Science.gov

Sample records for active breathing coordinator

  1. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaza, E.; Symonds-Tayler, R.; Collins, D. J.; McDonald, F.; McNair, H. A.; Scurr, E.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.

    2015-02-01

    A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment.

  2. Reproducibility of liver position using active breathing coordinator for liver cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Hawkins, Maria; Dawson, Laura A. . E-mail: laura.dawson@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To measure the intrabreath-hold liver motion and the intrafraction and interfraction reproducibility of liver position relative to vertebral bodies using an active breathing coordinator (ABC) in patients with unresectable liver cancer treated with hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Tolerability of ABC and organ motion during ABC was assessed using kV fluoroscopy in 34 patients. For patients treated with ABC, repeat breath-hold CT scans in the ABC breath-hold position were acquired at simulation to estimate the volumetric intrafraction reproducibility of the liver relative to the vertebral bodies. In addition, preceding each radiation therapy fraction, with the liver immobilized using ABC, repeat anteroposterior (AP) megavoltage verification images were obtained. Off-line alignments were completed to determine intrafraction reproducibility (from repeat images obtained before one treatment) and interfraction reproducibility (from comparisons of the final image for each fraction with the AP) of diaphragm position relative to vertebral bodies. For each image set, the vertebral bodies were aligned, and the resultant craniocaudal (CC) offset in diaphragm position was measured. Liver position during ABC was also evaluated from kV fluoroscopy acquired at the time of simulation, kV fluoroscopy at the time of treatment, and from MV beam's-eye view movie loops acquired during treatment. Results: Twenty-one of 34 patients were screened to be suitable for ABC. The average free breathing range of these patients was 13 mm (range, 5-1 mm). Fluoroscopy revealed that the average maximal diaphragm motion during ABC breath-hold was 1.4 mm (range, 0-3.4 mm). The MV treatment movie loops confirmed diaphragm stability during treatment. For a measure of intrafraction reproducibility, an analysis of 36 repeat ABC computed tomography (CT) scans in 14 patients was conducted. The average mean difference in the liver surface position was -0.9 mm, -0

  3. The Use of the Active Breathing Coordinator Throughout Radical Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Juliet; McNair, Helen A.; Panakis, Niki; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; Evans, Phil M.; Brada, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To assess feasibility and reproducibility of an Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC) used throughout radical radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer, and compare lung dosimetric parameters between free-breathing and ABC plans. Methods and Materials: A total of 18 patients, recruited into an approved study, had free-breathing and ABC breath-hold treatment plans generated. Lung volume, the percentage volume of lung treated to a dose of {>=}20 Gy (V{sub 20}), and mean lung dose (MLD) were compared. Treatment (64 Gy in 32 fractions, 5 days/week) was delivered in breath-hold. Repeat breath-hold computed tomography scans were used to assess change in gross tumor volume (GTV) size and position. Setup error was also measured and potential GTV-planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated. Results: Seventeen of 18 patients completed radiotherapy using ABC daily. Intrafraction tumor position was consistent, but interfraction variation had mean (range) values of 5.1 (0-25), 3.6 (0-9.7), and 3.5 (0-16.6) mm in the superoinferior (SI), right-left (RL), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively. Tumor moved partially outside the PTV in 5 patients. Mean reduction in GTV from planning to end of treatment was 25% (p = 0.003). Potentially required PTV margins were 18.1, 11.9, and 11.9 mm in SI, RL, and AP directions. ABC reduced V{sub 20} by 13% (p = 0.0001), V{sub 13} by 12% (p = 0.001), and MLD by 13% (p < 0.001) compared with free-breathing; lung volume increased by 41% (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Clinically significant movements of GTV were seen during radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer using ABC. Image guidance is recommended with ABC. The use of ABC can reduce dose volume parameters determining lung toxicity, and might allow for equitoxic radiotherapy dose escalation.

  4. SPECT Analysis of Cardiac Perfusion Changes After Whole-Breast/Chest Wall Radiation Therapy With or Without Active Breathing Coordinator: Results of a Randomized Phase 3 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Zellars, Richard; Bravo, Paco E.; Tryggestad, Erik; Hopfer, Kari; Myers, Lee; Tahari, Abdel; Asrari, Fariba; Ziessman, Harvey; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Cardiac muscle perfusion, as determined by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), decreases after breast and/or chest wall (BCW) irradiation. The active breathing coordinator (ABC) enables radiation delivery when the BCW is farther from the heart, thereby decreasing cardiac exposure. We hypothesized that ABC would prevent radiation-induced cardiac toxicity and conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating myocardial perfusion changes after radiation for left-sided breast cancer with or without ABC. Methods and Materials: Stages I to III left breast cancer patients requiring adjuvant radiation therapy (XRT) were randomized to ABC or No-ABC. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by SPECT scans (before and 6 months after BCW radiation) using 2 methods: (1) fully automated quantitative polar mapping; and (2) semiquantitative visual assessment. The left ventricle was divided into 20 segments for the polar map and 17 segments for the visual method. Segments were grouped by anatomical rings (apical, mid, basal) or by coronary artery distribution. For the visual method, 2 nuclear medicine physicians, blinded to treatment groups, scored each segment's perfusion. Scores were analyzed with nonparametric tests and linear regression. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 57 patients were enrolled and 43 were available for analysis. The cohorts were well matched. The apical and left anterior descending coronary artery segments had significant decreases in perfusion on SPECT scans in both ABC and No-ABC cohorts. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, controlling for pretreatment perfusion score, age, and chemotherapy, ABC was not significantly associated with prevention of perfusion deficits. Conclusions: In this randomized controlled trial, ABC does not appear to prevent radiation-induced cardiac perfusion deficits.

  5. The Air We Breathe. Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

    This packet of materials is intended to provide teachers with an interdisciplinary approach to integrating air quality education into the existing curriculum of Connecticut schools. The unit is designed to complement the student booklet "The Air We Breathe," which is included. A major portion of the document is comprised of teaching activities.…

  6. Coordination between breathing and mental grouping of pianistic finger movements.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Dietrich; Hefter, Harald; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2002-10-01

    6 pianists (age 22 to 43 years) performed a simple finger exercise at a spontaneously chosen most comfortable tempo on a Yamaha-Disklavier piano. Five versions of the exercise, notated in quarter notes, were presented with different types of meters: (1) 3/4, (2) 4/4, (3) 5/4, (4) 6/4, and (5) 7/4. The onsets of finger strokes were measured while respiration was recorded in parallel by means of a thermistor placed at the front of the dominant nostril. The chosen tempo (finger-beat-rate) was about 3 Hz on all trials but not exactly constant. Correspondingly, the meter-rate chosen was faster for 3/4 and 4/4 meter (around 1 Hz), slower for 5/4, 6/4, and 7/4 meter (around 0.5 Hz). Mean breathing rate while playing the piano (0.38 Hz) was significantly higher than while resting (0.22 Hz, p<.05). Pooling the data of all subjects, the ratios of instantaneous meter and breathing rates clustered around different integer values, depending on the type of meter. Also the individual data indicated integer ratios between instantaneous meter and breathing rates. Even periods of constant phase relations between onsets of the meter and of inspiration could be observed. Thus, the mental process of grouping the same piece of music by various musical meters interacts with unconscious breathing rhythm. PMID:12434824

  7. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  8. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Gagel, Bernd . E-mail: BGagel@UKAachen.de; Demirel, Cengiz M.P.; Kientopf, Aline; Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc; Stanzel, Sven; Breuer, Christian; Asadpour, Branka; Jansen, Thomas; Holy, Richard; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Eble, Michael J.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins.

  9. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, G; Yin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group, 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.

  10. Central Neural Circuits for Coordination of Swallowing, Breathing, and Coughing: Predictions from Computational Modeling and Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.; Gestreau, Christian; Morris, Kendall F.; Davenport, Paul W.; Pitts, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The purpose of this article is to update the otolaryngologic community on recent developments in the basic understanding of how cough, swallow, and breathing are controlled. These behaviors are coordinated to occur at specific times relative to one another to minimize the risk of aspiration. The control system that generates and coordinates these behaviors is complex and advanced computational modeling methods are useful tools to elucidate its function. PMID:24262953

  11. Impact Loading and Locomotor-Respiratory Coordination Significantly Influence Breathing Dynamics in Running Humans

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Monica A.; Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), phase-locking between breathing and stepping rhythms, occurs in many vertebrates. When quadrupedal mammals gallop, 1∶1 stride per breath coupling is necessitated by pronounced mechanical interactions between locomotion and ventilation. Humans show more flexibility in breathing patterns during locomotion, using LRC ratios of 2∶1, 2.5∶1, 3∶1, or 4∶1 and sometimes no coupling. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence on the mechanical significance of LRC in running humans. Some studies suggest LRC improves breathing efficiency, but others suggest LRC is mechanically insignificant because ‘step-driven flows’ (ventilatory flows attributable to step-induced forces) contribute a negligible fraction of tidal volume. Yet, although step-driven flows are brief, they cause large fluctuations in ventilatory flow. Here we test the hypothesis that running humans use LRC to minimize antagonistic effects of step-driven flows on breathing. We measured locomotor-ventilatory dynamics in 14 subjects running at a self-selected speed (2.6±0.1 ms−1) and compared breathing dynamics in their naturally ‘preferred’ and ‘avoided’ entrainment patterns. Step-driven flows occurred at 1-2X step frequency with peak magnitudes of 0.97±0.45 Ls−1 (mean ±S.D). Step-driven flows varied depending on ventilatory state (high versus low lung volume), suggesting state-dependent changes in compliance and damping of thoraco-abdominal tissues. Subjects naturally preferred LRC patterns that minimized antagonistic interactions and aligned ventilatory transitions with assistive phases of the step. Ventilatory transitions initiated in ‘preferred’ phases within the step cycle occurred 2x faster than those in ‘avoided’ phases. We hypothesize that humans coordinate breathing and locomotion to minimize antagonistic loading of respiratory muscles, reduce work of breathing and minimize rate of fatigue. Future work could address the potential

  12. Impact loading and locomotor-respiratory coordination significantly influence breathing dynamics in running humans.

    PubMed

    Daley, Monica A; Bramble, Dennis M; Carrier, David R

    2013-01-01

    Locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), phase-locking between breathing and stepping rhythms, occurs in many vertebrates. When quadrupedal mammals gallop, 1∶1 stride per breath coupling is necessitated by pronounced mechanical interactions between locomotion and ventilation. Humans show more flexibility in breathing patterns during locomotion, using LRC ratios of 2∶1, 2.5∶1, 3∶1, or 4∶1 and sometimes no coupling. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence on the mechanical significance of LRC in running humans. Some studies suggest LRC improves breathing efficiency, but others suggest LRC is mechanically insignificant because 'step-driven flows' (ventilatory flows attributable to step-induced forces) contribute a negligible fraction of tidal volume. Yet, although step-driven flows are brief, they cause large fluctuations in ventilatory flow. Here we test the hypothesis that running humans use LRC to minimize antagonistic effects of step-driven flows on breathing. We measured locomotor-ventilatory dynamics in 14 subjects running at a self-selected speed (2.6±0.1 ms(-1)) and compared breathing dynamics in their naturally 'preferred' and 'avoided' entrainment patterns. Step-driven flows occurred at 1-2X step frequency with peak magnitudes of 0.97±0.45 Ls(-1) (mean ±S.D). Step-driven flows varied depending on ventilatory state (high versus low lung volume), suggesting state-dependent changes in compliance and damping of thoraco-abdominal tissues. Subjects naturally preferred LRC patterns that minimized antagonistic interactions and aligned ventilatory transitions with assistive phases of the step. Ventilatory transitions initiated in 'preferred' phases within the step cycle occurred 2x faster than those in 'avoided' phases. We hypothesize that humans coordinate breathing and locomotion to minimize antagonistic loading of respiratory muscles, reduce work of breathing and minimize rate of fatigue. Future work could address the potential consequences of

  13. Quantifying stroke coordination during the breathing action in front-crawl swimming using an instantaneous net drag force profile.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Danielle P; Sayers, Mark G L; Burkett, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    This study used both an instantaneous net drag force profile and a symmetry timing to evaluate the effect of the breathing action on stroke coordination. Twenty elite swimmers completed a total of six randomised front-crawl towing trials: (i) three breathing trials and (ii) three non-breathing trials. The net drag force was measured using an assisted towing device mounted upon a Kistler force platform, and this equipment towed the swimmer at a constant speed. The net drag force profile was used to create a stroke symmetry index for each swimming trial. Analysis using the symmetry indices identified that the majority of participants demonstrated an asymmetrical instantaneous net drag force stroke profile in both the breathing and non-breathing conditions, despite no significant differences in the time from finger-tip entry to finger-tip exit. Within the breathing condition, the faster swimmers compared to the slower swimmers demonstrated a lesser percentage of overlap between stroke phases on their breathing stroke side. During the non-breathing condition, the faster participants compared to the slower swimmers recorded a reduction in the percentage of overlap between stroke phases and less duration in the underwater stroke on their breathing stroke side. This study identified that the majority of participants demonstrated an asymmetrical net drag force profile within both conditions; however, asymmetry was less prevalent when examining with only the timing symmetry index. PMID:24861056

  14. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts' Breathing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Marco; Cerri, Graziano; Chiaraluce, Franco; Eusebi, Lorenzo; Russo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed. PMID:25558995

  15. Health Activities Project (HAP): Breathing Fitness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing four activities which involve students in learning how to measure their…

  16. CO2 -Breathing Induced Reversible Activation of Mechanophore within Microgels.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Shiping

    2016-06-01

    In this work, CO2 -breathing induced reversible activation of mechanophore within microgels is reported. The microgels are prepared through soap-free emulsion polymerization of CO2 -switchable monomer 2-(diethylamino)ethyl-methacrylate, using spiropyran (SP) based mechanophore MA-SP-MA as cross-linker. The microgels can be swollen by CO2 aeration. The swelling of microgels activates the SP mechanophore into merocyanine, causing distinguished color and fluorescence change. Moreover, these transitions are highly reversible, and the initial states of microgels can be easily recovered by "washing off" CO2 with N2 . The present contribution represents the first example of CO2 -breathing activation of mechanophore within microgels. PMID:27125764

  17. 20 CFR 631.37 - Coordination activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coordination activities. 631.37 Section 631... TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Administration § 631.37 Coordination activities. (a... U.S.C. 2311) or part 617 of this chapter (section 311(b)(10)). Such coordination shall be...

  18. 20 CFR 631.37 - Coordination activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination activities. 631.37 Section 631... TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Administration § 631.37 Coordination activities. (a... U.S.C. 2311) or part 617 of this chapter (section 311(b)(10)). Such coordination shall be...

  19. [General coordination of hospital activity].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Paz; Serra, José Antonio

    2005-03-01

    The present article describes the organizational and general coordination measures taken by the hospital management to attend the 325 victims who arrived at our hospital after the terrorist attack on the morning of 11 March. Firstly, we summarize the activity performed by the extra-hospital emergency services and the distribution of the victims in centers. Secondly, we describe in greater detail the interventions performed to initiate the External Emergency Action Plan in our hospital, the triage system and identification of patients who used it, as well as the resources in terms of beds, operating rooms and personnel that were used on that day. Lastly, by way of discussion, we provide a critical analysis of our interventions. PMID:15771833

  20. Metronome Use for Coordination of Breaths and Cardiac Compressions Delivered by Minimally-Trained Caregivers During Two-Person CPR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor, IV; West, Sarah; Austin, Paul; Branson, Richard; Beck, George

    2005-01-01

    Astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) receive 40 hours of medical training over 18 months before each mission, including two-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (2CPR) as recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). Recent studies have concluded that the use of metronomic tones improves the coordination of 2CPR by trained clinicians. 2CPR performance data for minimally-trained caregivers has been limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether use of a metronome by minimally-trained caregivers (CMO analogues) would improve 2CPR performance. 20 pairs of minimally-trained caregivers certified in 2CPR via AHA guidelines performed 2CPR for 4 minutes on an instrumented manikin using 3 interventions: 1) Standard 2CPR without a metronome [NONE], 2) Standard 2CPR plus a metronome for coordinating compression rate only [MET], 3) Standard 2CPR plus a metronome for coordinating both the compression rate and ventilation rate [BOTH]. Caregivers were evaluated for their ability to meet the AHA guideline of 32 breaths-240 compressions in 4 minutes. All (100%) caregivers using the BOTH intervention provided the required number of ventilation breaths as compared with the NONE caregivers (10%) and MET caregivers (0%). For compressions, 97.5% of the BOTH caregivers were not successful in meeting the AHA compression guideline; however, an average of 238 compressions of the desired 240 were completed. None of the caregivers were successful in meeting the compression guideline using the NONE and MET interventions. This study demonstrates that use of metronomic tones by minimally-trained caregivers for coordinating both compressions and breaths improves 2CPR performance. Meeting the breath guideline is important to minimize air entering the stomach, thus decreasing the likelihood of gastric aspiration. These results suggest that manifesting a metronome for the ISS may augment the performance of 2CPR on orbit and thus may

  1. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  2. Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles?

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M F; Valenzuela, S; Miralles, R; Portus, C; Santander, H; Fuentes, A D; Celhay, I

    2014-11-01

    Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P < 0·05). External intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P < 0·05). Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity did not show significant differences between breathing types in the tasks studied (P > 0·05). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest. PMID:25040551

  3. Dirhythmic breathing.

    PubMed

    Flemister, G; Goldberg, N B; Sharp, J T

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease and recent respiratory failure are described in whom two distinct simultaneous respiratory rhythms were identified, one at 8 to 13 breaths per minute and the other at 39 to 65 per minute. Magnetometer measurements of thoracoabdominal motion together with simultaneous electromyograms of multiple inspiratory muscles suggested that both rhythms were the result of coordinated action of several inspiratory muscles. We suggest that this phenomenon, which we have called dirhythmic breathing, results from the conflicting influence upon respiratory centers and motoneurons of two or more stimuli, some favoring rapid shallow breaths and others slow deep breaths. PMID:7449504

  4. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Aerosol Breathing Zone Concentrations During Common Outdoor Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has been conducted on aerosol emission rates during various activities as well as aerosol transport into the breathing zone under idealized conditions. However, there has been little effort to link the two into a model for predicting a person’s breathing zone concentrat...

  5. Activity Coordinators: The View from the Bottom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucci, Frank A.

    1971-01-01

    Data for this study was drawn for an extensive study on personnel practices. This particular report focuses on the position of coordinator of student activities which is seen as ranking low on the totem pole in regard to benefits, perceived responsibilities, and perception by other staff personnel. (CJ)

  6. Anatomic and Pathologic Variability During Radiotherapy for a Hybrid Active Breath-Hold Gating Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Gopan, Ellen; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung volume and position using a hybrid active breath-hold gating technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 159 repeat normal inspiration active breath-hold CTs were acquired weekly during radiotherapy for 9 lung cancer patients (12-21 scans per patient). A physician delineated the gross tumor volume (GTV), lungs, and spinal cord on the first breath-hold CT, and contours were propagated semiautomatically. Intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung position and volume were evaluated. Tumor centroid and border variability were quantified. Results: On average, intrafraction variability of lung and GTV centroid position was <2.0 mm. Interfraction population variability was 3.6-6.7 mm (systematic) and 3.1-3.9 mm (random) for the GTV centroid and 1.0-3.3 mm (systematic) and 1.5-2.6 mm (random) for the lungs. Tumor volume regressed 44.6% {+-} 23.2%. Gross tumor volume border variability was patient specific and demonstrated anisotropic shape change in some subjects. Interfraction GTV positional variability was associated with tumor volume regression and contralateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Inter-breath-hold reproducibility was unaffected by time point in the treatment course (p > 0.1). Increases in free-breathing tidal volume were associated with increases in breath-hold ipsilateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The breath-hold technique was reproducible within 2 mm during each fraction. Interfraction variability of GTV position and shape was substantial because of tumor volume and breath-hold lung volume change during therapy. These results support the feasibility of a hybrid breath-hold gating technique and suggest that online image guidance would be beneficial.

  7. Update of technical coordinating committee activities

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Technical Coordinating Committee has its origins in the earliest days of implementing the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. Between 1982 and 1985, individuals in several of the states felt that coordination among the states would be beneficial to all by affording states a cost-effective method for sharing ideas, discussing alternatives, and presenting solutions to common problems. At the current time, the committee comprises members from each of the sited states. Various compacts, federal agencies, and industry groups participate in committee activities. The Low-Level Management Program provides support for the committee through the provision of logistical support and limited manpower allocation. Activities of the committee have recently focused on waste treatment and minimization technologies. The committee also has worked diligently to see the review of the 3RSTAT computer code completed. The committee has taken a position on various regulatory proposals the past year. The committee expects to continue its work until new sites are brought online.

  8. Impact of maternal physical activity on fetal breathing and body movement--A review.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Dafna; Lye, Stephen J; Wells, Greg D

    2016-03-01

    Fetal movements, which include body and breathing movement, are important indicators of fetal well-being and nervous system development. These have been shown to be affected by intrauterine conditions. While maternal physical activity does induce a change in intrauterine conditions and physiology, its impact on fetal movements is still unclear. This paper will provide a brief review of the literature and outline the current knowledge with regards to the effects of maternal exercise on fetal body and breathing movements. PMID:26811196

  9. Coordinating activities between NOAA and other agencies.

    PubMed

    Fritz, A T; Buchman, M F

    1997-11-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) mandate protection of public health, welfare, and the environment at Superfund hazardous waste sites. The NCP requires lead response agenciesto integrate baseline risk assessments into the remedial process that "assess threats to the environment." EPA policy statements direct regional offices to perform thorough, consistent ecological risk assessments, and stress the importance of coordination and technical consultation with the natural resource trustees. As a Federal natural trustee, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) role and responsibilities within the CERCLA process also are defined and mandated by Federal law. NOAA is responsible for identifying sites in the coastal zone that may affect natural resources, evaluating injury to trust resources, and providing technical advice on assessments and remedial and restoration alternatives. Statutes require lead cleanup agencies and trustee agencies to notify and coordinate with each other during CERCLA response. Over the past ten years, NOAA has gained valuable experience and technical expertise in environmental assessments and in evaluating contaminated aquatic environments. NOAA fulfills its responsibilities through an effective network of Coastal Resource Coordinators (CRCs) who can rapidly respond to local technical requirements and priorities, and coordinate effectively with technical and trustee representatives. In addition to CRCs, an interdisciplinary support group provides technical expertise in the scientific disciplines required to respond to the needs of regional activities. NOAA provides CRCs to coastal EPA regional offices for technical support, and to act as liaisons with Federal and state natural resource trustee agencies. The CRCs help EPA and other lead response agencies identify and assess risks to coastal resources

  10. Mindfulness-of-breathing exercise modulates EEG alpha activity during cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Bing-Canar, Hanaan; Pizzuto, Jacquelyne; Compton, Rebecca J

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated whether engaging in a mindful breathing exercise would affect EEG oscillatory activity associated with self-monitoring processes, based on the notion that mindfulness enhances attentional awareness. Participants were assigned to either an audio exercise in mindful breathing or an audio control condition, and then completed a Stroop task while EEG was recorded. The primary EEG measure of interest was error-related alpha suppression (ERAS), an index of self-monitoring in which alpha power is reduced, suggesting mental engagement, following errors compared to correct responses. Participants in the mindful-breathing condition showed increased alpha power during the listening exercise and enhanced ERAS during the subsequent Stroop task. These results indicate enhanced error-monitoring among those in the mindful-breathing group. PMID:27245493

  11. Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan; Pleil, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breath markers such as carbon dioxide, isoprene, or acetone with all other volatile organics in the air space. Those that trend similarly in time are designated as breath constituents. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop technology for assessing group based behaviors, chemical exposures or even changes in stress or mood. Applications are myriad ranging from chemical dose/toxicity screening to health and stress status for national security diagnostics. The basic technology employs real-time mass spectrometry capable of simultaneously measuring volatile chemicals and endogenous breath markers. PMID:27341381

  12. Respiratory Motion of The Heart and Positional Reproducibility Under Active Breathing Control

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Moran, Jean M.; Kessler, Marc L.; Marsh, Robin B. C; Balter, James M.; Pierce, Lori J. . E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To reduce cardiotoxicity from breast radiotherapy (RT), innovative techniques are under investigation. Information about cardiac motion with respiration and positional reproducibility under active breathing control (ABC) is necessary to evaluate these techniques. Methods and Materials: Patients requiring loco-regional RT for breast cancer were scanned by computed tomography using an ABC device at various breath-hold states, before and during treatment. Ten patients were studied. For each patient, 12 datasets were analyzed. Mutual information-based regional rigid alignment was used to determine the magnitude and reproducibility of cardiac motion as a function of breathing state. For each scan session, motion was quantified by evaluating the displacement of a point along the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with respect to its position at end expiration. Long-term positional reproducibility was also assessed. Results: Displacement of the LAD was greatest in the inferior direction, moderate in the anterior direction, and lowest in the left-right direction. At shallow breathing states, the average displacement of LAD position was up to 6 mm in the inferior direction. The maximum displacement in any patient was 2.8 cm in the inferior direction, between expiration and deep-inspiration breath hold. At end expiration, the long-term reproducibility (SD) of the LAD position was 3 mm in the A-P, 6 mm in the S-I, and 4 mm in the L-R directions. At deep-inspiration breath hold, long-term reproducibility was 3 mm in the A-P, 7 mm in the S-I, and 3 mm in the L-R directions. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the extent of LAD displacement that occurs with shallow breathing and with deep-inspiration breath hold. This information may guide optimization studies considering the effects of respiratory motion and reproducibility of cardiac position on cardiac dose, both with and without ABC.

  13. Coordinated network activity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Draguhn, Andreas; Keller, Martin; Reichinnek, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus expresses a variety of highly organized network states which bind its individual neurons into collective modes of activity. These patterns go along with characteristic oscillations of extracellular potential known as theta, gamma, and ripple oscillations. Such network oscillations share some important features throughout the entire central nervous system of higher animals: they are restricted to a defined behavioral state, they are mostly generated by subthreshold synaptic activity, and they entrain active neurons to fire action potentials at strictly defined phases of the oscillation cycle, thereby providing a unifying 'zeitgeber' for coordinated multineuronal activity. Recent work from the hippocampus of rodents and humans has revealed how the resulting spatiotemporal patterns support the formation of neuronal assemblies which, in our present understanding, form the neuronal correlate of spatial, declarative, or episodic memories. In this review, we introduce the major types of spatiotemporal activity patterns in the hippocampus, describe the underlying neuronal mechanisms, and illustrate the concept of memory formation within oscillating networks. Research on hippocampus-dependent memory has become a key model system at the interface between cellular and cognitive neurosciences. The next step will be to translate our increasing insight into the mechanisms and systemic functions of neuronal networks into urgently needed new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24777128

  14. Use of Variable Pressure Suits, Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of variable pressure suits, intermittent recompression and Nitrox breathing mixtures to allow for multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a day. This new operational concept of multiple short EVAs requires short purge times and shorter prebreathes to assure rapid egress with a minimal loss of the vehicular air. Preliminary analysis has begun to evaluate the potential benefits of the intermittent recompression, and Nitrox breathing mixtures when used with variable pressure suits to enable reduce purges and prebreathe durations.

  15. Efficacy of paced breathing for insomnia: enhances vagal activity and improves sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H J; Kuo, Terry B J; Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2015-03-01

    Fourteen self-reported insomniacs (SRI) and 14 good sleepers (GS) had their cardiac neuronal activity assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) under controlled respiration at a slow frequency rate of 0.1 Hz, and a forced rate of 0.2 Hz during daytime rest. Nighttime sleep was measured by polysomnography. The SRI showed depressed high frequency power of HRV compared to the GS. An increased total power of HRV was observed among the SRI during slow, paced breathing compared with spontaneous breathing and 0.2 Hz. Sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and awakening time during sleep were decreased and sleep efficiency was increased if SRI practiced slow, paced breathing exercises for 20 min before going to sleep. Our results indicate that there is autonomic dysfunction among insomniacs, especially in relation to vagal activity; however, this decreased vagal activity can be facilitated by practicing slow, paced breathing, thereby improving sleep quality. PMID:25234581

  16. Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing Reverses Low Fetal Activity Levels in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Blyton, Diane M.; Skilton, Michael R.; Edwards, Natalie; Hennessy, Annemarie; Celermajer, David S.; Sullivan, Colin E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Preeclampsia affects 5% to 7% of pregnancies, is strongly associated with low birth weight and fetal death, and is accompanied by sleep disordered breathing. We hypothesized that sleep disordered breathing may link preeclampsia with reduced fetal movements (a marker of fetal health), and that treatment of sleep disordered breathing might improve fetal activity during sleep. Design, Setting, and Participants: First, a method of fetal movement recording was validated against ultrasound in 20 normal third trimester pregnancies. Second, fetal movement was measured overnight with concurrent polysomnography in 20 patients with preeclampsia and 20 control subjects during third trimester. Third, simultaneous polysomnography and fetal monitoring was done in 10 additional patients with preeclampsia during a control night and during a night of nasal CPAP. Intervention: Overnight continuous positive airway pressure. Measurements and Results: Women with preeclampsia had inspiratory flow limitation and an increased number of oxygen desaturations during sleep (P = 0.008), particularly during REM sleep. Preeclampsia was associated with reduced total fetal movements overnight (319 [SD 32]) versus controls (689 [SD 160], P < 0.0001) and a change in fetal movement patterns. The number of fetal hiccups was also substantially reduced in preeclampsia subjects (P < 0.0001). Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increased the number of fetal movements and hiccups (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Conclusions: The effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure in improving fetal movements suggests a pathogenetic role for sleep disordered breathing in the reduced fetal activity and possibly in the poorer fetal outcomes associated with preeclampsia. Citation: Blyton DM; Skilton MR; Edwards N; Hennessy A; Celermajer DS; Sullivan CE. Treatment of sleep disordered breathing reverses low fetal activity levels in preeclampsia. SLEEP 2013;36(1):15–21

  17. Short-Term Displacement and Reproducibility of the Breast and Nodal Targets Under Active Breathing Control

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Jean M. . E-mail: jmmoran@med.umich.edu; Balter, James M.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Marsh, Robin B. C; Herk, Marcel van; Pierce, Lori J.

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: The short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast or chest wall, and the internal mammary (IM), infraclavicular (ICV), and supraclavicular (SCV) nodal regions have been assessed as a function of breath-hold state using an active breathing control (ABC) device for patients receiving loco-regional breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients underwent computed tomographic scanning using an ABC device at breath-hold states of end-exhale and 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of vital capacity (VC). Patients underwent scanning before treatment and at one third and two thirds of the way through treatment. A regional registration was performed for each target using a rigid-body transformation with mutual information as a metric. Results: Between exhale and 40% of VC, the mean displacement was 0.27/0.34, 0.24/0.31, 0.22/0.19, and 0.13/0.19 cm anterior/superior for the breast or chest wall, and IM, ICV, and SCV nodes, respectively. At 80% of VC, the mean displacement from exhale was 0.84/.88, 0.76/.79, 0.70/0.79, and 0.54/0.56 cm anterior/superior for the breast or chest wall, and IM, ICV, and SCV nodes, respectively. The short-term reproducibility (standard deviation) was <0.3 and {<=}0.4 cm for 40% and 80% of VC, respectively. Displacements up to 1.9 cm were observed for individual patients. Conclusions: The short-term reproducibility of target position is {<=}0.4 cm using ABC for all structures for all breath-hold states. This information can be used to guide treatment planning optimization studies that consider the effect of motion on target and normal tissue doses with and without active breathing control.

  18. Quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography gated by active breathing control

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Bria P.; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) gated by active breathing control (ABC), which may be useful for image guidance in the presence of respiration. Comparisons were made between conventional ABC-CBCT (stop and go), fast ABC-CBCT (a method to speed up the acquisition by slowing the gantry instead of stopping during free breathing), and free breathing respiration correlated CBCT. Image quality was assessed in phantom. Accuracy of reconstructed voxel intensity, uniformity, and root mean square error were evaluated. Registration accuracy (bony and soft tissue) was quantified with both an anthropomorphic and a quality assurance phantom. Gantry angle accuracy was measured with respect to gantry speed modulation. Conventional ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 2.3 to 5.8 min. Fast ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 1.4 to 1.8 min, and respiratory correlated CBCT scans took 2.1 min to complete. Voxel intensity value for ABC gated scans was accurate relative to a normal clinical scan with all projections. Uniformity and root mean square error performance degraded as the number of projections used in the reconstruction of the fast ABC-CBCT scans decreased (shortest breath hold, longest free breathing segment). Registration accuracy for small, large, and rotational corrections was within 1 mm and 1 degree sign . Gantry angle accuracy was within 1 degree sign for all scans. For high-contrast targets, performance for image-guidance purposes was similar for fast and conventional ABC-CBCT scans and respiration correlated CBCT.

  19. Quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography gated by active breathing control

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Bria P.; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality and accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) gated by active breathing control (ABC), which may be useful for image guidance in the presence of respiration. Comparisons were made between conventional ABC-CBCT (stop and go), fast ABC-CBCT (a method to speed up the acquisition by slowing the gantry instead of stopping during free breathing), and free breathing respiration correlated CBCT. Image quality was assessed in phantom. Accuracy of reconstructed voxel intensity, uniformity, and root mean square error were evaluated. Registration accuracy (bony and soft tissue) was quantified with both an anthropomorphic and a quality assurance phantom. Gantry angle accuracy was measured with respect to gantry speed modulation. Conventional ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 2.3 to 5.8 min. Fast ABC-CBCT scan time ranged from 1.4 to 1.8 min, and respiratory correlated CBCT scans took 2.1 min to complete. Voxel intensity value for ABC gated scans was accurate relative to a normal clinical scan with all projections. Uniformity and root mean square error performance degraded as the number of projections used in the reconstruction of the fast ABC-CBCT scans decreased (shortest breath hold, longest free breathing segment). Registration accuracy for small, large, and rotational corrections was within 1 mm and 1°. Gantry angle accuracy was within 1° for all scans. For high-contrast targets, performance for image-guidance purposes was similar for fast and conventional ABC-CBCT scans and respiration correlated CBCT. PMID:19175117

  20. Investigations on the influence of breathing on brain activity using optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandavilli, Mukanda R.; Blazek, Vladimir; Schmitt, Hans J.

    1997-05-01

    In recent years investigation and understanding of the brain activity is receiving much attention. Such investigations are generally confined to few select premier research institutions where expensive and sophisticated facilities like EEG, PET, FMRI, etc. are available. Of late optical sensors are receiving much attention for biomedical applications because they are relatively simple in construction, easy to use and comparatively inexpensive. Among the biomedical optical sensors, photophlethysmographic (PPG) measuring systems have a unique position. They function as transcutaneous registration of blood volume changes in the near skin blood vessels. By recording the signals from the supply to the left and right lobes of the brain in the cerebral cortex. The oxygen content in the arterary blood flow to the brain will naturally have an important role to play in the activity of the brain. It is suggested that by positioning sensitive temperature sensors in the nostrils of a subject, one could monitor his breathing activity. By recording the outputs rom these temperature sensor for several hours, it has been noticed that the breathing activity of a subject will change from one nostril to another periodically. Besides, it has also been observed that any sudden fluctuations in the breathing pattern is accompanied by changes in the blood flow to the brain as monitored by PPG optical sensors mounted on the temples of a subject. An attempt is made to understand such events.

  1. 30 CFR 229.122 - Coordination of audit activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination of audit activities. 229.122... MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Oil and Gas, Onshore Delegation Requirements § 229.122 Coordination of audit activities. (a) Each State with a delegation of authority shall submit annually to the MMS an audit...

  2. 30 CFR 1229.122 - Coordination of audit activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... scheduled for audit. This workplan must be submitted 120 days prior to the beginning of each fiscal year. A... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination of audit activities. 1229.122....122 Coordination of audit activities. (a) Each State with a delegation of authority shall...

  3. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coordination of planning process activities. 450.208 Section 450.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.208 Coordination of planning process activities. (a)...

  4. 42 CFR 476.104 - Coordination of activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coordination of activities. 476.104 Section 476.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 476.104 Coordination of activities. In order to achieve efficient and economical review, a QIO...

  5. 34 CFR 75.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 75.580 Section 75.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.580 Coordination with other activities. A...

  6. 34 CFR 75.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 75.580 Section 75.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.580 Coordination with other activities. A...

  7. 34 CFR 75.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 75.580 Section 75.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.580 Coordination with other activities. A...

  8. 34 CFR 75.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 75.580 Section 75.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.580 Coordination with other activities. A...

  9. 34 CFR 75.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 75.580 Section 75.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.580 Coordination with other activities. A...

  10. Framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Jörn; Charoy, François; El Khoury, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Recent disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, have shown several issues for the coordination of human activities in these dynamic situations. Contemporary tools for the coordination used in the disaster response, such as e-mail, Whiteboards or phones, only allow for unstructured coordination, which can cause coordination problems. Hence, we discuss about the current information systems for coordinating the activities in a structured manner and identify their weaknesses in the context of a process modelling effort conducted together with experienced disaster managers. Afterwards, we propose a framework for coordination of activities in dynamic situations. The framework presented in this paper has been implemented as an extension to an open collaboration service. This shows how it can be used in the context of other tools required for disaster response management, such as maps, pictures or videos of the situation. The work described here is the foundation for enabling inter-organisational coordination of activities relevant in other domains, e.g. enterprise support processes, production processes or distributed software development projects. Furthermore, comments by disaster managers show that the concepts are relevant for their work. The expected impact is a more effective and efficient coordination of human activities in dynamic situations by structuring what needs to be coordinated.

  11. Multiplayer Activities That Develop Mathematical Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Lauren J.; Tanimoto, Steven L.; Rothenberg, Alex I.; Hutama, Danny C.; Wong, Tina H.

    Four computer applications are presented that encourage students to develop "mathematical coordination"--the ability to manipulate numerical variables in cooperation with other students so as to achieve a definite goal. The programs enable a form of computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL). This paper describes the rationale and design of…

  12. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  13. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  14. Meta-Coordination Activities: Exploring Articulation Work in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of distributed activities is central to organizational work. The effective functioning of organizations hinges on their ability to manage interdependencies both within (intra-) and between (inter-) various departments. However, more than just the management of these individual dependencies is required for smooth coordination in…

  15. 34 CFR 76.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 76.580 Section 76.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.580 Coordination with...

  16. 34 CFR 76.580 - Coordination with other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination with other activities. 76.580 Section 76.580 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.580 Coordination with...

  17. Neostigmine but not sugammadex impairs upper airway dilator muscle activity and breathing

    PubMed Central

    Eikermann, M.; Zaremba, S.; Malhotra, A.; Jordan, A. S.; Rosow, C.; Chamberlin, N. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cholinesterase inhibitor-based reversal agents, given in the absence of neuromuscular block, evoke a partial upper airway obstruction by decreasing skeletal upper airway muscle function. Sugammadex reverses neuromuscular block by encapsulating rocuronium. However, its effects on upper airway integrity and breathing are unknown. Methods Fifty-one adult male rats were anaesthetized with isoflurane, tracheostomized, and a femoral artery and vein were cannulated. First, we compared the efficacy of sugammadex 15 mg kg−1 and neostigmine 0.06 mg kg−1 to reverse respiratory effects of rocuronium-induced partial paralysis [train-of-four ratio (T4/T1)=0.5]. Subsequently, we compared the safety of sugammadex and neostigmine given after recovery of the T4/T1 to 1, by measuring phasic genioglossus activity and breathing. Results During partial paralysis (T4/T1=0.5), time to recovery of minute volume to baseline values was 10.9 (2), 75.8 (18), and 153 (54) s with sugammadex, neostigmine, and placebo, respectively (sugammadex was significantly faster than neostigmine and placebo, P<0.05). Recovery of T4/T1 was also faster for sugammadex than neostigmine and placebo. Neostigmine administration after complete recovery of T4/T1 decreased upper airway dilator muscle activity to 64 (30)% of baseline and decreased tidal volume (P<0.05 for both variables), whereas sugammadex had no effect on either variable. Conclusions In contrast to neostigmine, which significantly impairs upper airway dilator muscle activity when given after recovery from neuromuscular block, a reversal dose of sugammadex given under the same conditions does not affect genioglossus muscle activity and normal breathing. Human studies will be required to evaluate the clinical relevance of our findings. PMID:18559352

  18. Catalytically active lead(ii)-imidazolium coordination assemblies with diversified lead(ii) coordination geometries.

    PubMed

    Naga Babu, Chatla; Suresh, Paladugu; Srinivas, Katam; Sathyanarayana, Arruri; Sampath, Natarajan; Prabusankar, Ganesan

    2016-05-10

    Five Pb(ii)-imidazolium carboxylate coordination assemblies with novel structural motifs were derived from the reaction between the corresponding flexible, semi flexible or rigid imidazolium carboxylic acid ligands and lead nitrate. The imidazolium linker present in these molecules likely plays a triple role such as the counter ion to balance the metal charge, the ligand being an integral part of the final product and the catalyst facilitating carbon-carbon bond formation reaction. These lead-imidazolium coordination assemblies exhibit, variable chemical and thermal stabilities, as well as catalytic activity. These newly prepared catalysts are highly active towards benzoin condensation reactions with good functional group tolerance. PMID:27093629

  19. Chemical activation of caudal medullary expiratory neurones alters the pattern of breathing in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bongianni, F; Corda, M; Fontana, G A; Pantaleo, T

    1994-02-01

    1. The purpose of this work was to ascertain whether the activation of caudal expiratory neurones located in the caudal part of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) may affect the pattern of breathing via medullary axon collaterals. 2. We used microinjections of DL-homocysteic acid (DLH) to activate this population of neurones in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated cats. Both phrenic and abdominal nerve activities were monitored; extracellular recordings from medullary and upper cervical cord respiratory neurones were performed. 3. DLH (160 mM) microinjected (10-30 nl for a total of 1.6-4.8 nmol) into the caudal VRG, into sites where expiratory activity was encountered, provoked an intense and sustained activation of the expiratory motor output associated with a corresponding period of silence in phrenic nerve activity. During the progressive decline of the activation of abdominal motoneurones, rhythmic inspiratory activity resumed, displaying a decrease in frequency and a marked reduction or the complete suppression of postinspiratory activity as its most consistent features. 4. Medullary and upper cervical cord inspiratory neurones exhibited inhibitory responses consistent with those observed in phrenic nerve activity, while expiratory neurones in the caudal VRG on the side contralateral to the injection showed excitation patterns similar to those of abdominal motoneurones. On the other hand, in correspondence to expiratory motor output activation, expiratory neurones of the Bötzinger complex displayed tonic discharges whose intensity was markedly lower than the peak level of control breaths. 5. Bilateral lignocaine blockades of neural transmission at C2-C3 affecting the expiratory and, to a varying extent, the inspiratory bulbospinal pathways as well as spinal cord transections at C2-C3 or C1-C2, did not suppress the inhibitory effect on inspiratory neurones of either the ipsi- or contralateral VRG in response to DLH

  20. Magneto-impedance sensor for quasi-noncontact monitoring of breathing, pulse rate and activity status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corodeanu, S.; Chiriac, H.; Radulescu, L.; Lupu, N.

    2014-05-01

    Results on the development and testing of a novel magnetic sensor based on the detection of the magneto-impedance variation due to changes in the permeability of an amorphous wire are reported. The proposed application is the quasi-noncontact monitoring of the breathing frequency and heart rate for diagnosing sleep disorders. Patient discomfort is significantly decreased by transversally placing the sensitive element onto the surface of a flexible mattress in order to detect its deformation associated with cardiorespiratory activity and body movements. The developed sensor has a great application potential in monitoring the vital signs during sleep, with special advantages for children sleep monitoring.

  1. Antibacterial activity of silver camphorimine coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, João M S; Galvão, Adelino M; Guerreiro, Soraia I; Leitão, Jorge H; Suarez, Ana C; Carvalho, M Fernanda N N

    2016-04-28

    Five new silver camphorimine complexes of general formula [Ag(NO3)(Y)L] were synthesized and fully characterized using spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The structure of [Ag(NO3)(OC10H14NC6H4NC10H14O)] () was analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction, showing that it arranges as a coordination polymer formed by sequential Ag(NO3) units bridged by the bi-camphor ligand (). The antimicrobial properties of the new complexes were screened using the disk diffusion method and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were assessed against selected bacterial strains of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia contaminans. The lowest MICs were observed for , with estimated values of 72, 20, 32 and 19 μg mL(-1) for S. aureus, E. coli, B. contaminans, and P. aeruginosa, respectively. In the case of S. aureus, similar MIC values were obtained for silver nitrate and compound . All five compounds were bactericidal when used in concentrations equal or above the MIC value, as found by enumerating the total colony forming units (CFUs) after incubation in their presence. PMID:27007331

  2. Coordination and standardization of federal sedimentation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.

    1997-01-01

    - precipitation information critical to water resources management. Memorandum M-92-01 covers primarily freshwater bodies and includes activities, such as "development and distribution of consensus standards, field-data collection and laboratory analytical methods, data processing and interpretation, data-base management, quality control and quality assurance, and water- resources appraisals, assessments, and investigations." Research activities are not included.

  3. 13C-egg white breath test: a non-invasive test of pancreatic trypsin activity in the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Evenepoel, P; Hiele, M; Geypens, B; Geboes, K; Rutgeerts, P; Ghoos, Y

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The recent availability of egg white protein highly enriched with 13C has allowed breath test technology to be adapted for the study of protein digestion and absorption. Pancreatic trypsin is considered to be the key enzyme in the proteolytic cascade.
AIM—To evaluate trypsin activity in the small intestine of healthy volunteers and patients with pancreatic disease by a recently developed 13C-egg white breath test.
METHODS—A total of 48 healthy volunteers and 30 patients with pancreatic disease were studied after ingestion of a test meal consisting of 22 g 13C-labelled egg protein. Breath samples were taken before and after ingestion of the meal and analysed for 13CO2 concentration. Moreover, pancreatic trypsin output after maximal stimulation was measured in 13 patients and nine healthy volunteers.
RESULTS—The six hour cumulative 13CO2 excretion in breath was significantly lower in patients than controls (mean (SEM): 6.23 (0.82)% v 19.16 (0.58)%, p<0.0001). An excellent correlation was found between the six hour cumulative 13CO2 excretion and trypsin activity after maximal pancreatic stimulation.
CONCLUSION—The non-invasive 13C-egg white breath test is promising as an indirect pancreatic proteolytic function test.


Keywords: breath test; pancreatic disease; trypsin; protein; assimilation PMID:10601055

  4. Oxygen control of breathing by an olfactory receptor activated by lactate

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andy J.; Ortega, Fabian E.; Riegler, Johannes; Madison, Daniel V.; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animals have evolved homeostatic responses to changes in oxygen availability that act on different time scales. Although the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional pathway that controls long term responses to low oxygen (hypoxia) has been established1, the pathway that mediates acute responses to hypoxia in mammals is not well understood. Here we show that the olfactory receptor Olfr78 is highly and selectively expressed in oxygen-sensitive glomus cells of the carotid body, a chemosensory organ at the carotid artery bifurcation that monitors blood oxygen and stimulates breathing within seconds when oxygen declines2. Olfr78 mutants fail to increase ventilation in hypoxia but respond normally to hypercapnia. Glomus cells are present in normal numbers and appear structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced carotid body activity is diminished. Lactate, a metabolite that rapidly accumulates in hypoxia and induces hyperventilation3–6, activates Olfr78 in heterologous expression experiments, induces calcium transients in glomus cells, and stimulates carotid sinus nerve activity through Olfr78. We propose that in addition to its role in olfaction, Olfr78 acts as a hypoxia sensor in the breathing circuit by sensing lactate produced when oxygen levels decline. PMID:26560302

  5. Active Breathing Control for Hodgkin's Disease in Childhood and Adolescence: Feasibility, Advantages, and Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Claude, Line . E-mail: claude@lyon.fnclcc.fr; Malet, Claude Phys.; Pommier, Pascal; Thiesse, Philippe; Chabaud, Sylvie; Carrie, Christian

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: The challenge in early Hodgkin's disease (HD) in children is to maintain good survival rates while sparing organs at risk. This study assesses the feasibility of active breathing control (ABC) in children, and compares normal tissue irradiation with and without ABC. Methods and Materials: Between May 2003 and June 2004, seven children with HD with mediastinal involvement, median age 15, were treated by chemotherapy and involved-field radiation therapy. A free-breathing computed tomography simulation scan and one additional scan during deep inspiration using ABC were performed. A comparison between planning treatment with clinical target volume including supraclavicular regions, mediastinum, and hila was performed, both in free breathing and using ABC. Results: For a prescription of 36 Gy, pulmonary dose-volume histograms revealed a mean reduction in lung volume irradiated at more than 20 Gy (V20) and 30 Gy (V30) of 25% and 26%, respectively, using ABC (p = 0.016). The mean volume of heart irradiated at 30 Gy or more decreased from 15% to 12% (nonsignificant). The mean dose delivered to breasts in girls was small in both situations (less than 2 Gy) and stable with or without ABC. Considering axillary irradiation, the mean dose delivered to breasts remained low (<9 Gy), without significant difference using ABC or not. The mean radiation dose delivered to thyroid was stable using ABC or not. Conclusions: Using ABC is feasible in childhood. The use of ABC decreases normal lung tissue irradiation. Concerning heart irradiation, a minimal gain is also shown. No significant change has been demonstrated concerning breast and thyroid irradiation.

  6. 30 CFR 1229.122 - Coordination of audit activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... audit. This workplan must be submitted 120 days prior to the beginning of each fiscal year. A State may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coordination of audit activities. 1229.122... of audit activities. (a) Each State with a delegation of authority shall submit annually to the...

  7. 30 CFR 1229.122 - Coordination of audit activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... audit. This workplan must be submitted 120 days prior to the beginning of each fiscal year. A State may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coordination of audit activities. 1229.122... of audit activities. (a) Each State with a delegation of authority shall submit annually to the...

  8. 30 CFR 1229.122 - Coordination of audit activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... audit. This workplan must be submitted 120 days prior to the beginning of each fiscal year. A State may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coordination of audit activities. 1229.122... of audit activities. (a) Each State with a delegation of authority shall submit annually to the...

  9. Reporter Phage and Breath Tests: Emerging Phenotypic Assays for Diagnosing Active Tuberculosis, Antibiotic Resistance, and Treatment Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Paras; Thaler, David S.; Maiga, Mamoudou; Timmins, Graham S.; Bishai, William R.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Larsen, Michelle H.; Jacobs, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) and its drug susceptibility remain a challenge. Phenotypic assays allow determination of antibiotic susceptibilities even if sequence data are not available or informative. We review 2 emerging diagnostic approaches, reporter phage and breath tests, both of which assay mycobacterial metabolism. The reporter phage signal, Green fluorescent protein (GFP) or β-galactosidase, indicates transcription and translation inside the recipient bacilli and its attenuation by antibiotics. Different breath tests assay, (1) exhaled antigen 85, (2) mycobacterial urease activity, and (3) detection by trained rats of disease-specific odor in sputum, have also been developed. When compared with culture, reporter phage assays shorten the time for initial diagnosis of drug susceptibility by several days. Both reporter phage and breath tests have promise as early markers to determine the efficacy of treatment. While sputum often remains smear and Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA positive early in the course of efficacious antituberculous treatment, we predict that both breath and phage tests will rapidly become negative. If this hypothesis proves correct, phage assays and breath tests could become important surrogate markers in early bactericidal activity (EBA) studies of new antibiotics. PMID:21996696

  10. Coordinating Computing, Network and Archiving activities within INAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasian, F.; Bodo, G.; Fini, L.; Garilli, B.; Longo, G.; Massimino, P.; Nanni, M.; Smareglia, R.

    When INAF was reformed, it was decided to create a `Computing, Network and Archives Service' within the Projects Department, in order to coordinate all computer-related activities and to properly harmonize management and development policies in the field. A `Computing, Network and Archives Committee' was immediately nominated for the duration of one year to cope with the immediate needs. The Committee has the task of identifying and making operational strategies to coordinate activities in the areas of interest, improving service to all users, implementing synergies and economies, while guaranteeing a single INAF contact point for all external institutions working in the field.

  11. Diaphragmatic amplitude and accessory inspiratory muscle activity in nasal and mouth-breathing adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Elaine; Boufleur, Jalusa; Soares, Juliana Corrêa; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic activity of the accessory inspiratory muscles and the diaphragmatic amplitude (DA) in nasal and mouth-breathing adults. The study evaluated 38 mouth-breathing (MB group) and 38 nasal-breathing (NB group) adults, from 18 to 30years old and both sexes. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to evaluate the amplitude and symmetry (POC%) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles at rest, during nasal slow inspiration at Lung Total Capacity (LTC) and, during rapid and abrupt inspiration: Sniff, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) and Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP). M-mode ultrasonography assessed the right diaphragm muscle amplitude in three different nasal inspirations: at tidal volume (TV), Sniff and inspiration at LTC. The SCM activity was significantly lower in the MB group during Sniff, PNIF (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney test) and MIP (p<0.01, t-test). The groups did not differ during rest and inspiration at LTC, regarding sEMG amplitude and POC%. DA was significantly lower in the MB group at TV (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney) and TLC (p=0.03, t-test). Mouth breathing reflected on lower recruitment of the accessory inspiratory muscles during fast inspiration and lower diaphragmatic amplitude, compared to nasal breathing. PMID:25900327

  12. Euro-VO-Coordination of virtual observatory activities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Françoise; Allen, Mark G.; Arviset, Christophe; Lawrence, Andy; Pasian, Fabio; Solano, Enrique; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    The European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO has been coordinating European VO activities through a series of projects co-funded by the European Commission over the last 15 years. The bulk of VO work in Europe is ensured by the national VO initiatives and those of intergovernmental agencies. VO activities at the European level coordinate the work in support of the three "pillars" of the Virtual Observatory: support to the scientific community, take-up by the data providers, and technological activities. Several Euro-VO projects have also provided direct support to selected developments and prototyping. This paper explains the methodology used by Euro-VO over the years. It summarises the activities which were performed and their evolutions at different stages of the development of the VO, explains the Euro-VO role with respect to the international and national levels of VO activities, details the lessons learnt for best practices for the coordination of the VO building blocks, and the liaison with other European initiatives, documenting the added-value of European coordination. Finally, the current status and next steps of Euro-VO are briefly addressed.

  13. 42 CFR 476.104 - Coordination of activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coordination of activities. 476.104 Section 476.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Quality Improvement Organizations...

  14. 42 CFR 476.104 - Coordination of activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coordination of activities. 476.104 Section 476.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control...

  15. 42 CFR 476.104 - Coordination of activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coordination of activities. 476.104 Section 476.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control...

  16. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube) in place. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... kidney failure (can cause breath to smell like ammonia ) Diabetes (fruity or sweet chemical smell associated with ...

  17. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  18. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary disease (COPD), such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema Other lung disease Pneumonia Pulmonary hypertension Problems with ... of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea Images Lungs Emphysema References Kraft M. Approach to the patient with ...

  19. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a potentially life-threatening condition. Breath that smells like feces can occur with prolonged vomiting , especially ... renal failure Bowel obstruction (can cause breath to smell like feces) Bronchiectasis Chronic kidney failure (can cause ...

  20. Perspective: Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breat...

  1. Comparison of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (BCPR) Performance in the Absence and Presence of Timing Devices for Coordinating Delivery of Ventilatory Breaths and Cardiac Compressions in a Model of Adult Cardiopulmonary Arrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor, IV; West, Sarah; Austin, Paul; Branson, Richard; Beck, George

    2006-01-01

    Astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) receive 40 hours of medical training during the 18 months preceding each mission. Part of this training ilncludes twoperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) per training guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA). Recent studies concluded that the use of metronomic tones improves the coordination of CPR by trained clinicians. Similar data for bystander or "trained lay people" (e.g. CMO) performance of CPR (BCPR) have been limited. The purpose of this study was to evailuate whether use of timing devices, such as audible metronomic tones, would improve BCPR perfomance by trained bystanders. Twenty pairs of bystanders trained in two-person BCPR performled BCPR for 4 minutes on a simulated cardiopulmonary arrest patient using three interventions: 1) BCPR with no timing devices, 2) BCPR plus metronomic tones for coordinating compression rate only, 3) BCPR with a timing device and metronome for coordinating ventilation and compression rates, respectively. Bystanders were evaluated on their ability to meet international and AHA CPR guidelines. Bystanders failed to provide the recommended number of breaths and number of compressions in the absence of a timing device and in the presence of audible metronomic tones for only coordinating compression rate. Bystanders using timing devices to coordinate both components of BCPR provided the reco number of breaths and were closer to providing the recommended number of compressions compared with the other interventions. Survey results indicated that bystanders preferred to use a metronome for delivery of compressions during BCPR. BCPR performance is improved by timing devices that coordinate both compressions and breaths.

  2. Hand-eye coordination with an active camera head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishay, Magued; Peters, R. Alan; Wilkes, Don M.; Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    1997-09-01

    Hand-eye coordination is the coupling between vision and manipulation. Visual servoing is the term applied to hand-eye coordination in robots. In recent years, research has demonstrated that active vision -- active control of camera position and camera parameters -- facilitates a robot's interaction with the world. One aspect of active vision is centering an object in an image. This is known as gaze stabilization or fixation. This paper presents a new algorithm that applies target fixation to image-based visual servoing. This algorithm, called fixation point servoing (FPS), uses target fixation to eliminate the need for Jacobian computation Additionally, FPS reburies only the rotation relationship between the camera head and the gripper frames and does not require accurate tracking of the gripper. FPS was tested on a robotics system called ISAC and experimental results are shown. FPS was also compared to a classical Jacobian-based technique using simulations of both algorithms.

  3. Functional connectivity in raphé-pontomedullary circuits supports active suppression of breathing during hypocapnic apnea.

    PubMed

    Nuding, Sarah C; Segers, Lauren S; Iceman, Kimberly E; O'Connor, Russell; Dean, Jay B; Bolser, Donald C; Baekey, David M; Dick, Thomas E; Shannon, Roger; Morris, Kendall F; Lindsey, Bruce G

    2015-10-01

    Hyperventilation is a common feature of disordered breathing. Apnea ensues if CO2 drive is sufficiently reduced. We tested the hypothesis that medullary raphé, ventral respiratory column (VRC), and pontine neurons have functional connectivity and persistent or evoked activities appropriate for roles in the suppression of drive and rhythm during hyperventilation and apnea. Phrenic nerve activity, arterial blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, and other parameters were monitored in 10 decerebrate, vagotomized, neuromuscularly-blocked, and artificially ventilated cats. Multielectrode arrays recorded spiking activity of 649 neurons. Loss and return of rhythmic activity during passive hyperventilation to apnea were identified with the S-transform. Diverse fluctuating activity patterns were recorded in the raphé-pontomedullary respiratory network during the transition to hypocapnic apnea. The firing rates of 160 neurons increased during apnea; the rates of 241 others decreased or stopped. VRC inspiratory neurons were usually the last to cease firing or lose rhythmic activity during the transition to apnea. Mayer wave-related oscillations (0.04-0.1 Hz) in firing rate were also disrupted during apnea. Four-hundred neurons (62%) were elements of pairs with at least one hyperventilation-responsive neuron and a correlational signature of interaction identified by cross-correlation or gravitational clustering. Our results support a model with distinct groups of chemoresponsive raphé neurons contributing to hypocapnic apnea through parallel processes that incorporate disfacilitation and active inhibition of inspiratory motor drive by expiratory neurons. During apnea, carotid chemoreceptors can evoke rhythm reemergence and an inspiratory shift in the balance of reciprocal inhibition via suppression of ongoing tonic expiratory neuron activity. PMID:26203111

  4. Attraction and social coordination: mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    McGarva, Andrew R; Warner, Rebecca M

    2003-05-01

    To investigate factors that affect the mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms, female general psychology students paired according to attitude similarity questionnaires engaged in 40-minute introductory conversations. Fourier analyses performed on speakers' on-off vocal activity demonstrated periodic oscillations in talkativeness. Although some dyads coordinated their vocal activity rhythms, speech accommodation was not predicted by attitude similarity or attraction and did not affect ratings of conversation quality. These rhythms of dialogue appear resistant to change, their behavioral momentum rooted perhaps in an underlying chronobiology. PMID:12845943

  5. From Spontaneous Motor Activity to Coordinated Behaviour: A Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Hugo Gravato; Bharadwaj, Arjun; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the developmental path that links the primary behaviours observed during foetal stages to the full fledged behaviours observed in adults is still beyond our understanding. Often theories of motor control try to deal with the process of incremental learning in an abstract and modular way without establishing any correspondence with the mammalian developmental stages. In this paper, we propose a computational model that links three distinct behaviours which appear at three different stages of development. In order of appearance, these behaviours are: spontaneous motor activity (SMA), reflexes, and coordinated behaviours, such as locomotion. The goal of our model is to address in silico four hypotheses that are currently hard to verify in vivo: First, the hypothesis that spinal reflex circuits can be self-organized from the sensor and motor activity induced by SMA. Second, the hypothesis that supraspinal systems can modulate reflex circuits to achieve coordinated behaviour. Third, the hypothesis that, since SMA is observed in an organism throughout its entire lifetime, it provides a mechanism suitable to maintain the reflex circuits aligned with the musculoskeletal system, and thus adapt to changes in body morphology. And fourth, the hypothesis that by changing the modulation of the reflex circuits over time, one can switch between different coordinated behaviours. Our model is tested in a simulated musculoskeletal leg actuated by six muscles arranged in a number of different ways. Hopping is used as a case study of coordinated behaviour. Our results show that reflex circuits can be self-organized from SMA, and that, once these circuits are in place, they can be modulated to achieve coordinated behaviour. In addition, our results show that our model can naturally adapt to different morphological changes and perform behavioural transitions. PMID:25057775

  6. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  7. Understanding the rhythm of breathing: so near yet so far

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jack L.; Del Negro, Christopher A.; Gray, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms leading from DNA to molecules to neurons to networks to behavior is a major goal for neuroscience, but largely out of reach for many fundamental and interesting behaviors. The neural control of breathing may be a rare exception, presenting a unique opportunity to understand how the nervous system functions normally, how it balances inherent robustness with a highly regulated lability, how it adapts to rapidly and slowly changing conditions, and how particular dysfunctions result in disease. Why can we assert this? First and foremost, the functions of breathing are clearly definable, starting with its regulatory job of maintaining blood (and brain) O2, CO2 and pH; failure is not an option. Breathing is also an essential component of many vocal and emotive behaviors including, e.g., crying, laughing, singing, and sniffing, and must be coordinated with such vital behaviors as suckling and swallowing, even at birth. Second, the regulated variables, O2, CO2 and pH (and temperature in non-primate mammals), are continuous and are readily and precisely quantifiable, as is ventilation itself along with the underlying rhythmic motor activity, i.e., respiratory muscle EMGs. Third, we breathe all the time, except for short breaks as during breath-holding (which can be especially long in diving or hibernating mammals) or sleep apnea. Mammals (including humans) breathe in all behavioral states, e.g., sleep-wake, rest, exercise, panic, or fear, during anesthesia and even following decerebration. Moreover, essential aspects of the neural mechanisms driving breathing, including rhythmicity, are present at levels of reduction down to a medullary slice. Fourth, the relevant circuits exhibit a remarkable combination of extraordinary reliability, starting ex utero with the first air breath – intermittent breathing movements actually start in utero during the third trimester – and continuing for as many as ~109 breaths, as well as considerable lability

  8. Relationships between coordination, active drag and propelling efficiency in crawl.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Schnitzler, Christophe; Bideault, Gautier; Alberty, Morgan; Chollet, Didier; Toussaint, Huub Martin

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the relationships between the index of coordination (IdC) and active drag (D) assuming that at constant average speed, average drag equals average propulsion. The relationship between IdC and propulsive efficiency (ep) was also investigated at maximal speed. Twenty national swimmers completed two incremental speed tests swimming front crawl with arms only in free condition and using a measurement of active drag system. Each test was composed of eight 25-m bouts from 60% to 100% of maximal intensity whereby each lap was swum at constant speed. Different regression models were tested to analyse IdC-D relationship. Correlation between IdC and ep was calculated. IdC was linked to D by linear regression (IdC=0.246·D-27.06; R(2)=0.88, P<.05); swimmers switched from catch-up to superposition coordination mode at a speed of ∼1.55ms(-1) where average D is ∼110N. No correlation between IdC and ep at maximal speed was found. The intra-individual analysis revealed that coordination plays an important role in scaling propulsive forces with higher speed levels such that these are adapted to aquatic resistance. Inter-individual analysis showed that high IdC did not relate to a high ep suggesting an individual optimization of force and power generation is at play to reach high speeds. PMID:25461433

  9. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  10. Breathing - slowed or stopped

    MedlinePlus

    ... can occur with obstructive sleep apnea, for example. Prolonged apnea means a person has stopped breathing. If ... that requires immediate medical attention and first aid. Prolonged apnea with no heart activity in a person ...

  11. Activities of coordinated dietetic program directors compared by educational background.

    PubMed

    Nyland, N K; Spears, M C; Myers, E F

    1989-12-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the activities performed by coordinated program directors, compare current activities with 5-year expectations, and identify differences in importance and time spent on 14 pertinent activities by directors with master's degrees and those with doctorates. Responses were collected by a descriptive survey of 64 directors, all of whom participated. Program directors with master's degrees considered public relations with affiliations, attending faculty meetings, student advisement, and reading professional materials significantly more important (p less than .05) than did directors with doctorates, who considered faculty evaluations and research significantly more important (p less than .01). Directors with doctorates spent significantly less time in teaching (p less than .05) than those with master's degrees. Responsibilities of directors in the 22 submitted descriptions were organized into five categories: program management, curricular affairs, policies impacting on programs, student advisement and counseling, and academic activities. In the ADA Standards of Education, responsibilities of directors include program assessment, planning, and evaluation; in this study, those responsibilities were placed in the program management category. Exhibition of leadership qualities, revision of curriculum, and counseling and recruitment of students were responsibilities most frequently included in the position descriptions; however, those responsibilities were in categories other than program management. The responsibilities could serve as a guide for the development of a position description and as criteria for the role of a coordinated program director. PMID:2592717

  12. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  13. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    When you're short of breath, it's hard or uncomfortable for you to take in the oxygen your body needs. You may feel as if you're ... stuffy nose or hard exercise. But shortness of breath can also be a sign of a serious ...

  14. Classification of physical activities based on body-segments coordination.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Numerous innovations based on connected objects and physical activity (PA) monitoring have been proposed. However, recognition of PAs requires robust algorithm and methodology. The current study presents an innovative approach for PA recognition. It is based on the heuristic definition of postures and the use of body-segments coordination obtained through external sensors. The first part of this study presents the methodology required to define the set of accelerations which is the most appropriate to represent the particular body-segments coordination involved in the chosen PAs (here walking, running, and cycling). For that purpose, subjects of different ages and heterogeneous physical conditions walked, ran, cycled, and performed daily activities at different paces. From the 3D motion capture, vertical and horizontal accelerations of 8 anatomical landmarks representative of the body were computed. Then, the 680 combinations from up to 3 accelerations were compared to identify the most appropriate set of acceleration to discriminate the PAs in terms of body segment coordinations. The discrimination was based on the maximal Hausdorff Distance obtained between the different set of accelerations. The vertical accelerations of both knees demonstrated the best PAs discrimination. The second step was the proof of concept, implementing the proposed algorithm to classify PAs of new group of subjects. The originality of the proposed algorithm is the possibility to use the subject's specific measures as reference data. With the proposed algorithm, 94% of the trials were correctly classified. In conclusion, our study proposed a flexible and extendable methodology. At the current stage, the algorithm has been shown to be valid for heterogeneous subjects, which suggests that it could be deployed in clinical or health-related applications regardless of the subjects' physical abilities or characteristics. PMID:27441831

  15. Oral Adherence Monitoring Using a Breath Test to Supplement Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Timothy E.; Booth, Matthew; Wasdo, Scott; Wishin, Judith; Quinn, Brian; Gonzalez, Daniel; Derendorf, Hartmut; McGorray, Susan P.; Simoni, Jane; Melker, Richard J.; Dennis, Donn M.

    2012-01-01

    A breath-based adherence system to document ingestion of oral medications (e.g., HAART) was investigated. Specifically, the food additive 2-butanol, which can be easily packaged with a drug, is converted via alcohol dehydrogenase to the volatile metabolite 2-butanone that rapidly appears in breath, indicating adherence. In healthy adults using a portable sensor and GC-MS, the following experiments were performed: yield of 2-butanone in breath following ingestion of 2-butanol, adherence system accuracy, and potential interference of the adherence system by food or misplacement of 2-butanol on the tongue. During feasibility testing, every subject exhaled 2-butanone with 6.6±1.5 min to peak concentrations of 548±235 ppb following ingestion of 2-butanol (40 mg). ROC areas at 5 and 10 min were 0.95 (0.86–1.00) and 3 1.00 (1.00–1.00). Food did not interfere. Tongue application resulted in large concentrations of 2-butanol, but not 2-butanone. A breath test to provide definitive evidence of oral medication adherence appears technically feasible. PMID:23001413

  16. A Lamellar Coordination Polymer with Remarkable Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ricardo F; Antunes, Margarida M; Silva, Patrícia; Barbosa, Paula; Figueiredo, Filipe; Linden, Anthony; Rocha, João; Valente, Anabela A; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2016-09-01

    A positively charged lamellar coordination polymer based on a flexible triphosphonic acid linker is reported. [Gd(H4 nmp)(H2 O)2 ]Cl⋅2 H2 O (1) [H6 nmp=nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid)] was obtained by a one-pot approach by using water as a green solvent and by forcing the inclusion of additional acid sites by employing HCl in the synthesis. Compound 1 acts as a versatile heterogeneous acid catalyst with outstanding activity in organic reactions such as alcoholysis of styrene oxide, acetalization of benzaldehyde and cyclohexanaldehyde and ketalization of cyclohexanone. For all reaction systems, very high conversions were reached (92-97 %) in only 15-30 min under mild conditions (35 °C, atmospheric pressure). The coordination polymer exhibits a protonic conductivity of 1.23×10(-5)  S cm(-1) at 98 % relative humidity and 40 °C. PMID:27505712

  17. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth and between your teeth produce the bad odor. Other problems in your mouth, such as gum ... and medicines are associated with a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing ...

  18. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles are left in your mouth, they can rot ... Flossing once a day helps get rid of particles wedged between your teeth. Also, visit your dentist ...

  19. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  20. 48 CFR 2452.237-72 - Coordination of data collection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 2452.237-72 Coordination of data collection activities. As prescribed in 2437.110(c... identical information from ten or more public respondents. Coordination of Data Collection Activities (APR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Coordination of...

  1. Use of Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Abercromby, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's plans for lunar surface exploration include pressurized suitport rovers that are quickly ingressed and egressed with minimal consumables losses. This capability enables crewmembers to perform multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a single day versus a single 8-hr EVA. Modeling work and empirical human and animal data indicate that intermittent recompressions between EVA suit pressure and cabin pressure reduce decompression stress. Savings in crew time and gas losses may also be achieved if the N2 purge is shortened to 2 minutes, achieving 80% O2 (vs. 8 minutes, 95% O2). METHODS: A validated Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model was used to predict decompression stress using 80% and 95% O2 breathing mixtures during 3 x 2-hr EVAs (4.3 PSIA) with 1hr recompressions back to 8.0 PSIA (32% O2) versus a single 8-hr EVA. 15 minutes was spent at 6.0 PSIA before depressurizations to 4.3 PSIA; initial EVA tasks could be performed during this time. Model validation was based on significant prediction (p<0.001) and goodness of fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 altitude exposures (McFadden s rho-squared=0.214). RESULTS: A 2.2% predicted increase in DCS risk due to the shortened purge is more than compensated for by a predicted 2.5% reduction in DCS risk due to intermittent recompression. 15 minutes at 80% O2, 6.0 PSIA prior to a 4.3 PSIA EVA prevents supersaturation in the brain and spinal cord (5-10 minute half-time compartments) and reduces tissue tensions in 40 min compartments, where most of the body s inert gas is located, to approximately the same levels (4.39 vs 4.00 PSIA) as achieved during a 40 min 95% O2 prebreathe at 10.2 PSIA. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent recompressions between lunar EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements, decompression stress, and/or suit operating pressures.

  2. 75 FR 2595 - Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)...

  3. 75 FR 15496 - Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA...

  4. Oxygen-18 isotope of breath CO2 linking to erythrocytes carbonic anhydrase activity: a biomarker for pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chiranjit; Banik, Gourab D.; Maity, Abhijit; Som, Suman; Chakraborty, Arpita; Selvan, Chitra; Ghosh, Shibendu; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Pradhan, Manik

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA), a well-characterized metalloenzyme, is associated with oxygen-18 ( 18O)-isotopic fractionations of CO2. To investigate how CA activity links the 18O of breath CO2 to pre-diabetes (PD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) during metabolism, we studied pre- and post-dose CA activities in erythrocytes with simultaneous monitoring of 18O/ 16O-isotope ratios of breath CO2 and thereafter elucidated potential metabolic pathways underlying CA alteration in the pathogenesis of T2D. Here we show that the post-dose CA activity in both T2D and PD was markedly enhanced, whereas the non-diabetic controls (NDC) exhibited a considerable reduction in post-dose CA activity when compared with their basal CA activities. However, T2D and PD exhibited isotopic enrichments of 18O in breath CO2, while a marked depletion of 18O in CO2 was manifested in NDC. Thus, the isotopic enrichments and depletions of 18O in breath CO2 were well correlated with the changes in CA activities for controls, PD and T2D. Our findings suggest the changes in CA activities in erythrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2D and the breath C 18O 16O regulated by the CA activity as a potential biomarker for non-invasive assessment of T2D, and thus may open a new method for treating T2D. PMID:25633556

  5. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  6. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    ... breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead ...

  7. Transfer function analysis of the autonomic response to respiratory activity during random interval breathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M. H.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Stevenson, K.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    We report a new method for the noninvasive characterization of the frequency response of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in mediating fluctuations in heart rate (HR). The approach entails computation of the transfer function magnitude and phase between instantaneous lung volume and HR. Broad band fluctuations in lung volume were initiated when subjects breathed on cue to a sequence of beeps spaced randomly in time. We studied 10 subjects in both supine and standing positions. The transfer function, averaged among all the subjects, showed systematic differences between the two postures, reflecting the differing frequency responses of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.

  8. 25 CFR 170.105 - Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and... Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.105 Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities? To fund consultation, collaboration, and coordination of IRR Program...

  9. Short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position using active breathing control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Koshani, Rojano . E-mail: rkashani@umich.edu; Balter, James M.; Hayman, James A.; Henning, George T.; Herk, Marcel van

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position for scans acquired using an active breathing control (ABC) device. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with lung cancer were scanned over three sessions during the course of treatment. For each session, two scans were acquired at deep inhale, and one scan each at half of deep inhale and at exhale. Long-term reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the same breathing state scans from two sessions, with setup variation removed by skeletal alignment. Tumor alignment was based on intensity matching of a small volume around the tumor. For short-term reproducibility, the two inhale volumes from the same session were compared. Results: For the short-term reproducibility, the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of the displacement of the center of tumor were 0.0 (1.5) mm in anteroposterior (AP), 0.3 (1.4) mm in superior/inferior (SI), and 0.2 (0.7) mm in right/left (RL) directions. For long-term reproducibility, the mean (SD) were -1.3 (3.1) mm AP, -0.5 (3.8) mm SI, and 0.3 (1.6) mm RL for inhale and -0.2 (2.8) mm AP, 0.2 (2.1) mm SI, and -0.7 (1.1) mm RL for exhale. Conclusion: The ABC device demonstrates very good short-term and long-term reproducibility. Increased long-term variability in position, primarily in the SI and AP directions, indicates the role of tumor-directed localization in combination with breath-held immobilization.

  10. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  11. Photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials: Photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via the loading of PANI nanofibers on surface of coordination polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Xu, Xinxin Liu, Lu; Wang, Yi

    2013-09-15

    To enhance photocatalytic property of coordination polymer in visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst was synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on the surface of coordination polymer. The photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated. Compared with pure coordination polymer photocatalyst, which can decompose RhB merely under UV light irradiation, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst displays more excellent photocatalytic activity in visible light region. Furthermore, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst exhibits outstanding stability during the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material, which displays excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light was firstly synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on surface of coordination polymer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • This PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material represents the first conductive polymer loaded coordination polymer composite material. • PANI/coordination polymer composite material displays more excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO in visible light region. • The “combination” of coordination polymer and PANI will enable us to design high-activity, high-stability and visible light driven photocatalyst in the future.

  12. 15 CFR 930.46 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for... management program, but which have not yet begun, Federal agencies shall further coordinate with the State... coastal use or resource substantially different than originally described. Substantially different...

  13. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  14. Coordinating the activities of a planner and an execution agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, Austin

    1989-01-01

    A research program was defined that will explore the link between planning and execution systems. A simple scenario was defined in which a very capable off-line planning system interacts with the user and a smaller, less capable, on-line real-time system executing plans and reacting to faults. However, the on-line execution system may have a more flexible representation of the plans it is executing. This imbalance in the capabilities of the two agents involved should clarify some of the research objectives and give an experimental framework for the work. The task is to investigate the knowledge representations and communication protocols needed to link a user stating some requirements for a task to be carried out through a planning system to the (remote) execution agent that can carry out the user's wishes. The notion that a single representation can encapsulate the expression of the user's requirements, the capabilities for action, the communication to the execution agent, the successful or faulty response from the execution agent and the means of keeping the user informed, is examined. Methods of creating plan patches to update the plans separately held by each of the parties involved to keep them in step as they each react to changing circumstances in real-time is investigated. This involves the specification of plan patch attachment points that can be understood by the recipient. Transaction based methods are also investigated for coordinating the activities of the planner with those of the execution agent and user. The trial application area for the research is in the command and control of an advanced Earth Observation Space Platform.

  15. Method for the evaluation of structure-activity relationship information associated with coordinated activity cliffs.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-14

    Activity cliffs are generally defined as pairs of active compounds having a large difference in potency. Although this definition of activity cliffs focuses on compound pairs, the vast majority of cliffs are formed in a coordinated manner. This means that multiple highly and weakly potent compounds form series of activity cliffs, which often overlap. In activity cliff networks, coordinated cliffs emerge as disjoint activity cliff clusters. Recently, we have identified all cliff clusters from current bioactive compounds and analyzed their topologies. For structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, activity cliff clusters are of high interest, since they contain more SAR information than cliffs that are individually considered. For medicinal chemistry applications, a key question becomes how to best extract SAR information from activity cliff clusters. This represents a challenging problem, given the complexity of many activity cliff configurations. Herein we introduce a generally applicable methodology to organize activity cliff clusters on the basis of structural relationships, prioritize clusters, and systematically extract SAR information from them. PMID:25014781

  16. Summary of Session Activities: Coordination of Environmental Education Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, Michael; Mahootian, Farzad

    1995-01-01

    In this session, we address four fundamental questions related to environmental fields with emphasis on education. These are: What are the goals, objectives, and practical opportunities for coordinating our projects? How can we improve awareness of, interest in, access to, and support the products of our work? How can we build relationships between projects for scientific, educational, technical, and programmatic benefit? How can we evaluate the effectiveness of coordination efforts. In this working session, we produced answers to these questions and proposed a structure for future collaboration.

  17. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this...

  18. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this...

  19. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this...

  20. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this...

  1. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this...

  2. Influence of breathing mode and activity level on the regional deposition of inhaled particles and implications for regulatory standards

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.J.; Martonen, T.B.; Menache, M.G.; Spektor, D.M.; Lippmann, M.

    1985-09-01

    Particulate size-selective sampling is an important consideration in determining ambient air quality standards and threshold limit values for workplace exposures. Hazard evaluations, as well as risk analyses, can benefit from an improved understanding of factors affecting regional respiratory tract deposition of particles in man. Here, thoracic deposition and its component parts are examined, as a function of particulate size, for ventilation rates ranging from normal respiration to heavy exercise in individuals who are habitual mouth breathers and in those who normally employ oronasal breathing when minute ventilations exceed approximately 35 1/Lmin. The logistic models yielded significantly improved fits of the experimental data compared to previously used linear regression models. The analyses demonstrate that the activity level of the exposed population should be taken into account to assess the potential health consequences from ambient or workplace exposures.

  3. Active head rotations and eye-head coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangemeister, W. H.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that head movements play an important role in gaze. The interaction between eye and head movements involves both their shared role in directing gaze and the compensatory vestibular ocular reflex. The dynamics of head trajectories are discussed, taking into account the use of parameterization to obtain the peak velocity, peak accelerations, the times of these extrema, and the duration of the movement. Attention is given to the main sequence, neck muscle EMG and details of the head-movement trajectory, types of head model accelerations, the latency of eye and head movement in coordinated gaze, gaze latency as a function of various factors, and coordinated gaze types. Clinical examples of gaze-plane analysis are considered along with the instantaneous change of compensatory eye movement (CEM) gain, and aspects of variability.

  4. Coordination and activation of azetidine by a triosmium cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.D.; Chen, G. )

    1993-06-01

    The ring opening of nitrogen-containing heterocycles is an integral step in the process of hydrogenitrogenatio. The mechanisms by which this step occurs are poorly understood; thus a considerable amount of research has been devoted to modeling this heterogeneous reaction by using homogeneous catalysts. Although it has considerable ring strain, the four-membered heterocycle, azetidine, is opened thermally only at temperatures in excess of 400[degrees]C. Recently, we have found that thietanes, the saturated four-membered heterocycles containing sulfur, undergo facile ring opening when the molecule is coordinated to osmium cluster complexes. It was shown that a bridging coordination of the sulfur atom promotes this process. Thus, we wondered if it might also be possible to open an azetidine ring in a cluster complex under conditions sufficiently mild that a detailed study of the process might be possible. We have now prepared an osmium cluster complex in which the nitrogen atom of the azetidine ligand bridges two of the metal atoms, and we have found that the azetidine ring is spontaneously opened when the complex is heated to 125[degrees]C. In addition, two other complexes formed by transformation of the azetidine ligand have been isolated and characterized. The results of this study are reported here. 20 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body & lifestyle changes > Shortness of breath Shortness of breath E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... oxygen your baby gets. Causes of shortness of breath during pregnancy Early pregnancy In the first few ...

  6. What Controls Your Breathing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  7. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  8. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... less than a minute before a child regains consciousness and resumes breathing normally. Breath-holding spells can ... spells cause kids to stop breathing and lose consciousness for up to a minute. In the most ...

  9. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  10. 48 CFR 2452.237-72 - Coordination of data collection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identical information from ten or more public respondents. Coordination of Data Collection Activities (APR... identical information from ten or more public respondents, the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C....

  11. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system

    PubMed Central

    Ackman, James B.; Burbridge, Timothy J.; Crair, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The morphologic and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to demonstrate in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina, and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter- hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision. PMID:23060192

  12. Coordinated sensing and active repair for self-healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D. A.; Huston, D. R.

    2011-02-01

    Self-repairing structural systems have the potential for improved performance ranges and lifetimes over conventional systems. Self-healing materials are not a new phenomenon and have been used in automotive and aeronautical applications for over a century. The bulk of these systems operate by using damage to directly initiate a repair response without any supervisory coordination. Integrating sensing and supervisory control technologies with self-healing may improve the safety and reliability of critical components and structures. This project illustrates the benefit of an integrated sensing, control, and self-healing system using laboratory scale test beds. A thermoplastic polymer embedded with resistive heating wires acts as the self-healing material. Damage is detected using an electro-optical sensing scheme based on photoresistors and a PC handling control duties. As damage occurs it is detected, located, and characterized. The key to this project is the integration of sensor feedback to control healing so that repairs are executed, monitored, and completed on the basis of continuous sensor data. This proof-of-concept prototype can likely be expanded and improved with alternative sensor options, self-healing materials, and system architecture.

  13. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  14. Imaging the coordination of multiple signaling activities in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Christopher M.; Elliott, Hunter; Danuser, Gaudenz; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2013-01-01

    Preface Cellular signal transduction occurs in complex and redundant interaction networks that are best examined at the level of single cells by simultaneously monitoring the activation dynamics of multiple components. Recent advances in biosensor technology have made it possible to visualize and quantify the activation of multiple network nodes in the same living cell. The precision and scope of this approach has been greatly extended by novel computational approaches to determine the relationships between different networks, studied in separate cells. PMID:22016058

  15. Modified Active Site Coordination in a Clinical Mutant of Sulfite Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Doonan, C.J.; Wilson, H.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; Garrett, R.M.; Bennett, B.; Prince, R.C.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-02

    The molybdenum site of the Arginine 160 {yields} Glutamine clinical mutant of the physiologically vital enzyme sulfite oxidase has been investigated by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We conclude that the mutant enzyme has a six-coordinate pseudo-octahedral active site with coordination of Glutamine O{sup {epsilon}} to molybdenum. This contrasts with the wild-type enzyme which is five-coordinate with approximately square-based pyramidal geometry. This difference in the structure of the molybdenum site explains many of the properties of the mutant enzyme which have previously been reported.

  16. 15 CFR 930.66 - Supplemental coordination for proposed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for... agency to be consistent with the management program, but which have not yet begun, applicants shall... proposed activity will affect any coastal use or resource substantially different than originally...

  17. Simulating Activities: Relating Motives, Deliberation and Attentive Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied "off-task" activities (e.g., waiting), non-intellectual motives (e.g., hunger), sustaining a goal state (e.g., playful interaction), and coupled perceptual-motor dynamics (e.g., following someone). These aspects of human behavior have been considered in bits and pieces in past research, identified as scripts, human factors, behavior settings, ensemble, flow experience, and situated action. More broadly, activity theory provides a comprehensive framework relating motives, goals, and operations. This paper ties these ideas together, using examples from work life in a Canadian High Arctic research station. The emphasis is on simulating human behavior as it naturally occurs, such that "working" is understood as an aspect of living. The result is a synthesis of previously unrelated analytic perspectives and a broader appreciation of the nature of human cognition. Simulating activities in this comprehensive way is useful for understanding work practice, promoting learning, and designing better tools, including human-robot systems.

  18. Feature integration in visual working memory: parietal gamma activity is related to cognitive coordination.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen M; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Hibbs, Carina S; Shapiro, Kimron L; Bracewell, R Martyn; Singh, Krish D; Linden, David E J

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism by which distinct subprocesses in the brain are coordinated is a central conundrum of systems neuroscience. The parietal lobe is thought to play a key role in visual feature integration, and oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range has been associated with perception of coherent objects and other tasks requiring neural coordination. Here, we examined the neural correlates of integrating mental representations in working memory and hypothesized that parietal gamma activity would be related to the success of cognitive coordination. Working memory is a classic example of a cognitive operation that requires the coordinated processing of different types of information and the contribution of multiple cognitive domains. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we report parietal activity in the high gamma (80-100 Hz) range during manipulation of visual and spatial information (colors and angles) in working memory. This parietal gamma activity was significantly higher during manipulation of visual-spatial conjunctions compared with single features. Furthermore, gamma activity correlated with successful performance during the conjunction task but not during the component tasks. Cortical gamma activity in parietal cortex may therefore play a role in cognitive coordination. PMID:21940605

  19. Subcellular and Dynamic Coordination between Src Activity and Cell Protrusion in Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Yue; Qian, Tongcheng; Wu, Yiqian; Seong, Jihye; Gong, Ya; Ma, Hongwei; Wang, Yingxiao; Lu, Shaoying

    2015-01-01

    Migration of endothelial cells is essential for wound healing and angiogenesis. Src kinase activity plays important roles at the protrusions of migrating endothelial cells. However, the spatiotemporal coordination between Src kinase activity and the protrusion of cell edge remains unclear. Therefore, we investigate these coordinated molecular events at the initiation of cell migration, by integrating microfabrication, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, and automated computational image analysis. We demonstrate that the physical release of restrictive micropattern triggered a significant decrease of Src activity at the protrusive edge of endothelial cells. Computational cross-correlation analysis reveals that the decrease of Src activity occurred earlier in time, and was well-coordinated with the protrusion of cell edge in polarized cells, but not in non-polarized cells. These results suggest that the spatiotemporal control of Src kinase activity is well-coordinated with cell polarization and protrusion in endothelial cells upon the release of physical constraint, as that experienced by endothelial cells sprouting from stiff tumor micro-environment during angiogenesis. Therefore, our integrative approach enabled the discovery of a new model where Src is de-activated in coordination with membrane protrusion, providing important insights into the regulation of endothelial migration and angiogenesis. PMID:26261043

  20. Subcellular and Dynamic Coordination between Src Activity and Cell Protrusion in Microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Yue; Qian, Tongcheng; Wu, Yiqian; Seong, Jihye; Gong, Ya; Ma, Hongwei; Wang, Yingxiao; Lu, Shaoying

    2015-08-01

    Migration of endothelial cells is essential for wound healing and angiogenesis. Src kinase activity plays important roles at the protrusions of migrating endothelial cells. However, the spatiotemporal coordination between Src kinase activity and the protrusion of cell edge remains unclear. Therefore, we investigate these coordinated molecular events at the initiation of cell migration, by integrating microfabrication, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, and automated computational image analysis. We demonstrate that the physical release of restrictive micropattern triggered a significant decrease of Src activity at the protrusive edge of endothelial cells. Computational cross-correlation analysis reveals that the decrease of Src activity occurred earlier in time, and was well-coordinated with the protrusion of cell edge in polarized cells, but not in non-polarized cells. These results suggest that the spatiotemporal control of Src kinase activity is well-coordinated with cell polarization and protrusion in endothelial cells upon the release of physical constraint, as that experienced by endothelial cells sprouting from stiff tumor micro-environment during angiogenesis. Therefore, our integrative approach enabled the discovery of a new model where Src is de-activated in coordination with membrane protrusion, providing important insights into the regulation of endothelial migration and angiogenesis.

  1. Subcellular and Dynamic Coordination between Src Activity and Cell Protrusion in Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Yue; Qian, Tongcheng; Wu, Yiqian; Seong, Jihye; Gong, Ya; Ma, Hongwei; Wang, Yingxiao; Lu, Shaoying

    2015-01-01

    Migration of endothelial cells is essential for wound healing and angiogenesis. Src kinase activity plays important roles at the protrusions of migrating endothelial cells. However, the spatiotemporal coordination between Src kinase activity and the protrusion of cell edge remains unclear. Therefore, we investigate these coordinated molecular events at the initiation of cell migration, by integrating microfabrication, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, and automated computational image analysis. We demonstrate that the physical release of restrictive micropattern triggered a significant decrease of Src activity at the protrusive edge of endothelial cells. Computational cross-correlation analysis reveals that the decrease of Src activity occurred earlier in time, and was well-coordinated with the protrusion of cell edge in polarized cells, but not in non-polarized cells. These results suggest that the spatiotemporal control of Src kinase activity is well-coordinated with cell polarization and protrusion in endothelial cells upon the release of physical constraint, as that experienced by endothelial cells sprouting from stiff tumor micro-environment during angiogenesis. Therefore, our integrative approach enabled the discovery of a new model where Src is de-activated in coordination with membrane protrusion, providing important insights into the regulation of endothelial migration and angiogenesis. PMID:26261043

  2. Interdomain communications in bifunctional enzymes: how are different activities coordinated?

    PubMed

    Nagradova, Natalya

    2003-08-01

    Although bifunctional enzymes containing two different active centers located within separate domains are quite common in living systems, the significance of this bifunctionality is not always clear, and the molecular mechanisms of site-site interactions in such complex systems have come under the scrutiny of science only in recent years. This review summarizes recent data on the mechanisms of communication between active centers in bifunctional enzymes. Three types of enzymes are considered: (1) those catalyzing consecutive reactions of a metabolic pathway and exhibiting substrate channeling (glutamate synthase and imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase), (2) those catalyzing consecutive reactions without substrate channeling (lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase), and (3) those catalyzing opposed reactions (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase). The functional role of interdomain communications is briefly discussed. PMID:14609201

  3. A Cautionary Tale About Conducting Research on Abstinence Education: How Do State Abstinence Coordinators Define "Sexual Activity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William; Young, Michael; Knickerbocker, Cliff; Doan, Tam

    2002-01-01

    Investigated how state coordinators of abstinence education programs defined "sexual activity." Researchers surveyed Title V abstinence education coordinators from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and three territories. Of the 17 coordinators providing at least partial responses, none reported having a definition of sexual activity. The…

  4. 20 CFR 641.335 - How should the Governor address the coordination of SCSEP services with activities funded under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM The State Senior Employment Services Coordination Plan § 641.335 How should the Governor address the coordination of SCSEP services with activities funded under title I of... coordination of SCSEP services with activities funded under title I of WIA? 641.335 Section 641.335...

  5. The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fragmentary studies on characteristics of respiratory muscles are being done to increase respiratory capacity by classifying exercises into voluntary respiratory exercise which relieves symptoms and prevents COPD and exercise using breathing exercise equipment. But this study found changes on respiratory pattern through changes on the activity pattern of agonist and synergist respiratory muscles and studied what effect they can have on body function improvement. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects in experimental group I that respiratory exercise of diaphragm and 15 subjects in experimental group II that feedback respiratory exercise were randomly selected among COPD patients to find the effective intervention method for COPD patients. And intervention program was conducted for 5 weeks, three times a week, once a day and 30 minutes a session. They were measured with BODE index using respiratory muscle activity, pulmonary function, the six-minute walking test, dyspnea criteria and BMI Then the results obtained were compared and analyzed. [Results] There was a significant difference in sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalene muscle and in 6-minute walk and BODE index for body function. Thus the group performing feedback respiratory had more effective results for mild COPD patients. [Conclusion] Therefore, the improvement was significant regarding the activity of respiratory muscles synergists when breathing before doing breathing exercise. Although, it is valuable to reduce too much mobilization of respiratory muscles synergists through the proper intervention it is necessary to study body function regarding improvement of respiratory function for patients with COPD. PMID:27064889

  6. Physical Activity and Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Hay, John; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Liu, Jian; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with a child's activities of daily living. Activities that most young children engage in such as running, walking, and jumping are important for the proper development of fitness and overall health. However, children…

  7. Rapid and enhanced activation of microporous coordination polymers by flowing supercritical CO.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Matzger, Adam J.; Liu, Baojian; Wong-Foy, Antek G.

    2016-07-19

    Flowing supercritical CO.sub.2 is used to activate metal organic framework materials (MOF). MOFs are activated directly from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) thus avoiding exchange with a volatile solvent. Most MCPs display increased surface areas directly after treatment although those with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers benefit from additional heating.

  8. Activities Coordinator. A Competency-Based Curriculum Designed To Prepare Students for Entry-Level Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Curriculum Resource Center of Maine, Fairfield.

    This curriculum was developed to assist instructors in planning and implementing a comprehensive, competency-based activities program to teach students skills for entry-level jobs as activities coordinators in nursing homes or extended-care facilities for older persons. The guide contains instructional units for each task listed on the job…

  9. Can Gymnastic Teacher Predict Leisure Activity Preference among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hanna-Kassis, Amany; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze: (1) whether significant differences exist between children with typical development and children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) in their preference to participate in leisure activities (2) whether the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) evaluation predicts participation preference.…

  10. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  11. Active region studies with coordinated SOHO, microwave, and magnetograph observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific justification for an observing campaign to study the quantitative magnetic and plasma properties of coronal loops in active regions is presented. The SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) instruments of primary relevance are CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer), EIT, SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation), and MDI. The primary ground based instruments would be the VLA (Very Large Array), the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and vector and longitudinal field magnetographs. Similar campaigns have successfully been carried out with the Solar Maximum Mission x-ray polychromator and the Soft X-ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload (CoMStOC '87), the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph, the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment rocket payload, and the Soft X-ray Telescope in Yohkoh (CoMStoc '92). The scientific payoff from such a campaign is discussed in light of the results from these previous campaigns.

  12. Sleep-disordered breathing: effects on brain structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Macey, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is accompanied by neural injury that affects a wide range of physiological systems which include processes for sensing chemoreception and airflow, driving respiratory musculature, timing circuitry for coordination of breathing patterning, and integration of blood pressure mechanisms with respiration. The damage also occurs in regions mediating emotion and mood, as well as areas regulating memory and cognitive functioning, and appears in structures that serve significant glycemic control processes. The injured structures include brain areas involved in hormone release and action of major neurotransmitters, including those playing a role in depression. The injury is reflected in a range of structural magnetic resonance procedures, and also appears as functional distortions of evoked activity in brain areas mediating vital autonomic and breathing functions. The damage is preferentially unilateral, and includes axonal projections; the asymmetry of the injury poses unique concerns for sympathetic discharge and potential consequences for arrhythmia. Sleep-disordered breathing should be viewed as a condition that includes central nervous system injury and impaired function; the processes underlying injury remain unclear. PMID:23643610

  13. Coordination of maternal directives with preschoolers' behavior: influence of maternal coordination training on dyadic activity and child compliance.

    PubMed

    Strand, Paul S

    2002-03-01

    Investigated the impact of a specific intervention on child cooperation. The intervention was designed to increase maternal coordination with child behavior. Mothers assigned to the experimental condition were instructed on how to modulate the specificity of directives to their preschooler as a function of the child's moment-to-moment behavior. Mothers assigned to the control condition received no such training. Degree of maternal coordination was then assessed. Child compliance during a pick-up task was also assessed. Compared to controls, experimental mothers had significantly higher scores on several measures of maternal coordination and experimental children were significantly more compliant. The relation between parental coordination and child socialization is discussed. PMID:11845652

  14. Active water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using an electroosmotic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, T.; O'Hayre, R.; Litster, S.; Prinz, F. B.; Santiago, J. G.

    In a typical air-breathing fuel cell design, ambient air is supplied to the cathode by natural convection and dry hydrogen is supplied to a dead-ended anode. While this design is simple and attractive for portable low-power applications, the difficulty in implementing effective and robust water management presents disadvantages. In particular, excessive flooding of the open-cathode during long-term operation can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. To overcome this limitation, we report here on a novel air-breathing fuel cell water management design based on a hydrophilic and electrically conductive wick in conjunction with an electroosmotic (EO) pump that actively pumps water out of the wick. Transient experiments demonstrate the ability of the EO-pump to "resuscitate" the fuel cell from catastrophic flooding events, while longer term galvanostatic measurements suggest that the design can completely eliminate cathode flooding using less than 2% of fuel cell power, and lead to stable operation with higher net power performance than a control design without EO-pump. This demonstrates that active EO-pump water management, which has previously only been demonstrated in forced-convection fuel cell systems, can also be applied effectively to miniaturized (<5 W) air-breathing fuel cell systems.

  15. Modeling spontaneous activity across an excitable epithelium: Support for a coordination scenario of early neural evolution

    PubMed Central

    de Wiljes, Oltman O.; van Elburg, Ronald A. J.; Biehl, Michael; Keijzer, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Internal coordination models hold that early nervous systems evolved in the first place to coordinate internal activity at a multicellular level, most notably the use of multicellular contractility as an effector for motility. A recent example of such a model, the skin brain thesis, suggests that excitable epithelia using chemical signaling are a potential candidate as a nervous system precursor. We developed a computational model and a measure for whole body coordination to investigate the coordinative properties of such excitable epithelia. Using this measure we show that excitable epithelia can spontaneously exhibit body-scale patterns of activation. Relevant factors determining the extent of patterning are the noise level for exocytosis, relative body dimensions, and body size. In smaller bodies whole-body coordination emerges from cellular excitability and bidirectional excitatory transmission alone. Our results show that basic internal coordination as proposed by the skin brain thesis could have arisen in this potential nervous system precursor, supporting that this configuration may have played a role as a proto-neural system and requires further investigation. PMID:26441620

  16. Coordination of Fictive Motor Activity in the Larval Zebrafish Is Generated by Non-Segmental Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wiggin, Timothy D.; Peck, Jack H.; Masino, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular and network basis for most vertebrate locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) is incompletely characterized, but organizational models based on known CPG architectures have been proposed. Segmental models propose that each spinal segment contains a circuit that controls local coordination and sends longer projections to coordinate activity between segments. Unsegmented/continuous models propose that patterned motor output is driven by gradients of neurons and synapses that do not have segmental boundaries. We tested these ideas in the larval zebrafish, an animal that swims in discrete episodes, each of which is composed of coordinated motor bursts that progress rostrocaudally and alternate from side to side. We perturbed the spinal cord using spinal transections or strychnine application and measured the effect on fictive motor output. Spinal transections eliminated episode structure, and reduced both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination. Preparations with fewer intact segments were more severely affected, and preparations consisting of midbody and caudal segments were more severely affected than those consisting of rostral segments. In reduced preparations with the same number of intact spinal segments, side-to-side coordination was more severely disrupted than rostrocaudal coordination. Reducing glycine receptor signaling with strychnine reversibly disrupted both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination in spinalized larvae without disrupting episodic structure. Both spinal transection and strychnine decreased the stability of the motor rhythm, but this effect was not causal in reducing coordination. These results are inconsistent with a segmented model of the spinal cord and are better explained by a continuous model in which motor neuron coordination is controlled by segment-spanning microcircuits. PMID:25275377

  17. Supramolecular coordination and antimicrobial activities of constructed mixed ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Abou-Dobara, M. I.; Seyam, H. A.

    2013-03-01

    A novel series of copper(II) and palladium(II) with 4-derivatives benzaldehyde pyrazolone (Ln) were synthesized. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared by using 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as second ligand. The structure of these complexes was identified and confirm by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and magnetic moment measurements as well as thermal analysis. The ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through ON donor sites. ESR spectra show the simultaneous presence of a planar trans and a nearly planar cis isomers in the 1:2 ratio for all N,O complexes [Cu(Ln)2]Cl2ṡ2H2O. Schiff bases (Ln) were tested against bacterial species; namely two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium italicum and Alternaria alternata). The tested compounds have antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus and K. pneumoniae.

  18. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  19. Catalytic activity of unsaturated coordinated Cu-MOF to the hydroxylation of phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Lijuan; Chen, Chao; Lan, Fan; Deng, Shengjun; Xiao, Weiming; Zhang, Ning

    2011-05-01

    A 2D metal-organic framework [Cu 2 (BPTC) (Im) 4(H 2O) (DMF)] n ( 1) with unsaturated coordinated Cu(II) sites has been prepared under solvothermal condition, and applied to the hydroxylation of phenol after activating. The catalytic results indicate that 1a (the activated 1) exhibits an obvious activity for phenol hydroxylation at 40 °C for 4 h. Compared to the control experiments where the free Cu(II) (from Cu(OAc) 2 salt) has been utilized as the catalysts, 1a shows the higher selectivity to diphenols. This suggests that the coordinated environment of unsaturated coordinated Cu(II) sites in the 2D layer play the key role in the phenol hydroxylation.

  20. A novel excitatory network for the control of breathing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tatiana M; Garcia, Alfredo J; Baertsch, Nathan A; Pollak, Julia; Bloom, Jacob C; Wei, Aguan D; Rai, Karan G; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2016-08-01

    Breathing must be tightly coordinated with other behaviours such as vocalization, swallowing, and coughing. These behaviours occur after inspiration, during a respiratory phase termed postinspiration. Failure to coordinate postinspiration with inspiration can result in aspiration pneumonia, the leading cause of death in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here we describe an excitatory network that generates the neuronal correlate of postinspiratory activity in mice. Glutamatergic-cholinergic neurons form the basis of this network, and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-mediated inhibition establishes the timing and coordination relative to inspiration. We refer to this network as the postinspiratory complex (PiCo). The PiCo has autonomous rhythm-generating properties and is necessary and sufficient for postinspiratory activity in vivo.The PiCo also shows distinct responses to neuromodulators when compared to other excitatory brainstem networks. On the basis of the discovery of the PiCo, we propose that each of the three phases of breathing is generated by a distinct excitatory network: the pre-Bötzinger complex, which has been linked to inspiration; the PiCo, as described here for the neuronal control of postinspiration; and the lateral parafacial region (pF(L)), which has been associated with active expiration, a respiratory phase that is recruited during high metabolic demand. PMID:27462817

  1. 'Unconventional' coordination chemistry by metal chelating fragments in a metalloprotein active site.

    PubMed

    Martin, David P; Blachly, Patrick G; Marts, Amy R; Woodruff, Tessa M; de Oliveira, César A F; McCammon, J Andrew; Tierney, David L; Cohen, Seth M

    2014-04-01

    The binding of three closely related chelators: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (allothiomaltol, ATM), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiomaltol, TM), and 3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiopyromeconic acid, TPMA) to the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) has been investigated. Two of these ligands display a monodentate mode of coordination to the active site Zn(2+) ion in hCAII that is not recapitulated in model complexes of the enzyme active site. This unprecedented binding mode in the hCAII-thiomaltol complex has been characterized by both X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, the steric restrictions of the active site force the ligands into a 'flattened' mode of coordination compared with inorganic model complexes. This change in geometry has been shown by density functional computations to significantly decrease the strength of the metal-ligand binding. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the mode of binding by small metal-binding groups can be significantly influenced by the protein active site. Diminishing the strength of the metal-ligand bond results in unconventional modes of metal coordination not found in typical coordination compounds or even carefully engineered active site models, and understanding these effects is critical to the rational design of inhibitors that target clinically relevant metalloproteins. PMID:24635441

  2. Non-coordinating-Anion-Directed Reversal of Activation Site: Selective C-H Bond Activation of N-Aryl Rings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Yu, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiang; Ge, Bingyang; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yaxuan

    2016-06-13

    An Rh-catalyzed selective C-H bond activation of diaryl-substituted anilides is described. In an attempt to achieve C-H activation of C-aryl rings, we unexpectedly obtained an N-aryl ring product under non-coordinating anion conditions, whereas the C-aryl ring product was obtained in the absence of a non-coordinating anion. This methodology has proved to be an excellent means of tuning and adjusting selective C-H bond activation of C-aryl and N-aryl rings. The approach has been rationalized by mechanistic studies and theoretical calculations. In addition, it has been found and verified that the catalytic activity of the rhodium catalyst is obviously improved by non-coordinating anions, which provides an efficient strategy for obtaining a highly chemoselective catalyst. Mechanistic experiments also unequivocally ruled out the possibility of a so-called "silver effect" in this transformation involving silver. PMID:27159169

  3. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  4. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  5. Soluble porous coordination polymers by mechanochemistry: from metal-containing films/membranes to active catalysts for aerobic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Haiying; Veith, Gabriel M; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-14

    Soluble porous coordination polymers from mechanochemical synthesis are presented through a coordination polymerization between highly contorted, rigid tetraphenol and a broad variety of transition metal ions. These polymers can be easily cast as metal-containing films or freestanding membranes. Importantly, as-made coordination polymers are highly active and stable in the aerobic oxidation of allylic C-H bonds. PMID:25389070

  6. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  7. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  8. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  9. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  10. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... confronted Breath holding spells are more common in children with: Genetic conditions, such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells (parents ...

  11. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  12. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  13. Fundamentals of breath malodour.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Roldán, S; Herrera, D

    2001-11-15

    Breath malodour is a condition that has health and social implications. The origin of breath malodour problems are related to both systemic and oral conditions. The advice of dental professionals for treatment of this condition occurs with regularity since 90% of breath odor problems emanate from the oral cavity. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the etiology of breath odor, its prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies for the condition. PMID:12167916

  14. Evaluation of CYP2D6 enzyme activity using a Dextromethorphan Breath Test in Women Receiving Adjuvant Tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Safgren, Stephanie L.; Suman, Vera J.; Kosel, Matthew L.; Gilbert, Judith A; Buhrow, Sarah A.; Black, John L.; Northfelt, Donald W.; Modak, Anil S.; Rosen, David; Ingle, James N.; Ames, Matthew M.; Reid, Joel M.; Goetz, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In tamoxifen-treated patients, breast cancer recurrence differs according to CYP2D6 genotype and endoxifen steady state concentrations (Endx Css). The 13Cdextromethorphan breath test (DM-BT), labeled with 13C at the O-CH3 moiety, measures CYP2D6 enzyme activity. We sought to examine the ability of the DM-BT to identify known CYP2D6 genotypic poor metabolizers and examine the correlation between DMBT and Endx Css. Methods DM-BT and tamoxifen pharmacokinetics were obtained at baseline (b), 3 month (3m) and 6 months (6m) following tamoxifen initiation. Potent CYP2D6 inhibitors were prohibited. The correlation between bDM-BT with CYP2D6 genotype and Endx Css was determined. The association between bDM-BT (where values ≤0.9 is an indicator of poor in vivo CYP2D6 metabolism) and Endx Css (using values ≤ 11.2 known to be associated with poorer recurrence free survival) was explored. Results 91 patients were enrolled and 77 were eligible. CYP2D6 genotype was positively correlated with b, 3m and 6m DMBT (r ranging from 0.457-0. 60 p < 0.001). Both CYP2D6 genotype (r = 0.47; 0.56, p <.0001), and bDM-BT (r=0.60; 0.54; p<.001) were associated with 3m and 6m Endx Css respectively. Seven of 9 patients (78%) with low (≤11.2 nM) 3m Endx Css also had low DM-BT (≤0.9) including 2/2 CYP2D6 PM/PM and 5/5 IM/PM. In contrast, 1 of 48 pts (2%) with a low DM-BT had Endx Css > 11.2 nM. Conclusions In patients not taking potent CYP2D6 inhibitors, DM-BT was associated with CYP2D6 genotype and 3m and 6 m Endx Css but did not provide better discrimination of Endx Css compared to CYP2D6 genotype alone. Further studies are needed to identify additional factors which alter Endx Css. PMID:25714002

  15. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  16. 25 CFR 170.105 - Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities? 170.105 Section 170.105 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and...

  17. 25 CFR 170.105 - Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities? 170.105 Section 170.105 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and...

  18. 25 CFR 170.105 - Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities? 170.105 Section 170.105 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and...

  19. 25 CFR 170.105 - Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities? 170.105 Section 170.105 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and...

  20. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Preparing Employer Itineraries, Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 12 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on scheduling employer's trips are included in this packet. (The packet is the second in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities for the employer--CE…

  1. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Using Other Reference Materials. Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 45 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on using reference books are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities for employers--CE 016…

  2. Bismuth coordination networks containing deferiprone: synthesis, characterisation, stability and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Andrew D; Jurcic, Monika; Mahon, Mary F; Pierrat, Sandrine; Roffe, Gavin W; Windle, Henry J; Spencer, John

    2015-08-21

    A series of bismuth-dicarboxylate-deferiprone coordination networks have been prepared and structurally characterised. The new compounds have been demonstrated to release the iron overload drug deferiprone on treatment with PBS and have also been shown to have antibacterial activity against H. pylori. PMID:26172618

  3. Activities and Participation in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, L. C.; Cardoso, A. A.; Missiuna, C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review all literature published in peer reviewed journals from January 1995 to July 2008 in order to summarize and describe the activity limitations and participation restrictions of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Methods: Multiple databases were systematically searched for articles related to…

  4. 48 CFR 2452.237-72 - Coordination of data collection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coordination of data collection activities. 2452.237-72 Section 2452.237-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts...

  5. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en ... Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  6. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Sex, and Activity Deficit over Time: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participation Trajectories in Children with and without Coordination Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Veldhuizen, Scott; Missiuna, Cheryl; Faught, Brent E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to participate in active play less than typically developing children. However, it is not known whether the activity deficit between children with and without DCD widens or diminishes over time. Method: Data were obtained from a large, prospective cohort study of children…

  7. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Breathing Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Agathe; Yu, Lianchun; Klein, Isabelle; De Mazancourt, Marine; Jebrak, Gilles; Mal, Hervé; Brugière, Olivier; Fournier, Michel; Courbage, Maurice; Dauriat, Gaelle; Schouman-Clayes, Elisabeth; Clerici, Christine; Mangin, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL) medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex) and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group). fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in neurons can

  8. Sequential Activation of Molecular Breathing and Bending during Spin-Crossover Photoswitching Revealed by Femtosecond Optical and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Marco; Bertoni, Roman; Lorenc, Maciej; Cailleau, Hervé; Di Matteo, Sergio; Mauriac, Cindy; Matar, Samir F; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Ravy, Sylvain; Laulhé, Claire; Létard, Jean-François; Collet, Eric

    2014-11-28

    We study the basic mechanisms allowing light to photoswitch at the molecular scale a spin-crossover material from a low- to a high-spin state. Combined femtosecond x-ray absorption performed at LCLS X-FEL and optical spectroscopy reveal that the structural stabilization of the photoinduced high-spin state results from a two step structural trapping. Molecular breathing vibrations are first activated and rapidly damped as part of the energy is sequentially transferred to molecular bending vibrations. During the photoswitching, the system follows a curved trajectory on the potential energy surface. PMID:25494090

  9. Sequential Activation of Molecular Breathing and Bending during Spin-Crossover Photoswitching Revealed by Femtosecond Optical and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammarata, Marco; Bertoni, Roman; Lorenc, Maciej; Cailleau, Hervé; Di Matteo, Sergio; Mauriac, Cindy; Matar, Samir F.; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Ravy, Sylvain; Laulhé, Claire; Létard, Jean-François; Collet, Eric

    2014-11-01

    We study the basic mechanisms allowing light to photoswitch at the molecular scale a spin-crossover material from a low- to a high-spin state. Combined femtosecond x-ray absorption performed at LCLS X-FEL and optical spectroscopy reveal that the structural stabilization of the photoinduced high-spin state results from a two step structural trapping. Molecular breathing vibrations are first activated and rapidly damped as part of the energy is sequentially transferred to molecular bending vibrations. During the photoswitching, the system follows a curved trajectory on the potential energy surface.

  10. Zn(II)-Coordinated Quantum Dot-FRET Nanosensors for the Detection of Protein Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Butaek; Park, Ji-In; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin-Won; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple detection of protein kinase activity using Zn(II)-mediated fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and dye-tethered peptides. With neither complex chemical ligands nor surface modification of QDs, Zn(II) was the only metal ion that enabled the phosphorylated peptides to be strongly attached on the carboxyl groups of the QD surface via metal coordination, thus leading to a significant FRET efficiency. As a result, protein kinase activity in intermixed solution was efficiently detected by QD-FRET via Zn(II) coordination, especially when the peptide substrate was combined with affinity-based purification. We also found that mono- and di-phosphorylation in the peptide substrate could be discriminated by the Zn(II)-mediated QD-FRET. Our approach is expected to find applications for studying physiological function and signal transduction with respect to protein kinase activity. PMID:26213934

  11. Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

  12. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a)...

  13. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  14. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  15. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  16. Twinning in fcc lattice creates low-coordinated catalytically active sites in porous gold.

    PubMed

    Krajčí, Marian; Kameoka, Satoshi; Tsai, An-Pang

    2016-08-28

    We describe a new mechanism for creation of catalytically active sites in porous gold. Samples of porous gold prepared by de-alloying Al2Au exhibit a clear correlation between the catalytic reactivity towards CO oxidation and structural defects in the fcc lattice of Au. We have found that on the stepped {211} surfaces quite common twin boundary defects in the bulk structure of porous gold can form long close-packed rows of atoms with the coordination number CN = 6. DFT calculations confirm that on these low-coordinated Au sites dioxygen chemisorbs and CO oxidation can proceed via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with the activation energy of 37 kJ/mol or via the CO-OO intermediate with the energy barrier of 19 kJ/mol. The existence of the twins in porous gold is stabilized by the surface energy. PMID:27586937

  17. High-dose-rate Three-dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Combined with Active Breathing Control for Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Early-stage Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruozheng; Yin, Yong; Qin, Yonghui; Yu, Jinming

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of using high-dose-rate three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with active breathing control (ABC) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eight patients with early-stage NSCLC underwent CT scans under standard free-breathing (FB) and moderately deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) with ABC. Two high-dose-rate 3D-CRT plans (1000 Mu/min) were designed based on the CT scans with FB and mDIBH. The maximal dose (D1%), minimal dose (D99%), conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV), and dose-volume indices of the organs at risk between each plan were compared. The mean PTV volume decreased from 158.04 cm(3) with FB to 76.90 cm(3) with mDIBH (p < 0.05). When mDIBH was used, increases in the affected lung volume (by 47%), contralateral lung volume (by 55%), and total lung volume (by 50%) were observed compared to FB (p < 0.05). The V5-V40 of the affected lung (Vx represented the percentage volume of organs receiving at least the x Gy), V5-V40 and the mean dose for the total lung, V5-V40 and mean dose of the chest wall, and the maximum dose of the spinal cord were less for mDIBH than FB (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in CI, HI, D1%, or D99% for the PTV between the plans. In conclusion, high-dose-rate 3D-CRT combined with ABC reduced the radiation dose to the lungs and chest wall without affecting the dose distribution in SBRT of early-stage NSCLC patients. PMID:24988055

  18. Active Breathing Control in Combination With Ultrasound Imaging: A Feasibility Study of Image Guidance in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Liver Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther; Meer, Skadi van der; Hendry, Janet; Buijsen, Jeroen; Visser, Peter; Fontanarosa, Davide; Lachaine, Martin; Lammering, Guido; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate tumor positioning in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of liver lesions is often hampered by motion and setup errors. We combined 3-dimensional ultrasound imaging (3DUS) and active breathing control (ABC) as an image guidance tool. Methods and Materials: We tested 3DUS image guidance in the SBRT treatment of liver lesions for 11 patients with 88 treatment fractions. In 5 patients, 3DUS imaging was combined with ABC. The uncertainties of US scanning and US image segmentation in liver lesions were determined with and without ABC. Results: In free breathing, the intraobserver variations were 1.4 mm in left-right (L-R), 1.6 mm in superior-inferior (S-I), and 1.3 mm anterior-posterior (A-P). and the interobserver variations were 1.6 mm (L-R), 2.8 mm (S-I), and 1.2 mm (A-P). The combined uncertainty of US scanning and matching (inter- and intraobserver) was 4 mm (1 SD). The combined uncertainty when ABC was used reduced by 1.7 mm in the S-I direction. For the L-R and A-P directions, no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: 3DUS imaging for IGRT of liver lesions is feasible, although using anatomic surrogates in the close vicinity of the lesion may be needed. ABC-based breath-hold in midventilation during 3DUS imaging can reduce the uncertainty of US-based 3D table shift correction.

  19. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively. PMID:26285591

  20. A breath sampling system assessing the influence of respiratory rate on exhaled breath composition.

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, T; Salvo, P; Ghimenti, S; Biagini, D; Bellagambi, F; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a computerized system to monitor mouth pressure, tidal volume, exhaled airflow, respiration rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 during breath collection. The system was used to investigate the effect of different respiratory rates on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations in exhaled breath. For this purpose, VOCs with well-defined biochemical pathways and different chemical and physical properties were selected as biomarkers related to metabolism (acetone and isopropyl alcohol), cholesterol synthesis (isoprene) and intestinal microflora activity (ethanol). Mixed breath was collected from a nominally healthy volunteer in resting conditions by filling a Nalophan bag. The subject followed a regimented breathing pattern at different respiratory rates (10, 30 and 50 breaths per minute). Results highlight that ventilation pattern strongly influences the concentration of the selected compounds. The proposed system allows exhaled breath to be collected also in patients showing dyspnea such as in case of chronic heart failure, asthma and pulmonary diseases. PMID:26738056

  1. Second Research Coordination Meeting on Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis -- Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B.; Kellett, Mark A.

    2008-03-19

    The second meeting of the Co-ordinated Research Project on"Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis" was held at the IAEA, Vienna from 7-9 May, 2007. A summary of the presentations made by participants is given, along with reports on specifically assigned tasks and subsequent discussions. In order to meet the overall objectives of this CRP, the outputs have been reiterated and new task assignments made.

  2. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-06-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.

  3. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal–nitrogen coordination

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon–nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation. PMID:26059552

  4. Coordinated activation of the secretory pathway during notochord formation in the Xenopus embryo.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Zhao, Hui; Rebbert, Martha L; Dawid, Igor B

    2009-11-01

    We compared the transcriptome in the developing notochord of Xenopus laevis embryos with that of other embryonic regions. A coordinated and intense activation of a large set of secretory pathway genes was observed in the notochord, but not in notochord precursors in the axial mesoderm at early gastrula stage. The genes encoding Xbp1 and Creb3l2 were also activated in the notochord. These two transcription factors are implicated in the activation of secretory pathway genes during the unfolded protein response, where cells react to the stress of a build-up of unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum. Xbp1 and Creb3l2 are differentially expressed but not differentially activated in the notochord. Reduction of expression of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 by injection of antisense morpholinos led to strong deficits in notochord but not somitic muscle development. In addition, the expression of some, but not all, genes encoding secretory proteins was inhibited by injection of xbp1 morpholinos. Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 in animal explants could activate a similar subset of secretory pathway genes. We conclude that coordinated activation of a battery of secretory pathway genes mediated by Xbp1 and Creb/ATF factors is a characteristic and necessary feature of notochord formation. PMID:19793890

  5. Coordinated activation of the secretory pathway during notochord formation in the Xenopus embryo

    PubMed Central

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Zhao, Hui; Rebbert, Martha L.; Dawid, Igor B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We compared the transcriptome in the developing notochord of Xenopus laevis embryos with that of other embryonic regions. A coordinated and intense activation of a large set of secretory pathway genes was observed in the notochord, but not in notochord precursors in the axial mesoderm at early gastrula stage. The genes encoding Xbp1 and Creb3l2 were also activated in the notochord. These two transcription factors are implicated in the activation of secretory pathway genes during the unfolded protein response, where cells react to the stress of a build-up of unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum. Xbp1 and Creb3l2 are differentially expressed but not differentially activated in the notochord. Reduction of expression of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 by injection of antisense morpholinos led to strong deficits in notochord but not somitic muscle development. In addition, the expression of some, but not all, genes encoding secretory proteins was inhibited by injection of xbp1 morpholinos. Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 in animal explants could activate a similar subset of secretory pathway genes. We conclude that coordinated activation of a battery of secretory pathway genes mediated by Xbp1 and Creb/ATF factors is a characteristic and necessary feature of notochord formation. PMID:19793890

  6. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a breathing metabolic simulator (BMS) is reported. This BMS simulates all of the breathing and metabolic parameters required for complete evaluation and test of life support and resuscitation equipment. It is also useful for calibrating and validating mechanical and gaseous pulmonary function test procedures. Breathing rate, breathing depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide release are all variable over wide ranges simulating conditions from sleep to hard work with respiratory exchange ratios covering the range from hypoventilation. In addition, all of these parameters are remotely controllable to facilitate use of the device in hostile or remote environments. The exhaled breath is also maintained at body temperature and a high humidity. The simulation is accurate to the extent of having a variable functional residual capacity independent of other parameters.

  7. Breathing rhythms and emotions.

    PubMed

    Homma, Ikuo; Masaoka, Yuri

    2008-09-01

    Respiration is primarily regulated for metabolic and homeostatic purposes in the brainstem. However, breathing can also change in response to changes in emotions, such as sadness, happiness, anxiety or fear. Final respiratory output is influenced by a complex interaction between the brainstem and higher centres, including the limbic system and cortical structures. Respiration is important in maintaining physiological homeostasis and co-exists with emotions. In this review, we focus on the relationship between respiration and emotions by discussing previous animal and human studies, including studies of olfactory function in relation to respiration and the piriform-amygdala in relation to respiration. In particular, we discuss oscillations of piriform-amygdala complex activity and respiratory rhythm. PMID:18487316

  8. Selection of head and whisker coordination strategies during goal-oriented active touch.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Joseph B; Ritt, Jason T

    2016-04-01

    In the rodent whisker system, a key model for neural processing and behavioral choices during active sensing, whisker motion is increasingly recognized as only part of a broader motor repertoire employed by rodents during active touch. In particular, recent studies suggest whisker and head motions are tightly coordinated. However, conditions governing the selection and temporal organization of such coordinated sensing strategies remain poorly understood. We videographically reconstructed head and whisker motions of freely moving mice searching for a randomly located rewarded aperture, focusing on trials in which animals appeared to rapidly "correct" their trajectory under tactile guidance. Mice orienting after unilateral contact repositioned their whiskers similarly to previously reported head-turning asymmetry. However, whisker repositioning preceded head turn onsets and was not bilaterally symmetric. Moreover, mice selectively employed a strategy we term contact maintenance, with whisking modulated to counteract head motion and facilitate repeated contacts on subsequent whisks. Significantly, contact maintenance was not observed following initial contact with an aperture boundary, when the mouse needed to make a large corrective head motion to the front of the aperture, but only following contact by the same whisker field with the opposite aperture boundary, when the mouse needed to precisely align its head with the reward spout. Together these results suggest that mice can select from a diverse range of sensing strategies incorporating both knowledge of the task and whisk-by-whisk sensory information and, moreover, suggest the existence of high level control (not solely reflexive) of sensing motions coordinated between multiple body parts. PMID:26792880

  9. The Role of the Secondary Coordination Sphere in Metal-Mediated Dioxygen Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Ryan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Werner proposed nearly 100 years ago that the secondary coordination sphere has a role in determining physical properties of transition metal complexes. We now know that the secondary coordination sphere impacts nearly all aspects of transition metal chemistry, including the reactivity and selectivity in metal-mediated processes. These features are highlighted in the binding and activation of dioxygen by transition metal complexes. There are clear connections between the control of the secondary coordination sphere and the ability of metal complexes to 1) reversibly bind dioxygen or 2) bind and activate dioxygen to form highly reactive M–oxo complexes. In this forum article, several biological and synthetic examples are presented and discussed in terms of structure-function relationships. Particular emphasis is given to systems with defined non-covalent interactions, such as intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving dioxygen-derived ligands. To further illustrate these effects, the homolytic cleavage of C–H bonds by M–oxo complexes with basic oxo ligands is described. PMID:20380466

  10. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84.81 Section 84.81 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization and microbial activity of 2D Ag(I)-5-aminoisophthalate coordination polymer with a new coordination mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günay, Handan; Çolak, Alper Tolga; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; Tunç, Tuncay; Çolak, Ferdağ

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a novel polynuclear Ag(I)-5-aminoisophthalate complex [Ag(μ4-Haip)]n (1) (H2aip = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) has been synthesized. The molecular structure of this complex has been determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction. The two-dimensional polynuclear complex is crystallized in the triclinic crystal system with space group P-1. The Ag(I) ion is four-coordinated by three carboxylate oxygen atoms of three different Haip ligands and one nitrogen atom in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Furthermore, a novel coordination mode has shown by H2aip. This complex exhibits photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. Antimicrobial activity of complex was evaluated by the agar diffusion method. The complex showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganism strains (Gram positive, gram negative bacteria, clinic isolate yeast and mold). Moreover this complex showed particularly high antifungal activity against yeast and mold.

  12. Peroxidase-like oxidative activity of a manganese-coordinated histidyl bolaamphiphile self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2015-10-01

    A peroxidase-like catalyst was constructed through the self-assembly of histidyl bolaamphiphiles coordinated to Mn2+ ions. The prepared catalyst exhibited oxidation activity for the organic substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The histidyl bolaamphiphiles of bis(N-alpha-amido-histidine)-1,7-heptane dicarboxylates self-assembled to make spherical structures in an aqueous solution. Subsequent association of Mn2+ ions with the histidyl imidazoles in the self-assembly produced catalytic active sites. The optimal Mn2+ ion concentration was determined and coordination of the Mn2+ ion with multiple histidine imidazoles was investigated using spectroscopy analysis. The activation energy of the produced catalysts was 55.0 kJ mol-1, which was comparable to other peroxidase-mimetic catalysts. A detailed kinetics study revealed that the prepared catalyst followed a ping-pong mechanism and that the turnover reaction was promoted by increasing the substrate concentration. Finally, application of the prepared catalyst for glucose detection was demonstrated through cascade enzyme catalysis. This study demonstrated a facile way to prepare an enzyme-mimetic catalyst through the self-assembly of an amphiphilic molecule containing amino acid segments.A peroxidase-like catalyst was constructed through the self-assembly of histidyl bolaamphiphiles coordinated to Mn2+ ions. The prepared catalyst exhibited oxidation activity for the organic substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The histidyl bolaamphiphiles of bis(N-alpha-amido-histidine)-1,7-heptane dicarboxylates self-assembled to make spherical structures in an aqueous solution. Subsequent association of Mn2+ ions with the histidyl imidazoles in the self-assembly produced catalytic active sites. The optimal Mn2+ ion concentration was determined and coordination of the Mn2+ ion with multiple histidine imidazoles was investigated using spectroscopy

  13. Cdk1 activity acts as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle progression with periodic transcription

    PubMed Central

    Banyai, Gabor; Baïdi, Feriel; Coudreuse, Damien; Szilagyi, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and requires the periodic expression of particular gene clusters in different cell cycle phases. However, the interplay between the networks that generate these transcriptional oscillations and the core cell cycle machinery remains largely unexplored. In this work, we use a synthetic regulable Cdk1 module to demonstrate that periodic expression is governed by quantitative changes in Cdk1 activity, with different clusters directly responding to specific activity levels. We further establish that cell cycle events neither participate in nor interfere with the Cdk1-driven transcriptional program, provided that cells are exposed to the appropriate Cdk1 activities. These findings contrast with current models that propose self-sustained and Cdk1-independent transcriptional oscillations. Our work therefore supports a model in which Cdk1 activity serves as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle transitions with the expression of critical genes to bring about proper cell cycle progression. PMID:27045731

  14. Breathing-metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Breathing-metabolic simulator was developed to be used for evaluation of life support equipment. Apparatus simulates human breathing rate and controls temperature and humidity of exhaled air as well as its chemical composition. All functions are designed to correspond to various degrees of human response.

  15. Simulated breath waveform control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Subsystem was developed which provides twelve waveform controls to breath drive mechanism. Twelve position, magnetically actuated rotary switch is connected to one end of crankshaft drive, such that it makes one complete revolution for each simulated breath. Connections with common wired point are included in modifications made to standard motor speed controller.

  16. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... children with: Genetic conditions, such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breathing Problems Rett Syndrome Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  17. The non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test detects hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction as a marker of disease activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT) in patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Methods 118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative 13C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%)). cPDR1.5h was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p < 0.001). 13C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36). The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1). Conclusion The 13C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial) function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:21810560

  18. Shared Investment Projects and Forecasting Errors: Setting Framework Conditions for Coordination and Sequencing Data Quality Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments’ efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that—in some setups—a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm’s point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that—in particular for relatively good forecasters—most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model. PMID:25803736

  19. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model. PMID:25803736

  20. PAK1 is a breast cancer oncogene that coordinately activates MAPK and MET signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Yashaswi; Schafer, Eric J.; Boehm, Jesse S.; Thomas, Sapana R.; He, Frank; Du, Jinyan; Wang, Shumei; Barretina, Jordi; Weir, Barbara A.; Zhao, Jean J.; Polyak, Kornelia; Golub, Todd R.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Hahn, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Activating mutations in the RAS family or BRAF frequently occur in many types of human cancers but are rarely detected in breast tumors. However, activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway is commonly observed in human breast cancers, suggesting that other genetic alterations lead to activation of this signaling pathway. To identify breast cancer oncogenes that activate the MAPK pathway, we screened a library of human kinases for their ability to induce anchorage-independent growth in a derivative of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). We identified PAK1 as a kinase that permitted HMLE cells to form anchorage-independent colonies. PAK1 is amplified in several human cancer types, including 33% of breast tumor samples and cancer cell lines. The kinase activity of PAK1 is necessary for PAK1-induced transformation. Moreover, we show that PAK1 simultaneously activates MAPK and MET signaling; the latter via inhibition of Merlin. Disruption of these activities inhibits PAK1-driven anchorage-independent growth. These observations establish PAK1 amplification as an alternative mechanism for MAPK activation in human breast cancer and credential PAK1 as a breast cancer oncogene that coordinately regulates multiple signaling pathways, the cooperation of which leads to malignant transformation. PMID:22105362

  1. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains.

    PubMed

    Jason Gao, Guo-Jie; Holcomb, Michael C; Thomas, Jeffrey H; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-10-19

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. However, systematic methods of studying how mechanical stress and feedback help to harmonize cellular activities within a tissue have yet to be developed. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity. Our particle-based AGF model will be useful in analyzing mechanical feedback effects in a wide variety of morphogenesis and organogenesis phenomena. PMID:27545101

  2. Coordinated activation of distinct Ca(2+) sources and metabotropic glutamate receptors encodes Hebbian synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Tigaret, Cezar M; Olivo, Valeria; Sadowski, Josef H L P; Ashby, Michael C; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    At glutamatergic synapses, induction of associative synaptic plasticity requires time-correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes to activate postsynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The magnitudes of the ensuing Ca2+ transients within dendritic spines are thought to determine the amplitude and direction of synaptic change. In contrast, we show that at mature hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses the magnitudes of Ca2+ transients during plasticity induction do not match this rule. Indeed, LTP induced by time-correlated pre- and postsynaptic spikes instead requires the sequential activation of NMDARs followed by voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels within dendritic spines. Furthermore, LTP requires inhibition of SK channels by mGluR1, which removes a negative feedback loop that constitutively regulates NMDARs. Therefore, rather than being controlled simply by the magnitude of the postsynaptic calcium rise, LTP induction requires the coordinated activation of distinct sources of Ca2+ and mGluR1-dependent facilitation of NMDAR function. PMID:26758963

  3. Coordinated activation of distinct Ca2+ sources and metabotropic glutamate receptors encodes Hebbian synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Tigaret, Cezar M.; Olivo, Valeria; Sadowski, Josef H.L.P.; Ashby, Michael C.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    At glutamatergic synapses, induction of associative synaptic plasticity requires time-correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes to activate postsynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The magnitudes of the ensuing Ca2+ transients within dendritic spines are thought to determine the amplitude and direction of synaptic change. In contrast, we show that at mature hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses the magnitudes of Ca2+ transients during plasticity induction do not match this rule. Indeed, LTP induced by time-correlated pre- and postsynaptic spikes instead requires the sequential activation of NMDARs followed by voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels within dendritic spines. Furthermore, LTP requires inhibition of SK channels by mGluR1, which removes a negative feedback loop that constitutively regulates NMDARs. Therefore, rather than being controlled simply by the magnitude of the postsynaptic calcium rise, LTP induction requires the coordinated activation of distinct sources of Ca2+ and mGluR1-dependent facilitation of NMDAR function. PMID:26758963

  4. HERC2/USP20 coordinates CHK1 activation by modulating CLASPIN stability.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Zhao, Hongchang; Liao, Ji; Xu, Xingzhi

    2014-12-01

    CLASPIN is an essential mediator in the DNA replication checkpoint, responsible for ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein)-dependent activation of CHK1 (checkpoint kinase 1). Here we found a dynamic signaling pathway that regulates CLASPIN turn over. Under unperturbed conditions, the E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC2 regulates the stability of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP20 by promoting ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation. Under replication stress, ATR-mediated phosphorylation of USP20 results in the disassociation of HERC2 from USP20. USP20 in turn deubiquitinates K48-linked-polyubiquitinated CLASPIN, stabilizing CLASPIN and ultimately promoting CHK1 phosphorylation and CHK1-directed checkpoint activation. Inhibition of USP20 expression promotes chromosome instability and xenograft tumor growth. Taken together, our findings demonstrated a novel function of HERC2/USP20 in coordinating CHK1 activation by modulating CLASPIN stability, which ultimately promotes genome stability and suppresses tumor growth. PMID:25326330

  5. SATB1 packages densely-looped, transciptionally-active chromatinfor coordinated expression of cytokine genes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Shutao; Lee, Charles C.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-05-23

    SATB1 is an important regulator of nuclear architecture that anchors specialized DNA sequences onto its cage-like network and recruits chromatin remodeling/modifying factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4, and Il13 from the 200kb cytokine gene cluster region of mouse chromosome 11 during T-helper 2 (Th2)-cell activation. We show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is rapidly induced to form a unique transcriptionally-active chromatin structure that includes the cytokine gene region. Chromatin is folded into numerous small loops all anchored by SATB1, is histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9/14, and associated with Th2-specific factors, GATA3, STAT6, c-Maf, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme Brg-1, and RNA polymerase II across the 200kb region. Before activation, the chromatin displays some of these features, such as association with GATA3 and STAT6, but these were insufficient for cytokine gene expression. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is not only required for chromatin folding into dense loops, but also for c-Maf induction and subsequently for Il4, Il5, and Il13 transcription. Our results show that SATB1 is an important determinant for chromatin architecture that constitutes a novel higher-order, transcriptionally-active chromatin structure upon Th2-cell activation.

  6. Lipid activation of the signal recognition particle receptor provides spatial coordination of protein targeting

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Vinh Q.; Akopian, David; Rome, Michael; Henningsen, Doug

    2010-01-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptor comprise the major cellular machinery that mediates the cotranslational targeting of proteins to cellular membranes. It remains unclear how the delivery of cargos to the target membrane is spatially coordinated. We show here that phospholipid binding drives important conformational rearrangements that activate the bacterial SRP receptor FtsY and the SRP–FtsY complex. This leads to accelerated SRP–FtsY complex assembly, and allows the SRP–FtsY complex to more efficiently unload cargo proteins. Likewise, formation of an active SRP–FtsY GTPase complex exposes FtsY’s lipid-binding helix and enables stable membrane association of the targeting complex. Thus, membrane binding, complex assembly with SRP, and cargo unloading are inextricably linked to each other via conformational changes in FtsY. These allosteric communications allow the membrane delivery of cargo proteins to be efficiently coupled to their subsequent unloading and translocation, thus providing spatial coordination during protein targeting. PMID:20733058

  7. Coordination of the Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Activities of p53 in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Tian; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a key role in the cellular response to various stresses. Most previous studies have focused on either the nuclear or cytoplasmic proapoptotic functions of p53, ignoring the combination of both functions. To explore how the two functions of p53 are coordinated in the DNA damage response via computer simulation, we construct a model for the p53 network comprising coupled positive and negative feedback loops involving p53, Mdm2, and Akt, as well as PUMA and Bax. In our model p53 is stabilized and accumulates in the nucleus and cytoplasm upon DNA damage. Nuclear p53 induces expression of Mdm2, PTEN, PUMA, and Bax. Cytoplasmic p53 is then released from the p53·Bcl-xL complex by PUMA to activate Bax directly. We find that the switching between low and high protein levels underlies the decision between cell survival and death. Moreover, a balance between the nuclear and cytoplasmic p53 levels and appropriate levels of Akt and PUMA are required for reliable cell fate decision. Our results indicate that coordination of the transcription-dependent and -independent activities of p53 is important in determining cellular outcomes. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism for p53-mediated cellular responses and provide clues to p53-based cancer therapy. PMID:20858413

  8. Breathing metabolic simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a device for simulation of the human breathing and metabolic parameters required for the evaluation of respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support and resuscitation equipment. The remotely controlled device allows wide variations in breathing rate and depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release to simulate conditions from sleep to hard work, with respiration exchange ratios ranging from hypoventilation to hyperventilation. It also reduces the cost of prolonged testing when simulation chambers with human subjects require three shifts of crews and standby physicians. Several block diagrams of the device and subsystems are given.

  9. Loading of a coordination polymer nanobelt on a functional carbon fiber: a feasible strategy for visible-light-active and highly efficient coordination-polymer-based photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Hong-Yu; Li, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2015-02-23

    To improve the photocatalytic properties of coordination polymers under irradiation in the visible-light region, coordination polymer nanobelts (CPNB) were loaded on functional carbon fiber (FCF) through the use of a simple colloidal blending process. The resulting coordination polymer nanobelt loaded functional carbon fiber composite material (CPNB/FCF) exhibited dramatically improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. Optical and electrochemical methods illustrated the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CPNB/FCF originated from high separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of CPNB and FCF, which was produced by the synergy effect between them. In the composite material, the role of FCF could be described as photosensitizer and good electron transporter. For FCF, the number of functional groups on its surface has a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting CPNB/FCF composite material, and an ideal FCF carrier was obtained as a highly efficient CPNB/FCF photocatalyst. CPNB/FCF showed outstanding stability during the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB); thus, the material is suitable for use as a photocatalyst in the treatment of organic dyes in water. PMID:25641070

  10. Transition Metal Ions in Zeolites: Coordination and activation of O2

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Pieter J.; Woertink, Julia S.; Sels, Bert F.; Solomon, Edward I.; Schoonheydt, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites containing transition metal ions (TMI) often show promising activity as heterogeneous catalysts in pollution abatement and selective oxidation reactions. In this paper, two aspects of research on the TMI Cu, Co and Fe in zeolites are discussed: (i) coordination to the lattice and (ii) activated oxygen species. At low loading, TMI preferably occupy exchange sites in six-membered oxygen rings (6MR) where the TMI preferentially coordinate with the oxygen atoms of Al tetrahedra. High TMI loadings result in a variety of TMI species formed at the zeolite surface. Removal of the extra-lattice oxygens during high temperature pretreatments can result in auto-reduction. Oxidation of reduced TMI sites often results in the formation of highly reactive oxygen species. In Cu-ZSM-5, calcination with O2 results in the formation of a species, which was found to be a crucial intermediate in both the direct decomposition of NO and N2O and the selective oxidation of methane into methanol. An activated oxygen species, called α-oxygen, is formed in Fe-ZSM5 and reported to be the active site in the partial oxidation of methane and benzene into methanol and phenol, respectively. However, this reactive α-oxygen can only be formed with N2O, not with O2. O2 activated Co intermediates in Faujasite (FAU) zeolites can selectively oxidize α-pinene and epoxidize styrene. In Co-FAU, CoIII superoxo and peroxo complexes are suggested to be the active cores, whereas in Cu and Fe-ZSM-5 various monomeric and dimeric sites have been proposed, but no consensus has been obtained. Very recently, the active site in Cu-ZSM-5 was identified as a bent [Cu-O-Cu]2+ core (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 18908-18913). Overall, O2 activation depends on the interplay of structural factors such as type of zeolite, size of the channels and cages and chemical factors such as Si/Al ratio and the nature, charge and distribution of the charge balancing cations. The presence of several different TMI sites

  11. Breath gas metabolites and bacterial metagenomes from cystic fibrosis airways indicate active pH neutral 2,3-butanedione fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Whiteson, Katrine L; Meinardi, Simone; Lim, Yan Wei; Schmieder, Robert; Maughan, Heather; Quinn, Robert; Blake, Donald R; Conrad, Douglas; Rohwer, Forest

    2014-01-01

    The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are chronically colonized by patient-specific polymicrobial communities. The conditions and nutrients available in CF lungs affect the physiology and composition of the colonizing microbes. Recent work in bioreactors has shown that the fermentation product 2,3-butanediol mediates cross-feeding between some fermenting bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and that this mechanism increases bacterial current production. To examine bacterial fermentation in the respiratory tract, breath gas metabolites were measured and several metagenomes were sequenced from CF and non-CF volunteers. 2,3-butanedione was produced in nearly all respiratory tracts. Elevated levels in one patient decreased during antibiotic treatment, and breath concentrations varied between CF patients at the same time point. Some patients had high enough levels of 2,3-butanedione to irreversibly damage lung tissue. Antibiotic therapy likely dictates the activities of 2,3-butanedione-producing microbes, which suggests a need for further study with larger sample size. Sputum microbiomes were dominated by P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus spp. and Rothia mucilaginosa, and revealed the potential for 2,3-butanedione biosynthesis. Genes encoding 2,3-butanedione biosynthesis were disproportionately abundant in Streptococcus spp, whereas genes for consumption of butanedione pathway products were encoded by P. aeruginosa and R. mucilaginosa. We propose a model where low oxygen conditions in CF lung lead to fermentation and a decrease in pH, triggering 2,3-butanedione fermentation to avoid lethal acidification. We hypothesize that this may also increase phenazine production by P. aeruginosa, increasing reactive oxygen species and providing additional electron acceptors to CF microbes. PMID:24401860

  12. Multi-frequency activation of neuronal networks by coordinated reset stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lysyansky, Borys; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    We computationally study whether it is possible to stimulate a neuronal population in such a way that its mean firing rate increases without an increase of the population's net synchronization. For this, we use coordinated reset (CR) stimulation, which has previously been developed to desynchronize populations of oscillatory neurons. Intriguingly, delivered to a population of predominantly silent FitzHugh–Nagumo or Hindmarsh–Rose neurons at sufficient stimulation amplitudes, CR robustly causes a multi-frequency activation: different Arnold tongues such as 1 : 1 or n : m entrained neuronal clusters emerge, which consist of phase-shifted sub clusters. Owing to the clustering pattern the neurons' timing is well balanced, so that in total there is no synchronization. Our findings may contribute to the development of novel and safe stimulation treatments that specifically counteract cerebral hypo-activity without promoting pathological synchronization or inducing epileptic seizures. PMID:22419975

  13. Coordinated Action of Fast and Slow Reserves for Optimal Sequential and Dynamic Emergency Reserve Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkuti, Surender Reddy; Bijwe, P. R.; Abhyankar, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an optimal dynamic reserve activation plan after the occurrence of an emergency situation (generator/transmission line outage, load increase or both). An optimal plan is developed to handle the emergency situation, using coordinated action of fast and slow reserves, for secure operation with minimum overall cost. This paper considers the reserves supplied by generators (spinning reserves) and loads (demand-side reserves). The optimal backing down of costly/fast reserves and bringing up of slow reserves in each sub-interval in an integrated manner is proposed. The simulation studies are performed on IEEE 30, 57 and 300 bus test systems to demonstrate the advantage of proposed integrated/dynamic reserve activation plan over the conventional/sequential approach.

  14. Hand-Arm Coordinated Manipulation Using Active Body-Environment Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugaiwa, Taisuke; Iwata, Hiroyasu; Sugano, Shigeki

    Human-symbiotic humanoid robots that can perform tasks dexterously with their hands are needed in our homes, welfare facilities, and other places. To improve their performance of tasks, we propose a scheme of controlling motion aimed at appropriately coordinated hand and arm motions. By observing human manual tasks, we identify an active body-environment contact as a kind of human manual skills and devise a motion control scheme based on it. We also analyze the effectiveness of the combination of the active body-environment contact and our proposed scheme in example tasks of the adding/removing constraint task. We validate our motion control scheme through actual tests on a prototype human-symbiotic humanoid robot.

  15. Normal coordinate analysis and fungicidal activity study on anilazine and its related compound using spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeja Mol, Gilbert Pushpam; Arul Dhas, Deva Dhas; Hubert Joe, Isaac; Balachandran, Sreedharan

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of anilazine have been recorded in the range 400-4000 cm-1 and 50-3500 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometrical parameters of the compound were calculated using B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The distribution of the vibrational bands were carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The 1H and 13C nuclear spectra have been recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 190-900 nm and the electronic properties were determined by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Anilazine was screened for its antifungal activity. Molecular docking studies are conducted to predict its fungicidal activity.

  16. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  17. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-Chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ3, but not in those by integrin α5β1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  18. Self-contained breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Giorgini, E. A.; Simmonds, M. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A self-contained breathing apparatus with automatic redundant fluid pressure controls and a facemask mounted low pressure whistle alarm is described. The first stage of the system includes pair of pressure regulators connected in parallel with different outlet pressures, both of which reduce the pressure of the stored supply gas to pressures compatible with the second stage breathing demand regulator. A primary regulator in the first stage delivers a low output pressure to the demand regulator. In the event of a failure closed condition of the primary regulator an automatic transfer valve switches on the backup regulator. A warning that the supply pressure has been depleted is also provided by a supply pressure actuated transfer valve which transfers the output of the first stage pressure regulators from the primary to the backup regulator. The alarm is activated in either the failure closed condition or if the supply pressure is reduced to a dangerously low level.

  19. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... a high altitude Blood clot in the lung Collapsed lung (pneumothorax) Heart attack Injury to the neck, chest wall, ... cavity with each breath. This can cause a collapsed lung . Bandage the wound with plastic wrap, a plastic ...

  20. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  1. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon dioxide and not enough oxygen in blood (obesity hypoventilation ... for anemia), and oximetry or blood oxygen or carbon dioxide levels. Your doctor also may obtain a chest ...

  2. 45 CFR 287.140 - With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operation of its work activities and services? 287.140 Section 287.140 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... and Operations § 287.140 With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services? The administration of work activities and services provided under the NEW Program...

  3. Cadmium Activates Multiple Signaling Pathways That Coordinately Stimulate Akt Activity to Enhance c-Myc mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jia-Shiuan; Chao, Cheng-Han; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a known environmental carcinogen. Exposure of Cd leads to the activation of several proto-oncogenes in cells. We investigated here the mechanism of c-Myc expression in hepatic cells under Cd treatment. The c-Myc protein and mRNA levels increased in dose- and time-dependent manners in HepG2 cells with Cd treatment. This increase was due to an increase in c-Myc mRNA stability. To explore the mechanism involved in enhancing the mRNA stability, several cellular signaling factors that evoked by Cd treatment were analyzed. PI3K, p38, ERK and JNK were activated by Cd. However, ERK did not participate in the Cd-induced c-Myc expression. Further analysis revealed that mTORC2 was a downstream factor of p38. PI3K, JNK and mTORC2 coordinately activated Akt. Akt was phosphorylated at Thr450 in the untreated cells. Cd treatment led to additional phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. Blocking any of the three signaling factors resulted in the reduction of phosphorylation level at all three Akt sites. The activated Akt phosphorylated Foxo1 and allowed the modified protein to translocate into the cytoplasm. We conclude that Cd-induced accumulation of c-Myc requires the activation of several signaling pathways. The signals act coordinately for Akt activation and drive the Foxo1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Reduction of Foxo1 in the nucleus reduces the transcription of its target genes that may affect c-Myc mRNA stability, resulting in a higher accumulation of the c-Myc proteins. PMID:26751215

  4. Coordinated activation of premotor and ventromedial prefrontal cortices during vicarious reward

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Madoka; Takahashi, Hidefumi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The vicarious reward we receive from watching likable others obtaining a positive outcome is a pervasive phenomenon, yet its neural correlates are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to test the hypothesis that the brain areas responsible for action observation and reward processing work in a coordinated fashion during vicarious reward. In the first experiment (manipulation phase), the participant was instructed to cheer for a particular player in a two-player competitive game (Rock–Paper–Scissors). This manipulation made participants feel more unity with that player and resulted in unity-related activation in the premotor area during action observation. In the following main experiment, the participant witnessed the previously cheered-for or non-cheered-for player succeed in a new solitary game (a stopwatch game). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was activated when the cheered-for player succeeded in the game but not when the other player did. Interestingly, this vmPFC activation was functionally connected with premotor activation only during the cheered-for player’s success. These results suggest that vicarious reward is processed in the vmPFC-premotor network, which is activated specifically by the success of the other person with whom the individual feels unity and closeness. PMID:26500290

  5. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, G. Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R.P.; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C.; Bowie, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits. PMID:26924438

  6. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dawe, G Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R P; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C; Bowie, Derek

    2016-03-16

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits. PMID:26924438

  7. Pathway connectivity and signaling coordination in the yeast stress-activated signaling network

    PubMed Central

    Chasman, Deborah; Ho, Yi-Hsuan; Berry, David B; Nemec, Corey M; MacGilvray, Matthew E; Hose, James; Merrill, Anna E; Lee, M Violet; Will, Jessica L; Coon, Joshua J; Ansari, Aseem Z; Craven, Mark; Gasch, Audrey P

    2014-01-01

    Stressed cells coordinate a multi-faceted response spanning many levels of physiology. Yet knowledge of the complete stress-activated regulatory network as well as design principles for signal integration remains incomplete. We developed an experimental and computational approach to integrate available protein interaction data with gene fitness contributions, mutant transcriptome profiles, and phospho-proteome changes in cells responding to salt stress, to infer the salt-responsive signaling network in yeast. The inferred subnetwork presented many novel predictions by implicating new regulators, uncovering unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways, and pointing to previously unknown ‘hubs’ of signal integration. We exploited these predictions to show that Cdc14 phosphatase is a central hub in the network and that modification of RNA polymerase II coordinates induction of stress-defense genes with reduction of growth-related transcripts. We find that the orthologous human network is enriched for cancer-causing genes, underscoring the importance of the subnetwork's predictions in understanding stress biology. PMID:25411400

  8. Effective coordination number: A simple indicator of activation energies for NO dissociation on Rh(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Prasenjit; Pushpa, Raghani; Gironcoli, Stefano de

    2009-12-15

    We have used density-functional theory to compute the activation energy for the dissociation of NO on two physical and two hypothetical systems: unstrained and strained Rh(100) surfaces and monolayers of Rh atoms on strained and unstrained MgO(100) surfaces. We find that the activation energy, relative to the gas phase, is reduced when a monolayer of Rh is placed on MgO, due both to the chemical nature of the substrate and the strain imposed by the substrate. The former effect is the dominant one, though both effects are of the same order of magnitude. We find that both effects are encapsulated in a simple quantity which we term as the 'effective coordination number'(n{sub e}); the activation energy is found to vary linearly with n{sub e}. We have compared the performance of n{sub e} as a predictor of activation energy of NO dissociation on the above-mentioned Rh surfaces with the two well-established indicators, namely, the position of the d-band center and the coadsorption energy of N and O. We find that for the present systems n{sub e} performs as well as the other two indicators.

  9. Open Discussion Session: Challenges and Advancements in Coordinated Space Weather Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti

    2016-07-01

    Besides addressing the key questions in space weather research the Cospar/ILWS Roadmap presents also recommendations for teaming in the research environment and for collaboration between agencies and communities. Coordinated work of different research groups facilitate our efforts for a holistic view on the entire Sun-Earth system with its complicated feedback processes in different scale sizes. Seamless knowledge transfer from research to operational services is a crucial factor for the success of space weather research field. In this open discussion session we encourage the participants to share their views on most important challenges and advancements in our field, both in science and in collaboration. We also welcome comments on the roadmap recommendations and guidance for similar activities in the future.

  10. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Maudsley, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional "keystone" role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  11. Redox activity and multiple copper(I) coordination of 2His-2Cys oligopeptide.

    PubMed

    Choi, DongWon; Alshahrani, Aisha A; Vytla, Yashodharani; Deeconda, Manogna; Serna, Victor J; Saenz, Robert F; Angel, Laurence A

    2015-02-01

    Copper binding motifs with their molecular mechanisms of selective copper(I) recognition are essential molecules for acquiring copper ions, trafficking copper to specific locations and controlling the potentially damaging redox activities of copper in biochemical processes. The redox activity and multiple Cu(I) binding of an analog methanobactin peptide-2 (amb2) with the sequence acetyl-His1-Cys2-Tyr3-Pro4-His5-Cys6 was investigated using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry analyses. The Cu(II) titration of amb2 showed oxidation of amb2 via the formation of intra- and intermolecular Cys-Cys disulfide bridges and the multiple Cu(I) coordination by unoxidized amb2 or the partially oxidized dimer and trimer of amb2. The principal product of these reactions was [amb2 + 3Cu(I)](+) which probably coordinates the three Cu(I) ions via two bridging thiolate groups of Cys2 and Cys6 and the δN6 of the imidazole groups of His6, as determined by geometry optimized structures at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. The products observed by IM-MS showed direct correlation to spectral changes associated with disulfide bond formation in the UV-Vis spectrophotometric study. The results show that IM-MS analysis is a powerful technique for unambiguously determining the major ion species produced during the redox and metal binding chemistry of oligopeptides. PMID:25800013

  12. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G.; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-na; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional “keystone” role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  13. Pre-treatment urea breath test results predict the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yung-Chih; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Huang, Shih-Hung

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of pre-treatment 13C-urea breath test (UBT) results with H pylori density and efficacy of eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients with active duodenal ulcer and H pylori infection were recruited. H pylori density was histologically graded according to the Sydney system. Each patient received lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) for 1 week. According to pre-treatment UBT values, patients were allocated into low ( < 16‰), intermediate (16‰-35‰), and high ( > 35‰) UBT groups. RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between pre-treatment UBT results and H pylori density (P < 0.001). H pylori eradication rates were 94.9%, 94.4% and 81.6% in the low, intermediate and high UBT groups, respectively (per protocol analysis, P = 0.11). When patients were assigned into two groups (UBT results ≤ 35‰ and > 35‰), the eradication rates were 94.7% and 81.6%, respectively (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The intragastric bacterial load of H pylori can be evaluated by UBT, and high pre-treatment UBT results can predict an adverse outcome of eradication therapy. PMID:15052680

  14. M2L4 coordination capsules with tunable anticancer activity upon guest encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmedova, Anife; Mihaylova, Rositsa; Momekova, Denitsa; Shestakova, Pavletta; Stoykova, Silviya; Zaharieva, Joana; Yamashina, Masahiro; Momekov, Georgi; Akita, Munetaka; Yoshizawa, Michito

    2016-08-16

    Metallosupramolecular cages and capsules have gained increasing popularity as both molecular containers and anticancer agents. For successful combination of these properties a thorough analysis of the effect of guest encapsulation on the host's cytotoxic properties is highly required. Here we report on the cytotoxicity modulation of Pt(ii) and Pd(ii)-linked M2L4 coordination capsules upon encapsulation of guest molecules such as pyrene and caffeine. The anticancer activity of the capsules against various human cancer cells (HT-29, T-24, HL-60 and its resistant counterparts HL-60/Dox and HL-60/CDDP) significantly altered upon the guest encapsulation. The encapsulation of pyrene molecules causes a decrease in the cytotoxicity of the Pt(ii) capsule, which is stronger than that of the Pd(ii) capsule. The cytotoxicities of the caffeine containing capsules are lower than that of the empty capsules (except for HL-60), but still superior to cisplatin under the same conditions. The observed trends in the anticancer activity of the capsules and their host-guest complexes correlate with their different stabilities toward glutathione, estimated by NMR-based kinetic experiments. Mechanistic insights into the observed cytotoxicities are obtained by fluorescence microscopy imaging of tumor cells treated with the capsules and their pyrene complexes. The data suggest the glutathione-triggered disassembly of the capsular structures as a potential activation pathway for their cytotoxicities. PMID:27488015

  15. Coordinate-based (ALE) meta-analysis of brain activation in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mahboobeh; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Eickhoff, Simon B; Petzke, Frank; Harris, Richard E; Montoya, Pedro; Burgmer, Markus

    2016-05-01

    There are an increasing number of neuroimaging studies that allow a better understanding of symptoms, neural correlates and associated conditions of fibromyalgia. However, the results of these studies are difficult to compare, as they include a heterogeneous group of patients, use different stimulation paradigms, tasks, and the statistical evaluation of neuroimaging data shows high variability. Therefore, this meta-analytic approach aimed at evaluating potential alterations in neuronal brain activity or structure related to pain processing in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients, using quantitative coordinate-based "activation likelihood estimation" (ALE) meta-analysis. 37 FMS papers met the inclusion criteria for an ALE analysis (1,264 subjects, 274 activation foci). A pooled ALE analysis of different modalities of neuroimaging and additional analyses according functional and structural changes indicated differences between FMS patients and controls in the insula, amygdala, anterior/mid cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, and lingual gyrus. Our analysis showed consistent results across FMS studies with potential abnormalities especially in pain-related brain areas. Given that similar alterations have already been demonstrated in patients with other chronic pain conditions and the lack of adequate control groups of chronic pain subjects in most FMS studies, it is not clear however, whether these findings are associated with chronic pain in general or are unique features of patients with FMS. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1749-1758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864780

  16. Tex10 Coordinates Epigenetic Control of Super-Enhancer Activity in Pluripotency and Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Junjun; Huang, Xin; Shao, Ningyi; Zhou, Hongwei; Lee, Dung-Fang; Faiola, Francesco; Fidalgo, Miguel; Guallar, Diana; Saunders, Arven; Shliaha, Pavel V.; Wang, Hailong; Waghray, Avinash; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Sánchez-Priego, Carlos; Li, Dan; Yuan, Ye; Lemischka, Ihor R.; Shen, Li; Kelley, Kevin; Deng, Haiteng; Shen, Xiaohua; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Super-enhancers (SEs) are large clusters of transcriptional enhancers that are co-occupied by multiple lineage specific transcription factors driving expression of genes that define cell identity. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), SEs are highly enriched for the core pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. In this study, we sought to dissect the molecular control mechanism of SE activity in pluripotency and reprogramming. Starting from a protein interaction network surrounding Sox2, we identified Tex10 as a key pluripotency factor that plays a functionally significant role in ESC self-renewal, early embryo development, and reprogramming. Tex10 is enriched at SEs in a Sox2-dependent manner and coordinates histone acetylation and DNA demethylation at SEs. Tex10 activity is also important for pluripotency and reprogramming in human cells. Our study therefore highlights Tex10 as a core component of the pluripotency network and sheds light on its role in epigenetic control of SE activity for cell fate determination. PMID:25936917

  17. Mirror neuron activation in children with developmental coordination disorder: A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jess E; Licari, Melissa K; Billington, Jac; Chen, Yihui; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Werner, Julie; Winsor, Anne M; Bynevelt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal cortical areas that may contribute to the movement difficulties seen in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Specifically, we hypothesized that there may be a deficit in the mirror neuron system (MNS), a neural system that responds to both performed and observed actions. Using functional MRI, 14 boys with DCD (x=10.08 years ± 1.31, range=7.83-11.58 years) and 12 typically developing controls (x=10.10 years ± 1.15, range=8.33-12.00 years) were scanned observing, executing and imitating a finger sequencing task using their right hand. Cortical activations of mirror neuron regions, including posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), ventral premotor cortex, anterior inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal sulcus were examined. Children with DCD had decreased cortical activation mirror neuron related regions, including the precentral gyrus and IFG, as well as in the posterior cingulate and precuneus complex when observing the sequencing task. Region of interest analysis revealed lower activation in the pars opercularis, a primary MNS region, during imitation in the DCD group compared to controls. These findings provide some preliminary evidence to support a possible MNS dysfunction in children with DCD. PMID:26523778

  18. Tex10 Coordinates Epigenetic Control of Super-Enhancer Activity in Pluripotency and Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Ding, Junjun; Huang, Xin; Shao, Ningyi; Zhou, Hongwei; Lee, Dung-Fang; Faiola, Francesco; Fidalgo, Miguel; Guallar, Diana; Saunders, Arven; Shliaha, Pavel V; Wang, Hailong; Waghray, Avinash; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Sánchez-Priego, Carlos; Li, Dan; Yuan, Ye; Lemischka, Ihor R; Shen, Li; Kelley, Kevin; Deng, Haiteng; Shen, Xiaohua; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-06-01

    Super-enhancers (SEs) are large clusters of transcriptional enhancers that are co-occupied by multiple lineage-specific transcription factors driving expression of genes that define cell identity. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), SEs are highly enriched for the core pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. In this study, we sought to dissect the molecular control mechanism of SE activity in pluripotency and reprogramming. Starting from a protein interaction network surrounding Sox2, we identified Tex10 as a key pluripotency factor that plays a functionally significant role in ESC self-renewal, early embryo development, and reprogramming. Tex10 is enriched at SEs in a Sox2-dependent manner and coordinates histone acetylation and DNA demethylation at SEs. Tex10 activity is also important for pluripotency and reprogramming in human cells. Our study therefore highlights Tex10 as a core component of the pluripotency network and sheds light on its role in epigenetic control of SE activity for cell fate determination. PMID:25936917

  19. Mcm10 coordinates the timely assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Mcm10 is an essential replication factor that is required for DNA replication in eukaryotes. Two key steps in the initiation of DNA replication are the assembly and activation of Cdc45–Mcm2–7-GINS (CMG) replicative helicase. However, it is not known what coordinates helicase assembly with helicase activation. We show in this manuscript, using purified proteins from budding yeast, that Mcm10 directly interacts with the Mcm2–7 complex and Cdc45. In fact, Mcm10 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2–7 complex in vitro. To study the role of Mcm10 in more detail in vivo we used an auxin inducible degron in which Mcm10 is degraded upon addition of auxin. We show in this manuscript that Mcm10 is required for the timely recruitment of Cdc45 and GINS recruitment to the Mcm2–7 complex in vivo during early S phase. We also found that Mcm10 stimulates Mcm2 phosphorylation by DDK in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicate that Mcm10 plays a critical role in coupling replicative helicase assembly with helicase activation. Mcm10 is first involved in the recruitment of Cdc45 to the Mcm2–7 complex. After Cdc45–Mcm2–7 complex assembly, Mcm10 promotes origin melting by stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, which thereby leads to GINS attachment to Mcm2–7. PMID:26582917

  20. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  1. Coronal Magnetography of Solar Active Regions Using Coordinated SOHO/CDS and VLA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the coronal magnetographic technique to SOHO (Solar Heliospheric Observatory) /CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer) EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation) and coordinated VLA microwave observations of solar active regions to derive the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field. A CDS observing plan was developed for obtaining spectra needed to derive active region differential emission measures (DEMs) required for coronal magnetography. VLA observations were proposed and obtained. SOHO JOP 100 was developed, tested, approved, and implemented to obtain coordinated CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer)/EIT (Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope)/ VLA (Very Large Array)/ TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer)/ SXT (Solar X Ray Telescope) observations of active regions on April 12, May 9, May 13, and May 23. Analysis of all four data sets began, with heaviest concentration on COS data. It is found that 200-pixel (14 A in NIS1) wavelength windows are appropriate for extracting broadened Gaussian line profile fit parameters for lines including Fe XIV at 334.2, Fe XVI at 335.4, Fe XVI at 360.8, and Mg IX at 368.1 over the 4 arcmin by 4 arcmin CDS field of view. Extensive efforts were focused on learning and applying were focused on learning and applying CDS software, and including it in new IDL procedures to carry out calculations relating to coronal magnetography. An important step is to extract Gaussian profile fits to all the lines needed to derive the DEM in each spatial pixel of any given active region. The standard CDS absolute intensity calibration software was applied to derived intensity images, revealing that ratios between density-insensitive lines like Fe XVI 360.8/335.4 yield good agreement with theory. However, the resulting absolute intensities of those lines are very high, indicating that revisions to the CDS absolute intensity calibrations remain to be included in the CDS software, an essential step to

  2. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  3. Coordination of MYH DNA glycosylase and APE1 endonuclease activities via physical interactions.

    PubMed

    Luncsford, Paz J; Manvilla, Brittney A; Patterson, Dimeka N; Malik, Shuja S; Jin, Jin; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Gunther, Randall; Kalvakolanu, Snigdha; Lipinski, Leonora J; Yuan, Weirong; Lu, Wuyuan; Drohat, Alexander C; Lu, A-Lien; Toth, Eric A

    2013-12-01

    MutY homologue (MYH) is a DNA glycosylase which excises adenine paired with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG, or G(o)) during base excision repair (BER). Base excision by MYH results in an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site in the DNA where the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone remains intact. A key feature of MYH activity is its physical interaction and coordination with AP endonuclease I (APE1), which subsequently nicks DNA 5' to the AP site. Because AP sites are mutagenic and cytotoxic, they must be processed by APE1 immediately after the action of MYH glycosylase. Our recent reports show that the interdomain connector (IDC) of human MYH (hMYH) maintains interactions with hAPE1 and the human checkpoint clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex. In this study, we used NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments to determine hMYH-binding site on hAPE1. Chemical shift perturbations indicate that the hMYH IDC peptide binds to the DNA-binding site of hAPE1 and an additional site which is distal to the APE1 DNA-binding interface. In these two binding sites, N212 and Q137 of hAPE1 are key mediators of the MYH/APE1 interaction. Intriguingly, despite the fact that hHus1 and hAPE1 both interact with the MYH IDC, hHus1 does not compete with hAPE1 for binding to hMYH. Rather, hHus1 stabilizes the hMYH/hAPE1 complex both in vitro and in cells. This is consistent with a common theme in BER, namely that the assembly of protein-DNA complexes enhances repair by efficiently coordinating multiple enzymatic steps while simultaneously minimizing the release of harmful repair intermediates. PMID:24209961

  4. Coordination of MYH DNA glycosylase and APE1 endonuclease activities via physical interactions

    PubMed Central

    Luncsford, Paz J.; Manvilla, Brittney A.; Patterson, Dimeka N.; Malik, Shuja S.; Jin, Jin; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Gunther, Randall; Kalvakolanu, Snigdha; Lipinski, Leonora J.; Yuan, Weirong; Lu, Wuyuan; Drohat, Alexander C.; Lu-Chang, A-Lien; Toth, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    MutY homologue (MYH) is a DNA glycosylase which excises adenine paired with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG, or G°) during base excision repair (BER). Base excision by MYH results in an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site in the DNA where the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone remains intact. A key feature of MYH activity is its physical interaction and coordination with AP endonuclease I (APE1), which subsequently nicks DNA 5' to the AP site. Because AP sites are mutagenic and cytotoxic, they must be processed by APE1 immediately after the action of MYH glycosylase. Our recent reports show that the interdomain connector (IDC) of human MYH (hMYH) maintains interactions with hAPE1 and the human checkpoint clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex. In this study, we used NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments to determine hMYH-binding site on hAPE1. Chemical shift perturbations indicate that the hMYH IDC peptide binds to the DNA-binding site of hAPE1 and an additional site which is distal to the APE1 DNA-binding interface. In these two binding sites, N212 and Q137 of hAPE1 are key mediators of the MYH/APE1 interaction. Intriguingly, despite the fact that hHus1 and hAPE1 both interact with the MYH IDC, hHus1 does not compete with hAPE1 for binding to hMYH. Rather, hHus1 stabilizes the hMYH/hAPE1 complex both in vitro and in cells. This is consistent with a common theme in BER, namely that the assembly of protein-DNA complexes enhances repair by efficiently coordinating multiple enzymatic steps while simultaneously minimizing the release of harmful repair intermediates. PMID:24209961

  5. Enzyme Design From the Bottom Up: An Active Nickel Electrocatalyst with a Structured Peptide Outer Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Reback, Matthew L.; Buchko, Garry W.; Kier, Brandon L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Xiong, Yijia; Lense, Sheri; Hou, Jianbo; Roberts, John A.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Raugei, Simone; Squier, Thomas C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-02-03

    Functional, peptide-containing metal complexes with a well-defined peptide structure have the potential to enhance molecular catalysts via an enzyme-like outer coordination sphere. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of an active, peptide-based metal complex built upon the well characterized hydrogen production catalyst, Ni(PPh2NPh)2. The incorporated peptide maintains its B-hairpin structure when appended to the metal core, and the electrocatalytic activity of the peptide-based metal complex (~100,000 s-1) is fully retained. The combination of an active molecular catalyst with a structured peptide outer coordination sphere provides a scaffold that permits the incorporation of features of an enzyme-like outer-coordination sphere necessary to create molecular electrocatalysts with en-hanced functionality.

  6. A miniature optical breathing sensor

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult. PMID:23243581

  7. Changes in cytochrome P4501A activity during development in common tern chicks fed polychlorinated biphenyls, as measured by the caffeine breath test

    SciTech Connect

    Feyk, L.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Van den Berg, M.

    2000-03-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) activity is often used as a biomarker of exposure of wildlife to polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons and is usually measured ex vivo in liver tissue. A caffeine breath test (CBT) with radiolabeled substrate ({sup 14}C-caffeine) was used to measure in vivo CYP1A activity twice during development in 14 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks treated with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons. Tern hatchlings were fed fish spiked with 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) such that the diet contained an average of 23, 99, or 561 pg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents per gram of fish for 21 d. Sixteen additional common tern chicks were similarly dosed with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons but were not subjected to the CBT procedure. In weeks 1 and 2, caffeine N-demethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity on day 21 were elevated in birds that received the greatest PCB dose. There was less constitutive and greater induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity than caffeine N-demethylation. The {sup 14}C-CBT was less invasive than the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay. Only one morphological parameter differed significantly between CBT subjects and no-CBT subjects fed the same level of PCBs. Bursa weight was significantly less in control CBT subjects than in control no-CBT subjects, but bursa weights did not differ among CBT and no-CBT birds from the two PCB treatment groups. No alterations of survival or growth occurred in CBT subjects compared with no-CBT subjects.

  8. Photostimulation of retrotrapezoid nucleus Phox2b-expressing neurons in vivo produces long-lasting activation of breathing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Stephen B.G.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Fortuna, Michal G.; Depuy, Seth D.; West, Gavin H.; Harris, Thurl E.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The retrotrapezoid “nucleus” (RTN), located in the rostral ventrolateral medullary reticular formation, contains a bilateral cluster of about 1000 glutamatergic non catecholaminergic Phox2b-expressing propriobulbar neurons that are activated by CO2 in vivo and by acidification in vitro. These cells are thought to function as central respiratory chemoreceptors but this theory still lacks a crucial piece of evidence, namely that stimulating these particular neurons selectively in vivo increases breathing. The present study carried out in anesthetized rats seeks to test whether this expectation is correct. We injected into the left RTN a lentivirus that expresses the light-activated cationic channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2, H134R mutation, fused to the fluorescent protein mCherry) under the control of the Phox2-responsive promoter PRSx8. Transgene expression was restricted to 423 ± 38 Phox2b-expressing neurons per rat consisting of non-catecholaminergic and C1 adrenergic neurons (3/2 ratio). Photostimulation delivered to the RTN region in vivo via a fiberoptic activated the CO2-sensitive neurons vigorously, produced a long-lasting (t1/2 = 11 s) increase in phrenic nerve activity and caused a small and short-lasting cardiovascular stimulation. Selective lesions of the C1 cells eliminated the cardiovascular response but left the respiratory stimulation intact. In rats with C1 cell lesions, the mCherry-labeled axon terminals originating from the transfected non-catecholaminergic neurons were present exclusively in the lower brainstem regions that contain the respiratory pattern generator. These results provide strong evidence that the Phox2b-expressing non-catecholaminergic neurons of the RTN region function as central respiratory chemoreceptors. PMID:19420248

  9. Inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity: protecting the drive to breathe in disorders that reduce respiratory neural activity.

    PubMed

    Strey, K A; Baertsch, N A; Baker-Herman, T L

    2013-11-01

    Multiple forms of plasticity are activated following reduced respiratory neural activity. For example, in ventilated rats, a central neural apnea elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude upon resumption of respiratory neural activity, forms of plasticity called inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF), respectively. Here, we provide a conceptual framework for plasticity following reduced respiratory neural activity to guide future investigations. We review mechanisms giving rise to iPMF and iHMF, present new data suggesting that inactivity-induced plasticity is observed in inspiratory intercostals (iIMF) and point out gaps in our knowledge. We then survey conditions relevant to human health characterized by reduced respiratory neural activity and discuss evidence that inactivity-induced plasticity is elicited during these conditions. Understanding the physiological impact and circumstances in which inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity is elicited may yield novel insights into the treatment of disorders characterized by reductions in respiratory neural activity. PMID:23816599

  10. Breathing: Rhythmicity, Plasticity, Chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jack L.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2010-01-01

    Breathing is a vital behavior that is particularly amenable to experimental investigation. We review recent progress on three problems of broad interest. (i) Where and how is respiratory rhythm generated? The preBötzinger Complex is a critical site, whereas pacemaker neurons may not be essential. The possibility that coupled oscillators are involved is considered. (ii) What are the mechanisms that underlie the plasticity necessary for adaptive changes in breathing? Serotonin-dependent long-term facilitation following intermittent hypoxia is an important example of such plasticity, and a model that can account for this adaptive behavior is discussed. (iii) Where and how are the regulated variables CO2 and pH sensed? These sensors are essential if breathing is to be appropriate for metabolism. Neurons with appropriate chemosensitivity are spread throughout the brainstem; their individual properties and collective role are just beginning to be understood. PMID:12598679

  11. Spectroscopic properties and the catalytic activity of new organo-lead supramolecular coordination polymer containing quinoxaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Abdou, Safaa N.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP) 3∞[ Cu2(CN)3(Me3Pb)(qox)], 1, as the first example of the CuCN SCP containing the (Me3Pb) fragment, was explored to investigate its catalytic and photo-catalytic activities. The structure of 1 contains two chemically identical but crystallographically different [Cu2(CN)3ṡMe3Pbṡqox]2 units with four Cu(I) sites assuming distorted TP-3 geometry. Two non-linear chains of equal abundance are formed producing corrugated parallel chains which are connected laterally by quinoxaline creating 2D-layers which are arranged parallel in an (AB⋯AB⋯AB)n fashion forming 3D-network. IR, mass, electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are also investigated. The SCP 1 is diamagnetic and exhibits good catalytic and photo-catalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The reaction is first order with respect to MB dye. The irradiation of the reaction with UV-light enhanced the rate of MB mineralization. The efficiency of recycled the 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye were investigated.

  12. Spectroscopic properties and the catalytic activity of new organo-lead supramolecular coordination polymer containing quinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H; Abdou, Safaa N

    2015-01-25

    The 3D-supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP) (3)∞[ Cu2(CN)3(Me3Pb)(qox)], 1, as the first example of the CuCN SCP containing the (Me3Pb) fragment, was explored to investigate its catalytic and photo-catalytic activities. The structure of 1 contains two chemically identical but crystallographically different [Cu2(CN)3⋅Me3Pb⋅qox]2 units with four Cu(I) sites assuming distorted TP-3 geometry. Two non-linear chains of equal abundance are formed producing corrugated parallel chains which are connected laterally by quinoxaline creating 2D-layers which are arranged parallel in an (AB⋯AB⋯AB)n fashion forming 3D-network. IR, mass, electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are also investigated. The SCP 1 is diamagnetic and exhibits good catalytic and photo-catalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The reaction is first order with respect to MB dye. The irradiation of the reaction with UV-light enhanced the rate of MB mineralization. The efficiency of recycled the 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye were investigated. PMID:25124847

  13. Coordinated ventilation and spiracle activity produce unidirectional airflow in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Erica C; McHenry, Matthew J; Bradley, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Insects exchange respiratory gases via an extensive network of tracheal vessels that open to the surface of the body through spiracular valves. Although gas exchange is known to increase with the opening of these spiracles, it is not clear how this event relates to gas flow through the tracheal system. We examined the relationship between respiratory airflow and spiracle activity in a ventilating insect, the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, to better understand the complexity of insect respiratory function. Using simultaneous video recordings of multiple spiracular valves, we found that abdominal spiracles open and close in unison during periods of ventilation. Additionally, independent recordings of CO2 release from the abdominal and thoracic regions and observations of hyperoxic tracer gas movement indicate that air is drawn into the thoracic spiracles and expelled from the abdominal spiracles. Our video recordings suggest that this unidirectional flow is driven by abdominal contractions that occur when the abdominal spiracles open. The spiracles then close as the abdomen relaxes and fills with air from the thorax. Therefore, the respiratory system of the hissing cockroach functions as a unidirectional pump through the coordinated action of the spiracles and abdominal musculature. This mechanism may be employed by a broad diversity of large insects that respire by active ventilation. PMID:24031063

  14. Kupffer cells and activation of endothelial TLR4 coordinate neutrophil adhesion within liver sinusoids during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Braedon; Jenne, Craig N; Zhuo, Lisheng; Kimata, Koji; Kubes, Paul

    2013-12-01

    A key pathological feature of the systemic inflammatory response of sepsis/endotoxemia is the accumulation of neutrophils within the microvasculature of organs such as the liver, where they cause tissue damage and vascular dysfunction. There is emerging evidence that the vascular endothelium is critical to the orchestration of inflammatory responses to blood-borne microbes and microbial products in sepsis/endotoxemia. In this study, we aimed to understand the role of endothelium, and specifically endothelial TLR4 activation, in the regulation of neutrophil recruitment to the liver during endotoxemia. Intravital microscopy of bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that TLR4 expression by non-bone marrow-derived cells was required for neutrophil recruitment to the liver during endotoxemia. Furthermore, LPS-induced neutrophil adhesion in liver sinusoids was equivalent between wild-type mice and transgenic mice that express TLR4 only on endothelium (tlr4(-/-)Tie2(tlr4)), revealing that activation of endothelial TLR4 alone was sufficient to initiate neutrophil adhesion. Neutrophil arrest within sinusoids of endotoxemic mice requires adhesive interactions between neutrophil CD44 and endothelial hyaluronan. Intravital immunofluorescence imaging demonstrated that stimulation of endothelial TLR4 alone was sufficient to induce the deposition of serum-derived hyaluronan-associated protein (SHAP) within sinusoids, which was required for CD44/hyaluronan-dependent neutrophil adhesion. In addition to endothelial TLR4 activation, Kupffer cells contribute to neutrophil recruitment via a distinct CD44/HA/SHAP-independent mechanism. This study sheds new light on the control of innate immune activation within the liver vasculature during endotoxemia, revealing a key role for endothelial cells as sentinels in the detection of intravascular infections and coordination of neutrophil recruitment to the liver. PMID:24113769

  15. Could transient hypoxia be associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in sleep bruxism in the absence of sleep-disordered breathing? A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Dumais, I E; Lavigne, G J; Carra, M C; Rompré, P H; Huynh, N T

    2015-11-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth during sleep. Sleep bruxism activity is characterised by rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). Many but not all RMMA episodes are associated with sleep arousal. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether transient oxygen saturation level change can be temporally associated with genesis of RMMA/SB. Sleep laboratory or home recordings data from 22 SB (tooth grinding history in the absence of reported sleep-disordered breathing) and healthy subjects were analysed. A total of 143 RMMA/SB episodes were classified in four categories: (i) no arousal + no body movement; (ii) arousal + no body movement; (iii) no arousal + body movement; (iv) arousal + body movement. Blood oxygen levels (SaO2 ) were assessed from finger oximetry signal at the baseline (before RMMA), and during RMMA. Significant variation in SaO2 over time (P = 0·001) was found after RMMA onset (+7 to +9 s). No difference between categories (P = 0·91) and no interaction between categories and SaO2 variation over time (P = 0·10) were observed. SaO2 of six of 22 subjects (27%) remained equal or slight increase after the RMMA/SB onset (+8 s) compared to baseline; 10 subjects (45%) slightly decreased (drop 0·01-1%) and the remaining (27%) decreased between 1% and 2%. These preliminary findings suggest that a subgroup of SB subjects had (i) a minor transient hypoxia potentially associated with the onset of RMMA episodes, and this (ii) independently of concomitant sleep arousal or body movements. PMID:26139077

  16. Inhaled corticosteroids do not reduce initial high activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in exhaled breath condensates of children with asthma exacerbation: a proof of concept study

    PubMed Central

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagórska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Litwiniuk, Małgorzata; Kulus, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the key component of asthma treatment. However, it is unclear whether they could control the activity and level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is an important factor in asthma-associated inflammation and airway remodeling. Therefore, the aim of this proof of concept study was to analyze the influence of increased doses of ICS on MMP-9 in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of patients with allergic asthma exacerbation. Apart from MMP-9, the assessment concerned selected inflammation markers – exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and cytokines (IL-8 and TNF). The study involved a small group (n = 4) of individuals with asthma exacerbation. The intervention concerned increased doses of ICS with β-mimetics for 4 weeks. In addition to clinical evaluation, eNO measurements and EBC collections were done before and after 4 weeks of intense ICS treatment. The biochemical assessment of EBC concerned MMP-9, IL-8 and TNF. The data were compared to results of healthy controls (n = 6). The initial levels of eNO, MMP-9 and TNF in EBC were higher in the asthma group than in controls. In all subjects IL-8 levels were below the detection limit. After 4 weeks of ICS treatment in all patients we observed improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Interestingly, despite reduction of eNO and TNF, the activity of MMP-9/EBC remained on the initial level. Practical relevance of our results is limited by a small group. Nevertheless, our data suggest that ICS, although sufficient to control symptoms and inflammatory markers, may be ineffective to reduce MMP-9/EBC activity in asthma exacerbation and, possibly, airway remodeling. PMID:27536209

  17. The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing

    PubMed Central

    Alheid, George F.; McCrimmon, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing must ultimately encompass all the various neuronal elements physiologically identified in brainstem respiratory circuits and their apparent aggregation into “compartments” within the medulla and pons. These functionally defined respiratory compartments in the brainstem provide the major source of input to cranial motoneurons controlling the airways, and to spinal motoneurons activating inspiratory and expiratory pump muscles. This review provides an overview of the neuroanatomy of the major compartments comprising brainstem respiratory circuits, and a synopsis of the transmitters used by their constituent respiratory neurons. PMID:18706532

  18. A practical approach for active camera coordination based on a fusion-driven multi-agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Alvaro Luis; Molina, José M.; Patricio, Miguel A.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system architecture to manage spatially distributed active (or pan-tilt-zoom) cameras. Traditional video surveillance algorithms are of no use for active cameras, and we have to look at different approaches. Such multi-sensor surveillance systems have to be designed to solve two related problems: data fusion and coordinated sensor-task management. Generally, architectures proposed for the coordinated operation of multiple cameras are based on the centralisation of management decisions at the fusion centre. However, the existence of intelligent sensors capable of decision making brings with it the possibility of conceiving alternative decentralised architectures. This problem is approached by means of a MAS, integrating data fusion as an integral part of the architecture for distributed coordination purposes. This paper presents the MAS architecture and system agents.

  19. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Takaoka, Motoko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-08-01

    Turmeric is widely used in Indian cuisine. The main constituents of turmeric are curcumin and its analogues, which are well-known antioxidant compounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that turmeric in curry might increase bowel motility and activate hydrogen-producing bacterial flora in the colon, thereby increasing the concentration of breath hydrogen. Eight healthy subjects fasted for 12 h and ingested curry and rice with or without turmeric (turmeric knockout curry). Breath-hydrogen concentrations were analyzed every 15 min for 6 h by gas chromatography with a semiconductor detector. Curry with turmeric significantly increased the area under the curve of breath hydrogen and shortened small-bowel transit time, compared with curry not containing turmeric. These results suggested that dietary turmeric activated bowel motility and carbohydrate colonic fermentation. PMID:19034660

  20. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  1. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  2. Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  3. INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer.

  4. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  5. Oronasal breathing during exercise.

    PubMed

    Saibene, F; Mognoni, P; Lafortuna, C L; Mostardi, R

    1978-12-15

    The shift from nasal to oronasal breathing (ONBS) has been observed on 73 subjects with two independent methods. A first group of 63 subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work load (98--196 W) has been observed. On 35 subjects the highest value of ventilation attained with nasal breathing was 40.2 +/- 9.41 . min-1 S.D. Ten subjects breathed through the mouth at all loads, while 5 never opened the mouth. On 13 subjects it was not possible to make reliable measurements. On a second group of 10 subjects utilizing a different techniques which did not need a face mask, the ventilation at which one changes the pattern of breathing was found to be 44.2 +/- 13.51 . min-1 S.D. On the same subjects nasal resistance did not show any correlation with ONBS. It is concluded that ONBS is not solely determined by nasal resistance, though an indirect effect due to hypoventilation and hence to changes in alveolar air composition cannot be ruled out. It is likely that ONBS is also influenced by psychological factors. PMID:569826

  6. BRCA2 Coordinates the Activities of Cell-Cycle Kinases to Promote Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Yata, Keiko; Bleuyard, Jean-Yves; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Ralf, Christine; Katou, Yuki; Schwab, Rebekka A.; Niedzwiedz, Wojciech; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Esashi, Fumiko

    2014-01-01

    Summary Numerous human genome instability syndromes, including cancer, are closely associated with events arising from malfunction of the essential recombinase Rad51. However, little is known about how Rad51 is dynamically regulated in human cells. Here, we show that the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2, a key Rad51 binding partner, coordinates the activity of the central cell-cycle drivers CDKs and Plk1 to promote Rad51-mediated genome stability control. The soluble nuclear fraction of BRCA2 binds Plk1 directly in a cell-cycle- and CDK-dependent manner and acts as a molecular platform to facilitate Plk1-mediated Rad51 phosphorylation. This phosphorylation is important for enhancing the association of Rad51 with stressed replication forks, which in turn protects the genomic integrity of proliferating human cells. This study reveals an elaborate but highly organized molecular interplay between Rad51 regulators and has significant implications for understanding tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance in patients with BRCA2 deficiency. PMID:24835992

  7. Activation of Elemental Sulfur at a Two-Coordinate Platinum(0) Center.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sudipta; Schürmann, Christian J; Mondal, Totan; Koley, Debasis; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Stalke, Dietmar; Roesky, Herbert W

    2016-08-26

    Platinum dichalcogenides have been known to exhibit two-dimensional layered structures. Herein, we describe the syntheses, isolation, and characterization of air-stable crystalline cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene (cAAC)-supported monomeric platinum disulfide three-membered ring complex [(cAAC)2 Pt(S2 )] (2). The highly reactive platinum(0) [(cAAC)2 Pt] complex (1) with two-coordinate platinum activates elemental sulfur to give 2. The brown crystals of bis-carbene platinum(II)monosulfate [(cAAC)2 Pt(SO4 )x (S2 )1-x ] (4) have been isolated when the reaction was performed in air. The dioxygen analogue of 2 was formed upon exposing the THF solution of 1 to aerial oxygen (O2 ). The binding of oxygen at the Pt(0) center was found to be reversible. Additionally, DFT study has been performed to elucidate the electronic structure and bonding scenario of 2, 3, and 4. Quantum chemical calculations showed donor-acceptor-type interaction for the Pt-S bonds in 2 and Pt-O bonds in 3 and 4. PMID:27414489

  8. Active Hydrogenation Catalyst with a Structured, Peptide-Based Outer-Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Buchko, Garry W.; Reback, Matthew L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Linehan, John C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-10-05

    The synthesis, catalytic activity, and structural features of a rhodium-based hydrogenation catalyst containing a phosphine ligand coupled to a 14-residue peptide are reported. Both CD and NMR spectroscopy show that the peptide adopts a helical structure in 1:1:1 TFE/MeCN/H2O that is maintained when the peptide is attached to the ligand and when the ligand is attached to the metal complex. The metal complex hydrogenates aqueous solutions of 3-butenol to 1-butanol at 360 ± 50 turnovers/Rh/h at 294 K. This peptide- based catalyst represents a starting point for developing and characterizing a peptide-based outer-coordination sphere that can be used to introduce enzyme-like features into molecular catalysts. This work was funded by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geoscience and Biosciences Division (AJ, JCL and WJS), the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (GWB, MLR and WJS). Part of the research was conducted at the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Biolog-ical and Environmental Research (BER) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum...

  10. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91 Section 84.91 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91...

  11. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90 Section 84.90 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90...

  12. BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 coordinates organ determinacy and axial polarity in Arabidopsis by directly activating ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous organ formation is a hallmark of plant development that requires organ-specific gene activity to establish determinacy and axial patterning, yet the molecular mechanisms that coordinate these events remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the organ-specific BTB-POZ domain proteins BL...

  13. EXEL; Experience for Children in Learning. Parent-Directed Activities to Develop: Oral Expression, Visual Discrimination, Auditory Discrimination, Motor Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrmann, Polly; Millman, Joan

    The activities collected in this handbook are planned for parents to use with their children in a learning experience. They can also be used in the classroom. Sections contain games designed to develop visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, motor coordination and oral expression. An objective is given for each game, and directions for…

  14. The Risk of Reduced Physical Activity in Children with Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Lingam, Raghu; Mattocks, Calum; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy; Emond, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder have an increased risk of reduced moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), using data from a large population based study. Prospectively collected data from 4331 children (boys = 2065, girls = 2266) who had completed motor…

  15. Neuronal activity related to eye-hand coordination in the primate premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Jouffrais, C; Boussaoud, D

    1999-09-01

    To test the functional implications of gaze signals that we previously reported in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), we trained two rhesus monkeys to point to visual targets presented on a touch screen while controlling their gaze orientation. Each monkey had to perform four different tasks. To initiate a trial, the monkey had to put his hand on a starting position at the center of the touch screen and fixate a fixation point. In one task, the animal had to make a reaching movement to a peripheral target randomly presented at one of eight possible locations on a circle while maintaining fixation at the center of this virtual circle (central fixation + reaching). In the second task, the monkey maintained fixation at the location of the upcoming peripheral target and, later, reached to that location. After a delay, the target was turned on and the monkey made a reaching arm movement (target fixation + reaching). In the third task, the monkey made a saccade to the target without any arm movement (saccade). Finally, in the fourth task, the monkey first made a saccade to the target, then reached to it after a delay (saccade + reaching). This design allowed us to examine the contribution of the oculomotor context to arm-related neuronal activity in PMd. We analyzed the effects of the task type on neuronal activity and found that many cells showed a task effect during the signal (26/60; 43%), set (16/49; 33%) and/or movement (15/54; 28%) epochs, depending on the oculomotor history. These findings, together with previously published data, suggest that PMd codes limb-movement direction in a gaze-dependent manner and may, thus, play an important role in the brain mechanisms of eye-hand coordination during visually guided reaching. PMID:10473760

  16. Heterogeneity in the Histidine-brace Copper Coordination Sphere in Auxiliary Activity Family 10 (AA10) Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Amanda K; Wilson, Michael T; Hough, Michael A; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Walton, Paul H; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2016-06-10

    Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. The active site copper in LPMOs is coordinated by a histidine-brace. This utilizes the amino group and side chain of the N-terminal His residue with the side chain of a second His residue to create a T-shaped arrangement of nitrogen ligands. We report a structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic appraisal of copper binding to the histidine-brace in an auxiliary activity family 10 (AA10) LPMO from Streptomyces lividans (SliLPMO10E). Unexpectedly, we discovered the existence of two apo-SliLPMO10E species in solution that can each bind copper at a single site with distinct kinetic and thermodynamic (exothermic and endothermic) properties. The experimental EPR spectrum of copper-bound SliLPMO10E requires the simulation of two different line shapes, implying two different copper-bound species, indicative of three and two nitrogen ligands coordinating the copper. Amino group coordination was probed through the creation of an N-terminal extension variant (SliLPMO10E-Ext). The kinetics and thermodynamics of copper binding to SliLPMO10E-Ext are in accord with copper binding to one of the apo-forms in the wild-type protein, suggesting that amino group coordination is absent in the two-nitrogen coordinate form of SliLPMO10E. Copper binding to SliLPMO10B was also investigated, and again it revealed the presence of two apo-forms with kinetics and stoichiometry of copper binding identical to that of SliLPMO10E. Our findings highlight that heterogeneity exists in the active site copper coordination sphere of LPMOs that may have implications for the mechanism of loading copper in the cell. PMID:27129229

  17. The management of tumor motions in the stereotactic irradiation to lung cancer under the use of Abches to control active breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Tarohda, Tohru I.; Ishiguro, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Kouhei; Kohda, Yukihiko; Onishi, Hiroaki; Aoki, Tetsuya; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Breathing control is crucial to ensuring the accuracy of stereotactic irradiation for lung cancer. This study monitored respiration in patients with inoperable nonsmall-cell lung cancer using a respiration-monitoring apparatus, Abches, and investigated the reproducibility of tumor position in these patients. Methods: Subjects comprised 32 patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer who were administered stereotactic radiotherapy under breath-holding conditions monitored by Abches. Computed tomography (CT) was performed under breath-holding conditions using Abches (Abches scan) for treatment planning. A free-breathing scan was performed to determine the range of tumor motions in a given position. After the free-breathing scan, Abches scan was repeated and the tumor position thus defined was taken as the intrafraction tumor position. Abches scan was also performed just before treatment, and the tumor position thus defined was taken as the interfraction tumor position. To calculate the errors, tumor positions were compared based on Abches scan for the initial treatment plan. The error in tumor position was measured using the BrainSCAN treatment-planning device, then compared for each lung lobe. Results: Displacements in tumor position were calculated in three dimensions (i.e., superior-inferior (S-I), left-right (L-R), and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimensions) and recorded as absolute values. For the whole lung, average intrafraction tumor displacement was 1.1 mm (L-R), 1.9 mm (A-P), and 2.0 mm (S-I); the average interfraction tumor displacement was 1.1 mm (L-R), 2.1 mm (A-P), and 2.0 mm (S-I); and the average free-breathing tumor displacement was 2.3 mm (L-R), 3.5 mm (A-P), and 7.9 mm (S-I). The difference between using Abches and free breathing could be reduced from approximately 20 mm at the maximum to approximately 3 mm in the S-I direction for both intrafraction and interfraction positions in the lower lobe. In addition, maximum intrafraction tumor

  18. Porcine MHC classical class I genes are coordinately expressed in superantigen-activated mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Yoshie; Ohshima, Shino; Kita, Yuki F; Shimada, Shin; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Shiina, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Ando, Asako

    2012-08-15

    The expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classical class I genes is important for the adaptive immune response to target virus-infected cells and cancer cells. The up-regulation of the MHC is achieved by hormonal/cytokine signals including IFN-γ-inducible elements. The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), the MHC class I region of pigs, consists of the duplicated classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3, but the molecular mechanisms involved in their up-regulation after T cell stimulation have not been fully elucidated. In order to better understand some of the putative regulatory mechanisms of SLA class I gene expression in activated T cells, we examined the coordinated expression of the SLA classical class I, IFN-γ and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLA homozygous Clawn miniature swine stimulated for 72 h with either IFN-γ or an enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus. This enterotoxin, toxic shock syndrome-1 (TSST-1), is known to act as a superantigen (sAG) to activate the T cells in various vertebrate species. We showed by using mAbs and flow cytometry that the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell number of swine PBMCs was also increased by TSST-1 and to a lesser degree by IFN-γ. Time course analyses of the expression of the IFN-γ, IRF-1 and the three classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2, and SLA-3, in PBMCs by quantitative real-time PCR revealed a transitory response to TSST-1 or IFN-γ stimulation. The IFN-γ mRNA levels in the PBMCs were continuously up-regulated over the first 48 h by TSST-1 or IFN-γ. In contrast, SLA class I expression moderately increased at 24h and then decreased to a baseline level or less at 72 h of IFN-γ or TSST-1 stimulation. The three classical SLA class I genes showed similar expression kinetics, although SLA-3 mRNA level was consistently lower than those of SLA-1 and -2. The expression of IRF-1, a modulator of SLA expression, showed similar

  19. Breathing air trailer acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1994-09-14

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) will document compliance with the requirements of WHC-S-0251 Rev. 0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment being tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a Design and Fabrication procurement activity for use in the core sampling program. The ATP was written by the Seller and will be performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing the test at the Seller`s location. This test procedure is to verify that the American Bristol Industries, Inc., Model 5014-0001 low pressure Mobile Breathing Air Trailer, meets or exceeds the requirements of the Westinghouse Hanford specification.

  20. Effect of axial coordination on the electronic structure and biological activity of dirhodium(II,II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J Dafhne; Lutterman, Daniel A; Angeles-Boza, Alfredo M; Dunbar, Kim R; Turro, Claudia

    2007-09-01

    The reactivities toward biomolecules of a series of three dirhodium(II,II) complexes that possess an increasing number of accessible axial coordination sites are compared. In cis-[Rh2(OAc)2(np)2]2+ (1; np=1,8-naphthyridine) both axial sites are available for coordination, whereas for cis-[Rh2(OAc)2(np)(pynp)]2+ (2; pynp=2-(2-pyridyl)1,8-naphthyridine) and cis-[Rh2(OAc)2(pynp)2]2+ (3) the bridging pynp ligand blocks one and two of the axial coordination sites in the complexes, respectively. The electronic absorption spectra of the complexes are consistent with strong metal-to-ligand charge transfer transitions at low energy and ligand-centered peaks localized on the np and/or pynp ligands in the UV and near-UV regions. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations were used to aid in the assignments. The three complexes exhibit metal-centered oxidations and reductions, localized on the aromatic ligands. The ability of the complexes to stabilize duplex DNA and to inhibit transcription in vitro is greatly affected by the availability of an open axial coordination site. The present work shows that open axial coordination sites on the dirhodium complexes are necessary for biological activity. PMID:17685607

  1. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible. PMID:23596893

  2. Mapleson's Breathing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24249884

  3. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  4. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Stecyk, Jonathan A. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake () in normoxia (19.8 kPa PO2) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard was reduced by ∼30–50%. Pcrit was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in Pcrit, gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. PMID:25394628

  5. Redox-active porous coordination polymer based on trinuclear pivalate: Temperature-dependent crystal rearrangement and redox-behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lytvynenko, Anton S.; Kiskin, Mikhail A.; Dorofeeva, Victoria N.; Mishura, Andrey M.; Titov, Vladimir E.; Kolotilov, Sergey V.; Eremenko, Igor L.; Novotortsev, Vladimir M.

    2015-03-15

    Linking of trinuclear pivalate Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6} (Piv=O{sub 2}CC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) by 2,6-bis(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (L) resulted in formation of 1D-porous coordination polymer Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)·Solv, which was characterized in two forms: DMSO solvate Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)(DMSO)·2.5DMSO (1) or water solvate Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)(H{sub 2}O) (2). X-ray structure of 1 was determined. Crystal lattice of 1 at 160 K contained open channels, filled by captured solvent, while temperature growth to 296 K led to the crystal lattice rearrangement and formation of closed voids. Redox-behavior of 2 was studied by cyclic voltammetry for a solid compound, deposited on glassy-carbon electrode. Redox-activity of L preserved upon incorporation in the coordination polymer. The presence of pores in desolvated sample Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L) was confirmed by the measurements of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K. Potential barriers of the different molecules diffusion through pores were estimated by the means of molecular mechanics. - Graphical abstract: Redox-behavior of 1D-porous coordination polymer Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)(H{sub 2}O) was studied by cyclic voltammetry in thin film, deposited on glassy-carbon electrode. Redox-activity of L preserved upon incorporation in the coordination polymer. Potential barriers of different molecules diffusion through pores were estimated by the means of molecular mechanics. - Highlights: • Porous 1D coordination polymer was synthesized. • Temperature growth led to pores closing due to crystal lattice rearrangement. • Redox-activity of ligand preserved upon incorporation into coordination polymer. • Redox-properties of solid coordination polymer were studied in thin film. • Diffusion barriers were evaluated by molecular mechanics.

  6. SATB1 Packages Densely Looped, Transcriptionally Active Chromatin for Coordinated Expression of Cytokine Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SATB1 (special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1) organizes cell type–specific nuclear architecture by anchoring specialized DNA sequences and recruiting chromatin remodeling factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4 and...

  7. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Preparing Expense Reports. Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 13 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on preparing employer's business expense statements are included in this packet. (The packet is the fourth in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities…

  8. Flexibility and Coordination among Acts of Visualization and Analysis in a Pattern Generalization Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per; Juter, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at exploring processes of flexibility and coordination among acts of visualization and analysis in students' attempt to reach a general formula for a three-dimensional pattern generalizing task. The investigation draws on a case-study analysis of two 15-year-old girls working together on a task in which they are asked to calculate…

  9. A new insight into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimenko, Sergey V.; Bykov, Victor G.; Shestakov, Nikolay V.; Grib, Nikolay N.; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    This study provides new insights into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults and methods of their modeling. Monthly averaged coordinate time series were analyzed for several pairs of collocated GPS sites situated near the active fault intersection area, in close proximity to the central part of the northern boundary of the Amurian plate and the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault zone. It is concluded that the observed seasonal variations are best described by a breather function which is one of the solutions of the well-known sine-Gordon equation. The obtained results suggest that, in this case, the source of seasonal variations may be caused by the appearance of solitary strain waves in the fault intersection system, which may be qualitatively treated as standing waves of compression-extension of the geological medium. Based on statistical testing, the limits of applicability of the suggested model have been established.

  10. A new insight into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimenko, Sergey V.; Bykov, Victor G.; Shestakov, Nikolay V.; Grib, Nikolay N.; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    This study provides new insights into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults and methods of their modeling. Monthly averaged coordinate time series were analyzed for several pairs of collocated GPS sites situated near the active fault intersection area, in close proximity to the central part of the northern boundary of the Amurian plate and the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault zone. It is concluded that the observed seasonal variations are best described by a breather function which is one of the solutions of the well-known sine-Gordon equation. The obtained results suggest that, in this case, the source of seasonal variations may be caused by the appearance of solitary strain waves in the fault intersection system, which may be qualitatively treated as standing waves of compression-extension of the geological medium. Based on statistical testing, the limits of applicability of the suggested model have been established.

  11. Dominance of the proximal coordinate frame in determining the locations of hippocampal place cell activity during navigation

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jennifer J.; Neunuebel, Joshua P.; Knierim, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The place-specific activity of hippocampal cells provides downstream structures with information regarding an animal's position within an environment, and perhaps the location of goals within that environment. In rodents, recent research has suggested that distal cues primarily set the orientation of the spatial representation, whereas the boundaries of the behavioral apparatus determine the locations of place activity. The current study was designed to address possible biases in some previous research that may have minimized the likelihood of observing place activity bound to distal cues. Hippocampal single-unit activity was recorded from 6 freely moving rats as they were trained to perform a tone-initiated place preference task on an open field platform. To investigate whether place activity was bound to the room- or platform-based coordinate frame (or both), the platform was translated within the room at an “early” and at a “late” phase of task acquisition (Shift 1 and Shift 2). At both time points, CA1 and CA3 place cells demonstrated room-associated and/or platform-associated activity, or remapped in response to the platform-shift. Shift 1 revealed place activity that reflected an interaction between a dominant platform-based (proximal) coordinate frame and a weaker room-based (distal) frame, as many CA1 and CA3 place fields shifted to a location intermediate to the two reference frames. Shift 2 resulted in place activity that became more strongly bound to either the platform- or room-based coordinate frame, suggesting the emergence of two independent spatial frames of reference (with many more cells participating in platform-based than room-based representations). PMID:17959742

  12. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  13. Development of a database for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis: Summary report of the third research coordination meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, Richard M.; Firestone, Richard B.; Pavi, ???

    2003-04-01

    The main discussions and conclusions from the Third Co-ordination Meeting on the Development of a Database for Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis are summarized in this report. All results were reviewed in detail, and the final version of the TECDOC and the corresponding software were agreed upon and approved for preparation. Actions were formulated with the aim of completing the final version of the TECDOC and associated software by May 2003.

  14. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  15. Hierarchy of orofacial rhythms revealed through whisking and breathing

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey D.; Deschênes, Martin; Furuta, Takahiro; Huber, Daniel; Smear, Matthew C.; Demers, Maxime; Kleinfeld, David

    2014-01-01

    Whisking and sniffing are predominant aspects of exploratory behavior in rodents, yet the neural mechanisms that generate their motor patterns remain largely uncharacterized. We use anatomical, behavioral, electrophysiological, and pharmacological tools to demonstrate that these patterns are coordinated by respiratory centers in the ventral medulla. We delineate a distinct region in the ventral medulla that provides rhythmic input to the facial motoneurons that drive protraction of the vibrissae. Neuronal output from this region is reset at each inspiration by direct input from the preBötzinger complex, such that high frequency sniffing has a one-to-one coordination with whisking while basal respiration is accompanied by intervening whisks that occur between breaths. We conjecture that the respiratory nuclei, which project to other premotor regions for oral and facial control, function as a master clock for behaviors that coordinate with breathing. PMID:23624373

  16. Optimized coordination of brakes and active steering for a 4WS passenger car.

    PubMed

    Tavasoli, Ali; Naraghi, Mahyar; Shakeri, Heman

    2012-09-01

    Optimum coordination of individual brakes and front/rear steering subsystems is presented. The integrated control strategy consists of three modules. A coordinated high-level control determines the body forces/moment required to achieve vehicle motion objectives. The body forces/moment are allocated to braking and steering subsystems through an intermediate unit, which integrates available subsystems based on phase plane notion in an optimal manner. To this end, an optimization problem including several equality and inequality constraints is defined and solved analytically, such that a real-time implementation can be realized without the use of numeric optimization software. A low-level slip-ratio controller works to generate the desired longitudinal forces at small longitudinal slip-ratios, while averting wheel locking at large slip-ratios. The efficiency of the suggested approach is demonstrated through computer simulations. PMID:22749293

  17. Act as NARSTO Management Coordinator and Conduct Research In Support of NARSTO Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, William T.

    2014-01-22

    This grant funded the position of NARSTO Management Coordinator. NARSTO was a public-private partnership with members from government, utilities, industry, and academe in Canada, the United States and Mexico. NARSTO planed and coordinated independently sponsored projects and tasks designed to identify and resolve policy-relevant science questions related to a) Anthropogenic and biogenic air-pollution sources and emissions, b) The complex physical and chemical processes affecting the accumulation of pollutants in the troposphere (including greenhouse gases and aerosols), c) The potential of certain pollutants to react and generate oxidants and fine particles in the troposphere, d) The development, intercomparison, and application of atmospheric models, e) The development of monitoring studies and methodologies needed to assess emission control effectiveness for selected greenhouse gases and aerosols, air pollutants and their precursors, and f) The attainment of the national air-quality and climate-stabilization goals and standards established by each member Nation

  18. [The psychomotor test for research of eye-hand coordination at performance of monotonous activity on tracking target].

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, V B; Arsen'ev, G N; Tkachenko, O N; Zakharchenko, D V; Lavrova, T P; Dementienko, V V

    2011-01-01

    Visual-motor coordination is necessary for successful performance of everyday activities. Many tasks, such as driving or operating devices in the workplace, require a variety of coordination patterns with different levels of compatibility between the eyes and the hand. The psychomotor test was developed which makes it possible to analyze visual-motor coordination disorders caused by a decrease in the level of wakefulness. A small circular target (14 mm in diameter) was moving with a low constant velosity (12 mm/s) in a circular trajectory (80 mm in diameter) with a period of 20 s. Subjects were instructed to keep the mouse-driven cursor inside a target, overstepping the limits of the moving target was considered as an error. To test the attention level, an additional stimulus was introduced which appeared for 3 seconds with an interval of 15 to 40 s. When the stimulus appeared, it was required to touch it with the cursor and click the mouse button. Cursor trajectories have a temporal resolution of 120 Hz. Eye movements were recorded with a PC-based Eyegaze Development System (LC Technologies, USA) measuring corneal reflectance with a collection rate of 120 Hz. Monotonous character of the test performance induced drowsiness and led to errors 25-30 minutes after the beginning of the experiment. Changes in physiological vigilance level was evaluated with EEG recording. Analysis of the dynamic characteristics of smooth and saccadic eye movements and hand movements showed their high sensitivity to a decrease in efficiency of operator's activity caused by a drop in the level of wakefulness. It is suggested that further development of this approach to measuring eye-hand coordination will promote working out a contactless method for the express diagnostics of the critical levels of drowsiness as well as for the definition of professional characteristics of an operator. PMID:21961322

  19. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  20. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  1. Coordination of Mars Orbiting Assets to Support Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neelon, Joseph G.; Wallace, Mark; Craig, Lynn E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA policy requires continuous telecommunications with missions during the execution of their critical events, which implies constraints on where missions to other planets may land or inject into orbit. JPL is working to establish a telecommunications network at Mars to provide contact with inbound missions to Mars and assets that have landed on the Martian surface, thus reducing the constraints on where critical events may be performed. Coordination of network assets is required to cover an inbound mission's critical event, such as EDL. This paper describes the development of a tool to evaluate EDL coverage capability of Mars network assets over a specified launch date/arrival date space.

  2. Breath measurements as volatile organic compound biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L; Buckley, T; Pellizzari, E; Gordon, S

    1996-01-01

    A brief review of the uses of breath analysis in studies of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's large-scale Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Studies have measured concentrations of 32 target VOCs in the exhaled breath of about 800 residents of various U.S. cities. Since the previous 12-hr integrated personal air exposures to the same chemicals were also measured, the relation between exposure and body burden is illuminated. Another major use of the breath measurements has been to detect unmeasured pathways of exposure; the major impact of active smoking on exposure to benzene and styrene was detected in this way. Following the earlier field studies, a series of chamber studies have provided estimates of several important physiological parameters. Among these are the fraction, f, of the inhaled chemical that is exhaled under steady-state conditions and the residence times. tau i in several body compartments, which may be associated with the blood (or liver), organs, muscle, and fat. Most of the targeted VOCs appear to have similar residence times of a few minutes, 30 min, several hours, and several days in the respective tissue groups. Knowledge of these parameters can be helpful in estimating body burden from exposure or vice versa and in planning environmental studies, particularly in setting times to monitor breath in studies of the variation with time of body burden. Improvements in breath methods have made it possible to study short-term peak exposure situations such as filling a gas tank or taking a shower in contaminated water. PMID:8933027

  3. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    PubMed

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  4. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  5. Rapid shallow breathing index

    PubMed Central

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  6. Beyond the active site: the impact of the outer coordination sphere on electrocatalysts for hydrogen production and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Dutta, Arnab; Reback, Matthew L; Linehan, John C; Shaw, Wendy J

    2014-08-19

    Redox active metalloenzymes play a major role in energy transformation reactions in biological systems. Examples include formate dehydrogenases, nitrogenases, CO dehydrogenase, and hydrogenases. Many of these reactions are also of interest to humans as potential energy storage or utilization reactions for photoelectrochemical, electrolytic, and fuel cell applications. These metalloenzymes consist of redox active metal centers where substrates are activated and undergo transformation to products accompanied by electron and proton transfer to or from the substrate. These active sites are typically buried deep within a protein matrix of the enzyme with channels for proton transport, electron transport, and substrate/product transport between the active site and the surface of the protein. In addition, there are amino acid residues that lie in close proximity to the active site that are thought to play important roles in regulating and enhancing enzyme activity. Directly studying the outer coordination sphere of enzymes can be challenging due to their complexity, and the use of modified molecular catalysts may allow us to provide some insight. There are two fundamentally different approaches to understand these important interactions. The "bottom-up" approach involves building an amino acid or peptide containing outer coordination sphere around a functional molecular catalyst, and the "top-down" approach involves attaching molecular catalyst to a structured protein. Both of these approaches have been undertaken for hydrogenase mimics and are the emphasis of this Account. Our focus has been to utilize amino acid or peptide based scaffolds on an active functional enzyme mimic for H2 oxidation and production, [Ni(P(R)2N(R('))2)2](2+). This "bottom-up" approach has allowed us to evaluate individual functional group and structural contributions to electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation and production. For instance, using amine, ether, and carboxylic acid functionalities in the

  7. Retrotrapezoid nucleus, respiratory chemosensitivity and breathing automaticity

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, Patrice G.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Fortuna, Michal G.; Abbott, Stephen B.; Depuy, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Breathing automaticity and CO2 regulation are inseparable neural processes. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of glutamatergic neurons that express the transcription factor Phox2b, may be a crucial nodal point through which breathing automaticity is regulated to maintain CO2 constant. This review updates the analysis presented in prior publications. Additional evidence that RTN neurons have central respiratory chemoreceptor properties is presented but this is only one of many factors that determine their activity. The RTN is also regulated by powerful inputs from the carotid bodies and, at least in the adult, by many other synaptic inputs. We also analyze how RTN neurons may control the activity of the downstream central respiratory pattern generator. Specifically, we review the evidence which suggests that RTN neurons a) innervate the entire ventral respiratory column, and b) control both inspiration and expiration. Finally, we argue that the RTN neurons are the adult form of the parafacial respiratory group in neonate rats. PMID:19712903

  8. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller`s location.

  9. Coordination sphere of the third metal site is essential to the activity and metal selectivity of alkaline phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Koutsioulis, Dimitris; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Mäki, Seija; Guthrie, Ellen; Feller, Georges; Bouriotis, Vassilis; Heikinheimo, Pirkko

    2010-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are commercially applied enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters by a reaction involving three active site metal ions. We have previously identified H135 as the key residue for controlling activity of the psychrophilic TAB5 AP (TAP). In this article, we describe three X-ray crystallographic structures on TAP variants H135E and H135D in complex with a variety of metal ions. The structural analysis is supported by thermodynamic and kinetic data. The AP catalysis essentially requires octahedral coordination in the M3 site, but stability is adjusted with the conformational freedom of the metal ion. Comparison with the mesophilic Escherichia coli, AP shows differences in the charge transfer network in providing the chemically optimal metal combination for catalysis. Our results provide explanation why the TAB5 and E. coli APs respond in an opposite way to mutagenesis in their active sites. They provide a lesson on chemical fine tuning and the importance of the second coordination sphere in defining metal specificity in enzymes. Understanding the framework of AP catalysis is essential in the efforts to design even more powerful tools for modern biotechnology. PMID:19916164

  10. An e-resource to coordinate research activity with the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS).

    PubMed

    Mattick, Karen; Bligh, John

    2005-12-01

    Research into interprofessional education is often performed by professionals in practice alongside their other "core" duties, thus additional help and support to achieve quality research outcomes would be beneficial. This study aimed to create a virtual community of researchers with shared interest in quantitative studies of interprofessional learning using the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale. An e-resource was built which provided access to relevant resources, helped to coordinate research effort, and promoted communication. Use of the resource was monitored over a 14-month period and evaluated at the end of this time. Forty-eight researchers across six different countries were assigned usernames and passwords. According to a self-report measure, 23/27 (85%) respondents to the evaluation questionnaire had accessed the resource and 95% planned to use it in the coming year. This paper shares our experiences and observations from the study. PMID:16373216

  11. Coordination of software-development activities among sites that are geographically separated

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Loftis, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Faby, E.Z.; Grubb, J.W.

    1993-06-29

    The Department of Defense is sponsoring development of a centralized, integrated database, which will be a repository international surface cargo movement data. Scheduled for implementation surface in early 1994, the system will include a relational database management system, processing modules, and complex communication components. Four geographically separated sites are involved with development. Design and development of a major computer system is never simple, but when design and development occur at multiple sites, the problems are compounded, especially when the timeframe for project completion is extremely tight. Issues such as identical developmental platforms and communications strategies must be addressed. A design plan must be strictly followed to ensure consistency and to coordinate integration of modules developed at different sites.

  12. Facile preparation and dual catalytic activity of copper(I)-metallosalen coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yun-Long; Li, Sheng-Xia; Sun, Raymond Wai-Yin; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Weng Ng, Seik; Li, Dan

    2015-10-21

    Three copper(i)-metallosalen coordination polymers (CPs), {[Ni(II)(SalImCy)]2(Cu(I)CN)9}n (1), {[Cu(II)(SalImCy)]2(Cu(I)CN)9}n (2) and {[Ni(II)(SalImCy)](Cu(I)I)2·DMF}n (3) were prepared by direct combination of Ni(II)/Cu(II)(salen) motifs with [Cu(I)CN]n chains and Cu2I2 clusters via the metalloligand strategy. The mixed-valence and mixed-metal CPs could effectively catalyze both the oxidation of aromatic alcohols to ketones and aldehydes under mild conditions and photocatalytic degradation of organic dye methylene blue (MB). This work demonstrates the effective integration of transition metal catalytic Ni(II)/Cu(II)(salen) units and photoactive copper(i) species in a single solid polymer to meet the demand for catalytic materials with the dual catalytic properties. PMID:26388327

  13. The immune response to resistive breathing.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, T; Roussos, C; Zakynthinos, S

    2004-12-01

    Resistive breathing is an "immune challenge" for the body, initiating an inflammatory response consisting of an elevation of plasma cytokines, and the recruitment and activation of lymphocyte subpopulations. These cytokines do not originate from monocytes, but are, instead, produced within the diaphragm, secondary to the increased muscle activation. Oxidative stress is a major stimulus for the cytokine induction, secondary to resistive breathing. The production of cytokines within the diaphragm may be mediating the diaphragm muscle fibre injury that occurs with strenuous contractions, or contributing towards the expected repair process. These cytokines may also compromise diaphragmatic contractility or contribute towards the development of muscle cachexia. They may also have systemic effects, mobilising glucose from the liver and free fatty acid from the adipose tissue to the strenuously working respiratory muscles. At the same time, they stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to production of adrenocorticotropin and beta-endorphins. The adrenocorticotropin response may represent an attempt of the organism to reduce the injury occurring in the respiratory muscles via the production of glucocorticoids and the induction of the acute phase-response proteins. The beta-endorphin response would decrease the activation of the respiratory muscles and change the pattern of breathing, which becomes more rapid and shallow, possibly in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent further injury to the respiratory muscles. PMID:15572550

  14. Beyond the Active Site: The Impact of the Outer Coordination Sphere on Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Dutta, Arnab; Reback, Matthew L.; Linehan, John C.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-08-19

    Hydrogenase enzymes provide inspiration for investigations of molecular catalysts utilizing structural and functional mimics of the active site. However, the resulting active site mimics cannot match the combination of high rates and low overpotentials of the enzyme, suggesting that the rest of the protein scaffold, i.e., the outer coordination sphere, is necessary for the efficiency of hydrogenase. Therefore, inclusion of outer coordination sphere elements onto molecular catalysts may enable us to achieve and ultimately surpass the overall enzymatic efficiency. In an effort to identify and include the missing enzymatic features, there has been recent effort to understand the effect of outer coordination sphere elements on molecular catalysts for hydrogen oxidation and production. Our focus has been to utilize amino acid or peptide based scaffolds on an active functional mimic for hydrogen oxidation and production, [Ni(PR2NR’2)2]2+. This bottom-up approach, i.e, building an outer coordination sphere around a functional molecular catalyst, has allowed us to evaluate individual contributions to catalysis, including enhancing proton movement, concentrating substrate and introducing structural features to control reactivity. Collectively, these studies have resulted in catalysts that can operate faster, can operate at lower overpotentials, have enhanced water solubility, and/or can provide more stability to oxygen or extreme conditions such as strongly acidic or basic conditions than their unmodified parent complexes. Common mechanisms have yet to be defined to predictably control these processes but our growing knowledge in this area is essential for the eventual mimicry of enzymes for developing efficient molecular catalysts for practical use. This account reviews previously published work supported by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Physical Bioscience program, the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the USDOE, BES, the Center for

  15. The retrotrapezoid nucleus and breathing.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Abbott, Stephen B G; Depuy, Seth D; Kanbar, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is located in the rostral medulla oblongata close to the ventral surface and consists of a bilateral cluster of glutamatergic neurons that are non-aminergic and express homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b throughout life. These neurons respond vigorously to increases in local pCO(2) via cell-autonomous and paracrine (glial) mechanisms and receive additional chemosensory information from the carotid bodies. RTN neurons exclusively innervate the regions of the brainstem that contain the respiratory pattern generator (RPG). Lesion or inhibition of RTN neurons largely attenuates the respiratory chemoreflex of adult rats whereas their activation increases respiratory rate, inspiratory amplitude and active expiration. Phox2b mutations that cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in humans prevent the development of RTN neurons in mice. Selective deletion of the RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons by genetic means in mice eliminates the respiratory chemoreflex in neonates.In short, RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons are a major nodal point of the CNS network that regulates pCO(2) via breathing and these cells are probable central chemoreceptors. PMID:23080151

  16. Reprogramming metabolism by histone methyltransferase NSD2 drives endocrine resistance via coordinated activation of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjian; Duan, Zhijian; Nugent, Zoann; Zou, June X; Borowsky, Alexander D; Zhang, Yanhong; Tepper, Clifford G; Li, Jian Jian; Fiehn, Oliver; Xu, Jianzhen; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Murphy, Leigh C; Chen, Hong-Wu

    2016-08-10

    Metabolic reprogramming such as the aerobic glycolysis or Warburg effect is well recognized as a common feature of tumorigenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic alterations for tumor therapeutic resistance are poorly understood. Through gene expression profiling analysis we found that histone H3K36 methyltransferase NSD2/MMSET/WHSC1 expression was highly elevated in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines and clinical tumors. IHC analysis indicated that NSD2 protein overexpression was associated with the disease recurrence and poor survival. Ectopic expression of NSD2 wild type, but not the methylase-defective mutant, drove endocrine resistance in multiple cell models and xenograft tumors. Mechanistically, NSD2 was recruited to and methylated H3K36me2 at the promoters of key glucose metabolic enzyme genes. Its overexpression coordinately up-regulated hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), two key enzymes of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), as well as TP53-induced glycolysis regulatory phosphatase TIGAR. Consequently, NSD2-driven tamoxifen-resistant cells and tumors displayed heightened PPP activity, elevated NADPH production, and reduced ROS level, without significantly altered glycolysis. These results illustrate a coordinated, epigenetic activation of key glucose metabolic enzymes in therapeutic resistance and nominate methyltransferase NSD2 as a potential therapeutic target for endocrine resistant breast cancer. PMID:27164560

  17. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  18. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  19. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  20. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  1. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  2. Coordinated Regulation of PPARγ Expression and Activity through Control of Chromatin Structure in Adipogenesis and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Oger, Frédérik; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is required for differentiation and function of mature adipocytes. Its expression is induced during adipogenesis where it plays a key role in establishing the transcriptome of terminally differentiated white fat cells. Here, we review findings indicating that PPARγ expression and activity are intricately regulated through control of chromatin structure. Hierarchical and combinatorial activation of transcription factors, noncoding RNAs, and chromatin remodelers allows for temporally controlled expression of PPARγ and its target genes through sequential chromatin remodelling. In obesity, these regulatory pathways may be altered and lead to modified PPARγ activity. PMID:22991504

  3. Transcription factors of Lotus: regulation of isoflavonoid biosynthesis requires coordinated changes in transcription factor activity.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Dale; Stranne, Maria; Mikkelsen, Lisbeth; Pakseresht, Nima; Welham, Tracey; Hiraka, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Sato, Shusei; Paquette, Suzanne; Wang, Trevor L; Martin, Cathie; Bailey, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Isoflavonoids are a class of phenylpropanoids made by legumes, and consumption of dietary isoflavonoids confers benefits to human health. Our aim is to understand the regulation of isoflavonoid biosynthesis. Many studies have shown the importance of transcription factors in regulating the transcription of one or more genes encoding enzymes in phenylpropanoid metabolism. In this study, we coupled bioinformatics and coexpression analysis to identify candidate genes encoding transcription factors involved in regulating isoflavonoid biosynthesis in Lotus (Lotus japonicus). Genes encoding proteins belonging to 39 of the main transcription factor families were examined by microarray analysis of RNA from leaf tissue that had been elicited with glutathione. Phylogenetic analyses of each transcription factor family were used to identify subgroups of proteins that were specific to L. japonicus or closely related to known regulators of the phenylpropanoid pathway in other species. R2R3MYB subgroup 2 genes showed increased expression after treatment with glutathione. One member of this subgroup, LjMYB14, was constitutively overexpressed in L. japonicus and induced the expression of at least 12 genes that encoded enzymes in the general phenylpropanoid and isoflavonoid pathways. A distinct set of six R2R3MYB subgroup 2-like genes was identified. We suggest that these subgroup 2 sister group proteins and those belonging to the main subgroup 2 have roles in inducing isoflavonoid biosynthesis. The induction of isoflavonoid production in L. japonicus also involves the coordinated down-regulation of competing biosynthetic pathways by changing the expression of other transcription factors. PMID:22529285

  4. Electronic, optical, and computational studies of a redox-active napthalenediimide-based coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Leong, Chanel F; Chan, Bun; Faust, Thomas B; Turner, Peter; D'Alessandro, Deanna M

    2013-12-16

    The new one-dimensional coordination framework (Zn(DMF)NO3)2(NDC)(DPMNI), where NDC = 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate and DPMNI = N,N'-bis(4-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxydiimide, which has been crystallographically characterized, exhibits two redox-accessible states due to the successive reduction of the naphthalenediimide (NDI) ligand core. Solid-state electrochemical and vis-near-IR spectroelectrochemical measurements coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations enabled the origins of the optical transitions in the spectra of the monoradical anion and dianion states of the material to be assigned. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed that the paramagnetic radical anion state of the DPMNI core could be accessed upon broad-spectrum white light irradiation of the material, revealing a long-lived excited state, possibly stabilized by charge delocalization which arises from extensive π-π* stacking interactions between alternating NDC and NDI aromatic cores which are separated by a distance of 3.580(2) Å. PMID:24283401

  5. Reactivity of thiosemicarbazides with redox active metal ions: controlled formation of coordination complexes versus heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    López-Torres, Elena; Dilworth, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylthiosemicarbazide (LH) with Cu(II) and Sn(IV) have been investigated. If THF or methanol is used as solvent with Cu(II), oxidative cyclisation and coupling are observed, yielding a 1,2,4-thiadiazole or a 1,3,4-thiadiazolium salt. SnI(4) is also able to induce oxidative coupling of two thiosemicarbazide ligands, yielding 1,2,4-thiadiazolium or 1,2,4-triazolium salts, with I(3)(-) as the counterion, depending on the reaction conditions. By contrast, reaction of LH with SnI(4) in acetone yields a 1,3-thiazolium salt, with I(-) as counterion. Reaction with Cu(II) salts or SnI(4) in basic media leads to the formation of metal complexes containing two deprotonated thiosemicarbazide ligands. In the reaction of CuCl(2) in water in the presence of acid a complex containing two neutral ligands is obtained. Reactions with SnCl(4) are not able to induce ligand cyclisation, although a coordination compound with two neutral ligands was isolated from methanol. PMID:19180593

  6. Mixed ligand coordination polymers with flexible bis-imidazole linker and angular sulfonyldibenzoate: Crystal structure, photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Rachuri, Yadagiri; Parmar, Bhavesh; Suresh, Eringathodi

    2014-05-01

    Four ternary coordination polymers (CPs) namely, ([Ni(SDB)(BITMB)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (CP1), ([Cd(SDB)(BITMB) (H{sub 2}O)]·(THF)(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (CP2), ([Zn{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(THF){sub 2}){sub n} (CP3) and ([Co{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(Dioxane){sub 3}){sub n} (CP4) composed of angular dicarboxylate SDB (4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoate) and N-donor BITMB (1,3-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethyl benzene) have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and other physico-chemical techniques. CP1 possesses one-dimensional ribbon type metal–organic motifs glued together by H-bonds and π⋯π interactions, whereas CP2–CP4, exhibit non-interpenetrated sql networks supported by weak supramolecular interactions. Structural diversity of these CPs can be attributed to the coordination geometry adopted by the metal nodes, versatile coordination modes of SDB and conformational flexibility of BITMB. Solid state luminescence properties of CP1–CP4 were explored. Photocatalytic performance of all CPs for the decomposition of metanil yellow by dilute hydrogen peroxide in the presence of visible light was also investigated. 25–83% dye removal from aqueous solutions in the presence of CP1–CP4 was observed. - Graphical abstract: Four new ternary transition metal CPs have been hydrothermally prepared and their structural aspects as well as photocatalytic activity for decolourization of metanil yellow (MY) dye have been investigated. - Highlights: • Four ternary coordination polymers containing Ni, Cd, Zn and Co center are prepared. • Crystal structure and thermal stability of all four CPs has been described. • PL and diffuse reflectance spectra of synthesized CPs have also been examined. • Band gap values suggest semiconducting behavior of prepared CPs. • Photocatalytic activity of CPs for oxidative degradation of metanil yellow is studied.

  7. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... to control shortness of breath: Call your doctor, palliative care team, or hospice nurse for advice Call 911 ... Bicanovsky L. Comfort care: symptom control in the dying. In: Walsh ... . 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2008:chap 181.

  8. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  9. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  10. Unilateral hip osteoarthritis: Its effects on preoperative lower limb muscle activation and intramuscular coordination patterns.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Stief, Felix; Lenarz, Katharina; Froemel, Dara; Lutz, Frederick; Barker, John; Meurer, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test if patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis (OA) show greater muscle activity asymmetry between their affected and non-affected limbs than healthy controls between their left and right limbs. Seventeen patients with unilateral hip OA (7 females, 10 males) and 17 age-matched healthy controls (7 females, 10 males) participated in this study. Both groups performed instrumented gait analysis at comparable speeds. Muscle activity was recorded simultaneously for the tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (ST), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and gluteus medius (GLM) muscles. In hip OA patients, EMG data showed greater activity of the TA muscle in the non-affected limb, and greater TFL muscle activity in the affected limb. Compared to healthy controls, greater asymmetries between paired limbs were observed for the TA and GM muscles. Finally, the TFL muscle of the affected limb contributed more to the total limb muscle activity than did the non-affected limb. The observed alterations in TA and GM muscle activity in hip OA patients may be due to the greater peak braking and peak vertical forces measured in the non-affected limb. Contrary to this, greater TLF muscle activity of the affected limb indicates the demands put on stabilizing the hip during stance phase. Further studies are necessary to test whether leg length discrepancy affects muscle activation alterations between the affected and non-affected limb in unilateral hip OA patients. PMID:26979904

  11. Influence of breathing mode and activity level on the regional deposition of inhaled particles and implications for regulatory standards (March 1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.J.; Martonen, T.B.; Menache, M.G.; Graham, R.C.; Spektor, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    Particulate-size-selective sampling is an important consideration in determining ambient air-quality standards and threshold limit values for workplace exposures. Hazard evaluations, as well as risk analyses, can benefit from an improved understanding of factors affecting regional respiratory tract deposition of particles in man. Here, thoracic deposition and its component parts are examined, as a function of particulate size, for ventilation rates ranging from normal respiration to heavy exercise in individuals who are habitual mouth breathers and in those who normally employ oronasal breathing when minute ventilations exceed approximately 35 Lmin-1. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to fit logistic models of the form Y = (1+e alpha+beta log X)-1 to data from tests measuring extrathoracic (ET) and tracheobronchial (TB) deposition.

  12. Rac1-Rab11-FIP3 regulatory hub coordinates vesicle traffic with actin remodeling and T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Jérôme; Del Río-Iñiguez, Iratxe; Lasserre, Rémi; Agüera-Gonzalez, Sonia; Cuche, Céline; Danckaert, Anne; McCaffrey, Mary W; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The immunological synapse generation and function is the result of a T-cell polarization process that depends on the orchestrated action of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and of intracellular vesicle traffic. However, how these events are coordinated is ill defined. Since Rab and Rho families of GTPases control intracellular vesicle traffic and cytoskeleton reorganization, respectively, we investigated their possible interplay. We show here that a significant fraction of Rac1 is associated with Rab11-positive recycling endosomes. Moreover, the Rab11 effector FIP3 controls Rac1 intracellular localization and Rac1 targeting to the immunological synapse. FIP3 regulates, in a Rac1-dependent manner, key morphological events, like T-cell spreading and synapse symmetry. Finally, Rab11-/FIP3-mediated regulation is necessary for T-cell activation leading to cytokine production. Therefore, Rac1 endosomal traffic is key to regulate T-cell activation. PMID:27154205

  13. Baking together-the coordination of actions in activities involving people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Majlesi, Ali Reza; Ekström, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explores interaction and collaboration between people with dementia and their spouses in relation to the performance of household chores with the focus on instruction as an interactional context to engage the person with dementia in collaboration to accomplish joint activities. Dementia is generally associated with pathological changes in people's cognitive functions such as diminishing memory functions, communicative abilities and also diminishing abilities to take initiative as well as to plan and execute tasks. Using video recordings of everyday naturally occurring activities, we analyze the sequential organization of actions (see Schegloff, 2007) oriented toward the accomplishment of a joint multi-task activity of baking. The analysis shows the specific ways of collaboration through instructional activities in which the person with dementia exhibits his competence and skills in accomplishing the given tasks through negotiating the instructions with his partner and carrying out instructed actions. Although the driving force of the collaboration seems to be a series of directive sequences only initiated by the partner throughout the baking activity, our analyses highlight how the person with dementia can actively use the material environment-including collaborating partners-to compensate for challenges and difficulties encountered in achieving everyday tasks. The sequential organization of instructions and instructed actions are in this sense argued to provide an interactional environment wherein the person with dementia can make contributions to the joint activity in an efficient way. While a collaborator has been described as necessary for a person with dementia to be able to partake in activities, this study shows that people with dementia are not only guided by their collaborators in joint activities but they can also actively use their collaborators in intricate compensatory ways. PMID:27531451

  14. Deodorization of garlic breath volatiles by food and food components.

    PubMed

    Munch, Ryan; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-04-01

    The ability of foods and beverages to reduce allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl sulfide on human breath after consumption of raw garlic was examined. The treatments were consumed immediately following raw garlic consumption for breath measurements, or were blended with garlic prior to headspace measurements. Measurements were done using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer. Chlorophyllin treatment demonstrated no deodorization in comparison to the control. Successful treatments may be due to enzymatic, polyphenolic, or acid deodorization. Enzymatic deodorization involved oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by enzymes, with the oxidized polyphenols causing deodorization. This was the probable mechanism in raw apple, parsley, spinach, and mint treatments. Polyphenolic deodorization involved deodorization by polyphenolic compounds without enzymatic activity. This probably occurred for microwaved apple, green tea, and lemon juice treatments. When pH is below 3.6, the enzyme alliinase is inactivated, which causes a reduction in volatile formation. This was demonstrated in pH-adjusted headspace measurements. However, the mechanism for volatile reduction on human breath (after volatile formation) is unclear, and may have occurred in soft drink and lemon juice breath treatments. Whey protein was not an effective garlic breath deodorant and had no enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, or acidity. Headspace concentrations did not correlate well to breath treatments. PMID:24592995

  15. The loading of coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts on activated carbon fiber: a feasible strategy to obtain visible light active and highly efficient polyoxometalate based photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tingting; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Huili; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xia; Ou, Jinzhao; Mei, Mingliang

    2015-02-01

    To enhance the photocatalytic properties of coordination complex modified polyoxometalates (CC/POMs) in the visible light region, its nanobelts (CC/POMNBs) were loaded on activated carbon fiber (ACF) through a simple colloidal blending process. The resulting coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts loaded activated carbon fiber composite materials (CC/POMNBs/ACF) exhibited dramatic photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. Optical and electrochemical methods illustrated the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CC/POMNBs/ACF, which originates from the high separation efficiency of the photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of the CC/POMNBs and ACF, which results from the synergistic effects between them. In the composite material, the role of ACF could be described as a photosensitizer and a good electron transporter. Furthermore, the influence of the mass ratio between the CC/POMNBs and ACF on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting composite material was discussed, and an ideal value to obtain highly efficient photocatalysts was obtained. The results suggested that the loading of CC/POMNBs on the surface of ACF would be a feasible strategy to enhance their photocatalytic activity. PMID:25529472

  16. Upper extremity coordination strategies depending on task demand during a basic daily activity.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Flávia Pessoni F M; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Zampar, Ana Carolina; Pinola, Lívia Nahas; Fonseca, Marisa de Cássia Registro

    2015-10-01

    Injury conditions affecting the upper extremity may lead to severe functional impairment and an accurate evaluation is needed in order to select the most effective treatment in a rehabilitation program. This study focused on simultaneous electromyographic and kinematic analysis to assess movement patterns of upper extremity during a basic daily activity, considering different demands existing within the task. Twenty-five healthy subjects, average age 19.8 ys SD 1.7 ys, with no upper extremity impairment, were assessed by means of electromyography (EMG) and a 3D motion capture system while performing a task that required reach, transport and release. Integrated EMG (iEMG), timing of muscle onset and active range of motion (AROM) were calculated for each subject. Data were compared within each phase and between the three phases and a repeated measure ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. We found early activation of upper trapezius associated with high activity of serratus anterior for proximal stability while anterior deltoid and triceps brachii performed shoulder flexion and elbow extension, in Reach phase. In Transport phase there was early and higher activation of upper trapezius, higher muscle activity of almost all muscles and increased AROM of all joints. No change in flexion/extension wrist posture with increased forearm muscles activity were identified as the main control strategy to keep optimal grasping. Triceps brachii was found to act as an important synergist in shoulder abduction and extension in free load conditions. Such information can lead clinicians to more specific assessment and subsequent better intervention in upper extremity rehabilitation. PMID:26282047

  17. Between molecules and experience: role of early patterns of coordinated activity for the development of cortical maps and sensory abilities.

    PubMed

    Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L

    2010-09-01

    Sensory systems processing information from the environment rely on precisely formed and refined neuronal networks that build maps of sensory receptor epithelia at different subcortical and cortical levels. These sensory maps share similar principles of function and emerge according to developmental processes common in visual, somatosensory and auditory systems. Whereas molecular cues set the coarse organization of cortico-subcortical topography, its refinement is known to succeed under the influence of experience-dependent electrical activity during critical periods. However, coordinated patterns of activity synchronize the cortico-subcortical networks long before the meaningful impact of environmental inputs on sensory maps. Recent studies elucidated the cellular and network mechanisms underlying the generation of these early patterns of activity and highlighted their similarities across species. Moreover, the experience-independent activity appears to act as a functional template for the maturation of sensory networks and cortico-subcortical maps. A major goal for future research will be to analyze how this early activity interacts with the molecular cues and to determine whether it is permissive or rather supporting for the establishment of sensory topography. PMID:20381527

  18. Breathing patterns during eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Lechauve, J B; Perrault, H; Aguilaniu, B; Isner-Horobeti, M E; Martin, V; Coudeyre, E; Richard, R

    2014-10-01

    Eccentric (ECC) work is interesting for rehabilitation purposes because it is more efficient than concentric (CON). This study assessed respiratory patterns and electromyographic activity (EMG) during ECC and CON cycling, both at similar power outputs and VO2 in eight healthy male subjects. Measurements include ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (Fb), arterial blood gases, and vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps brachii (BB) EMG. At the same mechanical power, VO2 and VE were fivefold lower in ECC as was VL EMG while BB EMG, Vd/Vt, PaO2 and PaCO2, were not different between modalities. At the same VO2, there was no difference in VE but Vt was lower and Fb higher in ECC. VL EMG was not different between modalities while BB EMG was higher in ECC. The latter observation suggests that ECC cycling may result in arm bracing and restricted chest expansion. Since hyperpnea is a known trigger of exaggerated dynamic hyperinflation, the prescription of ECC cycling for patient rehabilitation requires further assessment. PMID:25083913

  19. Redox-active porous coordination polymer based on trinuclear pivalate: Temperature-dependent crystal rearrangement and redox-behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytvynenko, Anton S.; Kiskin, Mikhail A.; Dorofeeva, Victoria N.; Mishura, Andrey M.; Titov, Vladimir E.; Kolotilov, Sergey V.; Eremenko, Igor L.; Novotortsev, Vladimir M.

    2015-03-01

    Linking of trinuclear pivalate Fe2NiO(Piv)6 (Piv=O2CC(CH3)3) by 2,6-bis(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (L) resulted in formation of 1D-porous coordination polymer Fe2NiO(Piv)6(L)·Solv, which was characterized in two forms: DMSO solvate Fe2NiO(Piv)6(L)(DMSO)·2.5DMSO (1) or water solvate Fe2NiO(Piv)6(L)(H2O) (2). X-ray structure of 1 was determined. Crystal lattice of 1 at 160 K contained open channels, filled by captured solvent, while temperature growth to 296 K led to the crystal lattice rearrangement and formation of closed voids. Redox-behavior of 2 was studied by cyclic voltammetry for a solid compound, deposited on glassy-carbon electrode. Redox-activity of L preserved upon incorporation in the coordination polymer. The presence of pores in desolvated sample Fe2NiO(Piv)6(L) was confirmed by the measurements of N2 and H2 adsorption at 77 K. Potential barriers of the different molecules diffusion through pores were estimated by the means of molecular mechanics.

  20. Hedgehog signal activation coordinates proliferation and differentiation of fetal liver progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Tohru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2009-09-10

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays crucial roles in development and homeostasis of various organs. In the adult liver, it regulates proliferation and/or viability of several types of cells, particularly under injured conditions, and is also implicated in stem/progenitor cell maintenance. However, the role of this signaling pathway during the normal developmental process of the liver remains elusive. Although Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the ventral foregut endoderm from which the liver derives, the expression disappears at the onset of the liver bud formation, and its possible recurrence at the later stages has not been investigated. Here we analyzed the activation and functional relevance of Hh signaling during the mouse fetal liver development. At E11.5, Shh and an activation marker gene for Hh signaling, Gli1, were expressed in Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts, the fetal liver progenitor cells, and the expression was rapidly decreased thereafter as the development proceeded. In the culture of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts isolated from the E11.5 liver, activation of Hh signaling stimulated their proliferation and this effect was cancelled by a chemical Hh signaling inhibitor, cyclopamine. In contrast, hepatocyte differentiation of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts in vitro as manifested by the marker gene expression and acquisition of ammonia clearance activity was significantly inhibited by forced activation of Hh signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate the temporally restricted manner of Hh signal activation and its role in promoting the hepatoblast proliferation, and further suggest that the pathway needs to be shut off for the subsequent hepatic differentiation of hepatoblasts to proceed normally.

  1. Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE): An approach for modeling functional co-activation architecture based on neuroimaging coordinates.

    PubMed

    Chu, Congying; Fan, Lingzhong; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yong; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-08-15

    Recent progress in functional neuroimaging has prompted studies of brain activation during various cognitive tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis has been utilized to discover the brain regions that are consistently activated across experiments. However, within-experiment co-activation relationships, which can reflect the underlying functional relationships between different brain regions, have not been widely studied. In particular, voxel-wise co-activation, which may be able to provide a detailed configuration of the co-activation network, still needs to be modeled. To estimate the voxel-wise co-activation pattern and deduce the co-activation network, a Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE) method was proposed to model within-experiment activations for the purpose of defining the co-activations. A permutation test was adopted as a significance test. Moreover, the co-activations were automatically separated into local and long-range ones, based on distance. The two types of co-activations describe distinct features: the first reflects convergent activations; the second represents co-activations between different brain regions. The validation of CoPE was based on five simulation tests and one real dataset derived from studies of working memory. Both the simulated and the real data demonstrated that CoPE was not only able to find local convergence but also significant long-range co-activation. In particular, CoPE was able to identify a 'core' co-activation network in the working memory dataset. As a data-driven method, the CoPE method can be used to mine underlying co-activation relationships across experiments in future studies. PMID:26037052

  2. The Cellular Building Blocks of Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, J.M.; Doi, A.; Garcia, A.J.; Elsen, F.P.; Koch, H.; Wei, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory brainstem neurons fulfill critical roles in controlling breathing: they generate the activity patterns for breathing and contribute to various sensory responses including changes in O2 and CO2. These complex sensorimotor tasks depend on the dynamic interplay between numerous cellular building blocks that consist of voltage-, calcium-, and ATP-dependent ionic conductances, various ionotropic and metabotropic synaptic mechanisms, as well as neuromodulators acting on G-protein coupled receptors and second messenger systems. As described in this review, the sensorimotor responses of the respiratory network emerge through the state-dependent integration of all these building blocks. There is no known respiratory function that involves only a small number of intrinsic, synaptic, or modulatory properties. Because of the complex integration of numerous intrinsic, synaptic, and modulatory mechanisms, the respiratory network is capable of continuously adapting to changes in the external and internal environment, which makes breathing one of the most integrated behaviors. Not surprisingly, inspiration is critical not only in the control of ventilation, but also in the context of “inspiring behaviors” such as arousal of the mind and even creativity. Far-reaching implications apply also to the underlying network mechanisms, as lessons learned from the respiratory network apply to network functions in general. PMID:23720262

  3. Analysis of exhaled breath by laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrall, Karla D.; Toth, James J.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of our work is two fold: (1) to develop a portable rapid laser based breath analyzer for monitoring metabolic processes, and (2) predict these metabolic processes through physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Small infrared active molecules such as ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethane are present in exhaled breath and can be readily detected by laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition, many of the stable isotopomers of these molecules can be accurately detected, making it possible to follow specific metabolic processes. Potential areas of applications for this technology include the diagnosis of certain pathologies (e.g. Helicobacter Pylori infection), detection of trauma due to either physical or chemical causes and monitoring nutrient uptake (i.e., malnutrition). In order to understand the origin and elucidate the metabolic processes associated with these small molecules, we are employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. A PBPK model is founded on known physiological processes (i.e., blood flow rates, tissue volumes, breathing rate, etc.), chemical-specific processes (i.e., tissue solubility coefficients, molecular weight, chemical density, etc.), and on metabolic processes (tissue site and rate of metabolic biotransformation). Since many of these processes are well understood, a PBPK model can be developed and validated against the more readily available experimental animal data, and then by extrapolating the parameters to apply to man, the model can predict chemical behavior in humans.

  4. The Structure of Sec12 Implicates Potassium Ion Coordination in Sar1 Activation*

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Conor; Studer, Sean M.; Clendinen, Chaevia; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Hughson, Frederick M.

    2012-01-01

    Coat protein II (COPII)-coated vesicles transport proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. Crucial for the initiation of COPII coat assembly is Sec12, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor responsible for activating the small G protein Sar1. Once activated, Sar1/GTP binds to endoplasmic reticulum membranes and recruits COPII coat components (Sec23/24 and Sec13/31). Here, we report the 1.36 Å resolution crystal structure of the catalytically active, 38-kDa cytoplasmic portion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec12. Sec12 adopts a β propeller fold. Conserved residues cluster around a loop we term the “K loop,” which extends from the N-terminal propeller blade. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis, in conjunction with in vitro and in vivo functional studies, reveals that this region of Sec12 is catalytically essential, presumably because it makes direct contact with Sar1. Strikingly, the crystal structure also reveals that a single potassium ion stabilizes the K loop; bound potassium is, moreover, essential for optimum guanine nucleotide exchange activity in vitro. Thus, our results reveal a novel role for a potassium-stabilized loop in catalyzing guanine nucleotide exchange. PMID:23109340

  5. Autophosphorylation and Pin1 binding coordinate DNA damage-induced HIPK2 activation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Bitomsky, Nadja; Conrad, Elisa; Moritz, Christian; Polonio-Vallon, Tilman; Sombroek, Dirk; Schultheiss, Kathrin; Glas, Carolina; Greiner, Vera; Herbel, Christoph; Mantovani, Fiamma; del Sal, Giannino; Peri, Francesca; Hofmann, Thomas G

    2013-11-01

    Excessive genome damage activates the apoptosis response. Protein kinase HIPK2 is a key regulator of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Here, we deciphered the molecular mechanism of HIPK2 activation and show its relevance for DNA damage-induced apoptosis in cellulo and in vivo. HIPK2 autointeracts and site-specifically autophosphorylates upon DNA damage at Thr880/Ser882. Autophosphorylation regulates HIPK2 activity and mutation of the phosphorylation-acceptor sites deregulates p53 Ser46 phosphorylation and apoptosis in cellulo. Moreover, HIPK2 autophosphorylation is conserved between human and zebrafish and is important for DNA damage-induced apoptosis in vivo. Mechanistically, autophosphorylation creates a binding signal for the phospho-specific isomerase Pin1. Pin1 links HIPK2 activation to its stabilization by inhibiting HIPK2 polyubiquitination and modulating Siah-1-HIPK2 interaction. Concordantly, Pin1 is required for DNA damage-induced HIPK2 stabilization and p53 Ser46 phosphorylation and is essential for induction of apotosis both in cellulo and in zebrafish. Our results identify an evolutionary conserved mechanism regulating DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PMID:24145406

  6. Metal based isatin-derived sulfonamides: their synthesis, characterization, coordination behavior and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Nasim, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Khalid M

    2009-06-01

    Some isatin derived sulfonamides and their transition metal [Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II)] complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The structure of synthesized compounds and their nature of bonding have been inferred on the basis of their physical (magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements), analytical (elemental analyses) and spectral (IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) properties. An octahedral geometry has been suggested for Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) and square-planar for Cu(II) complexes. In order to assess the antibacterial and antifungal behavior, the ligands and their metal(II) complexes were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative species, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi and two Gram-positive species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and, for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. In vitro cytotoxic properties of all the compounds were also studied against Artemia salina by brine shrimp bioassay. The results of average antibacterial/antifungal activity showed that zinc(II) complexes were found to be the most active against one or more bacterial/fungal strains as compared to the other metal complexes. PMID:18825557

  7. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  8. Coordination changes and auto-hydroxylation of FIH-1: uncoupled O2-activation in a human hypoxia sensor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-Han; Comeaux, Lindsay M.; Herbst, Robert W.; Saban, Evren; Kennedy, David C.; Maroney, Michael J.; Knapp, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia sensing is the generic term for pO2-sensing in humans and other higher organisms. These cellular responses to pO2 are largely controlled by enzymes that belong to the Fe(II) α-ketoglutarate (αKG) dependent dioxygenase superfamily, including the human enzyme called the Factor Inhibiting HIF (FIH-1), which couples O2-activation to the hydroxylation of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor α (HIFα). Uncoupled O2-activation by human FIH-1 was studied by exposing the resting form of FIH-1, (αKG+Fe)FIH-1, to air in the absence of HIFα. Uncoupling lead to two distinct enzyme oxidations, one a purple chromophore (λmax = 583 nm) arising from enzyme auto-hydroxylation of Trp296, forming an Fe(III)–O–Trp296 chromophore (Y.-H. Chen, L. M. Comeaux, S. J. Eyles, M. J. Knapp, Chem. Commun. (2008) DOI:10.1039/B809099H); the other a yellow chromophore due to Fe(III) in the active site, which under some conditions also contained variable levels of an oxygenated surface residue, (oxo)Met275. The kinetics of purple FIH-1 formation were independent of Fe(II) and αKG concentrations, however product yield was saturable with increasing [αKG] and required excess Fe(II). Yellow FIH-1 was formed from (succinate+Fe)FIH-1, or by glycerol addition to (αKG+Fe)FIH-1, suggesting that glycerol could intercept the active oxidant from the FIH-1 active site and prevent hydroxylation. Both purple and yellow FIH-1 contained high-spin, rhombic Fe(III) centers, as shown by low temperature EPR. XAS indicated distorted octahedral Fe(III) geometries, with subtle differences in inner-shell ligands for yellow and purple FIH-1. EPR of Co(II)-substituted FIH-1, (αKG+Co)FIH-1, indicated a mixture of 5-coordinate and 6-coordinate enzyme forms, suggesting that resting FIH-1 can readily undergo uncoupled O2-activation by loss of an H2O ligand from the metal center. PMID:18805587

  9. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

  10. Diaphragmatic breathing reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martarelli, Daniele; Cocchioni, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Pompei, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals. PMID:19875429

  11. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  12. Progress and status of the IAEA coordinated research project: production of Mo-99 using LEU fission or neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Ira N.; Adelfang, Pablo E-mail: P.Adelfang@iaea.org; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2008-07-15

    Since late 2004, the IAEA has developed and implemented a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to assist countries interested in initiating indigenous, small-scale production of Mo-99 to meet local nuclear medicine requirements. The objective of the CRP is to provide interested countries with access to non-proprietary technologies and methods to produce Mo-99 using LEU foil or LEU mini-plate targets, or for the utilization of n,gamma neutron activation, e.g. through the use of gel generators. The project has made further progress since the RERTR 2006 meeting, with a Technical Workshop on Operational Aspects of Mo99 Production held 28-30 November 2006 in Vienna and the Second Research Coordination Meeting held in Bucharest, Romania 16-20 April 2007. The paper describes activities carried out as noted above, and as well as the provision of LEU foils to a number of participants, and the progress by a number of groups in preparing for LEU target assembly and disassembly, irradiation, chemical processing, and waste management. The participants' progress in particular on thermal hydraulics computations required for using LEU targets is notable, as also the progress in gel generator plant operations in India and Kazakhstan. Poland has joined as a new research agreement holder and an application by Egypt to be a contract holder is undergoing internal review in the IAEA and is expected to be approved. The IAEA has also participated in several open meetings of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Study on Producing Medical Radioisotopes without HEU, which will also be discussed in the paper. (author)

  13. Coordinate Control of Muscle Cell Survival by Distinct Insulin-like Growth Factor Activated Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Margaret A.; Rotwein, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Peptide growth factors control diverse cellular functions by regulating distinct signal transduction pathways. In cultured myoblasts, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate differentiation and promote hypertrophy. IGFs also maintain muscle cell viability. We previously described C2 skeletal muscle lines lacking expression of IGF-II. These cells did not differentiate, but underwent progressive apoptotic death when incubated in differentiation medium. Viability could be sustained and differentiation enabled by IGF analogues that activated the IGF-I receptor; survival was dependent on stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). We now find that IGF action promotes myoblast survival through two distinguishable PI3-kinase–regulated pathways that culminate in expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Incubation with IGF-I or transfection with active PI3-kinase led to rapid induction of MyoD and p21, and forced expression of either protein maintained viability in the absence of growth factors. Ectopic expression of MyoD induced p21, and inhibition of p21 blocked MyoD-mediated survival, thus defining one PI3-kinase–dependent pathway as leading first to MyoD, and then to p21 and survival. Unexpectedly, loss of MyoD expression did not impede IGF-mediated survival, revealing a second pathway involving activation by PI3-kinase of Akt, and subsequent induction of p21. Since inhibition of p21 caused death even in the presence of IGF-I, these results establish a central role for p21 as a survival factor for muscle cells. Our observations also define a MyoD-independent pathway for regulating p21 in muscle, and demonstrate that distinct mechanisms help ensure appropriate expression of this key protein during differentiation. PMID:11121430

  14. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  15. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  16. The SUMO E3 ligase activity of Pc2 is coordinated through a SUMO interaction motif.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shen-hsi; Sharrocks, Andrew D

    2010-05-01

    Protein modification by SUMO conjugation has emerged to be an important regulatory event. Recently, the mechanisms through which SUMO elicits its effects on target proteins have been elucidated. One of these is the noncovalent association between SUMO and coregulatory proteins via SUMO interaction motifs (SIMs). We therefore searched for additional binding proteins to elucidate how SUMO acts as a signal to potentiate novel noncovalent interactions with SUMO-binding proteins. We identified an E3 ligase, Pc2, as a SUMO-binding protein with two functionally distinct SIMs. Here, we focus on the role of SIM2 and demonstrate that it is crucial for many of the documented Pc2 functions, which converge on determining its E3 ligase activity. One role of SUMO binding in this context is the subnuclear partitioning of the active form of Ubc9 (SUMO approximately Ubc9) by Pc2. The significance of the SIM2-dependent functions of Pc2 is demonstrated in the control of the precise expression of lineage-specific genes during embryonic stem cell differentiation. PMID:20176810

  17. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  18. Breathing during prolonged exercise in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Kearon, M C; Summers, E; Jones, N L; Campbell, E J; Killian, K J

    1991-01-01

    1. Six normal subjects cycled to endurance or for 60 min at four work rates (WR 1-4): mean of 34% working capacity (93 watts for 60 min); 43% (120 watts for 56 min); 63% (177 watts for 37 min); and 84% (233 watts for 12 min), to determine how breathing pattern and dyspnoea change during prolonged activity. Four to six minutes were allowed to establish steady state and subsequent changes were considered to be endurance related. 2. Dyspnoea (Borg scale, 0-10) increased with the duration of activity at all work rates. 3. Ventilation (VE) did not change at WR1; increased from 44 to 47 l min-1 at WR2; from 60 to 88 l min-1 at WR3; and from 111 to 132 l min-1 at WR4. Dyspnoea was significantly and independently related to ventilation and duration of activity: dyspnoea = 0.004 VE1.36 time 0.25 (r = 0.81; partial F 202 and 26 respectively). 4. Inspiratory resistance did not increase at any work rate. Dynamic elastance remained constant during WR1, WR2 and WR3 but increased from 7.4 to 9.1 cmH2O l-1 during WR4. 5. Peak inspiratory pressure did not increase, and the increase in VE was accomplished by an increased breathing frequency without change in duty cycle. 6. Duration of activity is an important contributor to dyspnoea independent of changes in respiratory muscle contractile activity. PMID:1798038

  19. Perceived athletic competence and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder who are clinically referred, and control children.

    PubMed

    Noordstar, Johannes J; Stuive, Ilse; Herweijer, Hester; Holty, Lian; Oudenampsen, Chantal; Schoemaker, Marina M; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between perceived athletic competence (PAC) and physical activity (PA) in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is still unclear. This study investigated differences in PAC and PA between, and within, a group of children with DCD that were clinically referred (n = 31) and a group of control children (n = 38), aged 7-12 years. All children were categorized in four groups: (1) children with DCD/low PAC, (2) children with DCD/normal to high PAC, (3) control children/low PAC, and (4) control children/normal to high PAC. PAC was assessed with the Self-Perception Profile for Children, and PA was assessed with the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. Children with DCD participated less in unorganized PA, but not in organized PA, compared with control children. Normal to high PAC was found in more than half of the children (64.5%) with DCD. Children with DCD/low PAC and children with DCD/normal to high PAC participated significantly less in unorganized physical activity compared with control children/normal to high PAC, but not compared with control children/low PAC. The results indicate that there are large individual differences in PAC in children with DCD. PMID:25244693

  20. Coordinated activation of the Rac-GAP β2-chimaerin by an atypical proline-rich domain and diacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Uzquiza, Alvaro; Colon-Gonzalez, Francheska; Leonard, Thomas A; Canagarajah, Bertram J; Wang, HongBin; Mayer, Bruce J; Hurley, James H; Kazanietz, Marcelo G

    2013-01-01

    Chimaerins, a family of GTPase activating proteins for the small G-protein Rac, have been implicated in development, neuritogenesis and cancer. These Rac-GTPase activating proteins are regulated by the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol generated by tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor. Here we identify an atypical proline-rich motif in chimaerins that binds to the adaptor protein Nck1. Unlike most Nck1 partners, chimaerins bind to the third SH3 domain of Nck1. This association is mediated by electrostatic interactions of basic residues within the Pro-rich motif with acidic clusters in the SH3 domain. Epidermal growth factor promotes the binding of β2-chimaerin to Nck1 in the cell periphery in a diacylglycerol-dependent manner. Moreover, β2-chimaerin translocation to the plasma membrane and its peripheral association with Rac1 requires Nck1. Our studies underscore a coordinated mechanism for β2-chimaerin activation that involves lipid interactions via the C1 domain and protein-protein interactions via the N-terminal proline-rich region. PMID:23673634

  1. Akt1 signaling coordinates BMP signaling and β-catenin activity to regulate second heart field progenitor development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Hengwei; Tao, Lichan; Zhu, Jingai; Wang, Huijuan; Hemmings, Brian A; Yang, Zhongzhou

    2015-02-15

    Second heart field (SHF) progenitors exhibit continued proliferation and delayed differentiation, which are modulated by FGF4/8/10, BMP and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PTEN-Akt signaling regulates the stem cell/progenitor cell homeostasis in several systems, such as hematopoietic stem cells, intestinal stem cells and neural progenitor cells. To address whether PTEN-Akt signaling is involved in regulating cardiac progenitors, we deleted Pten in SHF progenitors. Deletion of Pten caused SHF expansion and increased the size of the SHF derivatives, the right ventricle and the outflow tract. Cell proliferation of cardiac progenitors was enhanced, whereas cardiac differentiation was unaffected by Pten deletion. Removal of Akt1 rescued the phenotype and early lethality of Pten deletion mice, suggesting that Akt1 was the key downstream target that was negatively regulated by PTEN in cardiac progenitors. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of FOXO by Akt1 suppressed the expression of the gene encoding the BMP ligand (BMP7), leading to dampened BMP signaling in the hearts of Pten deletion mice. Cardiac activation of Akt also increased the Ser552 phosphorylation of β-catenin, thus enhancing its activity. Reducing β-catenin levels could partially rescue heart defects of Pten deletion mice. We conclude that Akt signaling regulates the cell proliferation of SHF progenitors through coordination of BMP signaling and β-catenin activity. PMID:25670795

  2. CDK1-Cyclin B1 Activates RNMT, Coordinating mRNA Cap Methylation with G1 Phase Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Aregger, Michael; Kaskar, Aneesa; Varshney, Dhaval; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Elena; Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A.; Weidlich, Simone; Cowling, Victoria H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The creation of translation-competent mRNA is dependent on RNA polymerase II transcripts being modified by addition of the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap. The factors that mediate splicing, nuclear export, and translation initiation are recruited to the transcript via the cap. The cap structure is formed by several activities and completed by RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase), which catalyzes N7 methylation of the cap guanosine. We report that CDK1-cyclin B1 phosphorylates the RNMT regulatory domain on T77 during G2/M phase of the cell cycle. RNMT T77 phosphorylation activates the enzyme both directly and indirectly by inhibiting interaction with KPNA2, an RNMT inhibitor. RNMT T77 phosphorylation results in elevated m7G cap methyltransferase activity at the beginning of G1 phase, coordinating mRNA capping with the burst of transcription that occurs following nuclear envelope reformation. RNMT T77 phosphorylation is required for the production of cohort of proteins, and inhibiting T77 phosphorylation reduces the cell proliferation rate. PMID:26942677

  3. A self-centering active probing technique for kinematic parameter identification and verification of articulated arm coordinate measuring machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, J.; Brau, A.; Velázquez, J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2010-05-01

    A crucial task in the procedure of identifying the parameters of a kinematic model of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) or robot arm is the process of capturing data. In this paper a capturing data method is analyzed using a self-centering active probe, which drastically reduces the capture time and the required number of positions of the gauge as compared to the usual standard and manufacturer methods. The mathematical models of the self-centering active probe and AACMM are explained, as well as the mathematical model that links the AACMM global reference system to the probe reference system. We present a self-calibration method that will allow us to determine a homogeneous transformation matrix that relates the probe's reference system to the AACMM last reference system from the probing of a single sphere. In addition, a comparison between a self-centering passive probe and self-centering active probe is carried out to show the advantages of the latter in the procedures of kinematic parameter identification and verification of the AACMM.

  4. Evaluating Physical Activity Using Accelerometry in Children at Risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder in the Presence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baerg, Sally; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Rempel, Lynn; Mahlberg, Nadilein; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is compromised in children and adolescents with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Approximately half of all children with DCD suffer from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); a cohort often considered more physically active than typically developing youth. Accelerometry is an effective method of assessing…

  5. Low latency breathing frequency detection and monitoring on a personal computer.

    PubMed

    Leskovsek, Matevz; Ahlin, Dragomira; Cancer, Rok; Hosta, Milan; Enova, Dusan; Pusenjak, Nika; Bunc, Matjaz

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a low latency respiratory/breathing frequency detection system that is fast (<5 ms), easy to operate, requires no batteries or external power supply and operates fully via computer-standard USB connection. Exercises in controlling ones breathing frequency, usually referred to as paced-breathing exercises, have shown positive effects in treating pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular diseases and stress/anxiety-related disorders. We developed a breathing frequency detection system which uses two pairs of microphones to detect exhalation activity, eliminate noise from the environment and stream the recording data via USB connection to a personal computer. It showed 97.1% reliability (10 subjects) when monitoring breathing activity in non-guided free breathing and 100% reliability (10 subjects) when monitoring breathing activity during interactive paced-breathing exercises. We also evaluated the breathing frequency detection systems noise elimination functionality which showed a reduction of 84.2 dB for stationary (white noise) and a reduction of 79.3 dB for non-stationary (hands clapping) noise. PMID:21767133

  6. Nuclear envelope lamin-A as a coordinator of T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Perugini, Vera; González-Granado, José M

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear lamins A/C control several critical cellular functions, e.g., chromatin organization, gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA damage responses, cell cycle progression, cell differentiation, and cell polarization during migration. However, few studies have addressed the role of lamins A/C in the control of the functions of immune cells. Recently, we have demonstrated that lamins A/C are induced in T cells upon antigen recognition. Lamins A/C enhance T cell responses by coupling the plasma membrane to the nucleus via the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex and the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we discuss the possible physiological relevance and functional context of lamin A/C in T cell activation and propose a model in which lamins A/C are key modulators of immune cell functions. PMID:25482193

  7. Hypobaric decompression prebreathe requirements and breathing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce incidence of decompression sickness (DCS), prebreathing 100 percent oxygen to denitrogenate is required prior to hypobaric decompressions from a sea level pressure breathing environment to pressures lower than 350 mm Hg (20,000 ft; 6.8 psia). The tissue ratio (TR) of such exposures equals or exceeds 1.7; TR being the tissue nitrogen pressure prior to decompression divided by the total pressure after decompression (((0.781)(14.697))/6.758). Designing pressure suits capable of greater pressure differentials, lower TR's, and procedures which limit the potential for DCS occurrence would enhance operational efficiency. The current 10.2 psia stage decompression prior to extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Shuttle in the 100 percent oxygen, 4.3 psia suit, results in a TR of 1.65 and has proven to be relatively free of DCS. Our recent study of zero-prebreathe decompressions to 6.8 psia breathing 100 percent oxygen (TR = 1.66) also resulted in no DCS (N = 10). The level of severe, Spencer Grades 3 or 4, venous gas emboli (VGE) increased from 0 percent at 9.5 psia to 40 percent at 6.8 psia yielding a Probit curve of VGE risk for the 51 male subjects who participated in these recent studies. Earlier, analogous decompressions using a 50 percent oxygen, 50 percent nitrogen breathing mixture resulted in one case of DCS and significantly higher levels of severe VGE, e.g., at 7.8 psia, the mixed gas breathing environment resulted in a 56 percent incidence of severe VGE versus 10 percent with use of 100 percent oxygen. The report of this study recommended use of 100 percent oxygen during zero-prebreathe exposure to 6.8 psia if such a suit could be developed. For future, long-term missions, we suggest study of the effects of decompression over several days to a breathing environment of 150 mmHg O2 and approximately 52 mmHg He as a means of eliminating DCS and VGE hazards during subsequent excursions. Once physiologically adapted to a 4 psia vehicle, base, or space

  8. Microfluidic glucose stimulation reveals limited coordination of intracellular Ca2+ activity oscillations in pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Rocheleau, Jonathan V.; Walker, Glenn M.; Head, W. Steven; McGuinness, Owen P.; Piston, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The pancreatic islet is a functional microorgan involved in maintaining normoglycemia through regulated secretion of insulin and other hormones. Extracellular glucose stimulates insulin secretion from islet β cells through an increase in redox state, which can be measured by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. Glucose concentrations over ≈7 mM generate synchronous oscillations in β cell intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which lead to pulsatile insulin secretion. Prevailing models assume that the pancreatic islet acts as a functional syncytium, and the whole islet [Ca2+]i response has been modeled in terms of islet bursting and pacemaker models. To test these models, we developed a microfluidic device capable of partially stimulating an islet, while allowing observation of the NAD(P)H and [Ca2+]i responses. We show that β cell [Ca2+]i oscillations occur only within regions stimulated with more than ≈6.6 mM glucose. Furthermore, we show that tolbutamide, an antagonist of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, allows these oscillations to travel farther into the nonstimulated regions of the islet. Our approach shows that the extent of Ca2+ propagation across the islet depends on a delicate interaction between the degree of coupling and the extent of ATP-sensitive K+-channel activation and illustrates an experimental paradigm that will have utility for many other biological systems. PMID:15317941

  9. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 coordinates Rab5 activity and transferrin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Muralidharan; Lee, Unn Hwa; Yoon, Nal Ae; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ko, Myoung Seok; Seol, Wongi; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg; Lee, Byung Ju; Moon, Chang Hoon; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 regulates the early endocytic pathway of transferrin (Tfn), and Rab5 deactivation is required for Tfn recycling. Rab5 deactivation is achieved by RabGAP5, a GTPase-activating protein, on the endosomes. Here we report that recruitment of RabGAP5 is insufficient to deactivate Rab5 and that developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) is required for Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. DRG2 was associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate–containing endosomes. It colocalized and interacted with EEA1 and Rab5 on endosomes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–dependent manner. DRG2 depletion did not affect Tfn uptake and recruitment of RabGAP5 and Rac1 to Rab5 endosomes. However, it resulted in impairment of interaction between Rab5 and RabGAP5, Rab5 deactivation on endosomes, and Tfn recycling. Ectopic expression of shRNA-resistant DRG2 rescued Tfn recycling in DRG2-depleted cells. Our results demonstrate that DRG2 is an endosomal protein and a key regulator of Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. PMID:26582392

  10. Coordination and activation of Al-H and Ga-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Joseph A B; Riddlestone, Ian M; Turner, Joshua; Kaufman, Paul A; Tirfoin, Remi; Phillips, Nicholas; Aldridge, Simon

    2014-12-22

    The modes of interaction of donor-stabilized Group 13 hydrides (E=Al, Ga) were investigated towards 14- and 16-electron transition-metal fragments. More electron-rich N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized alanes/gallanes of the type NHC⋅EH3 (E=Al or Ga) exclusively generate κ(2) complexes of the type [M(CO)4 (κ(2)-H3 E⋅NHC)] with [M(CO)4 (COD)] (M=Cr, Mo), including the first κ(2) σ-gallane complexes. β-Diketiminato ('nacnac')-stabilized systems, {HC(MeCNDipp)2 }EH2 , show more diverse reactivity towards Group 6 carbonyl reagents. For {HC(MeCNDipp)2 }AlH2, both κ(1) and κ(2) complexes were isolated, while [Cr(CO)4 (κ(2)-H2 Ga{(NDippCMe)2 CH})] is the only simple κ(2) adduct of the nacnac-stabilized gallane which can be trapped, albeit as a co-crystallite with the (dehydrogenated) gallylene system [Cr(CO)5 (Ga{(NDippCMe)2 CH})]. Reaction of [Co2 (CO)8] with {HC(MeCDippN)2 }AlH2 generates [(OC)3 Co(μ-H)2 Al{(NdippCme)2 CH}][Co(CO)4] (12), which while retaining direct AlH interactions, features a hitherto unprecedented degree of bond activation in a σ-alane complex. PMID:25358970

  11. A shared mechanism for lipid- and β-subunit-coordinated stabilization of the activated K+ channel voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    The low-dielectric plasma membrane provides an energy barrier hindering transmembrane movement of charged particles. The positively charged, voltage-sensing fourth transmembrane domain (S4) of voltage-gated ion channels must surmount this energy barrier to initiate channel activation, typically necessitating both membrane depolarization and interaction with membrane lipid phospho-head groups (MLPHGs). In contrast, and despite containing S4, the KCNQ1 K+ channel α subunit exhibits predominantly constitutive activation when in complexes with transmembrane β subunits, MinK-related peptide (MiRP) 1 (KCNE2) or MiRP2 (KCNE3). Here, using a 2-electrode voltage clamp and scanning mutagenesis of channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we discovered that 2 of the 8 MiRP2 extracellular domain acidic residues (D54 and D55) are important for KCNQ1-MiRP2 constitutive activation. Double-mutant thermodynamic cycle analysis revealed energetic coupling of D54 and D55 to R237 in KCNQ1 S4 but not to 10 other native or introduced polar residues in KCNQ1 S4 and surrounding linkers. MiRP2-D54 and KCNQ1-R237 also similarly dictated susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of MLPHG hydrolysis, whereas other closely situated polar residues did not. Thus, by providing negative charge near the plasma membrane extracellular face, MiRP2 uses a lipomimetic mechanism to constitutively stabilize the activated KCNQ1 voltage sensor.—Choi, E., Abbott, G. W. A shared mechanism for lipid- and β-subunit-coordinated stabilization of the activated K+ channel voltage sensor. PMID:20040519

  12. Tumor, Lymph Node, and Lymph Node-to-Tumor Displacements Over a Radiotherapy Series: Analysis of Interfraction and Intrafraction Variations Using Active Breathing Control (ABC) in Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Robertson, Scott P.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate errors in soft tissue-based image guidance due to relative changes between primary tumor (PT) and affected lymph node (LN) position and volume, and to compare the results with bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs and LNs during radiotherapy of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Weekly repeated breath-hold computed tomography scans were acquired in 17 lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PTs and affected LNs were manually contoured on all scans after rigid registration. Interfraction and intrafraction displacements in the centers of mass of PTs and LNs relative to bone, as well as LNs relative to PTs (LN-PT), were calculated. Results: The mean volume after 5 weeks was 65% for PTs and 63% for LNs. Systematic and random interfraction displacements were 2.6 to 4.6 mm and 2.7 to 2.9 mm, respectively, for PTs; 2.4 to 3.8 mm and 1.4 to 2.7 mm, respectively, for LNs; and 2.3 to 3.9 mm and 1.9 to 2.8 mm, respectively, for LN-PT. Systematic and random intrafraction displacements were less than 1 mm except in the superoinferior direction. Interfraction LN-PT displacements greater than 3 mm were observed in 67% of fractions and require a safety margin of 12 mm in the lateral direction, 11 mm in the anteroposterior direction, and 9 mm in the superoinferior direction. LN-PT displacements displayed significant time trends (p < 0.0001) and depended on the presence of pathoanatomic conditions of the ipsilateral lung, such as atelectasis. Conclusion: Interfraction LN-PT displacements were mostly systematic and comparable to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs or LNs alone. Time trends, large volume changes, and the influence of pathoanatomic conditions underline the importance of soft tissue-based image guidance and the potential of plan adaptation.

  13. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  14. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  15. [Breathing patterns peculiarities as the index of the "animal hypnosis" state in the rabbit].

    PubMed

    Levshina, I P; Bogdanov, A V; Galashina, A G; Shuĭkin, N N

    2004-01-01

    Breathing patterns were recorded during "animal hypnosis" in seven Chinchilla rabbits. The state of "animal hypnosis" was evoked by the hand pressure on the thorax and the waist of a rabbit. Breathing pattern was recorded by means of an elastic coal-powder element that was set round the rabbit's thorax. Distortions of the breathing patterns in the active state and in the course of hypnosis development were marked by numbers 0, 1, 2. In all rabbits, modifications of the breathing patterns depended on the features of the animal state: quiet state, tension, and "animal hypnosis". PMID:15326958

  16. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1HOP1 Receptor Activation Coordinates Multiple Neurotrophic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    May, Victor; Lutz, Eve; MacKenzie, Christopher; Schutz, Kristin C.; Dozark, Kate; Braas, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    MAPK and Akt pathways are predominant mediators of trophic signaling for many neuronal systems. Among the vasoactive intestinal peptide/secretin/glucagon family of related peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) binding to specific PAC1 receptor isoforms can engage multiple signaling pathways and promote neuroprotection through mechanisms that are not well understood. Using a primary sympathetic neuronal system, the current studies demonstrate that PACAP activation of PAC1HOP1 receptors engages both MAPK and Akt neurotrophic pathways in an integrated program to facilitate neuronal survival after growth factor withdrawal. PACAP not only stimulated prosurvival ERK1/2 and ERK5 activation but also abrogated SAPK/JNK and p38 MAPK signaling in parallel. In contrast to the potent and rapid effects of PACAP in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, PACAP stimulated Akt phosphorylation in a late phase of PAC1HOP1 receptor signaling. From inhibitor and immunoprecipitation analyses, the PACAP/PAC1HOP1 receptor-mediated Akt responses did not represent transactivation mechanisms but appeared to depend on Gαq/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ activity and vesicular internalization pathways. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ-selective inhibitors blocked PACAP-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in primary neuronal cultures and in PAC1HOP1-overexpressing cell lines; RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the receptor effectors attenuated PACAP-mediated Akt activation. Similarly, perturbation of endocytic pathways also blocked Akt phosphorylation. Between ERK and Akt pathways, PACAP-stimulated Akt signaling was the primary cascade that attenuated cultured neuron apoptosis after growth factor withdrawal. The partitioning of PACAP-mediated Akt signaling in endosomes may be a key mechanism contributing to the high spatial and temporal specificity in signal transduction necessary for survival pathways. PMID:20093365

  17. The ins and outs of breath holding: simple demonstrations of complex respiratory physiology.

    PubMed

    Skow, Rachel J; Day, Trevor A; Fuller, Jonathan E; Bruce, Christina D; Steinback, Craig D

    2015-09-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology behind breath-hold duration. These activities require minimal equipment and are easily adapted to small-group demonstrations or a larger-group inquiry format where students can design a protocol and collect and analyze data from their classmates. Specifically, breath-hold duration is measured during a number of maneuvers, including after end expiration, end inspiration, voluntary prior hyperventilation, and inspired hyperoxia. Further activities illustrate the potential contribution of chemoreflexes through rebreathing and repeated rebreathing after a maximum breath hold. The outcome measures resulting from each intervention are easily visualized and plotted and can comprise a comprehensive data set to illustrate and discuss complex and integrated cardiorespiratory physiology. PMID:26330043

  18. Developmental coordination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Physical causes and other types of learning disabilities must be ruled out before the diagnosis can be confirmed. ... Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems ... wanting to participate in physical activities (such as sports)

  19. Technology coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Steven

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology coordination are provided. Topics covered include: technology coordination process to date; goals; how the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) can support the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA); how OSSA can support OAST; steps to technology transfer; and recommendations.

  20. FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Josefa; Bota-Rabassedas, Neus; Franch-Marro, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    How several signaling pathways are coordinated to generate complex organs through regulation of tissue growth and patterning is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The larval trachea of Drosophila is composed of differentiated functional cells and groups of imaginal tracheoblasts that build the adult trachea during metamorphosis. Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. The ASP emerges from the tracheal branch that connects to the wing disc by the activation of both Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling pathways. Together, these pathways promote cell migration and proliferation. In this study we demonstrate that Vein (vn) is the EGF ligand responsible for the activation of the EGFR pathway in the ASP. We also find that the Bnl-FGF/Btl pathway regulates the expression of vn through the transcription factor PointedP2 (PntP2). Furthermore, we show that the FGF target gene escargot (esg) attenuates EGFR signaling at the tip cells of the developing ASP, reducing their mitotic rate to allow proper migration. Altogether, our results reveal a link between Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling and provide novel insight into how the crosstalk of these pathways regulates migration and growth. PMID:26632449

  1. Longitudinal analysis of motor activity and coordination, anxiety, and spatial learning in mice with altered blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Thifault, S; Lalonde, R; Sanon, N; Hamet, P

    2001-08-10

    Mice with either high or low blood pressure (BP) were compared to normotensive controls at 2 and 12 months of age for motor activity, equilibrium, anxiety, and spatial learning. Irrespective of age, high BP mice were more active in an open field than normotensive controls, whereas low BP mice were hypoactive at 2 months of age. High BP mice had a higher number of entries and a longer duration of visits in the open arms, a higher open arm/total arm ratio, a longer duration for the first visit into an open arm, and lower latencies before entering the first open arm than controls in the elevated +-maze, indicative of reduced anxiety. Reduced levels of anxiety were also displayed by low BP mice for the duration of the first open arm visit (both age groups) and for the time spent in the open arms (older group). In the motor coordination test (coat-hanger), high BP mice had higher two-paw movement time and reached the top of the apparatus on fewer occasions than controls. Both groups with abnormal BP values were deficient during visuomotor guidance in the water maze. These results indicate strain-, age-, and test-specific abnormalities in mice with uncontrolled hypertension or hypotension. PMID:11489259

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some organometallic complexes derived from thio-Schiff base ligands

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Two series of mono- and binuclear complexes cyclic or acyclic thio-ferocine Schiff base ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-aminobenzenthiol (L) with monoacetyl ferrocene in the molar ratio 1:1 or in the molar ratio 1:2 for diacetyl ferocine have been prepared. The condensation reactions yield the corresponding Schiff Base ligands, HLa-Maf and H2Lb-Daf. The chelation of the ligands to metal ions occurs through the sulfur of the thiol group as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligands. HLa-Maf acts as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate, while H2Lb-Daf behaves as twice negatively cargend tetradentate ligand. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analysis, infrared, ultraviolet–visible spectra, as well as 1H NMR spectra. Reactions of the Schiff bases ligands with ruthenium(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. The properties of the newly prepared complexes were analyse by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR as well as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The metal complexes exhibits different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral and square pyramidal coordination. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi to study their biological activity. All the complexes exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms. PMID:24070648

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some organometallic complexes derived from thio-Schiff base ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Two series of mono- and binuclear complexes cyclic or acyclic thio-ferocine Schiff base ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-aminobenzenthiol (L) with monoacetyl ferrocene in the molar ratio 1:1 or in the molar ratio 1:2 for diacetyl ferocine have been prepared. The condensation reactions yield the corresponding Schiff Base ligands, HLa-Maf and H2Lb-Daf. The chelation of the ligands to metal ions occurs through the sulfur of the thiol group as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligands. HLa-Maf acts as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate, while H2Lb-Daf behaves as twice negatively cargend tetradentate ligand. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analysis, infrared, ultraviolet-visible spectra, as well as 1H NMR spectra. Reactions of the Schiff bases ligands with ruthenium(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. The properties of the newly prepared complexes were analyse by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR as well as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The metal complexes exhibits different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral and square pyramidal coordination. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi to study their biological activity. All the complexes exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  4. Novel nano coordination polymer based synthesis of porous ZnO hexagonal nanodisk for higher gas sorption and photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakibuddin, M.; Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar

    2016-01-01

    Zinc(II)-based nano co-ordination polymers (NCPs) are first prepared at room temperature from three different isomers of dihydroxysalophen (DHS) ligand with Zn(OAc)2·2H2O and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) in DMF solvent. Facile calcinations of [Zn (DHS) (BDC)]·nH2O (shortly denoted as Zn(II)-based NCP) at ambient conditions produces porous ZnO hexagonal nanodisks. Moreover, a novel approach has been introduced to observe the effect of ligand of the NCP on the physico-chemical properties of the as-synthesized ZnO. The porous ZnO nanodisks are characterized by FT-IR, PXRD, TEM, FESEM, EDX and BET analysis, and the results exhibit that they possess different sizes, surface areas and porosities. Nitrogen gas sorption capacity and photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared ZnO nanodisks are also checked, and it is noticed that they differ in these physico-chemical properties due to having different porosities and surface areas. A comparative study is also done with commercially available ZnO; interestingly, the commercial ZnO exhibited lower surface area, gas sorption and photocatalytic activity compared to the ZnO nanodisks. Hence, preparation of the ZnO through the NCP route and tuning their physico-chemical properties would offer new directions in synthesis of various nano metal oxides of unique properties.

  5. FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Josefa; Bota-Rabassedas, Neus; Franch-Marro, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    How several signaling pathways are coordinated to generate complex organs through regulation of tissue growth and patterning is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The larval trachea of Drosophila is composed of differentiated functional cells and groups of imaginal tracheoblasts that build the adult trachea during metamorphosis. Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. The ASP emerges from the tracheal branch that connects to the wing disc by the activation of both Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling pathways. Together, these pathways promote cell migration and proliferation. In this study we demonstrate that Vein (vn) is the EGF ligand responsible for the activation of the EGFR pathway in the ASP. We also find that the Bnl-FGF/Btl pathway regulates the expression of vn through the transcription factor PointedP2 (PntP2). Furthermore, we show that the FGF target gene escargot (esg) attenuates EGFR signaling at the tip cells of the developing ASP, reducing their mitotic rate to allow proper migration. Altogether, our results reveal a link between Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling and provide novel insight into how the crosstalk of these pathways regulates migration and growth. PMID:26632449

  6. Mononuclear and dinuclear peroxotungsten complexes with co-ordinated dipeptides as potent inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Pankaj; Kalita, Diganta; Islam, Nashreen S

    2008-08-01

    New molecular peroxotungstate(VI) complexes with dipeptides as ancillary ligands of the type, [WO(O(2))(2)(dipeptide)(H(2)O)].3H(2)O, dipeptide = glycyl-glycine or glycyl-leucine, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral and physico-chemical methods including thermal analysis. The complexes contain side-on bound peroxo groups and a peptide zwitterion bonded to the metal centre unidentately through an O(carboxylate) atom. Investigations on certain biologically important key properties of these compounds and a set of dimeric compounds in analogous co-ligand environment, Na(2)[W(2)O(3)(O(2))(4)(dipeptide)(2)].3H(2)O, dipeptide = glycyl-glycine and glycyl-leucine, reported previously by us revealed interesting features of the compounds. Each of the compounds despite having a 7 co-ordinated metal centre exerts a strong inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase activity with a potency higher than that of the free dipeptide, tungstate or peroxotungstate. The compounds exhibit remarkable stability in solutions of acidic as well as physiological pH and are weaker as substrate to the enzyme catalase, compared to H(2)O(2). The mononuclear and dinuclear peroxotungsten compounds are efficient oxidants of reduced glutathione (GSH), a reaction in which only one of the peroxo groups of a diperoxotungsten moiety of the complexes was found to be active. PMID:18665997

  7. Coordinate activation of lysosomal, Ca 2+-activated and ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteinases in the unweighted rat soleus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Taillandier, D; Aurousseau, E; Meynial-Denis, D; Bechet, D; Ferrara, M; Cottin, P; Ducastaing, A; Bigard, X; Guezennec, C Y; Schmid, H P

    1996-01-01

    Nine days of hindlimb suspension resulted in atrophy (55%) and loss of protein (53%) in rat soleus muscle due to a marked elevation in protein breakdown (66%, P < 0.005). To define which proteolytic system(s) contributed to this increase, soleus muscles from unweighted rats were incubated in the presence of proteolytic inhibitors. An increase in lysosomal and Ca 2+-activated proteolysis (254%, P < 0.05) occurred in the atrophying incubated muscles. In agreement with the measurements in vitro, cathepsin B, cathepsins B + L and m-calpain enzyme activities increased by 111%, 92% and 180% (P < 0.005) respectively in the atrophying muscles. Enhanced mRNA levels for these proteinases (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) paralleled the increased enzyme activities, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of these enzymes. However, the lysosomal and Ca 2+-dependent proteolytic pathways accounted for a minor part of total proteolysis in both control (9%) and unweighted rats (18%). Furthermore the inhibition of these pathways failed to suppress increased protein breakdown in unweighted muscle. Thus a non-lysosomal Ca 2+-independent proteolytic process essentially accounted for the increased proteolysis and subsequent muscle wasting. Increased mRNA levels for ubiquitin, the 14 kDa ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (involved in the ubiquitylation of protein substrates) and the C2 and C9 subunits of the 20 S proteasome (i.e. the proteolytic core of the 26 S proteasome that degrades ubiquitin conjugates) were observed in the atrophying muscles (P < 0.02 to P < 0.001). Analysis of C9 mRNA in polyribosomes showed equal distribution into both translationally active and inactive mRNA pools, in either unweighted or control rats. These results suggest that increased ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is most probably responsible for muscle wasting in the unweighted soleus muscle. PMID:8645234

  8. Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Each Breath Healthy Heath and Aging Understanding Lung Problems—Make Each Breath Healthy Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( ... time your likelihood of having a serious lung problem increases, especially if you smoke. Lung problems that ...

  9. 6. Coordination and control.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Any complex operation requires a system for management. In most societies, disaster management is the responsibility of the government. Coordination and control is a system that provides the oversight for all of the disaster management functions. The roles and responsibilities of a coordination and control centre include: (1) planning; (2) maintenance of inventories; (3) activation of the disaster response plan; (4) application of indicators of function; (5) surveillance; (6) information management; (7) coordination of activities of the BSFs; (8) decision-making; (9) priority setting; (10) defining overarching goal and objectives for interventions; (11) applying indicators of effectiveness; (12) applying indicators of benefit and impact; (13) exercising authority; (14) managing resources; (15) initiating actions; (16) preventing influx of unneeded resources; (17) defining progress; (18) providing information; (19) liasing with responding organisations; and (20) providing quality assurance. Coordination and control is impossible without communications. To accomplish coordination and control, three factors must be present: (1) mandate; (2) power and authority; and (3) available resources. Coordination and control is responsible for the evaluation of the effectiveness and benefits/impacts of all interventions. Coordination and control centres (CCCs) are organised hierarchically from the on-scene CCCs (incident command) to local provincial to national CCCs. Currently, no comprehensive regional and international CCCs have been universally endorsed. Systems such as the incident command system, the unified command system, and the hospital incident command system are described as are the humanitarian reform movement and the importance of coordination and control in disaster planning and preparedness. PMID:24785803

  10. Clinical outcome of hypofractionated breath-hold image-guided SABR of primary lung tumors and lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stereotactic Ablative RadioTherapy (SABR) of lung tumors/metastases has been shown to be an effective treatment modality with low toxicity. Outcome and toxicity were retrospectively evaluated in a unique single-institution cohort treated with intensity-modulated image-guided breath-hold SABR (igSABR) without external immobilization. The dose–response relationship is analyzed based on Biologically Equivalent Dose (BED). Patients and methods 50 lesions in 43 patients with primary NSCLC (n = 27) or lung-metastases of various primaries (n = 16) were consecutively treated with igSABR with Active-Breathing-Coordinator (ABC®) and repeat-breath-hold cone-beam-CT. After an initial dose-finding/-escalation period, 5x12 Gy for peripheral lesions and single doses of 5 Gy to varying dose levels for central lesions were applied. Overall-survival (OS), progression-free-survival (PFS), progression pattern, local control (LC) and toxicity were analyzed. Results The median BED2 was 83 Gy. 12 lesions were treated with a BED2 of <80 Gy, and 38 lesions with a BED2 of >80 Gy. Median follow-up was 15 months. Actuarial 1- and 2-year OS were 67% and 43%; respectively. Cause of death was non-disease-related in 27%. Actuarial 1- and 2-year PFS was 42% and 28%. Progression site was predominantly distant. Actuarial 1- and 2 year LC was 90% and 85%. LC showed a trend for a correlation to BED2 (p = 0.1167). Pneumonitis requiring conservative treatment occurred in 23%. Conclusion Intensity-modulated breath-hold igSABR results in high LC-rates and low toxicity in this unfavorable patient cohort with inoperable lung tumors or metastases. A BED2 of <80 Gy was associated with reduced local control. PMID:24401323

  11. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  12. Tax-interacting protein 1 coordinates the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases and regulates the infiltrative growth of human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailun; Han, Miaojun; Whetsell, William; Wang, Jialiang; Rich, Jeremy; Hallahan, Dennis; Han, Zhaozhong

    2014-01-01

    PDZ domains represent one group of the major structural units that mediate protein interactions in intercellular contact, signal transduction and assembly of biological machineries. TIP-1 protein is composed of a single PDZ domain that distinguishes TIP-1 from other PDZ domain proteins that more often contain multiple protein domains and function as scaffolds for protein complex assembly. However, the biological functions of TIP-1, especially in cell transformation and tumor progression, are still controversial as observed in a variety of cell types. In this study, we have identified ARHGEF7, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho GTPases, as one novel TIP-1 interacting protein in human glioblastoma cells. We found that the presence of TIP-1 protein is essential to the intracellular redistribution of ARHGEF7 and rhotekin, one Rho effector, and the spatiotemporally coordinated activation of Rho GTPases (RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1) in migrating glioblastoma cells. TIP-1 knockdown resulted in both aberrant localization of ARHGEF7 and rhotekin, as well as abnormal activation of Rho GTPases that was accompanied with impaired motility of glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, TIP-1 knockdown suppressed tumor cell dispersal in orthotopic glioblastoma murine models. We also observed high levels of TIP-1 expression in human glioblastoma specimens, and the elevated TIP-1 levels are associated with advanced staging and poor prognosis in glioma patients. Although more studies are needed to further dissect the mechanism(s) by which TIP-1 modulates the intracellular redistribution and activation of Rho GTPases, this study suggests that TIP-1 holds potential as both a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target of malignant gliomas. PMID:23563176

  13. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  14. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  15. Learned vocal and breathing behavior in an enculturated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Marcus; Clark, Nathaniel

    2015-09-01

    We describe the repertoire of learned vocal and breathing-related behaviors (VBBs) performed by the enculturated gorilla Koko. We examined a large video corpus of Koko and observed 439 VBBs spread across 161 bouts. Our analysis shows that Koko exercises voluntary control over the performance of nine distinctive VBBs, which involve variable coordination of her breathing, larynx, and supralaryngeal articulators like the tongue and lips. Each of these behaviors is performed in the context of particular manual action routines and gestures. Based on these and other findings, we suggest that vocal learning and the ability to exercise volitional control over vocalization, particularly in a multimodal context, might have figured relatively early into the evolution of language, with some rudimentary capacity in place at the time of our last common ancestor with great apes. PMID:26139343

  16. Motor ability and weight status are determinants of out-of-school activity participation for children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Velma Y L; Chan, Nerita N C; Chan, Rachel S H; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y C

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study aimed to (1) compare motor performance, weight status and pattern of out-of-school activity participation between children with DCD and those without; and (2) identify whether motor ability and weight status were determinants of participation patterns among children with DCD. We enrolled 81 children with DCD (boys, n = 63; girls, n = 18; mean age, 8.07 ± 1.5 years) and 67 typically developing children (boys, n = 48; girls, n = 19; mean age, 8.25 ± 1.6 years). Participation patterns (diversity, intensity, companionship, location, and enjoyment) were evaluated with the Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Motor ability was evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2). Other factors that may influence participation such as age, gender, and body weight were also recorded. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcome variables of the two groups, and significant determinants of activity participation were identified by multiple regression analysis. Children with DCD participated in fewer activities (i.e., limited participation diversity) and participated less frequently (i.e., limited participation intensity) than their typically developing peers; however, companionship, location of participation, and enjoyment level did not differ between the two groups. Children in the DCD group demonstrated significantly worse motor ability as assessed by the MABC-2. Further, a greater proportion of children in the DCD group were in the overweight/obese category compared with their typically developing peers. After accounting for the

  17. 42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components. 84.71 Section 84.71 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...

  18. A novel one-dimensional manganese(II) coordination polymer containing both dicyanamide and pyrazinamide ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, X-ray studies and evaluation of biological activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizi, Leila; Chiniforoshan, Hossein; McArdle, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    A novel 1D coordination polymer {[Mn(μ1,5-dca)2(PZA)2](PZA)2}n, 1, has been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The coordination mode of dicyanamide (dca) and pyrazinamide (PZA) ligands was inferred by IR spectroscopy. The compound 1 was evaluated for in vitro antimycobacterial and antitumor activities. It demonstrated better in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis than pyrazinamide and its MIC value was determined. Complex 1 was also screened for its in vitro antitumor activity towards LM3 and LP07 murine cancer cell lines. In addition, the antibacterial activity of complex 1 has been tested against Gram(+) and Gram(-) bacteria and it has shown promising broad range anti-bacterial activity.

  19. Drive mechanism for production of simulated human breath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Lambert, J. W.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Simulated breath drive mechanism was developed as subsystem to breathing metabolic simulator. Mechanism reproduces complete range of human breath rate, breath depth, and breath waveform, as well as independently controlled functional residual capacity. Mechanism was found capable of simulating various individual human breathing characteristics without any changes of parts.

  20. Host and environmental predictors of exhaled breath temperature in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exhaled breath temperature has been suggested as a new method to detect and monitor pathological processes in the respiratory system. The putative mechanism of this approach is based upon changes in the blood flow. So far potential factors that influence breath temperature have not been studied in the general population. Methods The exhaled breath temperature was measured in 151 healthy non-smoking elderly (aged: 60–80 years) at room temperature with the X-halo device with an accuracy of 0.03°C. We related exhaled breath temperature by use of regression models with potential predictors including: host factors (sex, age) and environmental factors (BMI, physical activity, and traffic indicators). Results Exhaled breath temperature was lower in women than in men and was inversely associated with age, physical activity. BMI and daily average ambient temperature were positively associated with exhaled breath temperature. Independent of the aforementioned covariates, exhaled breath temperature was significantly associated with several traffic indicators. Residential proximity to major road was inversely associated with exhaled breath temperature: doubling the distance to the nearest major intense road was observed a decrease of 0.17°C (95% CI: -0.33 to -0.01; p = 0.036). Conclusions Exhaled breath temperature has been suggested as a noninvasive method for the evaluation of airway inflammation. We provide evidence that several factors known to be involved in proinflammatory conditions including BMI, physical activity and residential proximity to traffic affect exhaled breath temperature. In addition, we identified potential confounders that should be taken into account in clinical and epidemiological studies on exhaled breath temperature including sex, age, and ambient temperature. PMID:24365236

  1. Hybrid coordination-network-engineering for bridging cascaded channels to activate long persistent phosphorescence in the second biological window

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xixi; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruili; Ren, Jinjun; Gecevicius, Mindaugas; Wu, Yiling; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal; Dong, Guoping; Zhou, Shifeng; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel “Top-down” strategy to design the long phosphorescent phosphors in the second biological transparency window via energy transfer. Inherence in this approach to material design involves an ingenious engineering for hybridizing the coordination networks of hosts, tailoring the topochemical configuration of dopants, and bridging a cascaded tunnel for transferring the persistent energy from traps, to sensitizers and then to acceptors. Another significance of this endeavour is to highlight a rational scheme for functionally important hosts and dopants, Cr/Nd co-doped Zn1−xCaxGa2O4 solid solutions. Such solid-solution is employed as an optimized host to take advantage of its characteristic trap site level to establish an electron reservoir and network parameters for the precipitation of activators Nd3+ and Cr3+. The results reveal that the strategy employed here has the great potential, as well as opens new opportunities for future new-wavelength, NIR phosphorescent phosphors fabrication with many potential multifunctional bio-imaging applications. PMID:26843129

  2. Hybrid coordination-network-engineering for bridging cascaded channels to activate long persistent phosphorescence in the second biological window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xixi; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruili; Ren, Jinjun; Gecevicius, Mindaugas; Wu, Yiling; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal; Dong, Guoping; Zhou, Shifeng; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel “Top-down” strategy to design the long phosphorescent phosphors in the second biological transparency window via energy transfer. Inherence in this approach to material design involves an ingenious engineering for hybridizing the coordination networks of hosts, tailoring the topochemical configuration of dopants, and bridging a cascaded tunnel for transferring the persistent energy from traps, to sensitizers and then to acceptors. Another significance of this endeavour is to highlight a rational scheme for functionally important hosts and dopants, Cr/Nd co-doped Zn1-xCaxGa2O4 solid solutions. Such solid-solution is employed as an optimized host to take advantage of its characteristic trap site level to establish an electron reservoir and network parameters for the precipitation of activators Nd3+ and Cr3+. The results reveal that the strategy employed here has the great potential, as well as opens new opportunities for future new-wavelength, NIR phosphorescent phosphors fabrication with many potential multifunctional bio-imaging applications.

  3. Hybrid coordination-network-engineering for bridging cascaded channels to activate long persistent phosphorescence in the second biological window.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xixi; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruili; Ren, Jinjun; Gecevicius, Mindaugas; Wu, Yiling; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal; Dong, Guoping; Zhou, Shifeng; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel "Top-down" strategy to design the long phosphorescent phosphors in the second biological transparency window via energy transfer. Inherence in this approach to material design involves an ingenious engineering for hybridizing the coordination networks of hosts, tailoring the topochemical configuration of dopants, and bridging a cascaded tunnel for transferring the persistent energy from traps, to sensitizers and then to acceptors. Another significance of this endeavour is to highlight a rational scheme for functionally important hosts and dopants, Cr/Nd co-doped Zn1-xCaxGa2O4 solid solutions. Such solid-solution is employed as an optimized host to take advantage of its characteristic trap site level to establish an electron reservoir and network parameters for the precipitation of activators Nd(3+) and Cr(3+). The results reveal that the strategy employed here has the great potential, as well as opens new opportunities for future new-wavelength, NIR phosphorescent phosphors fabrication with many potential multifunctional bio-imaging applications. PMID:26843129

  4. Effects of tracheostomy breathing on brain and body temperatures in hyperthermic sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Laburn, H P; Mitchell, D; Mitchell, G; Saffy, K

    1988-01-01

    1. We measured rectal and hypothalamic temperature in sheep breathing nasally and via a tracheostomy, during hyperthermia resulting from exposure to a hot environment, exercise and fever. 2. In normothermic and hyperthermic sheep hypothalamic temperature was up to 1.0 degree C lower than rectal temperature when the sheep breathed nasally. Tracheostomy breathing abolished the rectal-hypothalamic temperature difference. 3. In sheep breathing via the tracheostomy and exposed to a dry-bulb temperature of 45-50 degrees C for 2 h, hypothalamic temperature exceeded rectal temperature by about 0.4 degrees C, and was significantly higher than that in sheep breathing nasally in the same environment. 4. During exercise on a treadmill and in the post-exercise period, the difference between hypothalamic and rectal temperature was abolished in the sheep while breathing through the tracheostomy, and rectal temperature rose to higher levels compared to those evident in the same activity while breathing nasally. 5. After an I.V. injection of 0.4 micrograms/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the difference between hypothalamic and rectal temperature again was abolished in the sheep when breathing through the tracheostomy, but rectal temperature rose significantly less compared to when breathing nasally. 6. Our results indicate that selective brain cooling depends on upper respiratory tract cooling in normo- and hyperthermic states in sheep. PMID:3254414

  5. A Model to Predict the Breathing Zone Concentrations of Particles Emitted from Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perfo...

  6. Small reduction of neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex area induces abnormal breathing periods in awake goats.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, J M; Pan, L G; Klum, L; Leekley, T; Bastastic, J; Hodges, M R; Feroah, T; Davis, S; Forster, H V

    2004-11-01

    In awake rats, >80% bilateral reduction of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R)-expressing neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötzC) resulted in hypoventilation and an "ataxic" breathing pattern (Gray PA, Rekling JC, Bocchiaro CM, Feldman JL, Science 286: 1566-1568, 1999). Accordingly, the present study was designed to gain further insight into the role of the pre-BötzC area NK1R-expressing neurons in the control of breathing during physiological conditions. Microtubules were chronically implanted bilaterally into the medulla of adult goats. After recovery from surgery, the neurotoxin saporin conjugated to substance P, specific for NK1R-expressing neurons, was bilaterally injected (50 pM in 10 microl) into the pre-BötzC area during the awake state (n = 8). In unoperated goats, 34 +/- 0.01% of the pre-BötzC area neurons are immunoreactive for the NK1R, but, in goats after bilateral injection of SP-SAP into the pre-BötzC area, NK1R immunoreactivity was reduced to 22.5 +/- 2.5% (29% decrease, P < 0.01). Ten to fourteen days after the injection, the frequency of abnormal breathing periods was sixfold greater than before injection (107.8 +/- 21.8/h, P < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of these periods were breaths of varying duration and volume with an altered respiratory muscle activation pattern, whereas the remaining were rapid, complete breaths with coordinated inspiratory-expiratory cycles. The rate of occurrence and characteristics of abnormal breathing periods were not altered during a CO2 inhalation-induced hyperpnea. Pathological breathing patterns were eliminated during non-rapid eye movement sleep in seven of eight goats, but they frequently occurred on arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. We conclude that a moderate reduction in pre-BötzC NK1R-expressing neurons results in state-dependent transient changes in respiratory rhythm and/or eupneic respiratory muscle activation patterns. PMID:15247160

  7. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) Field Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Marteinsson, Viggó; Vaishampayan, Parag; Kviderova, Jana; Mapelli, Francesca; Medori, Mauro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Aguilera, Angeles; Hamisch, Domenica; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Magnússon, Sveinn; Marasco, Ramona; Borin, Sara; Calzada, Abigail; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; González-Toril, Elena; Amils, Ricardo; Elster, Josef; Hänsch, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C) and pH (2 to 4). Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus), indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h) deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA) analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches. PMID:25371340

  8. Parallel Allostery by cAMP and PDE Coordinates Activation and Termination Phases in cAMP Signaling.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Srinath; Tulsian, Nikhil Kumar; Chandramohan, Arun; Anand, Ganesh S

    2015-09-15

    The second messenger molecule cAMP regulates the activation phase of the cAMP signaling pathway through high-affinity interactions with the cytosolic cAMP receptor, the protein kinase A regulatory subunit (PKAR). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes responsible for catalyzing hydrolysis of cAMP to 5' AMP. It was recently shown that PDEs interact with PKAR to initiate the termination phase of the cAMP signaling pathway. While the steps in the activation phase are well understood, steps in the termination pathway are unknown. Specifically, the binding and allosteric networks that regulate the dynamic interplay between PKAR, PDE, and cAMP are unclear. In this study, PKAR and PDE from Dictyostelium discoideum (RD and RegA, respectively) were used as a model system to monitor complex formation in the presence and absence of cAMP. Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to monitor slow conformational transitions in RD, using disordered regions as conformational probes. Our results reveal that RD regulates its interactions with cAMP and RegA at distinct loci by undergoing slow conformational transitions between two metastable states. In the presence of cAMP, RD and RegA form a stable ternary complex, while in the absence of cAMP they maintain transient interactions. RegA and cAMP each bind at orthogonal sites on RD with resultant contrasting effects on its dynamics through parallel allosteric relays at multiple important loci. RD thus serves as an integrative node in cAMP termination by coordinating multiple allosteric relays and governing the output signal response. PMID:26276689

  9. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) Field Campaign.

    PubMed

    Marteinsson, Viggó; Vaishampayan, Parag; Kviderova, Jana; Mapelli, Francesca; Medori, Mauro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Aguilera, Angeles; Hamisch, Domenica; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Magnússon, Sveinn; Marasco, Ramona; Borin, Sara; Calzada, Abigail; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; González-Toril, Elena; Amils, Ricardo; Elster, Josef; Hänsch, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX) FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C) and pH (2 to 4). Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus), indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h) deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA) analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches. PMID:25371340

  10. Evolution of lung breathing from a lungless primitive vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M; Taylor, B E; Harris, M B

    2016-04-01

    Air breathing was critical to the terrestrial radiation and evolution of tetrapods and arose in fish. The vertebrate lung originated from a progenitor structure present in primitive boney fish. The origin of the neural substrates, which are sensitive to metabolically produced CO2 and which rhythmically activate respiratory muscles to match lung ventilation to metabolic demand, is enigmatic. We have found that a distinct periodic centrally generated rhythm, described as "cough" and occurring in lamprey in vivo and in vitro, is modulated by central sensitivity to CO2. This suggests that elements critical for the evolution of breathing in tetrapods, were present in the most basal vertebrate ancestors prior to the evolution of the lung. We propose that the evolution of breathing in all vertebrates occurred through exaptations derived from these critical basal elements. PMID:26476056

  11. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray;...

  12. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators §...

  13. Normal shoulder muscular activation and co-ordination during a shoulder elevation task based on activities of daily living: an electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David H; Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Roebuck, Margaret M; Frostick, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of normal shoulder function have often failed to consider the inter-relationship between different muscle groups in activities relevant to daily life. Upper limb functional status was assessed in 12 healthy male volunteers using the Functional Impairment Test-Hand, Neck, Shoulder and Arm test (FIT-HaNSA). Electromyography was then used to study the activity and coordination of 13 muscles (10 by surface electrodes, 3 by fine-wire intramuscular electrodes) around the shoulder during a dynamic movement task based on the shelf-lifting task in FIT-HaNSA. Muscles were grouped for analysis into deltoid (anterior, middle, and posterior divisions), adductors (latissimus dorsi and teres major), rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis), and elbow flexor (brachioradialis, biceps brachii) groups. There were no significant inter-session effects. Using cross-correlation analysis to investigate the whole time-course of activation, there were highly significant positive correlations (p < 0.001) between the deltoid and rotator cuff, the deltoid and adductor and the adductor and rotator cuff groups, and a significant negative correlation between the deltoid and elbow flexor groups (p = 0.031). We conclude that the deltoid, adductor, and rotator cuff muscles all contribute to the muscular component of glenohumeral joint stability. Muscular stability can be adapted as required to meet task-specific demands. PMID:21674607

  14. Modifications of laccase activities of copper efflux oxidase, CueO by synergistic mutations in the first and second coordination spheres of the type I copper center.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kunishige; Kogi, Hiroki; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-02-15

    The redox potential of type I copper in the Escherichia coli multicopper oxidase CueO was shifted in the positive or negative direction as a result of the single, double, and triple mutations in the first and second coordination spheres: the formation of the NH···S(-)(Cys500 ligand) hydrogen bond, the breakdown of the NH(His443 ligand)···O(-)(Asp439) hydrogen bond, and the substitution of the Met510 ligand for the non-coordinating Leu or coordinating Gln. Laccase activities of CueO were maximally enhanced 140-fold by virtue of the synergistic effect of mild mutations at and at around the ligand groups to type I copper. PMID:23337502

  15. The athlete "out of breath".

    PubMed

    Couto, M; Moreira, A

    2016-03-01

    Athletes often complain about breathing problems. This is a crucial issue due to potential implications not only on their general health, but also on their competing performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction are prevalent conditions in elite athletes, which leads doctors to rely most of the times on asthma medication to treat athletes feeling "out of breath". However, there are several other conditions that may mimic asthma and cause dyspnea in athletes. Effective treatment of dyspnea requires appropriate identification and treatment of all disorders. Proper knowledge and accurate diagnosis of such entities is mandatory, since asthma medication is not effective in those conditions. Herein we review the most common differential diagnosis of dyspnea in athletes, and describe the diagnostic strategies in order to increase awareness and to improve doctor's confidence on dealing with these patients. PMID:26934737

  16. Magnetosheath Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M.; Chen, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    The eventual goal of this work is to develop an approximate analytical representation of solar-wind streamlines in the magnetosheath surrounding a magnetosphere of rather general shape. Previous analytical representations of magnetosheath streamlines and magnetic fields have invoked magnetopause shapes that conform to standard coordinate systems (e.g., spherical, cylindrical, paraboloidal, ellipsoidal), but it seems now that such a restriction on magnetopause shape is unnecessary. In the present work it is assumed only that the magnetopause is a continuously differentiable convex surface axisymmetric about the Sun-Earth line. This geometry permits the construction of an orthogonal coordinate system (mu, eta, chi) such that eta is the cosine of the cone angle between the Sun-Earth line and any conical surafce extending normally outward from the magnetopause, mu is a measure of the perpendicular distance of any magnetosheath point from the magnetopause, and chi is an azimuthal coordinate measured around the Sun-Earth line. It is convenient here to assign a label mu = mu* to the magnetopause itself, so that mu - mu* denotes perpendicular distance from the magnetopause and mu* is an adjustable parameter roughly comparable to the radius of the magnetotail. This choice provides for a rough correspondence between the (mu, eta, chi) coordinates introduced here and the ellipsoidal coordinates used in our previous efforts at magnetosheath modeling.

  17. Breathing Mode in Complex Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Henning, C.; Ludwig, P.; Bonitz, M.; Melzer, A.; Vitkalov, S.

    2007-11-01

    The breathing mode is a fundamental normal mode present in Coulomb systems, and may have utility in identifying particle charge and the Debye length of certain systems. The question remains whether this mode can be extended to strongly coupled Yukawa balls [1]. These systems are characterized by particles confined within a parabolic potential well and interacting through a shielded Coulomb potential [2,3]. The breathing modes for a variety of systems in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions are computed by solving the eigenvalue problem given by the dynamical (Hesse) matrix. These results are compared to theoretical investigations that assume a strict definition for a breathing mode within the system, and an analysis is made of the most fitting model to utilize in the study of particular systems of complex plasmas [1,4]. References [1] T.E. Sheridan, Phys. of Plasmas. 13, 022106 (2006)[2] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 056403 (2006)[3] M. Bonitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006)[4] C. Henning et al., submitted for publication

  18. Breathing Dynamics in Heteropolymer DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Banik, Suman K.; Krichevsky, Oleg; Metzler, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    While the statistical mechanical description of DNA has a long tradition, renewed interest in DNA melting from a physics perspective is nourished by measurements of the fluctuation dynamics of local denaturation bubbles by single molecule spectroscopy. The dynamical opening of DNA bubbles (DNA breathing) is supposedly crucial for biological functioning during, for instance, transcription initiation and DNA's interaction with selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins. Motivated by this, we consider the bubble breathing dynamics in a heteropolymer DNA based on a (2+1)-variable master equation and complementary stochastic Gillespie simulations, providing the bubble size and the position of the bubble along the sequence as a function of time. We utilize new experimental data that independently obtain stacking and hydrogen bonding contributions to DNA stability. We calculate the spectrum of relaxation times and the experimentally measurable autocorrelation function of a fluorophore-quencher tagged basepair, and demonstrate good agreement with fluorescence correlation experiments. A significant dependence of opening probability and waiting time between bubble events on the local DNA sequence is revealed and quantified for a promoter sequence of the T7 phage. The strong dependence on sequence, temperature and salt concentration for the breathing dynamics of DNA found here points at a good potential for nanosensing applications by utilizing short fluorophore-quencher dressed DNA constructs. PMID:17237209

  19. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  20. Exhaled breath analysis and sleep.

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E

    2011-10-15

    It is currently estimated that the economic burden for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) cases not coming to medical attention is steadily increasing, thus making OSAS a major public health concern. For its increasing incidence among the common population, the interest of researchers and clinicians has been recently directed to the study of pathological mechanisms underlying sleep disorders. Current opinion is that airway inflammation and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of OSAS. Recently there has been increasing interest in the investigation of lungs by non-invasive means measuring the exhaled breath volatile mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ethane and pentane and finally the non-volatile substances in the liquid phase of exhalate, termed breath condensate. The non-invasiveness of these techniques for the study of airways affected by different respiratory disorders and among those, the OSAS, makes these ideally suited for the evaluation and serial monitoring of patients. Notwithstanding the increasing number of scientific contributions on the use of the exhaled markers in sleep disorders, at the moment, their use is not completely suitable for clinical application. An important contribution to the increase of our knowledge on exhaled markers and for their possible concrete application in clinical practice may come from future studies using proteomics, genomics and metabolomics. In this review, we focus on exhaled breath analysis giving an update on its general aspects, its application in OSAS, and finally its actual clinical applicability and areas for future direction. PMID:22003329

  1. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  2. ∆Np73 is capable of inducing apoptosis by co-ordinately activating several BH3-only proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Carrera, Dámaso; García-Puga, Mikel; Yáñez, Lucrecia; Romón, Íñigo; Pipaón, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of p53 is one of the most relevant events in human cancer, since it allows transformed cells to escape their own proliferation control and leave them irresponsive to drugs that aim to damage their DNA. When p53 falls, other members of its family may become targets to attack tumoural cells. p73 has shown capacity to mediate these attacks. However, its N-terminal truncated isoforms have been associated with oncogenesis due to their capacity to act as dominant negatives of p53 and the transactivation (TA) isoforms of p73. We previously found a relationship between the overexpression of N-terminus-truncated p73 isoform (∆Np73) and that of the proapoptotic gene Bcl-2-interacting killer (BIK). In the present report we demonstrate that ∆Np73-α has the capacity to induce apoptosis through the co-ordinated activation of a group of genes harbouring GC-rich elements in their regulatory regions. ∆Np73-α synergizes with specificity protein (Sp1) on these elements but the overall response of these genes probably depends on the additional presence of consensus p53 elements. We explore the domains of ∆Np73-α involved in this transactivation capacity and found divergences with the previously described functions for them. Moreover, we found that the transforming mutation V12 of HRas impairs this transactivation capacity of ∆Np73-α, further supporting the anti-tumoural function of this later. Our data add complexity to the action of p73 on the induction of apoptosis and tumourogenesis, opening new interpretations to the expression profile of p73 isoforms in different human neoplasias. PMID:26182360

  3. The Small Breathing Amplitude at the Upper Lobes Favors the Attraction of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lesions and Helps to Understand the Evolution toward Active Disease in An Individual-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Prats, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can induce two kinds of lesions, namely proliferative and exudative. The former are based on the presence of macrophages with controlled induction of intragranulomatous necrosis, and are even able to stop its physical progression, thus avoiding the induction of active tuberculosis (TB). In contrast, the most significant characteristic of exudative lesions is their massive infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which favor enlargement of the lesions and extracellular growth of the bacilli. We have built an individual-based model (IBM) (known as “TBPATCH”) using the NetLogo interface to better understand the progression from Mtb infection to TB. We have tested four main factors previously identified as being able to favor the infiltration of Mtb-infected lesions with PMNs, namely the tolerability of infected macrophages to the bacillary load; the capacity to modulate the Th17 response; the breathing amplitude (BAM) (large or small in the lower and upper lobes respectively), which influences bacillary drainage at the alveoli; and the encapsulation of Mtb-infected lesions by the interlobular septae that structure the pulmonary parenchyma into secondary lobes. Overall, although all the factors analyzed play some role, the small BAM is the major factor determining whether Mtb-infected lesions become exudative, and thus induce TB, thereby helping to understand why this usually takes place in the upper lobes. This information will be very useful for the design of future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against TB. PMID:27065951

  4. Changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity evaluated by the [(13)C]-pantoprazole breath test after co-administration of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following percutaneous coronary intervention and correlation to platelet reactivity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrien; Modak, Anil; Déry, Ugo; Roy, Mélanie; Rinfret, Stéphane; Bertrand, Olivier F; Larose, Éric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Barbeau, Gérald; Gleeton, Onil; Nguyen, Can Manh; Proulx, Guy; Noël, Bernard; Roy, Louis; Paradis, Jean-Michel; De Larochellière, Robert; Déry, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin is used for the prevention of cardiovascular events following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). These agents increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. To prevent these events, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are routinely prescribed. It has been reported that with the exception of pantoprazole and dexlanzoprazole, PPIs can impede conversion of clopidogrel by cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) to its active metabolite, a critical step required for clopidogrel efficacy. Changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (phenotype) and its correlation with platelet reactivity following PPI therapy has not yet been fully described. In this study we attempted to determine if the [ (13)C]-pantoprazole breath test (Ptz-BT) can evaluate changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (phenoconversion) following the administration of PPI in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients treated with DAPT after PCI. Thirty (30) days after successful PCI with stent placement, 59 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of the Influence of Statins and Proton Pump Inhibitors on Clopidogrel Antiplatelet Effects (SPICE) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00930670) were recruited to participate in this sub study. Patients were randomized to one of 4 antacid therapies (omeprazole, esomeprazole. pantoprazole or ranitidine). Subjects were administered the Ptz-BT and platelet function was evaluated by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and light transmittance aggregometry before and 30 d after treatment with antacid therapy. Patients randomized to esomeprazole and omeprazole had greater high on-treatment platelet reactivity and lowering of CYP2C19 enzyme activity at Day 60 after 30 d of PPI therapy. Patients randomized to ranitidine and pantoprazole did not show any changes in platelet activity or CYP 2C19 enzyme activity. In patients treated with esomeprazole and omeprazole, changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity

  5. Coordinated Activation of Toll-Like Receptor8 (TLR8) and NLRP3 by the TLR8 Agonist, VTX-2337, Ignites Tumoricidal Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dietsch, Gregory N.; Lu, Hailing; Yang, Yi; Morishima, Chihiro; Chow, Laura Q.; Disis, Mary L.; Hershberg, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    VTX-2337 (USAN: motolimod) is a selective toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist, which is in clinical development as an immunotherapy for multiple oncology indications, including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Activation of TLR8 enhances natural killer cell activation, increases antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and induces Th1 polarizing cytokines. Here, we show that VTX-2337 stimulates the release of mature IL-1β and IL-18 from monocytic cells through coordinated actions on both TLR8 and the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex. In vitro, VTX-2337 primed monocytic cells to produce pro-IL-1β, pro-IL-18, and caspase-1, and also activated the NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby mediating the release of mature IL-1β family cytokines. Inhibition of caspase-1 blocked VTX-2337-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but had little impact on production of other TLR8-induced mediators such as TNFα. IL-18 activated natural killer cells and complemented other stimulatory pathways, including FcγRIII and NKG2D, resulting in IFNγ production and expression of CD107a. NLRP3 activation in vivo was confirmed by a dose-related increase in plasma IL-1β and IL-18 levels in cynomolgus monkeys administered VTX-2337. These results are highly relevant to clinical studies of combination VTX-2337/cetuximab treatment. Cetuximab, a clinically approved, epidermal growth factor receptor-specific monoclonal antibody, activates NK cells through interactions with FcγRIII and facilitates ADCC of tumor cells. Our preliminary findings from a Phase I open-label, dose-escalation, trial that enrolled 13 patients with recurrent or metastatic SCCHN show that patient NK cells become more responsive to stimulation by NKG2D or FcγRIII following VTX-2337 treatment. Together, these results indicate that TLR8 stimulation and inflammasome activation by VTX-2337 can complement FcγRIII engagement and may augment clinical responses in SCCHN

  6. COORDINATED AV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEAVES, PAUL C.; AND OTHERS

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL AND SUPPLIES ALL SCHOOLS IN THE AREA. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS, AFTER SELECTIONS ARE MADE BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, ARE PROCESSED BY THE CENTER, CONFIRMED AND DELIVERED BY TRUCK THREE TIMES EACH WEEK. EACH SCHOOL HAS A BUILDING COORDINATOR WHO CHECKS THE ORDERS INTO THE…

  7. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  8. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS1) have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S.; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M.; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated and died in the first post-natal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the central nervous system. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the Pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that while alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and so the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior and neonatal demise. PMID:16641247

  9. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on the heme coordination structure and catalytic activity of the globin-coupled oxygen sensor AfGcHK.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Veronika; Bartosova, Martina; Man, Petr; Stranava, Martin; Shimizu, Toru; Martinkova, Marketa

    2016-08-01

    AfGcHK is a globin-coupled histidine kinase that is one component of a two-component signal transduction system. The catalytic activity of this heme-based oxygen sensor is due to its C-terminal kinase domain and is strongly stimulated by the binding of O2 or CO to the heme Fe(II) complex in the N-terminal oxygen sensing domain. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule and can serve as a heme axial ligand, but its interactions with heme-based oxygen sensors have not been studied as extensively as those of O2, CO, and NO. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the effects of H2S binding on the heme coordination structure and catalytic activity of wild-type AfGcHK and mutants in which residues at the putative O2-binding site (Tyr45) or the heme distal side (Leu68) were substituted. Adding Na2S to the initial OH-bound 6-coordinate Fe(III) low-spin complexes transformed them into SH-bound 6-coordinate Fe(III) low-spin complexes. The Leu68 mutants also formed a small proportion of verdoheme under these conditions. Conversely, when the heme-based oxygen sensor EcDOS was treated with Na2S, the initially formed Fe(III)-SH heme complex was quickly converted into Fe(II) and Fe(II)-O2 complexes. Interestingly, the autophosphorylation activity of the heme Fe(III)-SH complex was not significantly different from the maximal enzyme activity of AfGcHK (containing the heme Fe(III)-OH complex), whereas in the case of EcDOS the changes in coordination caused by Na2S treatment led to remarkable increases in catalytic activity. PMID:27395436

  10. How to interpret hydrogen breath tests.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. PMID:21860825

  11. Respiratory hypoalgesia? Breath-holding, but not respiratory phase modulates nociceptive flexion reflex and pain intensity.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Hassan; Van de Broek, Karlien; Plaghki, Léon; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2016-03-01

    Several observations suggest that respiratory phase (inhalation vs. exhalation) and post-inspiratory breath-holds could modulate pain and the nociceptive reflex. This experiment aimed to investigate the role of both mechanisms. Thirty-two healthy participants received supra-threshold electrocutaneous stimulations to elicit both the Nociceptive Flexion Reflex (NFR) and pain, either during spontaneous inhalations or exhalations, or during three types of instructed breath-holds: following exhalation, at mid-inhalation and at full-capacity inhalation. Whether the electrocutaneous stimulus was applied during inhalation or exhalation did not affect the NFR or pain. Self-reported pain was reduced and the NFR was increased during breath-holding compared to spontaneous breathing. Whereas the type of breath-hold did not impact on self-reported pain, breath-holds at full-capacity inhalation and following exhalation were associated with a lower NFR amplitude compared to breath-holds at mid-inhalation. The present findings confirm that breath-holding can modulate pain (sensitivity) and suggest that both attentional distraction and changes in vagal activity may underlie the observed effects. PMID:26808697

  12. Sensitivity of brain cholinesterase activity to diazinon (BASUDIN 50EC) and fenobucarb (BASSA 50EC) insecticides in the air-breathing fish Channa striata (Bloch, 1793).

    PubMed

    Van Cong, Nguyen; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2006-05-01

    With the expansion of agricultural areas within the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam, a concurrent, dramatic increase has occurred in agrochemical usage. To date, little consideration has been given to the negative impacts of this agricultural activity on the aquatic resources of the region. Both acute toxicity and subacute effects on brain cholinesterase (ChE) of two of the most commonly used insecticides, diazinon and fenobucarb, on adult native snakehead (Channa striata) were evaluated in a static, nonrenewable system, the environmental parameters of which, such as dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and pH, fluctuated similarly to field conditions. Four levels of insecticides, from 0.008 to 0.52 mg/L (for diazinon) and from 0.11 to 9.35 mg/L (for fenobucarb), were tested to assess the effects on the brain ChE activity of the snakehead up to 30 and 10 d for diazinon and fenobucarb, respectively. Diazinon was highly toxic to this fish species, with a 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) of only 0.79 mg/L, and it also caused long-term ChE inhibition, with activity still significantly inhibited by 30% after 30 d for the three highest concentrations. Fenobucarb was less toxic to this species, with a 96-h LC50 of 11.4 mg/L. Fenobucarb caused more rapid ChE inhibition but also rapid recovery. The results of the present study indicate an urgent need to regulate the usage of these pesticides in the Mekong River Delta. PMID:16704077

  13. Short-term variability in respiratory impedance and effect of deep breath in asthmatic and healthy subjects with airway smooth muscle activation and unloading.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Alessandro; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Gulotta, Carlo; Antonelli, Andrea; Pompilio, Pasquale; Crimi, Claudia; Torchio, Roberto; Dutto, Luca; Parola, Paolo; Dellacà, Raffaele L; Brusasco, Vito

    2013-09-01

    Inspiratory resistance (RINSP) and reactance (XINSP) were measured for 7 min at 5 Hz in 10 subjects with mild asymptomatic asthma and 9 healthy subjects to assess the effects of airway smooth muscle (ASM) activation by methacholine (MCh) and unloading by chest wall strapping (CWS) on the variability of lung function and the effects of deep inspiration (DI). Subjects were studied at control conditions, after MCh, with CWS, and after MCh with CWS. In all experimental conditions XINSP was significantly more negative in subjects with asthma than in healthy subjects, suggesting greater inhomogeneity in the former. However, the variability in both RINSP and XINSP was increased by either ASM activation or CWS, without significant difference between groups. DI significantly reversed MCh-induced changes in RINSP both in subjects with asthma and healthy subjects, but XINSP in the former only. This effect was impaired by CWS more in subjects with asthma than in healthy subjects. The velocity of RINSP and XINSP recovery after DI was faster in subjects with asthma than healthy subjects. In conclusion, these results support the opinion that the short-term variability in respiratory impedance is related to ASM tone or operating length, rather than to the disease. Nevertheless, ASM in individuals with asthma differs from that in healthy individuals in an increased velocity of shortening and a reduced sensitivity to mechanical stress when strain is reduced. PMID:23766502

  14. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Key points Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses. Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m−2) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy. SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations. There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. Educational aims To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population. To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy. To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the

  15. Simulation of four-dimensional CT images from deformable registration between inhale and exhale breath-hold CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Boldea, Vlad; Miguet, Serge; Ginestet, Chantal

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: We propose to simulate an artificial four-dimensional (4-D) CT image of the thorax during breathing. It is performed by deformable registration of two CT scans acquired at inhale and exhale breath-hold. Materials and methods: Breath-hold images were acquired with the ABC (Active Breathing Coordinator) system. Dense deformable registrations were performed. The method was a minimization of the sum of squared differences (SSD) using an approximated second-order gradient. Gaussian and linear-elastic vector field regularizations were compared. A new preprocessing step, called a priori lung density modification (APLDM), was proposed to take into account lung density changes due to inspiration. It consisted of modulating the lung densities in one image according to the densities in the other, in order to make them comparable. Simulated 4-D images were then built by vector field interpolation and image resampling of the two initial CT images. A variation in the lung density was taken into account to generate intermediate artificial CT images. The Jacobian of the deformation was used to compute voxel values in Hounsfield units. The accuracy of the deformable registration was assessed by the spatial correspondence of anatomic landmarks located by experts. Results: APLDM produced statistically significantly better results than the reference method (registration without APLDM preprocessing). The mean (and standard deviation) of distances between automatically found landmark positions and landmarks set by experts were 2.7(1.1) mm with APLDM, and 6.3(3.8) mm without. Interexpert variability was 2.3(1.2) mm. The differences between Gaussian and linear elastic regularizations were not statistically significant. In the second experiment using 4-D images, the mean difference between automatic and manual landmark positions for intermediate CT images was 2.6(2.0) mm. Conclusion: The generation of 4-D CT images by deformable registration of inhale and exhale CT images is

  16. Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

    2000-12-01

    Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

  17. The coating of conducting copolymer on coordination polymer nanorod: A visible light active p-n heterojunction photocatalyst for H2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yuan; Mei, Ming-liang; Xu, Xin-xin; Wang, Lin-shan

    2016-06-01

    A visible light active p-n heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized successfully through in-situ chemical oxidation copolymerization of aniline (ANI) and diphenylamine-4-sulfonate (DPAS) with the existence of coordination polymer nanorod (CPNR) under initiation of ammonium persulfate (APS). Compared with neat coordination polymer nanorod, the resulted p-n heterojunction photocatalyst exhibits higher H2 generationrate under visible light irradiation. In this heterojunction photocatalyst, as a p-type semiconductor possessing suitable energy levels with coordination polymer nanorod, poly-(aniline-co-N-(4-sulfophenyl)-aniline) (PAPSA) forms p-n heterojunction with n-type coordination polymer nanorod, the inner electric field of p-n heterojunction accelerates the separation of electrons and holes, which enhances H2 production performance. Furthermore, the influence of concentration ratio between DPAS and ANI on photocatalytic property of the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst was discussed and a reasonable condition to fabricate photocatalyst with high H2 generationrate had been obtained. During photocatalytic water splitting H2 generation, the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst exhibited outstanding stability.

  18. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  20. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... size of the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and ... volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, while the pressure within it increases. As a result, the lungs ...

  1. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... respiratory system conduct air to the lungs, such as the trachea (windpipe) which branches into smaller structures ... the thoracic cavity and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and fills the ...

  2. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  3. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  4. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  5. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  6. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  7. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  8. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

  9. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  10. 14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis.

    PubMed Central

    Rauws, E A; Royen, E A; Langenberg, W; Woensel, J V; Vrij, A A; Tytgat, G N

    1989-01-01

    14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled breath of Campylobacter pylori culture positive individuals within 20-30 minutes. Likelihood analysis revealed a most favourable cut off level of [0.07% dose 14C-urea/mmol CO2] multiplied by body weight at t = 40 minutes, to separate culture positive from culture negative subjects. Using this upper limit of normal, a positive likelihood ratio of 50 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.05 was calculated. Sensitivity of the test was 95% and specificity 98%. The 14C-urea breath test is a simple, sensitive and non-invasive test, that detects viable C pylori microorganism and semiquantitatively assesses the bacterial load of C pylori colonisation. Administration of a single dose of colloidal bismuth subcitrate resulted in a rapid decrease in 14CO2 excretion, so this test can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium in therapeutic trials without endoscopy, or need for culture. PMID:2753404

  11. Phase equilibria in a system of 'breathing' molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jianzhong; Prausnitz, John

    2001-09-30

    It is now well known that details in the intermolecular potential can significantly affect the qualitative features of a phase diagram where temperature is plotted against density for the coexistence curves among fluid and solid phases. While previous calculations of phase diagrams have assumed a time-invariant potential function, this report concerns the phase diagram for ''breathing'' molecules, i.e., molecules whose strength of intermolecular attraction fluctuates in time. Such fluctuations can occur in biomacromolecules where an active site can switch between ''on'' and ''off'' positions. Phase-equilibrium calculations were performed for molecules that have a periodic (breathing) attractive force in addition to the conventional intermolecular forces. The phase diagram for such molecules is as expected when the ''breathing'' properties are independent of density. However, when (more realistically), the ''breathing'' properties are density dependent, the phase diagram exhibits dramatic changes. These calculations may be useful for interpreting experimental data for protein precipitation, for plaque formation in blood vessels and for scaffold-supported tissue formation.

  12. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  13. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p < 0.001) and traditional HRV indices SDNN, RMSSD, lnLFP, and lnHFP (p < 0.01 for all). It approached significance for sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension (D2) (p < 0.1 for both), while HRV detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) measures DFAα1 and DFAα2 were not affected by load condition. Breathing did not affect HR but affected all traditional HRV measures. D2 was not affected by breathing; DFAα1 was moderately affected by breathing; and DFAα2, approximate entropy (ApEn), and SampEn were strongly affected by breathing. DFAα1 was strongly increased, whereas DFAα2, ApEn, and SampEn were decreased by slow breathing. No interaction effect of load and breathing pattern was evident. Correlations to traditional HRV indices were modest (r from -0.14 to -0.67, p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise. PMID:26187271

  14. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  15. A coordinate-based ALE functional MRI meta-analysis of brain activation during verbal fluency tasks in healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processing of verbal fluency tasks relies on the coordinated activity of a number of brain areas, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes of the left hemisphere. Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural networks subserving verbal fluency functions have yielded divergent results especially with respect to a parcellation of the inferior frontal gyrus for phonemic and semantic verbal fluency. We conducted a coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on brain activation during the processing of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks involving 28 individual studies with 490 healthy volunteers. Results For phonemic as well as for semantic verbal fluency, the most prominent clusters of brain activation were found in the left inferior/middle frontal gyrus (LIFG/MIFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus. BA 44 was only involved in the processing of phonemic verbal fluency tasks, BA 45 and 47 in the processing of phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. Conclusions Our comparison of brain activation during the execution of either phonemic or semantic verbal fluency tasks revealed evidence for spatially different activation in BA 44, but not other regions of the LIFG/LMFG (BA 9, 45, 47) during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency processing. PMID:24456150

  16. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Elmiro, Nathália S.; Velloso, Marcelo; Britto, Raquel R.; Parreira, Verônica F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using the optoelectronic plethysmography system in a supine position with a trunk inclination of 45° during quiet breathing and the breathing exercises. The order of the breathing exercises was randomized. Statistical analysis was performed by the Friedman test and an ANOVA for repeated measures with one factor (breathing exercises), followed by preplanned contrasts and Bonferroni correction. A p<0.005 value was considered significant. RESULTS: All breathing exercises significantly increased the tidal volume of the chest wall (Vcw) and reduced the respiratory rate (RR) in comparison to quiet breathing. The diaphragmatic breathing exercise was responsible for the lowest Vcw, the lowest contribution of the rib cage, and the highest contribution of the abdomen. The sustained maximal inspiration exercise promoted greater reduction in RR compared to the diaphragmatic and intercostal exercises. Inspiratory sighs and intercostal exercises were responsible for the highest values of minute ventilation. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony variables increased significantly during diaphragmatic breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the breathing exercises investigated in this study produced modifications in the breathing pattern (e.g., increase in tidal volume and decrease in RR) as well as in thoracoabdominal motion (e.g., increase in abdominal contribution during diaphragmatic breathing), among others. PMID:25590447

  17. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  18. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  19. Strong effect of copper(II) coordination on antiproliferative activity of thiosemicarbazone-piperazine and thiosemicarbazone-morpholine hybrids.

    PubMed

    Bacher, Felix; Dömötör, Orsolya; Chugunova, Anastasia; Nagy, Nóra V; Filipović, Lana; Radulović, Siniša; Enyedy, Éva A; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-05-21

    In this study, 2-formylpyridine thiosemicarbazones and three different heterocyclic pharmacophores were combined to prepare thiosemicarbazone–piperazine mPip-FTSC (HL1) and mPip-dm-FTSC (HL2), thiosemicarbazone–morpholine Morph-FTSC (HL3) and Morph-dm-FTSC (HL4), thiosemicarbazone–methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate hybrids mPyrr-FTSC (HL5) and mPyrr-dm-FTSC (HL6) as well as their copper(II) complexes [CuCl(mPipH-FTSC-H)]Cl (1 + H)Cl, [CuCl(mPipH-dm-FTSC-H)]Cl (2 + H)Cl, [CuCl(Morph-FTSC-H)] (3), [CuCl(Morph-dm-FTSC-H)] (4), [CuCl(mPyrr-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (5) and [CuCl(mPyrr-dm-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (6). The substances were characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy (HL1–HL6), ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction (1–5). All compounds were prepared in an effort to generate potential antitumor agents with an improved therapeutic index. In addition, the effect of structural alterations with organic hybrids on aqueous solubility and copper(II) coordination ability was investigated. Complexation of ligands HL2 and HL4 with copper(II) was studied in aqueous solution by pH-potentiometry, UV–vis spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy. Proton dissociation processes of HL2 and HL4 were also characterized in detail and microscopic constants for the Z/E isomers were determined. While the hybrids HL5, HL6 and their copper(II) complexes 5 and 6 proved to be insoluble in aqueous solution, precluding antiproliferative activity studies, the thiosemicarbazone–piperazine and thiosemicarbazone–morpholine hybrids HL1–HL4, as well as copper(II) complexes 1–4 were soluble in water enabling cytotoxicity assays. Interestingly, the metal-free hybrids showed very low or even a lack of cytotoxicity (IC50 values > 300 μM) in two human cancer cell lines HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and A549 (alveolar basal adenocarcinoma), whereas their copper(II) complexes were cytotoxic showing IC50 values from 25.5 to 65.1

  20. Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... training, I started experiencing decreased exercise endurance, trouble breathing, and coughing. These symptoms affected my ability to ...

  1. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  2. Tracheomalacia and breath holding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, H; Doull, I; Williams, R G; Marnane, C

    2000-10-01

    A child with a long standing history of cyanotic breath holding attacks presented with acute respiratory distress. Subsequent investigation established that her clinical condition was caused by tracheomalacia. We hypothesise that tracheomalacia might be an under recognised contributor to cyanotic breath holding attacks, the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. PMID:10999873

  3. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  4. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  5. Leukotriene-B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate and lung function after thirty minutes of breathing technically dried compressed air.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Birger; Struck, Niclas; Mutzbauer, Till S; Schotte, Ulrich; Langfeldt, Norbert; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies it had been shown that leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirror the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In diving the respiratory tract is exposed to cold and dry air and the nasopharynx, as the site of breathing-gas warming and humidification, is bypassed. The aim of the present study was to obtain LTB4-concentrations in the exhaled breath and spirometric data of 17 healthy subjects before and after thirty minutes of technically dried air breathing at normobar ambient pressure. The exhaled breath was collected non-invasively, via a permanently cooled expiration tube. The condensate was measured by a standard enzyme immunoassay for LTB4. Lung function values (FVC, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50) were simultaneously obtained by spirometry. The measured pre- and post-exposure LTB4- concentrations as well as the lung function values were in the normal range. The present data gave no evidence for any inflammatory activity in the subjects' airways after thirty minutes breathing technically dried air. PMID:12608592

  6. Alternate Nostril Breathing at Different Rates and its Influence on Heart Rate Variability in Non Practitioners of Yoga

    PubMed Central

    P.R, Devaki; P., Saikumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Heart rate variability is a measure of modulation in autonomic input to the heart and is one of the markers of autonomic functions. Though there are many studies on the long term influence of breathing on HRV (heart rate variability) there are only a few studies on the immediate effect of breathing especially alternate nostril breathing on HRV. This study focuses on the immediate effects of alternate nostril breathing and the influence of different breathing rates on HRV. Materials and Methods The study was done on 25 subjects in the age group of 17-35 years. ECG and respiration were recorded before intervention and immediately after the subjects were asked to perform alternate nostril breathing for five minutes. Results Low frequency (LF) which is a marker of sympathetic activity increased, high frequency (HF) which is a marker of parasympathetic activity decreased and their ratio LF/HF which is a marker of sympatho/vagal balance increased immediately after 6 and 12 minutes in comparison to baseline values whereas there was no significant difference in the means of these components when both 6 and 12 minutes were compared. Conclusion Immediate effects of alternate nostril breathing on HRV in non practitioners of yogic breathing are very different from the long term influence of yogic breathing on HRV which show a predominant parasympathetic influence on the heart. PMID:26894062

  7. Early Stages of Zebrafish Eye Formation Require the Coordinated Activity of Wnt11, Fz5, and the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cavodeassi, Florencia; Carreira-Barbosa, Filipa; Young, Rodrigo M.; Concha, Miguel L.; Allende, Miguel L.; Houart, Corinne; Tada, Masazumi; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary During regional patterning of the anterior neural plate, a medially positioned domain of cells is specified to adopt retinal identity. These eye field cells remain coherent as they undergo morphogenetic events distinct from other prospective forebrain domains. We show that two branches of the Wnt signaling pathway coordinate cell fate determination with cell behavior during eye field formation. Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonizes eye specification through the activity of Wnt8b and Fz8a. In contrast, Wnt11 and Fz5 promote eye field development, at least in part, through local antagonism of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Additionally, Wnt11 regulates the behavior of eye field cells, promoting their cohesion. Together, these results allow us to postulate a model in which Wnt11 and Fz5 signaling promotes early eye development through the coordinated antagonism of signals that suppress retinal identity and promotion of coherence of eye field cells. PMID:15996547

  8. Slow breathing influences cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver: Slow breathing and HRV.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Giovanna Ana de Paula; Tavares, Bruna S; Garner, David M; Porto, Andrey A; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-05-01

    Chronic slow breathing has been reported to improve Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in patients with cardiovascular disorders. However, it is not clear regarding its acute effects on HRV responses on autonomic analysis. We evaluated the acute effects of slow breathing on cardiac autonomic responses to postural change manoeuvre (PCM). The study was conducted on 21 healthy male students aged between 18 and 35 years old. In the control protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 15 min under spontaneous breathing and quickly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. In the slow breathing protocol, the volunteer remained at rest seated for 10 min under spontaneous breath, then performed slow breathing for 5 min and rapidly stood up within 3 s and remained standing for 15 min. Slow breathing intensified cardiac autonomic responses to postural maneuver. PMID:27157952

  9. Computer simulation of breathing systems for divers

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, P.G.; Nuckols, M.L.

    1983-02-01

    A powerful new tool for the analysis and design of underwater breathing gas systems is being developed. A versatile computer simulator is described which makes possible the modular ''construction'' of any conceivable breathing gas system from computer memory-resident components. The analysis of a typical breathing gas system is demonstrated using this simulation technique, and the effects of system modifications on performance of the breathing system are shown. This modeling technique will ultimately serve as the foundation for a proposed breathing system simulator under development by the Navy. The marriage of this computer modeling technique with an interactive graphics system will provide the designer with an efficient, cost-effective tool for the development of new and improved diving systems.

  10. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  11. Breathing synchronization in interconnected networks

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, V. H. P.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Global synchronization in a complex network of oscillators emerges from the interplay between its topology and the dynamics of the pairwise interactions among its numerous components. When oscillators are spatially separated, however, a time delay appears in the interaction which might obstruct synchronization. Here we study the synchronization properties of interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay between networks and analyze the dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a new breathing synchronization regime, where two groups appear in each network synchronized at different frequencies. Each group has a counterpart in the opposite network, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their counterpart. For strong couplings, instead, networks are internally synchronized but a phase shift between them might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed. PMID:24256765

  12. The indoor air we breathe.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions. PMID:9769764

  13. Suppression of Abdominal Motor Activity during Swallowing in Cats and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Teresa; Gayagoy, Albright G.; Rose, Melanie J.; Poliacek, Ivan; Condrey, Jillian A.; Musslewhite, M. Nicholas; Shen, Tabitha Y.; Davenport, Paul W.; Bolser, Donald C

    2015-01-01

    Diseases affecting pulmonary mechanics often result in changes to the coordination of swallow and breathing. We hypothesize that during times of increased intrathoracic pressure, swallow suppresses ongoing expiratory drive to ensure bolus transport through the esophagus. To this end, we sought to determine the effects of swallow on abdominal electromyographic (EMG) activity during expiratory threshold loading in anesthetized cats and in awake-healthy adult humans. Expiratory threshold loads were applied to recruit abdominal motor activity during breathing, and swallow was triggered by infusion of water into the mouth. In both anesthetized cats and humans, expiratory cycles which contained swallows had a significant reduction in abdominal EMG activity, and a greater percentage of swallows were produced during inspiration and/or respiratory phase transitions. These results suggest that: a) spinal expiratory motor pathways play an important role in the execution of swallow, and b) a more complex mechanical relationship exists between breathing and swallow than has previously been envisioned. PMID:26020240

  14. BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 Coordinates Organ Determinacy and Axial Polarity in Arabidopsis by Directly Activating ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ji Hyung; Ha, Chan Man; Fletcher, Jennifer C.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous organ formation is a hallmark of plant development that requires organ-specific gene activity to establish determinacy and axial patterning, yet the molecular mechanisms that coordinate these events remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the organ-specific BTB-POZ domain proteins BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 function as transcriptional activators during Arabidopsis thaliana leaf formation. We identify as a direct target of BOP1 induction the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) gene, which promotes leaf cell fate specification and adaxial polarity. We find that BOP1 associates with the AS2 promoter and that BOP1 and BOP2 are required for AS2 activation specifically in the proximal, adaxial region of the leaf, demonstrating a role for the BOP proteins as proximal-distal as well as adaxial-abaxial patterning determinants. Furthermore, repression of BOP1 and BOP2 expression by the indeterminacy-promoting KNOX gene SHOOTMERISTEMLESS is critical to establish a functional embryonic shoot apical meristem. Our data indicate that direct activation of AS2 transcription by BOP1 and BOP2 is vital for generating the conditions for KNOX repression at the leaf base and may represent a conserved mechanism for coordinating leaf morphogenesis with patterning along the adaxial-abaxial and the proximal-distal axes. PMID:20118228

  15. Voluntary breathing increases corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscle during isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Kazuki; Yunoki, Takahiro; Afroundeh, Roghayyeh; Lian, Chang-Shun; Matsuura, Ryouta; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yano, Tokuo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of voluntary breathing on corticospinal excitability of a leg muscle during isometric contraction. Seven subjects performed 5-s isometric knee extension at the intensity of 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (10% MVC). During the 10% MVC, the subjects were instructed to breath normally (NORM) or to inhale (IN) or exhale (OUT) once as fast as possible. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranialmagnetic stimulation in the right vastus lateralis (VL) during the 10% MVC were recorded and compared during the three breathing tasks. MEPs in IN and OUT were significantly higher than that in NORM. Effort sense of breathing was significantly higher in IN and OUT than in NORM. There was a significant positive correlation between MEP and effort sense of breathing. These results suggest that activation of the breathing-associated cortical areas with voluntary breathing is involved in the increase in corticospinal excitability of the VL during isometric contraction. PMID:26184658

  16. Novel Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes coordinated by 2-arylaminomethyl-1H-benzimidazole: Molecular structures, spectral, DFT studies and evaluation of biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T.; Abo El-Ghar, Maha F.; Mansour, Ahmed M.

    2013-03-01

    [NiL1,2Cl2(OH2)3]·zH2O and [ZnL1,2(CH3CO2)2] (L1 = (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-N-phenyl amine, z = 0 and L2 = 2-[(1H-Benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester, z = 1) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The central Ni(II) ion is coordinated by only the pyridine-type nitrogen (Npy) of benzimidazole ring, three water molecules and two chlorido ligands forming a distorted octahedral geometry. Five coordinated zinc complexes were obtained, where the coordination sphere of zinc ion is made up of secondary amino group (NHsec), Npy and two acetate groups, one acts as a unidentate and the other as a bidentate. A theoretical DFT/UB3LYP method combined with LANL2DZ basis set shows that all the metal-ligand bonds are of the L → M type. Electronic structures have been calculated using TD-DFT method. The antibacterial activity of NiL2 complexes decreases by the introduction of COOCH3 group in the ortho-position of the aniline moiety.

  17. Improved ROS defense in the swimbladder of a facultative air-breathing erythrinid fish, jeju, compared to a non-air-breathing close relative, traira.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2016-07-01

    The jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and the traira Hoplias malabaricus are two closely related erythrinid fish, both possessing a two-chambered physostomous swimbladder. In the jeju the anterior section of the posterior bladder is highly vascularized and the swimbladder is used for aerial respiration; the traira, in turn, is a water-breather that uses the swimbladder as a buoyancy organ and not for aerial oxygen uptake. Observation of the breathing behavior under different levels of water oxygenation revealed that the traira started aquatic surface respiration only under severe hypoxic conditions and did not breathe air. In the jeju air-breathing behavior was observed under normoxic conditions, and the frequency of air-breathing was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Unexpectedly, even under hyperoxic conditions (30 mg O2 L(-1)) the jeju continued to take air breaths, and compared with normoxic conditions the frequency was not reduced. Because the frequently air-exposed swimbladder tissue faces higher oxygen partial pressures than normally experienced by other fish tissues, it was hypothesized that in the facultative air-breathing jeju, swimbladder tissue would have a higher antioxidative capacity than the swimbladder tissue of the water breathing traira. Measurement of total glutathione (GSSG/GSH) concentration in anterior and posterior swimbladder tissue revealed a higher concentration of this antioxidant in swimbladder tissue as compared to muscle tissue in the jeju. Furthermore, the GSSG/GSH concentration in jeju tissues was significantly higher than in traira tissues. Similarly, activities of enzymes involved in the breakdown of reactive oxygen species were significantly higher in the jeju swimbladder as compared to the traira swimbladder. The results show that the jeju, using the swimbladder as an additional breathing organ, has an enhanced antioxidative capacity in the swimbladder as compared to the traira, using the swimbladder only as a

  18. EOG responses in anesthetized freely breathing rats.

    PubMed

    Chaput, M A

    2000-12-01

    In mammals, access of odor molecules to the olfactory receptor neurons is controlled by respiratory activity. Thus, anesthetized, freely breathing rats were used to record from the olfactory mucosa in the intact nasal cavity (electroolfactogram or EOG) so as to study global response characteristics to odor stimuli. During alternation of the inspiratory phases of odor sampling and expiratory phases, the response was a succession of individual EOG events synchronized with respiration. These were characterized by a steep decrease that started approximately 100-150 ms after the beginning of inhalation, reached its maximum at the transition between inspiration and expiration and was followed by a slower rise until the next inhalation. They were greater during the first respiratory cycles following odor stimulation onset. Thereafter their amplitudes decreased throughout odor delivery, but a significant EOG signal was still present at the end of short (10 s) and long (60 s) odor presentations. Amplitude increased with odor concentration, but much less than expected from concentration changes. Lastly, for some odors EOG responses persisted well beyond the end of stimulation. These results are in agreement with the respiratory synchronization of mitral cell activities observed during short odor presentations and long duration odor exposures. They underline again the importance of taking into account the respiratory activity in studies on the functioning of the olfactory system. PMID:11114147

  19. Biochemical pathways of breath ammonia (NH3) generation in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Laiho, S; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L; Ortiz, F; Forsblom, C; Groop, P-H; Lehto, M; Metsälä, M

    2016-01-01

    Breath ammonia (NH3) has been proposed as a potential biomarker in monitoring hemodialysis (HD) adequacy, since a strong correlation between blood urea and mouth-exhaled breath NH3 has been observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing HD. However, the biochemical pathways for breath NH3 generation from blood urea have not been demonstrated. In this study, we show a strong correlation (r s  =  0.77, p  <  0.001) between blood and salivary urea, indicating that salivary urea levels reflect blood urea levels. Salivary urea is in turn strongly correlated to salivary ammonia ([Formula: see text] + NH3) in most of the patients. This confirms that the hydrolysis of urea by urease generates ammonia in the oral cavity. A further strong correlation between salivary ammonia and breath NH3 indicates that salivary ammonia evaporates into gas phase and turns to breath NH3. Therefore, blood urea is a major biochemical source of breath NH3. Since breath NH3 is generated predominantly in the oral cavity, the levels of breath NH3 are influenced significantly by the patient's oral condition including urease activity and salivary pH. Our results agree with previous studies that have shown a connection between salivary urea and breath NH3. PMID:27516572

  20. Reactions of [Cu(X)(BPEP-Ph)] (X = PF6, SbF6) with silyl compounds. Cooperative bond activation involving non-coordinating anions.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yumiko; Tsuchimoto, Takahiro; Chang, Yung-Hung; Takeuchi, Katsuhiko; Ozawa, Fumiyuki

    2016-02-01

    Bond activation of silyl compounds, assisted by the cooperative action of non-coordinating anions, is achieved using Cu(I) complexes coordinated with a PNP-pincer type phosphaalkene ligand, [Cu(X)(BPEP-Ph)] (X = PF6 (1a), SbF6 (1b); BPEP-Ph = 2,6-bis[1-phenyl-2-(2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl)-2-phosphaethenyl]pyridine). Complexes 1a and 1b react with Me3SiCN to form Me3SiF and Cu(i) cyanide complexes of the formula [Cu(CN-EF5)(BPEP-Ph)] (E = P (2a), Sb (2b)), in which the CN ligand is associated with the EF5 group arising from EF6(-). Formation of the intermediary isonitrile complex [Cu(CNSiMe3)(BPEP-Ph)](+)SbF6(-) (3b) is confirmed by its isolation. Thus, a two-step reaction process involving coordination of Me3SiCN, followed by nucleophilic attack of SbF6(-) on the silicon atom of 3b is established for the conversion of 1b to 2b. Complex 1b cleaves the H-Si bond of PhMe2SiH as well. The isolation and structural identification of [Cu(BPEP-Ph)](+)BAr(F)4(-) (1c) (BAr(F)4 = B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4) as a rare example of a T-shaped, three-coordinated Cu(i) complex is reported. PMID:26455594