increases. As a result, the lungs ...

  7. Shoulder and hip roll differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Psycharakis, Stelios G; McCabe, Carla

    2011-06-01

    The effects of breathing on body roll have been previously investigated for the roll of the whole trunk only. The purposes of this study were: to calculate separately the shoulder roll (SR) and hip roll (HR) of swimmers during front crawl for non-breathing and preferred-side breathing conditions; to assess the differences in the magnitude and temporal characteristics of these variables between non-breathing and preferred-side breathing conditions; and to examine their association with swimming performance (indicated by swimming speed). Twelve male swimmers who competed at national and international level performed two maximum 25 m front crawl trials: one non-breathing and one with breathing to their preferred side. Performance was recorded with four below and two above water synchronised cameras. SR and HR in both trials were calculated for the breathing and non-breathing sides. The timings of SR and HR peaks to each side and at the positions of neutral roll were also calculated. Swimming speed was significantly slower in the breathing trial (p < 0.01). Swimmers rolled their shoulders and hips to the breathing side significantly more in the breathing than in the non-breathing trial (SR: p < 0.01; HR: p = 0.03). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the overall SR or HR between these trials. In the breathing trial, SR was higher in the breathing than in the non-breathing side (p < 0.01) but HR was not significantly different (p = 0.07). There was no evidence to suggest that temporal characteristics of SR or HR were associated with swimming performance.

  8. Simulation of four-dimensional CT images from deformable registration between inhale and exhale breath-hold CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Boldea, Vlad; Miguet, Serge; Ginestet, Chantal

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: We propose to simulate an artificial four-dimensional (4-D) CT image of the thorax during breathing. It is performed by deformable registration of two CT scans acquired at inhale and exhale breath-hold. Materials and methods: Breath-hold images were acquired with the ABC (Active Breathing Coordinator) system. Dense deformable registrations were performed. The method was a minimization of the sum of squared differences (SSD) using an approximated second-order gradient. Gaussian and linear-elastic vector field regularizations were compared. A new preprocessing step, called a priori lung density modification (APLDM), was proposed to take into account lung density changes due to inspiration. It consisted of modulating the lung densities in one image according to the densities in the other, in order to make them comparable. Simulated 4-D images were then built by vector field interpolation and image resampling of the two initial CT images. A variation in the lung density was taken into account to generate intermediate artificial CT images. The Jacobian of the deformation was used to compute voxel values in Hounsfield units. The accuracy of the deformable registration was assessed by the spatial correspondence of anatomic landmarks located by experts. Results: APLDM produced statistically significantly better results than the reference method (registration without APLDM preprocessing). The mean (and standard deviation) of distances between automatically found landmark positions and landmarks set by experts were 2.7(1.1) mm with APLDM, and 6.3(3.8) mm without. Interexpert variability was 2.3(1.2) mm. The differences between Gaussian and linear elastic regularizations were not statistically significant. In the second experiment using 4-D images, the mean difference between automatic and manual landmark positions for intermediate CT images was 2.6(2.0) mm. Conclusion: The generation of 4-D CT images by deformable registration of inhale and exhale CT images is

  9. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  10. The effect of hypercapnia and hypercapnia associated with central cooling on breathing in unanesthetized fetal lambs.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, I M; Maertzdorf, W J; De Jong, D S; Hanson, M A; Blanco, C E

    1997-01-01

    In utero breathing activity is present periodically, but it must become continuous at birth. We investigated the effect of hypercapnia and of hypercapnia combined with central cooling on fetal breathing in seven chronically instrumented fetal lambs of 131-134-d gestation, using an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system to control fetal blood gases and fetal temperature. During fetal hypercapnia (from a partial pressure of arterial CO2 (Paco2) 6.18 +/- 0.11 kPa to Paco2 7.39 +/- 0.15 kPa) frequency, amplitude, and incidence of fetal breathing movements during low voltage electrocortical activity (LV ECoG) increased significantly compared with isocapnic control on ECMO, but breathing remained absent during high voltage electrocortical activity (HV ECoG). During hypercapnia accompanied by central cooling (Paco2 7.90 +/- 0.13 kPa, temperature decreased by 2.1 degrees C) there were similar changes in fetal breathing movements during LV ECoG, but in four out of seven fetuses fetal breathing movements continued throughout HV ECoG. Hypercapnia accompanied by central cooling can thus override the inhibitory effects of HV ECoG on fetal breathing movements. This may be due to changes in sensitivity to CO2 produced by an increase in afferent input to the CNS.

  11. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

  12. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

  13. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

  14. A 3D kinematic analysis of breathing patterns in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Silvatti, Amanda P; Sarro, Karine J; Cerveri, Pietro; Baroni, Guido; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to understand which differences long-term swimming training can cause on trunk mechanics during breathing and how these differences are related to the years of swimming training. The variations and coordination among trunk compartments were considered as target movement patterns. Video-based plethysmography was utilised for data acquisition and pre-processing. A group of swimmers, who followed a long-term intensive swimming training previously to this study, was compared with a non-swimmer control group. The participants of both groups performed quiet breathing and vital capacity tests. From the compartmental volumes associated with each breathing curves, the relative amplitude and cross-correlation among these volumetric time-varying signals were calculated, in order to analyse the relative partial volume variation and the coordination among trunk compartments involved in respiration. The results of a Mixed-ANOVA test (P ≤ 0.05) revealed higher coefficient of variation (P < 0.001) and correlations among trunk compartments in the swimmers group when vital capacity was performed. Significant linear regression was found between the years of swim training and the coefficients of variation and correlation. The results suggest that after long periods of intensive swim training, athletes might develop specific breathing patterns featuring higher volume variations in the abdominal region and more coordination among compartments involved in forced respiratory tasks such as vital capacity.

  15. Coordinated Activation of Toll-Like Receptor8 (TLR8) and NLRP3 by the TLR8 Agonist, VTX-2337, Ignites Tumoricidal Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dietsch, Gregory N.; Lu, Hailing; Yang, Yi; Morishima, Chihiro; Chow, Laura Q.; Disis, Mary L.; Hershberg, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    VTX-2337 (USAN: motolimod) is a selective toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist, which is in clinical development as an immunotherapy for multiple oncology indications, including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Activation of TLR8 enhances natural killer cell activation, increases antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and induces Th1 polarizing cytokines. Here, we show that VTX-2337 stimulates the release of mature IL-1β and IL-18 from monocytic cells through coordinated actions on both TLR8 and the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex. In vitro, VTX-2337 primed monocytic cells to produce pro-IL-1β, pro-IL-18, and caspase-1, and also activated the NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby mediating the release of mature IL-1β family cytokines. Inhibition of caspase-1 blocked VTX-2337-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but had little impact on production of other TLR8-induced mediators such as TNFα. IL-18 activated natural killer cells and complemented other stimulatory pathways, including FcγRIII and NKG2D, resulting in IFNγ production and expression of CD107a. NLRP3 activation in vivo was confirmed by a dose-related increase in plasma IL-1β and IL-18 levels in cynomolgus monkeys administered VTX-2337. These results are highly relevant to clinical studies of combination VTX-2337/cetuximab treatment. Cetuximab, a clinically approved, epidermal growth factor receptor-specific monoclonal antibody, activates NK cells through interactions with FcγRIII and facilitates ADCC of tumor cells. Our preliminary findings from a Phase I open-label, dose-escalation, trial that enrolled 13 patients with recurrent or metastatic SCCHN show that patient NK cells become more responsive to stimulation by NKG2D or FcγRIII following VTX-2337 treatment. Together, these results indicate that TLR8 stimulation and inflammasome activation by VTX-2337 can complement FcγRIII engagement and may augment clinical responses in SCCHN

  16. F+ tunable laser activity and interaction of atomic halogens (F, Cl and Br) at the low coordinated surface sites of SrOAb initio and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Shalabi, Ahmed S

    2002-10-01

    The twofold potential of F+ color centers at the low coordinated surfaces of SrO for providing tunable laser activity and adsorption properties for atomic halogens (F, Cl and Br) has been investigated using ab initio electronic structure calculations. SrO clusters of variable sizes were embedded in simulated Coulomb fields that closely approximate the Madelung fields of the host surfaces and the nearest neighbor ions to F+ were allowed to relax to equilibrium. Based on Stokes shifted optical transition bands and horizontal shifts along the configuration coordinate diagrams, the F+ laser activity was found to decrease as the coordination number of the surface ions decreases from 5 (flat) to 4 (edge) to 3 (corner). An attempt has been made to explain this result in terms of Madelung potentials and optical-optical conversion efficiencies. All relaxed excited states are deep below the conduction bands of the perfect ground states, implying that F+ is a laser-suitable defect. The most laser active flat surface is the least probable for relaxed excited state orientational destruction of F+. The excited state at the edge has the highest energy, implying exciton (energy) transfer to the flat and edge sites. F+ relaxation and defect-formation energies increase with increasing surface coordination number. The Glasner-Tompkins relation between the fundamental optical absorption of F+ in solids and the fundamental absorption of the host crystals can be generalized to include the low coordinated surfaces of SrO. The F+ color center changes the nature of halogen-surface interaction (adsorption energies) from physical adsorption to chemical adsorption. The halogen-surface interactions increase with increasing electronegativity of the halogen. The calculated adsorption energies can be explained in terms of surface electrostatic potentials, and the covalent spin pairing mechanism plays a dominant role in determining adsorbate-substrate interactions.

  17. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  18. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  19. Independent and Coordinate Effects of ADP-Ribosyltransferase and GTPase-Activating Activities of Exoenzyme S on HT-29 Epithelial Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Fraylick, Jennifer E.; La Rocque, Jeannine R.; Vincent, Timothy S.; Olson, Joan C.

    2001-01-01

    Type III-mediated translocation of exoenzyme S (ExoS) into HT-29 epithelial cells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes complex alterations in cell function, including inhibition of DNA synthesis, altered cytoskeletal structure, loss of readherence, microvillus effacement, and interruption of signal transduction. ExoS is a bifunctional protein having both GTPase-activating (GAP) and ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) functional domains. Comparisons of alterations in HT-29 cell function caused by P. aeruginosa strains that translocate ExoS having GAP or ADPRT mutations allowed the independent and coordinate functions of the two activities to be assessed. An E381A ADPRT mutation revealed that ExoS ADPRT activity was required for effects of ExoS on DNA synthesis and long-term cell rounding. Conversely, the R146A GAP mutation appeared to have little impact on the cellular effects of ExoS. While transient cell rounding was detected following exposure to the E381A mutant, this rounding was eliminated by an E379A-E381A ADPRT double mutation, implying that residual ADPRT activity, rather than GAP activity, was effecting transient cell rounding by the E381A mutant. To explore this possibility, E381A and R146A-E381A mutants were examined for their ability to ADP-ribosylate Ras in vitro or in vivo. While no ADP-ribosylation of Ras was detected by either mutant in vitro, both mutants were able to modify Ras when translocated by the bacteria, with the R146A-E381A mutant causing more efficient modification than the E381A mutant, in association with increased inhibition of DNA synthesis. Comparisons of Ras ADP-ribosylation by wild-type and E381A mutant ExoS by two-dimensional electrophoresis found the former to ADP-ribosylate Ras at two sites, while the latter modified Ras only once. These studies draw attention to the key role of ExoS ADPRT activity in causing the effects of bacterially translocated ExoS on DNA synthesis and cell rounding. In addition, the studies provide insight into

  20. Phase equilibria in a system of 'breathing' molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jianzhong; Prausnitz, John

    2001-09-30

    It is now well known that details in the intermolecular potential can significantly affect the qualitative features of a phase diagram where temperature is plotted against density for the coexistence curves among fluid and solid phases. While previous calculations of phase diagrams have assumed a time-invariant potential function, this report concerns the phase diagram for ''breathing'' molecules, i.e., molecules whose strength of intermolecular attraction fluctuates in time. Such fluctuations can occur in biomacromolecules where an active site can switch between ''on'' and ''off'' positions. Phase-equilibrium calculations were performed for molecules that have a periodic (breathing) attractive force in addition to the conventional intermolecular forces. The phase diagram for such molecules is as expected when the ''breathing'' properties are independent of density. However, when (more realistically), the ''breathing'' properties are density dependent, the phase diagram exhibits dramatic changes. These calculations may be useful for interpreting experimental data for protein precipitation, for plaque formation in blood vessels and for scaffold-supported tissue formation.

  1. Quantum spin ice on the breathing pyrochlore lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savary, Lucile; Wang, Xiaoqun; Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Yong Baek; Yu, Yue; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-01

    The Coulombic quantum spin liquid in quantum spin ice is an exotic quantum phase of matter that emerges on the pyrochlore lattice and is currently actively searched for. Motivated by recent experiments on the Yb-based breathing pyrochlore material Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 , we theoretically study the phase diagram and magnetic properties of the relevant spin model. The latter takes the form of a quantum spin ice Hamiltonian on a breathing pyrochlore lattice, and we analyze the stability of the quantum spin liquid phase in the absence of the inversion symmetry which the lattice breaks explicitly at lattice sites. Using a gauge mean-field approach, we show that the quantum spin liquid occupies a finite region in parameter space. Moreover, there exists a direct quantum phase transition between the quantum spin liquid phase and featureless paramagnets, even though none of theses phases break any symmetry. At nonzero temperature, we show that breathing pyrochlores provide a much broader finite-temperature spin liquid regime than their regular counterparts. We discuss the implications of the results for current experiments and make predictions for future experiments on breathing pyrochlores.

  2. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  3. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  4. COORDINATED AV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEAVES, PAUL C.; AND OTHERS

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL AND SUPPLIES ALL SCHOOLS IN THE AREA. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS, AFTER SELECTIONS ARE MADE BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, ARE PROCESSED BY THE CENTER, CONFIRMED AND DELIVERED BY TRUCK THREE TIMES EACH WEEK. EACH SCHOOL HAS A BUILDING COORDINATOR WHO CHECKS THE ORDERS INTO THE…

  5. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  6. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  7. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p < 0.001) and traditional HRV indices SDNN, RMSSD, lnLFP, and lnHFP (p < 0.01 for all). It approached significance for sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension (D2) (p < 0.1 for both), while HRV detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) measures DFAα1 and DFAα2 were not affected by load condition. Breathing did not affect HR but affected all traditional HRV measures. D2 was not affected by breathing; DFAα1 was moderately affected by breathing; and DFAα2, approximate entropy (ApEn), and SampEn were strongly affected by breathing. DFAα1 was strongly increased, whereas DFAα2, ApEn, and SampEn were decreased by slow breathing. No interaction effect of load and breathing pattern was evident. Correlations to traditional HRV indices were modest (r from -0.14 to -0.67, p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise.

  8. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p < 0.001) and traditional HRV indices SDNN, RMSSD, lnLFP, and lnHFP (p < 0.01 for all). It approached significance for sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension (D2) (p < 0.1 for both), while HRV detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) measures DFAα1 and DFAα2 were not affected by load condition. Breathing did not affect HR but affected all traditional HRV measures. D2 was not affected by breathing; DFAα1 was moderately affected by breathing; and DFAα2, approximate entropy (ApEn), and SampEn were strongly affected by breathing. DFAα1 was strongly increased, whereas DFAα2, ApEn, and SampEn were decreased by slow breathing. No interaction effect of load and breathing pattern was evident. Correlations to traditional HRV indices were modest (r from -0.14 to -0.67, p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise. PMID:26187271

  9. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  10. Breathing at birth and the associated blood gas and pH changes in the lamb.

    PubMed

    Berger, P J; Horne, R S; Soust, M; Walker, A M; Maloney, J E

    1990-11-01

    We examined the relationship between the initiation of breathing at birth and the timing of delivery of the chest in a group of 13 lambs undergoing spontaneous unassisted delivery at term. In 8 of 11 lambs with a diaphragm electromyogram or intrapleural pressure signal the first breath occurred before chest delivery. The first breath was always followed by a period of irregular and often powerful inspiratory efforts. Some of these inspirations were followed by a forceful expiration. A regular respiratory rhythm never developed until the chest had delivered, suggesting that chest expansion is essential for the establishment of rhythm. Although PaO2 increased rapidly after birth, pHa declined and reached its lowest level approximately 20 minutes postnatally suggesting that considerable anaerobic metabolism occurs in the face of adequate arterial oxygenation. The level of respiratory activity in the first 30 min following birth did not appear to be related to arterial PO2, PCO2 or pH. Neither the appearance of the EMG activity of the first breath, nor blood samples taken from 2 lambs simultaneously with the first breath, suggested that the first breath was a gasp initiated by asphyxial blood gases. Our results therefore do not support the current hypothesis that the first breath is a gasp initiated by asphyxia accompanying delivery.

  11. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  12. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  13. BREATHING PATTERN DISORDERS AND FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Dr. Esformes, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Experimental design Background: Normal breathing mechanics play a key role in posture and spinal stabilization. Breathing Pattern Disorders (BPD) have been shown to contribute to pain and motor control deficits, which can result in dysfunctional movement patterns. The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) has been shown to accurately predict injury in individuals who demonstrate poor movement patterns. The role BPD play on functional movement is not well established. Furthermore, there is currently no single test to clinically diagnose BPD. A variety of methods are used, but correlations between them are poor. Purpose: To examine the relationship between BPD and functional movement and identify correlations between different measures of BPD. Methods: Breathing was assessed in 34 healthy individuals using a multi‐dimensional approach that included biomechanical, biochemical, breathing related symptoms, and breathing functionality measures. Movement was assessed using the FMS™. Analysis, involving independent t‐tests and Pearson correlation were performed to identify associations between measures. Results: Individuals who exhibited biochemical and biomechanical signs of BPD were significantly more likely to score poorly on the FMS™. These studied measures of BPD correlated highly with each other. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the importance of diaphragmatic breathing on functional movement. Inefficient breathing could result in muscular imbalance, motor control alterations, and physiological adaptations that are capable of modifying movement. These findings provide evidence for improved breathing evaluations by clinicians. Level of Evidence: 2B PMID:24567853

  14. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  15. The coating of conducting copolymer on coordination polymer nanorod: A visible light active p-n heterojunction photocatalyst for H2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yuan; Mei, Ming-liang; Xu, Xin-xin; Wang, Lin-shan

    2016-06-01

    A visible light active p-n heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized successfully through in-situ chemical oxidation copolymerization of aniline (ANI) and diphenylamine-4-sulfonate (DPAS) with the existence of coordination polymer nanorod (CPNR) under initiation of ammonium persulfate (APS). Compared with neat coordination polymer nanorod, the resulted p-n heterojunction photocatalyst exhibits higher H2 generationrate under visible light irradiation. In this heterojunction photocatalyst, as a p-type semiconductor possessing suitable energy levels with coordination polymer nanorod, poly-(aniline-co-N-(4-sulfophenyl)-aniline) (PAPSA) forms p-n heterojunction with n-type coordination polymer nanorod, the inner electric field of p-n heterojunction accelerates the separation of electrons and holes, which enhances H2 production performance. Furthermore, the influence of concentration ratio between DPAS and ANI on photocatalytic property of the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst was discussed and a reasonable condition to fabricate photocatalyst with high H2 generationrate had been obtained. During photocatalytic water splitting H2 generation, the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst exhibited outstanding stability.

  16. Breathing evaluation and retraining in manual therapy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Laurie

    2009-07-01

    Patients with back and neck pain commonly seek body work yet there are some who do not experience full recovery with the typical tool kit of manual therapy, education and exercise, suggesting the need for additional clinical approaches. Epidemiological literature linking back pain with breathing difficulties suggests one possibility. Altered motor control associated with back and neck pain appears to negatively impact breathing mechanics, which may have negative consequences on respiratory chemistry. Changes in respiratory chemistry can have profound effects on body system function. Altered breathing has been recognized for many years as a potential source of a wide variety of unexplained symptoms. There has been controversy around accurate diagnosis with symptoms and questionnaires often being the only methods used. Capnography, which is routinely used in critical care settings, offers an objective measure of respiratory chemistry providing physiological data on which to base a diagnosis of poor breathing. Capnography can also be used as biofeedback to guide breathing retraining.

  17. Computer simulation of breathing systems for divers

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, P.G.; Nuckols, M.L.

    1983-02-01

    A powerful new tool for the analysis and design of underwater breathing gas systems is being developed. A versatile computer simulator is described which makes possible the modular ''construction'' of any conceivable breathing gas system from computer memory-resident components. The analysis of a typical breathing gas system is demonstrated using this simulation technique, and the effects of system modifications on performance of the breathing system are shown. This modeling technique will ultimately serve as the foundation for a proposed breathing system simulator under development by the Navy. The marriage of this computer modeling technique with an interactive graphics system will provide the designer with an efficient, cost-effective tool for the development of new and improved diving systems.

  18. Slow breathing influences cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver: Slow breathing and HRV.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Giovanna Ana de Paula; Tavares, Bruna S; Garner, David M; Porto, Andrey A; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-05-01

    Chronic slow breathing has been reported to improve Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in patients with cardiovascular disorders. However, it is not clear regarding its acute effects on HRV responses on autonomic analysis. We evaluated the acute effects of slow breathing on cardiac autonomic responses to postural change manoeuvre (PCM). The study was conducted on 21 healthy male students aged between 18 and 35 years old. In the control protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 15 min under spontaneous breathing and quickly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. In the slow breathing protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 10 min under spontaneous breath, then performed slow breathing for 5 min and rapidly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. Slow breathing intensified cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver. PMID:27157952

  19. [Influence of coordination compounds of germanium (IV) and stannum (IV) on activity of some microbial enzymes with glycolytic and proteolytic action].

    PubMed

    Varbanets', L D; Matseliukh, O V; Nidialkova, N A; Hudzenko, O V; Avdiiuk, K V; Shmatkova, N V; Seĭfullina, I Ĭ

    2014-01-01

    Influence of coordinative compounds of germanium (IV) and stanum (IV) (complexes of germanium (IV) with nicotinamide (Nad) [GeCl2(Nad)4]Cl2 (1) and complexes of stanum (IV) with 2-hydroxybenzoilhydrazone 4-dimetylaminobenzaldehide (2-OH-HBdb) [SnCl4(2-OH-Bdb-H)] (2), 3-hydroxy-2-naphtoilhydrazone 2-hydroxynaphtaldehide (3-OH-H2Lnf) [SnCl3(3-OH-HLnf)] (3) and izonicotinoilhydrazone 2-hydroxyibenzaldehide [SnCl3 (Is·H)] (4) on activity of peptidases 1 and 2 Bacillus thuringiensis, α-L-rhamnosidase Cryptococcus albidus, Eupenicillium erubescens and α-amylase Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae. Results testify that all studied compounds differ on their influence on activity of the enzymes tested: significantly don't change elastolytic activity of peptidases 1 and 2 B. thuringiensis, completely inhibit A. flavus var. oryzae amylase, activate or oppress of α-L-rhamnosidase C. albidus and E. erubescens. Considerable differences in compounds (3, 4) on activity observed in case of the last. It's possible that peculiarity of influence (1) in compare with (2-4) is connected with existence of different central atoms of complexants: germanium (IV) (1) and stanum (IV) (2-4). A certain analogy in oppression of C. albidus α-L-rhamnosidase by compounds (1) and (4) can explain with presence of a pyridinic ring at molecules of their ligands. The less activsty displayed compound (2) with coordinative knot {SnCl4ON}. Nature of compounds (3, 4) activity was absolutely different: essential increase of activity of C. albidus α-L-rhamnosidase and full oppression of E. erubescens α-L-rhamnosidase by compound (3), while the action of compound (4) was feed back. Taking into account identical coordination knot {SnCl3O2N} the major role in this case play change of a hydrazide fragment in molecules of their ligands.

  20. Continued breathing followed by gasping or apnea in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Continued breathing following ventricular fibrillation has here-to-fore not been described. Methods We analyzed the spontaneous ventilatory activity during the first several minutes of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in our isoflurane anesthesized swine model of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The frequency and type of ventilatory activity was monitored by pneumotachometer and main stream infrared capnometer and analyzed in 61 swine during the first 3 to 6 minutes of untreated VF. Results During the first minute of VF, the air flow pattern in all 61 swine was similar to those recorded during regular spontaneous breathing during anesthesia and was clearly different from the patterns of gasping. The average rate of continued breathing during the first minute of untreated VF was 10 breaths per minute. During the second minute of untreated VF, spontaneous breathing activity either stopped or became typical of gasping. During minutes 2 to 5 of untreated VF, most animals exhibited very slow spontaneous ventilatory activity with a pattern typical of gasping; and the pattern of gasping was crescendo-decrescendo, as has been previously reported. In the absence of therapy, all ventilatory activity stopped 6 minutes after VF cardiac arrest. Conclusion In our swine model of VF cardiac arrest, we documented that normal breathing continued for the first minute following cardiac arrest. PMID:20691123

  1. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  2. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... commencement of diving operations, at the umbilical or underwater breathing apparatus connection point for the... underwater breathing apparatus connection point for the diver, for percentage of oxygen....

  3. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. Images p398-a p399-a PMID:9769764

  4. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  5. Biomechanical properties of the human upper airway and their effect on its behavior during breathing and in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2014-02-01

    The upper airway is a complex, multifunctional, dynamic neuromechanical system. Its patency during breathing requires moment-to-moment coordination of neural and mechanical behavior and varies with posture. Failure to continuously recruit and coordinate dilator muscles to counterbalance the forces that act to close the airway results in hypopneas or apneas. Repeated failures lead to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity and anatomical variations, such as retrognathia, increase the likelihood of upper airway collapse by altering the passive mechanical behavior of the upper airway. This behavior depends on the mechanical properties of each upper airway tissue in isolation, their geometrical arrangements, and their physiological interactions. Recent measurements of respiratory-related deformation of the airway wall have shown that there are different patterns of airway soft tissue movement during the respiratory cycle. In OSA patients, airway dilation appears less coordinated compared with that in healthy subjects (matched for body mass index). Intrinsic mechanical properties of airway tissues are altered in OSA patients, but the factors underlying these changes have yet to be elucidated. How neural drive to the airway dilators relates to the biomechanical behavior of the upper airway (movement and stiffness) is still poorly understood. Recent studies have highlighted that the biomechanical behavior of the upper airway cannot be simply predicted from electromyographic activity (electromyogram) of its muscles. PMID:23823151

  6. A coordinate-based ALE functional MRI meta-analysis of brain activation during verbal fluency tasks in healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processing of verbal fluency tasks relies on the coordinated activity of a number of brain areas, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes of the left hemisphere. Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural networks subserving verbal fluency functions have yielded divergent results especially with respect to a parcellation of the inferior frontal gyrus for phonemic and semantic verbal fluency. We conducted a coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on brain activation during the processing of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks involving 28 individual studies with 490 healthy volunteers. Results For phonemic as well as for semantic verbal fluency, the most prominent clusters of brain activation were found in the left inferior/middle frontal gyrus (LIFG/MIFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus. BA 44 was only involved in the processing of phonemic verbal fluency tasks, BA 45 and 47 in the processing of phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. Conclusions Our comparison of brain activation during the execution of either phonemic or semantic verbal fluency tasks revealed evidence for spatially different activation in BA 44, but not other regions of the LIFG/LMFG (BA 9, 45, 47) during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency processing. PMID:24456150

  7. Resonant and localized breathing modes in terminal regions of the DNA double helix.

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, B F; Van Zandt, L L; Prohofsky, E W; Mei, W N

    1981-01-01

    A Green's function approach is used in constructing a dynamic model of a semi-infinite length of the DNA homopolymer B poly(d) . poly(d). Considerable attention is focused on the hydrogen bond stretching close to the terminus. A melting (or breathing) coordinate (M) is defined as an average over the three linking hydrogen bond stretches in a unit cell. The thermal mean squared amplitude of (M) is enhanced at the chain end compared with the interior. Spectral branches at 69, 80 and 105 cm-1, as well as a local mode at 75 cm-1, are primary contributors to the enhancement. We suggest that this fact can affect the thermal melting of a DNA double helical homopolymer, enhancing the tendency to start from an end (if one is available). We show how certain infinite chain modes with small (M) amplitude can turn into breathing modes near the terminus, and suggest that the same phenomenon may occur near other specific base-pair sequences. There is also considerable attention paid to the low microwave region from approximately 0 to 1.75 cm-1. The thermally activated modes in this frequency region contribute approximately (0.02 A)2 to [M2(0)] at 40 K, approximately two orders of magnitude greater than for [M2(infinity)]. Most important however, is the existence of narrow resonant modes in this frequency region. Particularly pronounced resonances near 0.03 cm-1 and 0.08 cm-1 (approximately 0.9 and 2.4 GHz) amplify M2(0) at the terminus by about for orders of magnitude over the infinite chain value M2(infinity). PMID:7272440

  8. Silver-free activation of ligated gold(I) chlorides: the use of [Me3NB12Cl11]- as a weakly coordinating anion in homogeneous gold catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Michael; Huber, Florian; Bolli, Christoph; Jenne, Carsten; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2015-01-12

    Phosphane and N-heterocyclic carbene ligated gold(I) chlorides can be effectively activated by Na[Me3NB12Cl11] (1) under silver-free conditions. This activation method with a weakly coordinating closo-dodecaborate anion was shown to be suitable for a large variety of reactions known to be catalyzed by homogeneous gold species, ranging from carbocyclizations to heterocyclizations. Additionally, the capability of 1 in a previously unknown conversion of 5-silyloxy-1,6-allenynes was demonstrated.

  9. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  10. Improved ROS defense in the swimbladder of a facultative air-breathing erythrinid fish, jeju, compared to a non-air-breathing close relative, traira.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2016-07-01

    The jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and the traira Hoplias malabaricus are two closely related erythrinid fish, both possessing a two-chambered physostomous swimbladder. In the jeju the anterior section of the posterior bladder is highly vascularized and the swimbladder is used for aerial respiration; the traira, in turn, is a water-breather that uses the swimbladder as a buoyancy organ and not for aerial oxygen uptake. Observation of the breathing behavior under different levels of water oxygenation revealed that the traira started aquatic surface respiration only under severe hypoxic conditions and did not breathe air. In the jeju air-breathing behavior was observed under normoxic conditions, and the frequency of air-breathing was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Unexpectedly, even under hyperoxic conditions (30 mg O2 L(-1)) the jeju continued to take air breaths, and compared with normoxic conditions the frequency was not reduced. Because the frequently air-exposed swimbladder tissue faces higher oxygen partial pressures than normally experienced by other fish tissues, it was hypothesized that in the facultative air-breathing jeju, swimbladder tissue would have a higher antioxidative capacity than the swimbladder tissue of the water breathing traira. Measurement of total glutathione (GSSG/GSH) concentration in anterior and posterior swimbladder tissue revealed a higher concentration of this antioxidant in swimbladder tissue as compared to muscle tissue in the jeju. Furthermore, the GSSG/GSH concentration in jeju tissues was significantly higher than in traira tissues. Similarly, activities of enzymes involved in the breakdown of reactive oxygen species were significantly higher in the jeju swimbladder as compared to the traira swimbladder. The results show that the jeju, using the swimbladder as an additional breathing organ, has an enhanced antioxidative capacity in the swimbladder as compared to the traira, using the swimbladder only as a

  11. Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by τ seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

  12. Strong effect of copper(II) coordination on antiproliferative activity of thiosemicarbazone-piperazine and thiosemicarbazone-morpholine hybrids.

    PubMed

    Bacher, Felix; Dömötör, Orsolya; Chugunova, Anastasia; Nagy, Nóra V; Filipović, Lana; Radulović, Siniša; Enyedy, Éva A; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-05-21

    In this study, 2-formylpyridine thiosemicarbazones and three different heterocyclic pharmacophores were combined to prepare thiosemicarbazone–piperazine mPip-FTSC (HL1) and mPip-dm-FTSC (HL2), thiosemicarbazone–morpholine Morph-FTSC (HL3) and Morph-dm-FTSC (HL4), thiosemicarbazone–methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate hybrids mPyrr-FTSC (HL5) and mPyrr-dm-FTSC (HL6) as well as their copper(II) complexes [CuCl(mPipH-FTSC-H)]Cl (1 + H)Cl, [CuCl(mPipH-dm-FTSC-H)]Cl (2 + H)Cl, [CuCl(Morph-FTSC-H)] (3), [CuCl(Morph-dm-FTSC-H)] (4), [CuCl(mPyrr-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (5) and [CuCl(mPyrr-dm-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (6). The substances were characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy (HL1–HL6), ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction (1–5). All compounds were prepared in an effort to generate potential antitumor agents with an improved therapeutic index. In addition, the effect of structural alterations with organic hybrids on aqueous solubility and copper(II) coordination ability was investigated. Complexation of ligands HL2 and HL4 with copper(II) was studied in aqueous solution by pH-potentiometry, UV–vis spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy. Proton dissociation processes of HL2 and HL4 were also characterized in detail and microscopic constants for the Z/E isomers were determined. While the hybrids HL5, HL6 and their copper(II) complexes 5 and 6 proved to be insoluble in aqueous solution, precluding antiproliferative activity studies, the thiosemicarbazone–piperazine and thiosemicarbazone–morpholine hybrids HL1–HL4, as well as copper(II) complexes 1–4 were soluble in water enabling cytotoxicity assays. Interestingly, the metal-free hybrids showed very low or even a lack of cytotoxicity (IC50 values > 300 μM) in two human cancer cell lines HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and A549 (alveolar basal adenocarcinoma), whereas their copper(II) complexes were cytotoxic showing IC50 values from 25.5 to 65.1

  13. Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2014-09-01

    Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2.

  14. Biochemical pathways of breath ammonia (NH3) generation in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Laiho, S; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L; Ortiz, F; Forsblom, C; Groop, P-H; Lehto, M; Metsälä, M

    2016-01-01

    Breath ammonia (NH3) has been proposed as a potential biomarker in monitoring hemodialysis (HD) adequacy, since a strong correlation between blood urea and mouth-exhaled breath NH3 has been observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing HD. However, the biochemical pathways for breath NH3 generation from blood urea have not been demonstrated. In this study, we show a strong correlation (r s  =  0.77, p  <  0.001) between blood and salivary urea, indicating that salivary urea levels reflect blood urea levels. Salivary urea is in turn strongly correlated to salivary ammonia ([Formula: see text] + NH3) in most of the patients. This confirms that the hydrolysis of urea by urease generates ammonia in the oral cavity. A further strong correlation between salivary ammonia and breath NH3 indicates that salivary ammonia evaporates into gas phase and turns to breath NH3. Therefore, blood urea is a major biochemical source of breath NH3. Since breath NH3 is generated predominantly in the oral cavity, the levels of breath NH3 are influenced significantly by the patient's oral condition including urease activity and salivary pH. Our results agree with previous studies that have shown a connection between salivary urea and breath NH3. PMID:27516572

  15. The effect of breath holding, hyperventilation, and exercise on nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Kern, E B

    1978-12-01

    A group of 51 patients was studied by a technique of active posterior rhinomanometry that assessed the influence of breath holding, hyperventilation, and exercise on nasal resistance. Breath hodling of 30 seconds or longer produced a decrease in nasal resistance in most of the subjects tested. Hyperventilation had variable effects on nasal resistance, and exercise consistently decreased nasal resistance. These observations are consistent with the proposed effect of chemoreceptor stimulation on nasal airway resistance.

  16. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  17. Nonrigid registration method to assess reproducibility of breath-holding with ABC in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David . E-mail: dsarrut@univ-lyon2.fr; Boldea, Vlad; Ayadi, Myriam; Badel, Jean-Noel; Ginestet, Chantal; Clippe, Sebastien; Carrie, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To study the interfraction reproducibility of breath-holding using active breath control (ABC), and to develop computerized tools to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) intrathoracic motion in each patient. Methods and materials: Since June 2002, 11 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a Phase II trial have undergone four CT scans: one during free-breathing (reference) and three using ABC. Patients left the room between breath-hold scans. The patient's breath was held at the same predefined phase of the breathing cycle (about 70% of the vital capacity) using the ABC device, then patients received 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Automated computerized tools for breath-hold CT scans were developed to analyze lung and tumor interfraction residual motions with 3D nonrigid registration. Results: All patients but one were safely treated with ABC for 7 weeks. For 6 patients, the lung volume differences were <5%. The mean 3D displacement inside the lungs was between 2.3 mm (SD 1.4) and 4 mm (SD 3.3), and the gross tumor volume residual motion was 0.9 mm (SD 0.4) to 5.9 mm (SD 0.7). The residual motion was slightly greater in the inferior part of the lung than the superior. For 2 patients, we detected volume changes >300 cm{sup 3} and displacements >10 mm, probably owing to atelectasia and emphysema. One patient was excluded, and two others had incomplete data sets. Conclusion: Breath-holding with ABC was effective in 6 patients, and discrepancies were clinically accountable in 2. The proposed 3D nonrigid registration method allows for personalized evaluation of breath-holding reproducibility with ABC. It will be used to adapt the patient-specific internal margins.

  18. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    PubMed

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  19. Methods of intermittent positive pressure breathing.

    PubMed

    Welch, M A; Shapiro, B J; Mercurio, P; Wagner, W; Hirayama, G

    1980-09-01

    Inspiratory capacity (IC) was evaluated in 60 patients during the following four respiratory maneuvers: (1) coached unassisted inspiration; (2) inspiratory positive-pressure breathing (IPPB) at 15 cm H2O with the patient passively inspiring; (3) IPPB at 15 cm H2O with the patient coached to actively inspire; and (4) IPPB at a peak pressure adjusted according to the judgment of the respiratory therapist, with the patient coached to actively inspire. The IC attained with these maneuvers were, respectively, as follows: (1) 1.29 +/- 0.75 L; (2) 1.13 +/- 0.52 L; (3) 1.77 +/- 0.11 L; and (4) 2.27 +/- 0.11 L (mean +/- SE). The peak ventilator pressure for maneuver 4 averaged 30 +/- 7 cm H2O (mean +/- SD), and no patient experienced harmful side effects from these peak pressures. These data indicate that the method of treatment with IPPB has profound effects upon the degree of pulmonary expansion. All research on therapy with IPPB should be carefully controlled for the method of administering IPPB, and the volumes obtained during the treatment should be carefully documented before general conclusions are drawn concerning the effects of IPPB on morbidity. For the present, we suggest that IPPB, when administered clinically, be given as described in method 4.

  20. Effects of an aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata Mart on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice and as antioxidant in vitro.

    PubMed

    Silva, A P dos S; Cerqueira, G S; Nunes, L C C; de Freitas, R M

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) of Orbignya phalerata were assessed in vitro as well as its effect on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice. AE does not possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the scavenging assays; it also did not present scavenger activity in vitro. Following oral administration, AE (1, 2 and 3 g/kg) did not significantly change the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to 24 h after administration and did not alter the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Further studies currently in progress will enable us to understand the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata widely used in Brazilian flok medicine.