Diffusion of torqued active Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sevilla, Francisco J.
An analytical approach is used to study the diffusion of active Brownian particles that move at constant speed in three-dimensional space, under the influence of passive (external) and active (internal) torques. The Smoluchowski equation for the position distribution of the particles is obtained from the Kramer-Fokker-Planck equation corresponding to Langevin equations for active Brownian particles subject to torques. In addition of giving explicit formulas for the mean square-displacement, the non-Gaussian behavior is analyzed through the kurtosis of the position distribution that exhibits an oscillatory behavior in the short-time limit. FJS acknowledges support from PAPIIT-UNAM through the grant IN113114
Ideal bulk pressure of active Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speck, Thomas; Jack, Robert L.
2016-06-01
The extent to which active matter might be described by effective equilibrium concepts like temperature and pressure is currently being discussed intensely. Here, we study the simplest model, an ideal gas of noninteracting active Brownian particles. While the mechanical pressure exerted onto confining walls has been linked to correlations between particles' positions and their orientations, we show that these correlations are entirely controlled by boundary effects. We also consider a definition of local pressure, which describes interparticle forces in terms of momentum exchange between different regions of the system. We present three pieces of analytical evidence which indicate that such a local pressure exists, and we show that its bulk value differs from the mechanical pressure exerted on the walls of the system. We attribute this difference to the fact that the local pressure in the bulk does not depend on boundary effects, contrary to the mechanical pressure. We carefully examine these boundary effects using a channel geometry, and we show a virial formula for the pressure correctly predicts the mechanical pressure even in finite channels. However, this result no longer holds in more complex geometries, as exemplified for a channel that includes circular obstacles.
Ideal bulk pressure of active Brownian particles.
Speck, Thomas; Jack, Robert L
2016-06-01
The extent to which active matter might be described by effective equilibrium concepts like temperature and pressure is currently being discussed intensely. Here, we study the simplest model, an ideal gas of noninteracting active Brownian particles. While the mechanical pressure exerted onto confining walls has been linked to correlations between particles' positions and their orientations, we show that these correlations are entirely controlled by boundary effects. We also consider a definition of local pressure, which describes interparticle forces in terms of momentum exchange between different regions of the system. We present three pieces of analytical evidence which indicate that such a local pressure exists, and we show that its bulk value differs from the mechanical pressure exerted on the walls of the system. We attribute this difference to the fact that the local pressure in the bulk does not depend on boundary effects, contrary to the mechanical pressure. We carefully examine these boundary effects using a channel geometry, and we show a virial formula for the pressure correctly predicts the mechanical pressure even in finite channels. However, this result no longer holds in more complex geometries, as exemplified for a channel that includes circular obstacles. PMID:27415318
Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles
Ai, Bao-Quan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhong, Wei-Rong
2014-11-21
Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.
Additivity, density fluctuations, and nonequilibrium thermodynamics for active Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborti, Subhadip; Mishra, Shradha; Pradhan, Punyabrata
2016-05-01
Using an additivity property, we study particle-number fluctuations in a system of interacting self-propelled particles, called active Brownian particles (ABPs), which consists of repulsive disks with random self-propulsion velocities. From a fluctuation-response relation, a direct consequence of additivity, we formulate a thermodynamic theory which captures the previously observed features of nonequilibrium phase transition in the ABPs from a homogeneous fluid phase to an inhomogeneous phase of coexisting gas and liquid. We substantiate the predictions of additivity by analytically calculating the subsystem particle-number distributions in the homogeneous fluid phase away from criticality where analytically obtained distributions are compatible with simulations in the ABPs.
Stochastic thermodynamics of active Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Chandrima; Chaudhuri, Debasish
2013-09-01
Examples of self-propulsion in strongly fluctuating environments are abundant in nature, e.g., molecular motors and pumps operating in living cells. Starting from the Langevin equation of motion, we develop a stochastic thermodynamic description of noninteracting self-propelled particles using simple models of velocity-dependent forces. We derive fluctuation theorems for entropy production and a modified fluctuation-dissipation relation, characterizing the linear response in nonequilibrium steady states. We study these notions in a simple model of molecular motors, and in the Rayleigh-Helmholtz and energy-depot models of self-propelled particles.
Brownian aggregation rate of colloid particles with several active sites
Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Polshchitsin, Alexey A.; Yakovleva, Galina E.; Maltsev, Valeri P.
2014-08-14
We theoretically analyze the aggregation kinetics of colloid particles with several active sites. Such particles (so-called “patchy particles”) are well known as chemically anisotropic reactants, but the corresponding rate constant of their aggregation has not yet been established in a convenient analytical form. Using kinematic approximation for the diffusion problem, we derived an analytical formula for the diffusion-controlled reaction rate constant between two colloid particles (or clusters) with several small active sites under the following assumptions: the relative translational motion is Brownian diffusion, and the isotropic stochastic reorientation of each particle is Markovian and arbitrarily correlated. This formula was shown to produce accurate results in comparison with more sophisticated approaches. Also, to account for the case of a low number of active sites per particle we used Monte Carlo stochastic algorithm based on Gillespie method. Simulations showed that such discrete model is required when this number is less than 10. Finally, we applied the developed approach to the simulation of immunoagglutination, assuming that the formed clusters have fractal structure.
Virial pressure in systems of spherical active Brownian particles.
Winkler, Roland G; Wysocki, Adam; Gompper, Gerhard
2015-09-01
The pressure of suspensions of self-propelled objects is studied theoretically and by simulation of spherical active Brownian particles (ABPs). We show that for certain geometries, the mechanical pressure as force/area of confined systems can be equally expressed by bulk properties, which implies the existence of a nonequilibrium equation of state. Exploiting the virial theorem, we derive expressions for the pressure of ABPs confined by solid walls or exposed to periodic boundary conditions. In both cases, the pressure comprises three contributions: the ideal-gas pressure due to white-noise random forces, an activity-induced pressure ("swim pressure"), which can be expressed in terms of a product of the bare and a mean effective particle velocity, and the contribution by interparticle forces. We find that the pressure of spherical ABPs in confined systems explicitly depends on the presence of the confining walls and the particle-wall interactions, which has no correspondence in systems with periodic boundary conditions. Our simulations of three-dimensional ABPs in systems with periodic boundary conditions reveal a pressure-concentration dependence that becomes increasingly nonmonotonic with increasing activity. Above a critical activity and ABP concentration, a phase transition occurs, which is reflected in a rapid and steep change of the pressure. We present and discuss the pressure for various activities and analyse the contributions of the individual pressure components. PMID:26221908
Active Brownian Particles. From Individual to Collective Stochastic Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanczuk, P.; Bär, M.; Ebeling, W.; Lindner, B.; Schimansky-Geier, L.
2012-03-01
We review theoretical models of individual motility as well as collective dynamics and pattern formation of active particles. We focus on simple models of active dynamics with a particular emphasis on nonlinear and stochastic dynamics of such self-propelled entities in the framework of statistical mechanics. Examples of such active units in complex physico-chemical and biological systems are chemically powered nano-rods, localized patterns in reaction-diffusion system, motile cells or macroscopic animals. Based on the description of individual motion of point-like active particles by stochastic differential equations, we discuss different velocity-dependent friction functions, the impact of various types of fluctuations and calculate characteristic observables such as stationary velocity distributions or diffusion coefficients. Finally, we consider not only the free and confined individual active dynamics but also different types of interaction between active particles. The resulting collective dynamical behavior of large assemblies and aggregates of active units is discussed and an overview over some recent results on spatiotemporal pattern formation in such systems is given.
Nucleation pathway and kinetics of phase-separating active Brownian particles.
Richard, David; Löwen, Hartmut; Speck, Thomas
2016-06-28
Suspensions of purely repulsive but self-propelled Brownian particles might undergo phase separation, a phenomenon that strongly resembles the phase separation of passive particles with attractions. Here we employ computer simulations to study the nucleation kinetics and the microscopic pathway active Brownian disks take in two dimensions when quenched from the homogeneous suspension to propulsion speeds beyond the binodal. We find the same qualitative behavior for the nucleation rate as a function of density as for a passive suspension undergoing liquid-vapor separation, suggesting that the scenario of an effective free energy also extends to the kinetics of phase separation. We study the transition in more detail through a committor analysis and find that transition states are best described by a combination of cluster size and the radial polarization of particles in the cluster. PMID:27126952
Self-induced polar order of active Brownian particles in a harmonic trap.
Hennes, Marc; Wolff, Katrin; Stark, Holger
2014-06-13
Hydrodynamically interacting active particles in an external harmonic potential form a self-assembled fluid pump at large enough Péclet numbers. Here, we give a quantitative criterion for the formation of the pump and show that particle orientations align in the self-induced flow field in surprising analogy to ferromagnetic order where the active Péclet number plays the role of inverse temperature. The particle orientations follow a Boltzmann distribution Φ(p) ∼ exp(Ap(z)) where the ordering mean field A scales with the active Péclet number and polar order parameter. The mean flow field in which the particles' swimming directions align corresponds to a regularized Stokeslet with strength proportional to swimming speed. Analytic mean-field results are compared with results from Brownian dynamics simulations with hydrodynamic interactions included and are found to capture the self-induced alignment very well. PMID:24972231
Ratcheted electrophoresis of Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalik, Mikołaj; Bishop, Kyle J. M.
2016-05-01
The realization of nanoscale machines requires efficient methods by which to rectify unbiased perturbations to perform useful functions in the presence of significant thermal noise. The performance of such Brownian motors often depends sensitively on their operating conditions—in particular, on the relative rates of diffusive and deterministic motions. In this letter, we present a type of Brownian motor that uses contact charge electrophoresis of a colloidal particle within a ratcheted channel to achieve directed transport or perform useful work against an applied load. We analyze the stochastic dynamics of this model ratchet to show that it functions under any operating condition—even in the limit of strong thermal noise and in contrast to existing ratchets. The theoretical results presented here suggest that ratcheted electrophoresis could provide a basis for electrochemically powered, nanoscale machines capable of transport and actuation of nanoscale components.
Active and passive Brownian motion of charged particles in two-dimensional plasma models
Dunkel, Joern; Ebeling, Werner; Trigger, Sergey A.
2004-10-01
The dynamics of charged Coulomb grains in a plasma is numerically and analytically investigated. Analogous to recent experiments, it is assumed that the grains are trapped in an external parabolic field. Our simulations are based on a Langevin model, where the grain-plasma interaction is realized by a velocity-dependent friction coefficient and a velocity-independent diffusion coefficient. In addition to the ordinary case of positive (passive) friction between grains and plasma, we also discuss the effects of negative (active) friction. The latter case seems particularly interesting, since recent analytical calculations have shown that friction coefficients with negative parts may appear in some models of ion absorption by grains as well as in models of ion-grain scattering. Such negative friction may cause active Brownian motions of the grains. As our computer simulations show, the influence of negative friction leads to the formation of various stationary modes (rotations, oscillations), which, to some extent, can also be estimated analytically.
Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut
2015-06-14
Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.
Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan
2015-12-01
Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.
Flagellar dynamics of a connected chain of active, polar, Brownian particles
Chelakkot, Raghunath; Gopinath, Arvind; Mahadevan, L.; Hagan, Michael F.
2014-01-01
We show that active, self-propelled particles that are connected together to form a single chain that is anchored at one end can produce the graceful beating motions of flagella. Changing the boundary condition from a clamp to a pivot at the anchor leads to steadily rotating tight coils. Strong noise in the system disrupts the regularity of the oscillations. We use a combination of detailed numerical simulations, mean-field scaling analysis and first passage time theory to characterize the phase diagram as a function of the filament length, passive elasticity, propulsion force and noise. Our study suggests minimal experimental tests for the onset of oscillations in an active polar chain. PMID:24352670
Flagellar dynamics of a connected chain of active, polar, Brownian particles.
Chelakkot, Raghunath; Gopinath, Arvind; Mahadevan, L; Hagan, Michael F
2014-03-01
We show that active, self-propelled particles that are connected together to form a single chain that is anchored at one end can produce the graceful beating motions of flagella. Changing the boundary condition from a clamp to a pivot at the anchor leads to steadily rotating tight coils. Strong noise in the system disrupts the regularity of the oscillations. We use a combination of detailed numerical simulations, mean-field scaling analysis and first passage time theory to characterize the phase diagram as a function of the filament length, passive elasticity, propulsion force and noise. Our study suggests minimal experimental tests for the onset of oscillations in an active polar chain. PMID:24352670
Hydrodynamically enforced entropic trapping of Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martens, Steffen; Schmid, Gerhard; Straube, Arthur; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Hänggi, Peter
2014-03-01
In small systems on length scales spatial confinement causes entropic forces that in turn implies spectacular consequences for the control for mass and charge transport. In view of its importance, recent efforts in theory triggered activities which allow for an approximate description that involves a reduction of dimensionality; thus making detailed predictions tractable. Up to present days, the focus was on the role of conservative forces and its interplay with confinement. Within the presented work, we overcome this limitation and succeeded in considering also non-conservative forces that derive from a vector potential [S. Martens et al., PRL 110, 010601 (2013)]. A relevant application is the fluid flow across microfluidic structures where a solute of Brownian particles is subject to both, an external bias and a pressure-driven flow. Then a new phenomenon emerges; namely, the intriguing finding of identically vanishing average particle flow which is accompanied by a colossal suppression of diffusion. This entropy-induced phenomenon, which we termed hydrodynamically enforced entropic trapping, offers the unique opportunity to separate particles of the same size in a tunable manner [S. Martens et al., Eur. Phys. ST 222, 2453-2463 (2013)].
Brownian motion of particles in nematic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Xuxia; Nayani, Karthik; Park, Jung; Srinivasarao, Mohan
2011-03-01
We studied the brownian motion of both charged and neutral polystyrene particles in two nematic fluids, a thermotropic liquid crystal, E7, and a lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal, Sunset Yellow FCF (SSY). Homogeneous planar alignment of E7 was easliy achieved by using rubbed polyimide film coated on the glass. For SSY planar mondomain, we used the capillary method recently developed in our lab. By tracking a single particle, the direction dependent diffussion coefficients and Stokes drag were measured in the nematic phase and isotropic phase for both systems.
Momentum relaxation of a relativistic Brownian particle.
Felderhof, B U
2012-12-01
The momentum relaxation of a relativistic Brownian particle immersed in a fluid is studied on the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation for the relativistic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. An analytical expression is derived for the short-time relaxation rate. The relaxation spectrum has both discrete and continuum components. It is shown that the Fokker-Planck equation under consideration is closely related to the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom. Hence it follows that there is an infinite number of discrete states. The momentum autocorrelation function is calculated numerically for a strongly relativistic particle. PMID:23367889
Thermal equilibrium of two quantum Brownian particles
Valente, D. M.; Caldeira, A. O.
2010-01-15
The influence of the environment in the thermal equilibrium properties of a bipartite continuous variable quantum system is studied. The problem is treated within a system-plus-reservoir approach. The considered model reproduces the Brownian motion when the two particles are isolated and induces an effective interaction between them, depending on the choice of the spectral function of the bath. The coupling between the system and the environment guarantees the translational invariance of the system in the absence of an external potential. The entanglement between the particles is measured by the logarithmic negativity, which is shown to monotonically decrease with the increase of the temperature. A range of finite temperatures is found in which entanglement is still induced by the reservoir.
Extreme fluctuations of active Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietzonka, Patrick; Kleinbeck, Kevin; Seifert, Udo
2016-05-01
In active Brownian motion, an internal propulsion mechanism interacts with translational and rotational thermal noise and other internal fluctuations to produce directed motion. We derive the distribution of its extreme fluctuations and identify its universal properties using large deviation theory. The limits of slow and fast internal dynamics give rise to a kink-like and parabolic behavior of the corresponding rate functions, respectively. For dipolar Janus particles in two- and three-dimensions interacting with a field, we predict a novel symmetry akin to, but different from, the one related to entropy production. Measurements of these extreme fluctuations could thus be used to infer properties of the underlying, often hidden, network of states.
Swarming behavior of gradient-responsive Brownian particles in a porous medium.
Grančič, Peter; Štěpánek, František
2012-07-01
Active targeting by Brownian particles in a fluid-filled porous environment is investigated by computer simulation. The random motion of the particles is enhanced by diffusiophoresis with respect to concentration gradients of chemical signals released by the particles in the proximity of a target. The mathematical model, based on a combination of the Brownian dynamics method and a diffusion problem is formulated in terms of key parameters that include the particle diffusiophoretic mobility and the signaling threshold (the distance from the target at which the particles release their chemical signals). The results demonstrate that even a relatively simple chemical signaling scheme can lead to a complex collective behavior of the particles and can be a very efficient way of guiding a swarm of Brownian particles towards a target, similarly to the way colonies of living cells communicate via secondary messengers. PMID:23005461
Swarming behavior of gradient-responsive Brownian particles in a porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grančič, Peter; Štěpánek, František
2012-07-01
Active targeting by Brownian particles in a fluid-filled porous environment is investigated by computer simulation. The random motion of the particles is enhanced by diffusiophoresis with respect to concentration gradients of chemical signals released by the particles in the proximity of a target. The mathematical model, based on a combination of the Brownian dynamics method and a diffusion problem is formulated in terms of key parameters that include the particle diffusiophoretic mobility and the signaling threshold (the distance from the target at which the particles release their chemical signals). The results demonstrate that even a relatively simple chemical signaling scheme can lead to a complex collective behavior of the particles and can be a very efficient way of guiding a swarm of Brownian particles towards a target, similarly to the way colonies of living cells communicate via secondary messengers.
Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers.
Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leornardo
2014-12-01
We theoretically find the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. PMID:25615133
Brownian dynamics of charged particles in a constant magnetic field
Hou, L. J.; Piel, A.; Miskovic, Z. L.; Shukla, P. K.
2009-05-15
Numerical algorithms are proposed for simulating the Brownian dynamics of charged particles in an external magnetic field, taking into account the Brownian motion of charged particles, damping effect, and the effect of magnetic field self-consistently. Performance of these algorithms is tested in terms of their accuracy and long-time stability by using a three-dimensional Brownian oscillator model with constant magnetic field. Step-by-step recipes for implementing these algorithms are given in detail. It is expected that these algorithms can be directly used to study particle dynamics in various dispersed systems in the presence of a magnetic field, including polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions, and, particularly, complex (dusty) plasmas. The proposed algorithms can also be used as thermostat in the usual molecular dynamics simulation in the presence of magnetic field.
Brownian motion in granular gases of viscoelastic particles
Bodrova, A. S. Brilliantov, N. V.; Loskutov, A. Yu.
2009-12-15
A theory is developed of Brownian motion in granular gases (systems of many macroscopic particles undergoing inelastic collisions), where the energy loss in inelastic collisions is determined by a restitution coefficient {epsilon}. Whereas previous studies used a simplified model with {epsilon} = const, the present analysis takes into account the dependence of the restitution coefficient on relative impact velocity. The granular temperature and the Brownian diffusion coefficient are calculated for a granular gas in the homogeneous cooling state and a gas driven by a thermostat force, and their variation with grain mass and size and the restitution coefficient is analyzed. Both equipartition principle and fluctuation-dissipation relations are found to break down. One manifestation of this behavior is a new phenomenon of 'relative heating' of Brownian particles at the expense of cooling of the ambient granular gas.
Brownian colloidal particles: Ito, Stratonovich, or a different stochastic interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sancho, J. M.
2011-12-01
Recent experiments on Brownian colloidal particles have been studied theoretically in terms of overdamped Langevin equations with multiplicative white noise using an unconventional stochastic interpretation. Complementary numerical simulations of the same system are well described using the conventional Stratonovich interpretation. Here we address this dichotomy from a more generic starting point: the underdamped Langevin equation and its corresponding Fokker-Planck equation.
Diffusion of Particle in Hyaluronan Solution, a Brownian Dynamics Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takasu, Masako; Tomita, Jungo
2004-04-01
Diffusion of a particle in hyaluronan solution is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulation. The slowing down of diffusion is observed, in accordance with the experimental results. The temperature dependence of the diffusion is calculated, and a turnover is obtained when the temperature is increased.
Lagrangian dynamics for classical, Brownian, and quantum mechanical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavon, Michele
1996-07-01
In the framework of Nelson's stochastic mechanics [E. Nelson, Dynamical Theories of Brownian Motion (Princeton University, Princeton, 1967); F. Guerra, Phys. Rep. 77, 263 (1981); E. Nelson, Quantum Fluctuations (Princeton University, Princeton, 1985)] we seek to develop the particle counterpart of the hydrodynamic results of M. Pavon [J. Math. Phys. 36, 6774 (1995); Phys. Lett. A 209, 143 (1995)]. In particular, a first form of Hamilton's principle is established. We show that this variational principle leads to the correct equations of motion for the classical particle, the Brownian particle in thermodynamical equilibrium, and the quantum particle. In the latter case, the critical process q satisfies a stochastic Newton law. We then introduce the momentum process p, and show that the pair (q,p) satisfies canonical-like equations.
Simulation of a Brownian particle in an optical trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volpe, Giorgio; Volpe, Giovanni
2013-03-01
An optically trapped Brownian particle is a sensitive probe of molecular and nanoscopic forces. An understanding of its motion, which is caused by the interplay of random and deterministic contributions, can lead to greater physical insight into the behavior of stochastic phenomena. The modeling of realistic stochastic processes typically requires advanced mathematical tools. We discuss a finite difference algorithm to compute the motion of an optically trapped particle and the numerical treatment of the white noise term. We then treat the transition from the ballistic to the diffusive regime due to the presence of inertial effects on short time scales and examine the effect of an optical trap on the motion of the particle. We also outline how to use simulations of optically trapped Brownian particles to gain understanding of nanoscale force and torque measurements, and of more complex phenomena, such as Kramers transitions, stochastic resonant damping, and stochastic resonance.
Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leonardo
2014-11-01
We find theoretically the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations, on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. L.D. thanks Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) Mexico, for partial support by Grant No. 176452. M. S. thanks CONACyT and Programa de Mejoramiento de Profesorado (PROMEP) for partially funding this work under Grant No. 103.5/13/6732.
Adiabatic Processes Realized with a Trapped Brownian Particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, Ignacio A.; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Petrov, Dmitri; Rica, Raúl A.
2015-03-01
The ability to implement adiabatic processes in the mesoscale is of key importance in the study of artificial or biological micro- and nanoengines. Microadiabatic processes have been elusive to experimental implementation due to the difficulty in isolating Brownian particles from their fluctuating environment. Here we report on the experimental realization of a microscopic quasistatic adiabatic process employing a trapped Brownian particle. We circumvent the complete isolation of the Brownian particle by designing a protocol where both characteristic volume and temperature of the system are changed in such a way that the entropy of the system is conserved along the process. We compare the protocols that follow from either the overdamped or underdamped descriptions, demonstrating that the latter is mandatory in order to obtain a vanishing average heat flux to the particle. We provide analytical expressions for the distributions of the fluctuating heat and entropy and verify them experimentally. Our protocols could serve to implement the first microscopic engine that is able to attain the fundamental limit for the efficiency set by Carnot.
Adiabatic processes realized with a trapped Brownian particle.
Martínez, Ignacio A; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Petrov, Dmitri; Rica, Raúl A
2015-03-27
The ability to implement adiabatic processes in the mesoscale is of key importance in the study of artificial or biological micro- and nanoengines. Microadiabatic processes have been elusive to experimental implementation due to the difficulty in isolating Brownian particles from their fluctuating environment. Here we report on the experimental realization of a microscopic quasistatic adiabatic process employing a trapped Brownian particle. We circumvent the complete isolation of the Brownian particle by designing a protocol where both characteristic volume and temperature of the system are changed in such a way that the entropy of the system is conserved along the process. We compare the protocols that follow from either the overdamped or underdamped descriptions, demonstrating that the latter is mandatory in order to obtain a vanishing average heat flux to the particle. We provide analytical expressions for the distributions of the fluctuating heat and entropy and verify them experimentally. Our protocols could serve to implement the first microscopic engine that is able to attain the fundamental limit for the efficiency set by Carnot. PMID:25860731
Exact master equation for a noncommutative Brownian particle
Costa Dias, Nuno Nuno Prata, Joao
2009-01-15
We derive the Hu-Paz-Zhang master equation for a Brownian particle linearly coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators on the plane with spatial noncommutativity. The results obtained are exact to all orders in the noncommutative parameter. As a by-product we derive some miscellaneous results such as the equilibrium Wigner distribution for the reservoir of noncommutative oscillators, the weak coupling limit of the master equation and a set of sufficient conditions for strict purity decrease of the Brownian particle. Finally, we consider a high-temperature Ohmic model and obtain an estimate for the time scale of the transition from noncommutative to ordinary quantum mechanics. This scale is considerably smaller than the decoherence scale.
Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion.
Ghosh, Pulak K; Li, Yunyun; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio
2015-12-01
A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer's diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer's propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer's axis. The corresponding swimmer's diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed. PMID:26646861
Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Pulak K.; Li, Yunyun; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio
2015-12-01
A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer's diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer's propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer's axis. The corresponding swimmer's diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed.
Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion
Ghosh, Pulak K.; Li, Yunyun; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio
2015-12-07
A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer’s diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer’s propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer’s axis. The corresponding swimmer’s diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed.
Transport and diffusion of underdamped Brownian particles in random potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suñé Simon, Marc; Sancho, J. M.; Lindenberg, Katja
2014-09-01
We present numerical results for the transport and diffusion of underdamped Brownian particles in one-dimensional disordered potentials. We compare the anomalies observed with those found in the overdamped regime and with results for a periodic potential. We relate these anomalies to the time dependent probability distributions for the position and velocity of the particles. The anomalies are caused by the random character of the barrier crossing events between locked and running states which is manifested in the spatial distributions. The role of the velocities is small because the particles quickly thermalize into locked or running states.
Transport and diffusion of overdamped Brownian particles in random potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Marc Suñé; Sancho, J. M.; Lindenberg, Katja
2013-12-01
We present a numerical study of the anomalies in transport and diffusion of overdamped Brownian particles in totally disordered potential landscapes in one and in two dimensions. We characterize and analyze the effects of three different disordered potentials. The anomalous regimes are characterized by the time exponents that exhibit the statistical moments of the ensemble of particle trajectories. The anomaly in the transport is always of the subtransport type, but diffusion presents a greater variety of anomalies: Both subdiffusion and superdiffusion are possible. In two dimensions we present a mixed anomaly: subdiffusion in the direction perpendicular to the force and superdiffusion in the parallel direction.
Light scattering and dynamics of interacting Brownian particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsang, T.; Tang, H. T.
1982-01-01
The relative motions of interacting Brownian particles in liquids may be described as radial diffusion in an effective potential of the mean force. By using a harmonic approximation for the effective potential, the intermediate scattering function may also be evaluated. For polystyrene spheres of 250 A mean radius in aqueous environment at 0.00125 g/cu cm concentration, the results for the calculated mean square displacement are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from photon correlation spectroscopy. Because of the interactions, the functions deviate considerably from the exponential forms for the free particles.
Singular perturbation theory for predicting extravasation of Brownian particles
Shah, Preyas; Fitzgibbon, Sean; Narsimhan, Vivek; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.
2013-01-01
Motivated by recent studies on tumor treatments using the drug delivery of nanoparticles, we provide a singular perturbation theory and perform Brownian dynamics simulations to quantify the extravasation rate of Brownian particles in a shear flow over a circular pore with a lumped mass transfer resistance. The analytic theory we present is an expansion in the limit of a vanishing Péclet number (P), which is the ratio of convective fluxes to diffusive fluxes on the length scale of the pore. We state the concentration of particles near the pore and the extravasation rate (Sherwood number) to O(P1/2). This model improves upon previous studies because the results are valid for all values of the particle mass transfer coefficient across the pore, as modeled by the Damköhler number (κ), which is the ratio of the reaction rate to the diffusive mass transfer rate at the boundary. Previous studies focused on the adsorption-dominated regime (i.e., κ → ∞). Specifically, our work provides a theoretical basis and an interpolation-based approximate method for calculating the Sherwood number (a measure of the extravasation rate) for the case of finite resistance [κ ~ O(1)] at small Péclet numbers, which are physiologically important in the extravasation of nanoparticles. We compare the predictions of our theory and an approximate method to Brownian dynamics simulations with reflection–reaction boundary conditions as modeled by κ. They are found to agree well at small P and for the κ ≪ 1 and κ ≫ 1 asymptotic limits representing the diffusion-dominated and adsorption-dominated regimes, respectively. Although this model neglects the finite size effects of the particles, it provides an important first step toward understanding the physics of extravasation in the tumor vasculature. PMID:24563548
An Efficient Method to Study Nondiffusive Motion of Brownian Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisý, Vladimír; Tóthová, Jana
2016-02-01
The experimental access to short timescales has pointed to the inadequacy of the standard Langevin theory of the Brownian motion (BM) in fluids. The hydrodynamic theory of the BM describes well the observed motion of the particles; however, the published approach should be improved in several points. In particular, it leads to incorrect correlation properties of the thermal noise driving the particles. In our contribution we present an efficient method, which is applicable to linear generalized Langevin equations describing the BM of particles with any kind of memory and apply it to interpret the experiments where nondiffusive BM of particles was observed. It is shown that the applicability of the method is much broader, allowing, among all, to obtain efficient solutions of various problems of anomalous BM.
Extracting work from magnetic-field-coupled Brownian particles.
Chen, Tian; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yu, Ting
2014-08-01
Thermodynamics of the magnetic-field-coupled Brownian particles is studied. We show that in the presence of the magnetic field, work can be extracted from the reservoir even when the measurement operation and the potential change operation are applied in different spatial directions. In particular, we show that more work can be extracted if the measurements are applied in two different directions simultaneously. In all these cases, we show that the generalized second law involving the measurement information and potential change is satisfied. In addition, we show how the continuous potential change and measurement position affect the work extraction. PMID:25215683
Hybrid finite element and Brownian dynamics method for charged particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Gary A.; Miao, Yinglong; Zhou, Shenggao; Li, Bo; McCammon, J. Andrew
2016-04-01
Diffusion is often the rate-determining step in many biological processes. Currently, the two main computational methods for studying diffusion are stochastic methods, such as Brownian dynamics, and continuum methods, such as the finite element method. A previous study introduced a new hybrid diffusion method that couples the strengths of each of these two methods, but was limited by the lack of interactions among the particles; the force on each particle had to be from an external field. This study further develops the method to allow charged particles. The method is derived for a general multidimensional system and is presented using a basic test case for a one-dimensional linear system with one charged species and a radially symmetric system with three charged species.
Brownian Dynamics of Colloidal Particles in Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Angel; Collings, Peter J.; Yodh, Arjun G.
We employ video microscopy to study the Brownian dynamics of colloidal particles in the nematic phase of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs). These LCLCs (in this case, DSCG) are water soluble, and their nematic phases are characterized by an unusually large elastic anisotropy. Our preliminary measurements of particle mean-square displacement for polystyrene colloidal particles (~5 micron-diameter) show diffusive and sub-diffusive behaviors moving parallel and perpendicular to the nematic director, respectively. In order to understand these motions, we are developing models that incorporate the relaxation of elastic distortions of the surrounding nematic field. Further experiments to confirm these preliminary results and to determine the origin of these deviations compared to simple diffusion theory are ongoing; our results will also be compared to previous diffusion experiments in nematic liquid crystals. We gratefully acknowledge financial support through NSF DMR12-05463, MRSEC DMR11-20901, and NASA NNX08AO0G.
Normal and anomalous diffusion of Brownian particles on disordered potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salgado-García, R.
2016-07-01
In this work we study the transition from normal to anomalous diffusion of Brownian particles on disordered potentials. The potential model consists of a series of "potential hills" (defined on a unit cell of constant length) whose heights are chosen randomly from a given distribution. We calculate the exact expression for the diffusion coefficient in the case of uncorrelated potentials for arbitrary distributions. We show that when the potential heights have a Gaussian distribution (with zero mean and a finite variance) the diffusion of the particles is always normal. In contrast, when the distribution of the potential heights is exponentially distributed the diffusion coefficient vanishes when the system is placed below a critical temperature. We calculate analytically the diffusion exponent for the anomalous (subdiffusive) phase by using the so-called "random trap model". Our predictions are tested by means of Langevin simulations obtaining good agreement within the accuracy of our numerical calculations.
A Generalized Brownian Motion Model for Turbulent Relative Particle Dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shivamoggi, Bhimsen
2015-11-01
A generalized Brownian motion model has been applied to the turbulent relative particle dispersion problem (Shivamoggi). The fluctuating pressure forces acting on a fluid particle are taken to follow an Uhlenbeck-Ornstein process while it appears plausible to take their correlation time to have a power-law dependence on the flow Reynolds number Re. This ansatz provides an insight into the result that the Richardson-Obukhov scaling holds only in the infinite-Re limit and disappears otherwise. It provides a determination of the Richardson-Obukhov constant g as a function of Re, with an asymptotic constant value in the infinite-Re limit. This ansatz is further shown to be in quantitative agreement, in the small-Re limit, with the Batchelor-Townsend ansatz for the rate of change of the mean square interparticle separation in 3D FDT. My thanks to The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research for Support.
Brownian dynamics simulations of ellipsoidal magnetizable particle suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres-Díaz, I.; Rinaldi, C.
2014-06-01
The rotational motion of soft magnetic tri-axial ellipsoidal particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid has been studied using rotational Brownian dynamics simulations by solving numerically the stochastic angular momentum equation in an orientational space described by the quaternion parameters. The model is applicable to particles where the effect of shape anisotropy is dominant. The algorithm quantifies the magnetization of a monodisperse suspension of tri-axial ellipsoids in dilute limit conditions under applied constant and time-varying magnetic fields. The variation of the relative permeability with the applied magnetic field of the particle's bulk material was included in the simulations. The results show that the equilibrium magnetization of a suspension of magnetizable tri-axial ellipsoids saturates at high magnetic field amplitudes. Additionally, the dynamic susceptibility at low magnetic field intensity presents a peak in the out-of-phase component, which is significantly smaller than the in-phase component and depends on the Langevin parameter. The dynamic magnetization of the particle suspension is in phase with the magnetic field at low and high frequencies far from the peak of the out-of-phase component.
Displacements Of Brownian Particles In Terms Of Marian Von Smoluchowski's Heuristic Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Hermann; Woermann, Dietrich
2005-01-01
Albert Einstein's theory of the Brownian motion, Marian von Smoluchowski's heuristic model, and Perrin's experimental results helped to bring the concept of molecules from a state of being a useful hypothesis in chemistry to objects existing in reality. Central to the theory of Brownian motion is the relation between mean particle displacement and…
Diffusion theory of Brownian particles moving at constant speed in D dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sevilla, Francisco J.
2015-03-01
The propagation of Brownian-active particles that move at constant speed in the limit of short times, differs from wave-like propagation in that active particles propagate without leaving a wake trailing characteristic of wave propagation in even dimensions. In the long time regime, normal diffusion is expected due to random fluctuations that disperse the particle direction of motion. A phenomenological equation that describe the transition from the behavior free of effects of wake, to the normal diffusion of the particles is proposed. A comparison of the results predicted by such equation with those obtained from models using Langevin equations is presented in the spherically symmetric case. FJS acknowledges support from PAPIIT-UNAM through the Grant IN113114.
A generalized Brownian motion model for turbulent relative particle dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shivamoggi, B. K.
2016-08-01
There is speculation that the difficulty in obtaining an extended range with Richardson-Obukhov scaling in both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations is due to the finiteness of the flow Reynolds number Re in these situations. In this paper, a generalized Brownian motion model has been applied to describe the relative particle dispersion problem in more realistic turbulent flows and to shed some light on this issue. The fluctuating pressure forces acting on a fluid particle are taken to be a colored noise and follow a stationary process and are described by the Uhlenbeck-Ornstein model while it appears plausible to take their correlation time to have a power-law dependence on Re, thus introducing a bridge between the Lagrangian quantities and the Eulerian parameters for this problem. This ansatz is in qualitative agreement with the possibility of a connection speculated earlier by Corrsin [26] between the white-noise representation for the fluctuating pressure forces and the large-Re assumption in the Kolmogorov [4] theory for the 3D fully developed turbulence (FDT) as well as a similar argument of Monin and Yaglom [23] and a similar result of Sawford [13] and Borgas and Sawford [24]. It also provides an insight into the result that the Richardson-Obukhov scaling holds only in the infinite-Re limit and disappears otherwise. This ansatz further provides a determination of the Richardson-Obukhov constant g as a function of Re, with an asymptotic constant value in the infinite-Re limit. It is shown to lead to full agreement, in the small-Re limit as well, with the Batchelor-Townsend [27] scaling for the rate of change of the mean square interparticle separation in 3D FDT, hence validating its soundness further.
Brownian simulation of many-particle binding to a reversible receptor array
Edelstein, A.L.; Agmon, N.
1997-04-01
The principles and practice of a many-body Brownian dynamics algorithm of reversible binding to a static three-dimensional receptor array are presented. The mixed boundary conditions at the array are compared with single-particle direct propagation using a novel operator discretization. The many-body aspects are checked against previous one-dimensional Brownian simulations. The long-time behavior agrees with expected analytic solutions. 39 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Financial Brownian Particle in the Layered Order-Book Fluid and Fluctuation-Dissipation Relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako
2014-03-01
We introduce a novel description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets as that of an effective colloidal Brownian particle embedded in fluid particles. The analysis of comprehensive market data enables us to identify all motions of the fluid particles. Correlations between the motions of the Brownian particle and its surrounding fluid particles reflect specific layering interactions; in the inner layer the correlation is strong and with short memory, while in the outer layer it is weaker and with long memory. By interpreting and estimating the contribution from the outer layer as a drag resistance, we demonstrate the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation in this nonmaterial Brownian motion process.
Correlated Rotational Noise in Active Brownian Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Caleb; Baskaran, Aparna
We consider a system of self-propelled particles in a viscous medium for which the angle parametrizing the direction of particle propulsion is subject to correlated noise. The physics involved in the correlated noise is explored by deriving a modified Smoluchowski equation that governs the evolution of the probability distribution for particle positions and orientations. More precisely, given noise correlations that decay exponentially in time with decay constant ν, we give the modified Smoluchowski equation as a perturbative expansion in ν. While the physical origins of correlated noise may be diverse, we give one interpretation of the resulting dynamics in terms of inertial effects that are absent from the usual overdamped description of self-propelled particles in a viscous medium.
An elementary singularity-free Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm for anisotropic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; den Otter, Wouter K.
2015-03-01
Brownian Dynamics is the designated technique to simulate the collective dynamics of colloidal particles suspended in a solution, e.g., the self-assembly of patchy particles. Simulating the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles by a first-order Langevin equation, however, gives rise to a number of complications, ranging from singularities when using a set of three rotational coordinates to subtle metric and drift corrections. Here, we derive and numerically validate a quaternion-based Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm that handles these complications in a simple and elegant way. The extension to hydrodynamic interactions is also discussed.
An elementary singularity-free Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm for anisotropic particles.
Ilie, Ioana M; Briels, Wim J; den Otter, Wouter K
2015-03-21
Brownian Dynamics is the designated technique to simulate the collective dynamics of colloidal particles suspended in a solution, e.g., the self-assembly of patchy particles. Simulating the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles by a first-order Langevin equation, however, gives rise to a number of complications, ranging from singularities when using a set of three rotational coordinates to subtle metric and drift corrections. Here, we derive and numerically validate a quaternion-based Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm that handles these complications in a simple and elegant way. The extension to hydrodynamic interactions is also discussed. PMID:25796227
An elementary singularity-free Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm for anisotropic particles
Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; Otter, Wouter K. den
2015-03-21
Brownian Dynamics is the designated technique to simulate the collective dynamics of colloidal particles suspended in a solution, e.g., the self-assembly of patchy particles. Simulating the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles by a first-order Langevin equation, however, gives rise to a number of complications, ranging from singularities when using a set of three rotational coordinates to subtle metric and drift corrections. Here, we derive and numerically validate a quaternion-based Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm that handles these complications in a simple and elegant way. The extension to hydrodynamic interactions is also discussed.
Statistical Properties of Thermal Noise Driving the Brownian Particles in Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tóthová, Jana; Lisý, Vladimír
2016-02-01
In several recent works high-resolution interferometric detection allowed to study the Brownian motion of optically trapped microparticles in air and fluids. The observed positional fluctuations of the particles are well described by the generalized Langevin equation with the Boussinesq-Basset "history force" instead of the Stokes friction, which is valid only for the steady motion. Recently, also the time correlation function of the thermal random force Fth driving the Brownian particles through collisions with the surrounding molecules has been measured. In the present contribution we propose a method to describe the statistical properties of Fth in incompressible fluids. Our calculations show that the time decay of the correlator
Brownian motion of a charged test particle in vacuum between two conducting plates
Yu Hongwei; Chen Jun
2004-12-15
The Brownian motion of a charged test particle caused by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between two perfectly conducting plates is examined and the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle are calculated. Our results show that the Brownian motion in the direction normal to the plates is reinforced in comparison to that in the single plate case. The effective temperature associated with this normal Brownian motion could be three times as large as that in the single plate case. However, the negative dispersions for the velocity and position in the longitudinal directions, which could be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainties of the particle, acquire positive corrections due to the presence of the second plate, and are thus weakened.
A FDR-Preserving Field Theory for Interacting Brownian Particles: One-Loop Theory and MCT
Kim, Bongsoo; Kawasaki, Kyozi
2008-02-21
We develop a field theoretical treatment of a model of interacting Brownian particles. We pay particlular attention to the requirement of the time reversal (TR) invariance and the flucutation-dissipation relationship (FDR). Previous field theoretical formulations were found to be inconsistent with this requirement. The method used in the present formulation is a modified version of the auxilliary field method due originally to Andreanov, Biroli and Lefevre (ABL). We recover the correct diffusion law when the interaction is dropped as well as the standard mode coupling equation in the one-loop order calculation for interacting Brownian particle systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Geng; Tu, ZhanChun
2016-04-01
The retainability of canonical distributions for a Brownian particle controlled by a time-dependent harmonic potential is investigated in the overdamped and underdamped situations, respectively. Because of different time scales, the overdamped and underdamped Langevin equations (as well as the corresponding Fokker-Planck equations) lead to distinctive restrictions on protocols maintaining canonical distributions. Two special cases are analyzed in details: First, a Brownian particle is controlled by a time-dependent harmonic potential and embedded in medium with constant temperature; Second, a Brownian particle is controlled by a timedependent harmonic potential and embedded in a medium whose temperature is tuned together with the potential stiffness to keep a constant effective temperature of the Brownian particle. We find that the canonical distributions are usually retainable for both the overdamped and underdamped situations in the former case. However, the canonical distributions are retainable merely for the overdamped situation in the latter case. We also investigate general time-dependent potentials beyond the harmonic form and find that the retainability of canonical distributions depends sensitively on the specific form of potentials.
Thermal property in Brownian motion of a particle coupled to vacuum fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshita, Naritaka; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Sen
2014-06-01
We investigate Brownian motions of a particle coupled to vacuum fluctuations of a quantum field. The Unruh effect predicts that an observer in an accelerated motion sees the Minkowski vacuum as thermally excited. This addresses the problem of whether or not a thermal property appears in a perturbative random motion of a particle in an accelerated motion due to the coupling. We revisit this problem by solving the equation of motion of a particle coupled to vacuum fluctuations including the radiation reaction force. We compute a Fourier integral for the variance of the random velocity in a rigorous manner. Similarly, we consider a particle coupled to vacuum fluctuations in de Sitter spacetime motivated by the argument that an observer in de Sitter spacetime sees the Bunch-Davies vacuum as a thermally excited state with the Gibbons-Hawking temperature. Our investigation clarifies the condition that the energy equipartition relation arises in the Brownian motions of a particle.
Charged Brownian particles: Kramers and Smoluchowski equations and the hydrothermodynamical picture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lagos, R. E.; Simões, Tania P.
2011-05-01
We consider a charged Brownian gas under the influence of external and non-uniform electric, magnetic and mechanical fields, immersed in a non-uniform bath temperature. With the collision time as an expansion parameter, we study the solution to the associated Kramers equation, including a linear reactive term. To the first order we obtain the asymptotic (overdamped) regime, governed by transport equations, namely: for the particle density, a Smoluchowski-reactive like equation; for the particle’s momentum density, a generalized Ohm’s-like equation; and for the particle’s energy density, a Maxwell-Cattaneo-like equation. Defining a nonequilibrium temperature as the mean kinetic energy density, and introducing Boltzmann’s entropy density via the one particle distribution function, we present a complete thermohydrodynamical picture for a charged Brownian gas. We probe the validity of the local equilibrium approximation, Onsager relations, variational principles associated to the entropy production, and apply our results to: carrier transport in semiconductors, hot carriers and Brownian motors. Finally, we outline a method to incorporate non-linear reactive kinetics and a mean field approach to interacting Brownian particles.
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the heat bath for two Brownian particles.
De Bacco, Caterina; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo; Sekimoto, Ken
2014-05-01
We propose a new look at the heat bath for two Brownian particles, in which the heat bath as a "system" is both perturbed and sensed by the Brownian particles. Nonlocal thermal fluctuations give rise to bath-mediated static forces between the particles. Based on the general sum rule of the linear response theory, we derive an explicit relation linking these forces to the friction kernel describing the particles' dynamics. The relation is analytically confirmed in the case of two solvable models and could be experimentally challenged. Our results point out that the inclusion of the environment as a part of the whole system is important for micron- or nanoscale physics. PMID:24856686
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derrida, Bernard; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.
2016-04-01
Consider a one-dimensional branching Brownian motion and rescale the coordinate and time so that the rates of branching and diffusion are both equal to 1. If X1(t ) is the position of the rightmost particle of the branching Brownian motion at time t , the empirical velocity c of this rightmost particle is defined as c =X1(t ) /t . Using the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation, we evaluate the probability distribution P (c ,t ) of this empirical velocity c in the long-time t limit for c >2 . It is already known that, for a single seed particle, P (c ,t ) ˜exp[-(c2/4 -1 ) t ] up to a prefactor that can depend on c and t . Here we show how to determine this prefactor. The result can be easily generalized to the case of multiple seed particles and to branching random walks associated with other traveling-wave equations.
Allahverdyan, A.E.; Khrennikov, A.; Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.
2005-09-15
For two classical Brownian particles an analog of continuous-variable quantum entanglement is presented: The common probability distribution of the two coordinates and the corresponding coarse-grained velocities cannot always be prepared via mixing of any factorized distributions referring to the two particles separately. This is possible for particles which have interacted in the past, but do not interact at present. Three factors are crucial for the effect: (1) separation of time scales of coordinate and momentum which motivates the definition of coarse-grained velocities; (2) the resulting uncertainty relations between the coordinate of the Brownian particle and the change of its coarse-grained velocity; (3) the fact that the coarse-grained velocity, though pertaining to a single Brownian particle, is defined on a common context of two particles. The Brownian entanglement is a consequence of a coarse-grained description and disappears for a finer resolution of the Brownian motion. Analogies with the quantum situation are discussed, as well as possibilities of experimental realization of the effect in examples of macroscopic Brownian motion.
Shit, Anindita; Ghosh, Pradipta; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray
2011-03-01
We explore the issue of a quantum-noise-induced directed transport of an overdamped Brownian particle that is allowed to move in a spatially periodic potential. The established system-reservoir model has been employed here to study the quantum-noise-induced transport of a Brownian particle in a periodic potential, where the reservoir is being modulated externally by a Gaussian-colored noise. The mobility of the Brownian particle in the linear response regime has been calculated. Then, using Einstein's relation, the analytical expression for the diffusion rate is evaluated for any arbitrary periodic potential for the high-temperature quantum regime. PMID:21517472
Emergence of Collective Motion in a Model of Interacting Brownian Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dossetti, Victor; Sevilla, Francisco J.
2015-07-01
By studying a system of Brownian particles that interact among themselves only through a local velocity-alignment force that does not affect their speed, we show that self-propulsion is not a necessary feature for the flocking transition to take place as long as underdamped particle dynamics can be guaranteed. Moreover, the system transits from stationary phases close to thermal equilibrium, with no net flux of particles, to far-from-equilibrium ones exhibiting collective motion, phase coexistence, long-range order, and giant number fluctuations, features typically associated with ordered phases of models where self-propelled particles with overdamped dynamics are considered.
Emergence of Collective Motion in a Model of Interacting Brownian Particles.
Dossetti, Victor; Sevilla, Francisco J
2015-07-31
By studying a system of Brownian particles that interact among themselves only through a local velocity-alignment force that does not affect their speed, we show that self-propulsion is not a necessary feature for the flocking transition to take place as long as underdamped particle dynamics can be guaranteed. Moreover, the system transits from stationary phases close to thermal equilibrium, with no net flux of particles, to far-from-equilibrium ones exhibiting collective motion, phase coexistence, long-range order, and giant number fluctuations, features typically associated with ordered phases of models where self-propelled particles with overdamped dynamics are considered. PMID:26274444
Bragg scattering and Brownian motion dynamics in optically induced crystals of submicron particles.
Sapiro, R E; Slama, B N; Raithel, G
2013-05-01
A set of four confocal laser beams of 1064-nm wavelength is used to prepare optically induced crystals of submicron particles in aqueous solution. Thousands of polystyrene spheres of about 200 nm in diameter are trapped in three dimensions. Bragg scattering patterns obtained with a probe beam of 532-nm wavelength are in agreement with the calculated lattice structure and its polarization dependence. The decay and rise of the Bragg scattering intensity upon switching the lattice off and on reveal the Brownian motion dynamics of the particles in the periodic optical trapping potential. Experimental results agree well with results from trajectory simulations based on the Langevin equation. The results exhibit the interplay between Brownian motion and deterministic forces in an inhomogeneous (near-)periodic optical trapping potential. PMID:23767544
Active microrheology of Brownian suspensions via Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Henry; Su, Yu; Gu, Kevin; Hoh, Nicholas; Zia, Roseanna
2015-11-01
The non-equilibrium rheological response of colloidal suspensions is studied via active microrheology utilizing Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics simulations. In our recent work, we derived the theory for micro-diffusivity and suspension stress in dilute suspensions of hydrodynamically interacting colloids. This work revealed that force-induced diffusion is anisotropic, with qualitative differences between diffusion along the line of the external force and that transverse to it, and connected these effects to the role of hydrodynamic, interparticle, and Brownian forces. This work also revealed that these forces play a similar qualitative role in the anisotropy of the stress and in the evolution of the non-equilibrium osmotic pressure. Here, we show that theoretical predictions hold for suspensions ranging from dilute to near maximum packing, and for a range of flow strengths from near-equilibrium to the pure-hydrodynamic limit.
Noise-to-signal transition of a Brownian particle in the cubic potential: I. general theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filip, Radim; Zemánek, Pavel
2016-06-01
The noise-to-signal transitions are very interesting processes in physics, as they might transform environmental noise to useful mechanical effects. We theoretically analyze stochastic noise-to-signal transition of overdamped Brownian motion of a particle in the cubic potential. The particle reaches thermal equilibrium with its environment in the quadratic potential which is suddenly swapped to the cubic potential. We predict a simultaneous increase of both the displacement and signal-to-noise ratio in the cubic potential for the position linearly powered by the temperature of the particle environment. The short-time analysis and numerical simulations fully confirm different dynamical regimes of this noise-to-signal transition.
Vacuum fluctuations and Brownian motion of a charged test particle near a reflecting boundary
Yu Hongwei; Ford, L. H.
2004-09-15
We study the Brownian motion of a charged test particle coupled to electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations near a perfectly reflecting plane boundary. The presence of the boundary modifies the quantum fluctuations of the electric field, which in turn modifies the motion of the test particle. We calculate the resulting mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle. In the case of directions transverse to the boundary, the results are negative. This can be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainty which would otherwise be present.
Unbiased diffusion of Brownian particles on disordered correlated potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salgado-Garcia, Raúl; Maldonado, Cesar
2015-06-01
In this work we study the diffusion of non-interacting overdamped particles, moving on unbiased disordered correlated potentials, subjected to Gaussian white noise. We obtain an exact expression for the diffusion coefficient which allows us to prove that the unbiased diffusion of overdamped particles on a random polymer does not depend on the correlations of the disordered potentials. This universal behavior of the unbiased diffusivity is a direct consequence of the validity of the Einstein relation and the decay of correlations of the random polymer. We test the independence on correlations of the diffusion coefficient for correlated polymers produced by two different stochastic processes, a one-step Markov chain and the expansion-modification system. Within the accuracy of our simulations, we found that the numerically obtained diffusion coefficient for these systems agree with the analytically calculated ones, confirming our predictions.
Brownian dynamics simulation of rigid particles of arbitrary shape in external fields.
Fernandes, Miguel X; de la Torre, José García
2002-01-01
We have developed a Brownian dynamics simulation algorithm to generate Brownian trajectories of an isolated, rigid particle of arbitrary shape in the presence of electric fields or any other external agents. Starting from the generalized diffusion tensor, which can be calculated with the existing HYDRO software, the new program BROWNRIG (including a case-specific subprogram for the external agent) carries out a simulation that is analyzed later to extract the observable dynamic properties. We provide a variety of examples of utilization of this method, which serve as tests of its performance, and also illustrate its applicability. Examples include free diffusion, transport in an electric field, and diffusion in a restricting environment. PMID:12496076
Brownian dynamics simulation of rigid particles of arbitrary shape in external fields.
Fernandes, Miguel X; de la Torre, José García
2002-12-01
We have developed a Brownian dynamics simulation algorithm to generate Brownian trajectories of an isolated, rigid particle of arbitrary shape in the presence of electric fields or any other external agents. Starting from the generalized diffusion tensor, which can be calculated with the existing HYDRO software, the new program BROWNRIG (including a case-specific subprogram for the external agent) carries out a simulation that is analyzed later to extract the observable dynamic properties. We provide a variety of examples of utilization of this method, which serve as tests of its performance, and also illustrate its applicability. Examples include free diffusion, transport in an electric field, and diffusion in a restricting environment. PMID:12496076
Application of GPU processing for Brownian particle simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Way Lee; Sheharyar, Ali; Sadr, Reza; Bouhali, Othmane
2015-01-01
Reports on the anomalous thermal-fluid properties of nanofluids (dilute suspension of nano-particles in a base fluid) have been the subject of attention for 15 years. The underlying physics that govern nanofluid behavior, however, is not fully understood and is a subject of much dispute. The interactions between the suspended particles and the base fluid have been cited as a major contributor to the improvement in heat transfer reported in the literature. Numerical simulations are instrumental in studying the behavior of nanofluids. However, such simulations can be computationally intensive due to the small dimensions and complexity of these problems. In this study, a simplified computational approach for isothermal nanofluid simulations was applied, and simulations were conducted using both conventional CPU and parallel GPU implementations. The GPU implementations significantly improved the computational performance, in terms of the simulation time, by a factor of 1000-2500. The results of this investigation show that, as the computational load increases, the simulation efficiency approaches a constant. At a very high computational load, the amount of improvement may even decrease due to limited system memory.
Effect of solvent on directional drift in Brownian motion of particle/molecule with broken symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, FanDong; Sheng, Nan; Wan, RongZheng; Hu, GuoHui; Fang, HaiPing
2016-08-01
The directional drifting of particles/molecules with broken symmetry has received increasing attention. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the effects of various solvents on the time-dependent directional drifting of a particle with broken symmetry. Our simulations show that the distance of directional drift of the asymmetrical particle is reduced while the ratio of the drift to the mean displacement of the particle is enhanced with increasing mass, size, and interaction strength of the solvent atoms in a short time range. Among the parameters considered, solvent atom size is a particularly influential factor for enhancing the directional drift of asymmetrical particles, while the effects of the interaction strength and the mass of the solvent atoms are relatively weaker. These findings are of great importance to the understanding and control of the Brownian motion of particles in various physical, chemical, and biological processes within finite time spans.
Lock-and-key dimerization in dense Brownian systems of hard annular sector particles.
Hodson, Wade D; Mason, Thomas G
2016-08-01
We develop a translational-rotational cage model that describes the behavior of dense two-dimensional (2D) Brownian systems of hard annular sector particles (ASPs), resembling C shapes. At high particle densities, pairs of ASPs can form mutually interdigitating lock-and-key dimers. This cage model considers either one or two mobile central ASPs which can translate and rotate within a static cage of surrounding ASPs that mimics the system's average local structure and density. By comparing with recent measurements made on dispersions of microscale lithographic ASPs [P. Y. Wang and T. G. Mason, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 15308 (2015)JACSAT0002-786310.1021/jacs.5b10549], we show that mobile two-particle predictions of the probability of dimerization P_{dimer}, equilibrium constant K, and 2D osmotic pressure Π_{2D} as a function of the particle area fraction ϕ_{A} correspond closely to these experiments. By contrast, predictions based on only a single mobile particle do not agree well with either the two-particle predictions or the experimental data. Thus, we show that collective entropy can play an essential role in the behavior of dense Brownian systems composed of nontrivial hard shapes, such as ASPs. PMID:27627263
The stochastic thermodynamics of a rotating Brownian particle in a gradient flow
Lan, Yueheng; Aurell, Erik
2015-01-01
We compute the entropy production engendered in the environment from a single Brownian particle which moves in a gradient flow, and show that it corresponds in expectation to classical near-equilibrium entropy production in the surrounding fluid with specific mesoscopic transport coefficients. With temperature gradient, extra terms are found which result from the nonlinear interaction between the particle and the non-equilibrated environment. The calculations are based on the fluctuation relations which relate entropy production to the probabilities of stochastic paths and carried out in a multi-time formalism. PMID:26194015
The stochastic thermodynamics of a rotating Brownian particle in a gradient flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Yueheng; Aurell, Erik
2015-07-01
We compute the entropy production engendered in the environment from a single Brownian particle which moves in a gradient flow, and show that it corresponds in expectation to classical near-equilibrium entropy production in the surrounding fluid with specific mesoscopic transport coefficients. With temperature gradient, extra terms are found which result from the nonlinear interaction between the particle and the non-equilibrated environment. The calculations are based on the fluctuation relations which relate entropy production to the probabilities of stochastic paths and carried out in a multi-time formalism.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lavenda, Bernard H.
1985-01-01
Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)
Dynamics of flexible active Brownian dumbbells in the absence and the presence of shear flow.
Winkler, Roland G
2016-04-20
The dynamical properties of a flexible dumbbell composed of active Brownian particles are analytically analyzed. The dumbbell is considered as a simplified description of a linear active polymer. The two beads are independently propelled in directions which change in a diffusive manner. The relaxation behavior of the internal degree of freedom is tightly coupled to the dumbbell activity. The latter dominates the dynamics for strong propulsion. As is shown, limitations in bond stretching strongly influence the relaxation behavior. Similarly, under shear flow, activity determines the relaxation and tumbling behavior at strong propulsion. Moreover, shear leads to a preferred alignment and consequently to shear thinning. Thereby, a different power-law dependence on the shear rate compared to passive dumbbells under flow is found. PMID:26980630
Dettmer, Simon L; Keyser, Ulrich F; Pagliara, Stefano
2014-02-01
In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces. PMID:24593372
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dettmer, Simon L.; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Pagliara, Stefano
2014-02-01
In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces.
Dettmer, Simon L.; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Pagliara, Stefano
2014-02-15
In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g., electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces.
Brownian motion of a nano-colloidal particle: the role of the solvent.
Torres-Carbajal, Alexis; Herrera-Velarde, Salvador; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón
2015-07-15
Brownian motion is a feature of colloidal particles immersed in a liquid-like environment. Usually, it can be described by means of the generalised Langevin equation (GLE) within the framework of the Mori theory. In principle, all quantities that appear in the GLE can be calculated from the molecular information of the whole system, i.e., colloids and solvent molecules. In this work, by means of extensive Molecular Dynamics simulations, we study the effects of the microscopic details and the thermodynamic state of the solvent on the movement of a single nano-colloid. In particular, we consider a two-dimensional model system in which the mass and size of the colloid are two and one orders of magnitude, respectively, larger than the ones associated with the solvent molecules. The latter ones interact via a Lennard-Jones-type potential to tune the nature of the solvent, i.e., it can be either repulsive or attractive. We choose the linear momentum of the Brownian particle as the observable of interest in order to fully describe the Brownian motion within the Mori framework. We particularly focus on the colloid diffusion at different solvent densities and two temperature regimes: high and low (near the critical point) temperatures. To reach our goal, we have rewritten the GLE as a second kind Volterra integral in order to compute the memory kernel in real space. With this kernel, we evaluate the momentum-fluctuating force correlation function, which is of particular relevance since it allows us to establish when the stationarity condition has been reached. Our findings show that even at high temperatures, the details of the attractive interaction potential among solvent molecules induce important changes in the colloid dynamics. Additionally, near the critical point, the dynamical scenario becomes more complex; all the correlation functions decay slowly in an extended time window, however, the memory kernel seems to be only a function of the solvent density. Thus, the
Single potassium niobate nano/microsized particles as local mechano-optical Brownian probes.
Mor, Flavio M; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Magrez, Arnaud; Forró, László; Jeney, Sylvia
2016-03-28
Perovskite alkaline niobates, due to their strong nonlinear optical properties, including birefringence and the capability to produce second-harmonic generation (SHG) signals, attract a lot of attention as potential candidates for applications as local nano/microsized mechano-optical probes. Here, we report on an implementation of photonic force microscopy (PFM) to explore the Brownian motion and optical trappability of monocrystalline potassium niobate (KNbO3) nano/microsized particles having sizes within the range of 50 to 750 nm. In particular, we exploit the anisotropic translational diffusive regime of the Brownian motion to quantify thermal fluctuations and optical forces of singly-trapped KNbO3 particles within the optical trapping volume of a PFM microscope. We also show that, under near-infrared (NIR) excitation of the highly focused laser beam of the PFM microscope, a single optically-trapped KNbO3 particle reveals a strong SHG signal manifested by a narrow peak (λ(em) = 532 nm) at half the excitation wavelength (λ(ex) = 1064 nm). Moreover, we demonstrate that the thus induced SHG emission can be used as a local light source that is capable of optically exciting molecules of an organic dye, Rose Bengal (RB), which adhere to the particle surface, through the mechanism of luminescence energy transfer (LET). PMID:26956197
Derrida, Bernard; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V
2016-04-01
Consider a one-dimensional branching Brownian motion and rescale the coordinate and time so that the rates of branching and diffusion are both equal to 1. If X_{1}(t) is the position of the rightmost particle of the branching Brownian motion at time t, the empirical velocity c of this rightmost particle is defined as c=X_{1}(t)/t. Using the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation, we evaluate the probability distribution P(c,t) of this empirical velocity c in the long-time t limit for c>2. It is already known that, for a single seed particle, P(c,t)∼exp[-(c^{2}/4-1)t] up to a prefactor that can depend on c and t. Here we show how to determine this prefactor. The result can be easily generalized to the case of multiple seed particles and to branching random walks associated with other traveling-wave equations. PMID:27176286
Moctezuma, R E; Donado, F; Arauz-Lara, J L
2013-09-01
A study of lateral aggregation, induced by an oscillatory field, in a magnetorheological fluid based on non-Brownian magnetic particles is presented. We investigate the behavior of chains formed by the particles, due to the simultaneous application of a static magnetic field and a sinusoidal magnetic field transverse to each other. We show that the effective oscillating field enhances the aggregation process. We discuss this result in terms of an effective particle concentration induced by the oscillating field when chains oscillate angularly and sweep the area around them. The oscillating field produces a lateral aggregation similar to that observed in systems composed of Brownian particles which is induced by thermal fluctuations. We study the effect of the oscillating field on the angular amplitude described by single chains. It is observed that the angular amplitude decreases as the frequency of the oscillating field increases; we discuss this behavior numerically in terms of a simple model for this system. Lateral aggregation is studied in detail in isolated pairs of chains of equal length at several conditions of separation and displacement. From the results, a phase diagram is obtained showing the conditions under which aggregation is possible. PMID:24125266
Bocquet, L.; Hansen, J.P.; Piasecki, J.
1997-10-01
In this work, we show that in any finite system, the binary friction tenser for two Brownian particles cannot be directly estimated from an evaluation of the microscopic Green Kubo formula, involving the time integral of force-force autocorrelation functions. This pitfall is associated with a subtle inversion of the thermodynamic and long-time limits and leads to spurious results for the estimates of the friction matrix based on molecular dynamics simulations. Starting from a careful analysis of the coupled Langevin equations for two interacting Brownian particles, we derive a method to circumvent these effects and extract the binary friction tenser from the correlation function matrix of the instantaneous forces exerted by the bath particles on the fixed Brownian particles, and from the relaxation of the total momentum of the bath in a finite system. The general methodology is applied to the case of two hard or soft Brownian spheres in a bath of light particles. Numerical estimates of the relevant correlation functions and of the resulting self and mutual components of the matrix of friction tensors are obtained by molecular dynamics simulations for various spacings between the Brownian particles.
Single potassium niobate nano/microsized particles as local mechano-optical Brownian probes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mor, Flavio M.; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Magrez, Arnaud; Forró, László; Jeney, Sylvia
2016-03-01
Perovskite alkaline niobates, due to their strong nonlinear optical properties, including birefringence and the capability to produce second-harmonic generation (SHG) signals, attract a lot of attention as potential candidates for applications as local nano/microsized mechano-optical probes. Here, we report on an implementation of photonic force microscopy (PFM) to explore the Brownian motion and optical trappability of monocrystalline potassium niobate (KNbO3) nano/microsized particles having sizes within the range of 50 to 750 nm. In particular, we exploit the anisotropic translational diffusive regime of the Brownian motion to quantify thermal fluctuations and optical forces of singly-trapped KNbO3 particles within the optical trapping volume of a PFM microscope. We also show that, under near-infrared (NIR) excitation of the highly focused laser beam of the PFM microscope, a single optically-trapped KNbO3 particle reveals a strong SHG signal manifested by a narrow peak (λem = 532 nm) at half the excitation wavelength (λex = 1064 nm). Moreover, we demonstrate that the thus induced SHG emission can be used as a local light source that is capable of optically exciting molecules of an organic dye, Rose Bengal (RB), which adhere to the particle surface, through the mechanism of luminescence energy transfer (LET).Perovskite alkaline niobates, due to their strong nonlinear optical properties, including birefringence and the capability to produce second-harmonic generation (SHG) signals, attract a lot of attention as potential candidates for applications as local nano/microsized mechano-optical probes. Here, we report on an implementation of photonic force microscopy (PFM) to explore the Brownian motion and optical trappability of monocrystalline potassium niobate (KNbO3) nano/microsized particles having sizes within the range of 50 to 750 nm. In particular, we exploit the anisotropic translational diffusive regime of the Brownian motion to quantify thermal
Lindblad- and non-Lindblad-type dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle
Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Intravaia, F.; Petruccione, F.; Messina, A.
2004-09-01
The dynamics of a typical open quantum system, namely a quantum Brownian particle in a harmonic potential, is studied focusing on its non-Markovian regime. Both an analytic approach and a stochastic wave-function approach are used to describe the exact time evolution of the system. The border between two very different dynamical regimes, the Lindblad and non-Lindblad regimes, is identified and the relevant physical variables governing the passage from one regime to the other are singled out. The non-Markovian short-time dynamics is studied in detail by looking at the mean energy, the squeezing, the Mandel parameter, and the Wigner function of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rang; Zhou, Jia-Ning; Liu, Xue-Mei; Xiao, Hua
2015-11-01
Transport and efficiency of over-damped Brownian particles moving in a confined narrow channel is investigated in the presence of an oscillating force and a static load force. It is found that the average velocity increases monotonously with the unbiased external driving force, while the efficiency can be a peaked function of unbiased external force, which indicates that the unbiased external force can facilitate the efficiency of energy transformation. Moreover, the average velocity and the efficiency demonstrate complex behaviors due to the consideration of Stokes efficiency.
Chen, Shing Bor
2015-12-01
Brownian dynamics simulation has been employed to study the dynamic behavior of particles in three-dimensional ordered porous media subject to a sinusoidal force field. The media comprises interconnected spherical cavities arranged in a simple cubic lattice. The thermal noise assists the particles to undergo cavity hopping, leading to a displacement behavior analogous to stochastic resonance, when the imposed field is strong enough but not aligned with the aperture lines, and the oscillation frequency is not too high. The periodic mean trajectory depends on the strength, frequency, and orientation of the imposed field. At sufficiently large field strength, the periodic particle displacement can become nonsinusoidal due to the strong hindrance and pinning effect of the cavity wall. PMID:26764630
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shing Bor
2015-12-01
Brownian dynamics simulation has been employed to study the dynamic behavior of particles in three-dimensional ordered porous media subject to a sinusoidal force field. The media comprises interconnected spherical cavities arranged in a simple cubic lattice. The thermal noise assists the particles to undergo cavity hopping, leading to a displacement behavior analogous to stochastic resonance, when the imposed field is strong enough but not aligned with the aperture lines, and the oscillation frequency is not too high. The periodic mean trajectory depends on the strength, frequency, and orientation of the imposed field. At sufficiently large field strength, the periodic particle displacement can become nonsinusoidal due to the strong hindrance and pinning effect of the cavity wall.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Zhan-Wu; Wang, Ping
2016-03-01
We investigate the escape rate of Brownian particles that move in a cubic metastable potential subjected to an internal time derivative Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise (DOUN). This noise can induce the ballistic diffusion of force-free Brownian particles. Some new features are found. The escape rate for DOUN shows qualitative different dependence on potential well width compared with OUN which induces normal diffusion. As the potential barrier height decreases, the escape rate of DOUN deviates from Arrhenius law considerably earlier than that of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise (OUN). The Brownian particles escape faster under DOUN than that under OUN. A quasi-periodic oscillation occurs in transient state. A solvable case is presented to demonstrate the significant cancellation behavior in the barrier region that governs most of these phenomena. The physical mechanism of the findings can be clarified by the noise features. These characteristics should be common for internal noises that induce superdiffusion, especially the ballistic diffusion.
Many-particle Brownian and Langevin Dynamics Simulations with the Brownmove package
2011-01-01
Background Brownian Dynamics (BD) is a coarse-grained implicit-solvent simulation method that is routinely used to investigate binary protein association dynamics, but due to its efficiency in handling large simulation volumes and particle numbers it is well suited to also describe many-protein scenarios as they often occur in biological cells. Results Here we introduce our "brownmove" simulation package which was designed to handle many-particle problems with varying particle numbers and allows for a very flexible definition of rigid and flexible protein and polymer models. Both a Brownian and a Langevin dynamics (LD) propagation scheme can be used and hydrodynamic interactions are treated efficiently with our recently introduced TEA-HI ansatz [Geyer, Winter, JCP 130 (2009) 114905]. With simulations of constrained polymers and flexible models of spherical proteins we demonstrate that it is crucial to include hydrodynamics when multi-bead models are used in BD or LD simulations. Only then both the translational and the rotational diffusion coefficients and the timescales of the internal dynamics can be reproduced correctly. In the third example project we show how constant density boundary conditions [Geyer et al, JCP 120 (2004) 4573] can be used to set up a non-equilibrium simulation of diffusional transport across an array of fixed obstacles. Finally, we demonstrate how the agglomeration dynamics of multiple particles with attractive patches can be analysed conveniently with the help of a dynamic interaction network. Conclusions Combining BD and LD propagation, fast hydrodynamics, a flexible protein model, and interfaces for "open" simulation settings, our freely available "brownmove" simulation package constitutes a new platform for coarse-grained many-particle simulations of biologically relevant diffusion and transport processes. PMID:21596002
Effect of harmonic noise on a Brownian particle in a ratchet periodic potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Z. R.; Bai, L.; Shu, C. Z.; Nie, L. R.
2012-08-01
A Brownian particle in a ratchet periodic potential driven by harmonic noise, which is produced through a RLC oscillation circuit with Gaussian white noise, is investigated. The mean velocity and stationary probability distribution function (SPDF) of the system are obtained by means of numerical simulations. We also used the power spectrum of the harmonic noise, the peak position and semi-height width of which can be changed by modulating the driving oscillation circuit's parameters, to analyse contributions of characteristics of the power spectrum to the mean velocity. The results indicate that: (i) appropriate peak position and semi-height width of the harmonic noise's power spectrum can maximise the particle's mean velocity; (ii) the SPDF undergoes a state transition from monostability → bistability → tristability → monostability as the Gaussian white noise intensity is increased, and the other parameters of the driving oscillation circuit can also modify the system's state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarrabi, Nawid; Clausen, Caterina; Düser, Monika G.; Börsch, Michael
2013-02-01
Conformational changes of individual fluorescently labeled proteins can be followed in solution using a confocal microscope. Two fluorophores attached to selected domains of the protein report fluctuating conformations. Based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between these fluorophores on a single protein, sequential distance changes between the dyes provide the real time trajectories of protein conformations. However, observation times are limited for freely diffusing biomolecules by Brownian motion through the confocal detection volume. A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner have invented and built microfluidic devices with 4 electrodes for an Anti-Brownian Electrokinetic Trap (ABELtrap). Here we present an ABELtrap based on a laser focus pattern generated by a pair of acousto-optical beam deflectors and controlled by a programmable FPGA chip. Fluorescent 20-nm beads in solution were used to mimic freely diffusing large proteins like solubilized FoF1-ATP synthase. The ABELtrap could hold these nanobeads for about 10 seconds at the given position. Thereby, observation times of a single particle were increased by a factor of 1000.
Particle mobility between two planar elastic membranes: Brownian motion and membrane deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Abdallah; Guckenberger, Achim; Gekle, Stephan
2016-07-01
We study the motion of a solid particle immersed in a Newtonian fluid and confined between two parallel elastic membranes possessing shear and bending rigidity. The hydrodynamic mobility depends on the frequency of the particle motion due to the elastic energy stored in the membrane. Unlike the single-membrane case, a coupling between shearing and bending exists. The commonly used approximation of superposing two single-membrane contributions is found to give reasonable results only for motions in the parallel direction, but not in the perpendicular direction. We also compute analytically the membrane deformation resulting from the motion of the particle, showing that the presence of the second membrane reduces deformation. Using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem we compute the Brownian motion of the particle, finding a long-lasting subdiffusive regime at intermediate time scales. We finally assess the accuracy of the employed point-particle approximation via boundary-integral simulations for a truly extended particle. They are found to be in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.
Transport of Brownian particles in a narrow, slowly varying serpentine channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xinli; Drazer, German
2015-04-01
We study the transport of Brownian particles under a constant driving force and moving in channels that present a varying centerline but have constant aperture width (serpentine channels). We investigate two types of channels, solid channels, in which the particles are geometrically confined between solid walls and soft channels, in which the particles are confined by the potential energy landscape. We consider the limit of narrow, slowly varying channels, i.e., when the aperture and the variation in the position of the centerline are small compared to the length of a unit cell in the channel (wavelength). We use the method of asymptotic expansions to determine both the average velocity (or mobility) and the effective dispersion coefficient of the particles. We show that both solid and soft-channels have the same effects on the transport properties up to leading order correction. Including the next order correction, we obtain that the mobility in a solid-channel is smaller than that in a soft-channel. However, we discuss an alternative definition of the effective width of a soft channel that leads to equal mobilities up to second order terms. Interestingly, in both cases, the corrections to the mobility of the particles are independent of the Péclet number, and the Einstein-Smoluchowski relation is satisfied.
Bewerunge, Jörg; Ladadwa, Imad; Platten, Florian; Zunke, Christoph; Heuer, Andreas; Egelhaaf, Stefan U
2016-07-28
Anomalous diffusion is a ubiquitous phenomenon in complex systems. It is often quantified using time- and ensemble-averages to improve statistics, although time averages represent a non-local measure in time and hence can be difficult to interpret. We present a detailed analysis of the influence of time- and ensemble-averages on dynamical quantities by investigating Brownian particles in a rough potential energy landscape (PEL). Initially, the particle ensemble is randomly distributed, but the occupancy of energy values evolves towards the equilibrium distribution. This relaxation manifests itself in the time evolution of time- and ensemble-averaged dynamical measures. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study particle dynamics in a potential with a Gaussian distribution of energy values, where the long-time limit of the diffusion coefficient is known from theory. In our experiments, individual colloidal particles are exposed to a laser speckle pattern inducing a non-Gaussian roughness and are followed by optical microscopy. The relaxation depends on the kind and degree of roughness of the PEL. It can be followed and quantified by the time- and ensemble-averaged mean squared displacement. Moreover, the heterogeneity of the dynamics is characterized using single-trajectory analysis. The results of this work are relevant for the correct interpretation of single-particle tracking experiments in general. PMID:27353405
Current and efficiency of Brownian particles under oscillating forces in entropic barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nutku, Ferhat; Aydιner, Ekrem
2015-04-01
In this study, considering the temporarily unbiased force and different forms of oscillating forces, we investigate the current and efficiency of Brownian particles in an entropic tube structure and present the numerically obtained results. We show that different force forms give rise to different current and efficiency profiles in different optimized parameter intervals. We find that an unbiased oscillating force and an unbiased temporal force lead to the current and efficiency, which are dependent on these parameters. We also observe that the current and efficiency caused by temporal and different oscillating forces have maximum and minimum values in different parameter intervals. We conclude that the current or efficiency can be controlled dynamically by adjusting the parameters of entropic barriers and applied force. Project supported by the Funds from Istanbul University (Grant No. 45662).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Santo, Ilaria; D'Avino, Gaetano; Romeo, Giovanni; Greco, Francesco; Netti, Paolo A.; Maffettone, Pier Luca
2014-12-01
Several technologies and biotechnologies employing small-sized particles in microfluidics and nanofluidics rely on the ability of hampering thermal motion for progress. We experimentally demonstrate that nanoparticles suspended in a dilute polymer solution in Poiseuille flow can be trapped in the central region of a microtube, with a trapping efficiency that depends on the squared flow rate. The trap force is caused by the viscoelasticity of the suspending fluid, and can be modulated by selecting liquids with specific rheology. We also propose a simple theoretical argument that supports the experimental evidence, and links the trapping force to a dimensionless parameter comparing viscoelastic normal forces and Brownian forces. The theoretical argument distills into a simple equation, which could be used to downscale flow cytometers, or to design microfluidic devices for counting, coding, or separating nanoparticles.
Biased transport of Brownian particles in a weakly corrugated serpentine channel.
Wang, Xinli
2016-01-28
We investigate the biased transport of Brownian particles in a weakly corrugated channel with constant width but a varying centerline (called serpentine channel). Two different types of channels are considered: a soft-channel is confined by a potential energy landscape; a solid-channel is confined by solid walls. Based on the small amplitude of channel boundaries, the asymptotic method is used to analytically calculate two important macroscopic transport properties--average velocity (or mobility) and effective dispersion coefficient. We find the nonlinear dependence of transport properties on Péclet numbers, which is qualitatively different from the results in a narrow serpentine channel, in which the leading order terms of mobility and the effective dispersion coefficient do not depend on Péclet numbers. In the purely diffusive case where the Péclet number is zero, the Sutherland-Einstein relation is satisfied in both soft and solid channels. PMID:26827196
Biased transport of Brownian particles in a weakly corrugated serpentine channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xinli
2016-01-01
We investigate the biased transport of Brownian particles in a weakly corrugated channel with constant width but a varying centerline (called serpentine channel). Two different types of channels are considered: a soft-channel is confined by a potential energy landscape; a solid-channel is confined by solid walls. Based on the small amplitude of channel boundaries, the asymptotic method is used to analytically calculate two important macroscopic transport properties—average velocity (or mobility) and effective dispersion coefficient. We find the nonlinear dependence of transport properties on Péclet numbers, which is qualitatively different from the results in a narrow serpentine channel, in which the leading order terms of mobility and the effective dispersion coefficient do not depend on Péclet numbers. In the purely diffusive case where the Péclet number is zero, the Sutherland-Einstein relation is satisfied in both soft and solid channels.
Effect of particle size on salt-induced diffusiophoresis compared to Brownian mobility.
McAfee, Michele S; Annunziata, Onofrio
2014-05-01
For ternary polymer-salt-water systems at low polymer concentration (0.5%, w/w), we have experimentally investigated the effect of polymer size on polymer diffusiophoresis (i.e., polymer migration induced by a salt concentration gradient) and salt osmotic diffusion (i.e., salt migration induced by a polymer concentration gradient). Specifically, Rayleigh interferometry was employed to measure ternary diffusion coefficients for aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and KCl at 25 °C. Our investigation focused on four polymer molecular masses (from 10 to 100 kg mol(-1)) and two salt concentrations (0.25 and 0.50 M). To describe and examine our experimental results, we introduced a normalized diffusiophoresis coefficient as the ratio of polymer diffusiophoresis to polymer Brownian mobility. This coefficient was found to increase with polymer molecular mass, thereby demonstrating that the relative importance of polymer diffusiophoresis compared to its intrinsic Brownian mobility increases with particle size. The observed behavior was linked to preferential hydration (water thermodynamic excess) and hydration (bound water) of the macromolecule. The ratio of salt osmotic diffusion to binary salt-water diffusion approximately describes the nonuniform spatial distribution of salt along a static polymer concentration gradient at equilibrium. The significance of polymer diffusiophoresis, especially at high PEG molecular mass, was examined by considering a steady-state diffusion problem showing that salt concentration gradients can produce large enhancements and depletions of polymer concentration. This work is valuable for understanding and modeling the effect of salt concentration gradients on diffusion-based transport of polymers with applications to interfacial processes. PMID:24758490
Experimental study of the stochastic heating of a single Brownian particle by charge fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Christian; Piel, Alexander
2016-08-01
The Brownian motion of a micro-particle, which is suspended in the sheath of a radio-frequency discharge, is studied by high-speed video microscopy. In this environment, stochastic heating by charge fluctuations is expected, which should lead to an anisotropic kinetic temperature of the particle with a preferential heating in the direction of the mean electric field in the sheath. The stochastic heating should become more effective at low gas pressures where cooling by the neutral gas becomes ineffective. Our refined experiments confirm the anisotropic heating and the temperature rise for diminishing pressure. Particle-in-cell simulations have guided us in modifying the gap width of the discharge and to specify the dependence of the plasma density on gas pressure as n i ∝ p 1 / 2 . Since the stochastic heating rate also depends on the life-time of charge fluctuations, a temperature scaling T kin ∝ p 3 / 2 results, which is in agreement with the experimental data. The experimental procedure to eliminate other spurious heating mechanisms is described in detail.
Effect of interference between two colored noises on the stationary states of a Brownian particle.
Mondal, Shrabani; Bag, Bidhan Chandra
2015-04-01
In this paper we present properties of an external colored cross-correlated noise-driven Brownian system which is coupled to a thermal bath. Multiplicative cross-correlated noises can stabilize the transition state. Thus by monitoring the interference between the noises one can understand the mechanism of a chemical reaction. At the same time, we have investigated how the interference affects the barrier-crossing dynamics. In its presence breakdown of the Arrhenius result occurs. The breakdown becomes prominent if the multiplicative noises become additive in nature. We have also investigated how the power law behavior of the rate constant as a function of damping strength is affected by the properties of external colored noises. Furthermore, we have observed that multiplicative colored cross-correlated noises can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. PMID:25974476
Effect of interference between two colored noises on the stationary states of a Brownian particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Shrabani; Bag, Bidhan Chandra
2015-04-01
In this paper we present properties of an external colored cross-correlated noise-driven Brownian system which is coupled to a thermal bath. Multiplicative cross-correlated noises can stabilize the transition state. Thus by monitoring the interference between the noises one can understand the mechanism of a chemical reaction. At the same time, we have investigated how the interference affects the barrier-crossing dynamics. In its presence breakdown of the Arrhenius result occurs. The breakdown becomes prominent if the multiplicative noises become additive in nature. We have also investigated how the power law behavior of the rate constant as a function of damping strength is affected by the properties of external colored noises. Furthermore, we have observed that multiplicative colored cross-correlated noises can induce the resonant activation phenomenon.
Schmitt, M; Stark, H
2016-08-01
A micron-sized droplet of bromine water immersed in a surfactant-laden oil phase can swim (S. Thutupalli, R. Seemann, S. Herminghaus, New J. Phys. 13 073021 (2011). The bromine reacts with the surfactant at the droplet interface and generates a surfactant mixture. It can spontaneously phase-separate due to solutocapillary Marangoni flow, which propels the droplet. We model the system by a diffusion-advection-reaction equation for the mixture order parameter at the interface including thermal noise and couple it to fluid flow. Going beyond previous work, we illustrate the coarsening dynamics of the surfactant mixture towards phase separation in the axisymmetric swimming state. Coarsening proceeds in two steps: an initially slow growth of domain size followed by a nearly ballistic regime. On larger time scales thermal fluctuations in the local surfactant composition initiates random changes in the swimming direction and the droplet performs a persistent random walk, as observed in experiments. Numerical solutions show that the rotational correlation time scales with the square of the inverse noise strength. We confirm this scaling by a perturbation theory for the fluctuations in the mixture order parameter and thereby identify the active emulsion droplet as an active Brownian particle. PMID:27562831
Brownian motion goes ballistic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florin, Ernst-Ludwig
2012-02-01
It is the randomness that is considered the hallmark of Brownian motion, but already in Einstein's seminal 1905 paper on Brownian motion it is implied that this randomness must break down at short time scales when the inertia of the particle kicks in. As a result, the particle's trajectories should lose its randomness and become smooth. The characteristic time scale for this transition is given by the ratio of the particle's mass to its viscous drag coefficient. For a 1 μm glass particle in water and at room temperature, this timescale is on the order of 100 ns. Early calculations, however, neglected the inertia of the liquid surrounding the particle which induces a transition from random diffusive to non-diffusive Brownian motion already at much larger timescales. In this first non-diffusive regime, particles of the same size but with different densities still move at almost the same rate as a result of hydrodynamic correlations. To observe Brownian motion that is dominated by the inertia of the particle, i.e. ballistic motion, one has to observe the particle at significantly shorter time scales on the order of nanoseconds. Due to the lack of sufficiently fast and precise detectors, such experiments were so far not possible on individual particles. I will describe how we were able to observe the transition from hydrodynamically dominated Brownian motion to ballistic Brownian motion in a liquid. I will compare our data with current theories for Brownian motion on fast timescales that take into account the inertia of both the liquid and the particle. The newly gained ability to measure the fast Brownian motion of an individual particle paves the way for detailed studies of confined Brownian motion and Brownian motion in heterogeneous media. [4pt] [1] Einstein, A. "Uber die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der W"arme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Fl"ussigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen. Ann. Phys. 322, 549--560 (1905). [0pt] [2] Lukic, B., S. Jeney, C
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fannin, P. C.; Charles, S. W.; Kopčanský, P.; Timko, M.; Ocelík, V.; Koneracká, M.; Tomčo, L.; Turek, I.; Štelina, J.; Musil, C.
2001-06-01
Two methods, the Toroidal Technique and the Forced Rayleigh Scattering (FRS) method, were used in the determination of the size of magnetic particles and their aggregates in magnetic fluids. The toroidal technique was used in the determination of the complex, frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, x(w)=x'(w) - ix"(w) of magnetic fluids consisting of two colloidal suspensions of cobalt ferrite in hexadecene and a colloidal suspension of magnetite in isopar m with corresponding saturation magnetisation of 45.5 mT, 20 mT and 90 mT, respectively. Plots of the susceptibility components against frequency f over the range 10 Hz to 1 MHz, are shown to have approximate Debye-type profiles with the presence of relaxation components being indicated by the frequency, f max, of the maximum of the loss-peak in the x"(w) profiles. The FRS method (the interference of two intense laser beams in the thin film of magnetic fluid) was used to create the periodical structure of needle like clusters of magnetic particles. This creation is caused by a thermodiffusion effect known as the Soret effect. The obtained structures are indicative of as a self diffraction effect of the used primary laser beams. The relaxation phenomena arising from the switching off of the laser interference field is discussed in terms of a spectrum of relaxation times. This spectrum is proportional to the hydrodynamic particle size distribution. Corresponding calculations of particle hydrodynamic radius obtained by both mentioned methods indicate the presence of aggregates of magnetic particles.
Rate laws of the self-induced aggregation kinetics of Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Shrabani; Sen, Monoj Kumar; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra
2016-03-01
In this paper we have studied the self induced aggregation kinetics of Brownian particles in the presence of both multiplicative and additive noises. In addition to the drift due to the self aggregation process, the environment may induce a drift term in the presence of a multiplicative noise. Then there would be an interplay between the two drift terms. It may account qualitatively the appearance of the different laws of aggregation process. At low strength of white multiplicative noise, the cluster number decreases as a Gaussian function of time. If the noise strength becomes appreciably large then the variation of cluster number with time is fitted well by the mono exponentially decaying function of time. For additive noise driven case, the decrease of cluster number can be described by the power law. But in case of multiplicative colored driven process, cluster number decays multi exponentially. However, we have explored how the rate constant (in the mono exponentially cluster number decaying case) depends on strength of interference of the noises and their intensity. We have also explored how the structure factor at long time depends on the strength of the cross correlation (CC) between the additive and the multiplicative noises.
Avalanche-like fluidization of a non-Brownian particle gel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurokawa, Aika; Vidal, Valérie; Kurita, Kei; Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien
We report on the fluidization dynamics of an attractive gel composed of non-Brownian particles made of fused silica colloids. Extensive rheology coupled to ultrasonic velocimetry allows us to characterize the global stress response together with the local dynamics of the gel during shear startup experiments. In practice, after being rejuvenated by a preshear, the gel is left to age during a time tw before being submitted to a constant shear rate γ˙. We investigate in detail the effects of both tw and γ˙ on the fluidization dynamics and build a detailed state diagram of the gel response to shear startup flows. The gel may either display transient shear banding towards complete fluidization, or steady-state shear banding. In the former case, we unravel that the progressive fluidization occurs by successive steps that appear as peaks on the global stress relaxation signal. Flow imaging reveals that the shear band grows up to complete fluidization of the material by sudden avalanche-like events which are distributed heterogeneously along the vorticity direction and correlated to large peaks in the slip velocity at the moving wall. PRC CNRS/JSPS RheoVolc, IUF & ERC Grant Agreement No. 258803.
Noise-enhanced stability and double stochastic resonance of active Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Chunhua; Zhang, Chun; Zeng, Jiakui; Liu, Ruifen; Wang, Hua
2015-08-01
In this paper, we study the transient and resonant properties of active Brownian particles (ABPs) in the Rayleigh-Helmholtz (RH) and Schweitzer-Ebeling-Tilch (SET) models, which is driven by the simultaneous action of multiplicative and additive noise and periodic forcing. It is shown that the cross-correlation between two noises (λ) can break the symmetry of the potential to generate motion of the ABPs. In case of no correlation between two noises, the mean first passage time (MFPT) is a monotonic decrease depending on the multiplicative noise, however in case of correlation between two noises, the MFPT exhibits a maximum, depending on the multiplicative noise for both models, this maximum for MFPT identifies the noise-enhanced stability (NES) effect of the ABPs. By comparing with case of no correlation (λ =0.0 ), we find two maxima in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) depending on the cross-correlation intensity, i.e. the double stochastic resonance is shown in both models. For the RH model, the SNR exhibits two maxima depending on the multiplicative noise for small cross-correlation intensity, while in the SET model, it exhibits only a maximum depending on the multiplicative noise. Whether λ =0.0 or not, the MFPT is a monotonic decrease, and the SNR exhibits a maximum, depending on the additive noise in both models.
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Sire, Clément
2006-06-01
We propose a general kinetic and hydrodynamic description of self-gravitating Brownian particles in d dimensions. We go beyond the usual approximations by considering inertial effects and finite-N effects while previous works use a mean-field approximation valid in a proper thermodynamic limit (N --> +infinity) and consider an overdamped regime (xi --> +infinity). We recover known models in some particular cases of our general description. We derive the expression of the virial theorem for self-gravitating Brownian particles and study the linear dynamical stability of isolated clusters of particles and uniform systems by using techniques introduced in astrophysics. We investigate the influence of the equation of state, of the dimension of space, and of the friction coefficient on the dynamical stability of the system. We obtain the exact expression of the critical temperature Tc for a multicomponents self-gravitating Brownian gas in d = 2. We also consider the limit of weak frictions, xi --> 0, and derive the orbit-averaged Kramers equation. PMID:16906911
On the stochastic behavior of Brownian particles in potential wells, as observed with optical traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brody, Ross Paul
When the random fluctuations of a system are viewed as energetic fluctuations, many of the unique qualities of the system become irrelevant to the fundamental behavior. Consequently, many stochastic processes are fundamentally identical and are treated mathematically as such. For this reason the study of colloidal particles in aqueous solution has been invaluable to investigations of biologically relevant stochastic processes. This work addresses the motion of a Brownian particle, in a potential well, whose random fluctuations are described by a Gaussian-Markov random variable. By performing optical trapping experiments on micron sized, non-interacting, latex spheres in aqueous solution we have shown that at equilibrium, fluctuations in a forward sense are as likely to occur as fluctuations in the reverse sense. One relationship we have, investigated relates the conditional probability of a transition occurring during a specific elapsed time and its spatial inverse to the equilibrium probabilities of the initial and final states a and b, P(b, Delta t|a, 0)/P(a, Delta t|b, 0) = e-DeltaU/k BT. We have shown this relationship holds for times both short and long compared to the average time to transition from a to b. A second relationship we have investigated, which may be explained by microscopic reversibility alone, equates the average time for a "direct" transition from a to b to the average time for a "direct" transition from b to a. We refer to these as last-touch-first-touch-times (LTFTT), or the average time that elapses between the last touching of the initial position and the first touching of the final position. Experimental limitations prevented direct measurement of LTFTTs, however, we did observe an equality between last-observed-first-observed times (LOFOT). Using a discretized Langevin equation to simulate our system we recovered the equality between LTFTTs and obtained numerical results for LTFTTs.
Avalanche-like fluidization of a non-Brownian particle gel.
Kurokawa, Aika; Vidal, Valérie; Kurita, Kei; Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien
2015-12-14
We report on the fluidization dynamics of an attractive gel composed of non-Brownian particles made of fused silica colloids. Extensive rheology coupled to ultrasonic velocimetry allows us to characterize the global stress response together with the local dynamics of the gel during shear startup experiments. In practice, after being rejuvenated by a preshear, the gel is left to age for a time tw before being subjected to a constant shear rate [small gamma, Greek, dot above]. We investigate in detail the effects of both tw and [small gamma, Greek, dot above] on the fluidization dynamics and build a detailed state diagram of the gel response to shear startup flows. The gel may display either transient shear banding towards complete fluidization or steady-state shear banding. In the former case, we unravel that the progressive fluidization occurs by successive steps that appear as peaks on the global stress relaxation signal. Flow imaging reveals that the shear band grows until complete fluidization of the material by sudden avalanche-like events which are distributed heterogeneously along the vorticity direction and correlated to large peaks in the slip velocity at the moving wall. These features are robust over a wide range of tw and [small gamma, Greek, dot above] values, although the very details of the fluidization scenario vary with [small gamma, Greek, dot above]. Finally, the critical shear rate [small gamma, Greek, dot above]* that separates steady-state shear-banding from steady-state homogeneous flow depends on the width of the shear cell and exhibits a nonlinear dependence with tw. Our work brings about valuable experimental data on transient flows of attractive dispersions, highlighting the subtle interplay between shear, wall slip and aging whose modeling constitutes a major challenge that has not been met yet. PMID:26403168
Stochastic thermodynamics with a Brownian particle in an optical trap (Presentation Recording)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Ignacio A.; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Mestres, Pau; Parrondo, Juan M. R.; Rica, Raúl A.
2015-08-01
Stochastic thermodynamics [1,2] is a recently developed framework to deal with the thermodynamics at the microscope, where thermal fluctuations strongly influence their behaviour. Typical such systems are colloids and biomolecules or cells. These thermal fluctuations do not only lead to Brownian motion, but to a continuous and unavoidable heat exchange between the suspending medium and the particles, leading to a very interesting phenomenology. In order to explore such phenomenology and to test theoretical results obtained from stochastic thermodynamics, we developed an "experimental simulator" of thermodynamic devices in the microscale with an optically trapped bead that is subject to an external noise that mimics a controllable thermal bath. The noise is applied by means of electric fields acting on the charge of the trapped particle. In this talk, I will present some of the results we obtained with this simulator, demonstrating excellent control over the effective temperature of the system and a control parameter. This allows us to perform a variety of equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamic processes [3-5]. In particular, we were able to realize microadiabatic processes, where no heat is exchanged on average between the particle and the medium [6]. This achievement allowed us to implement a Carnot microengine as a concatenation of isothermal and adiabatic processes [7], whose theoretical study is playing a key role in the foundations of stochastic thermodynamics. References [1] K Sekimoto; Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer, Berlin, 2010), Vol. 799. [2] U Seifert; Rep. Prog. Phys. 75 (2012) 126001 [3] IA Martínez, E Roldan, JMR Parrondo, D Petrov; Phys. Rev. E 87 (2013) 032159 [4] É Roldán, IA Martínez, L Dinis, RA Rica; Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 (2014) 234103 [5] P Mestres, IA Martinez, A Ortiz-Ambriz, RA Rica, E Roldan; Phys. Rev. E 90 (2014) 032116 [6] IA Martínez, E Roldan, L Dinis, D Petrov, RA Rica; Phys. Rev. Lett. (2015) In press [7] IA Martinez
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hopkins, Paul; Fortini, Andrea; Archer, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Matthias
2010-12-01
We describe a test particle approach based on dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) for studying the correlated time evolution of the particles that constitute a fluid. Our theory provides a means of calculating the van Hove distribution function by treating its self and distinct parts as the two components of a binary fluid mixture, with the "self " component having only one particle, the "distinct" component consisting of all the other particles, and using DDFT to calculate the time evolution of the density profiles for the two components. We apply this approach to a bulk fluid of Brownian hard spheres and compare to results for the van Hove function and the intermediate scattering function from Brownian dynamics computer simulations. We find good agreement at low and intermediate densities using the very simple Ramakrishnan-Yussouff [Phys. Rev. B 19, 2775 (1979)] approximation for the excess free energy functional. Since the DDFT is based on the equilibrium Helmholtz free energy functional, we can probe a free energy landscape that underlies the dynamics. Within the mean-field approximation we find that as the particle density increases, this landscape develops a minimum, while an exact treatment of a model confined situation shows that for an ergodic fluid this landscape should be monotonic. We discuss possible implications for slow, glassy, and arrested dynamics at high densities.
Hopkins, Paul; Fortini, Andrea; Archer, Andrew J; Schmidt, Matthias
2010-12-14
We describe a test particle approach based on dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) for studying the correlated time evolution of the particles that constitute a fluid. Our theory provides a means of calculating the van Hove distribution function by treating its self and distinct parts as the two components of a binary fluid mixture, with the "self " component having only one particle, the "distinct" component consisting of all the other particles, and using DDFT to calculate the time evolution of the density profiles for the two components. We apply this approach to a bulk fluid of Brownian hard spheres and compare to results for the van Hove function and the intermediate scattering function from Brownian dynamics computer simulations. We find good agreement at low and intermediate densities using the very simple Ramakrishnan-Yussouff [Phys. Rev. B 19, 2775 (1979)] approximation for the excess free energy functional. Since the DDFT is based on the equilibrium Helmholtz free energy functional, we can probe a free energy landscape that underlies the dynamics. Within the mean-field approximation we find that as the particle density increases, this landscape develops a minimum, while an exact treatment of a model confined situation shows that for an ergodic fluid this landscape should be monotonic. We discuss possible implications for slow, glassy, and arrested dynamics at high densities. PMID:21171689
Brownian regime of finite-N corrections to particle motion in the XY Hamiltonian mean field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Bruno V.; Amato, Marco A.; Elskens, Yves
2016-08-01
We study the dynamics of the N-particle system evolving in the XY Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model for a repulsive potential, when no phase transition occurs. Starting from a homogeneous distribution, particles evolve in a mean field created by the interaction with all others. This interaction does not change the homogeneous state of the system, and particle motion is approximately ballistic with small corrections. For initial particle data approaching a waterbag, it is explicitly proved that corrections to the ballistic velocities are in the form of independent Brownian noises over a time scale diverging not slower than {N}2/5 as N\\to ∞ , which proves the propagation of molecular chaos. Molecular dynamics simulations of the XY-HMF model confirm our analytical findings.
Zhao, Yu; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Jianing
2015-10-20
Size-resolved deposition rates and Brownian coagulation of particles between 20 and 900 nm (mobility diameter) were estimated in a well-mixed environmental chamber from a gasoline vehicle exhaust with a total peak particle concentration of 10(5)-10(6) particles/cm(3) at 12.24-25.22 °C. A deposition theory with modified friction velocity and coagulation model was also employed to predict particle concentration decay. Initially during particle decay, approximately 85% or more of the particles had diameters of <100 nm. Particle deposition rates with standard deviations were highly dependent on particle size ranges, and varied from 0.012 ± 0.003 to 0.48 ± 0.02 h(-1). In the experiment, the friction velocity obtained was in the range 1.5-2.5 cm/s. The most explainable fractal dimension and Hamaker constant in coagulation model were 2.5-3 and 20 kT, respectively, and the contribution from coagulation dominated the total particle decay during the first 1 h of decay. It is considered that the modified friction velocity and best fitted fractal dimension and Hamaker constants could be further used to analyze gasoline vehicle exhaust particle dynamics and assess human exposure to vehicle particle pollutants in urban areas, tunnels, and underground parking lots. PMID:26402743
2011-01-01
An alternative insight is presented concerning heat propagation velocity scales in predicting the effective thermal conductivities of nanofluids. The widely applied Brownian particle velocities in published literature are often found too slow to describe the relatively higher nanofluid conductivities. In contrast, the present model proposes a faster heat transfer velocity at the same order as the speed of sound, rooted in a modified kinetic principle. In addition, this model accounts for both nanoparticle heat dissipation as well as coagulation effects. This novel model of effective thermal conductivities of nanofluids agrees well with an extended range of experimental data. PMID:21711892
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zemánek, Pavel; Šiler, Martin; Brzobohatý, Oto; Jákl, Petr; Filip, Radim
2016-06-01
The noise-to-signal transitions belong to an exciting group of processes in physics. In Filip and Zemánek (2016, J. Opt. 18 065401) we theoretically analyse the stochastic noise-to-signal transition of overdamped Brownian motion of a particle in the cubic potential. In this part, we propose a feasible experimental setup for a proof-of-principle experiment that uses methods of optical trapping in shaped laser beams which provide cubic and quadratic potentials. Theoretical estimates and results from the numerical simulations indicate that the noise-to-signal transition can be observed under realistic experimental conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukassen, Laura; Oberlack, Martin
2014-11-01
As described in literature, non-Brownian particles in shear flow show a diffusive behavior due to hydrodynamic interactions. This shear-induced diffusion differs from the well-known Brownian diffusion, as there is no separation of time scales. That means that the configuration of non-Brownian particles changes on the same time scale as the hydrodynamic velocity. This fact impedes the derivation of a Fokker-Planck equation describing non-Brownian particles in pure position space. In this context, we derived a new Fokker-Planck approach in coupled position-velocity space to assure the validity of the Markov process assumption which is violated in pure position space formulation (Lukassen, Oberlack, Phys. Rev. E 89, 2014). Here, we present a further validation of our new Fokker-Planck approach that allows us to establish a relation to a modified purely position space Fokker-Planck equation. This backward transformation exhibits additional correction terms when compared to other position space Fokker-Planck equations in that context known from literature. Our extended approach shall enable a better stochastic description of non-Brownian particle flows. The work of L. Lukassen is supported by the ``Excellence Initiative'' of the German Federal and State Governments and the Graduate School of Computational Engineering at TU Darmstadt.
Adiabatically driven Brownian pumps.
Rozenbaum, Viktor M; Makhnovskii, Yurii A; Shapochkina, Irina V; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen; Lin, Sheng Hsien
2013-07-01
We investigate a Brownian pump which, being powered by a flashing ratchet mechanism, produces net particle transport through a membrane. The extension of the Parrondo's approach developed for reversible Brownian motors [Parrondo, Phys. Rev. E 57, 7297 (1998)] to adiabatically driven pumps is given. We demonstrate that the pumping mechanism becomes especially efficient when the time variation of the potential occurs adiabatically fast or adiabatically slow, in perfect analogy with adiabatically driven Brownian motors which exhibit high efficiency [Rozenbaum et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 041116 (2012)]. At the same time, the efficiency of the pumping mechanism is shown to be less than that of Brownian motors due to fluctuations of the number of particles in the membrane. PMID:23944411
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Ivan; Vitkin, Alex
2016-01-01
The study of flowing Brownian particles finds numerous biomedical applications, ranging from blood flow analysis to diffusion research. A mathematical model for the correlation function of laser radiation scattered by flowing Brownian particles measured with fiber-based optical coherence tomography (OCT), which accounts for the effects of sample arm optics, is presented. It is shown that the parameters of an OCT optical system of any complexity can be taken into account by using the ABCD ray tracing matrix approach. Specifically, the impact of any optical system can be characterized by the changes in the effective beam radius, which replaces the Gaussian beam radius in the existing mathematical models of scattered radiation. It is shown that the validity of the developed ABCD matrix formalism is governed by the condition that the source coherence length is much smaller than the Rayleigh range in the sample. The predictions of the developed model are compared with previously published theories and with experimental data and agree well with the latter.
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Sire, Clément
2006-06-01
We derive the virial theorem appropriate to the generalized Smoluchowski-Poisson (GSP) system describing self-gravitating Brownian particles in an overdamped limit. We extend previous works by considering the case of an unbounded domain and an arbitrary equation of state. We use the virial theorem to study the diffusion (evaporation) of an isothermal Brownian gas above the critical temperature Tc in dimension d = 2 and show how the effective diffusion coefficient and the Einstein relation are modified by self-gravity. We also study the collapse at T = Tc and show that the central density increases logarithmically with time instead of exponentially in a bounded domain. Finally, for d > 2, we show that the evaporation of the system is essentially a pure diffusion slightly slowed down by self-gravity. We also study the linear dynamical stability of stationary solutions of the GSP system representing isolated clusters of particles and investigate the influence of the equation of state and of the dimension of space on the dynamical stability of the system. PMID:16906910
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xujun; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan; Karpeyev, Dmitry; de Pablo, Juan; Smith, Barry
In this work, we present an efficient parallel particle-in-mesh method for Brownian Dynamics simulations of many-particle systems confined in micro- and nano-fluidic devices. A general geometry Ewald-like method (GGEM) combined with finite element method is used to account for the hydrodynamic interaction. A fast parallel Krylov-type iterative solver with hybrid preconditioning techniques is developed for solving the large sparse systems of equations arising from finite element discretization of the Stokes equations. In addition, the current computer code is developed based on PETSc, a scalable library of numerical algorithms developed at Argonne, SLEPc - Scalable Library for Eigenvalue Problem Computations, and libMesh, a finite element library for numerical solution of PDEs built on top of PETSc, which allows for direct simulation of large scale systems with arbitrary confined geometries. This scheme is applied to Brownian dynamics simulations of flowing confined polymer solutions and colloidal dispersions in micro-fluid channels. The effects of hydrodynamics interactions and geometric confinement on the migration phenomena are illustrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Prieve, Dennis
2013-11-01
In previous experiments, a single 6 μm sphere, immersed in a 0.15 mol/m3 electrolyte solution, was put in an alternating electric field (6 kV/m, 100 Hz to 10 kHz) acting normal to a nearby planar electrode. Even in the absence of the applied field, the particle is confined by a potential energy well formed by gravitational attraction and double-layer repulsion. While monitoring the elevation of the particle (order of 300 nm) with Total Internal Reflection Microscopy at millisecond intervals and with the AC field, the particle was observed to experience a steady attraction to the electrode, even when the deterministic oscillations were imperceptibly small. While dielectrophoresis could produce a steady attraction, the observed attraction has a frequency dependence which is not consistent with this force. In this work, we use Brownian dynamics simulation to explore the role of several nonlinearities in the equation of motion: 1) a position-dependent drag coefficient, 2) a position-dependent oscillating force and 3) a non-parabolic shape for the confining potential energy profile (non-linear spring).
Stochastic dynamics of coupled active particles in an overdamped limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ann, Minjung; Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock; Park, Pyeong Jun
2015-10-01
We introduce a model for Brownian dynamics of coupled active particles in an overdamped limit. Our system consists of several identical active particles and one passive particle. Each active particle is elastically coupled to the passive particle and there is no direct coupling among the active particles. We investigate the dynamics of the system with respect to the number of active particles, viscous friction, and coupling between the active and passive particles. For this purpose, we consider an intracellular transport process as an application of our model and perform a Brownian dynamics simulation using realistic parameters for processive molecular motors such as kinesin-1. We determine an adequate energy conversion function for molecular motors and study the dynamics of intracellular transport by multiple motors. The results show that the average velocity of the coupled system is not affected by the number of active motors and that the stall force increases linearly as the number of motors increases. Our results are consistent with well-known experimental observations. We also examine the effects of coupling between the motors and the cargo, as well as of the spatial distribution of the motors around the cargo. Our model might provide a physical explanation of the cooperation among active motors in the cellular transport processes.
Bian, Xin; Kim, Changho; Karniadakis, George Em
2016-08-14
We consider the Brownian motion of a particle and present a tutorial review over the last 111 years since Einstein's paper in 1905. We describe Einstein's model, Langevin's model and the hydrodynamic models, with increasing sophistication on the hydrodynamic interactions between the particle and the fluid. In recent years, the effects of interfaces on the nearby Brownian motion have been the focus of several investigations. We summarize various results and discuss some of the controversies associated with new findings about the changes in Brownian motion induced by the interface. PMID:27396746
Xia, Hui; Pang, Ru Yi; Zhang, Rui; Miao, Cai Xia; Wu, Xiao Yun; Hou, Xue Shun; Zhong, Cheng
2012-06-15
The aggregation kinetics of particles in dense polystyrene latex suspensions is studied by low-coherence fiber optic dynamic light scattering. Low-coherence fiber optic dynamic light scattering is used to measure the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates. The aggregation kinetics data obtained can be fitted into a single exponential function, which is the characteristic of slow aggregation. It is found that the aggregation rate of particles increased with higher electrolyte levels and with larger particle concentrations. The experimental results can be explained by use of the Derjaruin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeer (DLVO) theory. PMID:22446146
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donado, F.; Sandoval, U.; Carrillo, J. L.
2009-01-01
An experimental and theoretical study on the kinetics of the aggregation process of magnetic particles dispersed in mineral oils is presented. A static magnetic field and an oscillating magnetic perturbation are applied on the dispersion. In the low-particle concentrations, the effects on the aggregation of the frequency, the concentration of particles and the viscosity of the liquid are analyzed. It was found that the behavior of the cluster length as a function of the main control parameters can be accurately characterized by scaling relations. The physical characteristics of the aggregates are discussed in relation to measurements of viscosity as a function of time.
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Sire, Clément
2011-03-01
We provide an exact analytical solution of the collapse dynamics of self-gravitating Brownian particles and bacterial populations at zero temperature. These systems are described by the Smoluchowski-Poisson system or Keller-Segel model in which the diffusion term is neglected. As a result, the dynamics is purely deterministic. A cold system undergoes a gravitational collapse, leading to a finite-time singularity: The central density increases and becomes infinite in a finite time t{coll}. The evolution continues in the postcollapse regime. A Dirac peak emerges, grows, and finally captures all the mass in a finite time t{end}, while the central density excluding the Dirac peak progressively decreases. Close to the collapse time, the pre- and postcollapse evolutions are self-similar. Interestingly, if one starts from a parabolic density profile, one obtains an exact analytical solution that describes the whole collapse dynamics, from the initial time to the end, and accounts for non-self-similar corrections that were neglected in previous works. Our results have possible application in different areas including astrophysics, chemotaxis, colloids, and nanoscience. PMID:21517478
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, R.; Reimann, P.
2004-04-01
We consider a Brownian particle whose motion is confined to a ``meandering'' pathway and which is driven away from thermal equilibrium by an alternating external force. This system exhibits absolute negative mobility, i.e. when an external static force is applied the particle moves in the direction opposite to that force. We reveal the physical mechanism behind this ``donkey-like'' behavior, and derive analytical approximations that are in excellent agreement with numerical results.
Effective diffusion coefficient of a Brownian particle in a periodically expanded conical tube
Antipov, Anatoly E.; Barzykin, Alexander V.; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Makhnovskii, Yurii A.; Zitserman, Vladimir Yu.; Aldoshin, Sergei M.
2016-01-01
Diffusion in a tube of periodically varying diameter occurs slower than that in a cylindrical tube because diffusing particles get trapped in wells of the periodic entropy potential which is due to variation of the tube cross-section area. To quantify the slowdown one has to establish a relation between the effective diffusion coefficient of the particle and the tube geometry, which is a very complicated problem. Here we show how to overcome the difficulties in the case of a periodically expanded conical tube, where we find an approximate solution for the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of the parameters determining the tube geometry. PMID:24329385
From Mechanical Motion to Brownian Motion, Thermodynamics and Particle Transport Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bringuier, E.
2008-01-01
The motion of a particle in a medium is dealt with either as a problem of mechanics or as a transport process in non-equilibrium statistical physics. The two kinds of approach are often unrelated as they are taught in different textbooks. The aim of this paper is to highlight the link between the mechanical and statistical treatments of particle…
Brownian motion studies of viscoelastic colloidal gels by rotational single particle tracking
Liang, Mengning; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.
2014-01-01
Colloidal gels have unique properties due to a complex microstructure which forms into an extended network. Although the bulk properties of colloidal gels have been studied, there has been difficulty correlating those properties with individual colloidal dynamics on the microscale due to the very high viscosity and elasticity of the material. We utilize rotational X-ray tracking (RXT) to investigate the rotational motion of component crystalline colloidal particles in a colloidal gel of alumina and decanoic acid. Our investigation has determined that the high elasticity of the bulk is echoed by a high elasticity experienced by individual colloidal particles themselves but also finds an unexpected high degree of rotational diffusion, indicating a large degree of freedom in the rotational motion of individual colloids even within a tightly bound system. PMID:25075336
Long, Wei; Hilpert, Markus
2009-06-15
In this paper, we develop a new correlation for the clean-bed filter coefficient (lambda0) for Brownian particles, for which diffusion is the main deposition mechanism. The correlation is based on numerical Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations in random packings of spheres of uniform diameter. We use LB methods to solve the Navier-Stokes equation for flow and then the advection-diffusion equation for particle transport. We determine a correlation for an "equivalent" single-collector diffusion efficiency, etaD, so that we can compare our predictions to "true" single-collector correlations stemming from unit-cell modeling approaches. We compared our new correlation to experiments on the filtration of latex particles. For small particle diameters, 50 nm < dp < 300 nm, when gravity and interception are negligible, our correlation for etaD predicts measurements better than unit-cell correlations, which overestimate etaD. The good agreement suggests that the representation of three-dimensional transport pathways in porous media plays an important role when modeling transport and deposition of Brownian particles. To model larger particles, for which gravity and interception are important too, we build a correlation for the overall single-collector efficiency eta0 by adding corresponding etaG and nI terms from unit-cell correlations to our etaD model. The resulting correlation predicts experiments with latex particles of dp > 300 nm well. PMID:19603656
McMullan, G; Vinothkumar, K R; Henderson, R
2015-11-01
We have recorded dose-fractionated electron cryo-microscope images of thin films of pure flash-frozen amorphous ice and pre-irradiated amorphous carbon on a Falcon II direct electron detector using 300 keV electrons. We observe Thon rings [1] in both the power spectrum of the summed frames and the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. The Thon rings from amorphous carbon images are always more visible in the power spectrum of the summed frames whereas those of amorphous ice are more visible in the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. This difference indicates that while pre-irradiated carbon behaves like a solid during the exposure, amorphous ice behaves like a fluid with the individual water molecules undergoing beam-induced motion. Using the measured variation in the power spectra amplitude with number of electrons per image we deduce that water molecules are randomly displaced by a mean squared distance of ∼1.1 Å(2) for every incident 300 keV e(-)/Å(2). The induced motion leads to an optimal exposure with 300 keV electrons of 4.0 e(-)/Å(2) per image with which to observe Thon rings centred around the strong 3.7 Å scattering peak from amorphous ice. The beam-induced movement of the water molecules generates pseudo-Brownian motion of embedded macromolecules. The resulting blurring of single particle images contributes an additional term, on top of that from radiation damage, to the minimum achievable B-factor for macromolecular structure determination. PMID:26103047
G. McMullan; Vinothkumar, K.R.; Henderson, R.
2015-01-01
We have recorded dose-fractionated electron cryo-microscope images of thin films of pure flash-frozen amorphous ice and pre-irradiated amorphous carbon on a Falcon II direct electron detector using 300 keV electrons. We observe Thon rings [1] in both the power spectrum of the summed frames and the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. The Thon rings from amorphous carbon images are always more visible in the power spectrum of the summed frames whereas those of amorphous ice are more visible in the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. This difference indicates that while pre-irradiated carbon behaves like a solid during the exposure, amorphous ice behaves like a fluid with the individual water molecules undergoing beam-induced motion. Using the measured variation in the power spectra amplitude with number of electrons per image we deduce that water molecules are randomly displaced by a mean squared distance of ∼1.1 Å2 for every incident 300 keV e−/Å2. The induced motion leads to an optimal exposure with 300 keV electrons of 4.0 e−/Å2 per image with which to observe Thon rings centred around the strong 3.7 Å scattering peak from amorphous ice. The beam-induced movement of the water molecules generates pseudo-Brownian motion of embedded macromolecules. The resulting blurring of single particle images contributes an additional term, on top of that from radiation damage, to the minimum achievable B-factor for macromolecular structure determination. PMID:26103047
Brownian motion on random dynamical landscapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suñé Simon, Marc; Sancho, José María; Lindenberg, Katja
2016-03-01
We present a study of overdamped Brownian particles moving on a random landscape of dynamic and deformable obstacles (spatio-temporal disorder). The obstacles move randomly, assemble, and dissociate following their own dynamics. This landscape may account for a soft matter or liquid environment in which large obstacles, such as macromolecules and organelles in the cytoplasm of a living cell, or colloids or polymers in a liquid, move slowly leading to crowding effects. This representation also constitutes a novel approach to the macroscopic dynamics exhibited by active matter media. We present numerical results on the transport and diffusion properties of Brownian particles under this disorder biased by a constant external force. The landscape dynamics are characterized by a Gaussian spatio-temporal correlation, with fixed time and spatial scales, and controlled obstacle concentrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trefan, Gyorgy
1993-01-01
The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the ambitious program of the foundation of developing statistical physics using chaos. We build a deterministic model of Brownian motion and provide a microscopic derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation. Since the Brownian motion of a particle is the result of the competing processes of diffusion and dissipation, we create a model where both diffusion and dissipation originate from the same deterministic mechanism--the deterministic interaction of that particle with its environment. We show that standard diffusion which is the basis of the Fokker-Planck equation rests on the Central Limit Theorem, and, consequently, on the possibility of deriving it from a deterministic process with a quickly decaying correlation function. The sensitive dependence on initial conditions, one of the defining properties of chaos insures this rapid decay. We carefully address the problem of deriving dissipation from the interaction of a particle with a fully deterministic nonlinear bath, that we term the booster. We show that the solution of this problem essentially rests on the linear response of a booster to an external perturbation. This raises a long-standing problem concerned with Kubo's Linear Response Theory and the strong criticism against it by van Kampen. Kubo's theory is based on a perturbation treatment of the Liouville equation, which, in turn, is expected to be totally equivalent to a first-order perturbation treatment of single trajectories. Since the boosters are chaotic, and chaos is essential to generate diffusion, the single trajectories are highly unstable and do not respond linearly to weak external perturbation. We adopt chaotic maps as boosters of a Brownian particle, and therefore address the problem of the response of a chaotic booster to an external perturbation. We notice that a fully chaotic map is characterized by an invariant measure which is a continuous function of the control parameters of the map
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez, Jorge H.; Rinaldi, Carlos
2009-10-01
The rotational Brownian motion of magnetized tri-axial ellipsoidal particles (orthotropic particles) suspended in a Newtonian fluid, in the dilute suspension limit, under applied d.c. and a.c. magnetic fields was studied using rotational Brownian dynamics simulations. The algorithm describing the change in the suspension magnetization was obtained from the stochastic angular momentum equation using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and a quaternion formulation of orientation space. Simulation results are in agreement with the Langevin function for equilibrium magnetization and with single-exponential relaxation from equilibrium at small fields using Perrin's effective relaxation time. Dynamic susceptibilities for ellipsoidal particles of different aspect ratios were obtained from the response to oscillating magnetic fields of different frequencies and described by Debye's model for the complex susceptibility using Perrin's effective relaxation time. Simulations at high equilibrium and probe fields indicate that Perrin's effective relaxation time continues to describe relaxation from equilibrium and response to oscillating fields even beyond the small field limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Takehiro; Suga, Takanori; Mori, Noriyasu
2005-08-01
Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations were carried out for suspensions of oblate spheroid particles interacting via the Gay-Berne (GB) potential. The oblate spheroid particles were applied as a model of disc-like particles and the system of suspension of the particles was considered. Numerically analyzed were both the change in phase with the number density of the particles at equilibrium state and the behavior of the particles in simple shear flows. The system changed from isotropic phase to nematic one with increasing the particle concentration. In the simulation of shear flows, the shear was imposed upon the systems in nematic phase at equilibrium. The systems exhibited various motions of the director depending on the shear rate, e.g. the continuous rotation of director at low shear rates, the wagging at moderate shear rates, and the flow aligning at high shear rates. Temporal change in inner structure of suspensions was also analyzed and collapse of initial particle configurations due to shear was found. Moreover, rheological properties of the suspension were investigated. The numerical simulation predicted the shear-thinning in viscosity, negative first normal stress difference, and positive second normal stress difference, and these results qualitatively agreed with the predictions using a constitutive equation for discotic nematics. The present study proved that the BD simulation using spheroid particles interacting via the GB potential is an effective approach for investigating the flow behavior and flow-induced structure of suspensions of disklike particles at a particulate level.
Yamamoto, Takehiro; Suga, Takanori; Mori, Noriyasu
2005-08-01
Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations were carried out for suspensions of oblate spheroid particles interacting via the Gay-Berne (GB) potential. The oblate spheroid particles were applied as a model of disc-like particles and the system of suspension of the particles was considered. Numerically analyzed were both the change in phase with the number density of the particles at equilibrium state and the behavior of the particles in simple shear flows. The system changed from isotropic phase to nematic one with increasing the particle concentration. In the simulation of shear flows, the shear was imposed upon the systems in nematic phase at equilibrium. The systems exhibited various motions of the director depending on the shear rate, e.g. the continuous rotation of director at low shear rates, the wagging at moderate shear rates, and the flow aligning at high shear rates. Temporal change in inner structure of suspensions was also analyzed and collapse of initial particle configurations due to shear was found. Moreover, rheological properties of the suspension were investigated. The numerical simulation predicted the shear-thinning in viscosity, negative first normal stress difference, and positive second normal stress difference, and these results qualitatively agreed with the predictions using a constitutive equation for discotic nematics. The present study proved that the BD simulation using spheroid particles interacting via the GB potential is an effective approach for investigating the flow behavior and flow-induced structure of suspensions of disklike particles at a particulate level. PMID:16196575
Sedimentation and polar order of active bottom-heavy particles.
Wolff, Katrin; Hahn, Aljoscha M; Stark, Holger
2013-04-01
Self-propelled particles in an external gravitational field have been shown to display both an increased sedimentation length and polar order even without particle interactions. Here, we investigate self-propelled particles which additionally are bottom-heavy, that is they feel a torque aligning them to swim against the gravitational field. For bottom-heavy particles the gravitational field has the two opposite effects of i) sedimentation and ii) upward alignment of the particles' swimming direction. We perform a multipole expansion of the one-particle distribution of non-interacting particles with respect to orientation and derive expressions for sedimentation length and mean particle orientation which we check against Brownian Dynamics simulations. For large strength of gravity or small particle speeds and aligning torque, we observe sedimentation with increased sedimentation length compared with passive colloids but also active colloids without bottom-heaviness. Increasing, for example, swimming speed the sedimentation profile is inverted and the particles swim towards the top wall of the enclosing box. We find maximal orientational order at intermediate swimming speeds for both cases of particles with bottom-heaviness and those without. Ordering unsurprisingly is increased for the bottom-heavy particles, but this difference disappears at higher levels of activity and for very high activities ordering goes to zero in both cases. PMID:23612748
Raudsepp, Allan; A K Williams, Martin; B Hall, Simon
2016-07-01
Measurements of the electrostatic force with separation between a fixed and an optically trapped colloidal particle are examined with experiment, simulation and analytical calculation. Non-Gaussian Brownian motion is observed in the position of the optically trapped particle when particles are close and traps weak. As a consequence of this motion, a simple least squares parameterization of direct force measurements, in which force is inferred from the displacement of an optically trapped particle as separation is gradually decreased, contains forces generated by the rectification of thermal fluctuations in addition to those originating directly from the electrostatic interaction between the particles. Thus, when particles are close and traps weak, simply fitting the measured direct force measurement to DLVO theory extracts parameters with modified meanings when compared to the original formulation. In such cases, however, physically meaningful DLVO parameters can be recovered by comparing the measured non-Gaussian statistics to those predicted by solutions to Smoluchowski's equation for diffusion in a potential. PMID:27439853
Entropic Approach to Brownian Movement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neumann, Richard M.
1980-01-01
A diffusional driving force, called the radial force, which is responsible for the increase with time of the scalar separation between a fixed point and a particle undergoing three-dimensional Brownian motion, is derived using Boltzmann's equation. (Author/HM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urdapilleta, Eugenio
2015-12-01
In one-dimensional systems, the dynamics of a Brownian particle are governed by the force derived from a potential as well as by diffusion properties. In this work, we obtain the first-passage-time statistics of a Brownian particle driven by an arbitrary potential with an exponential temporally decaying superimposed field up to a prescribed threshold. The general system analyzed here describes the sub-threshold signal integration of integrate-and-fire neuron models, of any kind, supplemented by an adaptation-like current, whereas the first-passage-time corresponds to the declaration of a spike. Following our previous studies, we base our analysis on the backward Fokker-Planck equation and study the survival probability and the first-passage-time density function in the space of the initial condition. By proposing a series solution we obtain a system of recurrence equations, which given the specific structure of the exponential time-dependent drift, easily admit a simpler Laplace representation. Naturally, the present general derivation agrees with the explicit solution we found previously for the Wiener process in (2012 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 185001). However, to demonstrate the generality of the approach, we further explicitly evaluate the first-passage-time statistics of the underlying Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. To test the validity of the series solution, we extensively compare theoretical expressions with the data obtained from numerical simulations in different regimes. As shown, agreement is precise whenever the series is truncated at an appropriate order. Beyond the fact that both the Wiener and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes have a direct interpretation in the context of neuronal models, given their ubiquity in different fields, our present results will be of interest in other settings where an additive state-independent temporal relaxation process is being developed as the particle diffuses.
Entropic forces in Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roos, Nico
2014-12-01
Interest in the concept of entropic forces has risen considerably since Verlinde proposed in 2011 to interpret the force in Newton's second law and gravity as entropic forces. Brownian motion—the motion of a small particle (pollen) driven by random impulses from the surrounding molecules—may be the first example of a stochastic process in which such forces are expected to emerge. In this article, it is shown that at least two types of entropic force can be identified in three-dimensional Brownian motion. This analysis yields simple derivations of known results of Brownian motion, Hooke's law, and—applying an external (non-radial) force—Curie's law and the Langevin-Debye equation.
Topological classification of Brownian orbits.
Tanaka, Fumihiko
2012-09-14
This paper presents the exact formula for the bivariate probability distribution function of a Brownian particle as a function of its position and velocity, whose orbit makes a specified number of turns around an infinite straight line. In the limit of large friction constant, the solution reduces to the well-known results for random Wiener paths. Topological entanglements of stiff polymers are discussed on the basis of this solution. The method to find the solution is applied to the velocity space of a Brownian motion, and the probability to find a closed path with a specified winding number is obtained. Hence, closed two-dimensional Brownian orbits are classified into regular homotopy classes, whose statistical weight is derived as a function of the total length and the friction constant. PMID:22979890
Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyses, Henrique W.; Bauer, Ross O.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.
2015-06-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers.
Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes.
Moyses, Henrique W; Bauer, Ross O; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Grier, David G
2015-06-01
Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers. PMID:26172698
Ultraslow scaled Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodrova, Anna S.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf
2015-06-01
We define and study in detail utraslow scaled Brownian motion (USBM) characterized by a time dependent diffusion coefficient of the form D(t)≃ 1/t. For unconfined motion the mean squared displacement (MSD) of USBM exhibits an ultraslow, logarithmic growth as function of time, in contrast to the conventional scaled Brownian motion. In a harmonic potential the MSD of USBM does not saturate but asymptotically decays inverse-proportionally to time, reflecting the highly non-stationary character of the process. We show that the process is weakly non-ergodic in the sense that the time averaged MSD does not converge to the regular MSD even at long times, and for unconfined motion combines a linear lag time dependence with a logarithmic term. The weakly non-ergodic behaviour is quantified in terms of the ergodicity breaking parameter. The USBM process is also shown to be ageing: observables of the system depend on the time gap between initiation of the test particle and start of the measurement of its motion. Our analytical results are shown to agree excellently with extensive computer simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalay, Ziya
2012-06-01
Despite the apparent need to study reversible reactions between molecules confined to a two-dimensional space such as the cell membrane, exact Green’s functions for this case have not been reported. Here we present exact analytical Green’s functions for a Brownian particle reversibly reacting with a fixed reaction center in a finite two-dimensional circular region with reflecting or absorbing boundaries, considering either a spherically symmetric initial distribution or a particle that is initially bound. We show that Green’s function can be used to predict the effect of measurement uncertainties on the outcome of single-particle/molecule-tracking experiments in which molecular interactions are investigated. Hence, we bridge the gap between previously known solutions in one dimension (Agmon 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 81 2811) and three dimensions (Kim and Shin 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 1578), and provide an example of how the knowledge of Green’s function can be used to predict experimentally accessible quantities.
Dynamics of hierarchical Brownian oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knapp, E. W.
1988-11-01
Two hierarchical Brownian oscillator models are introduced by using a discretized Brownian oscillator model. The dynamical behavior of these models is solved exactly. Closed-form expressions for the intermediate scattering function and the energy relaxation function governing the frequency-dependent specific heat are given. A general relationship between the two relaxation functions is established. The case of a rectangular distribution of activation energies for the different hierarchy levels of the oscillator is considered in more detail. There the energy relaxation function decays with a logarithmic slope and the intermediate scattering function exhibits an algebraic long-time decay. The two hierarchical Brownian oscillator models have the same dynamical behavior though they possess a quite different coupling scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cubero, David; Renzoni, Ferruccio
2016-01-01
Part I. Historical Overview and Early Developments: 1. Limitations imposed by the second law of thermodynamics; 2. Fundamental models of ratchet devices; 3. General relevance of the concept of ratchet; Part II. Theoretical Foundations: 4. Classical ratchets; 5. Quantum ratchets; 6. Energetics and characterization; Part III. Experimental Realizations of Ratchet Devices: 7. Ratchets for colloidal particles; 8. Cold atom ratchets; 9. Solid state ratchets; 10. Bio-inspired molecular motors; Appendix A. Stochastic processes techniques; Appendix B. Symmetries in a 1D overdamped system; Appendix C. Floquet theory; References; Index.
Efficiency of Brownian heat engines.
Derényi, I; Astumian, R D
1999-06-01
We study the efficiency of one-dimensional thermally driven Brownian ratchets or heat engines. We identify and compare the three basic setups characterized by the type of the connection between the Brownian particle and the two heat reservoirs: (i) simultaneous, (ii) alternating in time, and (iii) position dependent. We make a clear distinction between the heat flow via the kinetic and the potential energy of the particle, and show that the former is always irreversible and it is only the third setup where the latter is reversible when the engine works quasistatically. We also show that in the third setup the heat flow via the kinetic energy can be reduced arbitrarily, proving that even for microscopic heat engines there is no fundamental limit of the efficiency lower than that of a Carnot cycle. PMID:11969723
Tested Demonstrations. Brownian Motion: A Classroom Demonstration and Student Experiment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirksey, H. Graden; Jones, Richard F.
1988-01-01
Shows how video recordings of the Brownian motion of tiny particles may be made. Describes a classroom demonstration and cites a reported experiment designed to show the random nature of Brownian motion. Suggests a student experiment to discover the distance a tiny particle travels as a function of time. (MVL)
Brownian dynamics without Green's functions
Delong, Steven; Donev, Aleksandar; Usabiaga, Florencio Balboa; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Griffith, Boyce E.
2014-04-07
We develop a Fluctuating Immersed Boundary (FIB) method for performing Brownian dynamics simulations of confined particle suspensions. Unlike traditional methods which employ analytical Green's functions for Stokes flow in the confined geometry, the FIB method uses a fluctuating finite-volume Stokes solver to generate the action of the response functions “on the fly.” Importantly, we demonstrate that both the deterministic terms necessary to capture the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles, as well as the stochastic terms necessary to generate the hydrodynamically correlated Brownian motion, can be generated by solving the steady Stokes equations numerically only once per time step. This is accomplished by including a stochastic contribution to the stress tensor in the fluid equations consistent with fluctuating hydrodynamics. We develop novel temporal integrators that account for the multiplicative nature of the noise in the equations of Brownian dynamics and the strong dependence of the mobility on the configuration for confined systems. Notably, we propose a random finite difference approach to approximating the stochastic drift proportional to the divergence of the configuration-dependent mobility matrix. Through comparisons with analytical and existing computational results, we numerically demonstrate the ability of the FIB method to accurately capture both the static (equilibrium) and dynamic properties of interacting particles in flow.
Mills, P; Snabre, P
2009-11-01
We consider the steady shear flow of a homogeneous and dense assembly of hard spheres suspended in a Newtonian viscous fluid. In a first part, a mean-field approach based on geometric arguments is used to determine the viscous dissipation in a dense isotropic suspension of smooth hard spheres and the hydrodynamic contribution to the suspension viscosity. In a second part, we consider the coexistence of transient solid clusters coupled to regions with free flowing particles near the jamming transition. The fraction of particles in transient clusters is derived through the Landau-Ginzburg concepts for first-order phase transition with an order parameter corresponding to the proportion of "solid" contacts. A state equation for the fraction of particle-accessible volume is introduced to derive the average normal stresses and a constitutive law that relates the total shear stress to the shear rate. The analytical expression of the average normal stresses well accounts for numerical or experimental evaluation of the particle pressure and non-equilibrium osmotic pressure in a dense sheared suspension. Both the friction level between particles and the suspension dilatancy are shown to determine the singularity of the apparent shear viscosity and the flow stability near the jamming transition. The model further predicts a Newtonian behavior for a concentrated suspension of neutrally buoyant particles and no shear thinning behavior in relation with the shear liquefaction of transient solid clusters. PMID:19856003
Diffusion of passive particles in active suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mussler, Matthias; Rafai, Salima; John, Thomas; Peyla, Philippe; Wagner, Christian
2013-11-01
We study how an active suspension consisting of a definite volume fraction of the microswimmer Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii modifies the Brownian movement of small to medium size microspheres. We present measurements and simulations of trajectories of microspheres with a diameter of 20 μm in suspensions of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, a so called ``puller,'' and show that the mean squared displacement of such trajectories consist of parabolic and a linear part. The linear part is due to the hydrodynamic noise of the microswimmers while the parabolic part is a consequence of directed motion events that occur randomly, when a microsphere is transported by a microswimmer on a timescale that is in higher order of magnitude than the Brownian like hydrodynamic interaction. In addition, we theoretically describe this effect with a dimensional analysis that takes the force dipole model used to describe ``puller'' like Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii into account.
Coffey, William T.; Kalmykov, Yuri P.; Titov, Serguey V.
2007-08-21
Quantum effects in the Brownian motion of a particle in the symmetric double well potential V(x)=ax{sup 2}/2+bx{sup 4}/4 are treated using the semiclassical master equation for the time evolution of the Wigner distribution function W(x,p,t) in phase space (x,p). The equilibrium position autocorrelation function, dynamic susceptibility, and escape rate are evaluated via matrix continued fractions in the manner customarily used for the classical Fokker-Planck equation. The escape rate so yielded has a quantum correction depending strongly on the barrier height and is compared with that given analytically by the quantum mechanical reaction rate solution of the Kramers turnover problem. The matrix continued fraction solution substantially agrees with the analytic solution. Moreover, the low-frequency part of the spectrum associated with noise assisted Kramers transitions across the potential barrier may be accurately described by a single Lorentzian with characteristic frequency given by the quantum mechanical reaction rate.
Pal, P S; Rana, Shubhashis; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A M
2014-08-01
Work can be extracted from a single bath beyond the limit set by the second law of thermodynamics by performing measurement on the system and utilizing the acquired information. This imposes an upper bound on extracted work and maintains a generalized (i.e., with information) second law. As an example, we studied a Brownian particle confined in a two-dimensional harmonic trap in the presence of a magnetic field, whose position coordinates are measured with finite precision. Two separate cases are investigated in this study: (A) moving the center of the potential and (B) varying the stiffness of the potential. Optimal protocols that extremize the work in a finite-time process are explicitly calculated for these two cases. For case A, we show that even though the optimal protocols depend on magnetic field, surprisingly, extracted work is independent of the field. For case B, both the optimal protocol and the extracted work depend on the magnetic field. However, the presence of a magnetic field always reduces the extraction of work for the latter case. PMID:25215724
Particle resuspension via human activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Jing
This dissertation consists of three correlated parts that are related to particle resuspension from floorings in indoor environment. The term resuspension in this dissertation refers the re-entrainment of deposited particles into atmosphere via mechanic disturbances by human activity indoors, except where it is specified. The first part reviews the literature related to particle resuspension. Fundamental concepts and kinetics of resuspension of particles were extracted from previous studies. Suggestions for future research on indoor particle resuspension have been given based on the literature reviews and the findings of part 2 and part 3. The second part involved 54 resuspension experiments conducted in a room-scale environmental chamber. Three floorings types and two ventilation configurations were tested. Air exchange rate were fixed during the experiments, and the temperature/RH were monitored. The airborne particle concentration was measured by an array of optical particle counters (OPCs) in the chamber. Resuspension rates were estimated in size ranges of 0.8--1, 1.0--2.0, 2.0--5.0, and 5.0--10 mum ranging from 10-5--10 -2 hr-1, with higher resuspension rates associated with larger particles. Resuspension via walking activity varied from experiment to experiment. A "heavy and fast" walking style was associated with a higher resuspension rate than a less active style. Given the same floor loading of the test particles, resuspension rates for the carpeted floor were on the same order of magnitude but significantly higher than those for the hard floor. In the third part, an image analysis method (IAM) was adapted to characterize the particle distribution on fabric floorings. The IAM results showed the variability of particles loading on various carpets. The dust particles on fibers from ten carpets vary in sizes. The normal dust loading varies from house to house from 3.6x106 particles/cm2 to 8.2x106 particles/cm2. The dust particle number distribution for size
Anomalous Brownian refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rana, Shubhashis; Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.
2016-02-01
We present a detailed study of a Brownian particle driven by Carnot-type refrigerating protocol operating between two thermal baths. Both the underdamped as well as the overdamped limits are investigated. The particle is in a harmonic potential with time-periodic strength that drives the system cyclically between the baths. Each cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps connecting them. Besides working as a stochastic refrigerator, it is shown analytically that in the quasistatic regime the system can also act as stochastic heater, depending on the bath temperatures. Interestingly, in non-quasistatic regime, our system can even work as a stochastic heat engine for certain range of cycle time and bath temperatures. We show that the operation of this engine is not reliable. The fluctuations of stochastic efficiency/coefficient of performance (COP) dominate their mean values. Their distributions show power law tails, however the exponents are not universal. Our study reveals that microscopic machines are not the microscopic equivalent of the macroscopic machines that we come across in our daily life. We find that there is no one to one correspondence between the performance of our system under engine protocol and its reverse.
Clustering and phase behaviour of attractive active particles with hydrodynamics.
Navarro, Ricard Matas; Fielding, Suzanne M
2015-10-14
We simulate clustering, phase separation and hexatic ordering in a monolayered suspension of active squirming disks subject to an attractive Lennard-Jones-like pairwise interaction potential, taking hydrodynamic interactions between the particles fully into account. By comparing the hydrodynamic case with counterpart simulations for passive and active Brownian particles, we elucidate the relative roles of self-propulsion, interparticle attraction, and hydrodynamic interactions in determining clustering and phase behaviour. Even in the presence of an attractive potential, we find that hydrodynamic interactions strongly suppress the motility induced phase separation that might a priori have been expected in a highly active suspension. Instead, we find only a weak tendency for the particles to form stringlike clusters in this regime. At lower activities we demonstrate phase behaviour that is broadly equivalent to that of the counterpart passive system at low temperatures, characterized by regimes of gas-liquid, gas-solid and liquid-solid phase coexistence. In this way, we suggest that a dimensionless quantity representing the level of activity relative to the strength of attraction plays the role of something like an effective non-equilibrium temperature, counterpart to the (dimensionless) true thermodynamic temperature in the passive system. However there are also some important differences from the equilibrium case, most notably with regards the degree of hexatic ordering, which we discuss carefully. PMID:26278520
3-d Brownian dynamics simulations of the smallest units of an active biological material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta; Paudyal, Nabina; Adeli Koudehi, Maral
Motor proteins generate stress in a cytoskeletal network by walking on one strand of the network while being attached to another one. A protein walker in contact with two elements of the network may be considered the smallest unit of an active biological material. In vitro experiments, mathematical modeling and computer simulations have provided important insights into active matter on large and on very small length and time scales. However, it is still difficult to model the effects of local environment and interactions at intermediate scales. Recently, we developed a coarse-grained, three-dimensional model for a motor protein transporting cargo by walking on a substrate. In this work, we simulate a tethered motor protein pulling a substrate with elastic response. As the walker progresses, the retarding force due to the substrate tension increases until contact fails. We present simulation results for the effect of motor-protein activity on the tension in the substrate and the effect of the retarding force on the processivity of the molecular motor.
Two-dimensional motion of Brownian swimmers in linear flows.
Sandoval, Mario; Jimenez, Alonso
2016-03-01
The motion of viruses and bacteria and even synthetic microswimmers can be affected by thermal fluctuations and by external flows. In this work, we study the effect of linear external flows and thermal fluctuations on the diffusion of those swimmers modeled as spherical active (self-propelled) particles moving in two dimensions. General formulae for their mean-square displacement under a general linear flow are presented. We also provide, at short and long times, explicit expressions for the mean-square displacement of a swimmer immersed in three canonical flows, namely, solid-body rotation, shear and extensional flows. These expressions can now be used to estimate the effect of external flows on the displacement of Brownian microswimmers. Finally, our theoretical results are validated by using Brownian dynamics simulations. PMID:26428909
Nonisothermal fluctuating hydrodynamics and Brownian motion.
Falasco, G; Kroy, K
2016-03-01
The classical theory of Brownian dynamics follows from coarse graining the underlying linearized fluctuating hydrodynamics of the solvent. We extend this procedure to globally nonisothermal conditions, requiring only a local thermal equilibration of the solvent. Starting from the conservation laws, we establish the stochastic equations of motion for the fluid momentum fluctuations in the presence of a suspended Brownian particle. These are then contracted to the nonisothermal generalized Langevin description of the suspended particle alone, for which the coupling to stochastic temperature fluctuations is found to be negligible under typical experimental conditions. PMID:27078335
Nonisothermal fluctuating hydrodynamics and Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falasco, G.; Kroy, K.
2016-03-01
The classical theory of Brownian dynamics follows from coarse graining the underlying linearized fluctuating hydrodynamics of the solvent. We extend this procedure to globally nonisothermal conditions, requiring only a local thermal equilibration of the solvent. Starting from the conservation laws, we establish the stochastic equations of motion for the fluid momentum fluctuations in the presence of a suspended Brownian particle. These are then contracted to the nonisothermal generalized Langevin description of the suspended particle alone, for which the coupling to stochastic temperature fluctuations is found to be negligible under typical experimental conditions.
Active particles on curved surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fily, Yaouen; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael
Active systems have proved to be very sensitive to the geometry of their environment. This is often achieved by spending significant time at the boundary, probing its shape by gliding along it. I will discuss coarse graining the microscopic dynamics of self-propelled particles on a general curved surface to predict the way the density profile on the surface depends on its geometry. Beyond confined active particles, this formalism is a natural starting point to study objects that cannot leave the boundary at all, such as cells crawling on a curved substrate, animals running on uneven ground, or active colloids trapped at an interface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najafi, Amin
2014-05-01
Using the Monte Carlo simulations, we have calculated mean-square fluctuations in statistical mechanics, such as those for colloids energy configuration are set on square 2D periodic substrates interacting via a long range screened Coulomb potential on any specific and fixed substrate. Random fluctuations with small deviations from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium arise from the granular structure of them and appear as thermal diffusion with Gaussian distribution structure as well. The variations are showing linear form of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem on the energy of particles constitutive a canonical ensemble with continuous diffusion process of colloidal particle systems. The noise-like variation of the energy per particle and the order parameter versus the Brownian displacement of sum of large number of random steps of particles at low temperatures phase are presenting a markovian process on colloidal particles configuration, too.
Dinis, L.; Petrov, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.; Rica, R. A.
2016-01-01
The Carnot cycle imposes a fundamental upper limit to the efficiency of a macroscopic motor operating between two thermal baths1. However, this bound needs to be reinterpreted at microscopic scales, where molecular bio-motors2 and some artificial micro-engines3–5 operate. As described by stochastic thermodynamics6,7, energy transfers in microscopic systems are random and thermal fluctuations induce transient decreases of entropy, allowing for possible violations of the Carnot limit8. Here we report an experimental realization of a Carnot engine with a single optically trapped Brownian particle as the working substance. We present an exhaustive study of the energetics of the engine and analyse the fluctuations of the finite-time efficiency, showing that the Carnot bound can be surpassed for a small number of non-equilibrium cycles. As its macroscopic counterpart, the energetics of our Carnot device exhibits basic properties that one would expect to observe in any microscopic energy transducer operating with baths at different temperatures9–11. Our results characterize the sources of irreversibility in the engine and the statistical properties of the efficiency—an insight that could inspire new strategies in the design of efficient nano-motors. PMID:27330541
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, I. A.; Roldán, É.; Dinis, L.; Petrov, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.; Rica, R. A.
2016-01-01
The Carnot cycle imposes a fundamental upper limit to the efficiency of a macroscopic motor operating between two thermal baths. However, this bound needs to be reinterpreted at microscopic scales, where molecular bio-motors and some artificial micro-engines operate. As described by stochastic thermodynamics, energy transfers in microscopic systems are random and thermal fluctuations induce transient decreases of entropy, allowing for possible violations of the Carnot limit. Here we report an experimental realization of a Carnot engine with a single optically trapped Brownian particle as the working substance. We present an exhaustive study of the energetics of the engine and analyse the fluctuations of the finite-time efficiency, showing that the Carnot bound can be surpassed for a small number of non-equilibrium cycles. As its macroscopic counterpart, the energetics of our Carnot device exhibits basic properties that one would expect to observe in any microscopic energy transducer operating with baths at different temperatures. Our results characterize the sources of irreversibility in the engine and the statistical properties of the efficiency--an insight that could inspire new strategies in the design of efficient nano-motors.
O'Connell's process as a vicious Brownian motion
Katori, Makoto
2011-12-15
Vicious Brownian motion is a diffusion scaling limit of Fisher's vicious walk model, which is a system of Brownian particles in one dimension such that if two motions meet they kill each other. We consider the vicious Brownian motions conditioned never to collide with each other and call it noncolliding Brownian motion. This conditional diffusion process is equivalent to the eigenvalue process of the Hermitian-matrix-valued Brownian motion studied by Dyson [J. Math. Phys. 3, 1191 (1962)]. Recently, O'Connell [Ann. Probab. (to be published)] introduced a generalization of the noncolliding Brownian motion by using the eigenfunctions (the Whittaker functions) of the quantum Toda lattice in order to analyze a directed polymer model in 1 + 1 dimensions. We consider a system of one-dimensional Brownian motions with a long-ranged killing term as a generalization of the vicious Brownian motion and construct the O'Connell process as a conditional process of the killing Brownian motions to survive forever.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2014-05-01
We discuss the dynamics and thermodynamics of the Brownian mean field (BMF) model which is a system of N Brownian particles moving on a circle and interacting via a cosine potential. It can be viewed as the canonical version of the Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model. The BMF model displays a second order phase transition from a homogeneous phase to an inhomogeneous phase below a critical temperature T c = 1 / 2. We first complete the description of this model in the mean field approximation valid for N → +∞. In the strong friction limit, the evolution of the density towards the mean field Boltzmann distribution is governed by the mean field Smoluchowski equation. For T < T c , this equation describes a process of self-organization from a non-magnetized (homogeneous) phase to a magnetized (inhomogeneous) phase. We obtain an analytical expression for the temporal evolution of the magnetization close to T c . Then, we take fluctuations (finite N effects) into account. The evolution of the density is governed by the stochastic Smoluchowski equation. From this equation, we derive a stochastic equation for the magnetization and study its properties both in the homogenous and inhomogeneous phase. We show that the fluctuations diverge at the critical point so that the mean field approximation ceases to be valid. Actually, the limits N → +∞ and T → T c do not commute. The validity of the mean field approximation requires N( T - T c ) → +∞ so that N must be larger and larger as T approaches T c . We show that the direction of the magnetization changes rapidly close to T c while its amplitude takes a long time to relax. We also indicate that, for systems with long-range interactions, the lifetime of metastable states scales as e N except close to a critical point. The BMF model shares many analogies with other systems of Brownian particles with long-range interactions such as self-gravitating Brownian particles, the Keller-Segel model describing the chemotaxis
Modeling an efficient Brownian heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asfaw Taye, Mesfin
2008-03-01
We investigate the effect of subdividing the ratchet potential on the performance of a tiny Brownian heat engine that modeled as a Brownian particle hopping in a viscous medium in a sawtooth potential (with or without load) assisted by alternately placed hot and cold heat baths along its path. We obtain analytic expression for the steady state current. The expressions for velocity, efficiency and coefficient of performance of refrigerator are reported for different number of barrier subdivisions. We find that the velocity, the efficiency and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator maximize as the number of barrier subdivisions increase.
Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation
Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; Otter, Wouter K. den
2014-08-14
The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.
Elementary simulation of tethered Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beausang, John F.; Zurla, Chiara; Finzi, Laura; Sullivan, Luke; Nelson, Philip C.
2007-06-01
We describe a simple simulation, suitable for an undergraduate project or graduate problem set, of the Brownian motion of a particle in a Hooke's law potential well. Understanding this physical situation is necessary in many experimental contexts, for instance in single molecule biophysics, and its simulation helps students appreciate the dynamical character of thermal equilibrium. The simulation captures behavior seen in experimental data on tethered particle motion.
Movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping
Miles, Robin R.
2004-02-03
Manipulation of DNA and cells/spores using dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces to perform sample preparation protocols for polymerized chain reaction (PCR) based assays for various applications. This is accomplished by movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping. DEP forces induce a dipole in particles, and these particles can be trapped in non-uniform fields. The particles can be trapped in the high field strength region of one set of electrodes. By switching off this field and switching on an adjacent electrodes, particles can be moved down a channel with little or no flow.
Simulating Brownian suspensions with fluctuating hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delmotte, Blaise; Keaveny, Eric E.
2015-12-01
Fluctuating hydrodynamics has been successfully combined with several computational methods to rapidly compute the correlated random velocities of Brownian particles. In the overdamped limit where both particle and fluid inertia are ignored, one must also account for a Brownian drift term in order to successfully update the particle positions. In this paper, we present an efficient computational method for the dynamic simulation of Brownian suspensions with fluctuating hydrodynamics that handles both computations and provides a similar approximation as Stokesian Dynamics for dilute and semidilute suspensions. This advancement relies on combining the fluctuating force-coupling method (FCM) with a new midpoint time-integration scheme we refer to as the drifter-corrector (DC). The DC resolves the drift term for fluctuating hydrodynamics-based methods at a minimal computational cost when constraints are imposed on the fluid flow to obtain the stresslet corrections to the particle hydrodynamic interactions. With the DC, this constraint needs only to be imposed once per time step, reducing the simulation cost to nearly that of a completely deterministic simulation. By performing a series of simulations, we show that the DC with fluctuating FCM is an effective and versatile approach as it reproduces both the equilibrium distribution and the evolution of particulate suspensions in periodic as well as bounded domains. In addition, we demonstrate that fluctuating FCM coupled with the DC provides an efficient and accurate method for large-scale dynamic simulation of colloidal dispersions and the study of processes such as colloidal gelation.
Measured quantum probability distribution functions for Brownian motion
Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.
2007-10-15
The quantum analog of the joint probability distributions describing a classical stochastic process is introduced. A prescription is given for constructing the quantum distribution associated with a sequence of measurements. For the case of quantum Brownian motion this prescription is illustrated with a number of explicit examples. In particular, it is shown how the prescription can be extended in the form of a general formula for the Wigner function of a Brownian particle entangled with a heat bath.
Experimental Study of Short-Time Brownian Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mo, Jianyong; Simha, Akarsh; Riegler, David; Raizen, Mark
2015-03-01
We report our progress on the study of short-time Brownian motion of optically-trapped microspheres. In earlier work, we observed the instantaneous velocity of microspheres in gas and in liquid, verifying a prediction by Albert Einstein from 1907. We now report a more accurate test of the energy equipartition theorem for a particle in liquid. We also observe boundary effects on Brownian motion in liquid by setting a wall near the trapped particle, which changes the dynamics of the motion. We find that the velocity autocorrelation of the particle decreases faster as the particle gets closer to the wall.
Quantum Brownian motion with inhomogeneous damping and diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massignan, Pietro; Lampo, Aniello; Wehr, Jan; Lewenstein, Maciej
2015-03-01
We analyze the microscopic model of quantum Brownian motion, describing a Brownian particle interacting with a bosonic bath through a coupling which is linear in the creation and annihilation operators of the bath, but may be a nonlinear function of the position of the particle. Physically, this corresponds to a configuration in which damping and diffusion are spatially inhomogeneous. We derive systematically the quantum master equation for the Brownian particle in the Born-Markov approximation and we discuss the appearance of additional terms, for various polynomials forms of the coupling. We discuss the cases of linear and quadratic coupling in great detail and we derive, using Wigner function techniques, the stationary solutions of the master equation for a Brownian particle in a harmonic trapping potential. We predict quite generally Gaussian stationary states, and we compute the aspect ratio and the spread of the distributions. In particular, we find that these solutions may be squeezed (superlocalized) with respect to the position of the Brownian particle. We analyze various restrictions to the validity of our theory posed by non-Markovian effects and by the Heisenberg principle. We further study the dynamical stability of the system, by applying a Gaussian approximation to the time-dependent Wigner function, and we compute the decoherence rates of coherent quantum superpositions in position space. Finally, we propose a possible experimental realization of the physics discussed here, by considering an impurity particle embedded in a degenerate quantum gas.
Simulations of magnetic nanoparticle Brownian motion
Reeves, Daniel B.; Weaver, John B.
2012-01-01
Magnetic nanoparticles are useful in many medical applications because they interact with biology on a cellular level thus allowing microenvironmental investigation. An enhanced understanding of the dynamics of magnetic particles may lead to advances in imaging directly in magnetic particle imaging or through enhanced MRI contrast and is essential for nanoparticle sensing as in magnetic spectroscopy of Brownian motion. Moreover, therapeutic techniques like hyperthermia require information about particle dynamics for effective, safe, and reliable use in the clinic. To that end, we have developed and validated a stochastic dynamical model of rotating Brownian nanoparticles from a Langevin equation approach. With no field, the relaxation time toward equilibrium matches Einstein's model of Brownian motion. In a static field, the equilibrium magnetization agrees with the Langevin function. For high frequency or low amplitude driving fields, behavior characteristic of the linearized Debye approximation is reproduced. In a higher field regime where magnetic saturation occurs, the magnetization and its harmonics compare well with the effective field model. On another level, the model has been benchmarked against experimental results, successfully demonstrating that harmonics of the magnetization carry enough information to infer environmental parameters like viscosity and temperature. PMID:23319830
Simulations of magnetic nanoparticle Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reeves, Daniel B.; Weaver, John B.
2012-12-01
Magnetic nanoparticles are useful in many medical applications because they interact with biology on a cellular level thus allowing microenvironmental investigation. An enhanced understanding of the dynamics of magnetic particles may lead to advances in imaging directly in magnetic particle imaging or through enhanced MRI contrast and is essential for nanoparticle sensing as in magnetic spectroscopy of Brownian motion. Moreover, therapeutic techniques like hyperthermia require information about particle dynamics for effective, safe, and reliable use in the clinic. To that end, we have developed and validated a stochastic dynamical model of rotating Brownian nanoparticles from a Langevin equation approach. With no field, the relaxation time toward equilibrium matches Einstein's model of Brownian motion. In a static field, the equilibrium magnetization agrees with the Langevin function. For high frequency or low amplitude driving fields, behavior characteristic of the linearized Debye approximation is reproduced. In a higher field regime where magnetic saturation occurs, the magnetization and its harmonics compare well with the effective field model. On another level, the model has been benchmarked against experimental results, successfully demonstrating that harmonics of the magnetization carry enough information to infer environmental parameters like viscosity and temperature.
Dressed active particles in spherical crystals.
Yao, Zhenwei
2016-08-17
We investigate the dynamics of an active particle in two-dimensional spherical crystals, which provide an ideal environment to illustrate the interplay between active particles and crystallographic defects. A moving active particle is observed to be surrounded by localized topological defects, becoming a dressed active particle. Such a physical picture characterizes both the lattice distortion around the moving particle and the healing of the distorted lattice in its trajectory. We find that the dynamical behaviors of an active particle in both random and ballistic motions uniformly conform to this featured scenario, whether the particle is initially a defect or not. We further observe that the defect pattern around a dressed ballistic active particle randomly oscillates between two well-defined wing-like defect motifs regardless of its speed. The established physical picture of dressed active particles in this work partially deciphers the complexity of the intriguing nonequilibrium behaviors in active crystals, and opens the promising possibility of introducing the activity to engineer defects, which has strong connections with the design of materials. PMID:27491597
Active Teaching of Diffusion through History of Science, Computer Animation and Role Playing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krajsek, Simona Strgulc; Vilhar, Barbara
2010-01-01
We developed and tested a lesson plan for active teaching of diffusion in secondary schools (grades 10-13), which stimulates understanding of the thermal (Brownian) motion of particles as the principle underlying diffusion. During the lesson, students actively explore the Brownian motion through microscope observations of irregularly moving small…
Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles
Ai, Bao-quan
2016-01-01
We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a ‘sea’ of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles. PMID:26795952
Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ai, Bao-Quan
2016-01-01
We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a ‘sea’ of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles.
Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles.
Ai, Bao-quan
2016-01-01
We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a 'sea' of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles. PMID:26795952
Modeling an efficient Brownian heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asfaw, Mesfin
2008-09-01
We discuss the effect of subdividing the ratchet potential on the performance of a tiny Brownian heat engine that is modeled as a Brownian particle hopping in a viscous medium in a sawtooth potential (with or without load) assisted by alternately placed hot and cold heat baths along its path. We show that the velocity, the efficiency and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator maximize when the sawtooth potential is subdivided into series of smaller connected barrier series. When the engine operates quasistatically, we analytically show that the efficiency of the engine can not approach the Carnot efficiency and, the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator is always less than the Carnot refrigerator due to the irreversible heat flow via the kinetic energy.
Tilted brownian ratchet for DNA analysis.
Huang, Lotien Richard; Cox, Edward C; Austin, Robert H; Sturm, James C
2003-12-15
In this paper, we report a factor of 3 improvement in the resolution and a factor of 10 improvement in the speed of fractionation of approximately 100-kb DNA molecules in Brownian ratchet arrays. In our device, the electrophoretic flow is tilted at a small angle relative to the array axis. Tilting accelerates the fractionation speed because a higher fraction of the diffusing molecules is "ratcheted" at each step in the array. Molecules of lengths 48.5 and 164 kb can be separated in approximately 70 min with a resolution of approximately 3.8, using a 12-mm-long array. The Brownian ratchet arrays are not limited to DNA separation, but can, in principle, be used for any particle in this size range. PMID:14670059
Brownian transport in corrugated channels with inertia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, P. K.; Hänggi, P.; Marchesoni, F.; Nori, F.; Schmid, G.
2012-08-01
Transport of suspended Brownian particles dc driven along corrugated narrow channels is numerically investigated in the regime of finite damping. We show that inertial corrections cannot be neglected as long as the width of the channel bottlenecks is smaller than an appropriate particle diffusion length, which depends on the the channel corrugation and the drive intensity. With such a diffusion length being inversely proportional to the damping constant, transport through sufficiently narrow obstructions turns out to be always sensitive to the viscosity of the suspension fluid. The inertia corrections to the transport quantifiers, mobility, and diffusivity markedly differ for smoothly and sharply corrugated channels.
Magnetic field effect on charged Brownian swimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandoval, M.; Velasco, R. M.; Jiménez-Aquino, J. I.
2016-01-01
We calculate the effective diffusion of a spherical self-propelled charged particle swimming at low Reynolds number, and subject to a time-dependent magnetic field and thermal agitation. We find that the presence of an external magnetic field may reduce or enhance (depending on the type of swimming and magnetic field applied) the swimmer's effective diffusion, hence we get another possible strategy to control its displacement. For swimmers performing reciprocal motion, and under an oscillating time-dependent magnetic field, mechanical resonance appears when the swimmer and magnetic frequencies coincide, thus enhancing the particle's effective diffusion. Our analytical results are compared with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement.
Dynamical and thermodynamical control of open quantum Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petruccione, Francesco; Sinayskiy, Ilya
Open quantum Brownian motion was introduced as a new type of quantum Brownian motion for Brownian particles with internal quantum degrees of freedom. Recently, an example of the microscopic derivation of open quantum Brownian motion has been presented [I. Sinayskiy and F. Petruccione, Phys. Scr. T165, 014017 (2015)]. The microscopic derivation allows to relate the dynamical properties of open Quantum Brownian motion and the thermodynamical properties of the environment. In the present work, we study the possibility of control of the external degrees of freedom of the ''walker'' (position) by manipulating the internal one, e.g. spin, polarization, occupation numbers. In the particular example of the known microscopic derivation the connection between dynamics of the ''walker'' and thermodynamical parameters of the system is established. For the system of open Brownian walkers coupled to the same environment controllable creation of quantum correlations is investigated. This work is based upon research supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.
Microscopic theory of Brownian motion revisited: The Rayleigh model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Changho; Karniadakis, George Em
2013-03-01
We investigate three force autocorrelation functions
Theory of Brownian motion in a Jeffreys fluid
Raikher, Yu. L.; Rusakov, V. V.
2010-11-15
We have constructed a kinetic theory of Brownian motion in a rheologically complex medium-a Jeffreys fluid that is characterized by a combination of two viscosity mechanisms: ordinary and delayed. This model is shown to be much better suited for the interpretation of experiments on the microrheology of viscoelastic media than the standard Maxwell model. In particular, no oscillations of the mean-square particle displacement arise in a Jeffreys fluid, which is a nonremovable artifact of the theory of Brownian motion in a Maxwell fluid. The developed approach can to be used also consider the diffusion of particles in other complex fluids whose rheology is described by phenomenological schemes.
Optically active particles of chiral polymers.
Song, Ci; Liu, Xuan; Liu, Dong; Ren, Chonglei; Yang, Wantai; Deng, Jianping
2013-09-01
Particles constructed by chiral polymers (defined as PCPs) have emerged as a rapidly expanding research field in recent years because of their potentially wide-ranging applications in asymmetric catalysis, enantioselective crystallization, enantioselective release, amongst many others. The particles show considerable optical activity, due to the chirality of the corresponding polymers from which the particles are derived. This review article presents an overview on PCPs with emphasis on our group's recent achievements in the preparation of PCPs derived from optically active helical polymers and their applications. PCPs can be prepared via emulsion polymerization, precipitation polymerization, and suspension polymerization by starting from monomers. Emulsification of preformed chiral polymers and self-assembly approaches also can lead to PCPs. Chiral polymer-based core/shell particles, hollow particles, and magnetic particles are also covered because of their remarkable properties and significant potential applications. PMID:24030962
Entropy production of a Brownian ellipsoid in the overdamped limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, Raffaele; Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2016-01-01
We analyze the translational and rotational motion of an ellipsoidal Brownian particle from the viewpoint of stochastic thermodynamics. The particle's Brownian motion is driven by external forces and torques and takes place in an heterogeneous thermal environment where friction coefficients and (local) temperature depend on space and time. Our analysis of the particle's stochastic thermodynamics is based on the entropy production associated with single particle trajectories. It is motivated by the recent discovery that the overdamped limit of vanishing inertia effects (as compared to viscous fricion) produces a so-called "anomalous" contribution to the entropy production, which has no counterpart in the overdamped approximation, when inertia effects are simply discarded. Here we show that rotational Brownian motion in the overdamped limit generates an additional contribution to the "anomalous" entropy. We calculate its specific form by performing a systematic singular perturbation analysis for the generating function of the entropy production. As a side result, we also obtain the (well-known) equations of motion in the overdamped limit. We furthermore investigate the effects of particle shape and give explicit expressions of the "anomalous entropy" for prolate and oblate spheroids and for near-spherical Brownian particles.
Entropy production of a Brownian ellipsoid in the overdamped limit.
Marino, Raffaele; Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2016-01-01
We analyze the translational and rotational motion of an ellipsoidal Brownian particle from the viewpoint of stochastic thermodynamics. The particle's Brownian motion is driven by external forces and torques and takes place in an heterogeneous thermal environment where friction coefficients and (local) temperature depend on space and time. Our analysis of the particle's stochastic thermodynamics is based on the entropy production associated with single particle trajectories. It is motivated by the recent discovery that the overdamped limit of vanishing inertia effects (as compared to viscous fricion) produces a so-called "anomalous" contribution to the entropy production, which has no counterpart in the overdamped approximation, when inertia effects are simply discarded. Here we show that rotational Brownian motion in the overdamped limit generates an additional contribution to the "anomalous" entropy. We calculate its specific form by performing a systematic singular perturbation analysis for the generating function of the entropy production. As a side result, we also obtain the (well-known) equations of motion in the overdamped limit. We furthermore investigate the effects of particle shape and give explicit expressions of the "anomalous entropy" for prolate and oblate spheroids and for near-spherical Brownian particles. PMID:26871049
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldonado-Camargo, L.; Torres-Díaz, I.; Chiu-Lam, A.; Hernández, M.; Rinaldi, C.
2016-08-01
We demonstrate how dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements (DMS) can be used to estimate the relative contributions of Brownian and Néel relaxation to the dynamic magnetic response of a magnetic fluid, a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles. The method applies to suspensions with particles that respond through Brownian or Néel relaxation and for which the characteristic Brownian and Néel relaxation times are widely separated. First, we illustrate this using magnetic fluids consisting of mixtures of particles that relax solely by the Brownian or Néel mechanisms. Then, it is shown how the same approach can be applied to estimate the relative contributions of Brownian and Néel relaxation in a suspension consisting of particles obtained from a single synthesis and whose size distribution straddles the transition from Néel to Brownian relaxation.
Role of Brownian motion on the thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Ranganathan
2007-11-01
This study involves Brownian dynamics simulations of a real nanofluid system in which the interparticle potential is determined based on Debye length and surface interaction of the fluid and the solid. This paper shows that Brownian motion can increase the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid by 6% primarily due to "random walk" motion and not only through diffusion. This increase is limited by the maximum concentration for each particle size and is below that predicted by the effective medium theory. Beyond the maximum limit, particle aggregates begin to form. Brownian motion contribution stays as a constant beyond a certain particle diameter.
Effect of interfaces on the nearby Brownian motion
Huang, Kai; Szlufarska, Izabela
2015-01-01
Near-boundary Brownian motion is a classic hydrodynamic problem of great importance in a variety of fields, from biophysics to micro-/nanofluidics. However, owing to challenges in experimental measurements of near-boundary dynamics, the effect of interfaces on Brownian motion has remained elusive. Here we report a computational study of this effect using μs-long large-scale molecular dynamics simulations and our newly developed Green–Kubo relation for friction at the liquid–solid interface. Our computer experiment unambiguously reveals that the t−3/2 long-time decay of the velocity autocorrelation function of a Brownian particle in bulk liquid is replaced by a t−5/2 decay near a boundary. We discover a general breakdown of traditional no-slip boundary condition at short time scales and we show that this breakdown has a profound impact on the near-boundary Brownian motion. Our results demonstrate the potential of Brownian-particle-based micro-/nanosonar to probe the local wettability of liquid–solid interfaces. PMID:26438034
Velocity distribution in active particles systems
Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo; Gnan, Nicoletta; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Maggi, Claudio; Di Leonardo, Roberto
2016-01-01
We derive an analytic expression for the distribution of velocities of multiple interacting active particles which we test by numerical simulations. In clear contrast with equilibrium we find that the velocities are coupled to positions. Our model shows that, even for two particles only, the individual velocities display a variance depending on the interparticle separation and the emergence of correlations between the velocities of the particles. When considering systems composed of many particles we find an analytic expression connecting the overall velocity variance to density, at the mean-field level, and to the pair distribution function valid in the limit of small noise correlation times. Finally we discuss the intriguing analogies and main differences between our effective free energy functional and the theoretical scenario proposed so far for phase-separating active particles. PMID:27001289
Velocity distribution in active particles systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo; Gnan, Nicoletta; Paoluzzi, Matteo; Maggi, Claudio; di Leonardo, Roberto
2016-03-01
We derive an analytic expression for the distribution of velocities of multiple interacting active particles which we test by numerical simulations. In clear contrast with equilibrium we find that the velocities are coupled to positions. Our model shows that, even for two particles only, the individual velocities display a variance depending on the interparticle separation and the emergence of correlations between the velocities of the particles. When considering systems composed of many particles we find an analytic expression connecting the overall velocity variance to density, at the mean-field level, and to the pair distribution function valid in the limit of small noise correlation times. Finally we discuss the intriguing analogies and main differences between our effective free energy functional and the theoretical scenario proposed so far for phase-separating active particles.
Particle emission factors during cooking activities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buonanno, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.
Exposure to particles emitted by cooking activities may be responsible for a variety of respiratory health effects. However, the relationship between these exposures and their subsequent effects on health cannot be evaluated without understanding the properties of the emitted aerosol or the main parameters that influence particle emissions during cooking. Whilst traffic-related emissions, stack emissions and concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter < 100 nm) in urban ambient air have been widely investigated for many years, indoor exposure to UFPs is a relatively new field and in order to evaluate indoor UFP emissions accurately, it is vital to improve scientific understanding of the main parameters that influence particle number, surface area and mass emissions. The main purpose of this study was to characterise the particle emissions produced during grilling and frying as a function of the food, source, cooking temperature and type of oil. Emission factors, along with particle number concentrations and size distributions were determined in the size range 0.006-20 μm using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature field. Overall, increased emission factors were observed to be a function of increased cooking temperatures. Cooking fatty foods also produced higher particle emission factors than vegetables, mainly in terms of mass concentration, and particle emission factors also varied significantly according to the type of oil used.
Brownian motion from Boltzmann's equation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, D.
1971-01-01
Two apparently disparate lines of inquiry in kinetic theory are shown to be equivalent: (1) Brownian motion as treated by the (stochastic) Langevin equation and Fokker-Planck equation; and (2) Boltzmann's equation. The method is to derive the kinetic equation for Brownian motion from the Boltzmann equation for a two-component neutral gas by a simultaneous expansion in the density and mass ratios.
Brownian Gyrator: A Minimal Heat Engine on the Nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filliger, Roger; Reimann, Peter
2007-12-01
A Brownian particle moving in the vicinity of a generic potential minimum under the influence of dissipation and thermal noise from two different heat baths is shown to act as a minimal heat engine, generating a systematic torque onto the physical object at the origin of the potential and an opposite torque onto the medium generating the dissipation.
Discontinuous shear thickening in Brownian suspensions by dynamic simulation
Mari, Romain; Seto, Ryohei; Morris, Jeffrey F.; Denn, Morton M.
2015-01-01
Dynamic particle-scale numerical simulations are used to show that the shear thickening observed in dense colloidal, or Brownian, suspensions is of a similar nature to that observed in noncolloidal suspensions, i.e., a stress-induced transition from a flow of lubricated near-contacting particles to a flow of a frictionally contacting network of particles. Abrupt (or discontinuous) shear thickening is found to be a geometric rather than hydrodynamic phenomenon; it stems from the strong sensitivity of the jamming volume fraction to the nature of contact forces between suspended particles. The thickening obtained in a colloidal suspension of purely hard frictional spheres is qualitatively similar to experimental observations. However, the agreement cannot be made quantitative with only hydrodynamics, frictional contacts, and Brownian forces. Therefore, the role of a short-range repulsive potential mimicking the stabilization of actual suspensions on the thickening is studied. The effects of Brownian and repulsive forces on the onset stress can be combined in an additive manner. The simulations including Brownian and stabilizing forces show excellent agreement with experimental data for the viscosity η and the second normal stress difference N2. PMID:26621744
Collective surfing of chemically active particles.
Masoud, Hassan; Shelley, Michael J
2014-03-28
We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surface-tension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusion-dominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D Keller-Segel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the Keller-Segel model can yield finite-time, finite-mass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finite-depth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures. PMID:24724685
Collective Surfing of Chemically Active Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masoud, Hassan; Shelley, Michael J.
2014-03-01
We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surface-tension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusion-dominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D Keller-Segel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the Keller-Segel model can yield finite-time, finite-mass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finite-depth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures.
Energy and efficiency optimization of a Brownian heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekele, Mulugeta; Yalew, Yeneneh
2007-03-01
A simple Brownian heat engine is modeled as a Brownian particle moving in an external sawtooth potential (with or without) load assisted by the thermal kick it gets from alternately placed hot and cold heat reservoirs along its path. We get closed form expression for its current in terms of the parameters characterizing the model. After analyzing the way it consumes energy to do useful work, we also get closed form expressions for its efficiency as well as for its coefficient of performance when the engine performs as a refrigerator. Recently suggested optimization criteria enables us to exhaustively explore and compare the different operating conditions of the engine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Feng-guo; Xie, Hui-zhang; Liu, Xue-mei; Ai, Bao-quan
2015-03-01
Transport of noninteracting self-propelled particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional horizontally asymmetrical channel with nonstraight midline which can be controlled by the phase shift between the top and bottom walls. From numerical simulations, we found that self-propelled particles can be rectified by the self-propelled velocity. The direction of the average velocity is determined by the horizontally asymmetrical parameter of the channel. The average velocity is very sensitive to the phase shift and its behaviors can be manipulated by changing the phase shift. As the phase shift is increased, the average velocity decreases and its peak position moves (to right or left). Remarkably, the average velocity is zero when the phase shift is in the interval [ 3 π / 5 , 4 π / 5 ]. The small phase shift may facilitate the rectification process for the large horizontal asymmetry of the channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qinyi; Tang, Ying; He, Xinhua; Li, Hang
2015-10-01
The activation energy of particle aggregation in suspensions is a very important kinetic parameter in a wide range of science and engineering applications. At present, however, there is no theory that can theoretically predict the activation energy. Because the activation energy is often less than 10 kT (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature), it is difficult to experimentally measure. In this study, a theory for calculating the activation energy is established. Experimental measurements of the activation energy of montmorillonite aggregation were performed with different electrolyte and particle concentrations using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. The validity of the theory was verified by the experiments. This study confirmed that both the method for activation energy measurements by DLS and the theory for its calculation can be applied to suspensions of polydisperse nonspherical particles. The average kinetic energy at the moment of particle collision in the aggregation process was found to be 0.2 kT, which is less than the instantaneous kinetic energy of a Brownian particle (0.5 kT) because of the viscous resistance of the water medium. This study also shows that adsorbed Na+ is strongly polarized in the electric field near the particle surface, and the polarization increases the effective charge of Na+ from +1 to +1.18.
Quantum Brownian motion model for the stock market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xiangyi; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Guo, Hong
2016-06-01
It is believed by the majority today that the efficient market hypothesis is imperfect because of market irrationality. Using the physical concepts and mathematical structures of quantum mechanics, we construct an econophysical framework for the stock market, based on which we analogously map massive numbers of single stocks into a reservoir consisting of many quantum harmonic oscillators and their stock index into a typical quantum open system-a quantum Brownian particle. In particular, the irrationality of stock transactions is quantitatively considered as the Planck constant within Heisenberg's uncertainty relationship of quantum mechanics in an analogous manner. We analyze real stock data of Shanghai Stock Exchange of China and investigate fat-tail phenomena and non-Markovian behaviors of the stock index with the assistance of the quantum Brownian motion model, thereby interpreting and studying the limitations of the classical Brownian motion model for the efficient market hypothesis from a new perspective of quantum open system dynamics.
Self-Propelling Nanomotors in the Presence of Strong Brownian Forces
2014-01-01
Motility in living systems is due to an array of complex molecular nanomotors that are essential for the function and survival of cells. These protein nanomotors operate not only despite of but also because of stochastic forces. Artificial means of realizing motility rely on local concentration or temperature gradients that are established across a particle, resulting in slip velocities at the particle surface and thus motion of the particle relative to the fluid. However, it remains unclear if these artificial motors can function at the smallest of scales, where Brownian motion dominates and no actively propelled living organisms can be found. Recently, the first reports have appeared suggesting that the swimming mechanisms of artificial structures may also apply to enzymes that are catalytically active. Here we report a scheme to realize artificial Janus nanoparticles (JNPs) with an overall size that is comparable to that of some enzymes ∼30 nm. Our JNPs can catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen and thus actively move by self-electrophoresis. Geometric anisotropy of the Pt–Au Janus nanoparticles permits the simultaneous observation of their translational and rotational motion by dynamic light scattering. While their dynamics is strongly influenced by Brownian rotation, the artificial Janus nanomotors show bursts of linear ballistic motion resulting in enhanced diffusion. PMID:24707952
Brownian relaxation of an inelastic sphere in air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bird, G. A.
2016-06-01
The procedures that are used to calculate the forces and moments on an aerodynamic body in the rarefied gas of the upper atmosphere are applied to a small sphere of the size of an aerosol particle at sea level. While the gas-surface interaction model that provides accurate results for macroscopic bodies may not be appropriate for bodies that are comprised of only about a thousand atoms, it provides a limiting case that is more realistic than the elastic model. The paper concentrates on the transfer of energy from the air to an initially stationary sphere as it acquires Brownian motion. Individual particle trajectories vary wildly, but a clear relaxation process emerges from an ensemble average over tens of thousands of trajectories. The translational and rotational energies in equilibrium Brownian motion are determined. Empirical relationships are obtained for the mean translational and rotational relaxation times, the mean initial power input to the particle, the mean rates of energy transfer between the particle and air, and the diffusivity. These relationships are functions of the ratio of the particle mass to an average air molecule mass and the Knudsen number, which is the ratio of the mean free path in the air to the particle diameter. The ratio of the molecular radius to the particle radius also enters as a correction factor. The implications of Brownian relaxation for the second law of thermodynamics are discussed.
A Brownian dynamics algorithm for colloids in curved manifolds.
Castro-Villarreal, Pavel; Villada-Balbuena, Alejandro; Méndez-Alcaraz, José Miguel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón; Estrada-Jiménez, Sendic
2014-06-01
The many-particle Langevin equation, written in local coordinates, is used to derive a Brownian dynamics simulation algorithm to study the dynamics of colloids moving on curved manifolds. The predictions of the resulting algorithm for the particular case of free particles diffusing along a circle and on a sphere are tested against analytical results, as well as with simulation data obtained by means of the standard Brownian dynamics algorithm developed by Ermak and McCammon [J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1352 (1978)] using explicitly a confining external field. The latter method allows constraining the particles to move in regions very tightly, emulating the diffusion on the manifold. Additionally, the proposed algorithm is applied to strong correlated systems, namely, paramagnetic colloids along a circle and soft colloids on a sphere, to illustrate its applicability to systems made up of interacting particles. PMID:24907998
Resonance of Brownian vortices in viscoelastic shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laas, K.; Mankin, R.
2015-10-01
The dynamics of a Brownian particle in an oscillatory viscoelastic shear flow is considered using the generalized Langevin equation. The interaction with fluctuations of environmental parameters is modeled by an additive external white noise and by an internal Mittag-Leffer noise with a finite memory time. Focusing on the mean angular momentum of particles it is shown that the presence of memory has a profound effect on the behavior of the Brownian vortices. Particularly, if an external noise dominates over the internal noise, a resonance-like dependence of the mean angular momentum of "free" particles, trapped due to the cage effect, on the characteristic memory time is observed. Moreover, it is established that memory effects can induce two kinds of resonance peaks: one resonance peak is related to the presence of external noise and the other is related to the initial positional distribution of particles. The bona fide resonance versus the shear frequency is also discussed.
Brownian simulations and unidirectional flux in diffusion.
Singer, A; Schuss, Z
2005-02-01
The prediction of ionic currents in protein channels of biological membranes is one of the central problems of computational molecular biophysics. Existing continuum descriptions of ionic permeation fail to capture the rich phenomenology of the permeation process, so it is therefore necessary to resort to particle simulations. Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations require the connection of a small discrete simulation volume to large baths that are maintained at fixed concentrations and voltages. The continuum baths are connected to the simulation through interfaces, located in the baths sufficiently far from the channel. Average boundary concentrations have to be maintained at their values in the baths by injecting and removing particles at the interfaces. The particles injected into the simulation volume represent a unidirectional diffusion flux, while the outgoing particles represent the unidirectional flux in the opposite direction. The classical diffusion equation defines net diffusion flux, but not unidirectional fluxes. The stochastic formulation of classical diffusion in terms of the Wiener process leads to a Wiener path integral, which can split the net flux into unidirectional fluxes. These unidirectional fluxes are infinite, though the net flux is finite and agrees with classical theory. We find that the infinite unidirectional flux is an artifact caused by replacing the Langevin dynamics with its Smoluchowski approximation, which is classical diffusion. The Smoluchowski approximation fails on time scales shorter than the relaxation time 1/gamma of the Langevin equation. We find that the probability of Brownian trajectories that cross an interface in one direction in unit time Deltat equals that of the probability of the corresponding Langevin trajectories if gammaDeltat=2 . That is, we find the unidirectional flux (source strength) needed to maintain average boundary concentrations in a manner consistent with the physics of Brownian particles. This
Fluctuating noise drives Brownian transport
Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masanori
2012-01-01
The transport properties of Brownian ratchet were studied in the presence of stochastic intensity noise in both overdamped and underdamped regimes. In the overdamped case, an analytical solution using the matrix-continued fraction method revealed the existence of a maximum current when the noise intensity fluctuates on intermediate timescale regions. Similar effects were observed for the underdamped case by Monte Carlo simulations. The optimal time-correlation for Brownian transport coincided with the experimentally observed time-correlation of the extrinsic noise in Escherichia coli gene expression and implied the importance of environmental noise for molecular mechanisms. PMID:22977101
Brownian colloids in underdamped and overdamped regimes with nonhomogeneous temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sancho, J. M.
2015-12-01
The motion of Brownian particles when temperature is spatially dependent is studied by stochastic simulations and theoretical analysis. Nonequilibrium steady probability distributions Ps t(z ,v ) for both underdamped and overdamped regimes are analyzed. The existence of local kinetic energy equipartition theorem is also discussed. The transition between both regimes is characterized by a dimensionless friction parameter. This study is applied to three physical systems of colloidal particles.
Brownian colloids in underdamped and overdamped regimes with nonhomogeneous temperature.
Sancho, J M
2015-12-01
The motion of Brownian particles when temperature is spatially dependent is studied by stochastic simulations and theoretical analysis. Nonequilibrium steady probability distributions P(st)(z,v) for both underdamped and overdamped regimes are analyzed. The existence of local kinetic energy equipartition theorem is also discussed. The transition between both regimes is characterized by a dimensionless friction parameter. This study is applied to three physical systems of colloidal particles. PMID:26764635
STOCHASTIC INTEGRATION FOR TEMPERED FRACTIONAL BROWNIAN MOTION
MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD
2014-01-01
Tempered fractional Brownian motion is obtained when the power law kernel in the moving average representation of a fractional Brownian motion is multiplied by an exponential tempering factor. This paper develops the theory of stochastic integrals for tempered fractional Brownian motion. Along the way, we develop some basic results on tempered fractional calculus. PMID:24872598
Reciprocating motion of active deformable particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarama, M.; Ohta, T.
2016-05-01
Reciprocating motion of an active deformable particle in a homogeneous medium is studied theoretically. For generality, we employ a simple model derived from symmetry considerations for the center-of-mass velocity and elliptical and triangular deformations in two dimensions. We carry out, for the first time, a systematic investigation of the reciprocating motion of a self-propelled particle. It is clarified that spontaneous breaking of the front-rear asymmetry is essential for the reciprocating motion. Moreover, two routes are found for the formation of the reciprocating motion. One is a bifurcation from a motionless stationary state. The other is destabilisation of an oscillatory rectilinear motion.
Observing conformations of single FoF1-ATP synthases in a fast anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Bertram; Düser, Monika G.; Zarrabi, Nawid; Heitkamp, Thomas; Starke, Ilka; Börsch, Michael
2015-03-01
To monitor conformational changes of individual membrane transporters in liposomes in real time, we attach two fluorophores to selected domains of a protein. Sequential distance changes between the dyes are recorded and analyzed by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Using freely diffusing membrane proteins reconstituted in liposomes, observation times are limited by Brownian motion through the confocal detection volume. A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner have invented and built microfluidic devices to actively counteract Brownian motion of single nanoparticles in electrokinetic traps (ABELtrap). Here we present a version of an ABELtrap with a laser focus pattern generated by electro-optical beam deflectors and controlled by a programmable FPGA. This ABELtrap could hold single fluorescent nanobeads for more than 100 seconds, increasing the observation times of a single particle more than 1000-fold. Conformational changes of single FRET-labeled membrane enzymes FoF1-ATP synthase can be detected in the ABELtrap.
Particle Acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, James A.
1996-01-01
The investigation of stochastic particle acceleration through resonant interactions with plasma waves that populate the magnetosphere surrounding an accreting black hole is presented. Stochastic acceleration has been successfully applied to the problem of ion and electron energization in solar flares, and is capable of accounting for a wide range of both neutral and charged particle emissions. It is also a component in diffusive shock acceleration, since pitch-angle scattering (which is necessary for multiple shock crossings) is accompanied by diffusion in momentum space, which in turn yields a net systematic energy gain; however, stochastic energization will dominate the first-order shock process only in certain parameter regimes. Although stochastic acceleration has been applied to particle energization in the lobes of radio galaxies, its application to the central regions of AGNs (active galactic nuclei) has only recently been considered, but not in detail. We proposed to systematically investigate the plasma processes responsible for stochastic particle acceleration in black hole magnetospheres along with the energy-loss processes which impede particle energization. To this end, we calculated acceleration rates and escape time scales for protons and electrons resonating with Alfven waves, and for electrons resonating with whistlers. We also considered the "hot" topic of gamma-ray line emission from the Orion complex. We proposed that the observed gamma-ray lines are produced by energetic ions that are stochastically accelerated by cascading Alfven waves in the accretion plasma near a black hole. Related research papers that were published in journals are listed.
Temperature (de)activated patchy colloidal particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de las Heras, Daniel; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.
2016-06-01
We present a new model of patchy particles in which the interaction sites can be activated or deactivated by varying the temperature of the system. We study the thermodynamics of the system by means of Wertheim’s first order perturbation theory, and use Flory–Stockmayer theory of polymerization to analyse the percolation threshold. We find a very rich phase behaviour including lower critical points and reentrant percolation.
Temperature (de)activated patchy colloidal particles.
de Las Heras, Daniel; da Gama, Margarida M Telo
2016-06-22
We present a new model of patchy particles in which the interaction sites can be activated or deactivated by varying the temperature of the system. We study the thermodynamics of the system by means of Wertheim's first order perturbation theory, and use Flory-Stockmayer theory of polymerization to analyse the percolation threshold. We find a very rich phase behaviour including lower critical points and reentrant percolation. PMID:27115118
Brownian motion in Robertson-Walker spacetimes from electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations
Bessa, Carlos H. G.; Bezerra, V. B.; Ford, L. H.
2009-06-15
We consider the effects of the vacuum fluctuations of a quantized electromagnetic field on particles in an expanding universe. We find that these particles typically undergo Brownian motion and acquire a nonzero mean squared velocity that depends on the scale factor of the universe. This Brownian motion can be interpreted as due to noncancellation of anticorrelated vacuum fluctuations in the time-dependent background spacetime. Alternatively, one can interpret this effect as the particles acquiring energy from the background spacetime geometry, a phenomenon that cannot occur in a static spacetime. We treat several types of coupling between the electromagnetic field and the particles and several model universes. We also consider both free particles, which, on the average, move on geodesics, and particles in bound systems. There are significant differences between these two cases, which illustrates that nongeodesic motion alters the effects of the vacuum fluctuations. We discuss the possible applications of this Brownian motion effect to cosmological scenarios.
Theory of relativistic Brownian motion: the (1+1)-dimensional case.
Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter
2005-01-01
We construct a theory for the (1+1)-dimensional Brownian motion in a viscous medium, which is (i) consistent with Einstein's theory of special relativity and (ii) reduces to the standard Brownian motion in the Newtonian limit case. In the first part of this work the classical Langevin equations of motion, governing the nonrelativistic dynamics of a free Brownian particle in the presence of a heat bath (white noise), are generalized in the framework of special relativity. Subsequently, the corresponding relativistic Langevin equations are discussed in the context of the generalized Ito (prepoint discretization rule) versus the Stratonovich (midpoint discretization rule) dilemma: It is found that the relativistic Langevin equation in the Hänggi-Klimontovich interpretation (with the postpoint discretization rule) is the only one that yields agreement with the relativistic Maxwell distribution. Numerical results for the relativistic Langevin equation of a free Brownian particle are presented. PMID:15697675
Collective dynamics of soft active particles.
van Drongelen, Ruben; Pal, Anshuman; Goodrich, Carl P; Idema, Timon
2015-03-01
We present a model of soft active particles that leads to a rich array of collective behavior found also in dense biological swarms of bacteria and other unicellular organisms. Our model uses only local interactions, such as Vicsek-type nearest-neighbor alignment, short-range repulsion, and a local boundary term. Changing the relative strength of these interactions leads to migrating swarms, rotating swarms, and jammed swarms, as well as swarms that exhibit run-and-tumble motion, alternating between migration and either rotating or jammed states. Interestingly, although a migrating swarm moves slower than an individual particle, the diffusion constant can be up to three orders of magnitude larger, suggesting that collective motion can be highly advantageous, for example, when searching for food. PMID:25871143
Collective dynamics of soft active particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Drongelen, Ruben; Pal, Anshuman; Goodrich, Carl P.; Idema, Timon
2015-03-01
We present a model of soft active particles that leads to a rich array of collective behavior found also in dense biological swarms of bacteria and other unicellular organisms. Our model uses only local interactions, such as Vicsek-type nearest-neighbor alignment, short-range repulsion, and a local boundary term. Changing the relative strength of these interactions leads to migrating swarms, rotating swarms, and jammed swarms, as well as swarms that exhibit run-and-tumble motion, alternating between migration and either rotating or jammed states. Interestingly, although a migrating swarm moves slower than an individual particle, the diffusion constant can be up to three orders of magnitude larger, suggesting that collective motion can be highly advantageous, for example, when searching for food.
Brownian motion at fast time scales and thermal noise imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Rongxin
This dissertation presents experimental studies on Brownian motion at fast time scales, as well as our recent developments in Thermal Noise Imaging which uses thermal motions of microscopic particles for spatial imaging. As thermal motions become increasingly important in the studies of soft condensed matters, the study of Brownian motion is not only of fundamental scientific interest but also has practical applications. Optical tweezers with a fast position-sensitive detector provide high spatial and temporal resolution to study Brownian motion at fast time scales. A novel high bandwidth detector was developed with a temporal resolution of 30 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 A. With this high bandwidth detector, Brownian motion of a single particle confined in an optical trap was observed at the time scale of the ballistic regime. The hydrodynamic memory effect was fully studied with polystyrene particles of different sizes. We found that the mean square displacements of different sized polystyrene particles collapse into one master curve which is determined by the characteristic time scale of the fluid inertia effect. The particle's inertia effect was shown for particles of the same size but different densities. For the first time the velocity autocorrelation function for a single particle was shown. We found excellent agreement between our experiments and the hydrodynamic theories that take into account the fluid inertia effect. Brownian motion of a colloidal particle can be used to probe three-dimensional nano structures. This so-called thermal noise imaging (TNI) has been very successful in imaging polymer networks with a resolution of 10 nm. However, TNI is not efficient at micrometer scale scanning since a great portion of image acquisition time is wasted on large vacant volume within polymer networks. Therefore, we invented a method to improve the efficiency of large scale scanning by combining traditional point-to-point scanning to explore large vacant
Brownian Motion, Concentration Fluctuations and Viscoelasticity in Surfactant Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amin, Samiul; van Zanten, Ryan; Kermis, Thomas; Dees, Stephen; van Zanten, John
2001-03-01
There is growing interest in using Brownian or thermal motion of spherical colloidal particles to probe the dynamics of soft materials which exhibit viscoelasticity. In principle, the motion of these colloidal spheres is related to the structure and dynamics of the suspending media. Most current investigations have focused solely on establishing the relationship between the measured Brownian motion and viscoelastic moduli. The approach described here is enhanced in that it utilizes not only measurements of the particle mean squared displacement and suspending medium viscoelastic moduli, but also light scattering characterization of the viscoelastic media whereby the concentration fluctuation relaxation spectrum and the osmotic compressibility are determined. This multiple experimental probe approach allows one to account for both transverse and longitudinal contributions to the suspending medium's response. The approach is illustrated with a whole host of surfactant systems including CTAB/KBr and CTAB/NaSal wormlike micelle solutions as well as aqueous Pluronic solutions.
Particle Acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, James A.
1997-01-01
The high efficiency of energy generation inferred from radio observations of quasars and X-ray observations of Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is apparently achieved only by the gravitational conversion of the rest mass energy of accreting matter onto supermassive black holes. Evidence for the acceleration of particles to high energies by a central engine is also inferred from observations of apparent superluminal motion in flat spectrum, core-dominated radio sources. This phenomenon is widely attributed to the ejection of relativistic bulk plasma from the nuclei of active galaxies, and accounts for the existence of large scale radio jets and lobes at large distances from the central regions of radio galaxies. Reports of radio jets and superluminal motion from galactic black hole candidate X-ray sources indicate that similar processes are operating in these sources. Observations of luminous, rapidly variable high-energy radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory show directly that particles are accelerated to high energies in a compact environment. The mechanisms which transform the gravitational potential energy of the infalling matter into nonthermal particle energy in galactic black hole candidates and AGNs are not conclusively identified, although several have been proposed. These include direct acceleration by static electric fields (resulting from, for example, magnetic reconnection), shock acceleration, and energy extraction from the rotational energy of Kerr black holes. The dominant acceleration mechanism(s) operating in the black hole environment can only be determined, of course, by a comparison of model predictions with observations. The purpose of the work proposed for this grant was to investigate stochastic particle acceleration through resonant interactions with plasma waves that populate the magnetosphere surrounding an accreting black hole. Stochastic acceleration has been successfully applied to the
Brownian ratchets and Parrondo's games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harmer, Gregory P.; Abbott, Derek; Taylor, Peter G.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.
2001-09-01
Parrondo's games present an apparently paradoxical situation where individually losing games can be combined to win. In this article we analyze the case of two coin tossing games. Game B is played with two biased coins and has state-dependent rules based on the player's current capital. Game B can exhibit detailed balance or even negative drift (i.e., loss), depending on the chosen parameters. Game A is played with a single biased coin that produces a loss or negative drift in capital. However, a winning expectation is achieved by randomly mixing A and B. One possible interpretation pictures game A as a source of "noise" that is rectified by game B to produce overall positive drift—as in a Brownian ratchet. Game B has a state-dependent rule that favors a losing coin, but when this state dependence is broken up by the noise introduced by game A, a winning coin is favored. In this article we find the parameter space in which the paradoxical effect occurs and carry out a winning rate analysis. The significance of Parrondo's games is that they are physically motivated and were originally derived by considering a Brownian ratchet—the combination of the games can be therefore considered as a discrete-time Brownian ratchet. We postulate the use of games of this type as a toy model for a number of physical and biological processes and raise a number of open questions for future research.
Nonequilibrium Brownian Motion beyond the Effective Temperature
Gnoli, Andrea; Puglisi, Andrea; Sarracino, Alessandro; Vulpiani, Angelo
2014-01-01
The condition of thermal equilibrium simplifies the theoretical treatment of fluctuations as found in the celebrated Einstein’s relation between mobility and diffusivity for Brownian motion. Several recent theories relax the hypothesis of thermal equilibrium resulting in at least two main scenarios. With well separated timescales, as in aging glassy systems, equilibrium Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem applies at each scale with its own “effective” temperature. With mixed timescales, as for example in active or granular fluids or in turbulence, temperature is no more well-defined, the dynamical nature of fluctuations fully emerges and a Generalized Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (GFDT) applies. Here, we study experimentally the mixed timescale regime by studying fluctuations and linear response in the Brownian motion of a rotating intruder immersed in a vibro-fluidized granular medium. Increasing the packing fraction, the system is moved from a dilute single-timescale regime toward a denser multiple-timescale stage. Einstein’s relation holds in the former and is violated in the latter. The violation cannot be explained in terms of effective temperatures, while the GFDT is able to impute it to the emergence of a strong coupling between the intruder and the surrounding fluid. Direct experimental measurements confirm the development of spatial correlations in the system when the density is increased. PMID:24714671
Stokesian spherical swimmers and active particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felderhof, B. U.
2015-04-01
The net steady state flow pattern of a distorting sphere is studied in the framework of the bilinear theory of swimming at low Reynolds number. It is argued that the starting point of a theory of interacting active particles should be based on such a calculation, since any arbitrarily chosen steady state flow pattern is not necessarily the result of a swimming motion. Furthermore, it is stressed that as a rule the phase of stroke is relevant in hydrodynamic interactions, so that the net flow pattern must be used with caution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelani, L.; Costanzo, A.; Di Leonardo, R.
2011-12-01
We analyze self-propelling organisms, or active particles, in a periodic asymmetric potential. Unlike standard ratchet effect for Brownian particles requiring external forcing, in the case of active particles asymmetric potential alone produces a net drift speed (active ratchet effect). By using theoretical models and numerical simulations we demonstrate the emergence of the rectification process in the presence of an asymmetric piecewise periodic potential. The broken spatial symmetry (external potential) and time symmetry (active particles) are sufficient ingredients to sustain unidirectional transport. Our findings open the way to new mechanisms to move in directional manner motile organisms by using external periodic static fields.
On the excursions of drifted Brownian motion and the successive passage times of Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abundo, Mario
2016-09-01
By using the law of the excursions of Brownian motion with drift, we find the distribution of the nth passage time of Brownian motion through a straight line S(t) = a + bt. In the special case when b = 0, we extend the result to a space-time transformation of Brownian motion.
Pricing European option under the time-changed mixed Brownian-fractional Brownian model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhidong; Yuan, Hongjun
2014-07-01
This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing by a mixed Brownian-fractional subdiffusive Black-Scholes model. Under the assumption that the price of the underlying stock follows a time-changed mixed Brownian-fractional Brownian motion, we derive a pricing formula for the European call option in a discrete time setting.
Volpe, Giorgio; Volpe, Giovanni; Gigan, Sylvain
2014-01-01
The motion of particles in random potentials occurs in several natural phenomena ranging from the mobility of organelles within a biological cell to the diffusion of stars within a galaxy. A Brownian particle moving in the random optical potential associated to a speckle pattern, i.e., a complex interference pattern generated by the scattering of coherent light by a random medium, provides an ideal model system to study such phenomena. Here, we derive a theory for the motion of a Brownian particle in a speckle field and, in particular, we identify its universal characteristic timescale. Based on this theoretical insight, we show how speckle light fields can be used to control the anomalous diffusion of a Brownian particle and to perform some basic optical manipulation tasks such as guiding and sorting. Our results might broaden the perspectives of optical manipulation for real-life applications. PMID:24496461
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volpe, Giorgio; Volpe, Giovanni; Gigan, Sylvain
2014-02-01
The motion of particles in random potentials occurs in several natural phenomena ranging from the mobility of organelles within a biological cell to the diffusion of stars within a galaxy. A Brownian particle moving in the random optical potential associated to a speckle pattern, i.e., a complex interference pattern generated by the scattering of coherent light by a random medium, provides an ideal model system to study such phenomena. Here, we derive a theory for the motion of a Brownian particle in a speckle field and, in particular, we identify its universal characteristic timescale. Based on this theoretical insight, we show how speckle light fields can be used to control the anomalous diffusion of a Brownian particle and to perform some basic optical manipulation tasks such as guiding and sorting. Our results might broaden the perspectives of optical manipulation for real-life applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cushman, J. H.; O'Malley, D.; Park, M.
2009-04-01
We construct a family of stochastic processes with independent, nonstationary increments and arbitrary, but apriori specified mean square displacement. The family of processes is shown to be an extension of Brownian motion. If the time derivative of the variance of the process is homogeneous, then by computing the fractal dimension it can be shown that the complexity of the family is the same as that of Brownian motion. For two particles initially separated by a distance x, the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), measures the average rate of exponential separation to a distance ax. An analytical expression is developed for the FSLE of the extended Brownian processes and numerical examples presented. The construction of the extended Brownian processes illustrates that contrary to what has been stated in the literature, a power-law mean-square displacement is not related to a breakdown in the classical CLT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Shiyu; Wang, Suxin; Wang, Yongjin
2016-08-01
Motivated by the close connection between the skew Brownian motion and the random particle motion in heterogeneous media, we investigate the reflected skew Brownian motion and try to find out its relationship with the corresponding dispersion problem when there exists a reflecting boundary. Through the use of the knowledge of stochastic analysis, we provide some basic properties of reflected skew Brownian motions, including the transition density, the Laplace transform of the first passage time, and some related results. A simple method to generate the sample path is also proposed. At the end of this paper, we reveal the strong relationship between the reflected skew Brownian motion and the solute dispersion in the presence of a sharp interface and a reflecting boundary.
Brownian motion of helical flagella.
Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N
1979-07-01
We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages
Mixing in suspensions of active particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pushkin, Dmitri O.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2014-03-01
Microscopic active particles self-propelling in the surrounding fluid create flows that eventually lead to emergence of non-equilibrium states with long-ranged fluctuations. One of the technologically important consequences of these fluctuations is enhanced mixing of the surrounding fluid. It is also critical for understanding the ecology of a particular type of biological active systems, bacterial suspension, as the enhanced mixing strongly alters the fluxes of nutrients. We consider the theoretical foundations of fluid mixing enhancement in dilute suspensions of active force-free swimmers. We describe the impediments to fluid mixing imposed by the physical nature of fluid flows created by swimmers, and different ways of overcoming them. We show that fluid mixing in 3D suspensions of force-free (dipolar) swimmers is dominated by the effect of curvature of their trajectories, and obtain an exact analytical expression for the corresponding effective diffusion coefficient. Our results highlight limitations of alternative ``effective temperature'' approaches and may serve as a quantitative tool for designing technological applications.
Brownian Optimal Stopping and Random Walks
Lamberton, D.
2002-06-05
One way to compute the value function of an optimal stopping problem along Brownian paths consists of approximating Brownian motion by a random walk. We derive error estimates for this type of approximation under various assumptions on the distribution of the approximating random walk.
Optically active biological particle distinguishing apparatus
Salzman, Gary C.; Kupperman, Robert H.
1989-01-01
The disclosure is directed to organic particle sorting and identification. High frequency pulses of circularly polarized light, alternating between left and right, intersect a fast moving stream of organic particles. Circular intensity differential scattering and linear intensity differential scattering are monitored to uniquely identify a variety of organic particles.
A parity breaking Ising chain Hamiltonian as a Brownian motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornu, F.; Hilhorst, H. J.
2014-10-01
We consider the translationally invariant but parity (left-right symmetry) breaking Ising chain Hamiltonian {\\cal H} =-{U_2}\\sumk sksk+1 - {U_3}\\sumk sksk+1sk+3 and let this system evolve by Kawasaki spin exchange dynamics. Monte Carlo simulations show that perturbations forcing this system off equilibrium make it act as a Brownian molecular motor which, in the lattice gas interpretation, transports particles along the chain. We determine the particle current under various different circumstances, in particular as a function of the ratio {U_3}/{U_2} and of the conserved magnetization M=\\sum_ksk . The symmetry of the U3 term in the Hamiltonian is discussed.
Revision of the DELFIC Particle Activity Module
Hooper, David A; Jodoin, Vincent J
2010-09-01
The Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) was originally released in 1968 as a tool for modeling fallout patterns and for predicting exposure rates. Despite the continual advancement of knowledge of fission yields, decay behavior of fission products, and biological dosimetry, the decay data and logic of DELFIC have remained mostly unchanged since inception. Additionally, previous code revisions caused a loss of conservation of radioactive nuclides. In this report, a new revision of the decay database and the Particle Activity Module is introduced and explained. The database upgrades discussed are replacement of the fission yields with ENDF/B-VII data as formatted in the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code, revised decay constants, revised exposure rate multipliers, revised decay modes and branching ratios, and revised boiling point data. Included decay logic upgrades represent a correction of a flaw in the treatment of the fission yields, extension of the logic to include more complex decay modes, conservation of nuclides (including stable nuclides) at all times, and conversion of key variables to double precision for nuclide conservation. Finally, recommended future work is discussed with an emphasis on completion of the overall radiation physics upgrade, particularly for dosimetry, induced activity, decay of the actinides, and fractionation.
Dynamics of two interacting active Janus particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayati, Parvin; Najafi, Ali
2016-04-01
Starting from a microscopic model for a spherically symmetric active Janus particle, we study the interactions between two such active motors. The ambient fluid mediates a long range hydrodynamic interaction between two motors. This interaction has both direct and indirect hydrodynamic contributions. The direct contribution is due to the propagation of fluid flow that originated from a moving motor and affects the motion of the other motor. The indirect contribution emerges from the re-distribution of the ionic concentrations in the presence of both motors. Electric force exerted on the fluid from this ionic solution enhances the flow pattern and subsequently changes the motion of both motors. By formulating a perturbation method for very far separated motors, we derive analytic results for the translation and rotational dynamics of the motors. We show that the overall interaction at the leading order modifies the translational and rotational speeds of motors which scale as O (" separators=" [ 1 / D ] 3 ) and O (" separators=" [ 1 / D ] 4 ) with their separation, respectively. Our findings open up the way for studying the collective dynamics of synthetic micro-motors.
Biased Brownian motion in extremely corrugated tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martens, S.; Schmid, G.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Hänggi, P.
2011-12-01
Biased Brownian motion of point-size particles in a three-dimensional tube with varying cross-section is investigated. In the fashion of our recent work, Martens et al. [Phys. Rev. E 83, 051135 (2011)] we employ an asymptotic analysis to the stationary probability density in a geometric parameter of the tube geometry. We demonstrate that the leading order term is equivalent to the Fick-Jacobs approximation. Expression for the higher order corrections to the probability density is derived. Using this expansion orders, we obtain that in the diffusion dominated regime the average particle current equals the zeroth order Fick-Jacobs result corrected by a factor including the corrugation of the tube geometry. In particular, we demonstrate that this estimate is more accurate for extremely corrugated geometries compared with the common applied method using a spatially-dependent diffusion coefficient D(x, f) which substitutes the constant diffusion coefficient in the common Fick-Jacobs equation. The analytic findings are corroborated with the finite element calculation of a sinusoidal-shaped tube.
Elastic coefficient of a single polymer chain by using Brownian dynamics analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horinaka, J.; Maniwa, T.; Oharada, K.; Takigawa, T.
2007-08-01
The elastic coefficient of a single polystyrene chain has been experimentally evaluated by using Brownian dynamics analysis. The Brownian motion of the chain is probed using a particle trapped by optical tweezers with a negligibly small spring constant. The displacement of the particle due to Brownian motion is measured by an interferometer assembled using the same laser beam as the optical tweezers. Two methods are employed for Brownian dynamics analysis: (1) the analysis of the time course of the displacement of the particle and (2) the fitting of the power spectrum of Brownian motion with a Lorentzian. The elastic constant of a polystyrene chain in dichloromethane at 21 °C is estimated to be 6.4×10-6 and 1.1×10-5 N/m when methods (1) and (2) are employed, respectively. The elastic constant obtained by approximating the polystyrene chain to a freely jointed chain is in agreement with the experimentally evaluated elastic constant.
A multiscale guide to Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grebenkov, Denis S.; Belyaev, Dmitry; Jones, Peter W.
2016-01-01
We revise the Lévy construction of Brownian motion as a simple though rigorous approach to operate with various Gaussian processes. A Brownian path is explicitly constructed as a linear combination of wavelet-based ‘geometrical features’ at multiple length scales with random weights. Such a wavelet representation gives a closed formula mapping of the unit interval onto the functional space of Brownian paths. This formula elucidates many classical results about Brownian motion (e.g., non-differentiability of its path), providing an intuitive feeling for non-mathematicians. The illustrative character of the wavelet representation, along with the simple structure of the underlying probability space, is different from the usual presentation of most classical textbooks. Similar concepts are discussed for the Brownian bridge, fractional Brownian motion, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, Gaussian free fields, and fractional Gaussian fields. Wavelet representations and dyadic decompositions form the basis of many highly efficient numerical methods to simulate Gaussian processes and fields, including Brownian motion and other diffusive processes in confining domains.
Brownian motion using video capture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salmon, Reese; Robbins, Candace; Forinash, Kyle
2002-05-01
Although other researchers had previously observed the random motion of pollen grains suspended in water through a microscope, Robert Brown's name is associated with this behaviour based on observations he made in 1828. It was not until Einstein's work in the early 1900s however, that the origin of this irregular motion was established to be the result of collisions with molecules which were so small as to be invisible in a light microscope (Einstein A 1965 Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement ed R Furth (New York: Dover) (transl. Cowper A D) (5 papers)). Jean Perrin in 1908 (Perrin J 1923 Atoms (New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold) (transl. Hammick D)) was able, through a series of painstaking experiments, to establish the validity of Einstein's equation. We describe here the details of a junior level undergraduate physics laboratory experiment where students used a microscope, a video camera and video capture software to verify Einstein's famous calculation of 1905.
The open quantum Brownian motions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis; Tilloy, Antoine
2014-09-01
Using quantum parallelism on random walks as the original seed, we introduce new quantum stochastic processes, the open quantum Brownian motions. They describe the behaviors of quantum walkers—with internal degrees of freedom which serve as random gyroscopes—interacting with a series of probes which serve as quantum coins. These processes may also be viewed as the scaling limit of open quantum random walks and we develop this approach along three different lines: the quantum trajectory, the quantum dynamical map and the quantum stochastic differential equation. We also present a study of the simplest case, with a two level system as an internal gyroscope, illustrating the interplay between the ballistic and diffusive behaviors at work in these processes. Notation H_z : orbital (walker) Hilbert space, {C}^{{Z}} in the discrete, L^2({R}) in the continuum H_c : internal spin (or gyroscope) Hilbert space H_sys=H_z\\otimesH_c : system Hilbert space H_p : probe (or quantum coin) Hilbert space, H_p={C}^2 \\rho^tot_t : density matrix for the total system (walker + internal spin + quantum coins) \\bar \\rho_t : reduced density matrix on H_sys : \\bar\\rho_t=\\int dxdy\\, \\bar\\rho_t(x,y)\\otimes | x \\rangle _z\\langle y | \\hat \\rho_t : system density matrix in a quantum trajectory: \\hat\\rho_t=\\int dxdy\\, \\hat\\rho_t(x,y)\\otimes | x \\rangle _z\\langle y | . If diagonal and localized in position: \\hat \\rho_t=\\rho_t\\otimes| X_t \\rangle _z\\langle X_t | ρt: internal density matrix in a simple quantum trajectory Xt: walker position in a simple quantum trajectory Bt: normalized Brownian motion ξt, \\xi_t^\\dagger : quantum noises
Magnetic-field dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieckhoff, Jan; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank
2016-01-01
The investigation of the rotational dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic fields is of academic interest but also important for applications such as magnetic particle imaging where the particles are exposed to magnetic fields with amplitudes of up to 25 mT. We have experimentally studied the dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times on ac and dc magnetic field amplitude using ac susceptibility measurements in the frequency range between 2 Hz and 9 kHz for field amplitudes up to 9 mT. As samples, single-core iron oxide nanoparticles with core diameters between 20 nm and 30 nm were used either suspended in water-glycerol mixtures or immobilized by freeze-drying. The experimentally determined relaxation times are compared with theoretical models. It was found that the Néel relaxation time decays much faster with increasing field amplitude than the Brownian one. Whereas the dependence of the Brownian relaxation time on the ac and dc field amplitude can be well explained with existing theoretical models, a proper model for the dependence of the Néel relaxation time on ac field amplitude for particles with random distribution of easy axes is still lacking. The extrapolation of the measured relaxation times of the 25 nm core diameter particles to a 25 mT ac field with an empirical model predicts that the Brownian mechanism clearly co-determines the dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic particle imaging applications, in agreement with magnetic particle spectroscopy data.
Brownian dynamics of a microswimmer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobaskin, V.; Lobaskin, D.; Kulić, I. M.
2008-04-01
We report on dynamic properties of a simple model microswimmer composed of three spheres and propelling itself in a viscous fluid by spinning motion of the spheres under zero net torque constraint. At a fixed temperature and increasing the spinning frequency, the swimmer demonstrates a transition from dissipation-dominated to a pumping-dominated motion regime characterized by negative effective friction coefficient. In the limit of high frequencies, the diffusion of the swimmer can be described by a model of an active particle with constant velocity.
Brownian ratchets in physics and biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bier, Martin
1997-06-01
Thirty years ago Feynman et al. presented a paradox in the Lectures on Physics: an imagined device could let Brownian motion do work by allowing it in one direction and blocking it in the opposite direction. In the chapter Feynman et al. eventually show that such ratcheting can only be achieved if there is, in compliance with the basic conservation laws, some energy input from an external source. Now that technology is going into ever smaller dimensions, ratcheting Brownian motion seems to be a real possibility in nanotechnological applications. Furthermore, Brownian motion plays an essential role in the action of motor proteins (individual molecules that convert chemical energy into motion).
Transport of active ellipsoidal particles in ratchet potentials
Ai, Bao-Quan Wu, Jian-Chun
2014-03-07
Rectified transport of active ellipsoidal particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional asymmetric potential. The out-of-equilibrium condition for the active particle is an intrinsic property, which can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the perfect sphere particle can facilitate the rectification, while the needlelike particle destroys the directed transport. There exist optimized values of the parameters (the self-propelled velocity, the torque acting on the body) at which the average velocity takes its maximal value. For the ellipsoidal particle with not large asymmetric parameter, the average velocity decreases with increasing the rotational diffusion rate, while for the needlelike particle (very large asymmetric parameter), the average velocity is a peaked function of the rotational diffusion rate. By introducing a finite load, particles with different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities) will move to the opposite directions, which is able to separate particles of different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities)
Frequency dispersion of electrokinetically activated Janus particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boymelgreen, Alicia; Balli, Tov; Yossifon, Gilad; Miloh, Touvia
2015-11-01
We examine the influence of the applied frequency of the electric field on the induced-charge electroosmotic flow around a metallo-dielectric Janus particle. Previously, we have used three dimensional-two component micro-particle-image-velocimetry (3D-2C μ PIV) around a stagnant particle, to illustrate the presence of a number of competing effects including dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamic flow which distort both the strength and shape of the frequency dispersion predicted for pure induced-charge effects. Here, we extend this work by examining the frequency dispersion of mobile Janus particles of different sizes (3 - 15 μm in diameter) at different electrolyte concentrations. In all cases, towards the DC limit, and in the frequency domain where previously EHD flow was shown to dominate, the velocity of a mobile particle decays to zero. At the same time significant variations in the frequency dispersion, including its shape and the value for maximum velocity are recorded as a function of both electrolyte concentration and particle size. This work is of both fundamental and practical importance and may be used to further refine non-linear electrokinetic theory and optimize the application of Janus particles as carriers in lab-on-a-chip analysis systems.
Theory of relativistic Brownian motion: the (1+3) -dimensional case.
Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter
2005-09-01
A theory for (1+3) -dimensional relativistic Brownian motion under the influence of external force fields is put forward. Starting out from a set of relativistically covariant, but multiplicative Langevin equations we describe the relativistic stochastic dynamics of a forced Brownian particle. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equations are studied in the laboratory frame coordinates. In particular, the stochastic integration prescription--i.e., the discretization rule dilemma--is elucidated (prepoint discretization rule versus midpoint discretization rule versus postpoint discretization rule). Remarkably, within our relativistic scheme we find that the postpoint rule (or the transport form) yields the only Fokker-Planck dynamics from which the relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics is recovered as the stationary solution. The relativistic velocity effects become distinctly more pronounced by going from one to three spatial dimensions. Moreover, we present numerical results for the asymptotic mean-square displacement of a free relativistic Brownian particle moving in 1+3 dimensions. PMID:16241514
Nanoscale temperature measurements using non-equilibrium Brownian dynamics of a levitated nanosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millen, J.; Deesuwan, T.; Barker, P.; Anders, J.
2014-06-01
Einstein realized that the fluctuations of a Brownian particle can be used to ascertain the properties of its environment. A large number of experiments have since exploited the Brownian motion of colloidal particles for studies of dissipative processes, providing insight into soft matter physics and leading to applications from energy harvesting to medical imaging. Here, we use heated optically levitated nanospheres to investigate the non-equilibrium properties of the gas surrounding them. Analysing the sphere's Brownian motion allows us to determine the temperature of the centre-of-mass motion of the sphere, its surface temperature and the heated gas temperature in two spatial dimensions. We observe asymmetric heating of the sphere and gas, with temperatures reaching the melting point of the material. This method offers opportunities for accurate temperature measurements with spatial resolution on the nanoscale, and provides a means for testing non-equilibrium thermodynamics.
Transient cluster formation in sheared non-Brownian suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thøgersen, Kjetil; Dabrowski, Marcin; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders
2016-02-01
We perform numerical simulations of non-Brownian suspensions in the laminar flow regime to study the scaling behavior of particle clusters and collisions under shear. As the particle fraction approaches the maximum packing fraction, large transient clusters appear in the system. We use methods from percolation theory to discuss the cluster size distribution. We also give a scaling relation for the percolation threshold as well as system size effects through time-dependent fluctuations of this threshold and relate them to system size. System size effects are important close to the maximum packing fraction due to the divergence of the cluster length scale. We then investigate the transient nature of the clusters through characterization of particle collisions and show that collision times exhibit scale-invariant properties. Finally, we show that particle collision times can be modeled as first-passage processes.
Transient cluster formation in sheared non-Brownian suspensions.
Thøgersen, Kjetil; Dabrowski, Marcin; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders
2016-02-01
We perform numerical simulations of non-Brownian suspensions in the laminar flow regime to study the scaling behavior of particle clusters and collisions under shear. As the particle fraction approaches the maximum packing fraction, large transient clusters appear in the system. We use methods from percolation theory to discuss the cluster size distribution. We also give a scaling relation for the percolation threshold as well as system size effects through time-dependent fluctuations of this threshold and relate them to system size. System size effects are important close to the maximum packing fraction due to the divergence of the cluster length scale. We then investigate the transient nature of the clusters through characterization of particle collisions and show that collision times exhibit scale-invariant properties. Finally, we show that particle collision times can be modeled as first-passage processes. PMID:26986381
Human behavioral regularity, fractional Brownian motion, and exotic phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Guang; An, Kenan; Huang, Jiping
2016-08-01
The mix of competition and cooperation (C&C) is ubiquitous in human society, which, however, remains poorly explored due to the lack of a fundamental method. Here, by developing a Janus game for treating C&C between two sides (suppliers and consumers), we show, for the first time, experimental and simulation evidences for human behavioral regularity. This property is proved to be characterized by fractional Brownian motion associated with an exotic transition between periodic and nonperiodic phases. Furthermore, the periodic phase echoes with business cycles, which are well-known in reality but still far from being well understood. Our results imply that the Janus game could be a fundamental method for studying C&C among humans in society, and it provides guidance for predicting human behavioral activity from the perspective of fractional Brownian motion.
Role of Brownian Motion Hydrodynamics on Nanofluid Thermal Conductivity
W Evans, J Fish, P Keblinski
2005-11-14
We use a simple kinetic theory based analysis of heat flow in fluid suspensions of solid nanoparticles (nanofluids) to demonstrate that the hydrodynamics effects associated with Brownian motion have a minor effect on the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. Our conjecture is supported by the results of molecular dynamics simulations of heat flow in a model nanofluid with well-dispersed particles. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of the effective medium theory as well as with recent experimental results on well dispersed metal nanoparticle suspensions.
Spatial extent of branching Brownian motion.
Ramola, Kabir; Majumdar, Satya N; Schehr, Grégory
2015-04-01
We study the one-dimensional branching Brownian motion starting at the origin and investigate the correlation between the rightmost (X(max)≥0) and leftmost (X(min)≤0) visited sites up to time t. At each time step the existing particles in the system either diffuse (with diffusion constant D), die (with rate a), or split into two particles (with rate b). We focus on the regime b≤a where these two extreme values X(max) and X(min) are strongly correlated. We show that at large time t, the joint probability distribution function (PDF) of the two extreme points becomes stationary P(X,Y,t→∞)→p(X,Y). Our exact results for p(X,Y) demonstrate that the correlation between X(max) and X(min) is nonzero, even in the stationary state. From this joint PDF, we compute exactly the stationary PDF p(ζ) of the (dimensionless) span ζ=(X(max)-X(min))/√[D/b], which is the distance between the rightmost and leftmost visited sites. This span distribution is characterized by a linear behavior p(ζ)∼1/2(1+Δ)ζ for small spans, with Δ=(a/b-1). In the critical case (Δ=0) this distribution has a nontrivial power law tail p(ζ)∼8π√[3]/ζ(3) for large spans. On the other hand, in the subcritical case (Δ>0), we show that the span distribution decays exponentially as p(ζ)∼(A(2)/2)ζexp(-√[Δ]ζ) for large spans, where A is a nontrivial function of Δ, which we compute exactly. We show that these asymptotic behaviors carry the signatures of the correlation between X(max) and X(min). Finally we verify our results via direct Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:25974462
Remote Control of T Cell Activation Using Magnetic Janus Particles.
Lee, Kwahun; Yi, Yi; Yu, Yan
2016-06-20
We report a strategy for using magnetic Janus microparticles to control the stimulation of T cell signaling with single-cell precision. To achieve this, we designed Janus particles that are magnetically responsive on one hemisphere and stimulatory to T cells on the other side. By manipulating the rotation and locomotion of Janus particles under an external magnetic field, we could control the orientation of the particle-cell recognition and thereby the initiation of T cell activation. This study demonstrates a step towards employing anisotropic material properties of Janus particles to control single-cell activities without the need of complex magnetic manipulation devices. PMID:27144475
Circular motion of asymmetric self-propelling particles.
Kümmel, Felix; ten Hagen, Borge; Wittkowski, Raphael; Buttinoni, Ivo; Eichhorn, Ralf; Volpe, Giovanni; Löwen, Hartmut; Bechinger, Clemens
2013-05-10
Micron-sized self-propelled (active) particles can be considered as model systems for characterizing more complex biological organisms like swimming bacteria or motile cells. We produce asymmetric microswimmers by soft lithography and study their circular motion on a substrate and near channel boundaries. Our experimental observations are in full agreement with a theory of Brownian dynamics for asymmetric self-propelled particles, which couples their translational and orientational motion. PMID:23705745
Circular Motion of Asymmetric Self-Propelling Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kümmel, Felix; ten Hagen, Borge; Wittkowski, Raphael; Buttinoni, Ivo; Eichhorn, Ralf; Volpe, Giovanni; Löwen, Hartmut; Bechinger, Clemens
2013-05-01
Micron-sized self-propelled (active) particles can be considered as model systems for characterizing more complex biological organisms like swimming bacteria or motile cells. We produce asymmetric microswimmers by soft lithography and study their circular motion on a substrate and near channel boundaries. Our experimental observations are in full agreement with a theory of Brownian dynamics for asymmetric self-propelled particles, which couples their translational and orientational motion.
Branch migration enzyme as a Brownian ratchet
Rasnik, Ivan; Jeong, Yong-Joo; McKinney, Sean A; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Patel, Smita S; Ha, Taekjip
2008-01-01
In recent years, it has been shown that helicases are able to perform functions beyond their traditional role in unwinding of double-stranded nucleic acids; yet the mechanistic aspects of these different activities are not clear. Our kinetic studies of Holliday junction branch migration catalysed by a ring-shaped helicase, T7 gp4, show that heterology of as little as a single base stalls catalysed branch migration. Using single-molecule analysis, one can locate the stall position to within a few base pairs of the heterology. Our data indicate that the presence of helicase alone promotes junction unfolding, which accelerates spontaneous branch migration, and individual time traces reveal complex trajectories consistent with random excursions of the branch point. Our results suggest that instead of actively unwinding base pairs as previously thought, the helicase exploits the spontaneous random walk of the junction and acts as a Brownian ratchet, which walks along duplex DNA while facilitating and biasing branch migration in a specific direction. PMID:18511910
The Effect of Brownian Motion on the Trajectory of Diffusiophoretic Locomotors near a Solid Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozaffari, Ali; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Koplik, Joel; Maldarelli, Charles
2015-11-01
Diffusiophoretically self-propelled locomotors are a class of active colloids in which a particle autonomously swims through the liquid as a result of an unbalanced interaction with solute molecules asymmetrically distributed around the colloid. This solute distribution is maintained by a reaction which produces the solute on one catalytically active side of the Janus motor colloid. For the simplest case of diffusiophoretic self-propulsion near a planar infinite wall with zero solute flux, and repulsive solute-colloid interactions, hydrodynamic solutions for deterministic Stokes flow have shown that that for large catalytically active areas pointed away from the wall, and for distances less than the particle radius, the particles can skim at a constant distance along the surface without rotation, or can become stationary. To examine the effect of thermal fluctuations on the stability of these regimes for small motor sizes, Brownian dynamics simulations including the hydrodynamic interaction with the wall are undertaken, and we identify critical Peclet numbers above which the skimming and stationary regimes are stable. Below these values, less predictable behavior is found in which the colloid can be repelled from or intersect with the wall.
Brownian Ratchets in Biophysics: from Diffusing Phospholipids to Polymerizing Actin Filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Oudenaarden, Alexander
2000-03-01
In the 'Feynman Lectures on Physics' Feynman introduces a mechanical ratchet and pawl subjected to thermal fluctuations to demonstrate the impossibility to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Since this introduction the Brownian ratchet has evolved from Gedanken experiments to real experiments in the interdisciplinary sciences such as biophysics and biochemistry. In this symposium I will present two experiments in which the concept Brownian ratchet is of key importance. The first experiment addresses a so-called geometrical Brownian ratchet [1]. This ratchet consists of a two-dimensional microfabricated periodic array of asymmetric diffusion barriers. As an experimental realization of a two-dimensional fluid of Brownian particles, a bilayer of phospholipid molecules is used. I will demonstrate that the geometrical Brownian ratchet can be used as a molecular sieve to separate mixtures of membrane molecules without the need to extract them from the membrane. In the second experiment I explore the spontaneous symmetry breaking of polymerizing actin networks [2]. Small submicron size beads coated uniformly with a protein that catalyzes actin polymerization, are initially surrounded by a symmetrical cloud of actin filaments. This symmetry can be broken spontaneously after which the beads undergo directional motion with constant velocity. I will present a simple stochastic theory, in which each filament is modeled as an elastic Brownian ratchet that qualitatively reproduces the experimental results. The presence of the bead couples the dynamics of different filaments which results in a complex collective system of interacting Brownian ratchets that exhibits an emergent symmetry breaking behavior. [1] A. van Oudenaarden and S. G. Boxer, Science 285, 1046 (1999). [2] A. van Oudenaarden and J. A. Theriot, Nature Cell Biology 1, 493 (1999).
Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field
Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir
2015-01-01
Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of
Hysteretic dynamics of active particles in a periodic orienting field.
Romensky, Maksym; Scholz, Dimitri; Lobaskin, Vladimir
2015-07-01
Active motion of living organisms and artificial self-propelling particles has been an area of intense research at the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Significant progress in understanding these phenomena has been related to the observation that dynamic self-organization in active systems has much in common with ordering in equilibrium condensed matter such as spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. The velocities of active particles may behave similar to magnetic dipoles and develop global alignment, although interactions between the individuals might be completely different. In this work, we show that the dynamics of active particles in external fields can also be described in a way that resembles equilibrium condensed matter. It follows simple general laws, which are independent of the microscopic details of the system. The dynamics is revealed through hysteresis of the mean velocity of active particles subjected to a periodic orienting field. The hysteresis is measured in computer simulations and experiments on unicellular organisms. We find that the ability of the particles to follow the field scales with the ratio of the field variation period to the particles' orientational relaxation time, which, in turn, is related to the particle self-propulsion power and the energy dissipation rate. The collective behaviour of the particles due to aligning interactions manifests itself at low frequencies via increased persistence of the swarm motion when compared with motion of an individual. By contrast, at high field frequencies, the active group fails to develop the alignment and tends to behave like a set of independent individuals even in the presence of interactions. We also report on asymptotic laws for the hysteretic dynamics of active particles, which resemble those in magnetic systems. The generality of the assumptions in the underlying model suggests that the observed laws might apply to a variety of dynamic phenomena from the motion of
Active microrheology of driven granular particles.
Wang, Ting; Grob, Matthias; Zippelius, Annette; Sperl, Matthias
2014-04-01
When pulling a particle in a driven granular fluid with constant force Fex, the probe particle approaches a steady-state average velocity v. This velocity and the corresponding friction coefficient of the probe ζ=Fex/v are obtained within a schematic model of mode-coupling theory and compared to results from event-driven simulations. For small and moderate drag forces, the model describes the simulation results successfully for both the linear as well as the nonlinear region: The linear response regime (constant friction) for small drag forces is followed by shear thinning (decreasing friction) for moderate forces. For large forces, the model demonstrates a subsequent increasing friction in qualitative agreement with the data. The square-root increase of the friction with force found in [Fiege et al., Granul. Matter 14, 247 (2012)] is explained by a simple kinetic theory. PMID:24827243
Differential dynamic microscopy to characterize Brownian motion and bacteria motility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Germain, David; Leocmach, Mathieu; Gibaud, Thomas
2016-03-01
We have developed a lab module for undergraduate students, which involves the process of quantifying the dynamics of a suspension of microscopic particles using Differential Dynamic Microscopy (DDM). DDM is a relatively new technique that constitutes an alternative method to more classical techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) or video particle tracking (VPT). The technique consists of imaging a particle dispersion with a standard light microscope and a camera and analyzing the images using a digital Fourier transform to obtain the intermediate scattering function, an autocorrelation function that characterizes the dynamics of the dispersion. We first illustrate DDM in the textbook case of colloids under Brownian motion, where we measure the diffusion coefficient. Then we show that DDM is a pertinent tool to characterize biological systems such as motile bacteria.
Krylov subspace methods for computing hydrodynamic interactions in Brownian dynamics simulations
Ando, Tadashi; Chow, Edmond; Saad, Yousef; Skolnick, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
Hydrodynamic interactions play an important role in the dynamics of macromolecules. The most common way to take into account hydrodynamic effects in molecular simulations is in the context of a Brownian dynamics simulation. However, the calculation of correlated Brownian noise vectors in these simulations is computationally very demanding and alternative methods are desirable. This paper studies methods based on Krylov subspaces for computing Brownian noise vectors. These methods are related to Chebyshev polynomial approximations, but do not require eigenvalue estimates. We show that only low accuracy is required in the Brownian noise vectors to accurately compute values of dynamic and static properties of polymer and monodisperse suspension models. With this level of accuracy, the computational time of Krylov subspace methods scales very nearly as O(N2) for the number of particles N up to 10 000, which was the limit tested. The performance of the Krylov subspace methods, especially the “block” version, is slightly better than that of the Chebyshev method, even without taking into account the additional cost of eigenvalue estimates required by the latter. Furthermore, at N = 10 000, the Krylov subspace method is 13 times faster than the exact Cholesky method. Thus, Krylov subspace methods are recommended for performing large-scale Brownian dynamics simulations with hydrodynamic interactions. PMID:22897254
Observation of Brownian motion in liquids at short times: instantaneous velocity and memory loss.
Kheifets, Simon; Simha, Akarsh; Melin, Kevin; Li, Tongcang; Raizen, Mark G
2014-03-28
Measurement of the instantaneous velocity of Brownian motion of suspended particles in liquid probes the microscopic foundations of statistical mechanics in soft condensed matter. However, instantaneous velocity has eluded experimental observation for more than a century since Einstein's prediction of the small length and time scales involved. We report shot-noise-limited, high-bandwidth measurements of Brownian motion of micrometer-sized beads suspended in water and acetone by an optical tweezer. We observe the hydrodynamic instantaneous velocity of Brownian motion in a liquid, which follows a modified energy equipartition theorem that accounts for the kinetic energy of the fluid displaced by the moving bead. We also observe an anticorrelated thermal force, which is conventionally assumed to be uncorrelated. PMID:24675957
Landers, J; Salamon, S; Remmer, H; Ludwig, F; Wende, H
2016-02-10
We demonstrate the ability of Mössbauer spectroscopy to simultaneously investigate Brownian motion and Néel relaxation in ferrofluidic samples. For this purpose, Mössbauer spectra of coated iron oxide nanoparticles with core diameters of 6.0-26.4 nm dissolved in 70 vol % glycerol solution were recorded in the temperature range of 234-287 K and compared to low-temperature spectra without Brownian motion. By comparison to theory, we were able to determine the particle coating thickness and the dynamic viscosity of the fluid from the broadening of the absorption lines (Brownian motion), as well as the state of Néel relaxation. Results from Mössbauer spectroscopy were crosschecked by AC-susceptometry at several temperatures for Brownian motion and in the high-frequency regime (100 Hz-1 MHz) for Néel relaxation. PMID:26788750
Brush in the bath of active particles: Anomalous stretching of chains and distribution of particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hui-shu; Zhang, Bo-kai; Li, Jian; Tian, Wen-de; Chen, Kang
2015-12-01
The interaction between polymer brush and colloidal particles has been intensively studied in the last two decades. Here, we consider a flat chain-grafted substrate immersed in a bath of active particles. Simulations show that an increase in the self-propelling force causes an increase in the number of particles that penetrate into the brush. Anomalously, the particle density inside the main body of the brush eventually becomes higher than that outside the brush at very large self-propelling force. The grafted chains are further stretched due to the steric repulsion from the intruded particles. Upon the increase of the self-propelling force, distinct stretching behaviors of the chains were observed for low and high grafting densities. Surprisingly, we find a weak descent of the average end-to-end distance of chains at high grafting density and very large force which is reminiscent of the compression effect of a chain in the active bath.
Brush in the bath of active particles: Anomalous stretching of chains and distribution of particles.
Li, Hui-shu; Zhang, Bo-kai; Li, Jian; Tian, Wen-de; Chen, Kang
2015-12-14
The interaction between polymer brush and colloidal particles has been intensively studied in the last two decades. Here, we consider a flat chain-grafted substrate immersed in a bath of active particles. Simulations show that an increase in the self-propelling force causes an increase in the number of particles that penetrate into the brush. Anomalously, the particle density inside the main body of the brush eventually becomes higher than that outside the brush at very large self-propelling force. The grafted chains are further stretched due to the steric repulsion from the intruded particles. Upon the increase of the self-propelling force, distinct stretching behaviors of the chains were observed for low and high grafting densities. Surprisingly, we find a weak descent of the average end-to-end distance of chains at high grafting density and very large force which is reminiscent of the compression effect of a chain in the active bath. PMID:26671400
Multidimensional stationary probability distribution for interacting active particles.
Maggi, Claudio; Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo; Gnan, Nicoletta; Di Leonardo, Roberto
2015-01-01
We derive the stationary probability distribution for a non-equilibrium system composed by an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom that are subject to Gaussian colored noise and a conservative potential. This is based on a multidimensional version of the Unified Colored Noise Approximation. By comparing theory with numerical simulations we demonstrate that the theoretical probability density quantitatively describes the accumulation of active particles around repulsive obstacles. In particular, for two particles with repulsive interactions, the probability of close contact decreases when one of the two particle is pinned. Moreover, in the case of isotropic confining potentials, the radial density profile shows a non trivial scaling with radius. Finally we show that the theory well approximates the "pressure" generated by the active particles allowing to derive an equation of state for a system of non-interacting colored noise-driven particles. PMID:26021260
Huge light scattering from active anisotropic spherical particles.
Fan, Xiaofeng; Shen, Zexiang; Luk'yanchuk, Boris
2010-11-22
The light scattering by a spherical particle with radial anisotropic permittivity ε and permeability μ are discussed in detail by expanding Mie theory. With the modified vector potential formulation, the electric anisotropy effects on scattering efficiency are addressed by studying the extinction, scattering, absorption and radar cross sections following the change of the transverse permittivity ε(t), the longitudinal permittivity ε(r) and the particle size q. The huge scattering cross sections are shown by considering the possible coupling between active medium and plasmon polaritons and this will be possible to result in spaser from the active plasmons of small particle. PMID:21164832
Biased Brownian dynamics for rate constant calculation.
Zou, G; Skeel, R D; Subramaniam, S
2000-08-01
An enhanced sampling method-biased Brownian dynamics-is developed for the calculation of diffusion-limited biomolecular association reaction rates with high energy or entropy barriers. Biased Brownian dynamics introduces a biasing force in addition to the electrostatic force between the reactants, and it associates a probability weight with each trajectory. A simulation loses weight when movement is along the biasing force and gains weight when movement is against the biasing force. The sampling of trajectories is then biased, but the sampling is unbiased when the trajectory outcomes are multiplied by their weights. With a suitable choice of the biasing force, more reacted trajectories are sampled. As a consequence, the variance of the estimate is reduced. In our test case, biased Brownian dynamics gives a sevenfold improvement in central processing unit (CPU) time with the choice of a simple centripetal biasing force. PMID:10919998
The inviscid Burgers equation with initial data of Brownian type
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
She, Zhen-Su; Aurell, Erik; Frisch, Uriel
1992-09-01
The solutions to Burgers equation, in the limit of vanishing viscosity, are investigated when the initial velocity is a Brownian motion (or fractional Brownian motion) function, i.e. a Gaussian process with scaling exponent 0< h<1 (type A) or the derivative thereof, with scaling exponent -1< h<0 (type B). Largesize numerical experiments are performed, helped by the fact that the solution is essentially obtained by performing a Legendre transform. The main result is obtained for type A and concerns the Lagrangian function x(a) which gives the location at time t=1 of the fluid particle which started at the location a. It is found to be a complete Devil's staircase. The cumulative probability of Lagrangian shock intervals Δ a (also the distribution of shock amplitudes) follows a ( Δa)- h law for small Δ a. The remaining (regular) Lagrangian locations form a Cantor set of dimension h. In Eulerian coordinates, the shock locations are everywhere dense. The scaling properties of various statistical quantities are also found. Heuristic interpretations are provided for some of these results. Rigorous results for the case of Brownian motion are established in a companion paper by Ya. Sinai. For type B initial velocities (e.g. white noise), there are very few small shocks and shock locations appear to be isolated. Finally, it is shown that there are universality classes of random but smooth (non-scaling) initial velocities such that the long-time large-scale behavior is, after rescaling, the same as for type A or B.
Electric-field-induced rotation of Brownian metal nanowires.
Arcenegui, Juan J; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Morgan, Hywel; Ramos, Antonio
2013-09-01
We describe the physical mechanism responsible for the rotation of Brownian metal nanowires suspended in an electrolyte exposed to a rotating electric field. The electric field interacts with the induced charge in the electrical double layer at the metal-electrolyte interface, causing rotation due to the torque on the induced dipole and to the induced-charge electro-osmotic flow around the particle. Experiments demonstrate that the primary driving mechanism is the former of these two. Our analysis contrasts with previous work describing the electrical manipulation of metallic particles with electric fields, which neglected the electrical double layer. Theoretical values for the rotation speed are calculated and good agreement with experiments is found. PMID:24125362
Thermal diffusion by Brownian-motion-induced fluid stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreft, Jennifer; Chen, Yeng-Long
2007-08-01
The Ludwig-Soret effect, the migration of a species due to a temperature gradient, has been extensively studied without a complete picture of its cause emerging. Here we investigate the dynamics of DNA and spherical particles subjected to a thermal gradient using a combination of Brownian dynamics and the lattice Boltzmann method. We observe that the DNA molecules will migrate to colder regions of the channel, an observation also made in experiments. In fact, the thermal diffusion coefficient found agrees quantitatively with the experimentally measured value. We also observe that the thermal diffusion coefficient decreases as the radius of the studied spherical particles increases. Furthermore, we observe that the thermal-fluctuation-fluid-momentum-flux coupling induces a gradient in the stress which leads to thermal migration in both systems.
Clustering of branching Brownian motions in confined geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zoia, A.; Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.; de Mulatier, C.; Rosso, A.
2014-10-01
We study the evolution of a collection of individuals subject to Brownian diffusion, reproduction, and disappearance. In particular, we focus on the case where the individuals are initially prepared at equilibrium within a confined geometry. Such systems are widespread in physics and biology and apply for instance to the study of neutron populations in nuclear reactors and the dynamics of bacterial colonies, only to name a few. The fluctuations affecting the number of individuals in space and time may lead to a strong patchiness, with particles clustered together. We show that the analysis of this peculiar behavior can be rather easily carried out by resorting to a backward formalism based on the Green's function, which allows the key physical observables, namely, the particle concentration and the pair correlation function, to be explicitly derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yariv, Ehud; Schnitzer, Ory
2014-09-01
We consider the motion of self-propelling Brownian particles in two-dimensional periodically corrugated channels. The point-size swimmers propel themselves in a direction which fluctuates by Brownian rotation; in addition, they undergo Brownian motion. The impermeability of the channel boundaries in conjunction with an asymmetry of the unit-cell geometry enables ratcheting, where a nonzero particle current is animated along the channel. This effect is studied here in the continuum limit using a diffusion-advection description of the probability density in a four-dimensional position-orientation space. Specifically, the mean particle velocity is calculated using macrotransport (generalized Taylor-dispersion) theory. This description reveals that the ratcheting mechanism is indirect: swimming gives rise to a biased spatial particle distribution which in turn results in a purely diffusive net current. For a slowly varying channel geometry, the dependence of this current upon the channel geometry and fluid-particle parameters is studied via a long-wave approximation over a reduced two-dimensional space. This allows for a straightforward seminumerical solution. In the limit where both rotational diffusion and swimming are strong, we find an asymptotic approximation to the particle current, scaling inversely with the square of the swimming Péclet number. For a given swimmer-fluid system, this limit is physically realized with increasing unit-cell size.
Yariv, Ehud; Schnitzer, Ory
2014-09-01
We consider the motion of self-propelling Brownian particles in two-dimensional periodically corrugated channels. The point-size swimmers propel themselves in a direction which fluctuates by Brownian rotation; in addition, they undergo Brownian motion. The impermeability of the channel boundaries in conjunction with an asymmetry of the unit-cell geometry enables ratcheting, where a nonzero particle current is animated along the channel. This effect is studied here in the continuum limit using a diffusion-advection description of the probability density in a four-dimensional position-orientation space. Specifically, the mean particle velocity is calculated using macrotransport (generalized Taylor-dispersion) theory. This description reveals that the ratcheting mechanism is indirect: swimming gives rise to a biased spatial particle distribution which in turn results in a purely diffusive net current. For a slowly varying channel geometry, the dependence of this current upon the channel geometry and fluid-particle parameters is studied via a long-wave approximation over a reduced two-dimensional space. This allows for a straightforward seminumerical solution. In the limit where both rotational diffusion and swimming are strong, we find an asymptotic approximation to the particle current, scaling inversely with the square of the swimming Péclet number. For a given swimmer-fluid system, this limit is physically realized with increasing unit-cell size. PMID:25314403
Nanoparticle Brownian motion and hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of flow fields
Uma, B.; Swaminathan, T. N.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Eckmann, D. M.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.
2011-01-01
We consider the Brownian motion of a nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian fluid medium (quiescent or fully developed Poiseuille flow) with the fluctuating hydrodynamics approach. The formalism considers situations where both the Brownian motion and the hydrodynamic interactions are important. The flow results have been modified to account for compressibility effects. Different nanoparticle sizes and nearly neutrally buoyant particle densities are also considered. Tracked particles are initially located at various distances from the bounding wall to delineate wall effects. The results for thermal equilibrium are validated by comparing the predictions for the temperatures of the particle with those obtained from the equipartition theorem. The nature of the hydrodynamic interactions is verified by comparing the velocity autocorrelation functions and mean square displacements with analytical and experimental results where available. The equipartition theorem for a Brownian particle in Poiseuille flow is verified for a range of low Reynolds numbers. Numerical predictions of wall interactions with the particle in terms of particle diffusivities are consistent with results, where available. PMID:21918592
Self-organized vortices of circling self-propelled particles and curved active flagella.
Yang, Yingzi; Qiu, Feng; Gompper, Gerhard
2014-01-01
Self-propelled pointlike particles move along circular trajectories when their translocation velocity is constant and the angular velocity related to their orientation vector is also constant. We investigate the collective behavior of ensembles of such circle swimmers by Brownian dynamics simulations. If the particles interact via a "velocity-trajectory coordination" rule within neighboring particles, a self-organized vortex pattern emerges. This vortex pattern is characterized by its particle-density correlation function Gρ, the density correlation function Gc of trajectory centers, and an order parameter S representing the degree of the aggregation of the particles. Here we systematically vary the system parameters, such as the particle density and the interaction range, in order to reveal the transition of the system from a light-vortex-dominated to heavy-vortex-dominated state, where vortices contain mainly a single and many self-propelled particles, respectively. We also study a semidilute solution of curved, sinusoidal-beating flagella, as an example of circling self-propelled particles with explicit propulsion mechanism and excluded-volume interactions. Our simulation results are compared with previous experimental results for the vortices in sea-urchin sperm solutions near a wall. The properties of the vortices in simulations and experiments are found to agree quantitatively. PMID:24580270
Self-organized vortices of circling self-propelled particles and curved active flagella
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yingzi; Qiu, Feng; Gompper, Gerhard
2014-01-01
Self-propelled pointlike particles move along circular trajectories when their translocation velocity is constant and the angular velocity related to their orientation vector is also constant. We investigate the collective behavior of ensembles of such circle swimmers by Brownian dynamics simulations. If the particles interact via a "velocity-trajectory coordination" rule within neighboring particles, a self-organized vortex pattern emerges. This vortex pattern is characterized by its particle-density correlation function Gρ, the density correlation function Gc of trajectory centers, and an order parameter S representing the degree of the aggregation of the particles. Here we systematically vary the system parameters, such as the particle density and the interaction range, in order to reveal the transition of the system from a light-vortex-dominated to heavy-vortex-dominated state, where vortices contain mainly a single and many self-propelled particles, respectively. We also study a semidilute solution of curved, sinusoidal-beating flagella, as an example of circling self-propelled particles with explicit propulsion mechanism and excluded-volume interactions. Our simulation results are compared with previous experimental results for the vortices in sea-urchin sperm solutions near a wall. The properties of the vortices in simulations and experiments are found to agree quantitatively.
Strongly Accelerated Margination of Active Particles in Blood Flow.
Gekle, Stephan
2016-01-19
Synthetic nanoparticles and other stiff objects injected into a blood vessel filled with red blood cells are known to marginate toward the vessel walls. By means of hydrodynamic lattice-Boltzmann simulations, we show that active particles can strongly accelerate their margination by moving against the flow direction: particles located initially in the channel center migrate much faster to their final position near the wall than in the nonactive case. We explain our findings by an enhanced rate of collisions between the stiff particles and the deformable red blood cells. Our results imply that a significantly faster margination can be achieved either technically by the application of an external magnetic field (if the particles are magnetic) or biologically by self-propulsion (if the particles are, e.g., swimming bacteria). PMID:26789773
Guiding Catalytically Active Particles with Chemically Patterned Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uspal, W. E.; Popescu, M. N.; Dietrich, S.; Tasinkevych, M.
2016-07-01
Catalytically active Janus particles suspended in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemiosmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemiosmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate "point-particle" approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemiosmotic flows can cause particles to either "dock" at the chemical step between the two materials or follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.
ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE ON NANO-PARTICLES ACTIVATES CNS MACROPHAGES (MICROGLIA).
Nanometer size particles carry free radical activity on their surface and can produce oxidative stress (OS)-mediated damage upon impact to target cells. The initiating event of phage cell activation (i.e., the oxidative burst) is unknown, although many proximal events have been i...
Binary data corruption due to a Brownian agent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, T. J.; Triampo, Wannapong
1999-05-01
We introduce a model of binary data corruption induced by a Brownian agent (active random walker) on a d-dimensional lattice. A continuum formulation allows the exact calculation of several quantities related to the density of corrupted bits ρ, for example, the mean of ρ and the density-density correlation function. Excellent agreement is found with the results from numerical simulations. We also calculate the probability distribution of ρ in d=1, which is found to be log normal, indicating that the system is governed by extreme fluctuations.
Optofluidics incorporating actively controlled micro- and nano-particles
Kayani, Aminuddin A.; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ward, Stephanie A.; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh
2012-01-01
The advent of optofluidic systems incorporating suspended particles has resulted in the emergence of novel applications. Such systems operate based on the fact that suspended particles can be manipulated using well-appointed active forces, and their motions, locations and local concentrations can be controlled. These forces can be exerted on both individual and clusters of particles. Having the capability to manipulate suspended particles gives users the ability for tuning the physical and, to some extent, the chemical properties of the suspension media, which addresses the needs of various advanced optofluidic systems. Additionally, the incorporation of particles results in the realization of novel optofluidic solutions used for creating optical components and sensing platforms. In this review, we present different types of active forces that are used for particle manipulations and the resulting optofluidic systems incorporating them. These systems include optical components, optofluidic detection and analysis platforms, plasmonics and Raman systems, thermal and energy related systems, and platforms specifically incorporating biological particles. We conclude the review with a discussion of future perspectives, which are expected to further advance this rapidly growing field. PMID:23864925
Undergraduate Labs for Biological Physics: Brownian Motion and Optical Trapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Kelvin; Laughney, A.; Williams, J.
2006-12-01
We describe a set of case-study driven labs for an upper-division biological physics course. These labs are motivated by case-studies and consist of inquiry-driven investigations of Brownian motion and optical-trapping experiments. Each lab incorporates two innovative educational techniques to drive the process and application aspects of scientific learning. Case studies are used to encourage students to think independently and apply the scientific method to a novel lab situation. Student input from this case study is then used to decide how to best do the measurement, guide the project and ultimately evaluate the success of the program. Where appropriate, visualization and simulation using VPython is used. Direct visualization of Brownian motion allows students to directly calculate Avogadro's number or the Boltzmann constant. Following case-study driven discussion, students use video microscopy to measure the motion of latex spheres in different viscosity fluids arrive at a good approximation of NA or kB. Optical trapping (laser tweezer) experiments allow students to investigate the consequences of 100-pN forces on small particles. The case study consists of a discussion of the Boltzmann distribution and equipartition theorem followed by a consideration of the shape of the potential. Students can then use video capture to measure the distribution of bead positions to determine the shape and depth of the trap. This work supported by NSF DUE-0536773.
Nonlinear Filtering with Fractional Brownian Motion
Amirdjanova, A.
2002-12-19
Our objective is to study a nonlinear filtering problem for the observation process perturbed by a Fractional Brownian Motion (FBM) with Hurst index 1/2
Myosin V is a biological Brownian machine
Fujita, Keisuke; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro
2014-01-01
Myosin V is a vesicle transporter that unidirectionally walks along cytoskeletal actin filaments by converting the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work. Recently, it was found that myosin V force generation is a composition of two processes: a lever-arm swing, which involves a conformational change in the myosin molecule, and a Brownian search-and-catch, which involves a diffusive “search” by the motor domain that is followed by an asymmetric “catch” in the forward actin target such that Brownian motion is rectified. Here we developed a system that combines optical tweezers with DNA nano-material to show that the Brownian search-and-catch mechanism is the energetically dominant process at near stall force, providing 13 kBT of work compared to just 3 kBT by the lever-arm swing. Our result significantly reconsiders the lever-arm swinging model, which assumes the swing dominantly produces work (>10 kBT), and sheds light on the Brownian search-and-catch as a driving process. PMID:27493501
Narrow escape for a stochastically gated Brownian ligand.
Reingruber, Jürgen; Holcman, David
2010-02-17
Molecular activation in cellular microdomains is usually characterized by a forward binding rate, which is the reciprocal of the arrival time of a ligand to a key target. Upon chemical interactions or conformational changes, a Brownian ligand may randomly switch between different states, and when target activation is possible in a specific state only, switching can significantly alter the activation process. The main goal of this paper is to study the mean time for a switching ligand to activate a small substrate, modelled as the time to exit a microdomain through a small absorbing window on the surface. We present the equations for the mean sojourn times the ligand spends in each state, and study the escape process with switching between two states in dimension one and three. When the ligand can exit in only one of the two states, we find that switching always decreases its sojourn time in the state where it can exit. Moreover, the fastest exit is obtained when the ligand diffuses most of the time in the state with the maximal diffusion coefficient, although this may imply that it spends most of the time 'hidden' in the state where it cannot exit. We discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for this apparent paradox. In dimension three we confirm our results with Brownian simulations. Finally, we suggest possible applications in cellular biology. PMID:21389363
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thrapsaniotis, E. G.
2001-07-01
The present paper deals with the motion of a Brownian particle on two identical but shifted potential surfaces, coupled via a tunneling matrix element in an external electric field. Dissipation is induced by a heat bath represented by an infinite set of harmonic oscillators with a continuum range of frequencies. We derive a perturbative solution for the quantum coherence term of the particle system after performing a small-polaron-like transformation. This is subsequently necessary for the extraction of an equation that describes the reduced dynamics and the minimal action path of the Brownian particle. Finally we extract expressions for the population relaxation rate and the pure quantum-dephasing rate of the two-level system.
Discontinuous fluidization transition in dense suspensions of actively deforming particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjhung, Elsen; Berthier, Ludovic
Collective dynamics of self-propelled particles at high density have been shown to display a glass-like transition with a critical slowing down of 2 to 4 orders of magnitude. In this talk, we propose a new mechanism of injecting energy or activity via volume fluctuations. We show that the behaviour of actively deforming particles is strikingly different from that of self-propelled particles. In particular, we find a discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition from a flowing state to an arrested state. Our minimal model might also explain the collective dynamics in epithelial tissues. In particular, without needing self-propulsion or cell-cell adhesion, volume fluctuations of individual cells alone might be sufficient to give rise to an active fluidization and collective dynamics in densely packed tissues.
Quiet time particle fluxes and active phenomena on the Sun
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishkov, Vitaly; Zeldovich, Mariya; Logachev, Yurii; Kecskemety, Karoly
Using ACE, SOHO and STEREO data the connection of quiet time particle fluxes with active processes on the Sun is examined in the 23rd SC. Investigation of the intervals selected in the conditions of low solar activity supports our assumption that the active structures on the Sun arising during minimum solar activity are mostly responsible for background particle fluxes. Sources on the Sun of charged particles with energies 0.3-8 MeV/nucleon have been determined during quiet time periods over all solar cycle by comparison with solar wind fluxes. It is shown that at the solar maximum a part of background fluxes with abundances of C and Fe corresponding to mean values in solar corona resulted from equatorial coronal holes. Bipolar structures arising in the hole area (bright X-ray points) were accompanied in most cases by the ejection of solar plasma according to HINOTORI satellite. The speed of a part of such emissions and open magnetic field lines above coronal holes can allow energetic particles to escape into the interplanetary space. During solar minimum abundances of C and Fe in majority of quiet time fluxes corresponded to solar wind values possibly indicating the common origin of energetic particle and solar wind fluxes.
Physisorption of enzymatically active chymotrypsin on titania colloidal particles.
Derr, Ludmilla; Dringen, Ralf; Treccani, Laura; Hildebrand, Nils; Ciacchi, Lucio Colombi; Rezwan, Kurosch
2015-10-01
In this study we use a straightforward experimental method to probe the presence and activity of the proteolytic enzyme α-chymotrypsin adsorbed on titania colloidal particles. We show that the adsorption of α-chymotrypsin on the particles is irreversible and pH-dependent. At pH 8 the amount of adsorbed chymotrypsin is threefold higher compared to the adsorption at pH 5. However, we observe that the adsorption is accompanied by a substantial loss of enzymatic activity, and only around 6-9% of the initial enzyme activity is retained. A Michaelis-Menten kinetics analysis of both unbound and TiO2-bound chymotrypsin shows that the K(M) value is increased from ∼10 μM for free chymotrypsin to ∼40 μM for the particle bound enzyme. Such activity decrease could be related by the hindered accessibility of substrate to the active site of adsorbed chymotrypsin, or by adsorption-induced structural changes. Our simple experimental method does not require any complex technical equipment, can be applied to a broad range of hydrolytic enzymes and to various types of colloidal materials. Our approach allows an easy, fast and reliable determination of particle surface-bound enzyme activity and has high potential for development of future enzyme-based biotechnological and industrial processes. PMID:26072448
Naphthalene SOA: redox activity and naphthoquinone gas-particle partitioning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McWhinney, R. D.; Zhou, S.; Abbatt, J. P. D.
2013-10-01
Chamber secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from low-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene by hydroxyl radical was examined with respect to its redox cycling behaviour using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Naphthalene SOA was highly redox-active, consuming DTT at an average rate of 118 ± 14 pmol per minute per μg of SOA material. Measured particle-phase masses of the major previously identified redox active products, 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinone, accounted for only 21 ± 3% of the observed redox cycling activity. The redox-active 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone was identified as a new minor product of naphthalene oxidation, and including this species in redox activity predictions increased the predicted DTT reactivity to 30 ± 5% of observations. These results suggest that there are substantial unidentified redox-active SOA constituents beyond the small quinones that may be important toxic components of these particles. A gas-to-SOA particle partitioning coefficient was calculated to be (7.0 ± 2.5) × 10-4 m3 μg-1 for 1,4-naphthoquinone at 25 °C. This value suggests that under typical warm conditions, 1,4-naphthoquinone is unlikely to contribute strongly to redox behaviour of ambient particles, although further work is needed to determine the potential impact under conditions such as low temperatures where partitioning to the particle is more favourable. Also, higher order oxidation products that likely account for a substantial fraction of the redox cycling capability of the naphthalene SOA are likely to partition much more strongly to the particle phase.
Shah, Saqlain A.; Reeves, Daniel B.; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Weaver, John B.
2015-01-01
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with highly nonlinear magnetic behavior are attractive for biomedical applications like magnetic particle imaging and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Such particles display interesting magnetic properties in alternating magnetic fields and here we document experiments that show differences between the magnetization dynamics of certain particles in frozen and melted states. This effect goes beyond the small temperature difference (ΔT ~ 20 °C) and we show the dynamics to be a mixture of Brownian alignment of the particles and Néel rotation of their moments occurring in liquid particle suspensions. These phenomena can be modeled in a stochastic differential equation approach by postulating log-normal distributions and partial Brownian alignment of an effective anisotropy axis. We emphasize that precise particle-specific characterization through experiments and nonlinear simulations is necessary to predict dynamics in solution and optimize their behavior for emerging biomedical applications including magnetic particle imaging. PMID:26504371
Kinetics of small particle activation in supersaturated vapors
McGraw, R.; Wang, J.
2010-08-29
We examine the nucleated (with barrier) activation of perfectly wetting (zero contact angle) particles ranging from bulk size down to one nanometer. Thermodynamic properties of the particles, coated with liquid layers of varying thickness and surrounded by vapor, are analyzed. Nano-size particles are predicted to activate at relative humidity below the Kelvin curve on crossing a nucleation barrier, located at a critical liquid layer thickness such that the total particle size (core + liquid layer) equals the Kelvin radius (Fig. 1). This barrier vanishes precisely as the critical layer thickness approaches the thin layer limit and the Kelvin radius equals the radius of the particle itself. These considerations are similar to those included in Fletcher's theory (Fletcher, 1958) however the present analysis differs in several important respects. Firstly, where Fletcher used the classical prefactor-exponent form for the nucleation rate, requiring separate estimation of the kinetic prefactor, we solve a diffusion-drift equation that is equivalent to including the full Becker-Doering (BD) multi-state kinetics of condensation/evaporation along the growth coordinate. We also determine the mean first passage time (MFPT) for barrier crossing (Wedekind et al., 2007), which is shown to provide a generalization of BD nucleation kinetics especially useful for barrier heights that are considerably lower than those typically encountered in homogeneous vapor-liquid nucleation, and make explicit comparisons between the MFPT and BD kinetic models. Barrier heights for heterogeneous nucleation are computed by a thermo-dynamic area construction introduced recently to model deliquescence and efflorescence of small particles (McGraw and Lewis, 2009). In addition to providing a graphical representation of the activation process that offers new insights, the area construction provides a molecular approach that avoids explicit use of the interfacial tension. Typical barrier profiles for
Brownian diffusion of a partially wetted colloid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boniello, Giuseppe; Blanc, Christophe; Fedorenko, Denys; Medfai, Mayssa; Mbarek, Nadia Ben; in, Martin; Gross, Michel; Stocco, Antonio; Nobili, Maurizio
2015-09-01
The dynamics of colloidal particles at interfaces between two fluids plays a central role in microrheology, encapsulation, emulsification, biofilm formation, water remediation and the interface-driven assembly of materials. Common intuition corroborated by hydrodynamic theories suggests that such dynamics is governed by a viscous force lower than that observed in the more viscous fluid. Here, we show experimentally that a particle straddling an air/water interface feels a large viscous drag that is unexpectedly larger than that measured in the bulk. We suggest that such a result arises from thermally activated fluctuations of the interface at the solid/air/liquid triple line and their coupling to the particle drag through the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our findings should inform approaches for improved control of the kinetically driven assembly of anisotropic particles with a large triple-line-length/particle-size ratio, and help to understand the formation and structure of such arrested materials.
Brownian diffusion of a partially wetted colloid.
Boniello, Giuseppe; Blanc, Christophe; Fedorenko, Denys; Medfai, Mayssa; Mbarek, Nadia Ben; In, Martin; Gross, Michel; Stocco, Antonio; Nobili, Maurizio
2015-09-01
The dynamics of colloidal particles at interfaces between two fluids plays a central role in microrheology, encapsulation, emulsification, biofilm formation, water remediation and the interface-driven assembly of materials. Common intuition corroborated by hydrodynamic theories suggests that such dynamics is governed by a viscous force lower than that observed in the more viscous fluid. Here, we show experimentally that a particle straddling an air/water interface feels a large viscous drag that is unexpectedly larger than that measured in the bulk. We suggest that such a result arises from thermally activated fluctuations of the interface at the solid/air/liquid triple line and their coupling to the particle drag through the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our findings should inform approaches for improved control of the kinetically driven assembly of anisotropic particles with a large triple-line-length/particle-size ratio, and help to understand the formation and structure of such arrested materials. PMID:26147846
Interaction forces between waterborne bacteria and activated carbon particles.
Busscher, Henk J; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Langworthy, Don E; Collias, Dimitris I; Bjorkquist, David W; Mitchell, Michael D; Van der Mei, Henny C
2008-06-01
Activated carbons remove waterborne bacteria from potable water systems through attractive Lifshitz-van der Waals forces despite electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged cells and carbon surfaces. In this paper we quantify the interaction forces between bacteria with negatively and positively charged, mesoporous wood-based carbons, as well as with a microporous coconut carbon. To this end, we glued carbon particles to the cantilever of an atomic force microscope and measured the interaction forces upon approach and retraction of thus made tips. Waterborne Raoultella terrigena and Escherichia coli adhered weakly (1-2 nN) to different activated carbon particles, and the main difference between the activated carbons was the percentage of curves with attractive sites revealed upon traversing of a carbon particle through the bacterial EPS layer. The percentage of curves showing adhesion forces upon retraction varied between 21% and 69%, and was highest for R. terrigena with positively charged carbon (66%) and a coconut carbon (69%). Macroscopic bacterial removal by the mesoporous carbon particles increased with increasing percentages of attractive sites revealed upon traversing a carbon particle through the outer bacterial surface layer. PMID:18405910
Suppression of a Brownian noise in a hole-type sensor due to induced-charge electro-osmosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugioka, Hideyuki
2016-03-01
Noise reduction is essential for a single molecular sensor. Thus, we propose a novel noise reduction mechanism using a hydrodynamic force due to induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) in a hole-type sensor and numerically examine the performance. By the boundary element method that considers both a Brownian motion and an ICEO flow of a polarizable particle, we find that the Brownian noise in a current signal is suppressed significantly in a converging channel because of the ICEO flow around the particle in the presence of an electric field. Further, we propose a simple model that explains a numerically obtained threshold voltage of the suppression of the Brownian noise due to ICEO. We believe that our findings contribute greatly to developments of a single molecular sensor.
Study of two-dimensional Debye clusters using Brownian motion
Sheridan, T.E.; Theisen, W.L.
2006-06-15
A two-dimensional Debye cluster is a system of n identical particles confined in a parabolic well and interacting through a screened Coulomb (i.e., a Debye-Hueckel or Yukawa) potential with a Debye length {lambda}. Experiments were performed for 27 clusters with n=3-63 particles (9 {mu}m diam) in a capacitively coupled 9 W rf discharge at a neutral argon pressure of 13.6 mTorr. In the strong-coupling regime each particle exhibits small amplitude Brownian motion about its equilibrium position. These motions were projected onto the center-of-mass and breathing modes and Fourier analyzed to give resonance curves from which the mode frequencies, amplitudes, and damping rates were determined. The ratio of the breathing frequency to the center-of-mass frequency was compared with theory to self-consistently determine the Debye shielding parameter {kappa}, Debye length {lambda}, particle charge q, and mode temperatures. It is found that 1 < or approx. {kappa} < or approx. 2, and {kappa} decreases weakly with n. The particle charge averaged over all measurements is -14 200{+-}200 e, and q decreases slightly with n. The two center-of-mass modes and the breathing mode are found to have the same temperature, indicating that the clusters are in thermal equilibrium with the neutral gas. The average cluster temperature is 399{+-}5 K.
Study of two-dimensional Debye clusters using Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheridan, T. E.; Theisen, W. L.
2006-06-01
A two-dimensional Debye cluster is a system of n identical particles confined in a parabolic well and interacting through a screened Coulomb (i.e., a Debye-Hückel or Yukawa) potential with a Debye length λ. Experiments were performed for 27 clusters with n =3-63 particles (9μmdiam) in a capacitively coupled 9 W rf discharge at a neutral argon pressure of 13.6mTorr. In the strong-coupling regime each particle exhibits small amplitude Brownian motion about its equilibrium position. These motions were projected onto the center-of-mass and breathing modes and Fourier analyzed to give resonance curves from which the mode frequencies, amplitudes, and damping rates were determined. The ratio of the breathing frequency to the center-of-mass frequency was compared with theory to self-consistently determine the Debye shielding parameter κ, Debye length λ, particle charge q, and mode temperatures. It is found that 1≲κ ≲2, and κ decreases weakly with n. The particle charge averaged over all measurements is -14200±200e, and q decreases slightly with n. The two center-of-mass modes and the breathing mode are found to have the same temperature, indicating that the clusters are in thermal equilibrium with the neutral gas. The average cluster temperature is 399±5K.
Performance characteristics of a micro-Brownian refrigerator in a one-dimensional lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yanping; He, Jizhou; Ouyang, Hong; Qian, Xiaoxia
2010-11-01
Particle hopping on a one-dimensional lattice driven by an external force in a periodic sawtooth potential and temperature field may act as a micro-Brownian refrigerator. In order to clarify the underlying physical pictures of the refrigerator, heat flows via both the potential energy and the kinetic energy of the particle are considered simultaneously. Based on the master equation describing the jump of the particle among the three states, expressions for the cooling rate and the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator are derived analytically. The general performance characteristic curves are plotted by numerical calculation. It is found that the characteristic curve between the cooling rate and the coefficient of performance is a loop-shaped one; the Brownian refrigerator is irreversible and its coefficient of performance is always less than the Carnot value. The influence of the temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs and the height of the sawtooth potential on the optimal performance characteristic parameters is analyzed. When heat flow via the kinetic energy of the particle is neglected, the characteristic curve between the cooling rate and the coefficient of performance is an open-shaped one. In this case, the Brownian refrigerator is reversible and its coefficient of performance reaches the Carnot value in the quasistatic limit.
Superadiabatic forces in Brownian many-body dynamics.
Fortini, Andrea; de Las Heras, Daniel; Brader, Joseph M; Schmidt, Matthias
2014-10-17
Theoretical approaches to nonequilibrium many-body dynamics generally rest upon an adiabatic assumption, whereby the true dynamics is represented as a sequence of equilibrium states. Going beyond this simple approximation is a notoriously difficult problem. For the case of classical Brownian many-body dynamics, we present a simulation method that allows us to isolate and precisely evaluate superadiabatic correlations and the resulting forces. Application of the method to a system of one-dimensional hard particles reveals the importance for the dynamics, as well as the complexity, of these nontrivial out-of-equilibrium contributions. Our findings help clarify the status of dynamical density functional theory and provide a rational basis for the development of improved theories. PMID:25361281
Superadiabatic Forces in Brownian Many-Body Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortini, Andrea; de las Heras, Daniel; Brader, Joseph M.; Schmidt, Matthias
2014-10-01
Theoretical approaches to nonequilibrium many-body dynamics generally rest upon an adiabatic assumption, whereby the true dynamics is represented as a sequence of equilibrium states. Going beyond this simple approximation is a notoriously difficult problem. For the case of classical Brownian many-body dynamics, we present a simulation method that allows us to isolate and precisely evaluate superadiabatic correlations and the resulting forces. Application of the method to a system of one-dimensional hard particles reveals the importance for the dynamics, as well as the complexity, of these nontrivial out-of-equilibrium contributions. Our findings help clarify the status of dynamical density functional theory and provide a rational basis for the development of improved theories.
Quantum Brownian motion for periodic coupling to an Ohmic bath
Piilo, J.; Maniscalco, S.; Suominen, K.-A.
2007-03-15
We show theoretically how the periodic coupling between an engineered reservoir and a quantum Brownian particle leads to the formation of a dynamical steady-state which is characterized by an effective temperature above the temperature of the environment. The average steady-state energy of the system has a higher value than expected from the environmental properties. The system experiences repeatedly a non-Markovian behavior--as a consequence the corresponding effective decay for long evolution times is always on average stronger than the Markovian one. We also highlight the consequences of the scheme for the Zeno-anti-Zeno crossover which depends, in addition to the periodicity {tau}, also on the total evolution time of the system.
Environment-dependent dissipation in quantum Brownian motion
Paavola, J.; Piilo, J.; Suominen, K.-A.; Maniscalco, S.
2009-05-15
The dissipative dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle is studied for different types of environment. We derive analytic results for the time evolution of the mean energy of the system for Ohmic, sub-Ohmic, and super-Ohmic environments, without performing the Markovian approximation. Our results allow one to establish a direct link between the form of the environmental spectrum and the thermalization dynamics. This in turn leads to a natural explanation of the microscopic physical processes ruling the system time evolution both in the short-time non-Markovian region and in the long-time Markovian one. Our comparative study of thermalization for different environments sheds light on the physical contexts in which non-Markovian dissipation effects are dominant.
Brownian scattering of a spinon in a Luttinger liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rieder, M.-T.; Levchenko, A.; Micklitz, T.
2014-12-01
We consider strongly interacting one-dimensional electron liquids where elementary excitations carry either spin or charge. At small temperatures a spinon created at the bottom of its band scatters off low-energy spin and charge excitations and follows the diffusive motion of a Brownian particle in momentum space. We calculate the mobility characterizing these processes and show that the resulting diffusion coefficient of the spinon is parametrically enhanced at low temperatures compared to that of a mobile impurity in a spinless Luttinger liquid. We briefly discuss that this hints at the relevance of spin in the process of equilibration of strongly interacting one-dimensional electrons, and comment on implications for transport in clean single-channel quantum wires.
Functionally charged nanosize particles differentially activate BV2 microglia.
The effect of particle surface charge on the biological activation of immortalized mouse microglia (BV2) was examined. Nanosize (860-950 nm) spherical polystyrene microparticles (SPM) were coated with carboxyl (COOH-) or dimethyl amino (CH3)2-N- groups to give a net negative or p...
Anomalous diffusion as modeled by a nonstationary extension of Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Daniel; Park, Moongyu
2009-03-01
If the mean-square displacement of a stochastic process is proportional to tβ , β≠1 , then it is said to be anomalous. We construct a family of Markovian stochastic processes with independent nonstationary increments and arbitrary but a priori specified mean-square displacement. We label the family as an extended Brownian motion and show that they satisfy a Langevin equation with time-dependent diffusion coefficient. If the time derivative of the variance of the process is homogeneous, then by computing the fractal dimension it can be shown that the complexity of the family is the same as that of the Brownian motion. For two particles initially separated by a distance x , the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) measures the average rate of exponential separation to a distance ax . An analytical expression is developed for the FSLEs of the extended Brownian processes and numerical examples presented. The explicit construction of these processes illustrates that contrary to what has been stated in the literature, a power-law mean-square displacement is not necessarily related to a breakdown in the classical central limit theorem (CLT) caused by, for example, correlation (fractional Brownian motion or correlated continuous-time random-walk schemes) or infinite variance (Levy motion). The classical CLT, coupled with nonstationary increments, can and often does give rise to power-law moments such as the mean-square displacement.
Ice nucleus activity measurements of solid rocket motor exhaust particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keller, V. W. (Compiler)
1986-01-01
The ice Nucleus activity of exhaust particles generated from combustion of Space Shuttle propellant in small rocket motors has been measured. The activity at -20 C was substantially lower than that of aerosols generated by unpressurized combustion of propellant samples in previous studies. The activity decays rapidly with time and is decreased further in the presence of moist air. These tests corroborate the low effectivity ice nucleus measurement results obtained in the exhaust ground cloud of the Space Shuttle. Such low ice nucleus activity implies that Space Shuttle induced inadvertent weather modification via an ice phase process is extremely unlikely.
Bacteria associated with granular activated carbon particles in drinking water.
Camper, A K; LeChevallier, M W; Broadaway, S C; McFeters, G A
1986-01-01
A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogenization procedure (developed previously) indicated that 41.4% of the water samples had heterotrophic plate count bacteria attached to carbon particles. With the enumeration procedures described, heterotrophic plate count bacteria were recovered at an average rate of 8.6 times higher than by conventional analyses. Over 17% of the samples contained carbon particles colonized with coliform bacteria as enumerated with modified most-probable-number and membrane filter techniques. In some instances coliform recoveries were 122 to 1,194 times higher than by standard procedures. Nearly 28% of the coliforms attached to these particles in drinking water exhibited the fecal biotype. Scanning electron micrographs of carbon fines from treated drinking water showed microcolonies of bacteria on particle surfaces. These data indicate that bacteria attached to carbon fines may be an important mechanism by which microorganisms penetrate treatment barriers and enter potable water supplies. PMID:3767356
The influence of hydroxyapatite particles on osteoclast cell activities.
Sun, J S; Lin, F H; Hung, T Y; Tsuang, Y H; Chang, W H; Liu, H C
1999-06-15
Aseptic loosening after total joint arthroplasty is a major problem in orthopedic surgery. Small particles from material wear have been reported as the main cause of implant failure. For this reason, investigation into possible wear particles from the materials used in the implant may lead to longevity after arthroplasty. Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been extensively investigated and reported as an excellent biomaterial with excellent biocompatibility. In this study, we used an in vitro osteoblast/osteoclast model to test the biocompatibility of various-sized HA particles. Primary osteoclasts/osteoblasts were co-cultured with different-sized HA particles (0.5-3.0 microm, 37-53 microm, 177-205 microm, and 420-841 microm) for 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days. Cellular responses to the HA particles were evaluated by changes in cell counts and the secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), prostaglandin (PGE2), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the supernatant of the culture media. The results showed that osteoblasts/osteoclasts co-cultured with HA particles smaller than 53 microm undergo the most significant changes. Cellular counts significantly decreased, and the changes were more obvious in the osteoblast population. There also was a significant decrease in TGF-beta1 concentration and a significant increase in PGE2 and LDH concentration, but there were no changes in the TNF-alpha or ALP titer. It can be concluded that larger HA particles may be quite compatible with bone cells while smaller-sized HA particles can both activate the osteoclasts and decrease the cell population of the osteoblasts. Justification for the additional expense incurred with the use of hydroxyapatite in primary total hip arthroplasty should be further evaluated. PMID:10321703
A Brownian model for recurrent volcanic eruptions: an application to Miyakejima volcano (Japan)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Marzocchi, Warner; Fujita, Eisuke
2012-03-01
The definition of probabilistic models as mathematical structures to describe the response of a volcanic system is a plausible approach to characterize the temporal behavior of volcanic eruptions and constitutes a tool for long-term eruption forecasting. This kind of approach is motivated by the fact that volcanoes are complex systems in which a completely deterministic description of the processes preceding eruptions is practically impossible. To describe recurrent eruptive activity, we apply a physically motivated probabilistic model based on the characteristics of the Brownian passage-time (BPT) distribution; the physical process defining this model can be described by the steady rise of a state variable from a ground state to a failure threshold; adding Brownian perturbations to the steady loading produces a stochastic load-state process (a Brownian relaxation oscillator) in which an eruption relaxes the load state to begin a new eruptive cycle. The Brownian relaxation oscillator and Brownian passage-time distribution connect together physical notions of unobservable loading and failure processes of a point process with observable response statistics. The Brownian passage-time model is parameterized by the mean rate of event occurrence, μ, and the aperiodicity about the mean, α. We apply this model to analyze the eruptive history of Miyakejima volcano, Japan, finding a value of 44.2 (±6.5 years) for the μ parameter and 0.51 (±0.01) for the (dimensionless) α parameter. The comparison with other models often used in volcanological literature shows that this physically motivated model may be a good descriptor of volcanic systems that produce eruptions with a characteristic size. BPT is clearly superior to the Exponential distribution, and the fit to the data is comparable to other two-parameters models. Nonetheless, being a physically motivated model, it provides an insight into the macro-mechanical processes driving the system.
Brownian thermal noise in multilayer coated mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Ting; Yang, Huan; Gustafson, Eric K.; Adhikari, Rana X.; Chen, Yanbei
2013-04-01
We analyze the Brownian thermal noise of a multilayer dielectric coating used in high-precision optical measurements, including interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We assume the coating material to be isotropic, and therefore study thermal noises arising from shear and bulk losses of the coating materials. We show that coating noise arises not only from layer thickness fluctuations, but also from fluctuations of the interface between the coating and substrate, driven by fluctuating shear stresses of the coating. Although thickness fluctuations of different layers are statistically independent, there exists a finite coherence between the layers and the substrate-coating interface. In addition, photoelastic coefficients of the thin layers (so far not accurately measured) further influence the thermal noise, although at a relatively low level. Taking into account uncertainties in material parameters, we show that significant uncertainties still exist in estimating coating Brownian noise.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Algebraic areas enclosed by 2D Brownian curves in random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desbois, Jean
1999-05-01
We study closed Brownian trajectories when the Brownian particle is subjected to a random potential. For a Poissonian icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/> repulsive potential, the enclosed algebraic area, A, is a Gaussian variable that scales like t3/4 when t, the length of the curve, goes to infinity. This is intermediate between the situations where the particle is allowed to wander (i) everywhere on the plane (A~t) and (ii) only on a bounded domain (A~t1/2). For the Lloyd model, we show that the probability distribution, P(A), is the same as in the absence of disorder. This surprising result is related to some peculiarities of the Cauchy law.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Qing; Shchekin, Alexander K.; Xie, Ming-Liang
2015-06-01
New analytical solutions in the theory of the Brownian coagulation with a wide class of collision kernels have been found with using the Taylor-series expansion method of moments (TEMOM). It has been shown at different power exponents in the collision kernels from this class and at arbitrary initial conditions that the relative rates of changing zeroth and second moments of the particle volume distribution have the same long time behavior with power exponent -1, while the dimensionless particle moment related to the geometric standard deviation tends to the constant value which equals 2. The power exponent in the collision kernel in the class studied affects the time of approaching the self-preserving distribution, the smaller the value of the index, the longer time. It has also been shown that constant collision kernel gives for the moments in the Brownian coagulation the results which are very close to that in the continuum regime.
An Approach to Enhance the Efficiency of a Brownian Heat Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yan-Ping; He, Ji-Zhou; Xiao, Yu-Ling
2011-10-01
A Brownian microscopic heat engine, driven by temperature difference and consisting of a Brownian particle moving in a sawtooth potential with an external load, is investigated. The heat flows, driven by both potential and kinetic energies, are taken into account. Based on the master equation, the expressions for efficiency and power output are derived analytically, and performance characteristic curves are plotted. It is shown that the heat flow via the kinetic energy of the particle decreases. The efficiency of the engine is enhanced, but the power output reduces as the α shape parameter of the sawtooth potential increases. The influence of the α shape parameter on efficiency and power output is then analyzed in detail.
Frustrated Brownian Motion of Nonlocal Solitary Waves
Folli, V.; Conti, C.
2010-05-14
We investigate the evolution of solitary waves in a nonlocal medium in the presence of disorder. By using a perturbational approach, we show that an increasing degree of nonlocality may largely hamper the Brownian motion of self-trapped wave packets. The result is valid for any kind of nonlocality and in the presence of nonparaxial effects. Analytical predictions are compared with numerical simulations based on stochastic partial differential equations.
Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Silicate Dust Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zolles, Tobias; Burkart, Julia; Häusler, Thomas; Pummer, Bernhard; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich
2015-04-01
Mineral dusts originating from Earth's crust are known to be important atmospheric ice nuclei. In agreement with earlier studies, feldspar was found as the most active of the tested natural mineral dusts [1-3]. Nevertheless, among those structures K-feldspar showed by far the highest ice nucleation activity. In this study, the reasons for its activity and the difference in the activity of the different feldspars were investigated in closer details. Conclusions are drawn from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and oil-immersion freezing experiments. We give a potential explanation of the increased ice nucleation activity of K-feldspar. The ice nucleating sites are very much dependent on the alkali ion present by altering the water structure and the feldspar surface. The higher activity of K-feldspar can be attributed to the presence of potassium ions on the surface and surface bilayer. The alkali-ions have different hydration shells and thus an influence on the ice nucleation activity of feldspar. Chaotropic behavior of Calcium and Sodium ions are lowering the ice nucleation potential of the other feldspars, while kosmotropic Potassium has a neutral or even positive effect. Furthermore we investigated the influence of milling onto the ice nucleation of quartz particles. The ice nucleation activity can be increased by mechanical milling, by introducing more molecular, nucleation active defects to the particle surface. This effect is larger than expected by plane surface increase. [1] Atkinson et al. The Importance of Feldspar for Ice Nucleation by Mineral Dust in Mixed-Phase Clouds. Nature 2013, 498, 355-358. [2] Yakobi-Hancock et al.. Feldspar Minerals as Efficient Deposition Ice Nuclei. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 11175-11185. [3] Zolles et al. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Feldspar Dust Particles. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015 accepted.
Quantum dynamical framework for Brownian heat engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, G. S.; Chaturvedi, S.
2013-07-01
We present a self-contained formalism modeled after the Brownian motion of a quantum harmonic oscillator for describing the performance of microscopic Brownian heat engines such as Carnot, Stirling, and Otto engines. Our theory, besides reproducing the standard thermodynamics results in the steady state, enables us to study the role dissipation plays in determining the efficiency of Brownian heat engines under actual laboratory conditions. In particular, we analyze in detail the dynamics associated with decoupling a system in equilibrium with one bath and recoupling it to another bath and obtain exact analytical results, which are shown to have significant ramifications on the efficiencies of engines involving such a step. We also develop a simple yet powerful technique for computing corrections to the steady state results arising from finite operation time and use it to arrive at the thermodynamic complementarity relations for various operating conditions and also to compute the efficiencies of the three engines cited above at maximum power. Some of the methods and exactly solvable models presented here are interesting in their own right and could find useful applications in other contexts as well.
Quantum dynamical framework for Brownian heat engines.
Agarwal, G S; Chaturvedi, S
2013-07-01
We present a self-contained formalism modeled after the Brownian motion of a quantum harmonic oscillator for describing the performance of microscopic Brownian heat engines such as Carnot, Stirling, and Otto engines. Our theory, besides reproducing the standard thermodynamics results in the steady state, enables us to study the role dissipation plays in determining the efficiency of Brownian heat engines under actual laboratory conditions. In particular, we analyze in detail the dynamics associated with decoupling a system in equilibrium with one bath and recoupling it to another bath and obtain exact analytical results, which are shown to have significant ramifications on the efficiencies of engines involving such a step. We also develop a simple yet powerful technique for computing corrections to the steady state results arising from finite operation time and use it to arrive at the thermodynamic complementarity relations for various operating conditions and also to compute the efficiencies of the three engines cited above at maximum power. Some of the methods and exactly solvable models presented here are interesting in their own right and could find useful applications in other contexts as well. PMID:23944437
Comparison of the activities of fine-particle size catalysts
Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.
1994-12-31
The objectives of Sandia`s fine-particle size catalyst testing project are to evaluate and compare the activities of the fine-particle size catalysts being developed in DOE/PETCs Advanced Research Coal Liquefaction Program by using standard coal liquefaction test procedures. The standard procedures use Blind Canyon coal, phenanthrene as the reaction solvent, and a factorial experimental design with temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 400{degrees}C, reaction times from 20 to 60 minutes, and catalyst loadings up to 1 wt%. Catalytic activity is measured in terms of tetrahydrofuran conversion, heptane conversion, the amount of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene in the product, and the gas yield. Several catalysts have been evaluated including a commercially available pyrite, a sulfated iron oxide from the University of Pittsburgh, and several preparations of 6-line ferrihydrites from Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Results have demonstrated that significant differences in activity can be detected among these catalysts.
Coupled Brownian motors: Anomalous hysteresis and zero-bias negative conductance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimann, P.; Kawai, R.; Van den Broeck, C.; Hänggi, P.
1999-03-01
We introduce a model of interacting Brownian particles in a symmetric, periodic potential that undergoes a noise-induced non-equilibrium phase transition. The associated spontaneous symmetry breaking entails a ratchet-like transport mechanism. In response to an external force we identify several novel features; among the most prominent being a zero-bias negative conductance and a prima facie counterintuitive, anomalous hysteresis.
Hygroscopic Growth and Activation of Particles containing Algea-Exudate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wex, Heike; Fuentes, Elena; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Voigtländer, Jens; Clauss, Tina; Kiselev, Alexei; Green, David; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Stratmann, Frank
2010-05-01
A large amount of the Earth is covered by oceans, which provide a constant source of marine aerosol particles, produced due to bubble bursting processes that depend on wind speed (O'Dowd and de Leeuw, 2007). In general, marine particles can be assumed to play an important role for the Earth atmosphere on a global scale, due to their abundance and due to their effect on clouds. E.g. marine stratus and stratocumulus clouds contribute about 30% to 40% to the Earth's albedo (Randall et al., 1984). The activation of aerosol particles to cloud droplets depends on the hygroscopic properties of the particles, which, in turn, depend on their chemical composition. For marine particles, is has been and still is discussed what the effects of organic substances being present in the particles might be. These substances originate from marine biota where they enrich at the ocean surface. To mimic marine aerosol particles, algae-exudates of different algae species were mixed with artificial sea-water. These samples were used in the laboratory to produce particles via a bubble bursting process (Fuentes et al., 2009). The hygroscopic growth and activation of the (size selected) particles was measured, using LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Stratmann et al., 2004) and the DMT-CCNc (Cloud Condensation Nucleus counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies, Roberts and Nenes, 2005). The hygroscopic growth was measured twice, 3 and 10 seconds after humidification, and no difference in the grown size was detected, i.e. no kinetic effect was observed for the examined time range. From LACIS and CCNc measurements, the hygroscopicity was deduced through determination of the amount of ions being effective in the particle / droplet solution (Rho(ion), Wex et al., 2007). A concentration dependent non-ideal behaviour was found for particles produced from an artificial sea-water sample that contained only inorganic salts, as can be expected (see e.g. Niedermeier et al., 2008
Statistics of a Flux in Burgers Turbulencewith One-Sided Brownian Initial Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoin, J.; Giraud, C.; Isozaki, Y.
We study the statistics of the flux of particles crossing the origin, which is induced by the dynamics of ballistic aggregation in dimension 1, under certain random initial conditions for the system. More precisely, we consider the cases when particles are uniformly distributed on at the initial time, and if u(x,t) denotes the velocity of the particle located at x at time t, then u(x,0)= 0 for x<0 and (u(x,0), x>= 0) is either a white noise or a Brownian motion.
Emergent Ultra-Long-Range Interactions Between Active Particles in Hybrid Active-Inactive Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo
Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range and magnitude of such interactions has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless, immobile objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our system is a two dimensional colloidal monolayer composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids and a very small fraction of active (sinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction between active particles induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation time scale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.
Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uspal, William; Popescu, Mihail; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola
Catalytically active Janus particles in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate ``point-particle'' approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate (e.g., by adsorbing two different materials) one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either ``dock'' at a chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.
Ice Nucleation Activity of Various Agricultural Soil Dust Aerosol Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiebel, Thea; Höhler, Kristina; Funk, Roger; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Nadolny, Jens; Steinke, Isabelle; Suski, Kaitlyn J.; Ullrich, Romy; Wagner, Robert; Weber, Ines; DeMott, Paul J.; Möhler, Ottmar
2016-04-01
Recent investigations at the cloud simulation chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) suggest that agricultural soil dust has an ice nucleation ability that is enhanced up to a factor of 10 compared to desert dust, especially at temperatures above -26 °C (Steinke et al., in preparation for submission). This enhancement might be caused by the contribution of very ice-active biological particles. In addition, soil dust aerosol particles often contain a considerably higher amount of organic matter compared to desert dust particles. To test agricultural soil dust as a source of ice nucleating particles, especially for ice formation in warm clouds, we conducted a series of laboratory measurements with different soil dust samples to extend the existing AIDA dataset. The AIDA has a volume of 84 m3 and operates under atmospherically relevant conditions over wide ranges of temperature, pressure and humidity. By controlled adiabatic expansions, the ascent of an air parcel in the troposphere can be simulated. As a supplement to the AIDA facility, we use the INKA (Ice Nucleation Instrument of the KArlsruhe Institute of Technology) continuous flow diffusion chamber based on the design by Rogers (1988) to expose the sampled aerosol particles to a continuously increasing saturation ratio by keeping the aerosol temperature constant. For our experiments, soil dust was dry dispersed into the AIDA vessel. First, fast saturation ratio scans at different temperatures were performed with INKA, sampling soil dust aerosol particles directly from the AIDA vessel. Then, we conducted the AIDA expansion experiment starting at a preset temperature. The combination of these two different methods provides a robust data set on the temperature-dependent ice activity of various agriculture soil dust aerosol particles with a special focus on relatively high temperatures. In addition, to extend the data set, we investigated the role of biological and organic matter in more
Therapeutic activity of modified U1 core spliceosomal particles
Rogalska, Malgorzata Ewa; Tajnik, Mojca; Licastro, Danilo; Bussani, Erica; Camparini, Luca; Mattioli, Chiara; Pagani, Franco
2016-01-01
Modified U1 snRNAs bound to intronic sequences downstream of the 5′ splice site correct exon skipping caused by different types of mutations. Here we evaluate the therapeutic activity and structural requirements of these exon-specific U1 snRNA (ExSpeU1) particles. In a severe spinal muscular atrophy, mouse model, ExSpeU1, introduced by germline transgenesis, increases SMN2 exon 7 inclusion, SMN protein production and extends life span. In vitro, RNA mutant analysis and silencing experiments show that while U1A protein is dispensable, the 70K and stem loop IV elements mediate most of the splicing rescue activity through improvement of exon and intron definition. Our findings indicate that precise engineering of the U1 core spliceosomal RNA particle has therapeutic potential in pathologies associated with exon-skipping mutations. PMID:27041075
Phase Segregation of Passive Advective Particles in an Active Medium.
Das, Amit; Polley, Anirban; Rao, Madan
2016-02-12
Localized contractile configurations or asters spontaneously appear and disappear as emergent structures in the collective stochastic dynamics of active polar actomyosin filaments. Passive particles which (un)bind to the active filaments get advected into the asters, forming transient clusters. We study the phase segregation of such passive advective scalars in a medium of dynamic asters, as a function of the aster density and the ratio of the rates of aster remodeling to particle diffusion. The dynamics of coarsening shows a violation of Porod behavior; the growing domains have diffuse interfaces and low interfacial tension. The phase-segregated steady state shows strong macroscopic fluctuations characterized by multiscaling and intermittency, signifying rapid reorganization of macroscopic structures. We expect these unique nonequilibrium features to manifest in the actin-dependent molecular clustering at the cell surface. PMID:26919022
Phase Segregation of Passive Advective Particles in an Active Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Amit; Polley, Anirban; Rao, Madan
2016-02-01
Localized contractile configurations or asters spontaneously appear and disappear as emergent structures in the collective stochastic dynamics of active polar actomyosin filaments. Passive particles which (un)bind to the active filaments get advected into the asters, forming transient clusters. We study the phase segregation of such passive advective scalars in a medium of dynamic asters, as a function of the aster density and the ratio of the rates of aster remodeling to particle diffusion. The dynamics of coarsening shows a violation of Porod behavior; the growing domains have diffuse interfaces and low interfacial tension. The phase-segregated steady state shows strong macroscopic fluctuations characterized by multiscaling and intermittency, signifying rapid reorganization of macroscopic structures. We expect these unique nonequilibrium features to manifest in the actin-dependent molecular clustering at the cell surface.
Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken
2013-04-01
Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of research-based instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these active-engagement techniques to upper-division courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSF-TUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate active-engagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warm-up questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and small-group case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.
Therapeutic activity of modified U1 core spliceosomal particles.
Rogalska, Malgorzata Ewa; Tajnik, Mojca; Licastro, Danilo; Bussani, Erica; Camparini, Luca; Mattioli, Chiara; Pagani, Franco
2016-01-01
Modified U1 snRNAs bound to intronic sequences downstream of the 5' splice site correct exon skipping caused by different types of mutations. Here we evaluate the therapeutic activity and structural requirements of these exon-specific U1 snRNA (ExSpeU1) particles. In a severe spinal muscular atrophy, mouse model, ExSpeU1, introduced by germline transgenesis, increases SMN2 exon 7 inclusion, SMN protein production and extends life span. In vitro, RNA mutant analysis and silencing experiments show that while U1A protein is dispensable, the 70K and stem loop IV elements mediate most of the splicing rescue activity through improvement of exon and intron definition. Our findings indicate that precise engineering of the U1 core spliceosomal RNA particle has therapeutic potential in pathologies associated with exon-skipping mutations. PMID:27041075
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rapp, Markus; Strelnikova, Irina
2009-03-01
We present a new design of an in situ detector for the study of meteor smoke particles (MSPs) in the middle atmosphere. This detector combines a classical Faraday cup with a xenon-flashlamp for the active photoionization/photodetachment of MSPs and the subsequent detection of corresponding photoelectrons. This instrument was successfully launched in September 2006 from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. A comparison of photocurrents measured during this rocket flight and measurements performed in the laboratory proves that observed signatures are truly due to photoelectrons. In addition, the observed altitude cut-off at 60 km (i.e., no signals were observed below this altitude) is fully understood in terms of the mean free path of the photoelectrons in the ambient atmosphere. This interpretation is also proven by a corresponding laboratory experiment. Consideration of all conceivable species which can be ionized by the photons of the xenon-flashlamp demonstrates that only MSPs can quantitatively explain the measured currents below an altitude of 90 km. Above this altitude, measured photocurrents are most likely due to photoionization of nitric oxide. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the active photoionization and subsequent detection of photoelectrons provides a promising new tool for the study of MSPs in the middle atmosphere. Importantly, this new technique does not rely on the a priori charge of the particles, neither is the accessible particle size range severely limited by aerodynamical effects. Based on the analysis described in this study, the geophysical interpretation of our measurements is presented in the companion paper by Strelnikova, I., et al. [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011].
Antibacterial activity of carbon-coated zinc oxide particles.
Sawai, Jun; Yamamoto, Osamu; Ozkal, Burak; Nakagawa, Zenbe-E
2007-03-01
Particles of ZnO coated with carbon (ZnOCC) were prepared and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. ZnO powder and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (polymerization degree: 2,000-95,000) were mixed at a mass ratio (ZnO/PVA) of 1, and then heated at 500-650 degree C for 3 h under argon gas with a flow rate of 50ml/min. Carbon deposited on the ZnOCC surface was amorphous as revealed by X-ray diffraction studies. The ZnOCC particles maintained their shape in water, even under agitation. The antibacterial activity of ZnOCC powder against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated quantitatively by measuring the change in the electrical conductivity of the growth medium caused by bacterial metabolism (conductimetric assay). The conductivity curves obtained were analyzed using the growth inhibition kinetic model proposed by Takahashi for calorimetric evaluation, allowing the estimation of the antibacterial efficacy and kinetic parameters of ZnOCC. In a previous study, when ZnO was immobilized on materials, such as activated carbon, the amount of ZnO immobilized was approximately 10-50%, and the antibacterial activity markedly decreased compared to that of the original ZnO. On the other hand, the ZnOCC particles prepared in this study contained approximately 95% ZnO and possessed antibacterial activity similar to that of pure ZnO. The carbon-coating treatment could maintain the antibacterial efficacy of the ZnO and may be useful in the develop-ment of multifunctional antimicrobial materials. PMID:17408004
Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems.
Steimel, Joshua P; Aragones, Juan L; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo
2016-04-26
Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials. PMID:27071096
Quantum Brownian motion in a Landau level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cobanera, E.; Kristel, P.; Morais Smith, C.
2016-06-01
Motivated by questions about the open-system dynamics of topological quantum matter, we investigated the quantum Brownian motion of an electron in a homogeneous magnetic field. When the Fermi length lF=ℏ /(vFmeff) becomes much longer than the magnetic length lB=(ℏc /e B ) 1 /2 , then the spatial coordinates X ,Y of the electron cease to commute, [X ,Y ] =i lB2 . As a consequence, localization of the electron becomes limited by Heisenberg uncertainty, and the linear bath-electron coupling becomes unconventional. Moreover, because the kinetic energy of the electron is quenched by the strong magnetic field, the electron has no energy to give to or take from the bath, and so the usual connection between frictional forces and dissipation no longer holds. These two features make quantum Brownian motion topological, in the regime lF≫lB , which is at the verge of current experimental capabilities. We model topological quantum Brownian motion in terms of an unconventional operator Langevin equation derived from first principles, and solve this equation with the aim of characterizing diffusion. While diffusion in the noncommutative plane turns out to be conventional, with the mean displacement squared being proportional to tα and α =1 , there is an exotic regime for the proportionality constant in which it is directly proportional to the friction coefficient and inversely proportional to the square of the magnetic field: in this regime, friction helps diffusion and the magnetic field suppresses all fluctuations. We also show that quantum tunneling can be completely suppressed in the noncommutative plane for suitably designed metastable potential wells, a feature that might be worth exploiting for storage and protection of quantum information.
A Brownian model for recurrent earthquakes
Matthews, M.V.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Reasenberg, P.A.
2002-01-01
We construct a probability model for rupture times on a recurrent earthquake source. Adding Brownian perturbations to steady tectonic loading produces a stochastic load-state process. Rupture is assumed to occur when this process reaches a critical-failure threshold. An earthquake relaxes the load state to a characteristic ground level and begins a new failure cycle. The load-state process is a Brownian relaxation oscillator. Intervals between events have a Brownian passage-time distribution that may serve as a temporal model for time-dependent, long-term seismic forecasting. This distribution has the following noteworthy properties: (1) the probability of immediate rerupture is zero; (2) the hazard rate increases steadily from zero at t = 0 to a finite maximum near the mean recurrence time and then decreases asymptotically to a quasi-stationary level, in which the conditional probability of an event becomes time independent; and (3) the quasi-stationary failure rate is greater than, equal to, or less than the mean failure rate because the coefficient of variation is less than, equal to, or greater than 1/???2 ??? 0.707. In addition, the model provides expressions for the hazard rate and probability of rupture on faults for which only a bound can be placed on the time of the last rupture. The Brownian relaxation oscillator provides a connection between observable event times and a formal state variable that reflects the macromechanics of stress and strain accumulation. Analysis of this process reveals that the quasi-stationary distance to failure has a gamma distribution, and residual life has a related exponential distribution. It also enables calculation of "interaction" effects due to external perturbations to the state, such as stress-transfer effects from earthquakes outside the target source. The influence of interaction effects on recurrence times is transient and strongly dependent on when in the loading cycle step pertubations occur. Transient effects may
Precompaction irradiation effects: Particles from an early active sun?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caffee, M. W.; Goswami, J. N.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Swindle, T. D.
1986-01-01
Two recent studies have shown that solar flare irradiated grains from Murchison and Kapoeta have excess spallogenic Ne-21 compared to unirradiated grains, indicating large precompaction particle irradiation effects. The quantity of cosmogenic neon in these grains presents serious difficulties for either galactic cosmic ray or normal solar flare sources. In the first study it was suggested that the effect might be the result of exposure to an early active sun. The more recent experiment both confirms the earlier results and provides constraints on the characteristic energy spectrum on the irradiation. The first results were obtained from Murchison olivines and Kapoeta pyroxenes by mass spectrometric analysis of sets of grains selected on the basis of the presence or absence of solar flare particle tracks. In the second work plagioclase feldspar grains from Kapoeta were studied.
Exploiting the color of Brownian motion for high-frequency microrheology of Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez-García, Pablo; Mor, Flavio M.; Forró, László; Jeney, Sylvia
2013-09-01
Einstein's stochastic description of the random movement of small objects in a fluid, i.e. Brownian motion, reveals to be quite different, when observed on short timescales. The limitations of Einstein's theory with respect to particle inertia and hydrodynamic memory yield to the apparition of a colored frequency-dependent component in the spectrum of the thermal forces, which is called "the color of Brownian motion". The knowledge of the characteristic timescales of the motion of a trapped microsphere motion in a Newtonian fluid allowed to develop a high-resolution calibration method for optical interferometry. Well-calibrated correlation quantities, such as the mean square displacement or the velocity autocorrelation function, permit to study the mechanical properties of fluids at high frequencies. These properties are estimated by microrheological calculations based on the theoretical relations between the complex mobility of the beads and the rheological properties of a complex fluid.
Switching effect on the quantum Brownian motion near a reflecting boundary
Seriu, Masafumi; Wu, C.-H.
2008-02-15
The quantum Brownian motion of a charged particle in the electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations is investigated near a perfectly reflecting flat boundary, taking into account the smooth switching process in the measurement. Constructing a smooth switching function by gluing together a plateau and the Lorentzian switching tails, it is shown that the switching tails have a great influence on the measurement of the Brownian motion in the quantum vacuum. Indeed, it turns out that the result with a smooth switching function and the one with a sudden switching function are qualitatively quite different. It is also shown that anticorrelations between the switching tails and the main measuring part plays an essential role in this switching effect. The switching function can also be interpreted as a prototype of a nonequilibrium process in a realistic measurement, so that the switching effect found here is expected to be significant in actual applications in vacuum physics.
Crystallization and melting of bacteria colonies and Brownian bugs.
Ramos, Francisco; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Muñoz, Miguel A
2008-02-01
Motivated by the existence of remarkably ordered cluster arrays of bacteria colonies growing in Petri dishes and related problems, we study the spontaneous emergence of clustering and patterns in a simple nonequilibrium system: the individual-based interacting Brownian bug model. We map this discrete model into a continuous Langevin equation which is the starting point for our extensive numerical analyses. For the two-dimensional case we report on the spontaneous generation of localized clusters of activity as well as a melting-freezing transition from a disordered or isotropic phase to an ordered one characterized by hexagonal patterns. We study in detail the analogies and differences with the well-established Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young theory of equilibrium melting, as well as with another competing theory. For that, we study translational and orientational correlations and perform a careful defect analysis. We find a nonstandard one-stage, defect-mediated transition whose nature is only partially elucidated. PMID:18351982
Crystallization and melting of bacteria colonies and Brownian bugs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Francisco; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Muñoz, Miguel A.
2008-02-01
Motivated by the existence of remarkably ordered cluster arrays of bacteria colonies growing in Petri dishes and related problems, we study the spontaneous emergence of clustering and patterns in a simple nonequilibrium system: the individual-based interacting Brownian bug model. We map this discrete model into a continuous Langevin equation which is the starting point for our extensive numerical analyses. For the two-dimensional case we report on the spontaneous generation of localized clusters of activity as well as a melting-freezing transition from a disordered or isotropic phase to an ordered one characterized by hexagonal patterns. We study in detail the analogies and differences with the well-established Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young theory of equilibrium melting, as well as with another competing theory. For that, we study translational and orientational correlations and perform a careful defect analysis. We find a nonstandard one-stage, defect-mediated transition whose nature is only partially elucidated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furbish, D. J.
2009-04-01
Sediment particles transported by rainsplash, by bioturbation, and as bedload in turbulent flows, undergo motions that are quasi-random in magnitude and direction. Moreover, these motions characteristically are intermittent, in that particles are mostly at rest most of the time, and heterogeneous, in that the volumetric or areal concentration of particles in motion at any instant is spatially patchy. These particle motions can be formulated as a stochastic processes involving both advective and dispersive parts. By taking into account the intermittent activity of particles, and separating this activity from the physics of motion in the parametric description of transport, the formulation indicates that gradients in particle activity can have a key role in transport. The formulation illustrates, for example, how the growth of soil mounds beneath desert shrubs involves differential rainsplash that initially causes more grains to be splashed inward beneath protective shrub canopies than outward. This ‘harvesting' of nearby soil material, including nutrients, means that shrubs locally participate in regulating the rate sediment transport down a hillslope. With soil bioturbation, spatial variations in the disturbance frequency strongly influence the mixing of soil constituents, including distinct particle fractions (such as specific size or mineral fractions, seeds, or debitage), or elements and compounds adsorbed to particles. The formulation also provides a probabilistic version of the Exner equation. During bedload transport, gradients in particle activity, through both advective and dispersive effects, may contribute importantly to the local divergence of the particle flux, thereby influencing initial bedform growth.
Langevin Theory of Anomalous Brownian Motion Made Simple
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tothova, Jana; Vasziova, Gabriela; Glod, Lukas; Lisy, Vladimir
2011-01-01
During the century from the publication of the work by Einstein (1905 "Ann. Phys." 17 549) Brownian motion has become an important paradigm in many fields of modern science. An essential impulse for the development of Brownian motion theory was given by the work of Langevin (1908 "C. R. Acad. Sci.", Paris 146 530), in which he proposed an…
Detecting non-Brownian trait evolution in adaptive radiations.
Freckleton, Robert P; Harvey, Paul H
2006-11-01
Many phylogenetic comparative methods that are currently widely used in the scientific literature assume a Brownian motion model for trait evolution, but the suitability of that model is rarely tested, and a number of important factors might affect whether this model is appropriate or not. For instance, we might expect evolutionary change in adaptive radiations to be driven by the availability of ecological niches. Such evolution has been shown to produce patterns of change that are different from those modelled by the Brownian process. We applied two tests for the assumption of Brownian motion that generally have high power to reject data generated under non-Brownian niche-filling models for the evolution of traits in adaptive radiations. As a case study, we used these tests to explore the evolution of feeding adaptations in two radiations of warblers. In one case, the patterns revealed do not accord with Brownian motion but show characteristics expected under certain niche-filling models. PMID:17090217
Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Joseph M.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Collier, Martha L.; Richmond, Erin M. B.; Davis, Nancy L.; Staats, Herman F.; Johnston, Robert E.
2006-03-01
Vaccination represents the most effective control measure in the fight against infectious diseases. Local mucosal immune responses are critical for protection from, and resolution of, infection by numerous mucosal pathogens. Antigen processing across mucosal surfaces is the natural route by which mucosal immunity is generated, as peripheral antigen delivery typically fails to induce mucosal immune responses. However, we demonstrate in this article that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP). Moreover, coinoculation of null VRP (not expressing any transgene) with inactivated influenza virions, or ovalbumin, resulted in a significant increase in antigen-specific systemic IgG and fecal IgA antibodies, compared with antigen alone. Pretreatment of VRP with UV light largely abrogated this adjuvant effect. These results demonstrate that alphavirus replicon particles possess intrinsic systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity and suggest that VRP RNA replication is the trigger for this activity. We feel that these observations and the continued experimentation they stimulate will ultimately define the specific components of an alternative pathway for the induction of mucosal immunity, and if the activity is evident in humans, will enable new possibilities for safe and inexpensive subunit and inactivated vaccines. vaccine vector | Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus | viral immunology | RNA virus
Dynamics and efficiency of Brownian rotors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, Wolfgang R.; Nadler, Walter
2008-12-01
Brownian rotors play an important role in biological systems and in future nanotechnological applications. However the mechanisms determining their dynamics, efficiency, and performance remain to be characterized. Here the F0 portion of the F-ATP synthase is considered as a paradigm of the Brownian rotor. In a generic analytical model we analyze the stochastic rotation of F0-like motors as a function of the driving free energy difference and of the free energy profile the rotor is subjected to. The latter is composed of the rotor interaction with its surroundings, of the free energy of chemical transitions, and of the workload. The dynamics and mechanical efficiency of the rotor depend on the magnitude of its stochastic motion driven by the free energy difference and its rectification on the reaction-diffusion path. We analyze which free energy profiles provide maximum flow and how their arrangement on the underlying reaction-diffusion path affects rectification and—by this—the efficiency.
Inducing Tropical Cyclones to Undergo Brownian Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hodyss, D.; McLay, J.; Moskaitis, J.; Serra, E.
2014-12-01
Stochastic parameterization has become commonplace in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models used for probabilistic prediction. Here, a specific stochastic parameterization will be related to the theory of stochastic differential equations and shown to be affected strongly by the choice of stochastic calculus. From an NWP perspective our focus will be on ameliorating a common trait of the ensemble distributions of tropical cyclone (TC) tracks (or position), namely that they generally contain a bias and an underestimate of the variance. With this trait in mind we present a stochastic track variance inflation parameterization. This parameterization makes use of a properly constructed stochastic advection term that follows a TC and induces its position to undergo Brownian motion. A central characteristic of Brownian motion is that its variance increases with time, which allows for an effective inflation of an ensemble's TC track variance. Using this stochastic parameterization we present a comparison of the behavior of TCs from the perspective of the stochastic calculi of Itô and Stratonovich within an operational NWP model. The central difference between these two perspectives as pertains to TCs is shown to be properly predicted by the stochastic calculus and the Itô correction. In the cases presented here these differences will manifest as overly intense TCs, which, depending on the strength of the forcing, could lead to problems with numerical stability and physical realism.
Survival of Near-Critical Branching Brownian Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berestycki, Julien; Berestycki, Nathanaël; Schweinsberg, Jason
2011-06-01
Consider a system of particles performing branching Brownian motion with negative drift μ= sqrt{2 - \\varepsilon} and killed upon hitting zero. Initially there is one particle at x>0. Kesten (Stoch. Process. Appl. 7:9-47, 1978) showed that the process survives with positive probability if and only if ɛ>0. Here we are interested in the asymptotics as ɛ→0 of the survival probability Q μ ( x). It is proved that if L=π/sqrt{\\varepsilon} then for all x∈ℝ, lim ɛ→0 Q μ ( L+ x)= θ( x)∈(0,1) exists and is a traveling wave solution of the Fisher-KPP equation. Furthermore, we obtain sharp asymptotics of the survival probability when x< L and L- x→∞. The proofs rely on probabilistic methods developed by the authors in (Berestycki et al. in arXiv: 1001.2337, 2010). This completes earlier work by Harris, Harris and Kyprianou (Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré Probab. Stat. 42:125-145, 2006) and confirms predictions made by Derrida and Simon (Europhys. Lett. 78:60006, 2007), which were obtained using nonrigorous PDE methods.
A simple microviscometric approach based on Brownian motion tracking.
Hnyluchová, Zuzana; Bjalončíková, Petra; Karas, Pavel; Mravec, Filip; Halasová, Tereza; Pekař, Miloslav; Kubala, Lukáš; Víteček, Jan
2015-02-01
Viscosity-an integral property of a liquid-is traditionally determined by mechanical instruments. The most pronounced disadvantage of such an approach is the requirement of a large sample volume, which poses a serious obstacle, particularly in biology and biophysics when working with limited samples. Scaling down the required volume by means of microviscometry based on tracking the Brownian motion of particles can provide a reasonable alternative. In this paper, we report a simple microviscometric approach which can be conducted with common laboratory equipment. The core of this approach consists in a freely available standalone script to process particle trajectory data based on a Newtonian model. In our study, this setup allowed the sample to be scaled down to 10 μl. The utility of the approach was demonstrated using model solutions of glycerine, hyaluronate, and mouse blood plasma. Therefore, this microviscometric approach based on a newly developed freely available script can be suggested for determination of the viscosity of small biological samples (e.g., body fluids). PMID:25725855
A simple microviscometric approach based on Brownian motion tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hnyluchová, Zuzana; Bjalončíková, Petra; Karas, Pavel; Mravec, Filip; Halasová, Tereza; Pekař, Miloslav; Kubala, Lukáš; Víteček, Jan
2015-02-01
Viscosity—an integral property of a liquid—is traditionally determined by mechanical instruments. The most pronounced disadvantage of such an approach is the requirement of a large sample volume, which poses a serious obstacle, particularly in biology and biophysics when working with limited samples. Scaling down the required volume by means of microviscometry based on tracking the Brownian motion of particles can provide a reasonable alternative. In this paper, we report a simple microviscometric approach which can be conducted with common laboratory equipment. The core of this approach consists in a freely available standalone script to process particle trajectory data based on a Newtonian model. In our study, this setup allowed the sample to be scaled down to 10 μl. The utility of the approach was demonstrated using model solutions of glycerine, hyaluronate, and mouse blood plasma. Therefore, this microviscometric approach based on a newly developed freely available script can be suggested for determination of the viscosity of small biological samples (e.g., body fluids).
Transport properties of elastically coupled fractional Brownian motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Wangyong; Wang, Huiqi; Lin, Lifeng; Wang, Fei; Zhong, Suchuan
2015-11-01
Under the background of anomalous diffusion, which is characterized by the sub-linear or super-linear mean-square displacement in time, we proposed the coupled fractional Brownian motors, in which the asymmetrical periodic potential as ratchet is coupled mutually with elastic springs, and the driving source is the external harmonic force and internal thermal fluctuations. The transport mechanism of coupled particles in the overdamped limit is investigated as the function of the temperature of baths, coupling constant and natural length of the spring, the amplitude and frequency of driving force, and the asymmetry of ratchet potential by numerical stimulations. The results indicate that the damping force involving the information of historical velocity leads to the nonlocal memory property and blocks the traditional dissipative motion behaviors, and it even plays a cooperative role of driving force in drift motion of the coupled particles. Thus, we observe various non-monotonic resonance-like behaviors of collective directed transport in the mediums with different diffusion exponents.
Directed transport of active particles over asymmetric energy barriers.
Koumakis, N; Maggi, C; Di Leonardo, R
2014-08-21
We theoretically and numerically investigate the transport of active colloids to target regions, delimited by asymmetric energy barriers. We show that it is possible to introduce a generalized effective temperature that is related to the local variance of particle velocities. The stationary probability distributions can be derived from a simple diffusion equation in the presence of an inhomogeneous effective temperature resulting from the action of external force fields. In particular, transition rates over asymmetric energy barriers can be unbalanced by having different effective temperatures over the two slopes of the barrier. By varying the type of active noise, we find that equal values of diffusivity and persistence time may produce strongly varied effective temperatures and thus stationary distributions. PMID:24978345
Microfluidic rheology of active particle suspensions: Kinetic theory.
Alonso-Matilla, Roberto; Ezhilan, Barath; Saintillan, David
2016-07-01
We analyze the effective rheology of a dilute suspension of self-propelled slender particles confined between two infinite parallel plates and subject to a pressure-driven flow. We use a continuum kinetic model to describe the configuration of the particles in the system, in which the disturbance flows induced by the swimmers are taken into account, and use it to calculate estimates of the suspension viscosity for a range of channel widths and flow strengths typical of microfluidic experiments. Our results are in agreement with previous bulk models, and in particular, demonstrate that the effect of activity is strongest at low flow rates, where pushers tend to decrease the suspension viscosity whereas pullers enhance it. In stronger flows, dissipative stresses overcome the effects of activity leading to increased viscosities followed by shear-thinning. The effects of confinement and number density are also analyzed, and our results confirm the apparent transition to superfluidity reported in recent experiments on pusher suspensions at intermediate densities. We also derive an approximate analytical expression for the effective viscosity in the limit of weak flows and wide channels, and demonstrate good agreement between theory and numerical calculations. PMID:27375827
Ice nucleation active particles are efficiently removed by precipitating clouds
Stopelli, Emiliano; Conen, Franz; Morris, Cindy E.; Herrmann, Erik; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Alewell, Christine
2015-01-01
Ice nucleation in cold clouds is a decisive step in the formation of rain and snow. Observations and modelling suggest that variations in the concentrations of ice nucleating particles (INPs) affect timing, location and amount of precipitation. A quantitative description of the abundance and variability of INPs is crucial to assess and predict their influence on precipitation. Here we used the hydrological indicator δ18O to derive the fraction of water vapour lost from precipitating clouds and correlated it with the abundance of INPs in freshly fallen snow. Results show that the number of INPs active at temperatures ≥ −10 °C (INPs−10) halves for every 10% of vapour lost through precipitation. Particles of similar size (>0.5 μm) halve in number for only every 20% of vapour lost, suggesting effective microphysical processing of INPs during precipitation. We show that INPs active at moderate supercooling are rapidly depleted by precipitating clouds, limiting their impact on subsequent rainfall development in time and space. PMID:26553559
Dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times on magnetic field strength
Deissler, Robert J. Wu, Yong; Martens, Michael A.
2014-01-15
Purpose: In magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) the relaxation time of the magnetization in response to externally applied magnetic fields is determined by the Brownian and Néel relaxation mechanisms. Here the authors investigate the dependence of the relaxation times on the magnetic field strength and the implications for MPI and MPS. Methods: The Fokker–Planck equation with Brownian relaxation and the Fokker–Planck equation with Néel relaxation are solved numerically for a time-varying externally applied magnetic field, including a step-function, a sinusoidally varying, and a linearly ramped magnetic field. For magnetic fields that are applied as a step function, an eigenvalue approach is used to directly calculate both the Brownian and Néel relaxation times for a range of magnetic field strengths. For Néel relaxation, the eigenvalue calculations are compared to Brown's high-barrier approximation formula. Results: The relaxation times due to the Brownian or Néel mechanisms depend on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. In particular, the Néel relaxation time is sensitive to the magnetic field strength, and varies by many orders of magnitude for nanoparticle properties and magnetic field strengths relevant for MPI and MPS. Therefore, the well-known zero-field relaxation times underestimate the actual relaxation times and, in particular, can underestimate the Néel relaxation time by many orders of magnitude. When only Néel relaxation is present—if the particles are embedded in a solid for instance—the authors found that there can be a strong magnetization response to a sinusoidal driving field, even if the period is much less than the zero-field relaxation time. For a ferrofluid in which both Brownian and Néel relaxation are present, only one relaxation mechanism may dominate depending on the magnetic field strength, the driving frequency (or ramp time), and the phase of the magnetization relative to the
Non-intersecting Brownian motions leaving from and going to several points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Mark; van Moerbeke, Pierre; Vanderstichelen, Didier
2012-03-01
Consider n non-intersecting Brownian motions on R, depending on time t∈[0,1], with mi particles forced to leave from ai at time t=0, 1≤i≤q, and nj particles forced to end up at bj at time t=1, 1≤j≤p. For arbitrary p and q, it is not known if the distribution of the positions of the non-intersecting Brownian particles at a given time 0
Híjar, Humberto
2015-02-01
We study the Brownian motion of a particle bound by a harmonic potential and immersed in a fluid with a uniform shear flow. We describe this problem first in terms of a linear Fokker-Planck equation which is solved to obtain the probability distribution function for finding the particle in a volume element of its associated phase space. We find the explicit form of this distribution in the stationary limit and use this result to show that both the equipartition law and the equation of state of the trapped particle are modified from their equilibrium form by terms increasing as the square of the imposed shear rate. Subsequently, we propose an alternative description of this problem in terms of a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account the effects of hydrodynamic correlations and sound propagation on the dynamics of the trapped particle. We show that these effects produce significant changes, manifested as long-time tails and resonant peaks, in the equilibrium and nonequilibrium correlation functions for the velocity of the Brownian particle. We implement numerical simulations based on molecular dynamics and multiparticle collision dynamics, and observe a very good quantitative agreement between the predictions of the model and the numerical results, thus suggesting that this kind of numerical simulations could be used as complement of current experimental techniques. PMID:25768490
Stochastic interactions of two Brownian hard spheres in the presence of depletants
Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Tuinier, Remco; Taniguchi, Takashi
2014-06-07
A quantitative analysis is presented for the stochastic interactions of a pair of Brownian hard spheres in non-adsorbing polymer solutions. The hard spheres are hypothetically trapped by optical tweezers and allowed for random motion near the trapped positions. The investigation focuses on the long-time correlated Brownian motion. The mobility tensor altered by the polymer depletion effect is computed by the boundary integral method, and the corresponding random displacement is determined by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. From our computations it follows that the presence of depletion layers around the hard spheres has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic interactions and particle dynamics as compared to pure solvent and uniform polymer solution cases. The probability distribution functions of random walks of the two interacting hard spheres that are trapped clearly shift due to the polymer depletion effect. The results show that the reduction of the viscosity in the depletion layers around the spheres and the entropic force due to the overlapping of depletion zones have a significant influence on the correlated Brownian interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Tianfu; Chen, Jincan
Based on the general model of thermally-driven Brownian motors, an equivalent cycle system is established and the Onsager coefficients and efficiency at the maximum power output of the system are analytically calculated from non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is found that the Onsager reciprocity relation holds and the Onsager coefficients are affected by the main irreversibilities existing in practical systems. Only when the heat leak and the kinetic energy change of the particle in the system are negligible, can the determinant of the Onsager matrix vanish. It is also found that in the frame of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the power output and efficiency of an irreversible Brownian motor can be expressed to be the same form as those of an irreversible Carnot heat engine, so the results obtained here are of general significance. Moreover, these results are used to analyze the performance characteristics of a class of thermally-driven Brownian motors so that some important conclusions in literature may be directly derived from the present paper.
Fission as diffusion of a Brownian particle with variable inertia
Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Pal, Santanu
2010-08-15
An expression for stationary fission width is obtained for systems with steep shape-dependent nuclear collective inertia by extending the work of Kramers, which was originally derived for a fixed value of the inertia. The domain of validity of the present expression is examined by comparing its predictions with widths obtained from the corresponding Langevin equations.
Inhibition of catalase activity in vitro by diesel exhaust particles
Mori, Yoki; Murakami, Sumika; Sagae, Toshiyuki
1996-02-09
The effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the activity of catalase, an intracellular anti-oxidant, was investigated because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a cytotoxic oxidant, and catalase released from alveolar cells is an important antioxidant in the epithelial lining fluid in the lung. DEP inhibited the activity of bovine liver catalase dose-dependently, to 25-30% of its original value. The inhibition of catalase by DEP was observed only in the presence of anions such as Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, or thiocyanate. Other anions, such as CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}} or SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and cations such as K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, or Fe{sup 2+}, did not affect the activity of catalase, even in the presence of DEP extract. Catalase from guinea pig alveolar cells and catalase from red blood cells were also inhibited by DEP extracts, as was catalase from bovine liver. These results suggest that DEP taken up in the lung and located on alveolar spaces might cause cell injury by inhibiting the activity of catalase in epithelial lining fluid, enhancing the toxicity of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated from cells in addition to that of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} generated by the chemical reaction of DEP with oxygen. 10 refs., 6 figs.
Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R
2013-02-19
A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.
Molecular Motors: Power Strokes Outperform Brownian Ratchets.
Wagoner, Jason A; Dill, Ken A
2016-07-01
Molecular motors convert chemical energy (typically from ATP hydrolysis) to directed motion and mechanical work. Their actions are often described in terms of "Power Stroke" (PS) and "Brownian Ratchet" (BR) mechanisms. Here, we use a transition-state model and stochastic thermodynamics to describe a range of mechanisms ranging from PS to BR. We incorporate this model into Hill's diagrammatic method to develop a comprehensive model of motor processivity that is simple but sufficiently general to capture the full range of behavior observed for molecular motors. We demonstrate that, under all conditions, PS motors are faster, more powerful, and more efficient at constant velocity than BR motors. We show that these differences are very large for simple motors but become inconsequential for complex motors with additional kinetic barrier steps. PMID:27136319
Brownian Dynamics Simulations of Dispersed Graphene Sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yueyi; Green, Micah
2013-03-01
Past simulations of the dynamics of dispersed graphene sheets are limited to static fluids on small timescales, with little attention devoted to flow dynamics. To address this need, we investigated how flow fields affect graphene morphology dynamics using a coarse-grained model; this relatively untouched area is critical given the importance of graphene solution-processing of multifunctional devices and materials. In particular, we developed a Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithm to study the morphology of sheetlike macromolecules in dilute, flowing solutions. We used a bead-rod lattice to represent the mesoscopic conformation of individual two dimensional sheets. We then analyzed the morphology dynamic modes (stretching, tumbling, crumpling) of these molecules as a function of sheet size, Weissenberg number, and bending stiffness. Our results indicate the model can successfully simulate a range of dynamic modes in a given flow field and yield fundamental insight into the flow processing of graphene sheets.
Probability of Brownian motion hitting an obstacle
Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.
2000-02-01
The probability p(x) that Brownian motion with drift, starting at x, hits an obstacle is analyzed. The obstacle {Omega} is a compact subset of R{sup n}. It is shown that p(x) is expressible in terms of the field U(x) scattered by {Omega} when it is hit by plane wave. Therefore results for U(x), and methods for finding U(x) can be used to determine p(x). The authors illustrate this by obtaining exact and asymptotic results for p(x) when {Omega} is a slit in R{sup 2}, and asymptotic results when {Omega} is a disc in R{sup 3}.
Spectral correlations of fractional Brownian motion
Oigaard, Tor Arne; Hanssen, Alfred; Scharf, Louis L.
2006-09-15
Fractional Brownian motion (fBm) is a ubiquitous nonstationary model for many physical processes with power-law time-averaged spectra. In this paper, we exploit the nonstationarity to derive the full spectral correlation structure of fBm. Starting from the time-varying correlation function, we derive two different time-frequency spectral correlation functions (the ambiguity function and the Kirkwood-Rihaczek spectrum), and one dual-frequency spectral correlation function. The dual-frequency spectral correlation has a surprisingly simple structure, with spectral support on three discrete lines. The theoretical predictions are verified by spectrum estimates of Monte Carlo simulations and of a time series of earthquakes with a magnitude of 7 and higher.
Fundamental aspects of quantum Brownian motion
Haenggi, Peter; Ingold, Gert-Ludwig
2005-06-01
With this work we elaborate on the physics of quantum noise in thermal equilibrium and in stationary nonequilibrium. Starting out from the celebrated quantum fluctuation-dissipation theorem we discuss some important consequences that must hold for open, dissipative quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. The issue of quantum dissipation is exemplified with the fundamental problem of a damped harmonic quantum oscillator. The role of quantum fluctuations is discussed in the context of both, the nonlinear generalized quantum Langevin equation and the path integral approach. We discuss the consequences of the time-reversal symmetry for an open dissipative quantum dynamics and, furthermore, point to a series of subtleties and possible pitfalls. The path integral methodology is applied to the decay of metastable states assisted by quantum Brownian noise.
Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stéphane
2012-05-01
We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1, n2,..., nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m\\to \\infty . A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area.
Dynamical objectivity in quantum Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuziemski, J.; Korbicz, J. K.
2015-11-01
Classical objectivity as a property of quantum states —a view proposed to explain the observer-independent character of our world from quantum theory, is an important step in bridging the quantum-classical gap. It was recently derived in terms of spectrum broadcast structures for small objects embedded in noisy photon-like environments. However, two fundamental problems have arisen: a description of objective motion and applicability to other types of environments. Here we derive an example of objective states of motion in quantum mechanics by showing the formation of dynamical spectrum broadcast structures in the celebrated, realistic model of decoherence —Quantum Brownian Motion. We do it for realistic, thermal environments and show their noise-robustness. This opens a potentially new method of studying the quantum-to-classical transition.
On Certain Functionals of the Maximum of Brownian Motion and Their Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perret, Anthony; Comtet, Alain; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory
2015-12-01
We consider a Brownian motion (BM) x(τ ) and its maximal value x_{max } = max _{0 ≤ τ ≤ t} x(τ ) on a fixed time interval [0, t]. We study functionals of the maximum of the BM, of the form {O}_{max }(t)=int _0^t V(x_{max } - x(τ )) {d}τ where V( x) can be any arbitrary function and develop various analytical tools to compute their statistical properties. These tools rely in particular on (i) a "counting paths" method and (ii) a path-integral approach. In particular, we focus on the case where V(x) = δ (x-r), with r a real parameter, which is relevant to study the density of near-extreme values of the BM (the so called density of states), ρ (r,t), which is the local time of the BM spent at given distance r from the maximum. We also provide a thorough analysis of the family of functionals {T}_{α }(t)=int _0^t (x_{max } - x(τ ))^α {{d}}τ corresponding to V(x) = x^α with α real. As α is varied, T_α (t) interpolates between different interesting observables. For instance, for α =1, T_{α = 1}(t) is a random variable of the "area", or "Airy", type while for α =-1/2 it corresponds to the maximum time spent by a ballistic particle through a Brownian random potential. On the other hand, for α = -1, it corresponds to the cost of the optimal algorithm to find the maximum of a discrete random walk, proposed by Odlyzko. We revisit here, using tools of theoretical physics, the statistical properties of this algorithm which had been studied before using probabilistic methods. Finally, we extend our methods to constrained BM, including in particular the Brownian bridge, i.e., the Brownian motion starting and ending at the origin.
Emergent smectic order in simple active particle models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanczuk, Pawel; Chaté, Hugues; Chen, Leiming; Ngo, Sandrine; Toner, John
2016-06-01
Novel ‘smectic-P’ behavior, in which self-propelled particles form rows and move on average along them, occurs generically within the orientationally ordered phase of simple models that we simulate. Both apolar (head–tail symmetric) and polar (head–tail asymmetric) models with aligning and repulsive interactions exhibit slow algebraic decay of smectic order with system size up to some finite length scale, after which faster decay occurs. In the apolar case, this scale is that of an undulation instability of the rows. In the polar case, this instability is absent, but traveling fluctuations disrupt the rows in large systems and motion and smectic order may spontaneously globally rotate. These observations agree with a new hydrodynamic theory which we present here. Variants of our models also exhibit active smectic ‘A’ and ‘C’ order, with motion orthogonal and oblique to the layers respectively.
How does a flexible chain of active particles swell?
Kaiser, Andreas; Babel, Sonja; ten Hagen, Borge; von Ferber, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut
2015-03-28
We study the swelling of a flexible linear chain composed of active particles by analytical theory and computer simulation. Three different situations are considered: a free chain, a chain confined to an external harmonic trap, and a chain dragged at one end. First, we consider an ideal chain with harmonic springs and no excluded volume between the monomers. The Rouse model of polymers is generalized to the case of self-propelled monomers and solved analytically. The swelling, as characterized by the spatial extension of the chain, scales with the monomer number defining a Flory exponent ν which is ν = 1/2, 0, 1 in the three different situations. As a result, we find that activity does not change the Flory exponent but affects the prefactor of the scaling law. This can be quantitatively understood by mapping the system onto an equilibrium chain with a higher effective temperature such that the chain swells under an increase of the self-propulsion strength. We then use computer simulations to study the effect of self-avoidance on active polymer swelling. In the three different situations, the Flory exponent is now ν = 3/4, 1/4, 1 and again unchanged under self-propulsion. However, the chain extension behaves non-monotonic in the self-propulsion strength. PMID:25833607
How does a flexible chain of active particles swell?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, Andreas; Babel, Sonja; ten Hagen, Borge; von Ferber, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut
2015-03-01
We study the swelling of a flexible linear chain composed of active particles by analytical theory and computer simulation. Three different situations are considered: a free chain, a chain confined to an external harmonic trap, and a chain dragged at one end. First, we consider an ideal chain with harmonic springs and no excluded volume between the monomers. The Rouse model of polymers is generalized to the case of self-propelled monomers and solved analytically. The swelling, as characterized by the spatial extension of the chain, scales with the monomer number defining a Flory exponent ν which is ν = 1/2, 0, 1 in the three different situations. As a result, we find that activity does not change the Flory exponent but affects the prefactor of the scaling law. This can be quantitatively understood by mapping the system onto an equilibrium chain with a higher effective temperature such that the chain swells under an increase of the self-propulsion strength. We then use computer simulations to study the effect of self-avoidance on active polymer swelling. In the three different situations, the Flory exponent is now ν = 3/4, 1/4, 1 and again unchanged under self-propulsion. However, the chain extension behaves non-monotonic in the self-propulsion strength.
Mériguet, G; Jardat, M; Turq, P
2004-09-22
We present Brownian dynamics simulations of real charge-stabilized ferrofluids, which are stable colloidal dispersions of magnetic nanoparticles, with and without the presence of an external magnetic field. The colloidal suspensions are treated as collections of monodisperse spherical particles, bearing point dipoles at their centers and undergoing translational and rotational Brownian motions. The overall repulsive isotropic interactions between particles, governed by electrostatic repulsions, are taken into account by a one-component effective pair interaction potential. The potential parameters are fitted in order that computed structure factors are close to the experimental ones. Two samples of ferrofluid differing by the particle diameter and consequently by the intensity of the magnetic interaction are considered here. The magnetization and birefringence curves are computed: a deviation from the ideal Langevin behaviors is observed if the dipolar moment of particles is sufficiently large. Structure factors are also computed from simulations with and without an applied magnetic field H: the microstructure of the repulsive ferrofluid becomes anisotropic under H. Even our simple modeling of the suspension allows us to account for the main experimental features: an increase of the peak intensity is observed in the direction perpendicular to the field whereas the peak intensity decreases in the direction parallel to the field. PMID:15367036
Anisotropic Brownian motion in ordered phases of DNA fragments.
Dobrindt, J; Rodrigo Teixeira da Silva, E; Alves, C; Oliveira, C L P; Nallet, F; Andreoli de Oliveira, E; Navailles, L
2012-01-01
Using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching, we investigate the Brownian motion of DNA rod-like fragments in two distinct anisotropic phases with a local nematic symmetry. The height of the measurement volume ensures the averaging of the anisotropy of the in-plane diffusive motion parallel or perpendicular to the local nematic director in aligned domains. Still, as shown in using a model specifically designed to handle such a situation and predicting a non-Gaussian shape for the bleached spot as fluorescence recovery proceeds, the two distinct diffusion coefficients of the DNA particles can be retrieved from data analysis. In the first system investigated (a ternary DNA-lipid lamellar complex), the magnitude and anisotropy of the diffusion coefficient of the DNA fragments confined by the lipid bilayers are obtained for the first time. In the second, binary DNA-solvent system, the magnitude of the diffusion coefficient is found to decrease markedly as DNA concentration is increased from isotropic to cholesteric phase. In addition, the diffusion coefficient anisotropy measured within cholesteric domains in the phase coexistence region increases with concentration, and eventually reaches a high value in the cholesteric phase. PMID:22270455
Mobility of adsorbed proteins: a Brownian dynamics study.
Ravichandran, S; Talbot, J
2000-01-01
We simulate the adsorption of lysozyme on a solid surface, using Brownian dynamics simulations. A protein molecule is represented as a uniformly charged sphere and interacts with other molecules through screened Coulombic and double-layer forces. The simulation starts from an empty surface and attempts are made to introduce additional proteins at a fixed time interval that is inversely proportional to the bulk protein concentration. We examine the effect of ionic strength and bulk protein concentration on the adsorption kinetics over a range of surface coverages. The structure of the adsorbed layer is examined through snapshots of the configurations and quantitatively with the radial distribution function. We extract the surface diffusion coefficient from the mean square displacement. At high ionic strengths the Coulombic interaction is effectively shielded, leading to increased surface coverage. This effect is quantified with an effective particle radius. Clustering of the adsorbed molecules is promoted by high ionic strength and low bulk concentrations. We find that lateral protein mobility decreases with increasing surface coverage. The observed trends are consistent with previous theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:10620278
Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya
2015-04-01
Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.
Self-Consistent Simulation of the Brownian Stage of Dust Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempf, S.; Pfalzner, S.; Henning, Th.
1996-01-01
It is a widely accepted view that in proto-planetary accretion disks the collision and following sticking of dust particles embedded in the gas eventually leads to the formation of planetesimals (coagulation). For the smallest dust grains, Brownian motion is assumed to be the dominant source of their relative velocities leading to collisions between these dust grains. As the dust grains grow they eventually couple to the turbulent motion of the gas which then drives the coagulation much more efficiently. Many numerical coagulation simulations have been carried out to calculate the fractal dimension of the aggregates, which determines the duration of the ineffective Brownian stage of growth. Predominantly on-lattice and off-lattice methods were used. However, both methods require simplification of the astrophysical conditions. The aggregates found by those methods had a fractal dimension of approximately 2 which is equivalent to a constant, mass-independent friction time. If this value were valid for the conditions in an accretion disk, this would mean that the coagulation process would finally 'freeze out' and the growth of a planetesimal would be impossible within the lifetime of an accretion disk. In order to investigate whether this fractal dimension is model independent, we simulate self-consistently the Brownian stage of the coagulation by an N-particle code. This method has the advantage that no further assumptions about homogeneity of the dust have to be made. In our model, the dust grains are considered as aggregates built up of spheres. The equation of motion of the dust grains is based on the probability density for the diffusive transport within the gas atmosphere. Because of the very low number density of the dust grains, only 2-body-collisions have to be considered. As the Brownian stage of growth is very inefficient, the system is to be simulated over long periods of time. In order to find close particle pairs of the system which are most likely to
Kramers escape of a self-propelled particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geiseler, Alexander; Hänggi, Peter; Schmid, Gerhard
2016-08-01
We investigate the escape rate of an overdamped, self-propelled spherical Brownian particle on a surface from a metastable potential well. Within a modeling in terms of a 1D constant speed of the particle's active dynamics we consider the associated rate using both numerical and analytical approaches. Regarding the properties of the stationary state in the potential well, two major timescales exist, each governing the translational and the rotational dynamics of the particle, respectively. The particle radius is identified to present the essential quantity in charge of regulating the ratio between those timescales. For very small and very large particle radii, approximate analytic expressions for the particle's escape rate can be derived, which, within their respective range of validity, compare favorably with the precise escape numerics of the underlying full two-dimensional Fokker-Planck description.
A probabilistic description of the bed load sediment flux: 2. Particle activity and motions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roseberry, John C.; Schmeeckle, Mark W.; Furbish, David Jon
2012-09-01
High-speed imaging of coarse sand particles transported as bed load over a planar bed reveals that the particle activity, the solid volume of particles in motion per unit streambed area, fluctuates as particles respond to near-bed fluid turbulence while simultaneously interacting with the bed. The relative magnitude of these fluctuations systematically varies with the size of the sampling area. The particle activity within a specified sampling area is distributed in a manner that is consistent with the existence of an ensemble of configurations of particle positions wherein certain configurations are preferentially selected or excluded by the turbulence structure, manifest as patchiness of active particles. The particle activity increases with increasing bed stress far faster than does the average particle velocity, so changes in the transport rate with changing stress are dominated by changes in the activity, not velocity. The probability density functions of the streamwise and cross-stream particle velocities are exponential-like and lack heavy tails. Plots of the mean squared particle displacement versus time may ostensibly indicate non-Fickian diffusive behavior while actually reflecting effects of correlated random walks associated with intrinsic periodicities in particle motions, not anomalous diffusion. The probability density functions of the particle hop distance (start-to-stop) and the associated travel time are gamma-like, which provides the empirical basis for showing that particle disentrainment rates vary with hop distance and travel time.
Non-Brownian diffusion in lipid membranes: Experiments and simulations.
Metzler, R; Jeon, J-H; Cherstvy, A G
2016-10-01
The dynamics of constituents and the surface response of cellular membranes-also in connection to the binding of various particles and macromolecules to the membrane-are still a matter of controversy in the membrane biophysics community, particularly with respect to crowded membranes of living biological cells. We here put into perspective recent single particle tracking experiments in the plasma membranes of living cells and supercomputing studies of lipid bilayer model membranes with and without protein crowding. Special emphasis is put on the observation of anomalous, non-Brownian diffusion of both lipid molecules and proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer. While single component, pure lipid bilayers in simulations exhibit only transient anomalous diffusion of lipid molecules on nanosecond time scales, the persistence of anomalous diffusion becomes significantly longer ranged on the addition of disorder-through the addition of cholesterol or proteins-and on passing of the membrane lipids to the gel phase. Concurrently, experiments demonstrate the anomalous diffusion of membrane embedded proteins up to macroscopic time scales in the minute time range. Particular emphasis will be put on the physical character of the anomalous diffusion, in particular, the occurrence of ageing observed in the experiments-the effective diffusivity of the measured particles is a decreasing function of time. Moreover, we present results for the time dependent local scaling exponent of the mean squared displacement of the monitored particles. Recent results finding deviations from the commonly assumed Gaussian diffusion patterns in protein crowded membranes are reported. The properties of the displacement autocorrelation function of the lipid molecules are discussed in the light of their appropriate physical anomalous diffusion models, both for non-crowded and crowded membranes. In the last part of this review we address the upcoming field of membrane distortion by elongated membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubina, Sean Hyun; Wedgewood, Lewis Edward
2016-07-01
Ferrofluids are often favored for their ability to be remotely positioned via external magnetic fields. The behavior of particles in ferromagnetic clusters under uniformly applied magnetic fields has been computationally simulated using the Brownian dynamics, Stokesian dynamics, and Monte Carlo methods. However, few methods have been established that effectively handle the basic principles of magnetic materials, namely, Maxwell's equations. An iterative constraint method was developed to satisfy Maxwell's equations when a uniform magnetic field is imposed on ferrofluids in a heterogeneous Brownian dynamics simulation that examines the impact of ferromagnetic clusters in a mesoscale particle collection. This was accomplished by allowing a particulate system in a simple shear flow to advance by a time step under a uniformly applied magnetic field, then adjusting the ferroparticles via an iterative constraint method applied over sub-volume length scales until Maxwell's equations were satisfied. The resultant ferrofluid model with constraints demonstrates that the magnetoviscosity contribution is not as substantial when compared to homogeneous simulations that assume the material's magnetism is a direct response to the external magnetic field. This was detected across varying intensities of particle-particle interaction, Brownian motion, and shear flow. Ferroparticle aggregation was still extensively present but less so than typically observed.
Yu, Hsiu-Yu; Eckmann, David M; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Radhakrishnan, Ravi
2015-05-01
We present a composite generalized Langevin equation as a unified framework for bridging the hydrodynamic, Brownian, and adhesive spring forces associated with a nanoparticle at different positions from a wall, namely, a bulklike regime, a near-wall regime, and a lubrication regime. The particle velocity autocorrelation function dictates the dynamical interplay between the aforementioned forces, and our proposed methodology successfully captures the well-known hydrodynamic long-time tail with context-dependent scaling exponents and oscillatory behavior due to the binding interaction. Employing the reactive flux formalism, we analyze the effect of hydrodynamic variables on the particle trajectory and characterize the transient kinetics of a particle crossing a predefined milestone. The results suggest that both wall-hydrodynamic interactions and adhesion strength impact the particle kinetics. PMID:26066173
Geometric Brownian Motion with Tempered Stable Waiting Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajda, Janusz; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka
2012-08-01
One of the earliest system that was used to asset prices description is Black-Scholes model. It is based on geometric Brownian motion and was used as a tool for pricing various financial instruments. However, when it comes to data description, geometric Brownian motion is not capable to capture many properties of present financial markets. One can name here for instance periods of constant values. Therefore we propose an alternative approach based on subordinated tempered stable geometric Brownian motion which is a combination of the popular geometric Brownian motion and inverse tempered stable subordinator. In this paper we introduce the mentioned process and present its main properties. We propose also the estimation procedure and calibrate the analyzed system to real data.
Ragweed subpollen particles of respirable size activate human dendritic cells.
Pazmandi, Kitti; Kumar, Brahma V; Szabo, Krisztina; Boldogh, Istvan; Szoor, Arpad; Vereb, Gyorgy; Veres, Agota; Lanyi, Arpad; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Bacsi, Attila
2012-01-01
Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen grains, which are generally considered too large to reach the lower respiratory tract, release subpollen particles (SPPs) of respirable size upon hydration. These SPPs contain allergenic proteins and functional NAD(P)H oxidases. In this study, we examined whether exposure to SPPs initiates the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We found that treatment with freshly isolated ragweed SPPs increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in moDCs. Phagocytosis of SPPs by moDCs, as demonstrated by confocal laser-scanning microscopy, led to an up-regulation of the cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and HLA-DQ and an increase in the production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10. Furthermore, SPP-treated moDCs had an increased capacity to stimulate the proliferation of naïve T cells. Co-culture of SPP-treated moDCs with allogeneic CD3(+) pan-T cells resulted in increased secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17 by T cells of both allergic and non-allergic subjects, but induced the production of IL-4 exclusively from the T cells of allergic individuals. Addition of exogenous NADPH further increased, while heat-inactivation or pre-treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases, strongly diminished, the ability of SPPs to induce phenotypic and functional changes in moDCs, indicating that these processes were mediated, at least partly, by the intrinsic NAD(P)H oxidase activity of SPPs. Collectively, our data suggest that inhaled ragweed SPPs are fully capable of activating dendritic cells (DCs) in the airways and SPPs' NAD(P)H oxidase activity is involved in initiation of adaptive immune responses against innocuous pollen proteins. PMID:23251688
Brownian motion of massive black hole binaries and the final parsec problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bortolas, E.; Gualandris, A.; Dotti, M.; Spera, M.; Mapelli, M.
2016-09-01
Massive black hole binaries (BHBs) are expected to be one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves in the frequency range of the pulsar timing array and of forthcoming space-borne detectors. They are believed to form in the final stages of galaxy mergers, and then harden by slingshot ejections of passing stars. However, evolution via the slingshot mechanism may be ineffective if the reservoir of interacting stars is not readily replenished, and the binary shrinking may come to a halt at roughly a parsec separation. Recent simulations suggest that the departure from spherical symmetry, naturally produced in merger remnants, leads to efficient loss cone refilling, preventing the binary from stalling. However, current N-body simulations able to accurately follow the evolution of BHBs are limited to very modest particle numbers. Brownian motion may artificially enhance the loss cone refilling rate in low-N simulations, where the binary encounters a larger population of stars due its random motion. Here we study the significance of Brownian motion of BHBs in merger remnants in the context of the final parsec problem. We simulate mergers with various particle numbers (from 8k to 1M) and with several density profiles. Moreover, we compare simulations where the BHB is fixed at the centre of the merger remnant with simulations where the BHB is free to random walk. We find that Brownian motion does not significantly affect the evolution of BHBs in simulations with particle numbers in excess of one million, and that the hardening measured in merger simulations is due to collisionless loss cone refilling.
Brownian motion of massive black hole binaries and the final parsec problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bortolas, E.; Gualandris, A.; Dotti, M.; Spera, M.; Mapelli, M.
2016-06-01
Massive black hole binaries (BHBs) are expected to be one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of the pulsar timing array and of forthcoming space-borne detectors. They are believed to form in the final stages of galaxy mergers, and then harden by slingshot ejections of passing stars. However, evolution via the slingshot mechanism may be ineffective if the reservoir of interacting stars is not readily replenished, and the binary shrinking may come to a halt at roughly a parsec separation. Recent simulations suggest that the departure from spherical symmetry, naturally produced in merger remnants, leads to efficient loss cone refilling, preventing the binary from stalling. However, current N-body simulations able to accurately follow the evolution of BHBs are limited to very modest particle numbers. Brownian motion may artificially enhance the loss cone refilling rate in low-N simulations, where the binary encounters a larger population of stars due its random motion. Here we study the significance of Brownian motion of BHBs in merger remnants in the context of the final parsec problem. We simulate mergers with various particle numbers (from 8k to 1M) and with several density profiles. Moreover, we compare simulations where the BHB is fixed at the centre of the merger remnant with simulations where the BHB is free to random walk. We find that Brownian motion does not significantly affect the evolution of BHBs in simulations with particle numbers in excess of one million, and that the hardening measured in merger simulations is due to collisionless loss cone refilling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogawa, Shuhei; Setoguchi, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Kaori; Nakayama, Tomoki; Ikeda, Yuka; Sawada, Yuuki; Matsumi, Yutaka; Mochida, Michihiro
2016-06-01
We investigated the hygroscopicity of 150 nm particles and the number-size distributions and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of nearly hydrophobic particles in aerosols over Nagoya, Japan, during summer. We analyzed the correlations between the number concentrations of particles in specific hygroscopic growth factor (g) ranges and the mass concentrations of chemical components. This analysis suggests the association of nearly hydrophobic particles with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, elemental carbon and semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), that of less hygroscopic particles with SV-OOA and nitrate and that of more hygroscopic particles with low-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and sulfate. The hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of organics was derived based on the g distributions and chemical composition of 150 nm particles. The κ of the organics correlated positively with the fraction of the total organic mass spectral signal at m/z 44 and the volume fraction of the LV-OOA to the organics, indicating that organics with highly oxygenated structures including carboxylic acid groups contribute to the water uptake. The number-size distributions of the nearly hydrophobic particles with g around 1.0 and 1.1 correlated with the mass concentrations of chemical components. The results show that the chemical composition of the particles with g around 1.0 was different between the Aitken mode and the accumulation mode size ranges. An analysis for a parameter Fmax of the curves fitted to the CCN efficiency spectra of the particles with g around 1.0 suggests that the coating by organics associated with SV-OOA elevated the CCN activity of these particles.
Pricing currency options in the mixed fractional Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Lin
2013-08-01
This paper deals with the problem of pricing European currency options in the mixed fractional Brownian environment. Both the pricing formula and the mixed fractional partial differential equation for European call currency options are obtained. Some Greeks and the estimator of volatility are also provided. Empirical studies and simulation results confirm the theoretical findings and show that the mixed fractional Brownian pricing model is a reasonable one.
Fast orthogonal transforms and generation of Brownian paths
Leobacher, Gunther
2012-01-01
We present a number of fast constructions of discrete Brownian paths that can be used as alternatives to principal component analysis and Brownian bridge for stratified Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo. By fast we mean that a path of length n can be generated in O(nlog(n)) floating point operations. We highlight some of the connections between the different constructions and we provide some numerical examples. PMID:23471545
Brownian motion and gambling: from ratchets to paradoxical games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parrondo, J. M. R.; Dinís, Luis
2004-02-01
Two losing gambling games, when alternated in a periodic or random fashion, can produce a winning game. This paradox has been inspired by certain physical systems capable of rectifying fluctuations: the so-called Brownian ratchets. In this paper we review this paradox, from Brownian ratchets to the most recent studies on collective games, providing some intuitive explanations of the unexpected phenomena that we will find along the way.
Brownian motion in a rotating fluid: Diffusivity is a function of the rotation rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryskin, Gregory
1988-09-01
The phenomenological relations between thermodynamic fluxes and forces are normally assumed to be invariant with respect to arbitrary motion of the frame of reference. We describe a breakdown of this invariance strong enough to be observable. It is shown that the diffusivity in a rotating fluid is anisotropic and also smaller in magnitude than in a fluid at rest in an inertial frame, giving rise to a diffusion analog of the Hall effect. For large Brownian particles (e.g., biological macromolecules) the diffusivity may decrease by 50% at the rotation speeds achievable in ultracentrifuges.
New stochastic equation for a harmonic oscillator: Brownian motion with adhesion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gitterman, M.
2010-11-01
In addition to the usually considered stochastic harmonic oscillator with an external random force (Brownian motion) or with random frequency and random damping, we consider an oscillator with a random mass for which the particles of the surrounding medium adhere to the oscillator for some (random) time after the collision, thereby changing the oscillator mass. We have calculated the first two moments and the Lyapunov exponent, which describes the stability of the fixed point. This model can be useful for the analysis of chemical and biological solutions as well as for nano-technological devices.
Underdamped scaled Brownian motion: (non-)existence of the overdamped limit in anomalous diffusion
Bodrova, Anna S.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Safdari, Hadiseh; Sokolov, Igor M.; Metzler, Ralf
2016-01-01
It is quite generally assumed that the overdamped Langevin equation provides a quantitative description of the dynamics of a classical Brownian particle in the long time limit. We establish and investigate a paradigm anomalous diffusion process governed by an underdamped Langevin equation with an explicit time dependence of the system temperature and thus the diffusion and damping coefficients. We show that for this underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM) the overdamped limit fails to describe the long time behaviour of the system and may practically even not exist at all for a certain range of the parameter values. Thus persistent inertial effects play a non-negligible role even at significantly long times. From this study a general questions on the applicability of the overdamped limit to describe the long time motion of an anomalously diffusing particle arises, with profound consequences for the relevance of overdamped anomalous diffusion models. We elucidate our results in view of analytical and simulations results for the anomalous diffusion of particles in free cooling granular gases. PMID:27462008
The moment method for boundary layer problems in Brownian motion theory
Widder, M.E.; Titulaer, U.M. )
1989-08-01
The authors apply Grad's moment method, with Hermite moments and Marshak-type boundary conditions, to several boundary layer problems for the Klein-Kramers equation, the kinetic equation for noninteracting Brownian particles, and study its convergence properties as the number of moments is increased. The errors in various quantities of physical interest decrease asymptotically as inverse powers of this number; the exponent is roughly three times as large as in an earlier variational method, based on an expansion in the exact boundary layer eigenfunctions. For the case of a fully absorbing wall (the Milne problem) they obtain full agreement with the recent exact solution of Marshall and Watson; the relevant slip coefficient, the Milne length, is reproduced with an accuracy better than 10{sup {minus}6}. They also consider partially absorbing walls, with specular or diffuse reflection of nonabsorbed particles. In the latter case they allow for a temperature difference between the wall and the medium in which the particles move. There is no a priori reason why their method should work only for Brownian dynamics; one may hope to extend it to a broad class of linear transport equations. As a first test, they looked at the Milne problem for the BGK equation. In spite of the completely different analytic structure of the boundary layer eigenfunctions, the agreement with the exact solution is almost as good as for the Klein-Kramers equation.
Study of constrained Brownian motion of nanoparticles near an interface using optical tweezers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hui; Cornaglia, Matteo; Trouillon, Raphaël.; Lehnert, Thomas; Gijs, Martin A. M.
2015-03-01
We demonstrate a method to determine the Brownian motion and the diffusion coefficient of a nanoparticle in water in a plane that is parallel to a solid boundary and as function of the distance normal to that boundary by using an optical tweezers instrument. A solution of 190 nm-diameter fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles in de-ionized (DI) water is introduced in a micro-chamber built from two thin glass substrates. A single particle is trapped by the tweezers and optically moved in the z-direction normal to a substrate. By analyzing a scatter plot of the time-dependent positions of the nanoparticle in the x-y plane in a histogram, the diffusion coefficient parallel to the substrate of the Brownian particle constrained by the substrate is determined as a function of the distance between the substrate and the nanoparticle. The experimental results indicate the increased drag effect on the nanoparticle when it is close to the substrate, as evidenced by an experimental diffusion coefficient nearby the substrate that is about half of that of the particle in the bulk fluid.
Reeves, Daniel B.; Weaver, John B.
2015-01-01
Magnetic nanoparticles are promising tools for a host of therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications. The dynamics of rotating magnetic nanoparticles in applied magnetic fields depend strongly on the type and strength of the field applied. There are two possible rotation mechanisms and the decision for the dominant mechanism is often made by comparing the equilibrium relaxation times. This is a problem when particles are driven with high-amplitude fields because they are not necessarily at equilibrium at all. Instead, it is more appropriate to consider the “characteristic timescales” that arise in various applied fields. Approximate forms for the characteristic time of Brownian particle rotations do exist and we show agreement between several analytical and phenomenological-fit models to simulated data from a stochastic Langevin equation approach. We also compare several approximate models with solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation to determine their range of validity for general fields and relaxation times. The effective field model is an excellent approximation, while the linear response solution is only useful for very low fields and frequencies for realistic Brownian particle rotations. PMID:26130846
Underdamped scaled Brownian motion: (non-)existence of the overdamped limit in anomalous diffusion.
Bodrova, Anna S; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Safdari, Hadiseh; Sokolov, Igor M; Metzler, Ralf
2016-01-01
It is quite generally assumed that the overdamped Langevin equation provides a quantitative description of the dynamics of a classical Brownian particle in the long time limit. We establish and investigate a paradigm anomalous diffusion process governed by an underdamped Langevin equation with an explicit time dependence of the system temperature and thus the diffusion and damping coefficients. We show that for this underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM) the overdamped limit fails to describe the long time behaviour of the system and may practically even not exist at all for a certain range of the parameter values. Thus persistent inertial effects play a non-negligible role even at significantly long times. From this study a general questions on the applicability of the overdamped limit to describe the long time motion of an anomalously diffusing particle arises, with profound consequences for the relevance of overdamped anomalous diffusion models. We elucidate our results in view of analytical and simulations results for the anomalous diffusion of particles in free cooling granular gases. PMID:27462008
Realization of a Brownian engine to study transport phenomena: a semiclassical approach.
Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray
2010-06-01
Brownian particles moving in a periodic potential with or without external load are often used as good theoretical models for the phenomenological studies of microscopic heat engines. The model that we propose here, assumes the particle to be moving in a nonequilibrium medium and we have obtained the exact expression for the stationary current density. We have restricted our consideration to the overdamped motion of the Brownian particle. We present here a self-consistent theory based on the system-reservoir coupling model, within a microscopic approach, of fluctuation induced transport in the semiclassical limit for a general system coupled with two heat baths kept at different temperatures. This essentially puts forth an approach to semiclassical state-dependent diffusion. We also explore the possibility of observing a current when the temperature of the two baths are different, and also envisage that our system may act as a Carnot engine even when the bath temperatures are the same. The condition for such a construction has been elucidated. PMID:20866383
Reeves, Daniel B. Weaver, John B.
2015-06-21
Magnetic nanoparticles are promising tools for a host of therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications. The dynamics of rotating magnetic nanoparticles in applied magnetic fields depend strongly on the type and strength of the field applied. There are two possible rotation mechanisms and the decision for the dominant mechanism is often made by comparing the equilibrium relaxation times. This is a problem when particles are driven with high-amplitude fields because they are not necessarily at equilibrium at all. Instead, it is more appropriate to consider the “characteristic timescales” that arise in various applied fields. Approximate forms for the characteristic time of Brownian particle rotations do exist and we show agreement between several analytical and phenomenological-fit models to simulated data from a stochastic Langevin equation approach. We also compare several approximate models with solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation to determine their range of validity for general fields and relaxation times. The effective field model is an excellent approximation, while the linear response solution is only useful for very low fields and frequencies for realistic Brownian particle rotations.
Particle diffusion in active fluids is non-monotonic in size.
Patteson, Alison E; Gopinath, Arvind; Purohit, Prashant K; Arratia, Paulo E
2016-02-28
We experimentally investigate the effect of particle size on the motion of passive polystyrene spheres in suspensions of Escherichia coli. Using particles covering a range of sizes from 0.6 to 39 microns, we probe particle dynamics at both short and long time scales. In all cases, the particles exhibit super-diffusive ballistic behavior at short times before eventually transitioning to diffusive behavior. Surprisingly, we find a regime in which larger particles can diffuse faster than smaller particles: the particle long-time effective diffusivity exhibits a peak in particle size, which is a deviation from classical thermal diffusion. We also find that the active contribution to particle diffusion is controlled by a dimensionless parameter, the Péclet number. A minimal model qualitatively explains the existence of the effective diffusivity peak and its dependence on bacterial concentration. Our results have broad implications on characterizing active fluids using concepts drawn from classical thermodynamics. PMID:26797039
Brownian dipole rotator in alternating electric field.
Rozenbaum, V M; Vovchenko, O Ye; Korochkova, T Ye
2008-06-01
The study addresses the azimuthal jumping motion of an adsorbed polar molecule in a periodic n -well potential under the action of an external alternating electric field. Starting from the perturbation theory of the Pauli equation with respect to the weak field intensity, explicit analytical expressions have been derived for the time dependence of the average dipole moment as well as the frequency dependences of polarizability and the average angular velocity, the three quantities exhibiting conspicuous stochastic resonance. As shown, unidirectional rotation can arise only provided simultaneous modulation of the minima and maxima of the potential by an external alternating field. For a symmetric potential of hindered rotation, the average angular velocity, if calculated by the second-order perturbation theory with respect to the field intensity, has a nonzero value only at n=2 , i.e., when two azimuthal wells specify a selected axis in the system. Particular consideration is given to the effect caused by the asymmetry of the two-well potential on the dielectric loss spectrum and other Brownian motion parameters. When the asymmetric potential in a system of dipole rotators arises from the average local fields induced by an orientational phase transition, the characteristics concerned show certain peculiarities which enable detection of the phase transition and determination of its parameters. PMID:18643221
Brownian dipole rotator in alternating electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozenbaum, V. M.; Vovchenko, O. Ye.; Korochkova, T. Ye.
2008-06-01
The study addresses the azimuthal jumping motion of an adsorbed polar molecule in a periodic n -well potential under the action of an external alternating electric field. Starting from the perturbation theory of the Pauli equation with respect to the weak field intensity, explicit analytical expressions have been derived for the time dependence of the average dipole moment as well as the frequency dependences of polarizability and the average angular velocity, the three quantities exhibiting conspicuous stochastic resonance. As shown, unidirectional rotation can arise only provided simultaneous modulation of the minima and maxima of the potential by an external alternating field. For a symmetric potential of hindered rotation, the average angular velocity, if calculated by the second-order perturbation theory with respect to the field intensity, has a nonzero value only at n=2 , i.e., when two azimuthal wells specify a selected axis in the system. Particular consideration is given to the effect caused by the asymmetry of the two-well potential on the dielectric loss spectrum and other Brownian motion parameters. When the asymmetric potential in a system of dipole rotators arises from the average local fields induced by an orientational phase transition, the characteristics concerned show certain peculiarities which enable detection of the phase transition and determination of its parameters.
(Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg
2014-03-01
In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.
Activating Molecules, Ions, and Solid Particles with Acoustic Cavitation
Pflieger, Rachel; Chave, Tony; Virot, Matthieu; Nikitenko, Sergey I.
2014-01-01
The chemical and physical effects of ultrasound arise not from a direct interaction of molecules with sound waves, but rather from the acoustic cavitation: the nucleation, growth, and implosive collapse of microbubbles in liquids submitted to power ultrasound. The violent implosion of bubbles leads to the formation of chemically reactive species and to the emission of light, named sonoluminescence. In this manuscript, we describe the techniques allowing study of extreme intrabubble conditions and chemical reactivity of acoustic cavitation in solutions. The analysis of sonoluminescence spectra of water sparged with noble gases provides evidence for nonequilibrium plasma formation. The photons and the "hot" particles generated by cavitation bubbles enable to excite the non-volatile species in solutions increasing their chemical reactivity. For example the mechanism of ultrabright sonoluminescence of uranyl ions in acidic solutions varies with uranium concentration: sonophotoluminescence dominates in diluted solutions, and collisional excitation contributes at higher uranium concentration. Secondary sonochemical products may arise from chemically active species that are formed inside the bubble, but then diffuse into the liquid phase and react with solution precursors to form a variety of products. For instance, the sonochemical reduction of Pt(IV) in pure water provides an innovative synthetic route for monodispersed nanoparticles of metallic platinum without any templates or capping agents. Many studies reveal the advantages of ultrasound to activate the divided solids. In general, the mechanical effects of ultrasound strongly contribute in heterogeneous systems in addition to chemical effects. In particular, the sonolysis of PuO2 powder in pure water yields stable colloids of plutonium due to both effects. PMID:24747272
Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, L.
1993-06-01
After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations are shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.
Quantum Harmonic Brownian Motion in a General Environment: a Modified Phase-Space Approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, Leehwa
After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, I propose an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations are shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented. With the help of this theorem, the mechanism of this model is examined and the
Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach
Yeh, L. |
1993-06-23
After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.
Parallel Brownian dynamics simulations with the message-passing and PGAS programming models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teijeiro, C.; Sutmann, G.; Taboada, G. L.; Touriño, J.
2013-04-01
The simulation of particle dynamics is among the most important mechanisms to study the behavior of molecules in a medium under specific conditions of temperature and density. Several models can be used to compute efficiently the forces that act on each particle, and also the interactions between them. This work presents the design and implementation of a parallel simulation code for the Brownian motion of particles in a fluid. Two different parallelization approaches have been followed: (1) using traditional distributed memory message-passing programming with MPI, and (2) using the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model, oriented towards hybrid shared/distributed memory systems, with the Unified Parallel C (UPC) language. Different techniques for domain decomposition and work distribution are analyzed in terms of efficiency and programmability, in order to select the most suitable strategy. Performance results on a supercomputer using up to 2048 cores are also presented for both MPI and UPC codes.
Defontaine, G; Thormann, J; Lartiges, B S; El Samrani, A G; Barrs, O
2005-01-01
The role of mineral surface hydrophobicity in attachment to activated sludge flocs was investigated. Fluorite and quartz particles of similar granulometry were hydrophobized by adsorbing sodium oleate and dodecylamine chloride, respectively. Mineral hydrophobicity was assessed by flotation expriments. The attachment of particles to microbial flocs was determined by optical microscopy. The results indicate that hydrophobized particles are always better incorporated within activated sludge flocs than non-coated particles. A comparison with Aquatal particles used as sludge ballast reveals that hydrophobized minerals are associated with microbial flocs to the same extent. PMID:16459790
Diffusion properties of active particles with directional reversal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Großmann, R.; Peruani, F.; Bär, M.
2016-04-01
The diffusion properties of self-propelled particles which move at constant speed and, in addition, reverse their direction of motion repeatedly are investigated. The internal dynamics of particles triggering these reversal processes is modeled by a stochastic clock. The velocity correlation function as well as the mean squared displacement is investigated and, furthermore, a general expression for the diffusion coefficient for self-propelled particles with directional reversal is derived. Our analysis reveals the existence of an optimal, finite rotational noise amplitude which maximizes the diffusion coefficient. We comment on the relevance of these results with regard to biological systems and suggest further experiments in this context.
Kim, Chang Soo; Qi, Wenjuan; Zhang, Jun; Kwon, Young Jik; Chen, Zhongping
2013-03-01
Different types and sizes of micro- and nanoparticles have been synthesized and developed for numerous applications. It is crucial to characterize the particle sizes. Traditional dynamic light scattering, a predominant method used to characterize particle size, is unable to provide depth resolved information or imaging functions. Doppler variance optical coherence tomography (OCT) measures the spectral bandwidth of the Doppler frequency shift due to the Brownian motion of the particles utilizing the phase-resolved approach and can provide quantitative information about particle size. Spectral bandwidths of Doppler frequency shifts for various sized particles were quantified and were demonstrated to be inversely proportional to the diameter of the particles. The study demonstrates the phase-resolved Doppler variance spectral domain OCT technique has the potential to be used to investigate the properties of particles in highly scattering media. PMID:23515863
Engineering Autonomous Chemomechanical Nanomachines Using Brownian Ratchets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavella, Gabriel
Nanoscale machines which directly convert chemical energy into mechanical work are ubiquitous in nature and are employed to perform a diverse set of tasks such as transporting molecules, maintaining molecular gradients, and providing motion to organisms. Their widespread use in nature suggests that large technological rewards can be obtained by designing synthetic machines that use similar mechanisms. This thesis addresses the technological adaptation of a specific mechanism known as the Brownian ratchet for the design of synthetic autonomous nanomachines. My efforts were focused more specifically on synthetic chemomechanical ratchets which I deem will be broadly applicable in the life sciences. In my work I have theoretically explored the biophysical mechanisms and energy landscapes that give rise to the ratcheting phenomena and devised devices that operate off these principles. I demonstrate two generations of devices that produce mechanical force/deformation in response to a user specified ligand. The first generation devices, fabricatied using a combination nanoscale lithographic processes and bioconjugation techniques, were used to provide evidence that the proposed ratcheting phenomena can be exploited in synthetic architectures. Second generation devices fabricated using self-assembled DNA/hapten motifs were constructed to gain a precise understanding of ratcheting dynamics and design constraints. In addition, the self-assembled devices enabled fabrication en masse, which I feel will alleviate future experimental hurdles in analysis and facilitate its adaptation to technologies. The product of these efforts is an architecture that has the potential to enable numerous technologies in biosensing and drug delivery. For example, the coupling of molecule-specific actuation to the release of drugs or signaling molecules from nanocapsules or porous materials could be transformative. Such architectures could provide possible avenues to pressing issues in biology and
Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media
Aragones, J. L.; Steimel, J. P.; Alexander-Katz, A.
2016-01-01
The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between the active stresses and elasticity of the system. This discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium. PMID:27112961
Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media
Aragones, J. L.; Steimel, J. P.; Alexander-Katz, A.
2016-04-26
The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between themore » active stresses and elasticity of the system. Finally, this discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium.« less
Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aragones, J. L.; Steimel, J. P.; Alexander-Katz, A.
2016-04-01
The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between the active stresses and elasticity of the system. This discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium.
Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media.
Aragones, J L; Steimel, J P; Alexander-Katz, A
2016-01-01
The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between the active stresses and elasticity of the system. This discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium. PMID:27112961
"Active" drops as phantom models for living cells: a mesoscopic particle-based approach.
Dallavalle, Marco; Lugli, Francesca; Rapino, Stefania; Zerbetto, Francesco
2016-04-13
Drops and biological cells share some morphological features and visco-elastic properties. The modelling of drops by mesoscopic non-atomistic models has been carried out to a high degree of success in recent years. We extend such treatment and discuss a simple, drop-like model to describe the interactions of the outer layer of cells with the surfaces of materials. Cells are treated as active mechanical objects that are able to generate adhesion forces. They appear with their true size and are made of "parcels of fluids" or beads. The beads are described by (very) few quantities/parameters related to fundamental chemical forces such as hydrophilicity and lipophilicity that represent an average of the properties of a patch of material or an area of the cell(s) surface. The investigation of adhesion dynamics, motion of individual cells, and the collective behavior of clusters of cells on materials is possible. In the simulations, the drops become active soft matter objects and different from regular droplets they do not fuse when in contact, their trajectories are not Brownian, and they can be forced "to secrete" molecules, to name some of the properties targeted by the modeling. The behavior that emerges from the simulations allows ascribing some cell properties to their mechanics, which are related to their biological features. PMID:26890581
High-resolution detection of Brownian motion for quantitative optical tweezers experiments.
Grimm, Matthias; Franosch, Thomas; Jeney, Sylvia
2012-08-01
We have developed an in situ method to calibrate optical tweezers experiments and simultaneously measure the size of the trapped particle or the viscosity of the surrounding fluid. The positional fluctuations of the trapped particle are recorded with a high-bandwidth photodetector. We compute the mean-square displacement, as well as the velocity autocorrelation function of the sphere, and compare it to the theory of Brownian motion including hydrodynamic memory effects. A careful measurement and analysis of the time scales characterizing the dynamics of the harmonically bound sphere fluctuating in a viscous medium directly yields all relevant parameters. Finally, we test the method for different optical trap strengths, with different bead sizes and in different fluids, and we find excellent agreement with the values provided by the manufacturers. The proposed approach overcomes the most commonly encountered limitations in precision when analyzing the power spectrum of position fluctuations in the region around the corner frequency. These low frequencies are usually prone to errors due to drift, limitations in the detection, and trap linearity as well as short acquisition times resulting in poor statistics. Furthermore, the strategy can be generalized to Brownian motion in more complex environments, provided the adequate theories are available. PMID:23005790
Activity induced phase separation in particles and (bio)polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosberg, Alexander
It was recently shown that the non-equilibrium steady state of the mixture of two types of particles exposed to two different thermostats can phase separate (A.Y.Grosberg, J.-F.Joanny, PRE, v. 91, 032118, 2015). similar result is valid also in the case when particles in question are monomers of two different polymer chains, or blocks of a co-polymer. We discuss the implications of these results for the physics of chromatin.
Improved diffusion Monte Carlo and the Brownian fan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weare, J.; Hairer, M.
2012-12-01
rigorously in the simplest possible situation of a random walk, biased by a linear potential. The resulting limiting object, which we call the ``Brownian fan'', is a very natural new mathematical object of independent interest.The reconstruction (dotted lines) of a trajectory of stochastic Lorenz 63 (solid lines) by DMC (the standard particle filter). The reconstruction by the modified DMC algorithm.
Emerging activity in bilayered dispersions with wake-mediated interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartnick, Jörg; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut; Ivlev, Alexei V.
2016-06-01
In a bilayered system of particles with wake-mediated interactions, the action-reaction symmetry for the effective forces between particles of different layers is broken. Under quite general conditions we show that, if the interaction nonreciprocity exceeds a certain threshold, this creates an active dispersion of self-propelled clusters of Brownian particles. The emerging activity promotes unusual melting scenarios and an enormous diffusivity in the dense fluid. Our results are obtained by computer simulation and analytical theory and can be verified in experiments with colloidal dispersions and complex plasmas.
Perturbative expansion for the maximum of fractional Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delorme, Mathieu; Wiese, Kay Jörg
2016-07-01
Brownian motion is the only random process which is Gaussian, scale invariant, and Markovian. Dropping the Markovian property, i.e., allowing for memory, one obtains a class of processes called fractional Brownian motion, indexed by the Hurst exponent H . For H =1 /2 , Brownian motion is recovered. We develop a perturbative approach to treat the nonlocality in time in an expansion in ɛ =H -1 /2 . This allows us to derive analytic results beyond scaling exponents for various observables related to extreme value statistics: the maximum m of the process and the time tmax at which this maximum is reached, as well as their joint distribution. We test our analytical predictions with extensive numerical simulations for different values of H . They show excellent agreement, even for H far from 1 /2 .
Non-colliding Brownian Motions and the Extended Tacnode Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Kurt
2013-04-01
We consider non-colliding Brownian motions with two starting points and two endpoints. The points are chosen so that the two groups of Brownian motions just touch each other, a situation that is referred to as a tacnode. The extended kernel for the determinantal point process at the tacnode point is computed using new methods and given in a different form from that obtained for a single time in previous work by Delvaux, Kuijlaars and Zhang. The form of the extended kernel is also different from that obtained for the extended tacnode kernel in another model by Adler, Ferrari and van Moerbeke. We also obtain the correlation kernel for a finite number of non-colliding Brownian motions starting at two points and ending at arbitrary points.
On modeling animal movements using Brownian motion with measurement error.
Pozdnyakov, Vladimir; Meyer, Thomas; Wang, Yu-Bo; Yan, Jun
2014-02-01
Modeling animal movements with Brownian motion (or more generally by a Gaussian process) has a long tradition in ecological studies. The recent Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM), which incorporates measurement errors, has been quickly adopted by ecologists because of its simplicity and tractability. We discuss some nontrivial properties of the discrete-time stochastic process that results from observing a Brownian motion with added normal noise at discrete times. In particular, we demonstrate that the observed sequence of random variables is not Markov. Consequently the expected occupation time between two successively observed locations does not depend on just those two observations; the whole path must be taken into account. Nonetheless, the exact likelihood function of the observed time series remains tractable; it requires only sparse matrix computations. The likelihood-based estimation procedure is described in detail and compared to the BBMM estimation. PMID:24669719
Brownian Motion and the Temperament of Living Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsekov, Roumen; Lensen, Marga C.
2013-07-01
The migration of living cells usually obeys the laws of Brownian motion. While the latter is due to the thermal motion of the surrounding matter, the locomotion of cells is generally associated with their vitality. We study what drives cell migration and how to model memory effects in the Brownian motion of cells. The concept of temperament is introduced as an effective biophysical parameter driving the motion of living biological entities in analogy with the physical parameter of temperature, which dictates the movement of lifeless physical objects. The locomemory of cells is also studied via the generalized Langevin equation. We explore the possibility of describing cell locomemory via the Brownian self-similarity concept. An heuristic expression for the diffusion coefficient of cells on structured surfaces is derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Jiyun; Lee, Jumin; Kim, Jun Soo
2015-03-01
We present a simulation study on the mechanisms of a phase separation in dilute fluids of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles as a model of self-interacting molecules. Molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of the LJ fluids are employed to model the condensation of a liquid droplet in the vapor phase and the mesoscopic aggregation in the solution phase, respectively. With emphasis on the cluster growth at late times well beyond the nucleation stage, we find that the growth mechanisms can be qualitatively different: cluster diffusion and coalescence in the MD simulations and Ostwald ripening in the BD simulations. We also show that the rates of the cluster growth have distinct scaling behaviors during cluster growth. This work suggests that in the solution phase the random Brownian nature of the solute dynamics may lead to the Ostwald ripening that is qualitatively different from the cluster coalescence in the vapor phase.
Dynamics of non-Brownian fiber suspensions under periodic shear.
Franceschini, Alexandre; Filippidi, Emmanouela; Guazzelli, Elisabeth; Pine, David J
2014-09-21
We report experiments studying the dynamics of dense non-Brownian fiber suspensions subjected to periodic oscillatory shear. We find that periodic shear initially causes fibers to collide and to undergo irreversible diffusion. As time progresses, the fibers tend to orient in the vorticity direction while the number of collisions decreases. Ultimately, the system goes to one of two steady states: an absorbing steady state, where collisions cease and the fibers undergo reversible trajectories; an active state, where fibers continue to collide causing them to diffuse and undergo irreversible trajectories. Collisions between fibers can be characterized by an effective volume fraction Φ with a critical volume fraction Φc that separates absorbing from active (diffusing) steady states. The effective volume fraction Φ depends on the mean fiber orientation and thus decreases in time as fibers progressively orient under periodic shear. In the limit that the temporal evolution of Φ is slow compared to the activity relaxation time τ, all the data for all strain amplitudes and all concentrations can be scaled onto a single master curve with a functional dependence well-described by t(-β/ν)R(e(-t)R), where tR is the rescaled time. As Φ → Φc, τ diverges. Therefore, for experiments in which Φ(t) starts above Φc but goes to a steady state below Φc, departures from scaling are observed for Φ very near Φc. The critical exponents are measured to be β = 0.84 ± 0.04 and ν = 1.1 ± 0.1, which is consistent with the Manna universality class for directed percolation. PMID:25068577
Stochastic description of quantum Brownian dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yun-An; Shao, Jiushu
2016-08-01
Classical Brownian motion has well been investigated since the pioneering work of Einstein, which inspired mathematicians to lay the theoretical foundation of stochastic processes. A stochastic formulation for quantum dynamics of dissipative systems described by the system-plus-bath model has been developed and found many applications in chemical dynamics, spectroscopy, quantum transport, and other fields. This article provides a tutorial review of the stochastic formulation for quantum dissipative dynamics. The key idea is to decouple the interaction between the system and the bath by virtue of the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation or Itô calculus so that the system and the bath are not directly entangled during evolution, rather they are correlated due to the complex white noises introduced. The influence of the bath on the system is thereby defined by an induced stochastic field, which leads to the stochastic Liouville equation for the system. The exact reduced density matrix can be calculated as the stochastic average in the presence of bath-induced fields. In general, the plain implementation of the stochastic formulation is only useful for short-time dynamics, but not efficient for long-time dynamics as the statistical errors go very fast. For linear and other specific systems, the stochastic Liouville equation is a good starting point to derive the master equation. For general systems with decomposable bath-induced processes, the hierarchical approach in the form of a set of deterministic equations of motion is derived based on the stochastic formulation and provides an effective means for simulating the dissipative dynamics. A combination of the stochastic simulation and the hierarchical approach is suggested to solve the zero-temperature dynamics of the spin-boson model. This scheme correctly describes the coherent-incoherent transition (Toulouse limit) at moderate dissipation and predicts a rate dynamics in the overdamped regime. Challenging problems
Critical phenomena in active matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoluzzi, Matteo; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Claudio Maggi Collaboration; Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi Collaboration; Nicoletta Gnan Collaboration
A collection of active agents can organize in phases with structural properties remarkably similar to those of ordinary materials, such as active gases, liquids and glasses. These phases are formed, however, out of equilibrium, where the machinery of equilibrium statistical mechanics cannot be applied. It has recently been shown that models of particles with Gaussian colored noise can capture some of the nonequilibrium behavior of active Brownian particles, including motility-induced phase separation. By using the Unified Gaussian Colored Noise Approximation (UCNA) it has been possible to obtain an equilibrium-like probability distribution function and an effective free energy for active Brownian particles. Here we employ UCNA to examine the effect of colored noise on mean-field order-disorder transitions. Starting with a φ4 Landau model that undergoes a second-order phase transition as a function of a tuning parameter, we calculate the shift in transition due to colored noise as a function of the noise amplitude and correlation time τ. We find that the transition line exhibits reentrance as a function of τ. The mean-field theoretical predictions are compared with Molecular Dynamics simulations of active Lennard-Jones particles. We acknowledge support from NSF-DMR-1305184.
High energy photon and particle luminosity from active nuclei
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eilek, J. A.; Caroff, L. J.; Noerdlinger, P. D.; Dove, M. E.
1986-01-01
This paper describes a numerical calculation which follows the evolution of an initial photon and particle spectrum in an expanding, relativistic wind or jet, describes in particular the quasi-equilibrium distribution found for initial optical depths above 100 or so, and points out that this calculation may be relevant for the situation in luminous, compact nuclear sources.
LARGE PARTICLES IN ACTIVE ASTEROID P/2010 A2
Jewitt, David; Ishiguro, Masateru; Agarwal, Jessica
2013-02-10
The previously unknown asteroid P/2010 A2 rose to prominence in 2010 by forming a transient, comet-like tail consisting of ejected dust. The observed dust production was interpreted as the result of either a hypervelocity impact with a smaller body or a rotational disruption. We have re-observed this object, finding that large particles remain a full orbital period after the initial outburst. In the intervening years, particles smaller than {approx}3 mm in radius have been dispersed by radiation pressure, leaving only larger particles in the trail. Since the total mass is dominated by the largest particles, the radiation pressure filtering allows us to obtain a more reliable estimate of the debris mass than was previously possible. We find that the mass contained in the debris is {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} kg (assumed density 3000 kg m{sup -3}), the ratio of the total debris mass to the nucleus mass is {approx}0.1, and that events like P/2010 A2 contribute <3% to the Zodiacal dust production rate. Physical properties of the nucleus and debris are also determined.
Large Particles in Active Asteroid P/2010 A2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jewitt, David; Ishiguro, Masateru; Agarwal, Jessica
2013-02-01
The previously unknown asteroid P/2010 A2 rose to prominence in 2010 by forming a transient, comet-like tail consisting of ejected dust. The observed dust production was interpreted as the result of either a hypervelocity impact with a smaller body or a rotational disruption. We have re-observed this object, finding that large particles remain a full orbital period after the initial outburst. In the intervening years, particles smaller than ~3 mm in radius have been dispersed by radiation pressure, leaving only larger particles in the trail. Since the total mass is dominated by the largest particles, the radiation pressure filtering allows us to obtain a more reliable estimate of the debris mass than was previously possible. We find that the mass contained in the debris is ~5 × 108 kg (assumed density 3000 kg m-3), the ratio of the total debris mass to the nucleus mass is ~0.1, and that events like P/2010 A2 contribute <3% to the Zodiacal dust production rate. Physical properties of the nucleus and debris are also determined. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.
Optimal modulation of a Brownian ratchet and enhanced sensitivity to a weak external force
Tarlie, Martin B.; Astumian, R. Dean
1998-01-01
We studied the dynamics of a Brownian particle moving in a spatially anisotropic potential acted on by multiplicative temporal modulations so that V(x,t) = g(t)U(x). Using the concept of the “thermodynamic action,” we show that the class of modulation that maximizes the flow is a square-wave in time. We also show that adding a weak, homogenous force F in synergy with the square-wave modulation can cause particles of slightly different size to move in opposite directions. The synergetic change in velocity caused by F can be much greater than the drift velocity that would be caused by F alone. PMID:9482834
Newman, Hugh D; Yethiraj, Anand
2015-01-01
In this work, we use structure and dynamics in sedimentation equilibrium, in the presence of gravity, to examine, via confocal microscopy, a Brownian colloidal system in the presence of an external electric field. The zero field equation of state (EOS) is hard sphere without any re-scaling of particle size, and the hydrodynamic corrections to the long-time self-diffusion coefficient are quantitatively consistent with the expected value for hard spheres. Care is taken to ensure that both the dimensionless gravitational energy, which is equivalent to a Peclet number Peg, and dipolar strength Λ are of order unity. In the presence of an external electric field, anisotropic chain-chain clusters form; this cluster formation manifests itself with the appearance of a plateau in the diffusion coefficient when the dimensionless dipolar strength Λ ~ 1. The structure and dynamics of this chain-chain cluster state is examined for a monodisperse system for two particle sizes. PMID:26323363
Newman, Hugh D.; Yethiraj, Anand
2015-01-01
In this work, we use structure and dynamics in sedimentation equilibrium, in the presence of gravity, to examine, via confocal microscopy, a Brownian colloidal system in the presence of an external electric field. The zero field equation of state (EOS) is hard sphere without any re-scaling of particle size, and the hydrodynamic corrections to the long-time self-diffusion coefficient are quantitatively consistent with the expected value for hard spheres. Care is taken to ensure that both the dimensionless gravitational energy, which is equivalent to a Peclet number Peg, and dipolar strength Λ are of order unity. In the presence of an external electric field, anisotropic chain-chain clusters form; this cluster formation manifests itself with the appearance of a plateau in the diffusion coefficient when the dimensionless dipolar strength Λ ~ 1. The structure and dynamics of this chain-chain cluster state is examined for a monodisperse system for two particle sizes. PMID:26323363
Sánchez, J H; Rinaldi, C
2009-03-15
The magnetic field dependent viscosity (magnetoviscosity) of dilute suspensions of magnetic tri-axial ellipsoidal particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid and under applied shear and magnetic fields was studied numerically. Brownian dynamics simulations were performed to compute the intrinsic magnetoviscosity of the suspension. Results are presented for the response of dilute suspensions of ellipsoidal particles to constant magnetic and shear flow fields. Suspensions of ellipsoidal particles show a significant effect of aspect ratio on the intrinsic magnetoviscosity of the suspension, and this effect is more pronounced as the aspect ratio becomes more extreme. The use of an effective rotational diffusion coefficient D(r,eff) collapses the normalized intrinsic magnetoviscosity of all suspensions to a master curve as a function of Péclet number with the Langevin parameter alpha=(mu(0)muH)/(k(B)T) as parameter, up to a critical value of alpha for which the results for suspensions of spherical particles deviate from those of suspensions of ellipsoids. This discrepancy is attributed to the action of the shear-torque on the ellipsoidal particles, which tends to orient these particles in the direction of maximum deformation of the simple shear flow, and which does not act on spherical particles. PMID:19100560
Master Equation for a Quantum Particle in a Gas
Hornberger, Klaus
2006-08-11
The equation for the quantum motion of a Brownian particle in a gaseous environment is derived by means of S-matrix theory. This quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation accounts nonperturbatively for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics and describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. As a completely positive master equation it incorporates both the known equation for an infinitely massive Brownian particle and the classical linear Boltzmann equation as limiting cases.
High Fc Density Particles Result in Binary Complement Activation but Tunable Macrophage Phagocytosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sulchek, Todd; Pacheco, Patricia; White, David
2014-03-01
Macrophage phagocytosis and complement system activation represent two key components of the immune system and both can be activated through the presentation of multiple Fc domains of IgG antibodies. We have created functionalized micro- and nanoparticles with various densities of Fc domains to understand the modulation of the immune system for eventual use as a novel immunomodulation platform. Phagocytosis assays were carried out by adding functionalized particles to macrophage cells and quantitatively determined using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Complement system activation by the functionalized particles in human serum was quantified with an enzyme immunoassay. Our phagocytosis assay revealed a strong dependence on particle size and Fc density. For small particles, as the Fc density increased, the number of particles phagocytosed also increased. Large particles were phagocytosed at significantly lower levels and showed no dependency on Fc density. Complement was successfully activated at levels comparable to positive controls for small particles at high Fc densities. However at low Fc densities, there is a significant decrease in complement activation. This result suggests a binary response for complement system activation with a threshold density for successful activation. Therefore, varying the Fc density on micro/nanoparticles resulted in a tunable response in macrophage phagocytosis while a more binary response for complement activation.
Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.
2015-12-01
The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories.
Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres
Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.
2015-01-01
The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories. PMID:26627125
Dynamics of an active magnetic particle in a rotating magnetic field.
Cēbers, A; Ozols, M
2006-02-01
The motion of an active (self-propelling) particle with a permanent magnetic moment under the action of a rotating magnetic field is considered. We show that below a critical frequency of the external field the trajectory of a particle is a circle. For frequencies slightly above the critical point the particle moves on an approximately circular trajectory and from time to time jumps to another region of space. Symmetry of the particle trajectory depends on the commensurability of the field period and the period of the orientational motion of the particle. We also show how our results can be used to study the properties of naturally occurring active magnetic particles, so-called magnetotactic bacteria. PMID:16605340
Binding, stability, and antioxidant activity of quercetin with soy protein isolate particles.
Wang, Yufang; Wang, Xiaoyong
2015-12-01
This work is to study the potential of particles fabricated from soy protein isolate (SPI) as a protective carrier for quercetin. When the concentration of SPI particles increases from 0 to 0.35 g/L, quercetin gives a gradually increased fluorescence intensity and fluorescence anisotropy. The addition of quercetin can highly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of SPI particles. These results are explained in terms of the binding of quercetin to the hydrophobic pockets of SPI particles mainly through the hydrophobic force together with the hydrogen bonding. The small difference in the binding constants at 25 and 40 °C suggests the structural stability of SPI particles. The relative changes in values of Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy indicate that the binding of quercetin with SPI particles is spontaneous and hydrophobic interaction is the major force. Furthermore, SPI particles are superior to native SPI for improving the stability and radical scavenging activity of quercetin. PMID:26041159
Diffusion of a particle quadratically coupled to a thermally fluctuating field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Démery, Vincent
2013-05-01
We study the diffusion of a Brownian particle quadratically coupled to a thermally fluctuating field. In the weak-coupling limit, a path-integral formulation allows us to compute the effective diffusion coefficient in the cases of an active particle, which tends to suppress field fluctuations, and of a passive particle, which only undergoes field fluctuations. We show that the behavior is similar to what was previously found for a linear coupling: an active particle is always slowed down, whereas a passive particle is slowed down in a slow field and accelerated in a fast field. Numerical simulations show a good agreement with the analytical calculations. The examples of a membrane protein coupled to the curvature or composition of the membrane are discussed, with a focus on the room for anomalous diffusion.
Brownian dynamics determine universality of charge transport in ionic liquids
Sangoro, Joshua R; Iacob, Ciprian; Mierzwa, Michal; Paluch, Marian; Kremer, Friedrich
2012-01-01
Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is employed to investigate charge transport in a variety of glass-forming ionic liquids over wide frequency, temperature and pressure ranges. Using a combination of Einstein, Einstein-Smoluchowski, and Langevin relations, the observed universal scaling of charge transport in ionic liquids is traced back to the dominant role of Brownian dynamics.
Brownian Movement and Avogadro's Number: A Laboratory Experiment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kruglak, Haym
1988-01-01
Reports an experimental procedure for studying Einstein's theory of Brownian movement using commercially available latex microspheres and a video camera. Describes how students can monitor sphere motions and determine Avogadro's number. Uses a black and white video camera, microscope, and TV. (ML)
Cellular motions and thermal fluctuations: the Brownian ratchet.
Peskin, C S; Odell, G M; Oster, G F
1993-01-01
We present here a model for how chemical reactions generate protrusive forces by rectifying Brownian motion. This sort of energy transduction drives a number of intracellular processes, including filopodial protrusion, propulsion of the bacterium Listeria, and protein translocation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:8369439
The Inviscid Burgers Equation with Brownian Initial Velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoin, Jean
The law of the (Hopf-Cole) solution of the inviscid Burgers equation with Brownian initial velocity is made explicit. As examples of applications, we investigate the smoothness of the solution, the statistical distribution of the shocks, we determine the exact Hausdorff function of the Lagrangian regular points and investigate the existence of Lagrangian regular points in a fixed Borel set.
The valuation of currency options by fractional Brownian motion.
Shokrollahi, Foad; Kılıçman, Adem
2016-01-01
This research aims to investigate a model for pricing of currency options in which value governed by the fractional Brownian motion model (FBM). The fractional partial differential equation and some Greeks are also obtained. In addition, some properties of our pricing formula and simulation studies are presented, which demonstrate that the FBM model is easy to use. PMID:27504243
Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.
2003-12-01
A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.
Isotopic composition of high-activity particles released in the Chernobyl accident
Osuch, S.; Dabrowska, M.; Jaracz, P.; Kaczanowski, J.; Le Van Kho; Mirowski, S.; Piasecki, E.; Szeflinska, G.; Szeflinski, Z.; Tropilo, J.; )
1989-11-01
Gamma spectra were measured and activities of the detected isotopes were analyzed for 206 high-activity particles (hot particles, HPs) found in northeastern Poland after the Chernobyl accident. The isotopic composition of HPs observed in gamma-activity is compared with that of the general fallout and core inventory calculations. Particle formation and a process of depletion in Ru and Cs isotopes are discussed. On the basis of a search performed a year later, some comments on the behavior of HPs in the soil are made.
Emergent behavior in active colloids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zöttl, Andreas; Stark, Holger
2016-06-01
Active colloids are microscopic particles, which self-propel through viscous fluids by converting energy extracted from their environment into directed motion. We first explain how artificial microswimmers move forward by generating near-surface flow fields via self-phoresis or the self-induced Marangoni effect. We then discuss generic features of the dynamics of single active colloids in bulk and in confinement, as well as in the presence of gravity, field gradients, and fluid flow. In the third section, we review the emergent collective behavior of active colloidal suspensions, focusing on their structural and dynamic properties. After summarizing experimental observations, we give an overview of the progress in modeling collectively moving active colloids. While active Brownian particles are heavily used to study collective dynamics on large scales, more advanced methods are necessary to explore the importance of hydrodynamic and phoretic particle interactions. Finally, the relevant physical approaches to quantify the emergent collective behavior are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ming; Alici, Gursel; Du, Haiping; Sluyter, Ronald; Li, Weihua
2014-05-01
This paper proposes a novel concept of dielectrophoresis (DEP)-active hydrophoretic focusing of micro-particles and murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. The DEP-active hydrophoretic platform consists of crescent shaped grooves and interdigitated electrodes that generate lateral pressure gradients. These embedded electrodes exert a negative DEP force onto the particles by pushing them into a narrow space in the channel where the particle to groove interaction is intensive and hydrophoretic ordering occurs. Particles passing through the microfluidic device are directed towards the sidewalls of the channel. The critical limitation of DEP operating at a low flow rate and the specific hydrophoretic device for focusing particles of given sizes were overcome with the proposed microfluidic device. The focusing pattern can be modulated by varying the voltage. High throughput was achieved (maximum flow rate ~150 μL min-1) with good focusing performance. The non-spherical MEL cells were utilised to verify the effectiveness of the DEP-active hydrophoretic device.
The biological effect of particles on epithelial cells involves, in part, oxidant generation and a cascade of reactions culminating in inflammatory mediator release. Whether there is an immediate short-lived activation or continued persistent response of the cells to the particle...
Research Activities on MHD and Energetic Particle Physics in KSTAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Byoung-Ho; Kwak, Jong-Gu; Lee, San-Gon; Yoon, Si-Woo; Bae, Young-Sun; Kim, Jin-Young; KSTAR Team
2014-10-01
In this talk, the recent achievements in MHD and energetic particle physics in KSTAR will be presented. Throughout the 2014 campaign, strategically important works in achieving KSTAR milestone including NTM stabilization, error field measurement, establishing disruption mitigation system, and identification of Alfvenic eigenmode are conducted. Real time feedback control of 2/1 NTM is successfully demonstrated with the search and suppression algorithm and the improved ECCD mirror control system. 3-D structure of n=1 intrinsic error field are fully explored with L- and H-mode plasma aiming not only to complete MID IVCC compass scan but also to set a groundwork toward understanding of KSTAR's unique feature, ELM suppression by n = 1 RMP. Elaborated q95 ~ 2 discharge regime is achieved without any error field correction by virtue of the extremely low intrinsic error field of KSTAR. The integrated disruption avoidance/mitigation system for the safety secured MA-class operation is well assessed. Further investigations of the energetic particle mode have been done with various control nobs of ECH, RMP and tailoring of NBI profile and mode identification efforts have been followed. Besides high priority works above, studies on sawtooth and run-away electron have made progresses.
New models and predictions for Brownian coagulation of non-interacting spheres.
Kelkar, Aniruddha V; Dong, Jiannan; Franses, Elias I; Corti, David S
2013-01-01
The classical steady-state Smoluchowski model for Brownian coagulation is evaluated using Brownian Dynamics Simulations (BDS) as a benchmark. The predictions of this approach compare favorably with the results of BDS only in the dilute limit, that is, for volume fractions of φ≤5×10(-4). From the solution of the more general unsteady-state diffusion equation, a new model for coagulation is developed. The resulting coagulation rate constant is time-dependent and approaches the steady-state limit only at large times. Moreover, in contrast to the Smoluchowski model, this rate constant depends on the particle size, with the transient effects becoming more significant at larger sizes. The predictions of the unsteady-state model agree well with the BDS results up to volume fractions of about φ=0.1, at which the aggregation half-time predicted by the Smoluchowski model is five times that of the BDS. A new procedure to extract the aggregation rate constant from simulation results based on this model is presented. The choice of the rate constant kernel used in the population balance equations for complete aggregation is also evaluated. Extension of the new model to a variable rate constant kernel leads to increased accuracy of the predictions, especially for φ≤5×10(-3). This size-dependence of the rate constant kernel affects particularly the predictions for initially polydisperse sphere systems. In addition, the model is extended to account in a novel way for both short-range viscous two-particle interactions and long-range many-particle Hydrodynamic Interactions (HI). Predictions including HI agree best with the BDS results. The new models presented here offer accurate and computationally less-intensive predictions of the coagulation dynamics while also accounting for hydrodynamic coupling. PMID:23036339
Fabricating large two-dimensional single colloidal crystals by doping with active particles.
van der Meer, B; Filion, L; Dijkstra, M
2016-04-14
Using simulations we explore the behaviour of two-dimensional colloidal (poly)crystals doped with active particles. We show that these active dopants can provide an elegant new route to removing grain boundaries in polycrystals. Specifically, we show that active dopants both generate and are attracted to defects, such as vacancies and interstitials, which leads to clustering of dopants at grain boundaries. The active particles both broaden and enhance the mobility of the grain boundaries, causing rapid coarsening of the crystal domains. The remaining defects recrystallize upon turning off the activity of the dopants, resulting in a large-scale single-domain crystal. PMID:26936131
Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Feldspar Dust Particles
2015-01-01
Mineral dusts originating from Earth’s crust are known to be important atmospheric ice nuclei. In agreement with earlier studies, feldspar was found as the most active of the tested natural mineral dusts. Here we investigated in closer detail the reasons for its activity and the difference in the activity of the different feldspars. Conclusions are drawn from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and oil-immersion freezing experiments. K-feldspar showed by far the highest ice nucleation activity. Finally, we give a potential explanation of this effect, finding alkali-metal ions having different hydration shells and thus an influence on the ice nucleation activity of feldspar surfaces. PMID:25584435
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, Charles M.; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Cynthia J.
2015-08-01
There has been tremendous growth in the field of active matter, where the individual particles that comprise the system are self-driven. Examples of this class of system include biological systems such as swimming bacteria and crawling cells. More recently, non-biological swimmers have been created using colloidal Janus particles that undergo chemical reactions on one side to produce self-propulsion. These active matter systems exhibit a wide variety of behaviors that are absent in systems undergoing purely thermal fluctuations, such as transitions from uniform liquids to clusters or living crystals, pushing objects around, ratchet effects, and phase separation in mixtures of active and passive particles. Here we examine the collective effects of active matter disks in the presence of static or dynamic substrates. For colloids, such substrates could be created optically in the form of periodic, random, or quasiperiodic patterns. For thermal particles, increasing the temperature generally increases the diffusion or mobility of the particles when they move over a random or periodic substrates. We find that when the particles are active, increasing the activity can increase the mobility for smaller run lengths but decrease the mobility at large run lengths. Additionally we find that at large run lengths on a structured substrate, a variety of novel active crystalline states can form such as stripes, squares and triangular patterns.
Activity-assisted self-assembly of colloidal particles.
Mallory, S A; Cacciuto, A
2016-08-01
We outline a basic strategy of how self-propulsion can be used to improve the yield of a typical colloidal self-assembly process. The success of this approach is predicated on the thoughtful design of the colloidal building block as well as how self-propulsion is endowed to the particle. As long as a set of criteria are satisfied, it is possible to significantly increase the rate of self-assembly, and greatly expand the window in parameter space where self-assembly can occur. In addition, we show that by tuning the relative on-off time of the self-propelling force it is possible to modulate the effective speed of the colloids allowing for further optimization of the self-assembly process. PMID:27627360
The Wonderful World of Active Many-Particle Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helbing, Dirk
Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many astonishing effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by so-called ``phantom traffic jams'', although they all like to drive fast? What are the mechanisms behind stop-and-go traffic? Why are there several different kinds of congestion, and how are they related? Why do most traffic jams occur considerably before the road capacity is reached? Can a temporary reduction of the traffic volume cause a lasting traffic jam? Why do pedestrians moving in opposite directions normally organize in lanes, while nervous crowds are ``freezing by heating''? Why do panicking pedestrians produce dangerous deadlocks? All these questions have been answered by applying and extending methods from statistical physics and non-linear dynamics to self-driven many-particle systems.
Influence of source composition and particle energy on the determination of gross alpha activity.
Timón, A Fernández; Vargas, M Jurado; Sánchez, A B Ruano; Pérez, J de la Torre; Sánchez, A Martín
2013-12-01
The influence of different source compositions and α-particle energies on the detection efficiency of a gas-flow proportional counter was examined using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Efficiency variation with alpha-particle energy was very marked, being less significant with the substrate composition. These results show that the determination of gross alpha activity in an unknown sample must be carried out very carefully in order to give a correct estimation of its activity. PMID:24184741
Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Mulheron, Mike
2014-08-30
Building activities generate coarse (PM10≤10μm), fine (PM2.5≤2.5μm) and ultrafine particles (<100nm) making it necessary to understand both the exposure levels of operatives on site and the dispersion of ultrafine particles into the surrounding environment. This study investigates the release of particulate matter, including ultrafine particles, during the mixing of fresh concrete (incorporating Portland cement with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag, GGBS or Pulverised Fuel Ash, PFA) and the subsequent drilling and cutting of hardened concrete. Particles were measured in the 5-10,000nm size range using a GRIMM particle spectrometer and a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). The mass concentrations of PM2.5-10 fraction contributed ∼52-64% of total mass released. The ultrafine particles dominated the total particle number concentrations (PNCs); being 74, 82, 95 and 97% for mixing with GGBS, mixing with PFA, drilling and cutting, respectively. Peak values measured during the drilling and cutting activities were 4 and 14 times the background. Equivalent emission factors were calculated and the total respiratory deposition dose rates for PNCs for drilling and cutting were 32.97±9.41×10(8)min(-1) and 88.25±58.82×10(8)min(-1). These are a step towards establishing number and mass emission inventories for particle exposure during construction activities. PMID:25068443
System and method for collisional activation of charged particles
Ibrahim, Yehia M; Belov, Mikhail E; Prior, David C
2013-09-24
A collision cell is disclosed that provides ion activation in various selective modes. Ion activation is performed inside selected segments of a segmented quadrupole that provides maximum optimum capture and collection of fragmentation products. The invention provides collisional cooling of precursor ions as well as product fragments and further allows effective transmission of ions through a high pressure interface into a coupled mass analysis instrument.
Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt
1978-04-25
Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.
Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, S. M.; Butcher, A. C.; Rosenoern, T.; Coz, E.; Lieke, K. I.; de Leeuw, G.; Nilsson, E. D.; Bilde, M.
2012-04-01
Sea salt particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater in a closed stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. The two-component artificial seawater consisted of salt, either NaCl or sea salt, and one organic compound in deionized water. Several organic molecules representative of oceanic organic matter were investigated. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a porous diffuser or by water jet impingement on the surface of the artificial seawater. The effect of bubble lifetime, which was controlled by varying the depth of the diffuser in the water column, on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. The CCN activities of particles produced from diffuser-generated bubbles were generally governed by the high hygroscopicity of salt, such that activation was indistinguishable from that of salt, except in the case of very low mass ratio of salt to organic matter in the seawater solution. There was, however, a considerable decrease in CCN activity for particles produced from jet impingement on seawater that had a salinity of 10‰ and contained 0.45 mM of sodium laurate, an organic surfactant. The production of a thick foam layer from impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not similar. Accurate conclusions from observed CCN activities of particles from artificial seawater containing organic matter require knowledge of the CCN activity of the inorganic component, especially as a small amount of the inorganic can heavily influence activation. Therefore, the CCN activity of both artificial sea salt and NaCl were measured and compared. Part of the discrepancy observed between the CCN activities of the two salts may be due to morphological differences, which were investigated using
Generalized Scaling and the Master Variable for Brownian Magnetic Nanoparticle Dynamics
Reeves, Daniel B.; Shi, Yipeng; Weaver, John B.
2016-01-01
Understanding the dynamics of magnetic particles can help to advance several biomedical nanotechnologies. Previously, scaling relationships have been used in magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion (MSB) to measure biologically relevant properties (e.g., temperature, viscosity, bound state) surrounding nanoparticles in vivo. Those scaling relationships can be generalized with the introduction of a master variable found from non-dimensionalizing the dynamical Langevin equation. The variable encapsulates the dynamical variables of the surroundings and additionally includes the particles’ size distribution and moment and the applied field’s amplitude and frequency. From an applied perspective, the master variable allows tuning to an optimal MSB biosensing sensitivity range by manipulating both frequency and field amplitude. Calculation of magnetization harmonics in an oscillating applied field is also possible with an approximate closed-form solution in terms of the master variable and a single free parameter. PMID:26959493
Using Brownian motion to measure shape asymmetry in mesoscopic matter using optical tweezers.
Roy, Basudev; Mondal, Argha; Bera, Sudipta K; Banerjee, Ayan
2016-06-21
We propose a new method for quantifying shape asymmetry on the mesoscopic scale. The method takes advantage of the intrinsic coupling between rotational and translational Brownian motion (RBM and TBM, respectively) which happens in the case of asymmetric particles. We determine the coupling by measuring different correlation functions of the RBM and TBM for single, morphologically different, weakly trapped red blood cells in optical tweezers. The cells have different degrees of asymmetry that are controllably produced by varying the hypertonicity of their aqueous environment. We demonstrate a clear difference in the nature of the correlation functions both qualitatively and quantitatively for three types of cells having a varying degree of asymmetry. This method can have a variety of applications ranging from early stage disease diagnosis to quality control in microfabrication. PMID:27198612
2012-01-01
Sea spray particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater containing salt and organic matter in a stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a diffuser or by water jet impingement on the seawater surface. Three objectives were addressed in this study. First, CCN activities of NaCl and two types of artificial sea salt containing only inorganic components were measured to establish a baseline for further measurements of mixed organic–inorganic particles. Second, the effect of varying bubble residence time in the bulk seawater solution on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. Finally, CCN activities of particles produced from jet impingement were compared with those produced from diffuser aeration. Analyses indicate a considerable amount of organic enrichment in the jet-produced particles relative to the bulk seawater composition when sodium laurate, an organic surfactant, is present in the seawater. In this case, the production of a thick foam layer during impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not equal. PMID:22809370
Brownian dynamics of confined rigid bodies.
Delong, Steven; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-10-14
We introduce numerical methods for simulating the diffusive motion of rigid bodies of arbitrary shape immersed in a viscous fluid. We parameterize the orientation of the bodies using normalized quaternions, which are numerically robust, space efficient, and easy to accumulate. We construct a system of overdamped Langevin equations in the quaternion representation that accounts for hydrodynamic effects, preserves the unit-norm constraint on the quaternion, and is time reversible with respect to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution at equilibrium. We introduce two schemes for temporal integration of the overdamped Langevin equations of motion, one based on the Fixman midpoint method and the other based on a random finite difference approach, both of which ensure that the correct stochastic drift term is captured in a computationally efficient way. We study several examples of rigid colloidal particles diffusing near a no-slip boundary and demonstrate the importance of the choice of tracking point on the measured translational mean square displacement (MSD). We examine the average short-time as well as the long-time quasi-two-dimensional diffusion coefficient of a rigid particle sedimented near a bottom wall due to gravity. For several particle shapes, we find a choice of tracking point that makes the MSD essentially linear with time, allowing us to estimate the long-time diffusion coefficient efficiently using a Monte Carlo method. However, in general, such a special choice of tracking point does not exist, and numerical techniques for simulating long trajectories, such as the ones we introduce here, are necessary to study diffusion on long time scales. PMID:26472363
Brownian dynamics of confined rigid bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delong, Steven; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-10-01
We introduce numerical methods for simulating the diffusive motion of rigid bodies of arbitrary shape immersed in a viscous fluid. We parameterize the orientation of the bodies using normalized quaternions, which are numerically robust, space efficient, and easy to accumulate. We construct a system of overdamped Langevin equations in the quaternion representation that accounts for hydrodynamic effects, preserves the unit-norm constraint on the quaternion, and is time reversible with respect to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution at equilibrium. We introduce two schemes for temporal integration of the overdamped Langevin equations of motion, one based on the Fixman midpoint method and the other based on a random finite difference approach, both of which ensure that the correct stochastic drift term is captured in a computationally efficient way. We study several examples of rigid colloidal particles diffusing near a no-slip boundary and demonstrate the importance of the choice of tracking point on the measured translational mean square displacement (MSD). We examine the average short-time as well as the long-time quasi-two-dimensional diffusion coefficient of a rigid particle sedimented near a bottom wall due to gravity. For several particle shapes, we find a choice of tracking point that makes the MSD essentially linear with time, allowing us to estimate the long-time diffusion coefficient efficiently using a Monte Carlo method. However, in general, such a special choice of tracking point does not exist, and numerical techniques for simulating long trajectories, such as the ones we introduce here, are necessary to study diffusion on long time scales.
Brownian dynamics of confined rigid bodies
Delong, Steven; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Donev, Aleksandar
2015-10-14
We introduce numerical methods for simulating the diffusive motion of rigid bodies of arbitrary shape immersed in a viscous fluid. We parameterize the orientation of the bodies using normalized quaternions, which are numerically robust, space efficient, and easy to accumulate. We construct a system of overdamped Langevin equations in the quaternion representation that accounts for hydrodynamic effects, preserves the unit-norm constraint on the quaternion, and is time reversible with respect to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution at equilibrium. We introduce two schemes for temporal integration of the overdamped Langevin equations of motion, one based on the Fixman midpoint method and the other based on a random finite difference approach, both of which ensure that the correct stochastic drift term is captured in a computationally efficient way. We study several examples of rigid colloidal particles diffusing near a no-slip boundary and demonstrate the importance of the choice of tracking point on the measured translational mean square displacement (MSD). We examine the average short-time as well as the long-time quasi-two-dimensional diffusion coefficient of a rigid particle sedimented near a bottom wall due to gravity. For several particle shapes, we find a choice of tracking point that makes the MSD essentially linear with time, allowing us to estimate the long-time diffusion coefficient efficiently using a Monte Carlo method. However, in general, such a special choice of tracking point does not exist, and numerical techniques for simulating long trajectories, such as the ones we introduce here, are necessary to study diffusion on long time scales.