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Sample records for active c-terminal fragment

  1. Structure-activity relationships of C-terminal tri- and tetrapeptide fragments that inhibit gastrin activity.

    PubMed

    Martinez, J; Bali, J P; Magous, R; Laur, J; Lignon, M F; Briet, C; Nisato, D; Castro, B

    1985-03-01

    A series of tri- and tetrapeptide derivatives, analogues of the gastrin C-terminal region with no phenylalanine residue, were synthesized. These peptides were tested for their ability to inhibit gastrin-stimulated acid secretion in vivo as well as binding of [125I]-(Nle11)-HG-13 to gastric mucosal cell receptors in vitro. Most of the peptides tested exhibited gastrin antagonist activity in vivo and in vitro. Most active derivatives were 20-30 times more potent than the well-known gastrin antagonist derivatives proglumide and benzotript and had 20-200 times more binding affinity. The smallest fragment exhibiting antagonist activity was the tripeptide Boc-L-tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartic acid amide.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of pleurocidin is retained in Plc-2, a C-terminal 12-amino acid fragment.

    PubMed

    Souza, Andre L A; Díaz-Dellavalle, Paola; Cabrera, Andrea; Larrañaga, Patricia; Dalla-Rizza, Marco; De-Simone, Salvatore G

    2013-07-01

    An analysis of a series of five peptides composed of various portions of the pleurocidin (Plc) sequence identified a l2-amino acid fragment from the C-terminus of Plc, designated Plc-2, as the smallest fragment that retained a antimicrobial activity comparable to that of the parent compound. MIC tests in vitro with low-ionic-strength medium showed that Plc-2 has potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus but not against Enterococcus faecalis. The antifungal activity of the synthetic peptides against phytopathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum sp., Aspergillus niger and Alternaria sp., also identified Plc-2 as a biologically active peptide. Microscopy studies of fluorescently stained fungi treated with Plc-2 demonstrated that cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes were compromised in all strains of phytopathogenic fungi tested. Together, these results identify Plc-2 as a potential antimicrobial agent with similar properties to its parent compound, pleurocidin. In addition, it demonstrated that the KHVGKAALTHYL residues are critical for the antimicrobial activity described for pleurocidin.

  3. C-terminal fragment of amebin promotes actin filament bundling, inhibits acto-myosin ATPase activity and is essential for amoeba migration.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Jolanta; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Sobczak, Magdalena; Kocik, Elżbieta; Skórzewski, Radosław; Kłopocka, Wanda; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2011-02-01

    Amebin [formerly termed as ApABP-FI; Sobczak et al. (2007) Biochem. Cell Biol. 85] is encoded in Amoeba proteus by two transcripts, 2672-nt and 1125-nt. A product of the shorter transcript (termed as C-amebin), comprising C-terminal 375 amino-acid-residue fragment of amebin, has been expressed and purified as the recombinant GST-fusion protein. GST-C-amebin bound both to monomeric and filamentous actin. The binding was Ca(2+)-independent and promoted filament bundling, as revealed with the transmission electron microscopy. GST-C-amebin significantly decreased MgATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle acto-S1. Removal with endoproteinase ArgC of a positively charged C-terminal region of GST-amebin containing KLASMWEQ sequence abolished actin-binding and bundling as well as the ATPase-inhibitory effect of C-amebin, indicating that this protein region was involved in the interaction with actin. Microinjection of amoebae with antibody against C-terminus of amebin significantly affected amoebae morphology, disturbed cell polarization and transport of cytoplasmic granules as well as blocked migration. These data indicate that amebin may be one of key regulators of the actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and actin-dependent motility in A. proteus.

  4. Effects of a one year physical activity program on serum C Terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) concentrations among mobility limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: C terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) has been proposed as a potential circulating biomarker for predicting changes in physical function among older adults. To determine the effect of a one year PA intervention on changes in CAF concentrations and to evaluate baseline and longitudinal associat...

  5. C-Terminal Protein Characterization by Mass Spectrometry: Isolation of C-Terminal Fragments from Cyanogen Bromide-Cleaved Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2014-01-01

    A sample preparation method for protein C-terminal peptide isolation from cyanogen bromide (CNBr) digests has been developed. In this strategy, the analyte was reduced and carboxyamidomethylated, followed by CNBr cleavage in a one-pot reaction scheme. The digest was then adsorbed on ZipTipC18 pipette tips for conjugation of the homoserine lactone-terminated peptides with 2,2′-dithiobis (ethylamine) dihydrochloride, followed by reductive release of 2-aminoethanethiol from the derivatives. The thiol-functionalized internal and N-terminal peptides were scavenged on activated thiol sepharose, leaving the C-terminal peptide in the flow-through fraction. The use of reversed-phase supports as a venue for peptide derivatization enabled facile optimization of the individual reaction steps for throughput and completeness of reaction. Reagents were replaced directly on the support, allowing the reactions to proceed at minimal sample loss. By this sequence of solid-phase reactions, the C-terminal peptide could be recognized uniquely in mass spectra of unfractionated digests by its unaltered mass signature. The use of the sample preparation method was demonstrated with low-level amounts of a whole, intact model protein. The C-terminal fragments were retrieved selectively and efficiently from the affinity support. The use of covalent chromatography for C-terminal peptide purification enabled recovery of the depleted material for further chemical and/or enzymatic manipulation. The sample preparation method provides for robustness and simplicity of operation and is anticipated to be expanded to gel-separated proteins and in a scaled-up format to high-throughput protein profiling in complex biological mixtures. PMID:24688319

  6. Valproate Attenuates 25-kDa C-Terminal Fragment of TDP-43-Induced Neuronal Toxicity via Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Activating Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuejing; Ma, Mingming; Teng, Junfang; Che, Xiangqian; Zhang, Wenwen; Feng, Shuman; Zhou, Shuang; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Erxi; Ding, Xuebing

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. To date, there is no any effective pharmacological treatment for improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. Rapidly emerging evidence suggests that C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), including TDP-35 and TDP-25, may play an important role in ALS pathogenesis. Valproate (VPA), a widely used antiepileptic drug, has neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative disorders. As for ALS, preclinical studies also provide encouraging evidence for multiple beneficial effects in ALS mouse models. However, the potential molecular mechanisms have not been explored. Here, we show protective effects of VPA against TDP-43 CTFs-mediated neuronal toxicity and its underlying mechanisms in vitro. Remarkably, TDP-43 CTFs induced neuronal damage via endoplastic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagic self-defense system was activated to reduce TDP-43 CTFs-induced neuronal death. Finally, VPA attenuated TDP-25-induced neuronal toxicity via suppressing ER stress-mediated apoptosis and enhancing autophagy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that VPA exerts neuroprotective effects against TDP-43 CTFs-induced neuronal damage. Thus, we provide new molecular evidence for VPA treatment in patients with ALS and other TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:26078717

  7. Anti-fungal activity of Ctn[15-34], the C-terminal peptide fragment of crotalicidin, a rattlesnake venom gland cathelicidin.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Carolina Sidrim P; Falcão, Cláudio B; Fontenelle, Raquel Os; Andreu, David; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2017-03-01

    Crotalicidin (Ctn), a 34-residue cathelicidin from a South American rattlesnake, and its fragment (Ctn[15-34]) have shown anti-infective and cytotoxic activities against Gram-negative bacteria and certain tumor lines, respectively. The extent of such effects has been related to physicochemical characteristics such as helicity and hydrophobicity. We now report the anti-fungal activity of Ctn and its fragments (Ctn[1-14]) and (Ctn[15-34]). MIC determination and luminescent cell viability assays were used to evaluate the anti-infective activity of Ctn and its fragments (Ctn[1-14]) and (Ctn[15-34]) as anti-fungal agents against opportunistic yeast and dermatophytes. Cytotoxicity towards healthy eukaryotic cells was assessed in vitro with healthy human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells and erythrocytes. The checkerboard technique was performed to estimate the effects of combining either one of the peptides with amphotericin B. Ctn was the most active peptide against dermatophytes and also the most toxic to healthy eukaryotic cells. Fragments Ctn[1-14] and Ctn[15-35] lost activity against dermatophytes, but became more active against pathogenic yeasts, including several Candida species, both clinical isolates and standard strains, with MICs as low as 5 μm. Interestingly, the two peptide fragments were less cytotoxic to healthy HK-2 cells and less hemolytic to human erythrocytes than the standard-of-care amphotericin B. Also noteworthy was the synergy between Ctn peptides and amphotericin B, with consequent reduction in MICs of both drug and peptides. Altogether, Ctn and its fragments, particularly Ctn[15-34], are promising leads, either alone or in combined regimen with amphotericin B, for the treatment of fungal diseases.

  8. The N- and C-terminal autolytic fragments of CAPN3/p94/calpain-3 restore proteolytic activity by intermolecular complementation

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Yasuko; Shindo, Mayumi; Doi, Naoko; Kitamura, Fujiko; Gregorio, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    CAPN3/p94/calpain-3, a calpain protease family member predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, possesses unusually rapid and exhaustive autolytic activity. Mutations in the human CAPN3 gene impairing its protease functions cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A); yet, the connection between CAPN3’s autolytic activity and the enzyme’s function in vivo remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that CAPN3 protease activity was reconstituted by intermolecular complementation (iMOC) between its two autolytic fragments. Furthermore, the activity of full-length CAPN3 active-site mutants was surprisingly rescued through iMOC with autolytic fragments containing WT amino acid sequences. These results provide evidence that WT CAPN3 can be formed by the iMOC of two different complementary CAPN3 mutants. The finding of iMOC-mediated restoration of calpain activity indicates a novel mechanism for the genotype–phenotype links in LGMD2A. PMID:25512505

  9. Synthesis of the blood circulating C-terminal fragment of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-4 in its native conformation. Crystallization, heparin and IGF binding, and osteogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Lozano, Rosa M; Rivas, Germán; Jiménez, M Angeles; Ständker, Ludger; Díaz-Gonzalez, Diana; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Cuevas, Pedro; Romero, Antonio; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2005-05-13

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins play a critical role in a wide variety of important physiological processes. It has been demonstrated that both an N-terminal and a C-terminal fragment of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-4 exist and accumulate in the circulatory system, these fragments accounting for virtually the whole amino acid sequence of the protein. The circulating C-terminal fragment establishes three disulfide bridges, and the binding pattern of these has recently been defined. Here we show that the monodimensional 1H NMR spectrum of the C-terminal fragment is typical of a protein with a relatively close packed tertiary structure. This fragment can be produced in its native conformation in Escherichia coli, without the requirement of further refolding procedures, when synthesis is coupled to its secretion from the cell. The recombinant protein crystallizes with the unit cell parameters of a hexagonal system. Furthermore, it binds strongly to heparin, acquiring a well defined oligomeric structure that interacts with insulin-like growth factors, and promotes bone formation in cultures of murine calvariae.

  10. Comparative study of in vitro and in vivo activities of bombesin pseudopeptide analogs modified on the C-terminal dipeptide fragment.

    PubMed

    Azay, J; Nagain, C; Llinares, M; Devin, C; Fehrentz, J A; Bernad, N; Roze, C; Martinez, J

    1998-01-01

    Analogs of bombesin in which the peptide bond between the two last amino acid residues were replaced by a pseudopeptide bond mimicking the transition state analog were evaluated. These compounds were able to recognize the bombesin receptor on isolated rat pancreatic acini with high potency (Ki from 0.60 +/- 0.27 nM to 4.3 +/- 2.3 nM). Although they were devoid of agonist activity, they were able to antagonize bombesin-induced amylase secretion in this model, with potencies in accordance with their affinities (IC50 from 1.6 +/- 0.3 nM to 10.0 +/- 1.7 nM). When tested in vivo in the anesthetized rat, these bombesin receptor antagonists exhibited high potency in inhibiting bombesin-induced pancreatic secretion (H-DPhe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-NH-CH[CH2-CH(CH3)2]-CHOH-(CH 2)3-CH3, JMV845, was among the most potent compounds with ED50 of 7.82 +/- 2.89 nM in inhibiting bombesin-induced protein secretion). The results of this study showed that replacing the peptide bond between the two last amino acid residues in bombesin by mimicking the transition state analog resulted in in vitro and in vivo potent bombesin receptor antagonists.

  11. Occurrence of C-Terminal Residue Exclusion in Peptide Fragmentation by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2012-02-01

    By screening a data set of 392 synthetic peptides MS/MS spectra, we found that a known C-terminal rearrangement was unexpectedly frequently occurring from monoprotonated molecular ions in both ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry upon low and high energy collision activated dissociations with QqTOF and TOF/TOF mass analyzer configuration, respectively. Any residue localized at the C-terminal carboxylic acid end, even a basic one, was lost, provided that a basic amino acid such arginine and to a lesser extent histidine and lysine was present in the sequence leading to a fragment ion, usually depicted as (bn-1 + H2O) ion, corresponding to a shortened non-scrambled peptide chain. Far from being an epiphenomenon, such a residue exclusion from the peptide chain C-terminal extremity gave a fragment ion that was the base peak of the MS/MS spectrum in certain cases. Within the frame of the mobile proton model, the ionizing proton being sequestered onto the basic amino acid side chain, it is known that the charge directed fragmentation mechanism involved the C-terminal carboxylic acid function forming an anhydride intermediate structure. The same mechanism was also demonstrated from cationized peptides. To confirm such assessment, we have prepared some of the peptides that displayed such C-terminal residue exclusion as a C-terminal backbone amide. As expected in this peptide amide series, the production of truncated chains was completely suppressed. Besides, multiply charged molecular ions of all peptides recorded in ESI mass spectrometry did not undergo such fragmentation validating that any mobile ionizing proton will prevent such a competitive C-terminal backbone rearrangement. Among all well-known nondirect sequence fragment ions issued from non specific loss of neutral molecules (mainly H2O and NH3) and multiple backbone amide ruptures (b-type internal ions), the described C-terminal residue exclusion is highly identifiable giving raise to a single fragment ion in

  12. C-terminal functionalization of nylon-3 polymers: effects of C-terminal groups on antibacterial and hemolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihua; Markiewicz, Matthew J; Mowery, Brendan P; Weisblum, Bernard; Stahl, Shannon S; Gellman, Samuel H

    2012-02-13

    Nylon-3 polymers contain β-amino-acid-derived subunits and can be viewed as higher homologues of poly(α-amino acids). This structural relationship raises the possibility that nylon-3 polymers offer a platform for development of new materials with a variety of biological activities, a prospect that has recently begun to receive experimental support. Nylon-3 homo- and copolymers can be prepared via anionic ring-opening polymerization of β-lactams, and use of an N-acyl-β-lactam as coinitiator in the polymerization reaction allows placement of a specific functional group, borne by the N-acyl-β-lactam, at the N-terminus of each polymer chain. Controlling the unit at the C-termini of nylon-3 polymer chains, however, has been problematic. Here we describe a strategy for specifying C-terminal functionality that is based on the polymerization mechanism. After the anionic ring-opening polymerization is complete, we introduce a new β-lactam, approximately 1 equiv relative to the expected number of polymer chains. Because the polymer chains bear a reactive imide group at their C-termini, this new β-lactam should become attached at this position. If the terminating β-lactam bears a distinctive functional group, that functionality should be affixed to most or all C-termini in the reaction mixture. We use the new technique to compare the impact of N- and C-terminal placement of a critical hydrophobic fragment on the biological activity profile of nylon-3 copolymers. The synthetic advance described here should prove to be generally useful for tailoring the properties of nylon-3 materials.

  13. Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication

    PubMed Central

    Hansmann, Britta; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Gerstel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2), a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin’s antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials. PMID:26371476

  14. Role of the Cationic C-Terminal Segment of Melittin on Membrane Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Alexandre; Fournier, Alain; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-05-05

    The widespread distribution of cationic antimicrobial peptides capable of membrane fragmentation in nature underlines their importance to living organisms. In the present work, we determined the impact of the electrostatic interactions associated with the cationic C-terminal segment of melittin, a 26-amino acid peptide from bee venom (net charge +6), on its binding to model membranes and on the resulting fragmentation. In order to detail the role played by the C-terminal charges, we prepared a melittin analogue for which the four cationic amino acids in positions 21-24 were substituted with the polar residue citrulline, providing a peptide with the same length and amphiphilicity but with a lower net charge (+2). We compared the peptide bilayer affinity and the membrane fragmentation for bilayers prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DPPS) mixtures. It is shown that neutralization of the C-terminal considerably increased melittin affinity for zwitterionic membranes. The unfavorable contribution associated with transferring the cationic C-terminal in a less polar environment was reduced, leaving the hydrophobic interactions, which drive the peptide insertion in bilayers, with limited counterbalancing interactions. The presence of negatively charged lipids (DPPS) in bilayers increased melittin binding by introducing attractive electrostatic interactions, the augmentation being, as expected, greater for native melittin than for its citrullinated analogue. The membrane fragmentation power of the peptide was shown to be controlled by electrostatic interactions and could be modulated by the charge carried by both the membrane and the lytic peptide. The analysis of the lipid composition of the extracted fragments from DPPC/DPPS bilayers revealed no lipid specificity. It is proposed that extended phase separations are more susceptible to lead to the extraction of a lipid species in a specific manner

  15. PS1 N- and C-terminal fragments form a complex that functions in APP processing and Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Diane; Lee, Julie; Song, Lixin; Manning, Ron; Wong, Gwen; Parker, Eric; Zhang, Lili

    2001-01-01

    Presenilin proteins play critical roles in the proteolytic processing of both Notch and amyloid precursor protein (APP). Presenilin itself undergoes endoproteolytic processing to generate an N-terminal and C-terminal fragment. As demonstrated previously, overexpression of presenilin 1 (PS1) holoprotein does not change the levels of the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments (NTF and CTF). When we coexpress the PS1 NTF and CTF, marked increases in the cellular levels of these fragments are seen. By coexpressing the PS1 NTF and CTF, we demonstrate conclusively that a noncovalent complex of the NTF and CTF is the active species of presenilin. However, although the PS1 NTF/CTF complex is necessary for γ-secretase activity, it is not sufficient. Independent overexpression of the PS1 NTF and CTF was also used to show that the Asp-257 and Asp-385 mutations in PS1 decrease Aβ production by a direct effect on γ-secretase activity and not by the inhibition of PS1 endoproteolysis. PMID:11593035

  16. Collision-induced dissociation fragmentation inside disulfide C-terminal loops of natural non-tryptic peptides.

    PubMed

    Samgina, Tatiana Y; Vorontsov, Egor A; Gorshkov, Vladimir A; Artemenko, Konstantin A; Zubarev, Roman A; Ytterberg, Jimmy A; Lebedev, Albert T

    2013-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of long non-tryptic peptides are usually quite complicated and rather difficult to interpret. Disulfide bond formed by two cysteine residues at C-terminus of frog skin peptides precludes one to determine sequence inside the forming loop. Thereby, chemical modification of S-S bonds is often used in "bottom up" sequencing approach. However, low-energy CID spectra of natural non-tryptic peptides with C-terminal disulfide cycle demonstrate an unusual fragmentation route, which may be used to elucidate the "hidden" C-terminal sequence. Low charge state protonated molecules experience peptide bond cleavage at the N-terminus of C-terminal cysteine. The forming isomeric acyclic ions serve as precursors for a series of b-type ions revealing sequence inside former disulfide cycle. The reaction is preferable for peptides with basic lysine residues inside the cycle. It may also be activated by acidic protons of Asp and Glu residues neighboring the loop. The observed cleavages may be quite competitive, revealing the sequence inside disulfide cycle, although S-S bond rupture does not occur in this case.

  17. Generating recombinant C-terminal prion protein fragments of exact native sequence.

    PubMed

    Johanssen, V A; Barnham, K J; Masters, C L; Hill, A F; Collins, S J

    2012-02-01

    Transmissibility and distinctive neuropathology are hallmark features of prion diseases differentiating them from other neurodegenerative disorders, with pathogenesis and transmission appearing closely linked to misfolded conformers (PrP(Sc)) of the ubiquitously expressed cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)). Given the apparent pathogenic primacy of misfolded PrP, the utilisation of peptides based on the prion protein has formed an integral approach for providing insights into misfolding pathways and pathogenic mechanisms. In parallel with studies employing prion peptides, similar approaches in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer Disease, have demonstrated that differential processing of parent proteins and quite minor variations in the primary sequence of cognate peptides generated from the same constitutive processing (such as Aβ1-40 versus Aβ1-42 produced from γ-secretase activity) can be associated with very different pathogenic consequences. PrP(C) also undergoes constitutive α- or β-cleavage yielding C1 (residues 112-231 human sequence) or C2 (residues 90-231), respectively, with the full cell biological significance of such processing unresolved; however, it is noteworthy that in prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and murine models, the moderately extended C2 fragment predominates in the brain suggesting that the two cleavage events and the consequent C-terminal fragments may differ in their pathogenic significance. Accordingly, studies characterising biologically relevant peptides like C1 and C2, would be most valid if undertaken using peptides completely free of any inherent non-native sequence that arises as a by-product of commonly employed recombinant production techniques. To achieve this aim and thereby facilitate more representative biophysical and neurotoxicity studies, we adapted the combination of high fidelity Taq TA cloning with a SUMO-Hexa-His tag-type approach, incorporating the SUMO protease

  18. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production.

    PubMed

    Poksay, Karen S; Sheffler, Douglas J; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E; Cosford, Nicholas D P; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds - identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP - in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  19. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production

    PubMed Central

    Poksay, Karen S.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds – identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP – in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. PMID:28261092

  20. Amyloid β-Protein C-Terminal Fragments: Formation of Cylindrins and β-Barrels.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh D; LaPointe, Nichole E; Nelson, Rebecca; Krotee, Pascal; Hayden, Eric Y; Ulrich, Brittany; Quan, Sarah; Feinstein, Stuart C; Teplow, David B; Eisenberg, David; Shea, Joan-Emma; Bowers, Michael T

    2016-01-20

    In order to evaluate potential therapeutic targets for treatment of amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is essential to determine the structures of toxic amyloid oligomers. However, for the amyloid β-protein peptide (Aβ), thought to be the seminal neuropathogenetic agent in AD, its fast aggregation kinetics and the rapid equilibrium dynamics among oligomers of different size pose significant experimental challenges. Here we use ion-mobility mass spectrometry, in combination with electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and computational modeling, to test the hypothesis that Aβ peptides can form oligomeric structures resembling cylindrins and β-barrels. These structures are hypothesized to cause neuronal injury and death through perturbation of plasma membrane integrity. We show that hexamers of C-terminalfragments, including Aβ(24-34), Aβ(25-35) and Aβ(26-36), have collision cross sections similar to those of cylindrins. We also show that linking two identical fragments head-to-tail using diglycine increases the proportion of cylindrin-sized oligomers. In addition, we find that larger oligomers of these fragments may adopt β-barrel structures and that β-barrels can be formed by folding an out-of-register β-sheet, a common type of structure found in amyloid proteins.

  1. Amyloid β-Protein C-terminal Fragments: Formation of Cylindrins and β-barrels

    PubMed Central

    Do, Thanh D.; LaPointe, Nichole E.; Nelson, Rebecca; Krotee, Pascal; Hayden, Eric Y.; Ulrich, Brittany; Quan, Sarah; Feinstein, Stuart C.; Teplow, David B.; Eisenberg, David; Shea, Joan-Emma; Bowers, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate potential therapeutic targets for treatment of amyloidoses such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it is essential to determine the structures of toxic amyloid oligomers. However, for the amyloid β-protein peptide (Aβ), thought to be the seminal neuropathogenetic agent in AD, its fast aggregation kinetics and the rapid equilibrium dynamics among oligomers of different size pose significant experimental challenges. Here we use ion-mobility mass spectrometry, in combination with electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and computational modeling, to test the hypothesis that Aβ peptides can form oligomeric structures resembling cylindrins and β-barrels. These structures are hypothesized to cause neuronal injury and death through perturbation of plasma membrane integrity. We show that hexamers of C-terminalfragments, including Aβ(24-34), Aβ(25-35) and Aβ(26-36), have collision cross-sections similar to those of cylindrins. We also show that linking two identical fragments head-to-tail using di-glycine increases the proportion of cylindrin-sized oligomers. In addition, we find that larger oligomers of these fragments may adopt β-barrel structures and that β-barrels can be formed by folding an out-of-register β-sheet, a common type of structure found in amyloid proteins. PMID:26700445

  2. Biased Signaling Favoring Gi over β-Arrestin Promoted by an Apelin Fragment Lacking the C-terminal Phenylalanine*

    PubMed Central

    Ceraudo, Emilie; Galanth, Cécile; Carpentier, Eric; Banegas-Font, Inmaculada; Schonegge, Anne-Marie; Alvear-Perez, Rodrigo; Iturrioz, Xavier; Bouvier, Michel; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Apelin plays a prominent role in body fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis. We previously showed that the C-terminal Phe of apelin 17 (K17F) is crucial for triggering apelin receptor internalization and decreasing blood pressure (BP) but is not required for apelin binding or Gi protein coupling. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the important role of the C-terminal Phe in BP decrease may be as a Gi-independent but β-arrestin-dependent signaling pathway that could involve MAPKs. For this purpose, we have used apelin fragments K17F and K16P (K17F with the C-terminal Phe deleted), which exhibit opposite profiles on apelin receptor internalization and BP. Using BRET-based biosensors, we showed that whereas K17F activates Gi and promotes β-arrestin recruitment to the receptor, K16P had a much reduced ability to promote β-arrestin recruitment while maintaining its Gi activating property, revealing the biased agonist character of K16P. We further show that both β-arrestin recruitment and apelin receptor internalization contribute to the K17F-stimulated ERK1/2 activity, whereas the K16P-promoted ERK1/2 activity is entirely Gi-dependent. In addition to providing new insights on the structural basis underlying the functional selectivity of apelin peptides, our study indicates that the β-arrestin-dependent ERK1/2 activation and not the Gi-dependent signaling may participate in K17F-induced BP decrease. PMID:25012663

  3. Binding of a C-terminal fragment (residues 369 to 435) of vitamin D-binding protein to actin.

    PubMed

    Buch, Stefan; Gremm, Dagmar; Wegner, Albrecht; Mannherz, Hans Georg

    2002-10-01

    The vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) binds to monomeric actin with high affinity. The variation in DBP isoforms is due to genetic polymorphism and varying glycosylation. To obtain a homogeneous preparation, the cDNA for human DBP and truncations thereof were cloned and various systems were applied for heterologous bacterial and yeast expression. The full-length protein and the N- and C-terminal halves of DBP remained insoluble probably because the protein did not fold to its native three-dimensional structure due to formation of accidental intra- and inter-molecular disulfide bonds during expression in bacteria or yeast. This problem was overcome by cloning of a C-terminal fragment comprising residues 369 to 435 that did not contain disulfide bonds and was completely soluble. Binding of the C-terminal fragment to monomeric actin was demonstrated by comigration with actin during native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance, however, at considerably lower affinity than full-length DBP. This suggests that in addition to the C-terminal amino acid sequence other parts (amino acid residues or sugar moieties) of DBP participate in actin binding. The C-terminal fragment was found to inhibit denaturation of actin and to decrease the rate of actin polymerisation both at the barbed and at the pointed end in a concentration-dependent manner. According to a quantitative analysis of the polymerisation kinetics, association of actin monomers to nucleate filaments was not prevented by binding of the C-terminal fragment to actin. These data suggest that the sites on the surface of actin that are involved in actin nucleation and elongation are different.

  4. Aph-1 associates directly with full-length and C-terminal fragments of gamma-secretase substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen C; Guo, Lucie Y; Ostaszewski, Beth L; Selkoe, Dennis J; LaVoie, Matthew J

    2010-04-09

    Gamma-secretase is a ubiquitous, multiprotein enzyme composed of presenilin, nicastrin, Aph-1, and Pen-2. It mediates the intramembrane proteolysis of many type 1 proteins, plays an essential role in numerous signaling pathways, and helps drive the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease by excising the hydrophobic, aggregation-prone amyloid beta-peptide from the beta-amyloid precursor protein. A central unresolved question is how its many substrates bind and enter the gamma-secretase complex. Here, we provide evidence that both the beta-amyloid precursor protein holoprotein and its C-terminal fragments, the immediate substrates of gamma-secretase, can associate with Aph-1 at overexpressed as well as endogenous protein levels. This association was observed using bi-directional co-immunoprecipitation in multiple systems and detergent conditions, and an beta-amyloid precursor protein-Aph-1 complex was specifically isolated following in situ cross-linking in living cells. In addition, another endogenous canonical gamma-substrate, Jagged, showed association of both its full-length and C-terminal fragment forms with Aph-1. We were also able to demonstrate that this interaction with substrates was conserved across the multiple isoforms of Aph-1 (beta, alphaS, and alphaL), as they were all able to bind beta-amyloid precursor protein with similar affinity. Finally, two highly conserved intramembrane histidines (His-171 and His-197) within Aph-1, which were recently shown to be important for gamma-secretase activity, are required for efficient binding of substrates. Taken together, our data suggest a dominant role for Aph-1 in interacting with gamma-secretase substrates prior to their processing by the proteolytic complex.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of Ski7 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Si Hoon; Jeong, Byung-Cheon; Song, Hyun Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Ski7 (superkiller protein 7) plays a critical role in the mRNA surveillance pathway. The C-terminal fragment of Ski7 (residues 520–747) from Saccharo­myces cerevisiae was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. It was successfully crystallized and preliminary X-ray data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to a trigonal space group, either P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.5, c = 83.6 Å. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of the C-terminal fragment of Ski7 with a corresponding crystal volume per protein mass (V M) of 2.61 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 52.8% by volume. The merging R factor is 6.6%. Structure determination by MAD phasing is under way. PMID:25195903

  6. PCSK9-mediated degradation of the LDL receptor generates a 17 kDa C-terminal LDL receptor fragment.

    PubMed

    Tveten, Kristian; Strøm, Thea Bismo; Berge, Knut Erik; Leren, Trond P

    2013-06-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to the LDL receptor (LDLR) at the cell surface and reroutes the internalized LDLR to intracellular degradation. In this study, we have shown that PCSK9-mediated degradation of the full-length 160 kDa LDLR generates a 17 kDa C-terminal LDLR fragment. This fragment was not generated from mutant LDLRs resistant to PCSK9-mediated degradation or when degradation was prevented by chemicals such as ammonium chloride or the cysteine cathepsin inhibitor E64d. The observation that the 17 kDa fragment was only detected when the cells were cultured in the presence of the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT indicates that this 17 kDa fragment undergoes γ-secretase cleavage within the transmembrane domain. The failure to detect the complementary 143 kDa ectodomain fragment is likely to be due to its rapid degradation in the endosomal lumen. The 17 kDa C-terminal LDLR fragment was also generated from a Class 5 mutant LDLR undergoing intracellular degradation. Thus, one may speculate that an LDLR with bound PCSK9 and a Class 5 LDLR with bound LDL are degraded by a similar mechanism that could involve ectodomain cleavage in the endosome.

  7. Cytokinin Response Factor 5 has transcriptional activity governed by its C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Bernd; Melton, Anthony E; Schwacke, Rainer; Krause, Kirsten; Fischer, Karsten; Goertzen, Leslie R; Rashotte, Aaron M

    2017-02-01

    Cytokinin Response Factors (CRFs) are AP2/ERF transcription factors involved in cytokinin signal transduction. CRF proteins consist of a N-terminal dimerization domain (CRF domain), an AP2 DNA-binding domain, and a clade-specific C-terminal region of unknown function. Using a series of sequential deletions in yeast-2-hybrid assays, we provide evidence that the C-terminal region of Arabidopsis CRF5 can confer transactivation activity. Although comparative analyses identified evolutionarily conserved protein sequence within the C-terminal region, deletion experiments suggest that this transactivation domain has a partially redundant modular structure required for activation of target gene transcription.

  8. The Impact of the Human DNA Topoisomerase II C-Terminal Domain on Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meczes, Emma L.; Gilroy, Kathryn L.; West, Katherine L.; Austin, Caroline A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos) are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, α and β, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity. Methodology/Principle Findings We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIα and β and topoIIα+β-tail and topoIIβ+α-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIα-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIβ-CTD decreasing activity. Conclusions/Significance In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIα C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIβ isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIβ has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIα or β C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIβ-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro data with chimeric human topoIIs. PMID:18335031

  9. Membrane tethering of APP c-terminal fragments is a prerequisite for T668 phosphorylation preventing nuclear sphere generation.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Hassan; Kolbe, Katharina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Loosse, Christina; Schröder, Elisabeth; Knauer, Shirley; Marcus, Katrin; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    A central molecular hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which causes the generation of different c-terminal fragments like C99, AICD57, or AICD50 that fully or in part contain the APP transmembrane domain. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane-tethered C99 is phosphorylated by JNK3A at residue T668 (APP695 numbering) to a higher extent than AICD57, whereas AICD50 is not capable of being phosphorylated. The modification decreases the turnover of APP, while the blockade of APP cleavage increases APP phosphorylation. Generation of nuclear spheres, complexes consisting of the translocated AICD, FE65 and other proteins, is significantly reduced as soon as APP c-terminal fragments are accessible for phosphorylation. This APP modification, which we identified as significantly reduced in high plaque-load areas of the human brain, is linearly dependent on the level of APP expression. Accordingly, we show that APP abundance is likewise capable of modulating nuclear sphere generation. Thus, the precise and complex regulation of APP phosphorylation, abundance, and cleavage impacts the generation of nuclear spheres, which are under discussion of being of relevance in neurodegeneration and dementia. Future pharmacological manipulation of nuclear sphere generation may be a promising approach for AD treatment.

  10. Dual-tagged amyloid-β precursor protein reveals distinct transport pathways of its N- and C-terminal fragments.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Christine; Muresan, Virgil; Ladescu Muresan, Zoia

    2014-03-15

    The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), a type I transmembrane protein genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease, has a complex biology that includes proteolytic processing into potentially toxic fragments, extensive trafficking and multiple, yet poorly-defined functions. We recently proposed that a significant fraction of APP is proteolytically cleaved in the neuronal soma into N- and C-terminal fragments (NTFs and CTFs), which then target independently of each other to separate destinations in the cell. Here, we prove this concept with live imaging and immunolocalization of two dual, N- and C-termini-tagged APP constructs: CFP-APP-YFP [containing the fluorescent tags, cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)] and FLAG-APP-Myc. When expressed at low levels in neuronal cells, these constructs are processed into differently tagged NTFs and CTFs that reveal distinct distributions and characteristics of transport. Like the endogenous N- and C-terminal epitopes of APP, the FLAG-tagged NTFs are present in trains of vesicles and tubules that localize to short filaments, which often immunostain for acetylated tubulin, whereas the Myc-tagged CTFs are detected on randomly distributed vesicle-like structures. The experimental treatments that selectively destabilize the acetylated microtubules abrogate the distribution of NTFs along filaments, without altering the random distribution of CTFs. These results indicate that the NTFs and CTFs are recruited to distinct transport pathways and reach separate destinations in neurons, where they likely accomplish functions independent of the parental, full-length APP. They also point to a compartment associated with acetylated microtubules in the neuronal soma--not the neurite terminals--as a major site of APP cleavage, and segregation of NTFs from CTFs.

  11. Characterization of β-domains in C-terminal fragments of TDP-43 by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Zhu, Li; Liu, Jianghong; Yang, Yanlian; Wu, Jane Y; Wang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a critical player in a range of neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent discoveries demonstrate the important role of carboxyl-terminal fragments of TDP-43 in its proteinopathy. Herein, we report the characterization of β-domains in the C-terminal fragments of TDP-43 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Careful comparison of the wild-type TDP-43 (Wt) and the three mutant TDP-43 peptides: an ALS-related mutant peptide: phosphorylated A315T mutant TDP-43 (A315T(p)) and two model peptides: A315T mutant TDP-43 (A315T), A315E mutant TDP-43 (A315E) reveals that A315T(p) has a longer core region of the β-domain than Wt. A315E possesses the longest core region of the β-domain and A315T(p) mutant TDP-43 has the second longest core region of the β-domain. The core regions of the β-domains for A315T and Wt TDP-43 have the same length. This observation provides a supportive evidence of a higher tendency in beta-sheet formation of A315T(p) containing TDP-43 fragment, and structural mechanism for the higher cytotoxicity and accelerated fibril formation of the A315T(p) mutation-containing TDP-43 peptide as compared with Wt TDP-43.

  12. C-terminal calcitonin gene-related peptide fragments and vasopressin but not somatostatin-28 induce miosis in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Almegård, B; Bill, A

    1993-11-30

    The miotic effects of C-terminal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) fragments, somatostatin-28 and vasopressin have been evaluated with special attention being paid to possible interactions with cholecystokinin (CCK)A receptors. The peptides were injected intracamerally to anesthetized monkeys pretreated with indomethacin and atropine. CGRP-(32-37) induced a miosis with a potency 1000 times lower than that previously found with sulphated CCK-8. Two other fragments, CGRP-(30-37) and CGRP-(31-37), also had miotic properties. The CGRP-(32-37)-induced miosis was antagonized by the CCKA receptor antagonist loxiglumide. No contractile effect was elicited by 67 pmol-7.4 nmol somatostatin-28. Vasopressin (360 pmol) caused a small reduction in pupil size. Loxiglumide pretreatment did not affect the reduction in pupil size but a vasopressin receptor antagonist partly inhibited the response. The results indicate that CGRP-(32-37) is a miotic with low potency but high efficacy in the monkey eye, probably interacting with CCKA receptors, and that vasopressin is a mitotic with low potency and efficacy, probably acting via vasopressin receptors.

  13. Presence and in vivo biosynthesis of fragments of CPP (the C-terminal glycopeptide of the rat vasopressin precursor) in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system

    SciTech Connect

    Seger, M.A.; Burbach, J.P.

    1987-09-01

    The existence and rate of formation of fragments of the 39-residue C-terminal glycopeptide of propressophysin (CPP1-39) was investigated in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. Newly-prepared antisera to CPP were used to confirm the existence of smaller C-terminal fragments derived from CPP1-39. Radiolabelled fucose was injected into rats in vivo into the area of the supraoptic nucleus, and the labelled peptides formed in the neurohypophysis were examined at various time intervals up to five weeks after the injection. The products derived from the neurohypophyseal hormone precursors were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The level of the major immunoreactive C-terminal fragment (CPP22-39) was constant and represented about 5% of the intact CPP1-39 in the neurohypophysis. The appearance of newly-synthesized N-terminal fragment of CPP1-39 occurred only after 3 or 4 days. This fucose labelled fragment increased slowly thereafter until it reached the same level as the CPP C-terminal fragment immunoreactivity between 21 and 28 days after injection. The results suggest that CPP1-39 is extremely stable in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal neurons, and that the cleavage at Arg21-Leu22 is a delayed proteolytic event in the magnocellular neurons of the SON.

  14. SNPs of hemocyanin C-terminal fragment in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianliang; Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Yueling; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lun, Jingsheng; Chen, Jiehui; Li, Yuanyou

    2012-02-17

    In this study, we identified a variable region in the C-terminus of hemocyanin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (2288-2503bp, HcSC) by sequence alignments. A total of 13 SNPs were identified by PCR-SSCP and HcSC clone sequencing. The SSCP patterns of HcSC could be modulated in Vibro parahaemolyticus-treated shrimps. A novel SSCP band with four SNP sites was identified in V. parahaemolyticus-resistant shrimps. More importantly, three of these four SNPs introduced variations in amino acid sequence and possibly secondary structure of the HcSC polypeptide and resulted in a higher agglutinative activity against seven pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that the C-terminus of shrimp L. vannamei hemocyanin possesses SNPs, which may be related to shrimp resistance to different pathogens.

  15. Electrostatic interactions at the C-terminal domain of nucleoplasmin modulate its chromatin decondensation activity.

    PubMed

    Hierro, Aitor; Arizmendi, Jesús M; Bañuelos, Sonia; Prado, Adelina; Muga, Arturo

    2002-05-21

    The chromatin decondensation activity, thermal stability, and secondary structure of recombinant nucleoplasmin, of two deletion mutants, and of the protein isolated from Xenopus oocytes have been characterized. As previously reported, the chromatin decondensation activity of recombinant, unphosphorylated nucleoplasmin is almost negligible. Our data show that deletion of 50 residues at the C-terminal domain of the protein, containing the positively charged nuclear localization sequence, activates its chromatin decondensation ability and decreases its stability. Interestingly, both the decondensation activity and thermal stability of this deletion mutant resemble those of the phosphorylated protein isolated from Xenopus oocytes. Deletion of 80 residues at the C-terminal domain, containing the above-mentioned positively charged region and a poly(Glu) tract, inactivates the protein and increases its thermal stability. These findings, along with the effect of salt on the thermal stability of these proteins, suggest that electrostatic interactions between the positive nuclear localization sequence and the poly(Glu) tract, at the C-terminal domain, modulate protein activity and stability.

  16. The structure of Aβ42 C-terminal fragments probed by a combined experimental and theoretical study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chun; Murray, Megan M.; Bernstein, Summer L.; Condron, Margaret M.; Bitan, Gal; Shea, Joan-Emma; Bowers, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    The C-terminus of Aβ42 plays an important role in this protein's oligomerization and may therefore be a good therapeutic target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Certain C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of Aβ42 have been shown to disrupt oligomerization and strongly inhibit Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity. Here we study the structures of selected CTFs (Aβ(x-42), x=29-31, 39) using replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations and ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). Our simulations in explicit solvent reveal that the CTFs adopt a metastable β-structure: β-hairpin for Aβ(x-42), x=29-31 and extended β-strand for Aβ(39-42). The β-hairpin of Aβ(30-42) is converted into a turn-coil conformation when the last two hydrophobic residues are removed, suggesting that I41 and A42 are critical in stabilizing the β-hairpin in the Aβ42-derived CTFs. The importance of solvent in determining the structure of the CTFs is further highlighted in the IM-MS experiments and solvent free REMD simulations. A comparison between the structures with and without solvent reveals that hydrophobic interactions are critical for the formation of β-hairpin. The possible role played by the CTFs in disrupting oligomerization is discussed. PMID:19356595

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a C-terminal fragment of the Epstein–Barr virus ZEBRA protein

    SciTech Connect

    Morand, Patrice; Budayova-Spano, Monika; Perrissin, Monique; Müller, Christoph W. Petosa, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    A C-terminal fragment of the Epstein–Barr virus lytic switch protein ZEBRA has been crystallized in complex with DNA. A C-terminal fragment of the Epstein–Barr virus immediate-early transcription factor ZEBRA has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The fragment behaves as a dimer in solution, consistent with the presence of a basic region leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain. Crystals of the fragment in complex with a DNA duplex were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 4000 and magnesium acetate as crystallization agents. Crystals diffract to better than 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.976 Å). Crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 94.2, b = 26.5, c = 98.1 Å, β = 103.9°.

  18. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tung O.; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C.; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M.; Armen, Roger S.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B.

    2015-01-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr308 in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr308 dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser473) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr308) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr308 phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. PMID:26201515

  19. Autophagosomes cooperate in the degradation of intracellular C-terminal fragments of the amyloid precursor protein via the MVB/lysosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    González, Alexis E; Muñoz, Vanessa C; Cavieres, Viviana A; Bustamante, Hianara A; Cornejo, Víctor-Hugo; Januário, Yunan C; González, Ibeth; Hetz, Claudio; daSilva, Luis L; Rojas-Fernández, Alejandro; Hay, Ronald T; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Burgos, Patricia V

    2017-03-02

    Brain regions affected by Alzheimer disease (AD) display well-recognized early neuropathologic features in the endolysosomal and autophagy systems of neurons, including enlargement of endosomal compartments, progressive accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, and lysosomal dysfunction. Although the primary causes of these disturbances are still under investigation, a growing body of evidence suggests that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular C-terminal fragment β (C99), generated by cleavage of APP by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1), is the primary cause of the endosome enlargement in AD and the earliest initiator of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible relationship between the endolysosomal degradation pathway and autophagy on the proteolytic processing and turnover of C99. We found that pharmacologic treatments that either inhibit autophagosome formation or block the fusion of autophagosomes to endolysosomal compartments caused an increase in C99 levels. We also found that inhibition of autophagosome formation by depletion of Atg5 led to higher levels of C99 and to its massive accumulation in the lumen of enlarged perinuclear, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-positive organelles. In contrast, activation of autophagosome formation, either by starvation or by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin, enhanced lysosomal clearance of C99. Altogether, our results indicate that autophagosomes are key organelles to help avoid C99 accumulation preventing its deleterious effects.-González, A. E., Muñoz, V. C., Cavieres, V. A., Bustamante, H. A., Cornejo, V.-H., Januário, Y. C., González, I., Hetz, C., daSilva, L. L., Rojas-Fernández, A., Hay, R. T., Mardones, G. A., Burgos, P. V. Autophagosomes cooperate in the degradation of intracellular C-terminal fragments of the amyloid precursor protein via the MVB/lysosomal pathway.

  20. The Biological Function of DMP-1 in Osteocyte Maturation Is Mediated by Its 57-kDa C-terminal Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongbo; Yuan, Baozhi; Qin, Chunlin; Cao, Zhengguo; Xie, Yixia; Dallas, Sarah L; McKee, Marc D; Drezner, Marc K; Bonewald, Lynda F; Feng, Jian Q

    2011-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) is a key molecule in controlling osteocyte formation and phosphate homeostasis. Based on observations that full-length DMP-1 is not found in bone, but only cleaved fragments of 37 and 57 kDa are present, and in view of the finding that mutations in the 57-kDa fragment result in disease, we hypothesized that the 57-kDa C-terminal fragment is the functional domain of DMP-1. To test this hypothesis, a 3.6-kb type I collagen promoter was used to express this 57-kDa C-terminal fragment for comparison with full-length DMP-1 in Dmp1 null osteoblasts/osteocytes. Not only did expression of the full-length DMP-1 in bone cells fully rescue the skeletal abnormalities of Dmp1 null mice, but the 57-kDa fragment also had similar results. This included rescue of growth plate defects, osteomalacia, abnormal osteocyte maturation, and the abnormal osteocyte lacunocanalicular system. In addition, the abnormal fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) expression in osteocytes, elevated circulating FGF-23 levels, and hypophosphatemia were rescued. These results show that the 57-kDa C-terminal fragment is the functional domain of DMP-1 that controls osteocyte maturation and phosphate metabolism. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20734454

  1. Tissue distribution and safety evaluation of a claudin-targeting molecule, the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangru; Saeki, Rie; Watari, Akihiro; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo

    2014-02-14

    We previously found that claudin (CL) is a potent target for cancer therapy using a CL-3 and -4-targeting molecule, namely the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE). Although CL-3 and -4 are expressed in various normal tissues, the safety of this CL-targeting strategy has never been investigated. Here, we evaluated the tissue distribution of C-CPE in mice. Ten minutes after intravenous injection into mice, C-CPE was distributed to the liver and kidney (24.0% and 9.5% of the injected dose, respectively). The hepatic level gradually fell to 3.2% of the injected dose by 3 h post-injection, whereas the renal C-CPE level gradually rose to 46.5% of the injected dose by 6 h post-injection and then decreased. A C-CPE mutant protein lacking the ability to bind CL accumulated in the liver to a much lesser extent (2.0% of the dose at 10 min post-injection) than did C-CPE, but its renal profile was similar to that of C-CPE. To investigate the acute toxicity of CL-targeted toxin, we intravenously administered C-CPE-fused protein synthesis inhibitory factor to mice. The CL-targeted toxin dose-dependently increased the levels of serum biomarkers of liver injury, but not of kidney injury. Histological examination confirmed that injection of CL-targeted toxin injured the liver but not the kidney. These results indicate that potential adverse hepatic effects should be considered in C-CPE-based cancer therapy.

  2. The activity of protein phosphatase 5 towards native clients is modulated by the middle- and C-terminal domains of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Haslbeck, Veronika; Eckl, Julia M.; Drazic, Adrian; Rutz, Daniel A.; Lorenz, Oliver R.; Zimmermann, Kerstin; Kriehuber, Thomas; Lindemann, Claudia; Madl, Tobias; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 is involved in the regulation of kinases and transcription factors. The dephosphorylation activity is modulated by the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which binds to the TPR-domain of protein phosphatase 5. This interaction is dependent on the C-terminal MEEVD motif of Hsp90. We show that C-terminal Hsp90 fragments differ in their regulation of the phosphatase activity hinting to a more complex interaction. Also hydrodynamic parameters from analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering data suggest a compact structure for the Hsp90-protein phosphatase 5 complexes. Using crosslinking experiments coupled with mass spectrometric analysis and structural modelling we identify sites, which link the middle/C-terminal domain interface of C. elegans Hsp90 to the phosphatase domain of the corresponding kinase. Studying the relevance of the domains of Hsp90 for turnover of native substrates we find that ternary complexes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are cooperatively formed by full-length Hsp90 and PPH-5. Our data suggest that the direct stimulation of the phosphatase activity by C-terminal Hsp90 fragments leads to increased dephosphorylation rates. These are further modulated by the binding of clients to the N-terminal and middle domain of Hsp90 and their presentation to the phosphatase within the phosphatase-Hsp90 complex. PMID:26593036

  3. Activation of human prolegumain by cleavage at a C-terminal asparagine residue.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J M; Fortunato, M; Barrett, A J

    2000-01-01

    The processing and activation of prolegumain were studied using the recombinant protein synthesized by cells that had been stably transfected with a human legumain cDNA construct. A cell line termed C13 was selected for the high-level expression of prolegumain. C13 cells produced primarily 56 kDa prolegumain. The 56 kDa form was enzymically inactive but stable at neutral pH, unlike the 35 kDa mature pig legumain; it could be converted into a 46 kDa active form by incubation at pH 4.5. The 56 kDa pro-form and the 46 kDa active form were found to have the same N-terminal amino acid sequence, indicating that cleavage at the N-terminus was not necessary for prolegumain activation, and that the decrease in molecular mass was due to a C-terminal cleavage. The C-terminal processing site was identified as Asn(323). Replacement of Asn(323) at the cleavage site with aspartate, serine, alanine or glutamate abolished the processing and activation of prolegumain. In contrast, mutation of other asparagine and aspartate residues near the cleavage site had no effect. These results demonstrate that Asn(323) is essential for prolegumain activation. PMID:11085925

  4. Activation of human prolegumain by cleavage at a C-terminal asparagine residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, J M; Fortunato, M; Barrett, A J

    2000-12-01

    The processing and activation of prolegumain were studied using the recombinant protein synthesized by cells that had been stably transfected with a human legumain cDNA construct. A cell line termed C13 was selected for the high-level expression of prolegumain. C13 cells produced primarily 56 kDa prolegumain. The 56 kDa form was enzymically inactive but stable at neutral pH, unlike the 35 kDa mature pig legumain; it could be converted into a 46 kDa active form by incubation at pH 4.5. The 56 kDa pro-form and the 46 kDa active form were found to have the same N-terminal amino acid sequence, indicating that cleavage at the N-terminus was not necessary for prolegumain activation, and that the decrease in molecular mass was due to a C-terminal cleavage. The C-terminal processing site was identified as Asn(323). Replacement of Asn(323) at the cleavage site with aspartate, serine, alanine or glutamate abolished the processing and activation of prolegumain. In contrast, mutation of other asparagine and aspartate residues near the cleavage site had no effect. These results demonstrate that Asn(323) is essential for prolegumain activation.

  5. Heterologous C-terminal sequences disrupt transcriptional activation and oncogenesis by p59v-rel.

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, J A; Hannink, M

    1993-01-01

    Members of the NF-kappa B/rel family of transcription factors are regulated through a trans association with members of a family of inhibitor proteins, collectively known as I kappa B proteins, that contain five to eight copies of a 33-amino-acid repeat sequence (ankyrin repeat). Certain NF-kappa B/rel proteins are also regulated by cis-acting ankyrin repeat-containing domains. The C terminus of p105NF-kappa B, the precursor of the 50-kDa subunit of NF-kappa B, contains a series of ankyrin repeats; proteolytic removal of this ankyrin domain is necessary for the manifestation of sequence-specific DNA binding and nuclear translocation of the N-terminal product. To investigate the structural requirements important for regulation of different NF-kappa B/rel family members by polypeptides containing ankyrin repeat domains, we have constructed a p59v-rel:p105NF-kappa B chimeric protein (p110v-rel-ank). The presence of C-terminal p105NF-kappa B-derived sequences in p110v-rel-ank inhibited nuclear translocation, sequence-specific DNA binding, pp40I kappa B-alpha association, and oncogenic transformation. Sequential truncation of the C-terminal ankyrin domain of p110v-rel-ank resulted in the restoration of nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and pp40I kappa B-alpha association but did not restore the oncogenic properties of p59v-rel. The presence of 67 C-terminal p105NF-kappa B-derived amino acids was sufficient to inhibit both transcriptional activation and oncogenic transformation by p59v-rel. These results support a model in which activation of gene expression by p59v-rel is required for its ability to induce oncogenic transformation. Images PMID:8230438

  6. Intrinsic ssDNA annealing activity in the C-terminal region of WRN.

    PubMed

    Muftuoglu, Meltem; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Beck, Gad; Lee, Jae Wan; Piotrowski, Jason; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2008-09-30

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in humans characterized by premature aging and genetic instability. WS is caused by mutations in the WRN gene, which encodes a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Cellular and biochemical studies suggest that WRN plays roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and homologous recombination and that WRN has multiple enzymatic activities including 3' to 5' exonuclease, 3' to 5' helicase, and ssDNA annealing. The goal of this study was to map and further characterize the ssDNA annealing activity of WRN. Enzymatic studies using truncated forms of WRN identified a C-terminal 79 amino acid region between the RQC and the HRDC domains (aa1072-1150) that is required for ssDNA annealing activity. Deletion of the region reduced or eliminated ssDNA annealing activity of the WRN protein. Furthermore, the activity appears to correlate with DNA binding and oligomerization status of the protein.

  7. The Rrp6 C-terminal domain binds RNA and activates the nuclear RNA exosome

    PubMed Central

    Wasmuth, Elizabeth V.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is an essential, multi-subunit complex that catalyzes RNA turnover, maturation, and quality control processes. Its non-catalytic donut-shaped core includes 9 subunits that associate with the 3′ to 5′ exoribonucleases Rrp6, and Rrp44/Dis3, a subunit that also catalyzes endoribonuclease activity. Although recent structures and biochemical studies of RNA bound exosomes from S. cerevisiae revealed that the Exo9 central channel guides RNA to either Rrp6 or Rrp44 using partially overlapping and mutually exclusive paths, several issues related to RNA recruitment remain. Here, we identify activities for the highly basic Rrp6 C-terminal tail that we term the ‘lasso’ because it binds RNA and stimulates ribonuclease activities associated with Rrp44 and Rrp6 within the 11-subunit nuclear exosome. Stimulation is dependent on the Exo9 central channel, and the lasso contributes to degradation and processing activities of exosome substrates in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we present evidence that the Rrp6 lasso may be a conserved feature of the eukaryotic RNA exosome. PMID:27899565

  8. The C-Terminal Fragment of Agrin (CAF), a Novel Marker of Renal Function, Is Filtered by the Kidney and Reabsorbed by the Proximal Tubule

    PubMed Central

    Daryadel, Arezoo; Haubitz, Monika; Figueiredo, Marta; Steubl, Dominik; Roos, Marcel; Mäder, Armin; Hettwer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Agrin, a multidomain proteoglycan and neurotrypsin, a neuronal serine protease, are important for forming (neuromuscular) synapses. Proteolytical activity of neurotrypsin produces a C-terminal fragment of agrin, termed CAF, of approximately 22 kDA molecular size which also circulates in blood. The presence of CAF in urine suggests either glomerular filtration or secretion into urine. Blood levels of CAF have been identified as a potential novel marker of kidney function. Here we describe that several nephron segments in the mouse kidney express agrin and neutrotrypsin in addition to the localization of both protein in the glomerulum. Agrin mRNA and protein was detected in almost all nephron segments and mRNA abundance was highest in the inner medullary collecting duct. Neurotrypsin mRNA was mostly detected in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, the distal convoluted tubule, and the inner medullary collecting duct. Moreover, we show that the proximal tubule absorbs injected recombinant CAF by a process shared with receptor-mediated and fluid phase endocytosis. Co-injection of CAF with recombinant human transferrin, a substrate of the receptor-mediated endocytic pathway as well as with FITC-labelled dextran (10 kDa), a marker of fluid phase endocytosis, showed partial colocalization of CAF with both markers. Further colocalization of CAF with the lysosomal marker cathepsin B suggested degradation of CAF by the lysosome in the proximal tubule. Thus, the murine kidney expresses agrin and neurotrypsin in nephron segments beyond the glomerulum. CAF is filtered by the glomerulum and is reabsorbed by endocytosis by the proximal tubule. Thus, impaired kidney function could impair glomerular clearance of CAF and thereby increase circulating CAF levels. PMID:27380275

  9. High-level expression and in vitro mutagenesis of a fibrillogenic 109-amino-acid C-terminal fragment of Alzheimer's-disease amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gardella, J E; Gorgone, G A; Candela, L; Ghiso, J; Castaño, E M; Frangione, B; Gorevic, P D

    1993-01-01

    We amplified DNA encoding the 3' 109 codons of Alzheimer's-disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) inclusive of the beta protein (A beta) and cytoplasmic domains from cDNA using oligonucleotide primers designed to facilitate cloning into the T7 expression vector pT7Ad23K13. We also modified this construct to generate recombinant molecules incorporating two recently described APP mutants by site-directed mutagenesis. Both native C109 (deletion construct inclusive of the C-terminal 109 residues of APP) and constructs with a single mutation at codon 642 (T-->G, resulting in a substitution of glycine for valine) or a double mutation at codons 595 (G-->T, substituting asparagine for lysine) and 596 (A-->C, substituting leucine for methionine) were expressed in Escherichia coli to levels of 5-20% of total bacterial protein after induction. The major constituent of expressed C109 protein had an apparent molecular mass of 16-18 kDa by SDS/PAGE and appeared to be the full-length construct by size and N-terminal microsequencing. Also present was a 4-5 kDa species that co-purified with C109, constituting only approximately 1% of expressed protein, which was revealed by Western-blot analysis with antibodies specific for A beta epitopes and after biotinylation of purified recombinant C109. This fragment shared N-terminal sequence with, and appeared to arise by proteolysis of, full-length C109 in biosynthetic labelling experiments. C109 spontaneously precipitated after dialysis against NaCl or water, and with prolonged (> 20 weeks) standing was found by electron microscopy to contain a minor (< 5%) fibrillar component that was reactive with antibodies to a C-terminal epitope of APP. Recombinant C109 appears to duplicate some of the biochemical and physicochemical properties of C-terminal A beta-inclusive fragments of APP that have been found in transfected cells, brain cortex and cerebral microvessels. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID

  10. Differential Contributions of Tacaribe Arenavirus Nucleoprotein N-Terminal and C-Terminal Residues to Nucleocapsid Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Antuono, Alejandra; Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; Foscaldi, Sabrina; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) is the main protein component of viral nucleocapsids and is strictly required for viral genome replication mediated by the L polymerase. Homo-oligomerization of NP is presumed to play an important role in nucleocapsid assembly, albeit the underlying mechanism and the relevance of NP-NP interaction in nucleocapsid activity are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the contribution of the New World Tacaribe virus (TCRV) NP self-interaction to nucleocapsid functional activity. We show that alanine substitution of N-terminal residues predicted to be available for NP-NP interaction strongly affected NP self-association, as determined by coimmunoprecipitation assays, produced a drastic inhibition of transcription and replication of a TCRV minigenome RNA, and impaired NP binding to RNA. Mutagenesis and functional analysis also revealed that, while dispensable for NP self-interaction, key amino acids at the C-terminal domain were essential for RNA synthesis. Furthermore, mutations at these C-terminal residues rendered NP unable to bind RNA both in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on the interaction with the L polymerase. In addition, while all oligomerization-defective variants tested exhibited unaltered capacities to sustain NP-L interaction, NP deletion mutants were fully incompetent to bind L, suggesting that, whereas NP self-association is dispensable, the integrity of both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains is required for binding the L polymerase. Overall, our results suggest that NP self-interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain may play a critical role in TCRV nucleocapsid assembly and activity and that the C-terminal domain of NP is implicated in RNA binding. IMPORTANCE The mechanism of arenavirus functional nucleocapsid assembly is still poorly understood. No detailed information is available on the nucleocapsid structure, and the regions of full-length NP involved in binding to viral RNA remain to be

  11. The AtMYB12 activation domain maps to a short C-terminal region of the transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Stracke, Ralf; Turgut-Kara, Neslihan; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2017-03-11

    The Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB12 is a light-inducible, flavonol-specific activator of flavonoid biosynthesis. The transactivation activity of the AtMYB12 protein was analyzed using a C-terminal deletion series in a transient A. thaliana protoplast assay with the goal of mapping the activation domain (AD). Although the deletion of the last 46 C-terminal amino acids did not affect the activation capacity, the deletion of the last 98 amino acids almost totally abolished transactivation of two different target promoters. A domain swap experiment using the yeast GAL4 DNA-binding domain revealed that the region from positions 282 to 328 of AtMYB12 was sufficient for transactivation. In contrast to the R2R3-MYB ADs known thus far, that of AtMYB12 is not located at the rearmost C-terminal end of the protein. The AtMYB12 AD is conserved in other experimentally proven R2R3-MYB flavonol regulators from different species.

  12. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Mehler, Vera J.; Mueller, Christina; Vonhoff, Fernando; White, Robin; Duch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80) and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2. PMID:27442528

  13. An Autoinhibitory Helix in the C-Terminal Region of Phospholipase C-β Mediates Gαq Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Angeline M.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Dhamsania, Vishan D.; Thal, David M.; Gutierrez, Joanne; Chowdhury, Shoaib; Suddala, Krishna C.; Northup, John K.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) is a key regulator of intracellular calcium levels whose activity is controlled by heptahelical receptors that couple to Gq. We have determined atomic structures of two invertebrate homologs of PLCβ (PLC21) from cephalopod retina and identified a helix from the C-terminal regulatory region that interacts with a conserved surface of the catalytic core of the enzyme. Mutations designed to disrupt the analogous interaction in human PLCβ3 dramatically increase basal activity and diminish stimulation by Gαq. Gαq binding requires displacement of the autoinhibitory helix from the catalytic core, thus providing an allosteric mechanism for activation of PLCβ. PMID:21822282

  14. Crystal structure of TRIM20 C-terminal coiled-coil/B30.2 fragment: implications for the recognition of higher order oligomers.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Christopher; Morger, Damien; Djekic, Aleksandra; Grütter, Markus G; Mittl, Peer R E

    2015-06-04

    Many tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins, comprising RING-finger, B-Box, and coiled-coil domains, carry additional B30.2 domains on the C-terminus of the TRIM motif and are considered to be pattern recognition receptors involved in the detection of higher order oligomers (e.g. viral capsid proteins). To investigate the spatial architecture of domains in TRIM proteins we determined the crystal structure of the TRIM20Δ413 fragment at 2.4 Å resolution. This structure comprises the central helical scaffold (CHS) and C-terminal B30.2 domains and reveals an anti-parallel arrangement of CHS domains placing the B-box domains 170 Å apart from each other. Small-angle X-ray scattering confirmed that the linker between CHS and B30.2 domains is flexible in solution. The crystal structure suggests an interaction between the B30.2 domain and an extended stretch in the CHS domain, which involves residues that are mutated in the inherited disease Familial Mediterranean Fever. Dimerization of B30.2 domains by means of the CHS domain is crucial for TRIM20 to bind pro-IL-1β in vitro. To exemplify how TRIM proteins could be involved in binding higher order oligomers we discuss three possible models for the TRIM5α/HIV-1 capsid interaction assuming different conformations of B30.2 domains.

  15. New proangiogenic activity on vascular endothelial cells for C-terminal mechano growth factor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Moyuan; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Bingbing; Liu, Peng; Xiao, Hualiang; Zhao, Jianhua

    2012-04-01

    Angiogenesis is crucial in wound healing. The administration of the C-terminal 24-a.a. peptide of mechano growth factor (MGF24E) has been previously demonstrated to induce more blood vessels in regenerating bone around defective areas compared with the control. Accordingly, this study aims to determine whether MGF24E promotes bone defect healing through MGF24E-increased angiogenesis and whether MGF24E has positive effects on angiogenesis in vitro. The roles of MGF24E on angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. The cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis of the human vascular endothelial EA.hy926 cells co-treated with 2% serum and MGF24E were determined to assess angiogenesis in comparison with 100 ng/ml of vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165))-positive control or vehicle control (phosphate-buffered saline). MGF24E treatment (10 ng/ml) significantly promoted the biological processes of angiogenesis on EA.hy926 cells compared with the vehicle control. The suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-I expressions by 2% serum starvation was reversed by the addition of 10 ng/ml of MGF24E in 2% serum medium. This result suggests that MGF24E has a protective effect on angiogenesis. Moreover, the inhibition of ERK due to PD98050 pretreatment completely abolished and mostly blocked MGF24E-induced proliferation and migration, respectively, whereas the MGF24-induced tubulogenesis and the angiogenic factor expression were only partially inhibited. These new findings suggest that MGF24E promotes angiogenesis by enhancing the expression of angiogenic cytokines which involves the MAPK/ERK-signaling pathway.

  16. C terminal half fragment (50 kDa) of heavy chain components of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins can be used as an effective vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Takao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Oguma, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant whole heavy chains (H, 100 kDa) and their N-terminal (Hn, 50 kDa) and C-terminal (Hc, 50 kDa) half fragments of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. GST eliminated-preparations of H (10 microg), Hn (5 microg), Hc (5 microg), or a mixture of Hn (5 microg) and Hc (5 microg) of types C and D were mixed with an equal volume of adjuvant, and then were twice injected into mice subcutaneously. After immunization, the mice were challenged with up to 10(6) the minimum lethal doses (MLD)/0.5 ml of C or D toxin, the type of which was same as that of the immunogens. All of the mice immunized with antigens except for Hn survived against 10(5) to 10(6) MLD/0.5 ml of the toxins, but the mice immunized with Hn were killed by 100 MLD/0.5 ml. The mice immunized with a mixture of C-Hc and D-Hc, each 5 microg, also showed a high level of resistance against both C and D toxins. Antibody levels immunized with GST fused-or GST eliminatedpreparation were quite similar. These results indicate that recombinant GST-fused Hc can be used as a safe and effective vaccine for type C and D botulism in animals. It also became clear that one time inoculation with a large amount of C-Hc or D-Hc, 100 microg, is useful for vaccine trials in mice.

  17. Syntaxin 5 interacts with presenilin holoproteins, but not with their N- or C-terminal fragments, and affects β-amyloid peptide production

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in presenilins 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2) account for the majority of cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. However, the trafficking and interaction of PSs with other proteins in the early secretory pathways are poorly understood. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we found that PS bound to Syx5 (syntaxin 5), which is a target-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi vesicular transport in vivo. Syx5 interacted only with the full-length PS holoproteins and not with the naturally occurring N- or C-terminal fragments. The PS holoproteins co-immunoprecipitated with the mutant Syx5, which localized to the ER and Golgi compartments, despite the substitution of the transmembrane region with that of syntaxin 1A. In contrast, the transmembrane deletion mutant that localized to the cytosol, but not to the ER or Golgi compartments, did not co-immunoprecipitate the PS holoproteins. The PS1 variant linked to familial Alzheimer's disease (PS1ΔE9), lacking the region that contains the endoproteolytic cleavage site in the cytoplasmic loop, showed markedly decreased binding to Syx5. Immunofluorescence and sucrose-density-gradient fractionation analyses showed that the full-length PS holoproteins co-localized with Syx5 to the ER and cis-Golgi compartments. Furthermore, Syx5 overexpression resulted in the accumulation of PS holoproteins and the β-amyloid precursor protein, and reduced the secretion of the Aβ (amyloid β) peptide in COS-7 cells. In summary, these results indicate that Syx5 binds to full-length PSs and affects the processing and trafficking of β-amyloid precursor protein in the early secretory compartments. PMID:15109302

  18. Elongation of the C-terminal domain of an anti-amyloid β single-chain variable fragment increases its thermodynamic stability and decreases its aggregation tendency.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Hernández, Geovanny; Marin-Argany, Marta; Blasco-Moreno, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Oliva, Baldo; Villegas, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) immunotherapy is considered a promising approach to Alzheimer disease treatment. In contrast to the use of complete antibodies, administration of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) has not been associated with either meningoencephalitis or cerebral hemorrhage. ScFv-h3D6 is known to preclude cytotoxicity of the Aβ 1-42 peptide by removing its oligomers from the amyloid pathway. As is the case for other scFv molecules, the recombinant production of scFv-h3D6 is limited by its folding and stability properties. Here, we show that its urea-induced unfolding pathway is characterized by the presence of an intermediate state composed of the unfolded VL domain and the folded VH domain, which suggests the VL domain as a target for thermodynamic stability redesign. The modeling of the 3D structure revealed that the VL domain, located at the C-terminal of the molecule, was ending before its latest β-strand was completed. Three elongation mutants, beyond VL-K107, showed increased thermodynamic stability and lower aggregation tendency, as determined from urea denaturation experiments and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Because the mutants maintained the capability of removing Aβ-oligomers from the amyloid pathway, we expect these traits to increase the half-life of scFv-h3D6 in vivo and, consequently, to decrease the effective doses. Our results led to the improvement of a potential Alzheimer disease treatment and may be extrapolated to other class-I scFv molecules of therapeutic interest.

  19. Exploiting conformational dynamics in drug discovery: design of C-terminal inhibitors of Hsp90 with improved activities

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Elisabetta; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S.J.; Colombo, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The interaction that occurs between molecules is a dynamic process that impacts both structural and conformational properties of the ligand and the ligand binding site. Herein, we investigate the dynamic cross-talk between a protein and the ligand as a source for new opportunities in ligand design. Analysis of the formation/disappearance of protein pockets produced in response to a first-generation inhibitor assisted in the identification of functional groups that could be introduced onto scaffolds to facilitate optimal binding, which allowed for increased binding with previously uncharacterized regions. MD simulations were used to elucidate primary changes that occur in the Hsp90 C-terminal binding pocket in the presence of first-generation ligands. This data was then used to design ligands that adapt to these receptor conformations, which provides access to an energy landscape that is not visible in a static model. The newly synthesized compounds demonstrated anti-proliferative activity at ~150 nanomolar concentration. The method identified herein may be used to design chemical probes that provide additional information on structural variations of Hsp90 C-terminal binding site. PMID:24397468

  20. Amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region plays a crucial role in antibacterial activity of HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antibacterial activity is a novel function of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). However, the functional site for this new effect is presently unknown. Methods and Results In this study, recombinant human HMGB1 A box and B box (rHMGB1 A box, rHMGB1 B box), recombinant human HMGB1 (rHMGB1) and the truncated C-terminal acidic tail mutant (tHMGB1) were prepared by the prokaryotic expression system. The C-terminal acidic tail (C peptide) was synthesized, which was composed of 30 amino acid residues. Antibacterial assays showed that both the full length rHMGB1 and the synthetic C peptide alone could efficiently inhibit bacteria proliferation, but rHMGB1 A box and B box, and tHMGB1 lacking the C-terminal acidic tail had no antibacterial function. These results suggest that C-terminal acidic tail is the key region for the antibacterial activity of HMGB1. Furthermore, we prepared eleven different deleted mutants lacking several amino acid residues in C-terminal acidic tail of HMGB1. Antibacterial assays of these mutants demonstrate that the amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region is the core functional site for the antibacterial activity of the molecule. Conclusion In sum, these results define the key region and the crucial site in HMGB1 for its antibacterial function, which is helpful to illustrating the antibacterial mechanisms of HMGB1. PMID:19751520

  1. Lysophosphatidic acid directly activates TRPV1 through a C-terminal binding site.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Posadas, Andrés; Picazo-Juárez, Giovanni; Llorente, Itzel; Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Morales-Lázaro, Sara; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Islas, León D; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2011-11-20

    Since 1992, there has been growing evidence that the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), whose amounts are increased upon tissue injury, activates primary nociceptors resulting in neuropathic pain. The TRPV1 ion channel is expressed in primary afferent nociceptors and is activated by physical and chemical stimuli. Here we show that in control mice LPA produces acute pain-like behaviors, which are substantially reduced in Trpv1-null animals. Our data also demonstrate that LPA activates TRPV1 through a unique mechanism that is independent of G protein-coupled receptors, contrary to what has been widely shown for other ion channels, by directly interacting with the C terminus of the channel. We conclude that TRPV1 is a direct molecular target of the pain-producing molecule LPA and that this constitutes, to our knowledge, the first example of LPA binding directly to an ion channel to acutely regulate its function.

  2. Fission yeast Cdk7 controls gene expression through both its CAK and C-terminal domain kinase activities.

    PubMed

    Devos, Maxime; Mommaerts, Elise; Migeot, Valerie; van Bakel, Harm; Hermand, Damien

    2015-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activation and RNA polymerase II transcription are linked by the Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdks as a trimeric Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, and serine 5 within the polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) as transcription factor TFIIH-bound CAK. However, the physiological importance of integrating these processes is not understood. Besides the Cdk7 ortholog Mcs6, fission yeast possesses a second CAK, Csk1. The two enzymes have been proposed to act redundantly to activate Cdc2. Using an improved analogue-sensitive Mcs6-as kinase, we show that Csk1 is not a relevant CAK for Cdc2. Further analyses revealed that Csk1 lacks a 20-amino-acid sequence required for its budding yeast counterpart, Cak1, to bind Cdc2. Transcriptome profiling of the Mcs6-as mutant in the presence or absence of the budding yeast Cak1 kinase, in order to uncouple the CTD kinase and CAK activities of Mcs6, revealed an unanticipated role of the CAK branch in the transcriptional control of the cluster of genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. The analysis of a Cdc2 CAK site mutant confirmed these data. Our data show that the Cdk7 kinase modulates transcription through its well-described RNA Pol II CTD kinase activity and also through the Cdc2-activating kinase activity.

  3. Fission Yeast Cdk7 Controls Gene Expression through both Its CAK and C-Terminal Domain Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Maxime; Mommaerts, Elise; Migeot, Valerie; van Bakel, Harm

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activation and RNA polymerase II transcription are linked by the Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdks as a trimeric Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, and serine 5 within the polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) as transcription factor TFIIH-bound CAK. However, the physiological importance of integrating these processes is not understood. Besides the Cdk7 ortholog Mcs6, fission yeast possesses a second CAK, Csk1. The two enzymes have been proposed to act redundantly to activate Cdc2. Using an improved analogue-sensitive Mcs6-as kinase, we show that Csk1 is not a relevant CAK for Cdc2. Further analyses revealed that Csk1 lacks a 20-amino-acid sequence required for its budding yeast counterpart, Cak1, to bind Cdc2. Transcriptome profiling of the Mcs6-as mutant in the presence or absence of the budding yeast Cak1 kinase, in order to uncouple the CTD kinase and CAK activities of Mcs6, revealed an unanticipated role of the CAK branch in the transcriptional control of the cluster of genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. The analysis of a Cdc2 CAK site mutant confirmed these data. Our data show that the Cdk7 kinase modulates transcription through its well-described RNA Pol II CTD kinase activity and also through the Cdc2-activating kinase activity. PMID:25691663

  4. Different Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains in Calmodulin for Activation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lübker, Carolin; Dove, Stefan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Urbauer, Ramona J. Bieber; Moskovitz, Jackob; Urbauer, Jeffrey L.; Seifert, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis adenylyl cyclase toxin edema factor (EF) is one component of the anthrax toxin and is essential for establishing anthrax disease. EF activation by the eukaryotic Ca2+-sensor calmodulin (CaM) leads to massive cAMP production resulting in edema. cAMP also inhibits the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase, thus reducing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) used for host defense in activated neutrophils and thereby facilitating bacterial growth. Methionine (Met) residues in CaM, important for interactions between CaM and its binding partners, can be oxidized by ROS. We investigated the impact of site-specific oxidation of Met in CaM on EF activation using thirteen CaM-mutants (CaM-mut) with Met to leucine (Leu) substitutions. EF activation shows high resistance to oxidative modifications in CaM. An intact structure in the C-terminal region of oxidized CaM is sufficient for major EF activation despite altered secondary structure in the N-terminal region associated with Met oxidation. The secondary structures of CaM-mut were determined and described in previous studies from our group. Thus, excess cAMP production and the associated impairment of host defence may be afforded even under oxidative conditions in activated neutrophils. PMID:26184312

  5. Glutathione-conjugating and membrane-remodeling activity of GDAP1 relies on amphipathic C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Nina; Bieniossek, Christoph; Wagner, Konstanze Marion; Elsässer, Hans-Peter; Suter, Ueli; Berger, Imre; Niemann, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation associated protein 1 (GDAP1) cause severe peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies called Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. GDAP1 expression induces fission of mitochondria and peroxisomes by a currently elusive mechanism, while disease causing mutations in GDAP1 impede the protein’s role in mitochondrial dynamics. In silico analysis reveals sequence similarities of GDAP1 to glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). However, a proof of GST activity and its possible impact on membrane dynamics are lacking to date. Using recombinant protein, we demonstrate for the first time theta-class-like GST activity for GDAP1, and it’s activity being regulated by the C-terminal hydrophobic domain 1 (HD1) of GDAP1 in an autoinhibitory manner. Moreover, we show that the HD1 amphipathic pattern is required to induce membrane dynamics by GDAP1. As both, fission and GST activities of GDAP1, are critically dependent on HD1, we propose that GDAP1 undergoes a molecular switch, turning from a pro-fission active to an auto-inhibited inactive conformation. PMID:27841286

  6. Enzyme Activities of the Ceramide Synthases CERS2–6 Are Regulated by Phosphorylation in the C-terminal Region*

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Takayuki; Hirayama, Taisuke; Kihara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide and complex sphingolipids regulate important cellular functions including cell growth, apoptosis, and signaling. Dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism leads to pathological consequences such as sphingolipidoses and insulin resistance. Ceramides in mammals vary greatly in their acyl-chain composition: six different ceramide synthase isozymes (CERS1–6) that exhibit distinct substrate specificity and tissue distribution account for this diversity. In the present study, we demonstrated that CERS2–6 were phosphorylated at the cytoplasmic C-terminal regions. Most of the phosphorylated residues conformed to a consensus motif for phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 (CK2), and treatment of cells with the CK2-specific inhibitor CX-4945 lowered the phosphorylation levels of CERS2, -4, -5, and -6. Phosphorylation of CERS2 was especially important for its catalytic activity, acting mainly by increasing its Vmax value. Phosphorylation modestly increased the catalytic activities of CERS4 and -5 and mildly increased those of CERS3 and -6. Dephosphorylation of endogenous ceramide synthases in the mouse brain led to severely reduced activity toward the Cers2 substrates C22:0/C24:0-CoAs and modestly reduced activity toward the Cers5/6 substrate C16:0-CoA. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of ceramide synthases may be a key regulatory point in the control of the distribution and levels of sphingolipids of various acyl-chain lengths. PMID:26887952

  7. Role of the C-terminal extension peptide of plastid located glutamine synthetase from Medicago truncatula: Crucial for enzyme activity and needless for protein import into the plastids.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria João; Vale, Diogo; Cunha, Luis; Melo, Paula

    2017-02-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in plant nitrogen metabolism, is encoded by a small family of highly homologous nuclear genes that produce cytosolic (GS1) and plastidic (GS2) isoforms. Compared to GS1, GS2 proteins have two extension peptides, one at the N- and the other at the C-terminus, which show a high degree of conservation among plant species. It has long been known that the N-terminal peptide acts as a transit peptide, targeting the protein to the plastids however, the function of the C-terminal extension is still unknown. To investigate whether the C-terminal extension influences the activity of the enzyme, we produced a C-terminal truncated version of Medicago truncatula GS2a in Escherechia coli and studied its catalytic properties. The activity of the truncated protein was found to be lower than that of MtGS2a and with less affinity for glutamate. The importance of the C-terminal extension for the protein import into the chloroplast was also assessed by transient expression of fluorescently-tagged MtGS2a truncated at the C-terminus, which was correctly detected in the chloroplast. The results obtained in this work demonstrate that the C-terminal extension of M. truncatula GS2a is important for the activity of the enzyme and does not contain crucial information for the import process.

  8. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase37 regulates Tcf7 DNA binding for the activation of Wnt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wonhee; Lee, Hyeyoon; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2017-01-01

    The Tcf/Lef family of transcription factors mediates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including vertebrate embryogenesis and diverse pathogenesis. Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, sumoylation and acetylation, are known to be important for the regulation of Tcf/Lef proteins. However, the importance of ubiquitination and ubiquitin-mediated regulatory mechanisms for Tcf/Lef activity are still unclear. Here, we newly show that ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 (Uch37), a deubiquitinase, interacts with Tcf7 (formerly named Tcf1) to activate Wnt signalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that deubiquitinating activity of Uch37 is not involved in Tcf7 protein stability but is required for the association of Tcf7 to target gene promoter in both Xenopus embryo and human liver cancer cells. In vivo analyses further revealed that Uch37 functions as a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway downstream of β-catenin stabilization that is required for the expression of ventrolateral mesoderm genes during Xenopus gastrulation. Our study provides a new mechanism for chromatin occupancy of Tcf7 and uncovers the physiological significance of Uch37 during early vertebrate development by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:28198400

  9. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of N- and C-Terminally Modified Secretin Analogs for the Human Secretin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Arokiaraj, Aloysius Wilfred Raj; Leprince, Jérôme; Lefranc, Benjamin; Vaudry, David; Allam, Ahmed A.; Ajarem, Jamaan; Chow, Billy K. C.

    2016-01-01

    The pleiotropic role of human secretin (hSCT) validates its potential use as a therapeutic agent. Nevertheless, the structure of secretin in complex with its receptor is necessary to develop a suitable therapeutic agent. Therefore, in an effort to design a three-dimensional virtual homology model and identify a peptide agonist and/or antagonist for the human secretin receptor (hSR), the significance of the primary sequence of secretin peptides in allosteric binding and activation was elucidated using virtual docking, FRET competitive binding and assessment of the cAMP response. Secretin analogs containing various N- or C-terminal modifications were prepared based on previous findings of the role of these domains in receptor binding and activation. These analogs exhibited very low or no binding affinity in a virtual model, and were found to neither exhibit in vitro binding nor agonistic or antagonistic properties. A parallel analysis of the analogs in the virtual model and in vitro studies revealed instability of these peptide analogs to bind and activate the receptor. PMID:26930505

  10. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase37 regulates Tcf7 DNA binding for the activation of Wnt signalling.

    PubMed

    Han, Wonhee; Lee, Hyeyoon; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2017-02-15

    The Tcf/Lef family of transcription factors mediates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including vertebrate embryogenesis and diverse pathogenesis. Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, sumoylation and acetylation, are known to be important for the regulation of Tcf/Lef proteins. However, the importance of ubiquitination and ubiquitin-mediated regulatory mechanisms for Tcf/Lef activity are still unclear. Here, we newly show that ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 (Uch37), a deubiquitinase, interacts with Tcf7 (formerly named Tcf1) to activate Wnt signalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that deubiquitinating activity of Uch37 is not involved in Tcf7 protein stability but is required for the association of Tcf7 to target gene promoter in both Xenopus embryo and human liver cancer cells. In vivo analyses further revealed that Uch37 functions as a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway downstream of β-catenin stabilization that is required for the expression of ventrolateral mesoderm genes during Xenopus gastrulation. Our study provides a new mechanism for chromatin occupancy of Tcf7 and uncovers the physiological significance of Uch37 during early vertebrate development by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  11. Intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal domain of the Shaker voltage-activated K+ channel modulates its interaction with scaffold proteins

    PubMed Central

    Magidovich, Elhanan; Orr, Irit; Fass, Deborah; Abdu, Uri; Yifrach, Ofer

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of membrane-embedded voltage-activated potassium channels (Kv) with intracellular scaffold proteins, such as the postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) protein, is mediated by the channel C-terminal segment. This interaction underlies Kv channel clustering at unique membrane sites and is important for the proper assembly and functioning of the synapse. In the current study, we address the molecular mechanism underlying Kv/PSD-95 interaction. We provide experimental evidence, based on hydrodynamic and spectroscopic analyses, indicating that the isolated C-terminal segment of the archetypical Shaker Kv channel (ShB-C) is a random coil, suggesting that ShB-C belongs to the recently defined class of intrinsically disordered proteins. We show that isolated ShB-C is still able to bind its scaffold protein partner and support protein clustering in vivo, indicating that unfoldedness is compatible with ShB-C activity. Pulldown experiments involving C-terminal chains differing in flexibility or length further demonstrate that intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal segment of the Shaker channel modulates its interaction with the PSD-95 protein. Our results thus suggest that the C-terminal domain of the Shaker Kv channel behaves as an entropic chain and support a “fishing rod” molecular mechanism for Kv channel binding to scaffold proteins. The importance of intrinsically disordered protein segments to the complex processes of synapse assembly, maintenance, and function is discussed. PMID:17666528

  12. The C-terminal helices of heat shock protein 70 are essential for J-domain binding and ATPase activation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Zhou, Zi-Ren; Wu, Meng; Cao, Chun-Yang; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2012-02-17

    The J-domain co-chaperones work together with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) chaperone to regulate many cellular events, but the mechanism underlying the J-domain-mediated HSP70 function remains elusive. We studied the interaction between human-inducible HSP70 and Homo sapiens J-domain protein (HSJ1a), a J domain and UIM motif-containing co-chaperone. The J domain of HSJ1a shares a conserved structure with other J domains from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, and it mediates the interaction with and the ATPase cycle of HSP70. Our in vitro study corroborates that the N terminus of HSP70 including the ATPase domain and the substrate-binding β-subdomain is not sufficient to bind with the J domain of HSJ1a. The C-terminal helical α-subdomain of HSP70, which was considered to function as a lid of the substrate-binding domain, is crucial for binding with the J domain of HSJ1a and stimulating the ATPase activity of HSP70. These fluctuating helices are likely to contribute to a proper conformation of HSP70 for J-domain binding other than directly bind with the J domain. Our findings provide an alternative mechanism of allosteric activation for functional regulation of HSP70 by its J-domain co-chaperones.

  13. Amyloidogenic properties of a D/N mutated 12 amino acid fragment of the C-terminal domain of the Cholesteryl-Ester Transfer Protein (CETP).

    PubMed

    García-González, Victor; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of cholesterol esters and triglycerides between lipoproteins in plasma where the critical site for its function is situated in the C-terminal domain. Our group has previously shown that this domain presents conformational changes in a non-lipid environment when the mutation D(470)N is introduced. Using a series of peptides derived from this C-terminal domain, the present study shows that these changes favor the induction of a secondary β-structure as characterized by spectroscopic analysis and fluorescence techniques. From this type of secondary structure, the formation of peptide aggregates and fibrillar structures with amyloid characteristics induced cytotoxicity in microglial cells in culture. These supramolecular structures promote cell cytotoxicity through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and change the balance of a series of proteins that control the process of endocytosis, similar to that observed when β-amyloid fibrils are employed. Therefore, a fine balance between the highly dynamic secondary structure of the C-terminal domain of CETP, the net charge, and the physicochemical characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment define the type of secondary structure acquired. Changes in this balance might favor misfolding in this region, which would alter the lipid transfer capacity conducted by CETP, favoring its propensity to substitute its physiological function.

  14. A proprotein convertase subtilisin-like/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) C-terminal domain antibody antigen-binding fragment inhibits PCSK9 internalization and restores low density lipoprotein uptake.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan G; Condra, Jon H; Orsatti, Laura; Shen, Xun; Di Marco, Stefania; Pandit, Shilpa; Bottomley, Matthew J; Ruggeri, Lionello; Cummings, Richard T; Cubbon, Rose M; Santoro, Joseph C; Ehrhardt, Anka; Lewis, Dale; Fisher, Timothy S; Ha, Sookhee; Njimoluh, Leila; Wood, Dana D; Hammond, Holly A; Wisniewski, Douglas; Volpari, Cinzia; Noto, Alessia; Lo Surdo, Paola; Hubbard, Brian; Carfí, Andrea; Sitlani, Ayesha

    2010-04-23

    PCSK9 binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and leads to LDLR degradation and inhibition of plasma LDL cholesterol clearance. Consequently, the role of PCSK9 in modulating circulating LDL makes it a promising therapeutic target for treating hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease. Although the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 is not involved in LDLR binding, the location of several naturally occurring mutations within this region suggests that it has an important role for PCSK9 function. Using a phage display library, we identified an anti-PCSK9 Fab (fragment antigen binding), 1G08, with subnanomolar affinity for PCSK9. In an assay measuring LDL uptake in HEK293 and HepG2 cells, 1G08 Fab reduced 50% the PCSK9-dependent inhibitory effects on LDL uptake. Importantly, we found that 1G08 did not affect the PCSK9-LDLR interaction but inhibited the internalization of PCSK9 in these cells. Furthermore, proteolysis and site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that 1G08 Fab binds a region of beta-strands encompassing Arg-549, Arg-580, Arg-582, Glu-607, Lys-609, and Glu-612 in the PCSK9 C-terminal domain. Consistent with these results, 1G08 fails to bind PCSK9DeltaC, a truncated form of PCSK9 lacking the C-terminal domain. Additional studies revealed that lack of the C-terminal domain compromised the ability of PCSK9 to internalize into cells, and to inhibit LDL uptake. Together, the present study demonstrate that the PCSK9 C-terminal domain contribute to its inhibition of LDLR function mainly through its role in the cellular uptake of PCSK9 and LDLR complex. 1G08 Fab represents a useful new tool for delineating the mechanism of PCSK9 uptake and LDLR degradation.

  15. The C-terminal Ca2+-binding domain of SPARC confers anti-spreading activity to human urothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Delostrinos, Catherine F; Hudson, Amber E; Feng, Waldo C; Kosman, Jeffrey; Bassuk, James A

    2006-01-01

    The anti-spreading activity of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) has been assigned to the C-terminal third domain, a region rich in alpha-helices. This "extracellular calcium-binding" (EC) domain contains two EF-hands that each coordinates one Ca2+ ion, forming a helix-loop-helix structure that not only drives the conformation of the protein but is also necessary for biological activity. Recombinant (r) EC, expressed in E. coli, was fused at the C-terminus to a His hexamer and isolated under denaturing conditions by nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. rEC-His was renatured by procedures that simultaneously (i) removed denaturing conditions, (ii) catalyzed disulfide bond isomerization, and (iii) initiated Ca2+-dependent refolding. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies demonstrated that rEC-His exhibited a Ca2+-dependent conformation that was consistent with the known crystal structure. Spreading assays confirmed that rEC-His was biologically active through its ability to inhibit the spreading of freshly plated human urothelial cells propagated from transitional epithelium. rEC-His and rSPARC-His exhibited highly similar anti-spreading activities when measured as a function of concentration or time. In contrast to the wild-type and EC recombinant proteins, rSPARC(E268F)-His, a point substitution mutant at the Z position of EF-hand 2, failed to exhibit both Ca2+-dependent changes in alpha-helical secondary structure and anti-spreading activity. The collective data provide evidence that the motif of SPARC responsible for anti-spreading activity was dependent on the coordination of Ca2+ by a Glu residue at the Z position of EF-hand 2 and provide insights into how adhesive forces are balanced within the extracellular matrix of urothelial cells. .

  16. The C-terminal extension of PrhG impairs its activation of hrp expression and virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Luo, Feng; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Kiba, Akinori; Yasuo, Igarashi; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2015-04-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the second most destructive bacterial plant pathogens worldwide and HrpG is the master regulator of its pathogenicity. PrhG is a close paralogue of HrpG and both belong to OmpR/PhoB family of two-component response regulators. Despite a high similarity (72% global identity and 96% similarity in helix-loop-helix domain), they display distinct roles in pathogenicity. HrpG is necessary for the bacterial growth in planta and pathogenicity, while PrhG is dispensable for bacterial growth in planta and contributes little to pathogenicity. The main difference between HrpG and PrhG is the 50-amino-acid-long C-terminal extension in PrhG (amino-acid residues 230-283), which is absent in HrpG. When this extension is deleted, truncated PrhGs (under the control of its native promoter) allowed complete recovery of bacterial growth in planta and wild-type virulence of hrpG mutant. This novel finding demonstrates that the extension region in PrhG is responsible for the functional difference between HrpG and PrhG, which may block the binding of PrhG to target promoters and result in impaired activation of hrp expression by PrhG and reduced virulence of R. solanacearum.

  17. Differential cellulolytic activity of native-form and C-terminal tagged-form cellulase derived from coptotermes formosanus and expressed in E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endogenous cellulase gene (CfEG3a) of Coptotermes formosanus, an economically important pest termite, was cloned and overexpressed in both native form (nCfEG) and C-terminal His-tagged form (tCfEG) in E.coli. Both forms of recombinant cellulases showed hydrolytic activity on cellulosic substrate...

  18. The β(1a) subunit of the skeletal DHPR binds to skeletal RyR1 and activates the channel via its 35-residue C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Robyn T; Karunasekara, Yamuna; Gallant, Esther M; Board, Philip G; Beard, Nicole A; Casarotto, Marco G; Dulhunty, Angela F

    2011-02-16

    Although it has been suggested that the C-terminal tail of the β(1a) subunit of the skeletal dihyropyridine receptor (DHPR) may contribute to voltage-activated Ca(2+) release in skeletal muscle by interacting with the skeletal ryanodine receptor (RyR1), a direct functional interaction between the two proteins has not been demonstrated previously. Such an interaction is reported here. A peptide with the sequence of the C-terminal 35 residues of β(1a) bound to RyR1 in affinity chromatography. The full-length β(1a) subunit and the C-terminal peptide increased [(3)H]ryanodine binding and RyR1 channel activity with an AC(50) of 450-600 pM under optimal conditions. The effect of the peptide was dependent on cytoplasmic Ca(2+), ATP, and Mg(2+) concentrations. There was no effect of the peptide when channel activity was very low as a result of Mg(2+) inhibition or addition of 100 nM Ca(2+) (without ATP). Maximum increases were seen with 1-10 μM Ca(2+), in the absence of Mg(2+) inhibition. A control peptide with the C-terminal 35 residues in a scrambled sequence did not bind to RyR1 or alter [(3)H]ryanodine binding or channel activity. This high-affinity in vitro functional interaction between the C-terminal 35 residues of the DHPR β(1a) subunit and RyR1 may support an in vivo function of β(1a) during voltage-activated Ca(2+) release.

  19. The disulfide oxidoreductase SdbA is active in Streptococcus gordonii using a single C-terminal cysteine of the CXXC motif.

    PubMed

    Davey, Lauren; Cohen, Alejandro; LeBlanc, Jason; Halperin, Scott A; Lee, Song F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we identified a novel disulfide oxidoreductase, SdbA, in the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii. Disulfide oxidoreductases form disulfide bonds in nascent proteins using a CXXC catalytic motif. Typically, the N-terminal cysteine interacts with substrates, whereas the C-terminal cysteine is buried and only reacts with the first cysteine of the motif. In this study, we investigated the SdbA C(86) P(87) D(88) C(89) catalytic motif. In vitro, SdbA single cysteine variants at the N or C-terminal position (SdbAC86P and SdbAC89A ) were active but displayed different susceptibility to oxidation, and N-terminal cysteine was prone to sulfenylation. In S. gordonii, mutants with a single N-terminal cysteine were inactive and formed unstable disulfide adducts with other proteins. Activity was partially restored by inactivation of pyruvate oxidase, a hydrogen peroxide generator. Presence of the C-terminal cysteine alone (in the SdbAC86P variant) could complement the ΔsdbA mutant and restore disulfide bond formation in recombinant and natural protein substrates. These results provide evidence that certain disulfide oxidoreductases can catalyze disulfide bond formation using a single cysteine of the CXXC motif, including the buried C-terminal cysteine.

  20. A K+ channel splice variant common in human heart lacks a C-terminal domain required for expression of rapidly activating delayed rectifier current.

    PubMed

    Kupershmidt, S; Snyders, D J; Raes, A; Roden, D M

    1998-10-16

    We have cloned HERG USO, a C-terminal splice variant of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (HERG), the gene encoding the rapid component of the delayed rectifier (IKr), from human heart, and we find that its mRNA is approximately 2-fold more abundant than that for HERG1 (the originally described cDNA). After transfection of HERG USO in Ltk- cells, no current was observed. However, coexpression of HERG USO with HERG1 modified IKr by decreasing its amplitude, accelerating its activation, and shifting the voltage dependence of activation 8.8 mV negative. As with HERG USO, HERGDeltaC (a HERG1 construct lacking the C-terminal 462 amino acids) also produced no current in transfected cells. However, IKr was rescued by ligation of 104 amino acids from the C terminus of HERG1 to the C terminus of HERGDeltaC, indicating that the C terminus of HERG1 includes a domain (C-terminal domain not only explains the finding that HERG USO does not generate IKr but also indicates a similar mechanism for hitherto-uncharacterized long QT syndrome HERG mutations that disrupt the splice site or the C-terminal. We suggest that the amplitude and gating of cardiac IKr depends on expression of both HERG1 and HERG USO.

  1. Critical Role of the PA-X C-Terminal Domain of Influenza A Virus in Its Subcellular Localization and Shutoff Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Chaimayo, Chutikarn; McGuinness, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PA-X is a recently identified influenza virus protein that is composed of the PA N-terminal 191 amino acids and unique C-terminal 41 or 61 residues. We and others showed that PA-X has a strong ability to suppress host protein synthesis via host mRNA decay, which is mediated by endonuclease activity in its N-terminal domain (B. W. Jagger, H. M. Wise, J. C. Kash, K. A. Walters, N. M. Wills, Y. L. Xiao, R. L. Dunfee, L. M. Schwartzman, A. Ozinsky, G. L. Bell, R. M. Dalton, A. Lo, S. Efstathiou, J. F. Atkins, A. E. Firth, J. K. Taubenberger, and P. Digard, 2012, Science 337:199–204, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1222213, and E. A. Desmet, K. A. Bussey, R. Stone, and T. Takimoto, 2013, J Virol 87:3108–3118, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02826-12). However, the mechanism of host mRNA degradation, especially where and how PA-X targets mRNAs, has not been analyzed. In this study, we determined the localization of PA-X and the role of the C-terminal unique region in shutoff activity. Quantitative subcellular localization analysis revealed that PA-X was located equally in both cytoplasm and nucleus. By characterizing a series of PA-X C-terminal deletion mutants, we found that the first 9 amino acids were sufficient for nuclear localization, but an additional 6 residues were required to induce the maximum shutoff activity observed with intact PA-X. Importantly, forced nuclear localization of the PA-X C-terminal deletion mutant enhanced shutoff activity, highlighting the ability of nuclear PA-X to degrade host mRNAs more efficiently. However, PA-X also inhibited luciferase expression from transfected mRNAs synthesized in vitro, suggesting that PA-X also degrades mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Among the basic amino acids in the PA-X C-terminal region, 3 residues, 195K, 198K, and 199R, were identified as key residues for inducing host shutoff and nuclear localization. Overall, our data indicate a critical role for the 15 residues in the PA-X C-terminal domain in

  2. Structure of the S100A6 complex with a fragment from the C-terminal domain of Siah-1 interacting protein: A novel mode for S100 protein target recognition†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Tae; Dimitrova, Yoana N.; Schneider, Gabriela; Ridenour, Whitney B.; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Soss, Sarah E.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Filipek, Anna; Chazin, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    S100A6 is a member of the S100 subfamily of Ca2+ binding EF-hand proteins that has been shown to interact with calcyclin binding protein/Siah-1 interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP; SIP), a subunit of an SCF-like E3 ligase complex (SCF-TBL1) formed under genotoxic stress. SIP serves as a scaffold in this complex, linking the E2-recruiting module Siah-1 to the substrate-recruiting module Skp1-TBL1. A cell-based functional assay suggests that S100A6 modulates the activity of SCF-TBL1. The results from the cell-based experiments could be enhanced if it were possible to selectively inhibit S100A6-SIP interactions without perturbing any other functions of the two proteins. To this end, the structure of the S100A6-SIP complex was determined in solution by NMR and the strength of the interaction was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry. In an initial step, the minimal binding region in SIP for S100A6 was mapped to a 31 residue fragment (Ser189-Arg219) in the C-terminal domain. The structure of the S100A6-SIP(189–219) complex revealed that SIP(189–219) forms two helices, the first of which (Met193-Tyr200) interacts with S100A6 in a canonical binding mode. The second helix (Met207-Val216) lies over the S100A6 dimer interface, a mode of binding to S100A6 that has not previously been observed for any target bound to an S100 protein. A series of structure-based SIP mutations showed reduced S100A6 binding affinity, setting the stage for direct functional analysis of S100A6-SIP interactions. PMID:18803400

  3. Characterization of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum and its C-terminal function for the pH dependence of activity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Mi; Kim, Hana; Joo, Yunhye; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2014-12-17

    The gadB gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal activity at 40 °C and pH 5.0. The 3D model structure of L. plantarum GAD proposed that its C-terminal region (Ile454-Thr468) may play an important role in the pH dependence of catalysis. Accordingly, C-terminally truncated (Δ3 and Δ11 residues) mutants were generated and their enzyme activities compared with that of the wild-type enzyme at different pH values. Unlike the wild-type GAD, the mutants showed pronounced catalytic activity in a broad pH range of 4.0-8.0, suggesting that the C-terminal region is involved in the pH dependence of GAD activity. Therefore, this study may provide effective target regions for engineering pH dependence of GAD activity, thereby meeting industrial demands for the production of γ-aminobutyrate in a broad range of pH values.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  5. The role of the C-terminal region on the oligomeric state and enzymatic activity of Trypanosoma cruzi hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Wanda M; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Defelipe, Lucas A; Mitschler, André; Podjarny, Alberto; Santos, Javier; Delfino, José M

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcHPRT) is a critical enzyme for the survival of the parasite. This work demonstrates that the full-length form in solution adopts a stable and enzymatically active tetrameric form, exhibiting large inter-subunit surfaces. Although this protein irreversibly aggregates during unfolding, oligomerization is reversible and can be modulated by low concentrations of urea. When the C-terminal region, which is predicted as a disordered stretch, is excised by proteolysis, TcHPRT adopts a dimeric state, suggesting that the C-terminal region acts as a main guide for the quaternary arrangement. These results are in agreement with X-ray crystallographic data presented in this work. On the other hand, the C-terminal region exhibits a modulatory role on the enzyme, as attested by the enhanced activity observed for the dimeric form. Bisphosphonates act as substrate-mimetics, uncovering long-range communications among the active sites. All in all, this work contributes to establish new ways applicable to the design of novel inhibitors that could eventually result in new drugs against parasitic diseases.

  6. The narrow active-site cleft of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase from Leishmania donovani allows complex formation with serine acetyltransferases with a range of C-terminal sequences.

    PubMed

    Raj, Isha; Kumar, Sudhir; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2012-08-01

    Cysteine is a crucial substrate for the synthesis of glutathione and trypanothione, which in turn maintain intracellular redox homeostasis and defend against oxidative stress in the pathogen Leishmania donovani. Here, the identification, sequencing, characterization and crystal structure at 1.79 Å resolution of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), a cysteine-biosynthetic pathway enzyme from L. donovani (LdOASS), are reported. It shows binding to the serine acetyltransferase (SAT) C-terminal peptide, indicating that OASS and SAT interact with each other to form a cysteine synthase complex, further confirmed by the structure of LdOASS in complex with SAT C-terminal octapeptide at 1.68 Å resolution. Docking and fluorescence binding studies show that almost all SAT C-terminus mimicking tetrapeptides can bind to LdOASS. Some peptides had a higher binding affinity than the native peptide, indicating that SAT-OASS interactions are not sequence-specific. The structure of LdOASS with a designed peptide (DWSI) revealed that LdOASS makes more interactions with the designed peptide than with the native peptide. In almost all known SAT-OASS interactions the SAT C-terminal sequence was shown to contain amino acids with large side chains. Structural comparison with other OASSs revealed that LdOASS has a relatively less open active-site cleft, which may be responsible for its interaction with the smaller-amino-acid-containing C-terminal LdSAT peptide. Biochemical studies confirmed that LdOASS interacts with SATs from Entamoeba histolytica and Brucella abortus, further displaying its sequence-independent and versatile mode of interaction with SATs. This implicates a critical role of the size of the active-site cleft opening in OASS for SAT-OASS interaction and thus cysteine synthase complex formation.

  7. Neonatal Fc receptor stimulation induces ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-1 overexpression in podocytes through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hualei; Feng, Songtao; Wu, Huijuan; Sun, Yu; Hu, Ruimin; Zhao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhigang

    2012-09-01

    Ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-1 is overexpressed in renal podocytes in some immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritides, an effect closely related to extensive podocyte injury. Neonatal Fc receptor is newly recognized to be present on human renal podocytes. It is presumed that neonatal Fc receptor serves as a sensor for immune stimulation transduction and is involved in the pathogenesis of podocyte injury. In our current study, we found that neonatal Fc receptor was constitutively expressed in normal podocytes and up-regulated by immune stimulation induced by antithymocyte serum. An increase in neonatal Fc receptor expression was observed in human podocytes within diseased glomeruli in 97 cases of various glomerulonephritides. The expression percentage was significantly higher in immune-mediated disease, including membranous nephropathy (46.7%), immunoglobin A nephropathy (66.7%), lupus nephritis (87.5%), and acute proliferative glomerulonephritis (100%), than in normal kidney samples (16.7%) (P < .05), whereas there was no significant difference between minimal-change disease and normal kidney. Further study showed that neonatal Fc receptor up-regulated the expression of ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase-1 via activation of p38 in podocytes subjected to immune stimulation in vitro. These data suggest that neonatal Fc receptor acts as an immune sensor that evokes an inflammatory response, which may lead to functional and morphological changes in podocytes in glomerulonephritides.

  8. Variable protection against experimental broiler necrotic enteritis after immunization with the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin and a non-toxic NetB variant

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes da Costa, Sérgio P.; Mot, Dorien; Geeraerts, Sofie; Bokori-Brown, Monika; Van Immerseel, Filip; Titball, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been shown to play a key role in avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant costs to the poultry production industry worldwide. The aim of this work was to determine whether immunization with a non-toxic variant of NetB (NetB W262A) and the C-terminal fragment of C. perfringens alpha-toxin (CPA247–370) would provide protection against experimental necrotic enteritis. Immunized birds with either antigen or a combination of antigens developed serum antibody levels against NetB and CPA. When CPA247–370 and NetB W262A were used in combination as immunogens, an increased protection was observed after oral challenge by individual dosing, but not after in-feed-challenge. PMID:26743457

  9. Unlocking Doors without Keys: Activation of Src by Truncated C-terminal Intracellular Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Lacking Tyrosine Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mezquita, Belén; Mezquita, Pau; Pau, Montserrat; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    One of the best examples of the renaissance of Src as an open door to cancer has been the demonstration that just five min of Src activation is sufficient for transformation and also for induction and maintenance of cancer stem cells [1]. Many tyrosine kinase receptors, through the binding of their ligands, become the keys that unlock the structure of Src and activate its oncogenic transduction pathways. Furthermore, intracellular isoforms of these receptors, devoid of any tyrosine kinase activity, still retain the ability to unlock Src. This has been shown with a truncated isoform of KIT (tr-KIT) and a truncated isoform of VEGFR-1 (i21-VEGFR-1), which are intracellular and require no ligand binding, but are nonetheless able to activate Src and induce cell migration and invasion of cancer cells. Expression of the i21-VEGFR-1 is upregulated by the Notch signaling pathway and repressed by miR-200c and retinoic acid in breast cancer cells. Both Notch inhibitors and retinoic acid have been proposed as potential therapies for invasive breast cancer. PMID:24709904

  10. Unwinding of the C-Terminal Residues of Neuropeptide Y is critical for Y₂ Receptor Binding and Activation.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Anette; Müller, Paul; Zellmann, Tristan; Scheidt, Holger A; Thomas, Lars; Bosse, Mathias; Meier, Rene; Meiler, Jens; Huster, Daniel; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Schmidt, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Despite recent breakthroughs in the structural characterization of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), there is only sparse data on how GPCRs recognize larger peptide ligands. NMR spectroscopy, molecular modeling, and double-cycle mutagenesis studies were integrated to obtain a structural model of the peptide hormone neuropeptide Y (NPY) bound to its human G-protein-coupled Y2 receptor (Y2R). Solid-state NMR measurements of specific isotope-labeled NPY in complex with in vitro folded Y2R reconstituted into phospholipid bicelles provided the bioactive structure of the peptide. Guided by solution NMR experiments, it could be shown that the ligand is tethered to the second extracellular loop by hydrophobic contacts. The C-terminal α-helix of NPY, which is formed in a membrane environment in the absence of the receptor, is unwound starting at T(32) to provide optimal contacts in a deep binding pocket within the transmembrane bundle of the Y2R.

  11. Recruitment of A20 by the C-terminal domain of NEMO suppresses NF-κB activation and autoinflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; Shawver, Linda Monaco; Wessel, Alex W.; Luo, Yongquan; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia Li; Lee, Younglang; Vonortas, Spiridon; Cheng, Laurence; Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Orange, Jordan S.; Siegel, Richard M.; Hanson, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-induced NF-κB activation is controlled by NEMO, the NF-κB essential modulator. Hypomorphic NEMO mutations result in X-linked ectodermal dysplasia with anhidrosis and immunodeficiency, also referred to as NEMO syndrome. Here we describe a distinct group of patients with NEMO C-terminal deletion (ΔCT-NEMO) mutations. Individuals harboring these mutations develop inflammatory skin and intestinal disease in addition to ectodermal dysplasia with anhidrosis and immunodeficiency. Both primary cells from these patients, as well as reconstituted cell lines with this deletion, exhibited increased IκB kinase (IKK) activity and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Unlike previously described loss-of-function mutations, ΔCT-NEMO mutants promoted increased NF-κB activation in response to TNF and Toll-like receptor stimulation. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed impaired interactions with A20, a negative regulator of NF-κB activation, leading to prolonged accumulation of K63-ubiquitinated RIP within the TNFR1 signaling complex. Recruitment of A20 to the C-terminal domain of NEMO represents a novel mechanism limiting NF-κB activation by NEMO, and its absence results in autoinflammatory disease. PMID:26802121

  12. Calsyntenin-3 C-terminal fragment accumulates in dystrophic neurites surrounding aβ plaques in tg2576 mouse and Alzheimer disease brains: its neurotoxic role in mediating dystrophic neurite formation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yoko; Gomi, Fujiya; Murayama, Shigeo; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Dystrophic neurites surrounding β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques precede neuronal death in Alzheimer disease. These neuritic alterations may be one of the initial stages for synaptic loss and dysfunction. However, intracellular pathways that cause local disruption of neuronal processes by Aβ remain to be fully elucidated. The identification of Aβ-induced genes that mediate neuritic pathology would provide considerable insight into the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Previously, we reported that selective up-regulation of calsyntenin-3 (Cst-3) by Aβ and accumulation of neurotoxic Cst-3 in dystrophic neurites surrounding Aβ plaques may lead to local disruption of these neurites. Like amyloid precursor protein, Cst-3 undergoes two-step proteolytic processing: the primary cleavage with α-secretase generates an N-terminal ectodomain and a C-terminal fragment (CTF). The CTF is subsequently cleaved into p3 peptide and an intracellular domain via γ-secretase. It would be interesting to know whether accumulated Cst-3 in dystrophic neurites surrounding Aβ plaques is the full-length version or a CTF. Herein, we show that the CTF but not full-length Cst-3 accumulated in dystrophic neurites surrounding Aβ plaques in Tg2576 mouse and Alzheimer disease brains. In vitro experiments with Cst-3 fragments have revealed that only the CTF resulted in acceleration of neuronal death. These results indicate that accumulation of the neurotoxic CTF in neurites surrounding Aβ plaques may lead to local disruption of neuronal processes and development of dystrophic neurites.

  13. Tetramerization Dynamics of C-terminal Domain Underlies Isoform-specific cAMP Gating in Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Lolicato, Marco; Nardini, Marco; Gazzarrini, Sabrina; Möller, Stefan; Bertinetti, Daniela; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Bolognesi, Martino; Martin, Holger; Fasolini, Marina; Bertrand, Jay A.; Arrigoni, Cristina; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are dually activated by hyperpolarization and binding of cAMP to their cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD). HCN isoforms respond differently to cAMP; binding of cAMP shifts activation of HCN2 and HCN4 by 17 mV but shifts that of HCN1 by only 2–4 mV. To explain the peculiarity of HCN1, we solved the crystal structures and performed a biochemical-biophysical characterization of the C-terminal domain (C-linker plus CNBD) of the three isoforms. Our main finding is that tetramerization of the C-terminal domain of HCN1 occurs at basal cAMP concentrations, whereas those of HCN2 and HCN4 require cAMP saturating levels. Therefore, HCN1 responds less markedly than HCN2 and HCN4 to cAMP increase because its CNBD is already partly tetrameric. This is confirmed by voltage clamp experiments showing that the right-shifted position of V½ in HCN1 is correlated with its propensity to tetramerize in vitro. These data underscore that ligand-induced CNBD tetramerization removes tonic inhibition from the pore of HCN channels. PMID:22006928

  14. Mechanism of USP7/HAUSP activation by its C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain and allosteric regulation by GMP-synthetase.

    PubMed

    Faesen, Alex C; Dirac, Annette M G; Shanmugham, Anitha; Ovaa, Huib; Perrakis, Anastassis; Sixma, Titia K

    2011-10-07

    The ubiquitin-specific protease USP7/HAUSP regulates p53 and MDM2 levels, and cellular localization of FOXO4 and PTEN, and hence is critically important for their role in cellular processes. Here we show how the 64 kDa C-terminal region of USP7 can positively regulate deubiquitinating activity. We present the crystal structure of this USP7/HAUSP ubiquitin-like domain (HUBL) comprised of five ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domains organized in 2-1-2 Ubl units. The last di-Ubl unit, HUBL-45, is sufficient to activate USP7, through binding to a "switching" loop in the catalytic domain, which promotes ubiquitin binding and increases activity 100-fold. This activation can be enhanced allosterically by the metabolic enzyme GMPS. It binds to the first three Ubl domains (HUBL-123) and hyperactivates USP7 by stabilization of the HUBL-45-dependent active state.

  15. Regulation of the TMEPAI promoter by TCF7L2: the C-terminal tail of TCF7L2 is essential to activate the TMEPAI gene

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Naoko; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Itoh, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    We previously found that TCF7L2 could activate the TMEPAI gene efficiently, whereas LEF1 could not nearly augment its transcription. When we comprehended the functional difference(s) between TCF7L2 and LEF1 with respect to the activation of the TMEPAI gene, the C-terminal tail of TCF7L2 was needed to reveal its transcriptional activity as well as its interaction with Smad3. Consistently, both TCF7/TCF7L2 and LEF1/TCF7L2 chimeric proteins exhibited an activity similar to TCF7L2 in transcription and Smad3 binding in contrast with LEF1 and TCF7. Our data elaborated on the diverse activity among TCF/LEF family members with respect to the transcriptional regulation of the TMEPAI gene. PMID:26590303

  16. Arginine residues in the C-terminal and their relationship with the analgesic activity of the toxin from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK AGP-SYPU1).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Song, Yong-Bo; Yang, Guang-Zhao; Cui, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Shan; Liu, Yan-Feng; Ma, Yan; Wu, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Jing-Hai

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the functional role of arginines in the C-terminal (65-67) of BmK AGP-SYPU1, an analgesic peptide from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. Using site-directed mutagenesis, arginines at the C-terminal (65-66) were deleted or added to the C-terminal (67). The genes for three mutants of BmK AGP-SYPU1 were obtained by PCR. An analgesic activity assay was used to evaluate the role of arginine residues in the analgesic activity. The three-dimensional structure of BmK AGP-SYPU1 was established by homology modeling. As a result, we showed that the arginines in the C-terminal are crucial for the analgesic activity and may be located at analgesic functional sites. Our work has implications for further modification of scorpion toxins to obtain new analgesic peptides with enhanced activity.

  17. Cooperation of the N-terminal Helicase and C-terminal endonuclease activities of Archaeal Hef protein in processing stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Komori, Kayoko; Hidaka, Masumi; Horiuchi, Takashi; Fujikane, Ryosuke; Shinagawa, Hideo; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2004-12-17

    Blockage of replication fork progression often occurs during DNA replication, and repairing and restarting stalled replication forks are essential events in all organisms for the maintenance of genome integrity. The repair system employs processing enzymes to restore the stalled fork. In Archaea Hef is a well conserved protein that specifically cleaves nicked, flapped, and fork-structured DNAs. This enzyme contains two distinct domains that are similar to the DEAH helicase family and XPF nuclease superfamily proteins. Analyses of truncated mutant proteins consisting of each domain revealed that the C-terminal nuclease domain independently recognized and incised fork-structured DNA. The N-terminal helicase domain also specifically unwound fork-structured DNA and Holliday junction DNA in the presence of ATP. Moreover, the endonuclease activity of the whole Hef protein was clearly stimulated by ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the N-terminal domain. These enzymatic properties suggest that Hef efficiently resolves stalled replication forks by two steps, which are branch point transfer to the 5'-end of the nascent lagging strand by the N-terminal helicase followed by template strand incision for leading strand synthesis by the C-terminal endonuclease.

  18. An autoinhibitory helix in the C-terminal region of phospholipase C-[beta] mediates G[alpaha subscript q] activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Angeline M.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Dhamsania, Vishan D.; Thal, David M.; Gutierrez, Joanne; Chowdhury, Shoaib; Suddala, Krishna C.; Northup, John K.; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-03-16

    The enzyme phospholipase C-{beta} (PLC{beta}) is a crucial regulator of intracellular calcium levels whose activity is controlled by heptahelical receptors that couple to members of the G{sub q} family of heterotrimeric G proteins. We have determined atomic structures of two invertebrate homologs of PLC{beta} (PLC21) from cephalopod retina and identified a helix from the C-terminal regulatory region that interacts with a conserved surface of the catalytic core of the enzyme. Mutations designed to disrupt the analogous interaction in human PLC{beta}3 considerably increase basal activity and diminish stimulation by G{alpha}{sub q}. G{alpha}{sub q} binding requires displacement of the autoinhibitory helix from the catalytic core, thus providing an allosteric mechanism for activation of PLC{beta}.

  19. Detrimental effect of the 6 His C-terminal tag on YedY enzymatic activity and influence of the TAT signal sequence on YedY synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background YedY, a molybdoenzyme belonging to the sulfite oxidase family, is found in most Gram-negative bacteria. It contains a twin-arginine signal sequence that is cleaved after its translocation into the periplasm. Despite a weak reductase activity with substrates such as dimethyl sulfoxide or trimethylamine N-oxide, its natural substrate and its role in the cell remain unknown. Although sequence conservation of the YedY family displays a strictly conserved hydrophobic C-terminal residue, all known studies on Escherichia coli YedY have been performed with an enzyme containing a 6 histidine-tag at the C-terminus which could hamper enzyme activity. Results In this study, we demonstrate that the tag fused to the C-terminus of Rhodobacter sphaeroides YedY is detrimental to the enzyme’s reductase activity and results in an eight-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency. Nonetheless this C-terminal tag does not influence the properties of the molybdenum active site, as assayed by EPR spectroscopy. When a cleavable His-tag was fused to the N-terminus of the mature enzyme in the absence of the signal sequence, YedY was expressed and folded with its cofactor. However, when the signal sequence was added upstream of the N-ter tag, the amount of enzyme produced was approximately ten-fold higher. Conclusion Our study thus underscores the risk of using a C-terminus tagged enzyme while studying YedY, and presents an alternative strategy to express signal sequence-containing enzymes with an N-terminal tag. It brings new insights into molybdoenzyme maturation in R. sphaeroides showing that for some enzymes, maturation can occur in the absence of the signal sequence but that its presence is required for high expression of active enzyme. PMID:24180491

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Ca{sup 2+}-bound C-terminal lobe of troponin C in complex with a troponin I-derived peptide fragment from Akazara scallop

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, Fumiaki; Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Ojima, Takao; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishita, Kiyoyoshi; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2007-06-01

    Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. Troponin C (TnC) is the Ca{sup 2+}-binding component of troponin and triggers muscle contraction. TnC of the invertebrate Akazara scallop can bind only one Ca{sup 2+} at the C-terminal EF-hand motif. Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.80 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 32.1, b = 42.2, c = 60.0 Å. The asymmetric unit was assumed to contain one molecular complex of the Akazara scallop TnC C-lobe and TnI fragment, with a Matthews coefficient of 1.83 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 33.0%.

  1. Claudin-4 Overexpression in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Is Associated with Hypomethylation and Is a Potential Target for Modulation of Tight Junction Barrier Function Using a C-Terminal Fragment of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin1

    PubMed Central

    Litkouhi, Babak; Kwong, Joseph; Lo, Chun-Min; Smedley, James G; McClane, Bruce A; Aponte, Margarita; Gao, Zhijian; Sarno, Jennifer L; Hinners, Jennifer; Welch, William R; Berkowitz, Ross S; Mok, Samuel C; Garner, Elizabeth I O

    2007-01-01

    Background Claudin-4, a tight junction (TJ) protein and receptor for the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Previous research suggests DNA methylation is a mechanism for claudin-4 overexpression in cancer and that C-CPE acts as an absorption-enhancing agent in claudin-4-expressing cells. We sought to correlate claudin-4 overexpression in EOC with clinical outcomes and TJ barrier function, investigate DNA methylation as a mechanism for overexpression, and evaluate the effect of C-CPE on the TJ. Methods Claudin-4 expression in EOC was quantified and correlated with clinical outcomes. Claudin-4 methylation status was determined, and claudin-4-negative cell lines were treated with a demethylating agent. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing was used to calculate junctional (paracellular) resistance (Rb) in EOC cells after claudin-4 silencing and after C-CPE treatment. Results Claudin-4 overexpression in EOC does not correlate with survival or other clinical endpoints and is associated with hypomethylation. Claudin-4 overexpression correlates with Rb and C-CPE treatment of EOC cells significantly decreased Rb in a dose- and claudin-4-dependent noncytotoxic manner. Conclusions C-CPE treatment of EOC cells leads to altered TJ function. Further research is needed to determine the potential clinical applications of C-CPE in EOC drug delivery strategies. PMID:17460774

  2. Length of the active-site crossover loop defines the substrate specificity of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases for ubiquitin chains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zi-Ren; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Liu, Shuai; Song, Ai-Xin; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2012-01-01

    UCHs [Ub (ubiquitin) C-terminal hydrolases] are a family of deubiquitinating enzymes that are often thought to only remove small C-terminal peptide tails from Ub adducts. Among the four UCHs identified to date, neither UCH-L3 nor UCH-L1 can catalyse the hydrolysis of isopeptide Ub chains, but UCH-L5 can when it is present in the PA700 complex of the proteasome. In the present paper, we report that the UCH domain of UCH-L5, different from UCH-L1 and UCH-L3, by itself can process the K48-diUb (Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin) substrate by cleaving the isopeptide bond between two Ub units. The catalytic specificity of the four UCHs is dependent on the length of the active-site crossover loop. The UCH domain with a long crossover loop (usually >14 residues), such as that of UCH-L5 or BAP1 [BRCA1 (breast cancer early-onset 1)-associated protein 1], is able to cleave both small and large Ub derivatives, whereas the one with a short loop can only process small Ub derivatives. We also found that elongation of the crossover loop enables UCH-L1 to have isopeptidase activity for K48-diUb in a length-dependent manner. Thus the loop length of UCHs defines their substrate specificity for diUb chains, suggesting that the chain flexibility of the crossover loop plays an important role in determining its catalytic activity and substrate specificity for cleaving isopeptide Ub chains.

  3. Prolonged activation of phospholipase D in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing platelet-activating-factor receptor lacking cytoplasmic C-terminal tail.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, B; Nakashima, S; Adachi, T; Ito, Y; Takano, T; Shimizu, T; Nozawa, Y

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism and role of phospholipase D (PLD) activation by platelet-activating factor (PAF) were examined with Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing wild-type PAF receptor (WT-H cells) and truncated PAF receptor lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail (D-H cells). Treatment of D-H cells with PAF resulted in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, which was followed by a sustained phase for more than 10 min. In these cells, PAF-induced PLD activation lasted for more than 20 min. In contrast, PLD activation in WT-H cells was transient. PAF stimulation caused the biphasic formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DG) in both types of cell. The first phase was rapid and transient, coinciding with the Ins(1,4,5)P3 peak. The second sustained phase of DG formation was attenuated by butanol, which produces phosphatidylbutanol at the expense of phosphatidic acid (PA) by transphosphatidylation activity of PLD, and by propranolol, a selective inhibitor for PA phosphohydrolase catalysing the conversion of PA into DG. The DG level returned nearly to basal at 20 min after PAF stimulation in WT-H cells, whereas in D-H cells the elevated DG level was sustained for more than 20 min. The profile of translocation of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) to membrane was similar to that of DG formation. In WT-H cells, PKCalpha was transiently associated with membranes and then returned to the cytosol. However, in D-H cells PKCalpha was rapidly translocated to and remained in membranes for more than 20 min. Butanol suppressed this sustained translocation of PKCalpha. Furthermore the mRNA levels of c-fos and c-jun by PAF in WT-H cells were much lower than those in D-H cells. Propranolol and butanol at concentrations that inhibited the formation of DG suppressed the PAF-induced mRNA expression of c-fos and c-jun. Taken together, the prolonged PLD activation in D-H cells confirmed a primary role for phospholipase C/PKC in PLD activation by PAF. Furthermore the results obtained here suggest that

  4. Enzyme Activity of Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL-1) Is Controlled by Redox Environment and Its C-terminal Residues†

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Andria L.; Vartia, Anthony A.; Williams, Todd D.; Laurence, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 (PRL-1) belongs to a unique subfamily of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) associated with oncogenic and metastatic phenotypes. While considerable evidence exists to supports a role for PRL-1 in promoting proliferation, the biological regulators and effectors of PRL-1 activity remain unknown. PRL-1 activity is inhibited by disulfide bond formation at the active site in vitro, suggesting PRL-1 may be susceptible to redox regulation in vivo. Because PRL-1 has been observed to localize to several different subcellular locations and cellular redox conditions vary with tissue type, age, stage of cell cycle and subcellular location, we determined the reduction potential of the active site disulfide bond that controls phosphatase activity to better understand the function of PRL-1 in various cellular environments. We used high-resolution solution NMR spectroscopy to measure the potential and found it to be −364.3 ± 1.5 mV. Because normal cellular environments range from −170 to −320 mV, we concluded that nascent PRL-1 would be primarily oxidized inside cells. Our studies show that a significant conformational change accompanies activation, suggesting a post-translational modification may alter the reduction potential, conferring activity. We further demonstrate that alteration of the C-terminus renders the protein reduced and active in vitro, implying the C-terminus is an important regulator of PRL-1 function. These data provide a basis for understanding how subcellular localization regulates the activity of PRL-1 and, with further investigation, may help reveal how PRL-1 promotes unique outcomes in different cellular systems, including proliferation in both normal and diseased states. PMID:19341304

  5. In vitro and in vivo activities of T4 endonuclease V mutants altered in the C-terminal aromatic region

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Hori, N.; Inaoka, T.; Ohtsuka, E. )

    1990-04-24

    Genes encoding mutants of the thymine photodimer repair enzyme from bacteriophage T4 (T4 endonuclease V) having an amino acid substitution (T127M, W128A, W128S, Y129A, K130L, Y131A, Y132A) were constructed by use of a previously obtained synthetic gene and expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the E. coli tryptophan promoter. An in vitro assay of partially fractionated mutant proteins for glycosylase activity was performed with chemically synthesized substrates containing a thymine photodimer. T127M and K130L showed almost the same activity as the wild-type protein. Although W128S, Y131A, and Y132A were slightly active, W128A and Y129A lost activity. The results indicated that the aromatic amino acids around position 130 may be important for the glycosylase activity. Mutant T127M was purified, and the Km value was found to be of the same order as that of the wild type (10(-8) M). In vivo activities for all mutants were characterized with UV-sensitive E. coli. The results showed that substitution of Thr-127 with Met or Lys-130 with Leu did not have an effect on the survival of the bacteria but substitution of aromatic amino acids (128-132) had various effects on survival.

  6. Nuclear dynamics of topoisomerase IIβ reflects its catalytic activity that is regulated by binding of RNA to the C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Akihisa; Hosoya, Osamu; Sano, Kuniaki; Kiyama, Kazuko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shinji; Furuta, Ryohei; Miyaji, Mary; Tsutsui, Ken; Tsutsui, Kimiko M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) changes DNA topology by cleavage/re-ligation cycle(s) and thus contributes to various nuclear DNA transactions. It is largely unknown how the enzyme is controlled in a nuclear context. Several studies have suggested that its C-terminal domain (CTD), which is dispensable for basal relaxation activity, has some regulatory influence. In this work, we examined the impact of nuclear localization on regulation of activity in nuclei. Specifically, human cells were transfected with wild-type and mutant topo IIβ tagged with EGFP. Activity attenuation experiments and nuclear localization data reveal that the endogenous activity of topo IIβ is correlated with its subnuclear distribution. The enzyme shuttles between an active form in the nucleoplasm and a quiescent form in the nucleolus in a dynamic equilibrium. Mechanistically, the process involves a tethering event with RNA. Isolated RNA inhibits the catalytic activity of topo IIβ in vitro through the interaction with a specific 50-residue region of the CTD (termed the CRD). Taken together, these results suggest that both the subnuclear distribution and activity regulation of topo IIβ are mediated by the interplay between cellular RNA and the CRD. PMID:25034690

  7. Interaction between the tRNA-Binding and C-Terminal Domains of Yeast Gcn2 Regulates Kinase Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lageix, Sebastien; Zhang, Jinwei; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The stress-activated protein kinase Gcn2 regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α. Gcn2 is activated in amino acid-deprived cells by binding of uncharged tRNA to the regulatory domain related to histidyl-tRNA synthetase, but the molecular mechanism of activation is unclear. We used a genetic approach to identify a key regulatory surface in Gcn2 that is proximal to the predicted active site of the HisRS domain and likely remodeled by tRNA binding. Mutations leading to amino acid substitutions on this surface were identified that activate Gcn2 at low levels of tRNA binding (Gcd- phenotype), while other substitutions block kinase activation (Gcn- phenotype), in some cases without altering tRNA binding by Gcn2 in vitro. Remarkably, the Gcn- substitutions increase affinity of the HisRS domain for the C-terminal domain (CTD), previously implicated as a kinase autoinhibitory segment, in a manner dampened by HisRS domain Gcd- substitutions and by amino acid starvation in vivo. Moreover, tRNA specifically antagonizes HisRS/CTD association in vitro. These findings support a model wherein HisRS-CTD interaction facilitates the autoinhibitory function of the CTD in nonstarvation conditions, with tRNA binding eliciting kinase activation by weakening HisRS-CTD association with attendant disruption of the autoinhibitory KD-CTD interaction. PMID:25695491

  8. Germinal-center kinase-like kinase co-crystal structure reveals a swapped activation loop and C-terminal extension.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Douglas; Rushe, Mia; M Arduini, Robert; Lukacs, Christine; Atkins, Kateri; Sun, Xin; Little, Kevin; Cullivan, Michael; Paramasivam, Murugan; Patterson, Thomas A; Hesson, Thomas; D McKee, Timothy; May-Dracka, Tricia L; Xin, Zhili; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea; Bhisetti, Govinda R; Lyssikatos, Joseph P; Silvian, Laura F

    2017-02-01

    Germinal-center kinase-like kinase (GLK, Map4k3), a GCK-I family kinase, plays multiple roles in regulating apoptosis, amino acid sensing, and immune signaling. We describe here the crystal structure of an activation loop mutant of GLK kinase domain bound to an inhibitor. The structure reveals a weakly associated, activation-loop swapped dimer with more than 20 amino acids of ordered density at the carboxy-terminus. This C-terminal PEST region binds intermolecularly to the hydrophobic groove of the N-terminal domain of a neighboring molecule. Although the GLK activation loop mutant crystallized demonstrates reduced kinase activity, its structure demonstrates all the hallmarks of an "active" kinase, including the salt bridge between the C-helix glutamate and the catalytic lysine. Our compound displacement data suggests that the effect of the Ser170Ala mutation in reducing kinase activity is likely due to its effect in reducing substrate peptide binding affinity rather than reducing ATP binding or ATP turnover. This report details the first structure of GLK; comparison of its activation loop sequence and P-loop structure to that of Map4k4 suggests ideas for designing inhibitors that can distinguish between these family members to achieve selective pharmacological inhibitors.

  9. FGF1 C-terminal domain and phosphorylation regulate intracrine FGF1 signaling for its neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, E; Jah, N; Pirou, C; Bouleau, S; Le Floch, N; Vayssière, J-L; Mignotte, B; Renaud, F

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is a prototypic member of the FGFs family overexpressed in various tumors. Contrarily to most FGFs, FGF1 lacks a secretion peptide signal and acts mainly in an intracellular and nuclear manner. Intracellular FGF1 induces cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. We previously showed that intracellular FGF1 induces neuronal differentiation and inhibits both p53- and serum-free-medium-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. FGF1 nuclear localization is required for these intracellular activities, suggesting that FGF1 regulates p53-dependent apoptosis and neuronal differentiation by new nuclear pathways. To better characterize intracellular FGF1 pathways, we studied the effect of three mutations localized in the C-terminal domain of FGF1 (i.e., FGF1K132E, FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D) on FGF1 neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities in PC12 cells. The change of the serine 130 to alanine precludes FGF1 phosphorylation, while its mutation to aspartic acid mimics phosphorylation. These FGF1 mutants kept both a nuclear and cytosolic localization in PC12 cells. Our study highlights for the first time the role of FGF1 phosphorylation and the implication of FGF1 C-terminal domain on its intracellular activities. Indeed, we show that the K132E mutation inhibits both the neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities of FGF1, suggesting a regulatory activity for FGF1 C terminus. Furthermore, we observed that both FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D mutant forms induced PC12 cells neuronal differentiation. Therefore, FGF1 phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Then, we showed that only FGF1S130A protects PC12 cells against p53-dependent apoptosis, thus phosphorylation appears to inhibit FGF1 anti-apoptotic activity in PC12 cells. Altogether, our results show that phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1 neurotrophic activity but inhibits its anti-apoptotic activity after p53-dependent apoptosis induction, giving new insight

  10. The C-terminal region of the motor protein MCAK controls its structure and activity through a conformational switch.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, Sandeep K; Harker, Bethany; Welburn, Julie P I

    2015-04-27

    The precise regulation of microtubule dynamics is essential during cell division. The kinesin-13 motor protein MCAK is a potent microtubule depolymerase. The divergent non-motor regions flanking the ATPase domain are critical in regulating its targeting and activity. However, the molecular basis for the function of the non-motor regions within the context of full-length MCAK is unknown. Here, we determine the structure of MCAK motor domain bound to its regulatory C-terminus. Our analysis reveals that the MCAK C-terminus binds to two motor domains in solution and is displaced allosterically upon microtubule binding, which allows its robust accumulation at microtubule ends. These results demonstrate that MCAK undergoes long-range conformational changes involving its C-terminus during the soluble to microtubule-bound transition and that the C-terminus-motor interaction represents a structural intermediate in the MCAK catalytic cycle. Together, our work reveals intrinsic molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of kinesin-13 activity.

  11. Specific Activation of the Plant P-type Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Lysophospholipids Depends on the Autoinhibitory N- and C-terminal Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Wielandt, Alex Green; Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl; Falhof, Janus; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Lund, Anette; Ekberg, Kira; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic P-type plasma membrane H+-ATPases are primary active transport systems that are regulated at the post-translation level by cis-acting autoinhibitory domains, which can be relieved by protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation or binding of specific lipid species. Here we show that lysophospholipids specifically activate a plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Arabidopsis thaliana AHA2) by a mechanism that involves both cytoplasmic terminal domains of AHA2, whereas they have no effect on the fungal counterpart (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pma1p). The activation was dependent on the glycerol backbone of the lysophospholipid and increased with acyl chain length, whereas the headgroup had little effect on activation. Activation of the plant pump by lysophospholipids did not involve the penultimate residue, Thr-947, which is known to be phosphorylated as part of a binding site for activating 14-3-3 protein, but was critically dependent on a single autoinhibitory residue (Leu-919) upstream of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain in AHA2. A corresponding residue is absent in the fungal counterpart. These data indicate that plant plasma membrane H+-ATPases evolved as specific receptors for lysophospholipids and support the hypothesis that lysophospholipids are important plant signaling molecules. PMID:25971968

  12. Antibacterial activity of peptides derived from the C-terminal region of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Suenaga, Tomoko; Eto, Seiichiro; Niidome, Takuro; Aoyagi, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    Several synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal domain sequence of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, were examined as to their action on bacteria and artificial lipid membranes. Peptide P332 (KGVIFAKASVSVKVTASLSK-NH(2)), corresponding to the sequence from residue 332, exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive bacteria. Replacement of each Lys in P332 by Ala markedly decreased the activity. However, when all Lys were replaced by Arg, the antibacterial activity increased, indicating the importance of positively charged residues at these positions. Replacement of Val by Leu also led to higher antibacterial activity, especially toward Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of these peptides was correlated with their membrane-permeabilizing activity toward the bacterial inner membrane and artificial lipid vesicles, indicating that the antibacterial action is due to perturbation of bacterial cell membranes, leading to enhancement of their permeability. These results also suggest that the hydrophobic region of CEL-III, from which P332 and its analogs were derived, may play some role in the interaction with target cell membranes to trigger hemolysis.

  13. Elevated Plasma C-Terminal Endothelin-1 Precursor Fragment Concentrations Are Associated with Less Anxiety in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Results from the Observational DIAST-CHF Study

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Herrrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Roggenthien, Maren; Nolte, Kathleen; Pieske, Burkert

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the neurobiology of anxiety is unknown, therefore, we assessed in the observational multicenter DIAST-CHF study whether the C-terminal ET-1 precursor fragment (CT-proET-1) is linked to anxiety. Methods Plasma concentrations of CT-proET-1 were measured in a total of 1,410 patients presenting with cardiovascular risk factors (mean age 66.91±8.2 years, 49.3% males, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 60.0±8.2%) who had completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. Results Among the total study cohort (n = 1,410), there were 118 subjects (8.4%) with an HADS anxiety score above the cut-off level of 11 suggestive of clinically relevant anxiety. Plasma CT-proET-1 levels were significantly lower in the group of anxious patients as compared to non-anxious patients (p = 0.013). In regression models adjusted for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and diameters of left atrium and ventricle, plasma CT-proET-1 was again linked to anxiety (Exp(β) = 0.247, 95%-confidence interval [95%-CI] = 0.067–0.914, p = 0.036). Given the high prevalence of depressive disorders in anxious patients, we additionally included the HADS depression score as an independent variable in the models and found that CT-proET-1 remained a significant predictor of anxiety, independent of comorbid depression (Exp(β) = 0.114, 95%-CI = 0.023–0.566, p = 0.008). Conclusions Our data from a population-based study in outpatients with cardiovascular risk factors revealed that circulating CT-proET-1 levels are negatively associated with anxiety. Further investigations are required to clarify the putative anxiolytic effect of ET-1 or its precursor molecules in humans and to decipher its mechanistic pathways. PMID:26322793

  14. Synthesis of analogues of the Des-Phe-NH2 C-terminal hexapeptide of cholecystokinin showing gastrin antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Laur, J; Rodriguez, M; Aumelas, A; Bali, J P; Martinez, J

    1986-04-01

    Four analogues of Z-CCK-27-32-NH2, Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-NH2, a cholecystokinin receptor antagonist have been synthesized by solution methodology. In these analogues, Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-NH2 16, Z-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-NH2 17, BOC-Tyr(SO3-)-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-NH2 24 and Boc-Tyr(SO3-)-Met-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-NH2 25 methionyl residues were replaced by norleucyl residues. Preliminary biological activity on gastrin-induced acid secretion, in rat, are reported. These derivatives proved to antagonize the action of gastrin, with ED 50 of between 0.5 and 3 mg/kg.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity of partially modified retro-inverso pseudopeptide derivatives of the C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Dubreuil, P; Bali, J P; Martinez, J

    1987-05-01

    The effects of partial retro-inverso modifications of selected peptide bonds of the N-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin have been studied. In some of the synthesized compounds, the phenylalanyl residue has been replaced by the (R,S)-2-benzylmalonyl, 3-phenylpropionyl, benzylcarbamoyl, or benzyloxycarbonyl moieties. All pseudopeptides showed affinity for the gastrin receptor, in vitro, with potencies varying from IC50 = 10(-7) to IC50 = 10(-4) M. These compounds exhibited little or no activity on acid secretion in the anesthetized rat but were able to antagonize the action of gastrin. Among the most potent were Boc-Trp-Leu-gAsp-CO-CH2CH2C6H5 (20) (ED50 = 0.15 microM/kg), Boc-Trp-Leu-gAsp-m(R,S)Phe-NH2 (3) (ED50 = 0.15 microM/kg), and Boc-Trp-gLeu-D-Asp-m(R,S)Phe-NH2 (7) (ED50 = 0.3 microM/kg).

  16. Peptide-based inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease: structure-activity relationship at the C-terminal position.

    PubMed

    Rancourt, Jean; Cameron, Dale R; Gorys, Vida; Lamarre, Daniel; Poirier, Martin; Thibeault, Diane; Llinàs-Brunet, Montse

    2004-05-06

    The structure-activity relationship at the C-terminal position of peptide-based inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease is presented. The observation that the N-terminal cleavage product (DDIVPC-OH) of a substrate derived from the NS5A/5B cleavage site was a competitive inhibitor of the NS3 protease was previously described. The chemically unstable cysteine residue found at the P1 position of these peptide-based inhibitors could be replaced with a norvaline residue, at the expense of a substantial drop in the enzymatic activity. The fact that an aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACCA) residue at the P1 position of a tetrapeptide such as 1 led to a significant gain in the inhibitory enzymatic activity, as compared to the corresponding norvaline derivative 2, prompted a systematic study of substituent effects on the three-membered ring. We report herein that the incorporation of a vinyl group with the proper configuration onto this small cycle produced inhibitors of the protease with much improved in vitro potency. The vinyl-ACCA is the first reported carboxylic acid containing a P1 residue that produced NS3 protease inhibitors that are significantly more active than inhibitors containing a cysteine at the same position.

  17. C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) activates the expression of E-box clock genes with CLOCK/CYCLE in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Taichi Q; Matsumoto, Akira; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila, CLOCK/CYCLE heterodimer (CLK/CYC) is the primary activator of circadian clock genes that contain the E-box sequence in their promoter regions (hereafter referred to as "E-box clock genes"). Although extensive studies have investigated the feedback regulation of clock genes, little is known regarding other factors acting with CLK/CYC. Here we show that Drosophila C-terminal binding protein (dCtBP), a transcriptional co-factor, is involved in the regulation of the E-box clock genes. In vivo overexpression of dCtBP in clock cells lengthened or abolished circadian locomotor rhythm with up-regulation of a subset of the E-box clock genes, period (per), vrille (vri), and PAR domain protein 1ε (Pdp1ε). Co-expression of dCtBP with CLK in vitro also increased the promoter activity of per, vri, Pdp1ε and cwo depending on the amount of dCtBP expression, whereas no effect was observed without CLK. The activation of these clock genes in vitro was not observed when we used mutated dCtBP which carries amino acid substitutions in NAD+ domain. These results suggest that dCtBP generally acts as a putative co-activator of CLK/CYC through the E-box sequence.

  18. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-l1 activity induces polyubiquitin accumulation in podocytes and increases proteinuria in rat membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Meyer, Tobias N; Sievert, Henning; Hoxha, Elion; Sachs, Marlies; Klupp, Eva-Maria; Münster, Silvia; Balabanov, Stefan; Carrier, Lucie; Helmchen, Udo; Thaiss, Friedrich; Stahl, Rolf A K

    2011-05-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), a key protease of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Recently, de novo expression of UCH-L1 was described in podocytes in patients with membranous nephropathy (MN), in which UCH-L1 expression correlated with increased ubiquitin content. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of UCH-L1 in ubiquitin homeostasis and proteasomal degradation in a rat model of MN. After disease induction, UCH-L1 expression increased in podocytes and coincided with decreased glomerular monoubiquitin content. After an initial increase in proteasomal activity, the UPS was impaired. In addition to an increase of ubiquitin in podocytes, aggregates were observed 1 year after disease induction, as in MN in human beings. Inhibition of UCH-L1 hydrolase function in MN reduced UPS impairment and ameliorated proteinuria. In contrast, inhibition of proteasomal activity enhanced UPS impairment, resulting in increased proteinuria. Stable UCH-L1 overexpression in cultured podocytes resulted in accumulation of monoubiquitin and polyubiquitin proteins. In contrast, stable knock-down of UCH-L1 reduced monoubiquitin and polyubiquitin proteins and significantly increased proteasomal activity, indicating that the observed effects in rat MN also occurred in cultured podocytes. These data demonstrate that UCH-L1 activity results in polyubiquitin accumulation, proteasome inhibition, and disease aggravation in experimental models of MN.

  19. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  20. Essential Role of the C-Terminal Helical Domain in Active Site Formation of Selenoprotein MsrA from Clostridium oremlandii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kitaik; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2015-01-01

    We previously determined the crystal structures of 1-Cys type selenoprotein MsrA from Clostridium oremlandii (CoMsrA). The overall structure of CoMsrA is unusual, consisting of two domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and the C-terminal distinct helical domain which is absent from other known MsrA structures. Deletion of the helical domain almost completely abolishes the catalytic activity of CoMsrA. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the helical domain-deleted (ΔH-domain) form of CoMsrA at a resolution of 1.76 Å. The monomer structure is composed of the central rolled mixed β-sheet surrounded by α-helices. However, there are significant conformational changes in the N- and C-termini and loop regions of the ΔH-domain protein relative to the catalytic domain structure of full-length CoMsrA. The active site structure in the ΔH-domain protein completely collapses, thereby causing loss of catalytic activity of the protein. Interestingly, dimer structures are observed in the crystal formed by N-terminus swapping between two molecules. The ΔH-domain protein primarily exists as a dimer in solution, whereas the full-length CoMsrA exists as a monomer. Collectively, this study provides insight into the structural basis of the essential role of the helical domain of CoMsrA in its catalysis. PMID:25692691

  1. Proteasome Activation is Mediated via a Functional Switch of the Rpt6 C-terminal Tail Following Chaperone-dependent Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Vladyslava; Li, Frances; Polovin, George; Park, Soyeon

    2015-10-09

    In the proteasome, the proteolytic 20S core particle (CP) associates with the 19S regulatory particle (RP) to degrade polyubiquitinated proteins. Six ATPases (Rpt1-Rpt6) of the RP form a hexameric Rpt ring and interact with the heptameric α ring (α1-α7) of the CP via the Rpt C-terminal tails individually binding to the α subunits. Importantly, the Rpt6 tail has been suggested to be crucial for RP assembly. Here, we show that the interaction of the CP and Rpt6 tail promotes a CP-Rpt3 tail interaction, and that they jointly mediate proteasome activation via opening the CP gate for substrate entry. The Rpt6 tail forms a novel relationship with the Nas6 chaperone, which binds to Rpt3 and regulates the CP-Rpt3 tail interaction, critically influencing cell growth and turnover of polyubiquitinated proteins. CP-Rpt6 tail binding promotes the release of Nas6 from the proteasome. Based on disulfide crosslinking that detects cognate α3-Rpt6 tail and α2-Rpt3 tail interactions in the proteasome, decreased α3-Rpt6 tail interaction facilitates robust α2-Rpt3 tail interaction that is also strongly ATP-dependent. Together, our data support the reported role of Rpt6 during proteasome assembly, and suggest that its function switches from anchoring for RP assembly into promoting Rpt3-dependent activation of the mature proteasome.

  2. C-terminal truncated cannabinoid receptor 1 coexpressed with G protein trimer in Sf9 cells exists in a precoupled state and shows constitutive activity.

    PubMed

    Chillakuri, Chandramouli Reddy; Reinhart, Christoph; Michel, Hartmut

    2007-12-01

    We have investigated the existence of a precoupled form of the distal C-terminal truncated cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1-417) and heterotrimeric G proteins in a heterologous insect cell expression system. CB1-417 showed higher production levels than the full-length receptor. The production levels obtained in our expression system were double the values reported in the literature. We also observed that at least the distal C-terminus of the receptor was not involved in receptor dimerization, as was predicted in the literature. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that CB1-417 and Galpha(i1)beta(1)gamma(2) proteins were colocalized in the cells. GTPgammaS binding assays with the Sf9 cell membranes containing CB1-417 and the G protein trimer showed that the receptor could constitutively activate the Galpha(i1) protein in the absence of agonists. A CB1-specific antagonist (SR 141716A) inhibited this constitutive activity of the truncated receptor. We found that the CB1-417/Galpha(i1)beta(1)gamma(2) complex could be solubilized from Sf9 cell membranes and coimmunoprecipitated. In this study, we have proven that the receptor and G proteins can be coexpressed in higher yields using Sf9 cells, and that the protein complex is stable in detergent solution. Thus, our system can be used to produce sufficient quantities of the protein complex to start structural studies.

  3. Effect of semax and its C-terminal fragment Pro-Gly-Pro on the expression of VEGF family genes and their receptors in experimental focal ischemia of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, Ekaterina V; Dmitrieva, Veronika G; Povarova, Oksana V; Limborska, Svetlana A; Skvortsova, Veronika I; Myasoedov, Nikolay F; Dergunova, Lyudmila V

    2013-02-01

    The synthetic peptide Semax (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro) is used successfully in acute stroke therapy. In spite of numerous studies on the subject, many aspects of the neuroprotective effects of the peptide remain unknown. We studied the action of Semax and its C-terminal tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro on the expression of the VEGF gene family (Vegf-a, Vegf-b, Vegf-c, Vegf-d, and Plgf) and their receptors (Vegfr-1, Vegfr-2, and Vegfr-3) in the frontoparietal cortex region of the rat brain at 3, 24, and 72 h after permanent left middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). The relative mRNA level of the genes studied was assessed using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The Vegf-b and Vegf-d genes were most affected by the peptides, which resulted in their most noticeable activation at 3 h after pMCAO. The level of Vegf-d transcripts decreased considerably, whereas the mRNA level of the Vegf-b gene was significantly increased after 72 h of treatment with each of the peptides. In addition, the effects of the peptides on the expression of the Vegf-b and Vegf-d genes were the opposite of the action of ischemia. It is suggested that the identified effects of the peptides diminish the effects of ischemia, thus participating in the positive therapeutic effect of Semax on ischemic stroke.

  4. Cysteine residue 911 in C-terminal tail of human BK(Ca)α channel subunit is crucial for its activation by carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Telezhkin, Vsevolod; Brazier, Stephen P; Mears, Ruth; Müller, Carsten T; Riccardi, Daniela; Kemp, Paul J

    2011-06-01

    The large conductance, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channel, BK(Ca), is a known target for the gasotransmitter, carbon monoxide (CO). Activation of BK(Ca) by CO modulates cellular excitability and contributes to the physiology of a diverse array of processes, including vascular tone and oxygen-sensing. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the molecular mechanisms underpinning reception of CO by the BK(Ca). Here, employing voltage-clamped, inside-out patches from HEK293 cells expressing single, double and triple cysteine mutations in the BK(Ca) α-subunit, we test the hypothesis that CO regulation is conferred upon the channel by interactions with cysteine residues within the RCK2 domain. In physiological [Ca(2+)](i), all mutants carrying a cysteine substitution at position 911 (C911G) demonstrated significantly reduced CO sensitivity; the C911G mutant did not express altered Ca(2+)-sensitivity. In contrast, histidine residues in RCK1 domain, previously shown to ablate CO activation in low [Ca(2+)](i), actually increased CO sensitivity when [Ca(2+)](i) was in the physiological range. Importantly, cyanide, employed here as a substituent for CO at potential metal centres, occluded activation by CO; this effect was freely reversible. Taken together, these data suggest that a specific cysteine residue in the C-terminal domain, which is close to the Ca(2+) bowl but which is not involved in Ca(2+) activation, confers significant CO sensitivity to BK(Ca) channels. The rapid reversibility of CO and cyanide binding, coupled to information garnered from other CO-binding proteins, suggests that C911 may be involved in formation of a transition metal cluster which can bind and, thereafter, activate BK(Ca).

  5. In contrast to agonist monoclonal antibodies, both C-terminal truncated form and full length form of Pleiotrophin failed to activate vertebrate ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)?

    PubMed

    Mathivet, Thomas; Mazot, Pierre; Vigny, Marc

    2007-12-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase essentially and transiently expressed during development in specific regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. ALK expression persists at a lower level in the adult brain. Thus, it might play an important role in both the normal development and function of the nervous system. The nature of the cognate ligand of this receptor in vertebrates is still a matter of debate. Pleiotrophin and midkine have been proposed as ligands of ALK but several independent studies do not confirm this hypothesis. Interestingly, a recent study proposed that a C-terminal truncated form of Pleiotrophin (Pleiotrophin.15) and not the full length form (Pleiotrophin.18) promotes glioblastoma proliferation in an ALK-dependent fashion. These data were obviously a strong basis to conciliate the conflicting results so far reported in the literature. In the present study, we first purified to homogeneity the two forms of Pleiotrophin secreted by HEK 293 cells. In contrast to agonist monoclonal antibodies, both Pleiotrophin.15 and Pleiotrophin.18 failed to activate ALK in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells expressing this receptor. Thus, for our point of view, ALK is still an orphan receptor in vertebrates.

  6. Reconstitution of active octameric mitochondrial creatine kinase from two genetically engineered fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, M.; Wyss, M.; Furter-Graves, E. M.; Wallimann, T.; Furter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) has been postulated to consist of two flexibly hinged domains. A previously demonstrated protease-sensitive site in M-CK (Morris & Jackson, 1991) has directed our attempts to dissect mitochondrial CK (Mi-CK) into two protein fragments encompassing amino acids [1-167] and [168-380]. When expressed separately in Escherichia coli, the two fragments yielded large amounts of insoluble inclusion bodies, from which the respective polypeptides could be purified by a simple two-step procedure. In contrast, co-expression of the two fragments yielded a soluble, active, and correctly oligomerizing enzyme. This discontinuous CK showed nearly full specific activity and was virtually indistinguishable from native Mi-CK by far- and near-UV CD. However, the positive cooperativity of substrate binding was abolished, suggesting a role of the covalent domain linkage in the crosstalk between the substrate binding sites for ATP and creatine. The isolated C-terminal fragment refolded into a native-like conformation in vitro, whereas the N-terminal fragment was largely unfolded. Prefolded [168-380] interacted in vitro with [1-167] to form an active enzyme. Kinetic analysis indicated that the fragments associate rapidly and with high affinity (1/K1 = 17 microM) and then isomerize slowly to an active enzyme (k2 = 0.12 min-1; k-2 = 0.03 min-1). Our data suggest that the C-terminal fragment of Mi-CK represents an autonomous folding unit, and that the folding of the C-terminal part might precede the conformational stabilization of the N-terminal moiety in vivo. PMID:8745410

  7. A new mass-spectrometric C-terminal sequencing technique finds a similarity between gamma-interferon and alpha 2-interferon and identifies a proteolytically clipped gamma-interferon that retains full antiviral activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, K; Simona, M G; Offord, R E; Prior, C P; Otto, B; Thatcher, D R

    1983-01-01

    A novel mass-spectrometric technique is described that permits the identification of the C-terminal peptide of a protein. The technique involves the incorporation of 18O into all alpha-carboxy groups liberated during enzyme-catalysed partial hydrolysis of the protein, followed by mass spectrometry to identify as the C-terminal peptide the only peptide that did not incorporate any 18O. The technique has been used to identify the true C-terminal tryptic peptide of a bacterially produced gamma-interferon and to distinguish it from a peptide produced by anomalous tryptic cleavage. It was found that a closely similar sequence segment of bacterially produced alpha 2-interferon undergoes an analogous cleavage. The technique was also used to identify the C-terminus of a clipped gamma-interferon that retains full antiviral activity. PMID:6418141

  8. Mitrocomin from the jellyfish Mitrocoma cellularia with deleted C-terminal tyrosine reveals a higher bioluminescence activity compared to wild type photoprotein.

    PubMed

    Burakova, Ludmila P; Natashin, Pavel V; Markova, Svetlana V; Eremeeva, Elena V; Malikova, Natalia P; Cheng, Chongyun; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Vysotski, Eugene S

    2016-09-01

    The full-length cDNA genes encoding five new isoforms of Ca(2+)-regulated photoprotein mitrocomin from a small tissue sample of the outer bell margin containing photocytes of only one specimen of the luminous jellyfish Mitrocoma cellularia were cloned, sequenced, and characterized after their expression in Escherichia coli and subsequent purification. The analysis of cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding mitrocomin isoforms allowed suggestion that two isoforms might be the products of two allelic genes differing in one amino acid residue (64R/Q) whereas other isotypes appear as a result of transcriptional mutations. In addition, the crystal structure of mitrocomin was determined at 1.30Å resolution which expectedly revealed a high similarity with the structures of other hydromedusan photoproteins. Although mitrocomin isoforms reveal a high degree of identity of amino acid sequences, they vary in specific bioluminescence activities. At that, all isotypes displayed the identical bioluminescence spectra (473-474nm with no shoulder at 400nm). Fluorescence spectra of Ca(2+)-discharged mitrocomins were almost identical to their light emission spectra similar to the case of Ca(2+)-discharged aequorin, but different from Ca(2+)-discharged obelins and clytin which fluorescence is red-shifted by 25-30nm from bioluminescence spectra. The main distinction of mitrocomin from other hydromedusan photoproteins is an additional Tyr at the C-terminus. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that this Tyr is not important for bioluminescence because its deletion even increases specific activity and efficiency of apo-mitrocomin conversion into active photoprotein, in contrast to C-terminal Pro of other photoproteins. Since genes in a population generally exist as different isoforms, it makes us anticipate the cloning of even more isoforms of mitrocomin and other hydromedusan photoproteins with different bioluminescence properties.

  9. Mitrocomin from the jellyfish Mitrocoma cellularia with deleted C-terminal tyrosine reveals a higher bioluminescence activity compared to wild type photoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Burakova, Ludmila P.; Natashin, Pavel V.; Markova, Svetlana V.; Eremeeva, Elena V.; Malikova, Natalia P.; Cheng, Chongyun; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Vysotski, Eugene S.

    2016-09-01

    The full-length cDNA genes encoding five new isoforms of Ca2 +-regulated photoprotein mitrocomin from a small tissue sample of the outer bell margin containing photocytes of only one specimen of the luminous jellyfish Mitrocoma cellularia were cloned, sequenced, and characterized after their expression in Escherichia coli and subsequent purification. The analysis of cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding mitrocomin isoforms allowed suggestion that two isoforms might be the products of two allelic genes differing in one amino acid residue (64R/Q) whereas other isotypes appear as a result of transcriptional mutations. In addition, the crystal structure of mitrocomin was determined at 1.30 Å resolution which expectedly revealed a high similarity with the structures of other hydromedusan photoproteins. Although mitrocomin isoforms reveal a high degree of identity of amino acid sequences, they vary in specific bioluminescence activities. At that, all isotypes displayed the identical bioluminescence spectra (473–474 nm with no shoulder at 400 nm). Fluorescence spectra of Ca2 +-discharged mitrocomins were almost identical to their light emission spectra similar to the case of Ca2 +-discharged aequorin, but different from Ca2 +-discharged obelins and clytin which fluorescence is red-shifted by 25–30 nm from bioluminescence spectra. The main distinction of mitrocomin from other hydromedusan photoproteins is an additional Tyr at the C-terminus. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that this Tyr is not important for bioluminescence because its deletion even increases specific activity and efficiency of apo-mitrocomin conversion into active photoprotein, in contrast to C-terminal Pro of other photoproteins. Since genes in a population generally exist as different isoforms, it makes us anticipate the cloning of even more isoforms of mitrocomin and other hydromedusan photoproteins with different bioluminescence properties.

  10. The Human RecQ4 Helicase Contains a Functional RecQ C-terminal Region (RQC) That Is Essential for Activity.

    PubMed

    Mojumdar, Aditya; De March, Matteo; Marino, Francesca; Onesti, Silvia

    2017-03-10

    RecQ helicases are essential in the maintenance of genome stability. Five paralogues (RecQ1, Bloom, Werner, RecQ4, and RecQ5) are found in human cells, with distinct but overlapping roles. Mutations in human RecQ4 give rise to three distinct genetic disorders (Rothmund-Thomson, RAPADILINO, and Baller-Gerold syndromes), characterized by genetic instability, growth deficiency, and predisposition to cancer. Previous studies suggested that RecQ4 was unique because it did not seem to contain a RecQ C-terminal region (RQC) found in the other RecQ paralogues; such a region consists of a zinc domain and a winged helix domain and plays an important role in enzyme activity. However, our recent bioinformatic analysis identified in RecQ4 a putative RQC. To experimentally confirm this hypothesis, we report the purification and characterization of the catalytic core of human RecQ4. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry detected the unusual presence of two zinc clusters within the zinc domain, consistent with the bioinformatic prediction. Analysis of site-directed mutants, targeting key RQC residues (putative zinc ligands and the aromatic residue predicted to be at the tip of the winged helix β-hairpin), showed a decrease in DNA binding, unwinding, and annealing, as expected for a functional RQC domain. Low resolution structural information obtained by small angle X-ray scattering data suggests that RecQ4 interacts with DNA in a manner similar to RecQ1, whereas the winged helix domain may assume alternative conformations, as seen in the bacterial enzymes. These combined results experimentally confirm the presence of a functional RQC domain in human RecQ4.

  11. Defining the substrate specificity determinants recognized by the active site of C-terminal Src kinase-Homologous Kinase (CHK) and Identification of β-Synuclein as a Potential CHK Physiological Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ia, Kim K.; Jeschke, Grace R.; Deng, Yang; Kamaruddin, Mohd Aizuddin; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Scanlon, Denis B.; Culvenor, Janetta G.; Hossain, Mohammed Iqbal; Purcell, Anthony W.; Liu, Sheng; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Catimel, Bruno; Turk, Benjamin E.; Cheng, Heung-Chin

    2011-01-01

    C-terminal Src kinase-homologous kinase (CHK) exerts its tumor suppressor function by phosphorylating the C-terminal regulatory tyrosine of the Src-family kinases (SFKs). The phosphorylation suppresses their activity and oncogenic action. In addition to phosphorylating SFKs, CHK also performs non-SFK related functions by phosphorylating other cellular protein substrates. To define these non-SFK related functions of CHK, we used the `kinase substrate tracking and elucidation' method to search for its potential physiological substrates in rat brain cytosol. Our search revealed β-synuclein as a potential CHK substrate, and Y127 in β-synuclein as the preferential phosphorylation site. Using peptides derived from β-synuclein and positional scanning combinatorial peptide library screening, we defined the optimal substrate phosphorylation sequence recognized by the CHK active site to be E-x-[Φ/E/D]-Y-Φ-x-Φ, where Φ and x represent hydrophobic residues and any residue, respectively. Besides β-synuclein, cellular proteins containing motifs resembling this sequence are potential CHK substrates. Intriguingly, the CHK-optimal substrate phosphorylation sequence bears little resemblance to the C-terminal tail sequence of SFKs, indicating that interactions between the CHK active site and the local determinants near the C-terminal regulatory tyrosine of SFKs play only a minor role in governing specific phosphorylation of SFKs by CHK. Our results imply that recognition of SFKs by CHK is mainly governed by interactions between motifs located distally from the active site of CHK and determinants spatially separate from the C-terminal regulatory tyrosine in SFKs. Thus, besides assisting in the identification of potential CHK physiological substrates, our findings shed new light on how CHK recognizes SFKs and other protein substrates. PMID:21699177

  12. Autolysis of bovine enteropeptidase heavy chain: evidence of fragment 118-465 involvement in trypsinogen activation.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, A G; Rumsh, L D

    1999-01-15

    Variations in bovine enteropeptidase (EP) activity were shown to result from autolysis caused by the loss of calcium ions; the cleavage sites were determined. The native enzyme preferred its natural substrate, trypsinogen (KM=2.4 microM), to the peptide and fusion protein substrates (KM=200 and 125 microM, respectively). On the other hand, the truncated enzyme composed of the C-terminal fragment 466-800 of EP heavy chain and intact light chain did not distinguish these substrates. The results suggest that the N-terminal fragment 118-465 of the enteropeptidase heavy chain contains a secondary substrate-binding site that interacts directly with trypsinogen.

  13. Dandelion PPO-1/PPO-2 domain-swaps: the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum and the linker affects SDS-mediated activation and stability.

    PubMed

    Leufken, Christine M; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E

    2015-02-01

    Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have a conserved three-domain structure: (i) the N-terminal domain (containing the active site) is connected via (ii) a linker to (iii) the C-terminal domain. The latter covers the active site, thereby maintaining the enzyme in a latent state. Activation can be achieved with SDS but little is known about the mechanism. We prepared domain-swap variants of dandelion PPO-1 and PPO-2 to test the specific functions of individual domains and their impact on enzyme characteristics. Our experiments revealed that the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum curve and has a strong influence on the optimal pH value. The linker determines the SDS concentration required for full activation. It also influences the SDS concentration required for half maximal activation (kSDS) and the stability of the enzyme during prolonged incubation in buffers containing SDS, but the N-terminal domain has the strongest effect on these parameters. The N-terminal domain also determines the IC50 of SDS and the stability in buffers containing or lacking SDS. We propose that the linker and C-terminal domain fine-tune the activation of plant PPOs. The C-terminal domain adjusts the pH optimum and the linker probably contains an SDS-binding/interaction site that influences inactivation and determines the SDS concentration required for activation. For the first time, we have determined the influence of the three PPO domains on enzyme activation and stability providing insight into the regulation and activation mechanisms of type-3 copper proteins in general.

  14. Efficient, chemoselective synthesis of immunomicelles using single-domain antibodies with a C-terminal thioester

    PubMed Central

    Reulen, Sanne WA; van Baal, Ingrid; Raats, Jos MH; Merkx, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    Background Classical bioconjugation strategies for generating antibody-functionalized nanoparticles are non-specific and typically result in heterogeneous compounds that can be compromised in activity. Expression systems based on self-cleavable intein domains allow the generation of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thioester, providing a unique handle for site-specific conjugation using native chemical ligation (NCL). However, current methods to generate antibody fragments with C-terminal thioesters require cumbersome refolding procedures, effectively preventing application of NCL for antibody-mediated targeting and molecular imaging. Results Targeting to the periplasm of E. coli allowed efficient production of correctly-folded single-domain antibody (sdAb)-intein fusions proteins. On column purification and 2-mercapthoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA)-induced cleavage yielded single-domain antibodies with a reactive C-terminal MESNA thioester in good yields. These thioester-functionalized single-domain antibodies allowed synthesis of immunomicelles via native chemical ligation in a single step. Conclusion A novel procedure was developed to obtain soluble, well-folded single-domain antibodies with reactive C-terminal thioesters in good yields. These proteins are promising building blocks for the chemoselective functionalization via NCL of a broad range of nanoparticle scaffolds, including micelles, liposomes and dendrimers. PMID:19619333

  15. The C-terminal N-glycosylation sites of the human alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferase III, -V, and -VI (hFucTIII, -V, adn -VI) are necessary for the expression of full enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L L; Jensen, U B; Bross, P; Orntoft, T F

    2000-09-01

    The alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferases are involved in the synthesis of fucosylated cell surface glycoconjugates. Human alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferase III, -V, and -VI (hFucTIII, -V, and -VI) contain two conserved C-terminal N-glycosylation sites (hFucTIII: Asn154 and Asn185; hFucTV: Asn167 and Asn198; and hFucTVI: Asn153 and Asn184). In the present study, we have analyzed the functional role of these potential N-glycosylation sites, laying the main emphasis on the sites in hFucTIII. Tunicamycin treatment completely abolished hFucTIII enzyme activity while castanospermine treatment diminished hFucTIII enzyme activity to approximately 40% of the activity of the native enzyme. To further analyze the role of the conserved N-glycosylation sites in hFucTIII, -V, and -VI, we made a series of mutant genomic DNAs in which the asparagine residues in the potential C-terminal N-glycosylation sites were replaced by glutamine. Subsequently, the hFucTIII, -V, and -VI wild type and the mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells. All the mutants exhibited lower enzyme activity than the wild type and elimination of individual sites had different effects on the activity. The mutations did not affect the protein level of the mutants in the cells, but reduced the molecular mass as predicted. Kinetic analysis of hFucTIII revealed that lack of glycosylation at Asn185 did not change the Km values for the oligosaccharide acceptor and the nucleotide sugar donor. The present study demonstrates that hFucTIII, -V, and -VI require N-glycosylation at the two conserved C-terminal N-glycosylation sites for expression of full enzyme activity.

  16. Autoinhibition of the Nuclease ARTEMIS Is Mediated by a Physical Interaction between Its Catalytic and C-terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Niewolik, Doris; Peter, Ingrid; Butscher, Carmen; Schwarz, Klaus

    2017-02-24

    The nuclease ARTEMIS is essential for the development of B and T lymphocytes. It is required for opening DNA hairpins generated during antigen receptor gene assembly from variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) subgenic elements (V(D)J recombination). As a member of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, it is also involved in repairing a subset of pathological DNA double strand breaks. Loss of ARTEMIS function therefore results in radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency (RS-SCID). The hairpin opening activity is dependent on the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), which can bind to and phosphorylate ARTEMIS. The ARTEMIS C terminus is dispensable for cellular V(D)J recombination and in vitro nuclease assays with C-terminally truncated ARTEMIS showing DNA-PKcs-independent hairpin opening activity. Therefore, it has been postulated that ARTEMIS is regulated via autoinhibition by its C terminus. To obtain evidence for the autoinhibition model, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments with combinations of ARTEMIS mutants. We show that an N-terminal fragment comprising the catalytic domain can interact both with itself and with a C-terminal fragment. Amino acid exchanges N456A+S457A+E458Q in the C terminus of full-length ARTEMIS resulted in unmasking of the N terminus and in increased ARTEMIS activity in cellular V(D)J recombination assays. Mutations in ARTEMIS-deficient patients impaired the interaction with the C terminus and also affected protein stability. The interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains was not DNA-PKcs-dependent, and phosphomimetic mutations in the C-terminal domain did not result in unmasking of the catalytic domain. Our experiments provide strong evidence that a physical interaction between the C-terminal and catalytic domains mediates ARTEMIS autoinhibition.

  17. Two functions of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli Rob: mediating "sequestration-dispersal" as a novel off-on switch for regulating Rob's activity as a transcription activator and preventing degradation of Rob by Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Kevin L; Fitzpatrick, M Megan; Keen, Edward F; Wolf, Richard E

    2009-05-08

    In Escherichia coli, Rob activates transcription of the SoxRS/MarA/Rob regulon. Previous work revealed that Rob resides in three to four immunostainable foci, that dipyridyl and bile salts are inducers of its activity, and that inducers bind to Rob's C-terminal domain (CTD). We propose that sequestration inactivates Rob by blocking its access to the transcriptional machinery and that inducers activate Rob by mediating its dispersal, allowing interaction with RNA polymerase. To test "sequestration-dispersal" as a new mechanism for regulating the activity of transcriptional activators, we fused Rob's CTD to SoxS and used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the effect of inducers on SoxS-Rob's cellular localization. Unlike native SoxS, which is uniformly distributed throughout the cell, SoxS-Rob is sequestered without an inducer, but is rapidly dispersed when cells are treated with an inducer. In this manner, Rob's CTD serves as an anti-sigma factor in regulating the co-sigma-factor-like activity of SoxS when fused to it. Rob's CTD also protects its N-terminus from Lon protease, since Lon's normally rapid degradation of SoxS is blocked in the chimera. Accordingly, Rob's CTD has novel regulatory properties that can be bestowed on another E. coli protein.

  18. C-Terminal Domain Deletion Enhances the Protective Activity of cpa/cpb Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles against Leishmania major in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doroud, Delaram; Zahedifard, Farnaz; Vatanara, Alireza; Taslimi, Yasaman; Vahabpour, Rouholah; Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Vaziri, Behrooz; Rouholamini Najafabadi, Abdolhossein; Rafati, Sima

    2011-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that vaccination with pDNA encoding cysteine proteinase Type II (CPA) and Type I (CPB) with its unusual C-terminal extension (CTE) can partially protect BALB/c mice against cutaneous leishmanial infection. Unfortunately, this protection is insufficient to completely control infection without booster injection. Furthermore, in developing vaccines for leishmaniasis, it is necessary to consider a proper adjuvant and/or delivery system to promote an antigen specific immune response. Solid lipid nanoparticles have found their way in drug delivery system development against intracellular infections and cancer, but not Leishmania DNA vaccination. Therefore, undefined effect of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) as an adjuvant in enhancing the immune response toward leishmanial antigens led us to refocus our vaccine development projects. Methodology/Principal Findings Three pDNAs encoding L. major cysteine proteinase type I and II (with or without CTE) were formulated by cSLN. BALB/c mice were immunized twice by 3-week interval, with cSLN-pcDNA-cpa/b, pcDNA-cpa/b, cSLN-pcDNA-cpa/b-CTE, pcDNA-cpa/b-CTE, cSLN, cSLN-pcDNA and PBS. Mice vaccinated with cSLN-pcDNA-cpa/b-CTE showed significantly higher levels of parasite inhibition related to protection with specific Th1 immune response development, compared to other groups. Parasite inhibition was determined by different techniques currently available in exploration vacciation efficacy, i.e., flowcytometry on footpad and lymph node, footpad caliper based measurements and imaging as well as lymph node microtitration assay. Among these techniques, lymph node flowcytometry was found to be the most rapid, sensitive and easily reproducible method for discrimination between the efficacy of vaccination strategies. Conclusions/Significance This report demonstrates cSLN's ability to boost immune response magnitude of cpa/cpb-CTE cocktail vaccination against leishmaniasis so that the average

  19. The catalytic subunit of Dictyostelium cAMP-dependent protein kinase -- role of the N-terminal domain and of the C-terminal residues in catalytic activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Etchebehere, L C; Van Bemmelen, M X; Anjard, C; Traincard, F; Assemat, K; Reymond, C; Véron, M

    1997-09-15

    The C subunit of Dictyostelium cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is unusually large (73 kDa) due to the presence of 330 amino acids N-terminal to the conserved catalytic core. The sequence following the core, including a C-terminal -Phe-Xaa-Xaa-Phe-COOH motif, is highly conserved. We have characterized the catalytic activity and stability of C subunits mutated in sequences outside the catalytic core and we have analyzed their ability to interact with the R subunit and with the heat-stable protein-kinase inhibitor PKI. Mutants carrying deletions in the N-terminal domain displayed little difference in their kinetic properties and retained their capacity to be inhibited by R subunit and by PKI. In contrast, the mutation of one or both of the phenylalanine residues in the C-terminal motif resulted in a decrease of catalytic activity and stability of the proteins. Inhibition by the R subunit or by PKI were however unaffected. Sequence-comparison analysis of other protein kinases revealed that a -Phe-Xaa-Xaa-Phe- motif is present in many Ser/Thr protein kinases, although its location at the very end of the polypeptide is a particular feature of the PKA family. We propose that the presence of this motif may serve to identify isoforms of protein kinases.

  20. An α-helical C-terminal tail segment of the skeletal L-type Ca2+ channel β1a subunit activates ryanodine receptor type 1 via a hydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Karunasekara, Yamuna; Rebbeck, Robyn T; Weaver, Llara M; Board, Philip G; Dulhunty, Angela F; Casarotto, Marco G

    2012-12-01

    Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in skeletal muscle depends on protein interactions between the transverse tubule dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) voltage sensor and intracellular ryanodine receptor (RyR1) calcium release channel. We present novel data showing that the C-terminal 35 residues of the β(1a) subunit adopt a nascent α-helix in which 3 hydrophobic residues align to form a hydrophobic surface that binds to RyR1 isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. Mutation of the hydrophobic residues (L496, L500, W503) in peptide β(1a)V490-M524, corresponding to the C-terminal 35 residues of β(1a), reduced peptide binding to RyR1 to 15.2 ± 7.1% and prevented the 2.9 ± 0.2-fold activation of RyR1 by 10 nM wild-type peptide. An upstream hydrophobic heptad repeat implicated in β(1a) binding to RyR1 does not contribute to RyR1 activation. Wild-type β(1a)A474-A508 peptide (10 nM), containing heptad repeat and hydrophobic surface residues, increased RyR1 activity by 2.3 ± 0.2- and 2.2 ± 0.3-fold after mutation of the heptad repeat residues. We conclude that specific hydrophobic surface residues in the 35 residue β(1a) C-terminus bind to RyR1 and increase channel activity in lipid bilayers and thus may support skeletal EC coupling.

  1. Mitochondrial fragmentation in excitotoxicity requires ROCK activation.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Riera, Alejandro; Segarra-Mondejar, Marc; Reina, Manuel; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Soriano, Francesc X

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria morphology constantly changes through fission and fusion processes that regulate mitochondrial function, and it therefore plays a prominent role in cellular homeostasis. Cell death progression is associated with mitochondrial fission. Fission is mediated by the mainly cytoplasmic Drp1, which is activated by different post-translational modifications and recruited to mitochondria to perform its function. Our research and other studies have shown that in the early moments of excitotoxic insult Drp1 must be nitrosylated to mediate mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Nonetheless, mitochondrial fission is a multistep process in which filamentous actin assembly/disassembly and myosin-mediated mitochondrial constriction play prominent roles. Here we establish that in addition to nitric oxide production, excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial fragmentation also requires activation of the actomyosin regulator ROCK. Although ROCK1 has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Drp1, experiments using phosphor-mutant forms of Drp1 in primary cortical neurons indicate that in excitotoxic conditions, ROCK does not act directly on Drp1 to mediate fission, but may act on the actomyosin complex. Thus, these data indicate that a wider range of signaling pathways than those that target Drp1 are amenable to be inhibited to prevent mitochondrial fragmentation as therapeutic option.

  2. Protein splicing of inteins with atypical glutamine and aspartate C-terminal residues.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gil; Dassa, Bareket; Pietrokovski, Shmuel

    2004-01-30

    Inteins are protein-splicing domains present in many proteins. They self-catalyze their excision from the host protein, ligating their former flanks by a peptide bond. The C-terminal residue of inteins is typically an asparagine (Asn). Cyclization of this residue to succinimide causes the final detachment of inteins from their hosts. We studied protein-splicing activity of two inteins with atypical C-terminal residues. One having a C-terminal glutamine (Gln), isolated from Chilo iridescent virus (CIV), and another unique intein, first reported here, with a C-terminal aspartate, isolated from Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans (Chy). Protein-splicing activity was examined in the wild-type inteins and in several mutants with N- and C-terminal amino acid substitutions. We demonstrate that both wild-type inteins can protein splice, probably by new variations of the typical protein-splicing mechanism. Substituting the atypical C-terminal residue to the typical Asn retained protein-splicing only in the CIV intein. All diverse C-terminal substitutions in the Chy intein (Asp(345) to Asn, Gln, Glu, and Ala) abolished protein-splicing and generated N- and C-terminal cleavage. The observed C-terminal cleavage in the Chy intein ending with Ala cannot be explained by cyclization of this residue. We present and discuss several new models for reactions in the protein-splicing pathway.

  3. Calmodulin and calcium interplay in the modulation of TRPC5 channel activity. Identification of a novel C-terminal domain for calcium/calmodulin-mediated facilitation.

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Benito; Tang, Jisen; Xiao, Rui; Salgado, Alfonso; Sampieri, Alicia; Zhu, Michael X; Vaca, Luis

    2005-09-02

    TRPC5 forms Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels important for neurite outgrowth and growth cone morphology of hippocampal neurons. Here we studied the activation of mouse TRPC5 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary and human embryonic kidney 293 cells by agonist stimulation of several receptors that couple to the phosphoinositide signaling cascade and the role of calmodulin (CaM) on the activation. We showed that exogenous application of 10 microM CaM through patch pipette accelerated the agonist-induced channel activation by 2.8-fold, with the time constant for half-activation reduced from 4.25 +/- 0.4 to 1.56 +/- 0.85 min. We identified a novel CaM-binding site located at the C terminus of TRPC5, 95 amino acids downstream from the previously determined common CaM/IP3R-binding (CIRB) domain for all TRPC proteins. Deletion of the novel CaM-binding site attenuated the acceleration in channel activation induced by CaM. However, disruption of the CIRB domain from TRPC5 rendered the channel irresponsive to agonist stimulation without affecting the cell surface expression of the channel protein. Furthermore, we showed that high (>5 microM) intracellular free Ca2+ inhibited the current density without affecting the time course of TRPC5 activation by receptor agonists. These results demonstrated that intracellular Ca2+ has dual and opposite effects on the activation of TRPC5. The novel CaM-binding site is important for the Ca2+/CaM-mediated facilitation, whereas the CIRB domain is critical for the overall response of receptor-induced TRPC5 channel activation.

  4. Improvement of outer membrane-permeabilizing and lipopolysaccharide-binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification.

    PubMed

    Piers, K L; Brown, M H; Hancock, R E

    1994-10-01

    Antimicrobial cationic peptides have been discovered in many different organisms and often possess a broad range of activity. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of actions of melittin and two synthetic peptides, CEME (a cecropin-melittin hybrid) and CEMA, against gram-negative bacteria. CEMA was produced by recombinant DNA procedures and is an analog of CEME with a modified C terminus resulting in two additional positive charges. All three peptides showed good antimicrobial activity against four different gram-negative bacteria, but only CEMA was able to somewhat augment the activity of some conventional antibiotics in synergy studies. Studies using the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae showed that the peptides all possessed the ability to permeabilize bacterial outer membranes to the hydrophobic fluorophor 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine and the protein lysozyme, with CEMA being the most active. CEMA also had the strongest relative binding affinity for bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). These data collectively indicated that these peptides all cross the outer membrane by the self-promoted uptake pathway and that CEMA is the peptide most effective at accessing this pathway.

  5. Drosophila C-terminal binding protein, dCtBP is required for sensory organ prepattern and sharpens proneural transcriptional activity of the GATA factor Pnr.

    PubMed

    Biryukova, Inna; Heitzler, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    The peripheral nervous system is required for animals to detect and to relay environmental stimuli to central nervous system for the information processing. In Drosophila, the precise spatial and temporal expression of two proneural genes achaete (ac) and scute (sc), is necessary for development of the sensory organs. Here we present an evidence that the transcription co-repressor, dCtBP acts as a negative regulator of sensory organ prepattern. Loss of dCtBP function mutant exhibits ectopic sensory organs, while overexpression of dCtBP results in a dramatic loss of sensory organs. These phenotypes are correlated with mis-emerging of sensory organ precursors and perturbated expression of proneural transcription activator Ac. Mammalian CtBP-1 was identified via interaction with the consensus motif PXDLSX(K/R) of adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. We demonstrated that dCtBP binds directly to PLDLS motif of Drosophila Friend of GATA-1 protein, U-shaped and sharpens the adult sensory organ development. Moreover, we found that dCtBP mediates multivalent interaction with the GATA transcriptional activator Pannier and acts as a direct co-repressor of the Pannier-mediated activation of proneural genes. We demonstrated that Pannier genetically interacts with dCtBP-interacting protein HDAC1, suggesting that the dCtBP-dependent regulation of Pannier activity could utilize a repressive mechanism involving alteration of local chromatine structure.

  6. The C-terminal domain of the long form of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) inhibits the interaction of the caspase 8 prodomain with the receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) death domain and regulates caspase 8-dependent nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Iyo; Matsuo, Kentaro; Matsushita, Yuka; Haruna, Yasushi; Niwa, Masamitsu; Kataoka, Takao

    2014-02-14

    Caspase 8 plays an essential role in the regulation of apoptotic and non-apoptotic signaling pathways. The long form of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) has been shown previously to regulate caspase 8-dependent nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation by receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). In this study, the molecular mechanism by which c-FLIPL regulates caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation was further explored in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK 293 and variant cells barely expressing caspase 8. The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone greatly diminished caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation induced by Fas ligand (FasL) when c-FLIPL, but not its N-terminal fragment c-FLIP(p43), was expressed. The prodomain of caspase 8 was found to interact with the RIP1 death domain and to be sufficient to mediate NF-κB activation induced by FasL or c-FLIP(p43). The interaction of the RIP1 death domain with caspase 8 was inhibited by c-FLIPL but not c-FLIP(p43). Thus, these results reveal that the C-terminal domain of c-FLIPL specifically inhibits the interaction of the caspase 8 prodomain with the RIP1 death domain and, thereby, regulates caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation.

  7. The C-terminal Domain of the Long Form of Cellular FLICE-inhibitory Protein (c-FLIPL) Inhibits the Interaction of the Caspase 8 Prodomain with the Receptor-interacting Protein 1 (RIP1) Death Domain and Regulates Caspase 8-dependent Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Iyo; Matsuo, Kentaro; Matsushita, Yuka; Haruna, Yasushi; Niwa, Masamitsu; Kataoka, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Caspase 8 plays an essential role in the regulation of apoptotic and non-apoptotic signaling pathways. The long form of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) has been shown previously to regulate caspase 8-dependent nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation by receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). In this study, the molecular mechanism by which c-FLIPL regulates caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation was further explored in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK 293 and variant cells barely expressing caspase 8. The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone greatly diminished caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation induced by Fas ligand (FasL) when c-FLIPL, but not its N-terminal fragment c-FLIP(p43), was expressed. The prodomain of caspase 8 was found to interact with the RIP1 death domain and to be sufficient to mediate NF-κB activation induced by FasL or c-FLIP(p43). The interaction of the RIP1 death domain with caspase 8 was inhibited by c-FLIPL but not c-FLIP(p43). Thus, these results reveal that the C-terminal domain of c-FLIPL specifically inhibits the interaction of the caspase 8 prodomain with the RIP1 death domain and, thereby, regulates caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation. PMID:24398693

  8. A novel C-terminal homologue of Aha1 co-chaperone binds to heat shock protein 90 and stimulates its ATPase activity in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meetali; Shah, Varun; Tatu, Utpal

    2014-04-17

    Cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been shown to be essential for many infectious pathogens and is considered a potential target for drug development. In this study, we have carried out biochemical characterization of Hsp90 from a poorly studied protozoan parasite of clinical importance, Entamoeba histolytica. We have shown that Entamoeba Hsp90 can bind to both ATP and its pharmacological inhibitor, 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin), with Kd values of 365.2 and 10.77 μM, respectively, and it has a weak ATPase activity with a catalytic efficiency of 4.12×10(-4) min(-1) μM(-1). Using inhibitor 17-AAG, we have shown dependence of Entamoeba on Hsp90 for its growth and survival. Hsp90 function is regulated by various co-chaperones. Previous studies suggest a lack of several important co-chaperones in E. histolytica. In this study, we describe the presence of a novel homologue of co-chaperone Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase), EhAha1c, lacking a canonical Aha1 N-terminal domain. We also show that EhAha1c is capable of binding and stimulating ATPase activity of EhHsp90. In addition to highlighting the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors as drugs against amoebiasis, our study highlights the importance of E. histolytica in understanding the evolution of Hsp90 and its co-chaperone repertoire.

  9. The C-terminal domain-phosphorylated IIO form of RNA polymerase II is associated with the transcription repressor NC2 (Dr1/DRAP1) and is required for transcription activation in human nuclear extracts.

    PubMed

    Castaño, E; Gross, P; Wang, Z; Roeder, R G; Oelgeschläger, T

    2000-06-20

    Activation of class II gene transcription may involve alleviation of transcription repression as well as stimulation of the assembly and function of the general RNA polymerase (RNAP) II transcription machinery. Here, we investigated whether activator-reversible transcription repression by NC2 (Dr1/DRAP1) contributes to maximum induction levels in unfractionated HeLa nuclear extracts. Surprisingly, we found that depletion of NC2 does not significantly affect basal transcription, but dramatically reduces activated transcription. Immunoblot analyses revealed that the loss of activator function coincides with selective removal of the C-terminal domain (CTD)-hyperphosphorylated RNAP IIO along with NC2. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with purified factors confirmed that NC2 interacts with RNAP IIO, but not with the unphosphorylated or hypophosphorylated RNAP IIA or CTD-less RNAP IIB forms. Finally, we demonstrate that, in contrast to previously published observations in cell-free systems reconstituted with purified factors, only the CTD-phosphorylated form of RNAP II can mediate activator function in the context of unfractionated HeLa nuclear extracts. These findings reveal an unexpected link between NC2 and transcription activation and suggest that regulation of RNAP II transcription through reversible CTD phosphorylation might be more complex than previously proposed.

  10. Efficient heterologous expression and one-step purification of fully active c-terminal histidine-tagged uridine monophosphate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Penpassakarn, Praweenuch; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit

    2011-11-01

    Tuberculosis has long been recognized as one of the most significant public health problems. Finding novel antituberculous drugs is always a necessary approach for controlling the disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pyrH gene (Rv2883c) encodes for uridine monophosphate kinase (UMK), which is a key enzyme in the uridine nucleotide interconversion pathway. The enzyme is essential for M. tuberculosis to sustain growth and hence is a potential drug target. In this study, we have developed a rapid protocol for production and purification of M. tuberculosis UMK by cloning pyrH (Rv2883c) of M. tuberculosis H37Rv with the addition of 6-histidine residues to the C-terminus of the protein, and expressing in E. coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIPL using an auto-induction medium. The enzyme was efficiently purified by a single-step TALON cobalt affinity chromatography with about 8 fold increase in specific activity, which was determined by a coupled assay with the pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. The molecular mass of monomeric UMK was 28.2 kDa and that of the native enzyme was 217 kDa. The enzyme uses UMP as a substrate but not CMP and TMP and activity was enhanced by GTP. Measurements of enzyme kinetics revealed the kcat value of 7.6 +/- 0.4 U mg(-1) or 0.127 +/- 0.006 sec(-1).The protocol reported here can be used for expression of M. tuberculosis UMK in large quantity for formulating a high throughput target-based assay for screening anti-tuberculosis UMK compounds.

  11. Phosphorylation of Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3/BKLF) and C-terminal Binding Protein 2 (CtBP2) by Homeodomain-interacting Protein Kinase 2 (HIPK2) Modulates KLF3 DNA Binding and Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Dewi, Vitri; Kwok, Alister; Lee, Stella; Lee, Ming Min; Tan, Yee Mun; Nicholas, Hannah R.; Isono, Kyo-ichi; Wienert, Beeke; Mak, Ka Sin; Knights, Alexander J.; Quinlan, Kate G. R.; Cordwell, Stuart J.; Funnell, Alister P. W.; Pearson, Richard C. M; Crossley, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3/BKLF), a member of the Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcription factors, is a widely expressed transcriptional repressor with diverse biological roles. Although there is considerable understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow KLF3 to silence the activity of its target genes, less is known about the signal transduction pathways and post-translational modifications that modulate KLF3 activity in response to physiological stimuli. We observed that KLF3 is modified in a range of different tissues and found that the serine/threonine kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) can both bind and phosphorylate KLF3. Mass spectrometry identified serine 249 as the primary phosphorylation site. Mutation of this site reduces the ability of KLF3 to bind DNA and repress transcription. Furthermore, we also determined that HIPK2 can phosphorylate the KLF3 co-repressor C-terminal binding protein 2 (CtBP2) at serine 428. Finally, we found that phosphorylation of KLF3 and CtBP2 by HIPK2 strengthens the interaction between these two factors and increases transcriptional repression by KLF3. Taken together, our results indicate that HIPK2 potentiates the activity of KLF3. PMID:25659434

  12. Thermally activated fragmentation of a homopolymer chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugmann, Simon; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2011-03-01

    We consider the thermally activated fragmentation of a homopolymer chain, which can exhibit strongly non-Markovian behavior on the timescale of interest. In our model the dynamics of the intact chain is a Rouse one until a bond breaks and bond breakdown is considered as a first passage problem over a barrier to an absorbing boundary. Using the framework of the Wilemski-Fixman approximation we calculate activation times of individual bonds for free and grafted polymer chains. We show that these times crucially depend on the length of the chain and the location of the bond yielding a minimum at the free chain ends. Going beyond the Wilemski-Fixman approximation we show that a generalized form of the renewal equation for barrier crossings serves to improve the quantitative agreement between numerical simulations and analytical predictions. The authors thankfully acknowledge financial support by DFG within the SFB 555 research collaboration program.

  13. BS69/ZMYND11 C-Terminal Domains Bind and Inhibit EBNA2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Xu, Muyu; Martinez, Ernest; Peng, Chih-Wen; Song, Jikui

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) plays an important role in driving immortalization of EBV-infected B cells through regulating the expression of many viral and cellular genes. We report a structural study of the tumor suppressor BS69/ZMYND11 C-terminal region, comprised of tandem coiled-coil-MYND domains (BS69CC-MYND), in complex with an EBNA2 peptide containing a PXLXP motif. The coiled-coil domain of BS69 self-associates to bring two separate MYND domains in close proximity, thereby enhancing the BS69 MYND-EBNA2 interaction. ITC analysis of BS69CC-MYND with a C-terminal fragment of EBNA2 further suggests that the BS69CC-MYND homodimer synergistically binds to the two EBNA2 PXLXP motifs that are respectively located in the conserved regions CR7 and CR8. Furthermore, we showed that EBNA2 interacts with BS69 and down-regulates its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in EBV-infected B cells. Ectopic BS69CC-MYND is recruited to viral target promoters through interactions with EBNA2, inhibits EBNA2-mediated transcription activation, and impairs proliferation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Substitution of critical residues in the MYND domain impairs the BS69-EBNA2 interaction and abolishes the BS69 inhibition of the EBNA2-mediated transactivation and LCL proliferation. This study identifies the BS69 C-terminal domains as an inhibitor of EBNA2, which may have important implications in development of novel therapeutic strategies against EBV infection. PMID:26845565

  14. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) acts as a novel potentiator of cyclin-dependent kinases to enhance cell proliferation independently of its hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Kabuta, Tomohiro; Mitsui, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masaki; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kabuta, Chihana; Konya, Chiho; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Hatanaka, Yusuke; Uchida, Kenko; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Wada, Keiji

    2013-05-03

    Dysregulation of cell proliferation and the cell cycle are associated with various diseases, such as cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play central roles in cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is expressed in a restricted range of tissues, including the brain and numerous types of cancer. However, the molecular functions of UCH-L1 remain elusive. In this study, we found that UCH-L1 physically interacts with CDK1, CDK4, and CDK5, enhancing their kinase activity. Using several mutants of UCH-L1, we showed that this enhancement is dependent upon interaction levels between UCH-L1 and CDKs but is independent of the known ubiquitin-related functions of UCH-L1. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that UCH-L1 enhances proliferation of multiple cell types, including human cancer cells. Inhibition of the interaction between UCH-L1 and cell cycle-associated CDK resulted in the abolishment of UCH-L1-induced enhancement of cell proliferation. RNA interference of UCH-L1 reduced the growth of human xenograft tumors in mice. We concluded that UCH-L1 is a novel regulator of the kinase activities of CDKs. We believe that our findings from this study will significantly contribute to our understanding of cell cycle-associated diseases.

  15. Role of the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 in degradation of the LDL receptors.

    PubMed

    Holla, Øystein L; Cameron, Jamie; Tveten, Kristian; Strøm, Thea Bismo; Berge, Knut Erik; Laerdahl, Jon K; Leren, Trond P

    2011-10-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the cell surface and disrupts the normal recycling of the LDLR. In this study, we investigated the role of the C-terminal domain for the activity of PCSK9. Experiments in which conserved residues and histidines on the surface of the C-terminal domain were mutated indicated that no specific residues of the C-terminal domain, apart from those responsible for maintaining the overall structure, are required for the activity of PCSK9. Rather, the net charge of the C-terminal domain is important. The more positively charged the C-terminal domain, the higher the activity toward the LDLR. Moreover, replacement of the C-terminal domain with an unrelated protein of comparable size led to significant activity of the chimeric protein. We conclude that the role of the evolutionary, poorly conserved C-terminal domain for the activity of PCSK9 reflects its overall positive charge and size and not the presence of specific residues involved in protein-protein interactions.

  16. A High and Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P)-dependent ATPase Activity for the Drs2p/Cdc50p Flippase after Removal of its N- and C-terminal Extensions.

    PubMed

    Azouaoui, Hassina; Montigny, Cédric; Dieudonné, Thibaud; Champeil, Philippe; Jacquot, Aurore; Vázquez-Ibar, José Luis; Le Maréchal, Pierre; Ulstrup, Jakob; Ash, Miriam-Rose; Lyons, Joseph A; Nissen, Poul; Lenoir, Guillaume

    2017-03-16

    P4-ATPases, also known as phospholipid flippases, are responsible for creating and maintaining transbilayer lipid asymmetry in eukaryotic cell membranes. Here, we use limited proteolysis to investigate the role of the N- and C-termini in ATP hydrolysis and auto-inhibition of the yeast flippase Drs2p/Cdc50p. We show that limited proteolysis of the detergent-solubilized and purified yeast flippase may result in more than one order of magnitude increase of its ATPase activity, which remains dependent on phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), a regulator of this lipid flippase, and specific to a phosphatidylserine substrate. Using thrombin as the protease, Cdc50p remains intact and in complex with Drs2p, which is cleaved at two positions, namely after R104 and after R1290, resulting in a homogenous sample lacking 104 and 65 residues from its N- and C-termini, respectively. Removal of the 1291-1302 region of the C-terminal extension is critical for relieving the auto-inhibition of full-length Drs2p, while the 1-104 N-terminal residues have an additional but more modest significance for activity. The present results therefore reveal that trimming off appropriate regions of the terminal extensions of Drs2p can greatly increase its ATPase activity in the presence of PI4P, and demonstrate that relief of such auto-inhibition remains compatible with subsequent regulation by PI4P. These experiments suggest that activation of the Drs2p/Cdc50p flippase follows a multi-step mechanism, with preliminary release of a number of constraints, possibly through the binding of regulatory proteins in the trans-Golgi network, followed by full activation by PI4P.

  17. Kar1 binding to Sfi1 C-terminal regions anchors the SPB bridge to the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Seybold, Christian; Elserafy, Menattallah; Rüthnick, Diana; Ozboyaci, Musa; Neuner, Annett; Flottmann, Benjamin; Heilemann, Mike; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    The yeast spindle pole body (SPB) is the functional equivalent of the mammalian centrosome. The half bridge is a SPB substructure on the nuclear envelope (NE), playing a key role in SPB duplication. Its cytoplasmic components are the membrane-anchored Kar1, the yeast centrin Cdc31, and the Cdc31-binding protein Sfi1. In G1, the half bridge expands into the bridge through Sfi1 C-terminal (Sfi1-CT) dimerization, the licensing step for SPB duplication. We exploited photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) to show that Kar1 localizes in the bridge center. Binding assays revealed direct interaction between Kar1 and C-terminal Sfi1 fragments. kar1Δ cells whose viability was maintained by the dominant CDC31-16 showed an arched bridge, indicating Kar1’s function in tethering Sfi1 to the NE. Cdc31-16 enhanced Cdc31–Cdc31 interactions between Sfi1–Cdc31 layers, as suggested by binding free energy calculations. In our model, Kar1 binding is restricted to Sfi1-CT and Sfi1 C-terminal centrin-binding repeats, and centrin and Kar1 provide cross-links, while Sfi1-CT stabilizes the bridge and ensures timely SPB separation. PMID:26076691

  18. Both Sm-domain and C-terminal extension of Lsm1 are important for the RNA-binding activity of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ashis; Raju, Kalidindi K; Kalurupalle, Swathi; Tharun, Sundaresan

    2012-05-01

    Lsm proteins are a ubiquitous family of proteins characterized by the Sm-domain. They exist as hexa- or heptameric RNA-binding complexes and carry out RNA-related functions. The Sm-domain is thought to be sufficient for the RNA-binding activity of these proteins. The highly conserved eukaryotic Lsm1 through Lsm7 proteins are part of the cytoplasmic Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex, which is an activator of decapping in the conserved 5'-3' mRNA decay pathway. This complex also protects mRNA 3'-ends from trimming in vivo. Purified Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex is able to bind RNA in vitro and exhibits a unique binding preference for oligoadenylated RNA (over polyadenylated and unadenylated RNA). Lsm1 is a key subunit that determines the RNA-binding properties of this complex. The normal RNA-binding activity of this complex is crucial for mRNA decay and 3'-end protection in vivo and requires the intact Sm-domain of Lsm1. Here, we show that though necessary, the Sm-domain of Lsm1 is not sufficient for the normal RNA-binding ability of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex. Deletion of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Lsm1 (while keeping the Sm-domain intact) impairs mRNA decay in vivo and results in Lsm1-7-Pat1 complexes that are severely impaired in RNA binding in vitro. Interestingly, the mRNA decay and 3'-end protection defects of such CTD-truncated lsm1 mutants could be suppressed in trans by overexpression of the CTD polypeptide. Thus, unlike most Sm-like proteins, Lsm1 uniquely requires both its Sm-domain and CTD for its normal RNA-binding function.

  19. Modification of glutathione S-transferase 3-3 mutants with 2-(S-glutathionyl)-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone. Identification of the C-terminal tryptic fragment as part of the H-site and evidence that 2-(S-glutathionyl)-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone is not specific for cysteine labelling.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J L; Liu, L F; Wang, L Y; Tsai, S P; Hsieh, C H; Hsiao, C D; Tam, M F

    1994-01-01

    A triple mutant of rat liver glutathione S-transferase 3-3 that has all three cysteine residues replaced with serine (CallS) and a quadruple mutant with a Tyr-115 to phenylalanine substitution on CallS (CallSY115F) were reacted with 2-(S-glutathionyl)-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (GS-1,4-TCBQ). The modified proteins were analysed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source. At an enzyme: GS-1,4-TCBQ ratio of 1:10, the enzymes were modified at multiple sites. Covalent attachment of a single inhibitor on to the protein was achieved by lowering the enzyme: GS-1,4-TCBQ ratio to 1:1. Results from m.s. analyses suggest that the inhibitor on the CallSY115F mutant exists as a glutathionyl dichlorobenzoquinone derivative. The modifiers of the CallS mutants are glutathionyl monochlorobenzoquinone derivatives. Therefore, GS-1,4-TCBQ reacts at a single site on CallSY115F, but probably cross-links two regions on wild-type and CallS mutant. To confirm our observation, CallS was modified with 1-chloro2,4-dinitrobenzene, which specifically labels Tyr-115, before reacting with GS-1,4-TCBQ. The inhibitor formed a glutathionyl dichlorobenzoquinone adduct on the dinitrophenyl-CallS mutant. In addition, the benzoquinone derivative on the protein can be partially removed by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Peptide mapping and sequencing analysis of the GS-1,4-TCBQ-modified CallS mutant revealed that the C-terminal 16-amino-acid fragment is labelled. Molecular modelling suggests the C(5) and C(6) on the benzoquinone ring of the inhibitor interact with the oxygen atoms of Tyr-115 and Ser-209 respectively. PMID:7818487

  20. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Biphenylamide Derivatives as Hsp90 C-terminal Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiping; Garg, Gaurav; Zhao, Jinbo; Moroni, Elisabetta; Girgis, Antwan; Franco, Lucas S.; Singh, Swapnil; Colombo, Giorgio; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of Hsp90 C-terminal function represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Current drug discovery efforts toward Hsp90 C-terminal inhibition focus on novobiocin, an antibiotic that was transformed into an Hsp90 inhibitor. Based on structural information obtained during the development of novobiocin derivatives and molecular docking studies, scaffolds containing a biphenyl moiety in lieu of the coumarin ring present in novobiocin were identified as new Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship studies produced new derivatives that inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, which corresponded directly with Hsp90 inhibition. PMID:25462258

  1. Structural Model of Dodecameric Heat-shock Protein Hsp21 - Flexible N-terminal Arms Interact with Client Proteins while C-terminal Tails Maintain the Dodecamer and Chaperone Activity.

    PubMed

    Rutsdottir, Gudrun; Härmark, Johan; Weide, Yoran; Hebert, Hans; Rasmussen, Morten Ib; Wernersson, Sven; Respondek, Michal; Akke, Mikael; Højrup, Peter; Koeck, Philip J B; Söderberg, Christopher A G; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2017-03-21

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) prevent aggregation of thermosensitive client proteins in a first line of defense against cellular stress. The mechanisms by which they perform this function have been hard to define due to limited structural information; currently there is only one high-resolution structure of a plant sHsp published, of the cytosolic Hsp16.9. We took interest in Hsp21, a chloroplast-localized sHsp crucial for plant stress resistance, which has even longer N-terminals arms than Hsp16.9, with a functionally important and conserved methionine-rich motif. To provide a framework for investigating structure-function relationships of Hsp21 and understanding these sequence variations, we developed a structural model of Hsp21 based on homology modeling, cryo-EM, crosslinking mass spectrometry, NMR and small angle X-ray scattering. Our data suggest a dodecameric arrangement of two trimer-of-dimer discs stabilized by the C-terminal tails, possibly through tail-to-tail interactions between the discs, mediated through extended IXVXI-motifs. Our model further suggests that six N-terminal arms are located on the outside of the dodecamer, accessible for interaction with client proteins, and distinct from previous undefined or inwardly-facing arms. To test the importance of the IXVXI motif, we created the point mutant V181A, which as expected disrupts the Hsp21 dodecamer and decreases chaperone activity. Finally, our data emphasize that sHsp chaperone efficiency depends on oligomerization and that client interactions can occur both with and without oligomer dissociation. These results provide a generalizable workflow to explore sHsps, expand our understanding of sHsp structural motifs, and provide a testable Hsp21 structure model to inform future investigations.

  2. Development of Noviomimetics as C-Terminal Hsp90 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    KU-32 and KU-596 are novobiocin-derived, C-terminal heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) modulators that induce Hsp70 levels and manifest neuroprotective activity. However, the synthetically complex noviose sugar requires 10 steps to prepare, which makes translational development difficult. In this study, we developed a series of “noviomimetic” analogues of KU-596, which contain noviose surrogates that can be easily prepared, while maintaining the ability to induce Hsp70 levels. Both sugar and sugar analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in a luciferase reporter assay, which identified compound 37, a benzyl containing noviomimetic, as the most potent inducer of Hsp70. PMID:26819668

  3. Identification of the C-Terminal GH5 Domain from CbCel9B/Man5A as the First Glycoside Hydrolase with Thermal Activation Property from a Multimodular Bifunctional Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Gong, Li; Xue, Xianli; Qin, Xing; Ma, Rui; Luo, Huiying; Zhang, Yongjie; Yao, Bin; Su, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor bescii encodes at least six unique multimodular glycoside hydrolases crucial for plant cell wall polysaccharides degradation, with each having two catalytic domains separated by two to three carbohydrate binding modules. Among the six enzymes, three have one N- or C-terminal GH5 domain with identical amino acid sequences. Despite a few reports on some of these multimodular enzymes, little is known about how the conserved GH5 domains behave, which are believed to be important due to the gene duplication. We thus cloned a representative GH5 domain from the C-terminus of a multimodular protein, i.e. the bifunctional cellulase/mannanase CbCel9B/Man5A which has been reported, and expressed it in Escherichia coli. Without any appending CBMs, the recombinant CbMan5A was still able to hydrolyze a variety of mannan substrates with different backbone linkages or side-chain decorations. While CbMan5A displayed the same pH optimum as CbCel9B/Man5A, it had an increased optimal temperature (90°C) and moreover, was activated by heating at 70°C and 80°C, a property not ever reported for the full-length protein. The turnover numbers of CbMan5A on mannan substrates were, however, lower than those of CbCel9B/Man5A. These data suggested that evolution of CbMan5A and the other domains into a single polypeptide is not a simple assembly; rather, the behavior of one module may be affected by the other ones in the full-length enzyme. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis further indicated that heating CbMan5A was not a simple transition state process. To the best knowledge of the authors, CbMan5A is the first glycoside hydrolase with thermal activation property identified from a multimodular bifunctional enzyme. PMID:27258548

  4. Identification and characterization of the antimicrobial peptide corresponding to C-terminal beta-sheet domain of tenecin 1, an antibacterial protein of larvae of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Hong, S Y; Oh, J E; Kwon, M; Yoon, J H; Lee, J; Lee, B L; Moon, H M

    1998-08-15

    An active fragment was identified from tenecin 1, an antibacterial protein belonging to the insect defensin family, by synthesizing the peptides corresponding to the three regions of tenecin 1. Only the fragment corresponding to the C-terminal beta-sheet domain showed activity against fungi as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas tenecin 1, the native protein, showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. CD spectra indicated that each fragment in a membrane-mimetic environment might adopt a secondary structure corresponding to its region in the protein. The leakage of dye from liposomes induced by this fragment suggested that this fragment acts on the membrane of pathogens as a primary mode of action. A comparison between the structure and the activity of each fragment indicated that a net positive charge was a prerequisite factor for activity. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report in which the fragment corresponding to the beta-sheet region in antibacterial proteins, which consists of alpha-helical and beta-sheet regions, has been identified as a primary active fragment.

  5. Chaperone-Like Effect of the Linker on the Isolated C-Terminal Domain of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Xia, Mengdie; He, Hua-Wei; Wang, Sha; Liu, Huihui; Gong, Haipeng; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular chaperones (IMCs), which are specific domains/segments encoded in the primary structure of proteins, exhibit chaperone-like activity against the aggregation of the other domains in the same molecule. In this research, we found that the truncation of the linker greatly promoted the thermal aggregation of the isolated C-terminal domain (CTD) of rabbit muscle creatine kinase (RMCK). Either the existence of the linker covalently linked to CTD or the supply of the synthetic linker peptide additionally could successfully protect the CTD of RMCK against aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Truncated fragments of the linker also behaved as a chaperone-like effect with lower efficiency, revealing the importance of its C-terminal half in the IMC function of the linker. The aggregation sites in the CTD of RMCK were identified by molecular dynamics simulations. Mutational analysis of the three key hydrophobic residues resulted in opposing effects on the thermal aggregation between the CTD with intact or partial linker, confirming the role of linker as a lid to protect the hydrophobic residues against exposure to solvent. These observations suggested that the linkers in multidomain proteins could act as IMCs to facilitate the correct folding of the aggregation-prone domains. Furthermore, the intactness of the IMC linker after proteolysis modulates the production of off-pathway aggregates, which may be important to the onset of some diseases caused by the toxic effects of aggregated proteolytic fragments. PMID:22947872

  6. Distinct roles for the N- and C-terminal regions in the cytotoxicity of pierisin-1, a putative ADP-ribosylating toxin from cabbage butterfly, against mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Kono, Takuo; Tanaka, Noriaki; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2001-01-01

    Pierisin-1 is an 850-aa cytotoxic protein found in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and has been suggested to consist of an N-terminal region with ADP-ribosyltransferase domain and of a C-terminal region that might have a receptor-binding domain. To elucidate the role of each region, we investigated the functions of various fragments of pierisin-1. In vitro expressed polypeptide consisting of amino acid residues 1–233 or 234–850 of pierisin-1 alone did not show cytotoxicity against human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. However, the presence of both polypeptides in the culture medium showed some of the original cytotoxic activity. Introduction of the N-terminal polypeptide alone by electroporation also induced cell death in HeLa cells, and even in the mouse melanoma MEB4 cells insensitive to pierisin-1. Thus, the N-terminal region has a principal role in the cytotoxicity of pierisin-1 inside mammalian cells. Analyses of incorporated pierisin-1 indicated that the entire protein, regardless of whether it consisted of a single polypeptide or two separate N- and C-terminal polypeptides, was incorporated into HeLa cells. However, neither of the terminal polypeptides was incorporated when each polypeptide was present separately. These findings indicate that the C-terminal region is important for the incorporation of pierisin-1. Moreover, presence of receptor for pierisin-1 in the lipid fraction of cell membrane was suggested. The cytotoxic effects of pierisin-1 were enhanced by previous treatment with trypsin, producing “nicked” pierisin-1. Generation of the N-terminal fragment in HeLa cells was detected after application of intact entire molecule of pierisin-1. From the above observations, it is suggested that after incorporation of pierisin-1 into the cell by interaction of its C-terminal region with the receptor in the cell membrane, the entire protein is cleaved into the N- and C-terminal fragments with intracellular protease, and the N-terminal fragment

  7. Discovery and Structure-Activity Relationship of a Bioactive Fragment of ELABELA that Modulates Vascular and Cardiac Functions.

    PubMed

    Murza, Alexandre; Sainsily, Xavier; Coquerel, David; Côté, Jérôme; Marx, Patricia; Besserer-Offroy, Élie; Longpré, Jean-Michel; Lainé, Jean; Reversade, Bruno; Salvail, Dany; Leduc, Richard; Dumaine, Robert; Lesur, Olivier; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Sarret, Philippe; Marsault, Éric

    2016-04-14

    ELABELA (ELA) was recently discovered as a novel endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor (APJ), a G protein-coupled receptor. ELA signaling was demonstrated to be crucial for normal heart and vasculature development during embryogenesis. We delineate here ELA's structure-activity relationships and report the identification of analogue 3 (ELA(19-32)), a fragment of ELA that binds to APJ, activates the Gαi1 and β-arrestin-2 signaling pathways, and induces receptor internalization similarly to its parent endogenous peptide. An alanine scan performed on 3 revealed that the C-terminal residues are critical for binding to APJ and signaling. Finally, using isolated-perfused hearts and in vivo hemodynamic and echocardiographic measurements, we demonstrate that ELA and 3 both reduce arterial pressure and exert positive inotropic effects on the heart. Altogether, these results present ELA and 3 as potential therapeutic options in managing cardiovascular diseases.

  8. C-terminal domain of mammalian complexin-1 localizes to highly curved membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jihong; Lai, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Mengxian; Leitz, Jeremy; Hu, Yachong; Zhang, Yunxiang; Choi, Ucheor B.; Cipriano, Daniel; Pfuetzner, Richard A.; Südhof, Thomas C.; Yang, Xiaofei; Brunger, Axel T.

    2016-01-01

    In presynaptic nerve terminals, complexin regulates spontaneous “mini” neurotransmitter release and activates Ca2+-triggered synchronized neurotransmitter release. We studied the role of the C-terminal domain of mammalian complexin in these processes using single-particle optical imaging and electrophysiology. The C-terminal domain is important for regulating spontaneous release in neuronal cultures and suppressing Ca2+-independent fusion in vitro, but it is not essential for evoked release in neuronal cultures and in vitro. This domain interacts with membranes in a curvature-dependent fashion similar to a previous study with worm complexin [Snead D, Wragg RT, Dittman JS, Eliezer D (2014) Membrane curvature sensing by the C-terminal domain of complexin. Nat Commun 5:4955]. The curvature-sensing value of the C-terminal domain is comparable to that of α-synuclein. Upon replacement of the C-terminal domain with membrane-localizing elements, preferential localization to the synaptic vesicle membrane, but not to the plasma membrane, results in suppression of spontaneous release in neurons. Membrane localization had no measurable effect on evoked postsynaptic currents of AMPA-type glutamate receptors, but mislocalization to the plasma membrane increases both the variability and the mean of the synchronous decay time constant of NMDA-type glutamate receptor evoked postsynaptic currents. PMID:27821736

  9. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function.

    PubMed

    Blaurock, Nancy; Schmerler, Diana; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Ludewig, Katrin; Baier, Michael; Brunkhorst, Frank Martin; Imhof, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis.

  10. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function

    PubMed Central

    Blaurock, Nancy; Schmerler, Diana; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Ludewig, Katrin; Baier, Michael; Brunkhorst, Frank Martin; Imhof, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:27382189

  11. Specific inhibition of AGC protein kinases by antibodies against C-terminal epitopes.

    PubMed

    Traincard, François; Giacomoni, Véronique; Veron, Michel

    2004-08-13

    The sequences contributing to the catalytic site of protein kinases are not all comprised within the highly conserved catalytic core. Thus, in mammalian cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), the C-terminal sequence participates in substrate binding. Using synthetic peptides mimicking the FxxF motif present at most C-termini of AGC kinases, we have raised highly specific antibodies which are potent and specific inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the cognate protein kinase. Taking into account the structure of PKA, these results point to the potential of the C-terminal region of protein kinases as a target for designing specific protein kinase inhibitors.

  12. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371–553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. PMID:22297990

  13. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371-553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C222(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress.

  14. GTP-specific fab fragment-based GTPase activity assay.

    PubMed

    Kopra, Kari; Rozwandowicz-Jansen, Anita; Syrjänpää, Markku; Blaževitš, Olga; Ligabue, Alessio; Veltel, Stefan; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Abankwa, Daniel; Härmä, Harri

    2015-03-17

    GTPases are central cellular signaling proteins, which cycle between a GDP-bound inactive and a GTP-bound active conformation in a controlled manner. Ras GTPases are frequently mutated in cancer and so far only few experimental inhibitors exist. The most common methods for monitoring GTP hydrolysis rely on luminescent GDP- or GTP-analogs. In this study, the first GTP-specific Fab fragment and its application are described. We selected Fab fragments using the phage display technology. Six Fab fragments were found against 2'/3'-GTP-biotin and 8-GTP-biotin. Selected antibody fragments allowed specific detection of endogenous, free GTP. The most potent Fab fragment (2A4(GTP)) showed over 100-fold GTP-specificity over GDP, ATP, or CTP and was used to develop a heterogeneous time-resolved luminescence based assay for the monitoring of GTP concentration. The method allows studying the GEF dependent H-Ras activation (GTP binding) and GAP-catalyzed H-Ras deactivation (GTP hydrolysis) at nanomolar protein concentrations.

  15. Differential DNA binding by the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors involves the second Zn-finger and a C-terminal extension of the DNA-binding domains.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, E; Alen, P; Verrijdt, G; Peeters, B; Verhoeven, G; Rombauts, W; Claessens, F

    1999-01-01

    The androgen and glucocorticoid hormones evoke specific in vivo responses by activating different sets of responsive genes. Although the consensus sequences of the glucocorticoid and androgen response elements are very similar, this in vivo specificity can in some cases be explained by differences in DNA recognition between both receptors. This has clearly been demonstrated for the androgen response element PB-ARE-2 described in the promoter of the rat probasin gene. Swapping of different fragments between the androgen- and glucocorticoid-receptor DNA-binding domains demonstrates that (i) the first Zn-finger module is not involved in this sequence selectivity and (ii) that residues in the second Zn-finger as well as a C-terminal extension of the DNA-binding domain from the androgen receptor are required. For specific and high-affinity binding to response elements, the DNA-binding domains of the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors need a different C-terminal extension. The glucocorticoid receptor requires 12 C-terminal amino acids for high affinity DNA binding, while the androgen receptor only involves four residues. However, for specific recognition of the PB-ARE-2, the androgen receptor also requires 12 C-terminal residues. Our data demonstrate that the mechanism by which the androgen receptor binds selectively to the PB-ARE-2 is different from that used by the glucocorticoid receptor to bind a consensus response element. We would like to suggest that the androgen receptor recognizes response elements as a direct repeat rather than the classical inverted repeat. PMID:10417312

  16. NMR Determines Transient Structure and Dynamics in the Disordered C-Terminal Domain of WASp Interacting Protein

    PubMed Central

    Haba, Noam Y.; Gross, Renana; Novacek, Jiri; Shaked, Hadassa; Zidek, Lukas; Barda-Saad, Mira; Chill, Jordan H.

    2013-01-01

    WASp-interacting protein (WIP) is a 503-residue proline-rich polypeptide expressed in human T cells. The WIP C-terminal domain binds to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and regulates its activation and degradation, and the WIP-WASp interaction has been shown to be critical for actin polymerization and implicated in the onset of WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia. WIP is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein, a class of polypeptides that are of great interest because they violate the traditional structure-function paradigm. In this first (to our knowledge) study of WIP in its unbound state, we used NMR to investigate the biophysical behavior of WIPC, a C-terminal domain fragment of WIP that includes residues 407–503 and contains the WASp-binding site. In light of the poor spectral dispersion exhibited by WIPC and the high occurrence (25%) of proline residues, we employed 5D-NMR13C-detected NMR experiments with nonuniform sampling to accomplish full resonance assignment. Secondary chemical-shift analysis, 15N relaxation rates, and protection from solvent exchange all concurred in detecting transient structure located in motifs that span the WASp-binding site. Residues 446–456 exhibited a propensity for helical conformation, and an extended conformation followed by a short, capped helix was observed for residues 468–478. The 13C-detected approach allows chemical-shift assignment in the WIPC polyproline stretches and thus sheds light on their conformation and dynamics. The effects of temperature on chemical shifts referenced to a denatured sample of the polypeptide demonstrate that heating reduces the structural character of WIPC. Thus, we conclude that the disordered WIPC fragment is comprised of regions with latent structure connected by flexible loops, an architecture with implications for binding affinity and function. PMID:23870269

  17. Structure and dynamics of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal phosphorylation domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Y; Hazlett, Theodore L; Koland, John G

    2006-05-01

    The C-terminal phosphorylation domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor is believed to regulate protein kinase activity as well as mediate the assembly of signal transduction complexes. The structure and dynamics of this proposed autoregulatory domain were examined by labeling the extreme C terminus of the EGFR intracellular domain (ICD) with an extrinsic fluorophore. Fluorescence anisotropy decay analysis of the nonphosphorylated EGFR-ICD yielded two rotational correlation times: a longer time, consistent with the global rotational motion of a 60- to 70-kDa protein with an elongated globular conformation, and a shorter time, presumably contributed by segmental motion near the fluorophore. A C-terminally truncated form of EGFR-ICD yielded a slow component consistent with the rotational motion of the 38-kDa kinase core. These findings suggested a structural arrangement of the EGFR-ICD in which the C-terminal phosphorylation domain interacts with the kinase core to move as an extended structure. A marked reduction in the larger correlation time of EGFR-ICD was observed upon its autophosphorylation. This dynamic component was faster than predicted for the globular motion of the 62-kDa EGFR-ICD, suggesting an increase in the mobility of the C-terminal domain and a likely displacement of this domain from the kinase core. The interaction between the SH2 domain of c-Src and the phosphorylated EGFR C-terminal domain was shown to impede its mobility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the EGFR C-terminal domain possessed a significant level of secondary structure in the form of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, with a marginal change in beta-sheet content occurring upon phosphorylation.

  18. Structure and dynamics of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal phosphorylation domain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Y.; Hazlett, Theodore L.; Koland, John G.

    2006-01-01

    The C-terminal phosphorylation domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor is believed to regulate protein kinase activity as well as mediate the assembly of signal transduction complexes. The structure and dynamics of this proposed autoregulatory domain were examined by labeling the extreme C terminus of the EGFR intracellular domain (ICD) with an extrinsic fluorophore. Fluorescence anisotropy decay analysis of the nonphosphorylated EGFR-ICD yielded two rotational correlation times: a longer time, consistent with the global rotational motion of a 60- to 70-kDa protein with an elongated globular conformation, and a shorter time, presumably contributed by segmental motion near the fluorophore. A C-terminally truncated form of EGFR-ICD yielded a slow component consistent with the rotational motion of the 38-kDa kinase core. These findings suggested a structural arrangement of the EGFR-ICD in which the C-terminal phosphorylation domain interacts with the kinase core to move as an extended structure. A marked reduction in the larger correlation time of EGFR-ICD was observed upon its autophosphorylation. This dynamic component was faster than predicted for the globular motion of the 62-kDa EGFR-ICD, suggesting an increase in the mobility of the C-terminal domain and a likely displacement of this domain from the kinase core. The interaction between the SH2 domain of c-Src and the phosphorylated EGFR C-terminal domain was shown to impede its mobility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the EGFR C-terminal domain possessed a significant level of secondary structure in the form of α-helices and β-sheets, with a marginal change in β-sheet content occurring upon phosphorylation. PMID:16597832

  19. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Raaij, Mark J. van; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-07-01

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6{sub 3}22 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the Zn{sup II}- and Cd{sup II}-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine.

  20. A summary of staphylococcal C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcal peptidoglycan hydrolases are a potential new source of antimicrobials. A large subset of these proteins contain a C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domain that has been shown for some to be essential for accurate cell wall recognition and subsequent staphylolytic activity, propert...

  1. Characterization of the wild type and truncated form of a neutral GH10 xylanase from Coprinus cinereus: Roles of C-terminal basic amino acid-rich extension in its SDS resistance, thermostability and activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hang; Chen, Kaixiang; Li, Lulu; Long, Liangkun; Ding, Shaojun

    2017-02-07

    A neutral xylanase (Ccxyn) was identified from Coprinus cinereus. It has a single GH10 catalytic domain with a basic amino acid-rich extension (PVRRK) at C-terminus. In this study, the wild-type (Ccxyn) and C-terminus truncated xylanase (CcXynΔ5C) were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and their characteristics were comparatively analyzed with aims to examine the effect of this extension on the enzyme function. The circular dichorism (CD) analysis indicated that both enzymes in general had a similar structure, but CcXynΔ5C contained less α-helices (42.9%) and more random coil contents (35.5%) than CcXyn (47.0% and 32.8%, respectively). Both enzymes had same pH (7.0) and temperature (45°C) optima, and similar substrate specificity on different xylans. They all hydrolyzed beechwood xylan primarily to xylobiose and xylotriose. The amounts of xylobiose and xylotriose account for 91.5% and 92.2 % (w/w) of total xylooligosaccharides (XOS) generated from beechwood by Ccxyn and CcxynΔ5C, respectively. However, truncation of C-terminal 5-amino acids extension significantly improves its thermostability, SDS resistance and pH stability at pH 6.0-9.0. Furthermore, CcxynΔ5C exhibited much lower Km value than Ccxyn (0.27 mg ml⁻¹ vs 0.83 mg ml⁻¹), therefore, the catalytic efficiency of CcXynΔ5C was 2.4 times higher than that of CcXyn. These properties make CcxynΔ5C a good model for the structure-function study of (α/β)₈-barrel folded enzyme and a promising candidate for various applications, especially in the detergent industry and XOS production.

  2. Conformational changes accompany phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Y.; Koland, John G.

    2005-01-01

    The precise regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is crucial to its function in cellular growth control. Various studies have suggested that the C-terminal phosphorylation domain, itself a substrate for the EGFR kinase activity, exerts a regulatory influence upon it, although the molecular mechanism for this regulation is unknown. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique was employed to examine how C-terminal domain conformational changes in the context of receptor activation and autophosphorylation might regulate EGFR enzymatic activity. A novel FRET reporter system was devised in which recombinant purified EGFR intracellular domain (ICD) proteins of varying C-terminal lengths were site-specifically labeled at their extreme C termini with blue fluorescent protein (BFP) and a fluorescent nucleotide analog, 2′(3′)-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-adenosine 5′-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), binding at their active sites. This novel BFP/TNP-ATP FRET pair demonstrated efficient energy transfer as evidenced by appreciable BFP-donor quenching by bound TNP-ATP. In particular, a marked reduction in energy transfer was observed for the full-length BFP-labeled EGFR-ICD protein upon phosphorylation, likely reflecting its movement away from the active site. The estimated distances from the BFP module to the TNP-ATP-occupied active site for the full-length and C-terminally truncated proteins also reveal the possible folding geometry of this domain with respect to the kinase core. The present studies demonstrate the first use of BFP/TNP-ATP as a FRET reporter system. Furthermore, the results described here provide biophysical evidence for phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes in the C-terminal phosphorylation domain and its likely interaction with the kinase core. PMID:16199664

  3. Conformational changes accompany phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Y; Koland, John G

    2005-11-01

    The precise regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is crucial to its function in cellular growth control. Various studies have suggested that the C-terminal phosphorylation domain, itself a substrate for the EGFR kinase activity, exerts a regulatory influence upon it, although the molecular mechanism for this regulation is unknown. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique was employed to examine how C-terminal domain conformational changes in the context of receptor activation and autophosphorylation might regulate EGFR enzymatic activity. A novel FRET reporter system was devised in which recombinant purified EGFR intracellular domain (ICD) proteins of varying C-terminal lengths were site-specifically labeled at their extreme C termini with blue fluorescent protein (BFP) and a fluorescent nucleotide analog, 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), binding at their active sites. This novel BFP/TNP-ATP FRET pair demonstrated efficient energy transfer as evidenced by appreciable BFP-donor quenching by bound TNP-ATP. In particular, a marked reduction in energy transfer was observed for the full-length BFP-labeled EGFR-ICD protein upon phosphorylation, likely reflecting its movement away from the active site. The estimated distances from the BFP module to the TNP-ATP-occupied active site for the full-length and C-terminally truncated proteins also reveal the possible folding geometry of this domain with respect to the kinase core. The present studies demonstrate the first use of BFP/TNP-ATP as a FRET reporter system. Furthermore, the results described here provide biophysical evidence for phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes in the C-terminal phosphorylation domain and its likely interaction with the kinase core.

  4. Expression of soluble, active fragments of the morphogenetic protein SpoIIE from Bacillus subtilis using a library-based construct screen

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Andrea E.; Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Blagova, Elena; Colledge, Vicki L.; Mas, Philippe J.; Tunaley, James; Vavrova, Ludmila; Wilson, Keith S.; Barak, Imrich; Hart, Darren J.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    SpoIIE is a dual function protein that plays important roles during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. It binds to the tubulin-like protein FtsZ causing the cell division septum to relocate from mid-cell to the cell pole, and it dephosphorylates SpoIIAA phosphate leading to establishment of differential gene expression in the two compartments following the asymmetric septation. Its 872 residue polypeptide contains a multiple-membrane spanning sequence at the N-terminus and a PP2C phosphatase domain at the C-terminus. The central segment that binds to FtsZ is unlike domains of known structure or function, moreover the domain boundaries are poorly defined and this has hampered the expression of soluble fragments of SpoIIE at the levels required for structural studies. Here we have screened over 9000 genetic constructs of spoIIE using a random incremental truncation library approach, ESPRIT, to identify a number of soluble C-terminal fragments of SpoIIE that were aligned with the protein sequence to map putative domains and domain boundaries. The expression and purification of three fragments were optimised, yielding multimilligram quantities of the PP2C phosphatase domain, the putative FtsZ-binding domain and a larger fragment encompassing both these domains. All three fragments are monomeric and the PP2C domain-containing fragments have phosphatase activity. PMID:20817757

  5. C-Terminal Modification and Multimerization Increase the Efficacy of a Proline-Rich Antimicrobial Peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyi; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Yao, Shenggen; Tailhades, Julien; Reynolds, Eric C; Dawson, Raymond M; Otvos, Laszlo; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Separovic, Frances; Wade, John D

    2017-01-05

    Two series of branched tetramers of the proline-rich antimicrobial peptide (PrAMP), Chex1-Arg20, were prepared to improve antibacterial selectivity and potency against a panel of Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. First, tetramerization was achieved by dithiomaleimide (DTM) conjugation of two C-terminal-cysteine bearing dimers that also incorporated C-terminal peptide chemical modification. DTM-linked tetrameric peptides containing a C-terminal hydrazide moiety on each dimer exhibited highly potent activities in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 0.49-2.33 μm. A second series of tetrameric analogues with C-terminal hydrazide modification was prepared by using alternative conjugation linkers including trans-1,4-dibromo-2-butene, α,α'-dibromo-p-xylene, or 6-bismaleimidohexane to determine the effect of length on activity. Each displayed potent and broadened activity against Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens, particularly the butene-linked tetrameric hydrazide. Remarkably, the greatest MIC activity is against P. aeruginosa (0.77 μm/8 μg mL(-1) ) where the monomer is inactive. None of these peptides showed any cytotoxicity to mammalian cells up to 25 times the MIC. A diffusion NMR study of the tetrameric hydrazides showed that the more active antibacterial analogues were those with a more compact structure having smaller hydrodynamic radii. The results show that C-terminal PrAMP hydrazidation together with its rational tetramerization is an effective means for increasing both diversity and potency of PrAMP action.

  6. Kinetic and stability properties of Penicillium chrysogenum ATP sulfurylase missing the C-terminal regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Eissa; Ng, Kit Fai; MacRae, Ian J; Bley, Christopher J; Fisher, Andrew J; Segel, Irwin H

    2004-02-06

    ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum is a homohexameric enzyme that is subject to allosteric inhibition by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. In contrast to the wild type enzyme, recombinant ATP sulfurylase lacking the C-terminal allosteric domain was monomeric and noncooperative. All kcat values were decreased (the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (adenylylsulfate) (APS) synthesis reaction to 17% of the wild type value). Additionally, the Michaelis constants for MgATP and sulfate (or molybdate), the dissociation constant of E.APS, and the monovalent oxyanion dissociation constants of dead end E.MgATP.oxyanion complexes were all increased. APS release (the k6 step) was rate-limiting in the wild type enzyme. Without the C-terminal domain, the composite k5 step (isomerization of the central complex and MgPPi release) became rate-limiting. The cumulative results indicate that besides (a) serving as a receptor for the allosteric inhibitor, the C-terminal domain (b) stabilizes the hexameric structure and indirectly, individual subunits. Additionally, (c) the domain interacts with and perfects the catalytic site such that one or more steps following the formation of the binary E.MgATP and E.SO4(2-) complexes and preceding the release of MgPPi are optimized. The more negative entropy of activation of the truncated enzyme for APS synthesis is consistent with a role of the C-terminal domain in promoting the effective orientation of MgATP and sulfate at the active site.

  7. Synthesis of Peptides Containing C-Terminal Esters Using Trityl Side-Chain Anchoring: Applications to the Synthesis of C-Terminal Ester Analogs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mating Pheromone a-Factor.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Rodriguez, Veronica; Ganusova, Elena; Rappe, Todd M; Becker, Jeffrey M; Distefano, Mark D

    2015-11-20

    Peptides containing C-terminal esters are an important class of bioactive molecules that includes a-factor, a farnesylated dodecapeptide, involved in the mating of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, results that expand the scope of solid-phase peptide synthetic methodology that uses trityl side-chain anchoring for the preparation of peptides with C-terminal cysteine alkyl esters are described. In this method, Fmoc-protected C-terminal cysteine esters are anchored to trityl chloride resin and extended by standard solid-phase procedures followed by acidolytic cleavage and HPLC purification. Analysis using a Gly-Phe-Cys-OMe model tripeptide revealed minimal epimerization of the C-terminal cysteine residue under basic conditions used for Fmoc deprotection. (1)H NMR analysis of the unfarnesylated a-factor precursor peptide confirmed the absence of epimerization. The side-chain anchoring method was used to produce wild-type a-factor that contains a C-terminal methyl ester along with ethyl-, isopropyl-, and benzyl-ester analogs in good yield. Activity assays using a yeast-mating assay demonstrate that while the ethyl and isopropyl esters manifest near-wild-type activity, the benzyl ester-containing analog is ca. 100-fold less active. This simple method opens the door to the synthesis of a variety of C-terminal ester-modified peptides that should be useful in studies of protein prenylation and other structurally related biological processes.

  8. Evolutionary bridges to new protein folds: design of C-terminal Cro protein chameleon sequences.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William J; Van Dorn, Laura O; Ingram, Wendy M; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2011-09-01

    Regions of amino-acid sequence that are compatible with multiple folds may facilitate evolutionary transitions in protein structure. In a previous study, we described a heuristically designed chameleon sequence (SASF1, structurally ambivalent sequence fragment 1) that could adopt either of two naturally occurring conformations (α-helical or β-sheet) when incorporated as part of the C-terminal dimerization subdomain of two structurally divergent transcription factors, P22 Cro and λ Cro. Here we describe longer chameleon designs (SASF2 and SASF3) that in the case of SASF3 correspond to the full C-terminal half of the ordered region of a P22 Cro/λ Cro sequence alignment (residues 34-57). P22-SASF2 and λ(WDD)-SASF2 show moderate thermal stability in denaturation curves monitored by circular dichroism (T(m) values of 46 and 55°C, respectively), while P22-SASF3 and λ(WDD)-SASF3 have somewhat reduced stability (T(m) values of 33 and 49°C, respectively). (13)C and (1)H NMR secondary chemical shift analysis confirms two C-terminal α-helices for P22-SASF2 (residues 36-45 and 54-57) and two C-terminal β-strands for λ(WDD)-SASF2 (residues 40-45 and 50-52), corresponding to secondary structure locations in the two parent sequences. Backbone relaxation data show that both chameleon sequences have a relatively well-ordered structure. Comparisons of (15)N-(1)H correlation spectra for SASF2 and SASF3-containing proteins strongly suggest that SASF3 retains the chameleonism of SASF2. Both Cro C-terminal conformations can be encoded in a single sequence, showing the plausibility of linking different Cro folds by smooth evolutionary transitions. The N-terminal subdomain, though largely conserved in structure, also exerts an important contextual influence on the structure of the C-terminal region.

  9. C-terminal Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide in contrast to full-length neuropeptide semax exhibits no neuroprotective effect in experimental cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fadyukova, O E; Kadi, A; Bai, Ou; Andzhusheva, G M; Koshelev, V B

    2005-04-01

    The C-terminal fragment Pro-Gly-Pro of semax does not modulate the development of symptoms of neurological deficiency and mortality in rats with incomplete global cerebral ischemia. Hence, previously revealed neuroprotective effects of semax are mainly determined by corticotropin ACTH4-7 fragment.

  10. Structural characterization of a therapeutic anti-methamphetamine antibody fragment: oligomerization and binding of active metabolites.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric C; Celikel, Reha; Gokulan, Kuppan; Varughese, Kottayil I

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines and monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for treatment of (+)-methamphetamine (METH) abuse are in late stage preclinical and early clinical trial phases, respectively. These immunotherapies work as pharmacokinetic antagonists, sequestering METH and its metabolites away from sites of action in the brain and reduce the rewarding and toxic effects of the drug. A key aspect of these immunotherapy strategies is the understanding of the subtle molecular interactions important for generating antibodies with high affinity and specificity for METH. We previously determined crystal structures of a high affinity anti-METH therapeutic single chain antibody fragment (scFv6H4, K(D) = 10 nM) in complex with METH and the (+) stereoisomer of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or "ecstasy"). Here we report the crystal structure of scFv6H4 in homo-trimeric unbound (apo) form (2.60Å), as well as monomeric forms in complex with two active metabolites; (+)-amphetamine (AMP, 2.38Å) and (+)-4-hydroxy methamphetamine (p-OH-METH, 2.33Å). The apo structure forms a trimer in the crystal lattice and it results in the formation of an intermolecular composite beta-sheet with a three-fold symmetry. We were also able to structurally characterize the coordination of the His-tags with Ni(2+). Two of the histidine residues of each C-terminal His-tag interact with Ni(2+) in an octahedral geometry. In the apo state the CDR loops of scFv6H4 form an open conformation of the binding pocket. Upon ligand binding, the CDR loops adopt a closed formation, encasing the drug almost completely. The structural information reported here elucidates key molecular interactions important in anti-methamphetamine abuse immunotherapy.

  11. Mechanistic studies of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1.

    PubMed

    Case, April; Stein, Ross L

    2006-02-21

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) cleave Ub-X bonds (Ub is ubiquitin and X an alcohol, an amine, or a protein) through a thioester intermediate that is produced by nucleophilic attack of the Cys residue of a Cys-SH/His-Im catalytic diad. We are studying the mechanism of UCH-L1, a UCH that is implicated in Parkinson's disease, and now wish to report our initial findings. (i) Pre-steady-state kinetic studies for UCH-L1-catalyzed hydrolysis of Ub-AMC (AMC, 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin) indicate that k(cat) is rate-limited by acyl-enzyme formation. Thus, K(m) = K(s), the dissociation constant for the Michaelis complex, and k(cat) = k(2), the rate constant for acyl-enzyme formation. (ii) For K(assoc) (=K(s)(-)(1)), DeltaC(p) = -0.8 kcal mol(-)(1) deg(-)(1) and is consistent with coupling between substrate association and a conformational change of the enzyme. For k(2), DeltaS(++) = 0 and suggests that in the E-S, substrate and active site residues are precisely aligned for reaction. (iii) Solvent isotope effects are (D)K(assoc) = 0.5 and (D)k(2) = 0.9, suggesting that the substrate binds to a form of free enzyme in which the active site Cys exists as the thiol. In the resultant Michaelis complex, the diad has tautomerized to ion pair Cys-S(-)/His-ImH(+). Subsequent attack of thiolate produces the acyl-enzyme species. In contrast, isotope effects for association of UCH-L1 with transition-state analogue ubiquitin aldehyde suggest that an alternative mechanistic pathway can sometimes be available to UCH-L1 involving general base-catalyzed attack of Cys-SH by His-Im.

  12. The Atlastin C-terminal Tail Is an Amphipathic Helix That Perturbs the Bilayer Structure during Endoplasmic Reticulum Homotypic Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Joseph E.; Desai, Tanvi; Verma, Avani; Ulengin, Idil; Sun, Tzu-Lin; Moss, Tyler J.; Betancourt-Solis, Miguel A.; Huang, Huey W.; Lee, Tina; McNew, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Fusion of tubular membranes is required to form three-way junctions found in reticular subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum. The large GTPase Atlastin has recently been shown to drive endoplasmic reticulum membrane fusion and three-way junction formation. The mechanism of Atlastin-mediated membrane fusion is distinct from SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, and many details remain unclear. In particular, the role of the amphipathic C-terminal tail of Atlastin is still unknown. We found that a peptide corresponding to the Atlastin C-terminal tail binds to membranes as a parallel α helix, induces bilayer thinning, and increases acyl chain disorder. The function of the C-terminal tail is conserved in human Atlastin. Mutations in the C-terminal tail decrease fusion activity in vitro, but not GTPase activity, and impair Atlastin function in vivo. In the context of unstable lipid bilayers, the requirement for the C-terminal tail is abrogated. These data suggest that the C-terminal tail of Atlastin locally destabilizes bilayers to facilitate membrane fusion. PMID:25555915

  13. Motifs in the C-terminal region of the Penicillium chrysogenum ACV synthetase are essential for valine epimerization and processivity of tripeptide formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaobin; García-Estrada, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2012-02-01

    The first step in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway is the non-ribosomal condensation of L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine and L-valine into the tripeptide δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV). This reaction is catalysed by the multienzyme ACV synthetase (ACVS), which is encoded in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum by the pcbAB gene. This enzyme contains at least ten catalytic domains. The precise role of the C-terminal domain of this multidomain NRPS still remains obscure. The C-terminal region of ACVS bears the epimerase and the thioesterase domains and may be involved in the epimerization of LLL-ACV to LLD-ACV and in the hydrolysis of the thioester bond. In this work, the conserved motifs (3371)EGHGRE(3376) (located in the putative epimerase domain) and (3629)GWSFG(3633) (located in the thioesterase domain) were changed by site-directed-mutagenesis to LGFGLL and GWAFG, respectively. In addition, the whole thioesterase domain (230 amino acids) and the different parts of this domain were deleted. The activity of these mutant enzymes was assessed in vivo by two different procedures: i) through the quantification of bisACV produced by the fungus and ii) by quantifying the benzylpenicillin production using tailored strains of P. chrysogenum, which lack the pcbAB gene, as host strains. All indicated mutant enzymes showed lower or null activity than the control strain confirming that E3371, H3373, R3375 and E3376 belong to the epimerase active centre. Different fragments included in the C-terminal region of ACVS control thioester hydrolysis. Overexpression of the sequence encoding the ACVS integrated thioesterase domain as a separate (stand-alone) transcriptional unit complemented mutants lacking the integrated thioesterase domain, although with low ACV releasing activity, suggesting that the stand-alone thioesterease interacts with the other ACVS domains.

  14. Modules for C-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Kensuke; Schoeberl, Ursula E.; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Although epitope tagging has been widely used for analyzing protein function in many organisms, there are few genetic tools for epitope tagging in Tetrahymena. In this study, we describe several C-terminal epitope tagging modules that can be used to express tagged proteins in Tetrahymena cells by both plasmid- and PCR-based strategies. PMID:20624430

  15. Activation Energies of Fragmentations of Disaccharides by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Szabó, Katalin E.; Antal, Borbála; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2014-03-01

    A simple multiple collision model for collision induced dissociation (CID) in quadrupole was applied for the estimation of the activation energy (Eo) of the fragmentation processes for lithiated and trifluoroacetated disaccharides, such as maltose, cellobiose, isomaltose, gentiobiose, and trehalose. The internal energy-dependent rate constants k(Eint) were calculated using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) or the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (RRK) theory. The Eo values were estimated by fitting the calculated survival yield (SY) curves to the experimental ones. The calculated Eo values of the fragmentation processes for lithiated disaccharides were in the range of 1.4-1.7 eV, and were found to increase in the order trehalose < maltose < isomaltose < cellobiose < gentiobiose.

  16. C-terminal domain of p42 Ebp1 is essential for down regulation of p85 subunit of PI3K, inhibiting tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Inwoo; Kim, Chung Kwon; Ko, Hyo Rim; Park, Kye Won; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Potential tumor suppressor p42, ErbB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) inhibits phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity reducing the p85 regulatory subunit. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of p42 promoted not only a reduction of wild type of p85 subunit but also oncogenic mutant forms of p85 which were identified in human cancers. Moreover, we identified the small fragment of C-terminal domain of p42 is sufficient to exhibit tumor suppressing activity of p42-WT, revealing that this small fragment (280–394) of p42 is required for the binding of both HSP70 and CHIP for a degradation of p85. Furthermore, we showed the small fragment of p42 markedly inhibited the tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of brain and breast cancer, resembling tumor suppressing activity of p42. Through identification of the smallest fragment of p42 that is responsible for its tumor suppressor activity, our findings represent a novel approach for targeted therapy of cancers that overexpress PI3K. PMID:27464702

  17. Presynaptic C-terminal truncated tau is released from cortical synapses in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Sophie; Henkins, Kristen M.; Bilousova, Tina; Gonzalez, Bianca; Vinters, Harry V.; Miller, Carol A.; Cornwell, Lindsey; Poon, Wayne W.; Gylys, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau has primarily been associated with axonal location and function; however, recent work shows tau release from neurons and suggests an important role for tau in synaptic plasticity. In our study, we measured synaptic levels of total tau using synaptosomes prepared from cryopreserved human postmortem Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control samples. Flow cytometry data show that a majority of synaptic terminals are highly immunolabeled with the total tau antibody (HT7) in both AD and control samples. Immunoblots of synaptosomal fractions reveal increases in a 20 kDa tau fragment and in tau dimers in AD synapses, and terminal-specific antibodies show that in many synaptosome samples tau lacks a C-terminus. Flow cytometry experiments to quantify the extent of C-terminal truncation reveal that only 15-25% of synaptosomes are positive for intact C-terminal tau. Potassium-induced depolarization demonstrates release of tau and tau fragments from presynaptic terminals, with increased release from AD compared to control samples. This study indicates that tau is normally highly localized to synaptic terminals in cortex where it is well-positioned to affect synaptic plasticity. Tau cleavage may facilitate tau aggregation as well as tau secretion and propagation of tau pathology from the presynaptic compartment in AD. PMID:25393609

  18. C-terminal region of Mad2 plays an important role during mitotic spindle checkpoint in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gaurav Kumar; Karade, Sharanbasappa Shrimant; Ranjan, Rajeev; Ahamad, Nafees; Ahmed, Shakil

    2017-02-01

    The mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (Mad2) protein is an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that interacts with Cdc20/Slp1 and inhibit its ability to activate anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). In bladder cancer cell line the C-terminal residue of the mad2 gene has been found to be deleted. In this study we tried to understand the role of the C-terminal region of mad2 on the spindle checkpoint function. To envisage the role of C-terminal region of Mad2, we truncated 25 residues of Mad2 C-terminal region in fission yeast S.pombe and characterized its effect on spindle assembly checkpoint function. The cells containing C-terminal truncation of Mad2 exhibit sensitivity towards microtubule destabilizing agent suggesting perturbation of spindle assembly checkpoint. Further, the C-terminal truncation of Mad2 exhibit reduced viability in the nda3-KM311 mutant background at non-permissive temperature. Truncation in mad2 gene also affects its foci forming ability at unattached kinetochore suggesting that the mad2-∆CT mutant is unable to maintain spindle checkpoint activation. However, in response to the defective microtubule, only brief delay of mitotic progression was observed in Mad2 C-terminal truncation mutant. In addition we have shown that the deletion of two β strands of Mad2 protein abolishes its ability to interact with APC activator protein Slp1/Cdc20. We purpose that the truncation of two β strands (β7 and β8) of Mad2 destabilize the safety belt and affect the Cdc20-Mad2 interaction leading to defects in the spindle checkpoint activation.

  19. Structural Basis for Toughness and Flexibility in the C-terminal Passenger Domain of an Acinetobacter Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin*

    PubMed Central

    Koiwai, Kotaro; Hartmann, Marcus D.; Linke, Dirk; Lupas, Andrei N.; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) on the cell surface of Gram-negative pathogens mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. It consists of a passenger domain secreted by the C-terminal transmembrane anchor domain (TM), and the passenger domain contains an N-terminal head, N-terminal stalk, C-terminal head (Chead), and C-terminal stalk (Cstalk). The Chead-Cstalk-TM fragment, which is conserved in many Acinetobacter TAAs, has by itself the head-stalk-anchor architecture of a complete TAA. Here, we show the crystal structure of the Chead-Cstalk fragment, AtaA_C-terminal passenger domain (CPSD), providing the first view of several conserved TAA domains. The YadA-like head (Ylhead) of the fragment is capped by a unique structure (headCap), composed of three β-hairpins and a connector motif; it also contains a head insert motif (HIM1) before its last inner β-strand. The headCap, Ylhead, and HIM1 integrally form a stable Chead structure. Some of the major domains of the CPSD fragment are inherently flexible and provide bending sites for the fiber between segments whose toughness is ensured by topological chain exchange and hydrophobic core formation inside the trimer. Thus, although adherence assays using in-frame deletion mutants revealed that the characteristic adhesive sites of AtaA reside in its N-terminal part, the flexibility and toughness of the CPSD part provide the resilience that enables the adhesive properties of the full-length fiber across a wide range of conditions. PMID:26698633

  20. [Peptide hydrolases with catalytic dyad Ser-Lys. Similarity and distinctions of the active centers of ATP-dependent Lon proteases, LexA repressors, signal peptidases and C-terminal processing proteases].

    PubMed

    Rotanova, T V

    2002-01-01

    It is established that ATP-dependent protease Lon family belongs to the serine-lysine peptide hydrolases clan. Significant similarity of amino acid sequences of proteases Lon and repressors LexA in the regions including the catalytic serine and lysine residues is revealed by comparing primary structures of different families of the enzymes with Ser-Lys catalytic dyad. The both Lon and LexA families are shown to be divided into two subfamilies in accordance with the nature of amino acids in the catalytically active serine environment. Putative DNA binding sites are revealed in proteolytic domains of Lon A subfamily. Similarities and distinctions of the all families peptide hydrolases of the clan in the regions of their active centers are discussed.

  1. Glutathione S-transferase can be used as a C-terminal, enzymatically active dimerization module for a recombinant protease inhibitor, and functionally secreted into the periplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Tudyka, T.; Skerra, A.

    1997-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum, which is widely used for the production of fusion proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, was employed as a functional fusion module that effects dimer formation of a recombinant protein and confers enzymatic reporter activity at the same time. For this purpose GST was linked via a flexible spacer to the C-terminus of the thiol-protease inhibitor cystatin, whose binding properties for papain were to be studied. The fusion protein was secreted into the bacterial periplasm by means of the OmpA signal peptide to ensure formation of the two disulfide bonds in cystatin. The formation of wrong crosslinks in the oxidizing milieu was prevented by replacing three of the four exposed cysteine residues in GST. Using the tetracycline promoter for tightly controlled gene expression the soluble fusion protein could be isolated from the periplasmic protein fraction. Purification to homogeneity was achieved in one step by means of an affinity column with glutathione agarose. Alternatively, the protein was isolated via streptavidin affinity chromatography after the Strep-tag had been appended to its C terminus. The GST moiety of the fusion protein was enzymatically active and the kinetic parameters were determined using glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrates. Furthermore, strong binding activity for papain was detected in an ELISA. The signal with the cystatin-GST fusion protein was much higher than with cystatin itself, demonstrating an avidity effect due to the dimer formation of GST. The quaternary structure was further confirmed by chemical crosslinking, which resulted in a specific reaction product with twice the molecular size. Thus, engineered GST is suitable as a moderately sized, secretion-competent fusion partner that can confer bivalency to a protein of interest and promote detection of binding interactions even in cases of low affinity. PMID:9336840

  2. C-Terminal Charge-Reversal Derivatization and Parallel Use of Multiple Proteases Facilitates Identification of Protein C-Termini by C-Terminomics.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Prasath; Koudelka, Tomas; Linke, Dennis; Tholey, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The identification of protein C-termini in complex proteomes is challenging due to the poor ionization efficiency of the carboxyl group. Amidating the negatively charged C-termini with ethanolamine (EA) has been suggested to improve the detection of C-terminal peptides and allows for a directed depletion of internal peptides after proteolysis using carboxyl reactive polymers. In the present study, the derivatization with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMEDA) and (4-aminobutyl)guanidine (AG) leading to a positively charged C-terminus was investigated. C-terminal charge-reversed peptides showed improved coverage of b- and y-ion series in the MS/MS spectra compared to their noncharged counterparts. DMEDA-derivatized peptides resulted in many peptides with charge states of 3+, which benefited from ETD fragmentation. This makes the charge-reversal strategy particularly useful for the analysis of protein C-termini, which may also be post-translationally modified. The labeling strategy and the indirect enrichment of C-termini worked with similar efficiency for both DMEDA and EA, and their applicability was demonstrated on an E. coli proteome. Utilizing two proteases and different MS/MS activation mechanisms allowed for the identification of >400 C-termini, encompassing both canonical and truncated C-termini.

  3. Structural and functional comparisons of retroviral envelope protein C-terminal domains: still much to learn.

    PubMed

    Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Kuhlmann, Anne-Sophie; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2014-01-16

    Retroviruses are a family of viruses that cause a broad range of pathologies in animals and humans, from the apparently harmless, long-term genomic insertion of endogenous retroviruses, to tumors induced by the oncogenic retroviruses and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from human immunodeficiency virus infection. Disease can be the result of diverse mechanisms, including tumorigenesis induced by viral oncogenes or immune destruction, leading to the gradual loss of CD4 T-cells. Of the virally encoded proteins common to all retroviruses, the envelope (Env) displays perhaps the most diverse functionality. Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. The remaining C-terminal domain may have the most variable functionality of all retroviral proteins. The C-terminal domains from three prototypical retroviruses are discussed, focusing on the different structures and functions, which include fusion activation, tumorigenesis and viral assembly and lifecycle influences. Despite these genetic and functional differences, however, the C-terminal domains of these viruses share a common feature in the modulation of Env ectodomain conformation. Despite their differences, perhaps each system still has information to share with the others.

  4. Correct processing of the kiwifruit protease actinidin in transgenic tobacco requires the presence of the C-terminal propeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, W; Amiss, J; Try, R; Praekelt, U; Scott, R; Smith, H

    1995-01-01

    A 355 cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and a tapetum-specific promoter were used to direct the synthesis in tobacco of preproactinidin and a derivative that lacked a C-terminal extension. Preproactinidin was processed into a form that migrated identically on protein gels with mature actinidin extracted from kiwifruit. This protein was proteolytically active in vitro, and high-level accumulation of this protein appeared to be detrimental to plant growth. Plants expressing an actinidin cDNA construct that lacked the sequence encoding the C-terminal propeptide were phenotypically normal but accumulated N-proactinidin, which was proteolytically active in vitro but did not self-cleave to mature actinidin. In transgenic tobacco, the C-terminal extension of actinidin is therefore required for correct processing. PMID:7784505

  5. Phylogenomics of caspase-activated DNA fragmentation factor

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, Leopold . E-mail: leopold.eckhart@meduniwien.ac.at; Fischer, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin

    2007-04-27

    The degradation of nuclear DNA by DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a key step in apoptosis of mammalian cells. Using comparative genomics, we have here determined the evolutionary history of the genes encoding the two DFF subunits, DFFA (also known as ICAD) and DFFB (CAD). Orthologs of DFFA and DFFB were identified in Nematostella vectensis, a representative of the primitive metazoan clade cnidarians, and in various vertebrates and insects, but not in representatives of urochordates, echinoderms, and nematodes. The domains mediating the interaction of DFFA and DFFB, a caspase cleavage site in DFFA, and the amino acid residues critical for endonuclease activity of DFFB were conserved in Nematostella. These findings suggest that DFF has been a part of the primordial apoptosis system of the eumetazoan common ancestor and that the ancient cell death machinery has degenerated in several evolutionary lineages, including the one leading to the prototypical apoptosis model, Caenorhabditis elegans.

  6. The C-terminal region of alpha-crystallin: involvement in protection against heat-induced denaturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Horwitz, J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the alpha-crystallins can protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. To determine the possible involvement of the C-terminal region in this activity, the alpha-crystallins were subjected to limited tryptic digestion, and the amount of cleavage from the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the alpha-A and alpha-B crystallin chains was assessed using antisera specific for these regions. Limited tryptic digestion resulted in cleavage only from the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin. This trypsin-treated alpha-A crystallin preparation showed a decreased ability to protect proteins from heat-induced aggregation using an in vitro assay. Together, these results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is important for its ability to protect against heat-induced aggregation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that post-translational changes that are known to occur at the C-terminal region may have significant effects on the ability of alpha-A crystallin to protect against protein denaturation in vivo.

  7. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of mouse Elf3 C-terminal DNA-binding domain in complex with type II TGF-[beta] receptor promoter DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Agarkar, Vinod B.; Babayeva, Nigar D.; Rizzino, Angie; Tahirov, Tahir H.

    2010-10-08

    Ets proteins are transcription factors that activate or repress the expression of genes that are involved in various biological processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, development, transformation and apoptosis. Like other Ets-family members, Elf3 functions as a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcriptional factor. A mouse Elf3 C-terminal fragment (amino-acid residues 269-371) containing the DNA-binding domain has been crystallized in complex with mouse type II TGF-{beta} receptor promoter (TR-II) DNA. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.66, b = 52, c = 99.78 {angstrom}, and diffracted to a resolution of 2.2 {angstrom}.

  8. Mre11 nuclease and C-terminal tail-mediated DDR functions are required for initiating yeast telomere healing.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, M K; Matthews, K M; Lustig, A J

    2008-08-01

    Mre11 is a central factor in creating an optimal substrate for telomerase loading and elongation. We have used a G2/M synchronized telomere-healing assay as a tool to separate different functions of Mre11 that are not apparent in null alleles. An analysis of healing efficiencies of several mre11 alleles revealed that both nuclease and C-terminal mutations led to a loss of healing. Interestingly, trans-complementation of the 49 amino acid C-terminal deletion (DeltaC49) and the D16A mutant, deficient in nuclease activity and partially defective in MRX complex formation, restores healing. DeltaC49 provokes Rad53 phosphorylation after treatment with the radiomimetic agent MMS exclusively through the Tel1 pathway, suggesting that a Tel1-mediated function is initiated through the C-terminal tail.

  9. Hsp90 N- and C-terminal double inhibition synergistically suppresses Bcr-Abl-positive human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhuang, Yingting; Chen, Xianling; Chen, Xiaole; Li, Ding; Fan, Yingjuan; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Yuanzhong; Wu, Lixian

    2017-02-07

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) contains amino (N)-terminal domain, carboxyl(C)-terminal domain, and middle domains, which activate Hsp90 chaperone function cooperatively in tumor cells. One terminal occupancy might influence another terminal binding with inhibitor. The Bcr-Abl kinase is one of the Hsp90 clients implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Present studies demonstrate that double inhibition of the N- and C-terminal termini can disrupt Hsp90 chaperone function synergistically, but not antagonistically, in Bcr-Abl-positive human leukemia cells. Furthermore, both the N-terminal inhibitor 17-AAG and the C-terminal inhibitor cisplatin (CP) have the capacity to suppress progenitor cells; however, only CP is able to inhibit leukemia stem cells (LSCs) significantly, which implies that the combinational treatment is able to suppress human leukemia in different mature states.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L.; Sataric, Bogdan M.; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Sataric, Miljko V.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process.

  11. Evolution of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W.; Hall, Benjamin D.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years a great deal of biochemical and genetic research has focused on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit (RPB1) of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II. This strongly conserved domain of tandemly repeated heptapeptides has been linked functionally to important steps in the initiation and processing of mRNA transcripts in both animals and fungi. Although they are absolutely required for viability in these organisms, C-terminal tandem repeats do not occur in RPB1 sequences from diverse eukaryotic taxa. Here we present phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 sequences showing that canonical CTD heptads are strongly conserved in only a subset of eukaryotic groups, all apparently descended from a single common ancestor. Moreover, eukaryotic groups in which the most complex patterns of ontogenetic development occur are descended from this CTD-containing ancestor. Consistent with the results of genetic and biochemical investigations of CTD function, these analyses suggest that the enhanced control over RNA polymerase II transcription conveyed by acquired CTD/protein interactions was an important step in the evolution of intricate patterns of gene expression that are a hallmark of large, developmentally complex eukaryotic organisms. PMID:11972039

  12. Crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the RAP74 subunit of human transcription factor IIF

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, Katsuhiko; De Angelis, Jacqueline; Roeder, Robert G.; Burley, Stephen K.

    2012-12-13

    The x-ray structure of a C-terminal fragment of the RAP74 subunit of human transcription factor (TF) IIF has been determined at 1.02-{angstrom} resolution. The {alpha}/{beta} structure is strikingly similar to the globular domain of linker histone H5 and the DNA-binding domain of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3{gamma} (HNF-3{gamma}), making it a winged-helix protein. The surface electrostatic properties of this compact domain differ significantly from those of bona fide winged-helix transcription factors (HNF-3{gamma} and RFX1) and from the winged-helix domains found within the RAP30 subunit of TFIIF and the {beta} subunit of TFIIE. RAP74 has been shown to interact with the TFIIF-associated C-terminal domain phosphatase FCP1, and a putative phosphatase binding site has been identified within the RAP74 winged-helix domain.

  13. The role of the C-terminal region in phosphoglycerate mutase.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R A; Nairn, J; Duncan, D; Price, N C; Kelly, S M; Rigden, D J; Fothergill-Gilmore, L A

    1999-01-01

    Removal of the C-terminal seven residues from phosphoglycerate mutase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by limited proteolysis is associated with loss of mutase activity, but no change in phosphatase activity. The presence of the cofactor 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate, or of the cofactor and substrate 3-phosphoglycerate together, confers protection against proteolysis. The substrate alone offers no protection. Replacement of either or both of the two lysines at the C-terminus by glycines has only limited effects on the kinetic properties of phosphoglycerate mutase, indicating that these residues are unlikely to be involved in crucial electrostatic interactions with the substrate, intermediate or product in the reaction. However, the double-mutant form of the enzyme is more sensitive to proteolysis and is no longer protected against proteolysis by the presence of cofactor. The proteolysed wild-type and two of the mutated forms of the enzyme show a reduced response to 2-phosphoglycollate, which enhances the instability of the phospho form of the native enzyme. The phosphoglycerate mutase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks the analogous C-terminal tail, has an inherently lower mutase activity and is also less responsive to stimulation by 2-phosphoglycollate. It is proposed that the C-terminal region of phosphoglycerate mutase helps to maintain the enzyme in its active phosphorylated form and assists in the retention of the bisphosphoglycerate intermediate at the active site. However, its role seems not to be to contribute directly to ligand binding, but rather to exert indirect effects on the transfer of the phospho group between substrate, enzyme, intermediate and product. PMID:9854029

  14. The C- terminal region of the Major Outer Sheath Protein (Msp) of Treponema denticola inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Megan M; Vanyo, Stephen T; Visser, Michelle B

    2017-03-13

    Treponema denticola is an oral spirochete strongly associated with severe periodontal disease. A prominent virulence factor, the major outer sheath protein (Msp), disorients neutrophil chemotaxis by altering the cellular phosphoinositide balance, leading to impairment of downstream chemotactic events including actin rearrangement, Rac1 activation and Akt activation in response to chemoattractant stimulation. The specific regions of Msp responsible for interactions with neutrophils remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of truncated Msp regions on neutrophil chemotaxis and associated signaling pathways. Murine neutrophils were treated with recombinant protein truncations followed by assessment of chemotaxis and associated signal pathway activation. Chemotaxis assays indicate sequences within the C-terminal region; particularly the first 130 amino acids, have the strongest inhibitory effect on neutrophil chemotaxis. Neutrophils incubated with the C-terminal region protein also demonstrated the greatest inhibition of Rac1 activation, increased phosphoinositide phosphatase activity, and decreased Akt activation; orchestrating impairment of chemotaxis. Furthermore, incubation with antibodies specific to only the C-terminal region blocked the Msp induced inhibition of chemotaxis and denaturing the protein restored Rac1 activation. Msp from the strain OTK, with numerous amino acid substitutions throughout the polypeptide, including the C-terminal region compared to strain 35405, showed increased ability to impair neutrophil chemotaxis. Collectively, these results indicate the C-terminal region of Msp is the most potent region to modulate neutrophil chemotactic signaling and that specific sequences and structure is likely required. Knowledge of how spirochetes dampen neutrophil response is limited and Msp may represent a novel therapeutic target for periodontal disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidatively fragmented phosphatidylcholines activate human neutrophils through the receptor for platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Smiley, P L; Stremler, K E; Prescott, S M; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M

    1991-06-15

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) activates neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMN) through a receptor that specifically recognizes short sn-2 residues. We oxidized synthetic [2-arachidonoyl]phosphatidylcholine to fragment and shorten the sn-2 residue, and then examined the phospholipid products for the ability to stimulate PMN. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was fragmented by ozonolysis to 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. This phospholipid activated human neutrophils at submicromolar concentrations, and is effects were inhibited by specific PAF receptor antagonists WEB2086, L659,989, and CV3988. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine next was fragmented by an uncontrolled free radical-catalyzed reaction: it was treated with soybean lipoxygenase to form its sn-2 15-hydroperoxy derivative (which did not activate neutrophils) and then allowed to oxidize under air. The secondary oxidation resulted in the formation of numerous fragmented phospholipids (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103), some of which activated PMN. Hydrolysis of sn-2 residues with phospholipase A2 destroyed biologic activity, as did hydrolysis with PAF acetylhydrolase. PAF acetylhydrolase is specific for short or intermediate length sn-2 residues and does not hydrolyze the starting material (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103). Neutrophil activation was completely blocked by L659,989, a specific PAF receptor antagonist. We conclude that diacylphosphatidylcholines containing an sn-2 polyunsaturated fatty acyl residue can be oxidatively fragmented to species with sn-2 residues short enough to activate the PAF receptor of neutrophils. This suggests a new mechanism for the appearance of biologically active phospholipids, and shows

  16. Fragmentation reactions of deprotonated peptides containing aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Alex G.; Young, Alex B.

    2006-09-01

    The fragmentation reactions of deprotonated peptides containing aspartic acid have been elucidated using MS2 and MS3 experiments and accurate mass measurements where necessary. The disposition of labile (N and O bonded) hydrogens in the fragmentation products has been studied by exchanging the labile hydrogens for deuterium whereby the [MD]- ion is formed on electrospray ionization. [alpha]-Aspartyl and [beta]-aspartyl dipeptides give very similar fragment ion spectra on collisional activation, involving for both species primarily formation of the y1 ion and loss of H2O from [MH]- followed by further fragmentation, thus precluding the distinction of the isomeric species by negative ion tandem mass spectrometry. Dipeptides of sequence HXxxAspOH give characteristic spectra different from the [alpha]- and [beta]-isomers. For larger peptides containing aspartic acid a common fragmentation reaction involves nominal cleavage of the NC bond N-terminal to the aspartic acid residue to form a c ion (deprotonated amino acid amide (c1) or peptide amide (cn)) and the complimentary product involving elimination of a neutral amino acid amide or peptide amide. When aspartic acid is in the C-terminal position this fragmentation reaction occurs from the [MH]- ion while when the aspartic acid is not in the C-terminal position the fragmentation reaction occurs mainly from the [MHH2O]- ion. The products of this NC bond cleavage reaction serve to identify the position of the aspartic acid residue in the peptide.

  17. C-terminal dimerization of apo-cyclic AMP receptor protein validated in solution.

    PubMed

    Sim, Dae-Won; Choi, Jae Wan; Kim, Ji-Hun; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Kim, Myeongkyu; Yu, Hee-Wan; Jo, Ku-Sung; Kim, Eun-Hee; Seo, Min-Duk; Jeon, Young Ho; Lee, Bong-Jin; Kim, Young Pil; Won, Hyung-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Although cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) has long served as a typical example of effector-mediated protein allostery, mechanistic details into its regulation have been controversial due to discrepancy between the known crystal structure and NMR structure of apo-CRP. Here, we report that the recombinant protein corresponding to its C-terminal DNA-binding domain (CDD) forms a dimer. This result, together with structural information obtained in the present NMR study, is consistent with the previous crystal structure and validates its relevance also in solution. Therefore, our findings suggest that dissociation of the CDD may be critically involved in cAMP-induced allosteric activation of CRP.

  18. [Research advances on ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase in oncogenesis and progression].

    PubMed

    Yu, Juan; Chen, Wei-lin

    2015-03-01

    By regulating the ubiquitination and deubiquitination of key proteins, ubiquitin-proteasome system mediates a variety of cellular activities. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH) is a deubiquitinating enzyme which can remove ubiquitin chains at the end of ubiquited proteins. The abnormal expression of UCH has been found in a variety of tumor tissues, indicating that it participates in the process of tumor development. Here we review the characteristics of UCH members and current understanding about the role of UCH in tumor development, and the potential target for cancer treatment.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of photoaffinity labelling reagents towards the Hsp90 C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Simon, Binto; Huang, Xuexia; Ju, Huangxian; Sun, Guoxuan; Yang, Min

    2017-02-21

    Glucosyl-novobiocin-based diazirine photoaffinity labelling reagents (PALs) were designed and synthesized to probe the Hsp90 C-terminal domain unknown binding pocket and the structure-activity relationship. Five PALs were successfully synthesized from novobiocin in six consecutive steps employing phase transfer catalytic glycosylation. Reactions were monitored and guided by analytical LC/MS which led to different strategies of adding either a PAL precursor or a sugar moiety first. The structures and bonding linkages of these compounds were characterised by various 2D-NMR spectroscopy and MS techniques. Synthetic techniques provide powerful probes for unknown protein binding pockets.

  20. Identification of the in vivo truncation sites at the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin from aged bovine and human lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Total alpha-A crystallin was purified from young versus old lens, followed by digestion with cyanogen bromide. Laser desorption mass spectrometry of the C-terminal fragment demonstrated age-dependent loss of one and five amino acids from the C-terminus of alpha-A crystallin from both bovine and human lens. These results demonstrate specific peptide bonds of alpha-A crystallin are cleaved during the aging process of the normal lens. The C-terminal region is cleaved in two places between the two hydroxyl-containing amino acids present in the sequence -P-S(T)-S-.

  1. Aversive effects of the C-fragment of Substance P in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, J E; Huston, J P; Brandão, M L

    1998-11-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the role of neuropeptides in the integration of brain functions. Besides the well-known positive-reinforcing effects of Substance P (SP) in prosencephalic regions, a role of this neuropeptide in the generation of aversive states in mesencephalic structures has also been envisaged. Evidence from a previous study suggests an involvement of SP in the neural substrates of aversion in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG). In the present study, we investigate whether N- and C-terminal fragments of Substance P are responsible for the effects produced by microinjections of SP into the dorsal periaqueductal gray. The results show that SP and its C-terminal fragment SP(7-11) produced a behavioral activation with increases in locomotor activity, grooming, and rearings, while the N-terminal fragment SP(1-7) produced only an increase in vertical exploratory activity. The effects were more pronounced with intermediate doses of SP and its C-fragment, confirming the characteristic bell-shaped dose-effect function of this neuropeptide. The proaversive effects observed with DPAG microinjections of these neuropeptides in the present study gain further relevance when combined with previous reports showing unconditioned and conditioned aversive effects following DPAG microinjections of SP in the place aversion and the elevated plus maze tests, two widely used animal models of anxiety. These results confirm previous data showing that SP has a modulatory role in the DPAG and that its effects are probably due to its C-terminal fragment.

  2. Identification of Novel Short C-Terminal Transcripts of Human SERPINA1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Matamala, Nerea; Aggarwal, Nupur; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomez-Mariano, Gema; Lara, Beatriz; Martinez, Maria Teresa; Cuesta, Isabel; Stolk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human SERPINA1 gene is located on chromosome 14q31-32.3 and is organized into three (IA, IB, and IC) non-coding and four (II, III, IV, V) coding exons. This gene produces α1-antitrypsin (A1AT), a prototypical member of the serpin superfamily of proteins. We demonstrate that human peripheral blood leukocytes express not only a product corresponding to the transcript coding for the full-length A1AT protein but also two short transcripts (ST1C4 and ST1C5) of A1AT. In silico sequence analysis revealed that the last exon of the short transcripts contains an Open Reading Frame (ORF) and thus putatively can produce peptides. We found ST1C4 expression across different human tissues whereas ST1C5 was mainly restricted to leukocytes, specifically neutrophils. A high up-regulation (10-fold) of short transcripts was observed in isolated human blood neutrophils after activation with lipopolysaccharide. Parallel analyses by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified peptides corresponding to C-terminal region of A1AT in supernatants of activated but not naïve neutrophils. Herein we report for the first time a tissue specific expression and regulation of short transcripts of SERPINA1 gene, and the presence of C-terminal peptides in supernatants from activated neutrophils, in vitro. This gives a novel insight into the studies on the transcription of SERPINA1 gene. PMID:28107454

  3. Intrinsic Disorder of the C-Terminal Domain of Drosophila Methoprene-Tolerant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kolonko, Marta; Ożga, Katarzyna; Hołubowicz, Rafał; Taube, Michał; Kozak, Maciej; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Greb-Markiewicz, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Methoprene tolerant protein (Met) has recently been confirmed as the long-sought juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. This protein plays a significant role in the cross-talk of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and JH signalling pathways, which are important for control of insect development and maturation. Met belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcription factors. In these proteins, bHLH domains are typically responsible for DNA binding and dimerization, whereas the PAS domains are crucial for the choice of dimerization partner and the specificity of target gene activation. The C-terminal region is usually responsible for the regulation of protein complex activity. The sequence of the Met C-terminal region (MetC) is not homologous to any sequence deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and has not been structurally characterized to date. In this study, we show that the MetC exhibits properties typical for an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). The final averaged structure obtained with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments indicates that intrinsically disordered MetC exists in an extended conformation. This extended shape and the long unfolded regions characterise proteins with high flexibility and dynamics. Therefore, we suggest that the multiplicity of conformations adopted by the disordered MetC is crucial for its activity as a biological switch modulating the cross-talk of different signalling pathways in insects. PMID:27657508

  4. Identification of Novel Short C-Terminal Transcripts of Human SERPINA1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Matamala, Nerea; Aggarwal, Nupur; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomez-Mariano, Gema; Lara, Beatriz; Martinez, Maria Teresa; Cuesta, Isabel; Stolk, Jan; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Martinez-Delgado, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Human SERPINA1 gene is located on chromosome 14q31-32.3 and is organized into three (IA, IB, and IC) non-coding and four (II, III, IV, V) coding exons. This gene produces α1-antitrypsin (A1AT), a prototypical member of the serpin superfamily of proteins. We demonstrate that human peripheral blood leukocytes express not only a product corresponding to the transcript coding for the full-length A1AT protein but also two short transcripts (ST1C4 and ST1C5) of A1AT. In silico sequence analysis revealed that the last exon of the short transcripts contains an Open Reading Frame (ORF) and thus putatively can produce peptides. We found ST1C4 expression across different human tissues whereas ST1C5 was mainly restricted to leukocytes, specifically neutrophils. A high up-regulation (10-fold) of short transcripts was observed in isolated human blood neutrophils after activation with lipopolysaccharide. Parallel analyses by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified peptides corresponding to C-terminal region of A1AT in supernatants of activated but not naïve neutrophils. Herein we report for the first time a tissue specific expression and regulation of short transcripts of SERPINA1 gene, and the presence of C-terminal peptides in supernatants from activated neutrophils, in vitro. This gives a novel insight into the studies on the transcription of SERPINA1 gene.

  5. C-terminal tail of FGF19 determines its specificity toward Klotho co-receptors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinle; Lemon, Bryan; Li, XiaoFan; Gupte, Jamila; Weiszmann, Jennifer; Stevens, Jennitte; Hawkins, Nessa; Shen, Wenyan; Lindberg, Richard; Chen, Jin-Long; Tian, Hui; Li, Yang

    2008-11-28

    FGF19 subfamily proteins (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) are unique members of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis in an endocrine fashion. Their activities require the presence of alpha or betaKlotho, two related single-pass transmembrane proteins, as co-receptors in relevant target tissues. We previously showed that FGF19 can bind to both alpha and betaKlotho, whereas FGF21 and FGF23 can bind only to either betaKlotho or alphaKlotho, respectively in vitro. To determine the mechanism regulating the binding and specificity among FGF19 subfamily members to Klotho family proteins, chimeric proteins between FGF19 subfamily members or chimeric proteins between Klotho family members were constructed to probe the interaction between those two families. Our results showed that a chimera of FGF19 with the FGF21 C-terminal tail interacts only with betaKlotho and a chimera with the FGF23 C-terminal tail interacts only with alphaKlotho. FGF signaling assays also reflected the change of specificity we observed for the chimeras. These results identified the C-terminal tail of FGF19 as a region necessary for its recognition of Klotho family proteins. In addition, chimeras between alpha and betaKlotho were also generated to probe the regions in Klotho proteins that are important for signaling by this FGF subfamily. Both FGF23 and FGF21 require intact alpha or betaKlotho for signaling, respectively, whereas FGF19 can signal through a Klotho chimera consisting of the N terminus of alphaKlotho and the C terminus of betaKlotho. Our results provide the first glimpse of the regions that regulate the binding specificity between this unique family of FGFs and their co-receptors.

  6. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    PubMed Central

    van Raaij, Mark J.; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6322 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the ZnII- and CdII-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-­terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine. PMID:16511119

  7. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters

    PubMed Central

    Algarra, B.; Han, L.; Soriano-Úbeda, C.; Avilés, M.; Coy, P.; Jovine, L.; Jiménez-Movilla, M.

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  8. The N- and C-terminal domains of MecA recognize different partners in the competence molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Persuh, M; Turgay, K; Mandic-Mulec, I; Dubnau, D

    1999-08-01

    ComK is a transcription factor required for the expression of competence genes in Bacillus subtilis. Binding to MecA targets ComK for degradation by the ClpCP protease. MecA therefore acts as an adapter protein recruiting a regulatory protein for proteolysis. However, when ComS is synthesized, ComK is released from binding by MecA and thereby protected from degradation. MecA binds to three protein partners during these processes: ComK, ClpC and ComS. Using limited proteolysis, we have defined N- and C-terminal structural domains of MecA and evaluated the interactions of these domains with the protein partners of MecA. Using surface plasmon resonance, we have determined that the N-terminal domain of MecA interacts with ComK and ComS and the C-terminal domain with ClpC. MecA is shown to exist as a dimer with dimerization sites on both the N- and C-terminal domains. The C-terminal domain stimulates the ATPase activity of ClpC and is degraded by the ClpCP protease, while the N-terminal domain is inactive in both of these assays. In vivo data were consistent with these findings, as comG-lacZ expression was decreased in a strain overproducing the N-terminal domain, indicating reduced ComK activity. We propose a model in which binding of ClpC to the C-terminal domain of MecA induces a conformational change enabling the N-terminal domain to bind ComK with enhanced affinity. MecA is widespread among Gram-positive organisms and may act generally as an adapter protein, targeting proteins for regulated degradation.

  9. The C-terminal heavy-chain domain of botulinum neurotoxin a is not the only site that binds neurons, as the N-terminal heavy-chain domain also plays a very active role in toxin-cell binding and interactions.

    PubMed

    Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi; Aoki, K Roger; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2015-04-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) possess unique specificity for nerve terminals. They bind to the presynaptic membrane and then translocate intracellularly, where the light-chain endopeptidase cleaves the SNARE complex proteins, subverting the synaptic exocytosis responsible for acetylcholine release to the synaptic cleft. This inhibits acetylcholine binding to its receptor, causing paralysis. Binding, an obligate event for cell intoxication, is believed to occur through the heavy-chain C-terminal (HC) domain. It is followed by toxin translocation and entry into the cell cytoplasm, which is thought to be mediated by the heavy-chain N-terminal (HN) domain. Submolecular mapping analysis by using synthetic peptides spanning BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) and mouse brain synaptosomes (SNPs) and protective antibodies against toxin from mice and cervical dystonia patients undergoing BoNT/A treatment revealed that not only regions of the HC domain but also regions of the HN domain are involved in the toxin binding process. Based on these findings, we expressed a peptide corresponding to the BoNT/A region comprising HN domain residues 729 to 845 (HN729-845). HN729-845 bound directly to mouse brain SNPs and substantially inhibited BoNT/A binding to SNPs. The binding involved gangliosides GT1b and GD1a and a few membrane lipids. The peptide bound to human or mouse neuroblastoma cells within 1 min. Peptide HN729-845 protected mice completely against a lethal BoNT/A dose (1.05 times the 100% lethal dose). This protective activity was obtained at a dose comparable to that of the peptide from positions 967 to 1296 in the HC domain. These findings strongly indicate that HN729-845 and, by extension, the HN domain are fully programmed and equipped to bind to neuronal cells and in the free state can even inhibit the binding of the toxin.

  10. C-Terminal-oriented Immobilization of Enzymes Using Sortase A-mediated Technique.

    PubMed

    Hata, Yuto; Matsumoto, Takuya; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, sortase A-mediated immobilization of enzymes was used for the preparation of immobilized enzymes. Thermobifida fusca YX β-glucosidase (BGL) or Streptococcus bovis 148 α-amylase (AmyA) were produced with C-terminal sortase A recognition sequences. The resulting fusion proteins were successfully immobilized on nanoparticle surfaces using sortase A. Some properties (activity, stability, and reusability) of the immobilized fusion proteins were evaluated. Both immobilized BGL and immobilized AmyA prepared by the sortase A-mediated technique retained their catalytic activity, exhibiting activities 3.0- or 1.5-fold (respectively) of those seen with the same enzymes immobilized by chemical crosslinking. Immobilized enzymes prepared by the sortase A-mediated technique did not undergo dramatic changes in stability compared with the respective free enzymes. Thus, the sortase A-mediated technique provides a promising method for immobilization of active, stable enzymes.

  11. C-terminal truncation of GSK-3β enhances its dephosphorylation by PP2A.

    PubMed

    Jin, Nana; Wu, Yue; Xu, Wen; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2017-03-07

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is the major tau kinase. Its phosphorylation at Ser9 suppresses the activity. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, GSK-3β is truncated at the C-terminus by over-activated calpain I, leading to an increase in its activity. However, the effect of truncation on its phosphorylation is unknown. We found here that in AD brain and in cultured cells, C-terminally truncated GSK-3β is less phosphorylated at Ser9 than the full-length enzyme. The truncation promotes GSK-3β nuclear translocation and enhances its interaction with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to dephosphorylation. Thus, the truncation of GSK-3β may enhance its activity through Ser9 dephosphorylation by PP2A. Our findings shed new light onto the role of calpain - GSK-3β - PP2A in tau pathogenesis of AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Conformationally restricted C-terminal peptides of substance P. Synthesis, mass spectral analysis and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulos, D; Poulos, C; Gatos, D; Cordopatis, P; Escher, E; Mizrahi, J; Regoli, D; Dalietos, D; Furst, A; Lee, T D

    1985-10-01

    Four cyclic analogues of the C-terminal hepta- or hexapeptide of substance P were prepared by the solution method. The cyclizations were obtained by substituting with cysteine the residues normally present in positions 5 or 6 or 11 of substance P and by subsequent disulfide bond formation. The final products were identified by ordinary analytical procedures and advanced mass spectroscopy. The biological activities were determined on three bioassays: the guinea pig ileum, the guinea pig trachea and the rabbit mesenteric vein. Results obtained with these assays indicate that all peptides with a disulfide bridgehead in position 11 are inactive and that a cycle between positions 5 and 6 already strongly reduces the biological activity. The acyclic precursors containing thiol protection groups display weak biological activities. These results further underline the importance of the side chain in position 11 of substance P and suggest that optimal biological activities may require a linear peptide sequence.

  13. SARS-CoV 3CL protease cleaves its C-terminal autoprocessing site by novel subsite cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Tomonari; Takemoto, Chie; Kim, Yong-Tae; Wang, Hongfei; Nishii, Wataru; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) cleaves 11 sites in the polyproteins, including its own N- and C-terminal autoprocessing sites, by recognizing P4–P1 and P1′. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of 3CLpro with the C-terminal prosequence and the catalytic-site C145A mutation, in which the enzyme binds the C-terminal prosequence of another molecule. Surprisingly, Phe at the P3′ position [Phe(P3′)] is snugly accommodated in the S3′ pocket. Mutations of Phe(P3′) impaired the C-terminal autoprocessing, but did not affect N-terminal autoprocessing. This difference was ascribed to the P2 residue, Phe(P2) and Leu(P2), in the C- and N-terminal sites, as follows. The S3′ subsite is formed by Phe(P2)-induced conformational changes of 3CLpro and the direct involvement of Phe(P2) itself. In contrast, the N-terminal prosequence with Leu(P2) does not cause such conformational changes for the S3′ subsite formation. In fact, the mutation of Phe(P2) to Leu in the C-terminal autoprocessing site abolishes the dependence on Phe(P3′). These mechanisms explain why Phe is required at the P3' position when the P2 position is occupied by Phe rather than Leu, which reveals a type of subsite cooperativity. Moreover, the peptide consisting of P4–P1 with Leu(P2) inhibits protease activity, whereas that with Phe(P2) exhibits a much smaller inhibitory effect, because Phe(P3′) is missing. Thus, this subsite cooperativity likely exists to avoid the autoinhibition of the enzyme by its mature C-terminal sequence, and to retain the efficient C-terminal autoprocessing by the use of Phe(P2). PMID:27799534

  14. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Erika A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody–drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. PMID:26833854

  15. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  16. A C-terminal membrane association domain of phototropin 2 is necessary for chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu; Nagatani, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2), plant-specific blue light receptor kinases, mediate a range of physiological responses in Arabidopsis, including phototropism, chloroplast photorelocation movement, stomatal opening and leaf flattening. Phototropins consist of two photoreceptive domains at their N-terminus, LOV1 (light, oxygen or voltage 1) and LOV2, and a serine/threonine kinase domain at their C-terminus. Here, we determined the molecular moiety for the membrane association of phototropins using the yeast CytoTrap and Arabidopsis protoplast systems. We then examined the physiological significance of the membrane association of phototropins. This detailed study with serial deletions narrowed down the association domain to a relatively small part of the C-terminal domain of phototropin. The functional analysis of phot2 deletion mutants in the phot2-deficient Adiantum and Arabidopsis mutants revealed that the ability to mediate the chloroplast avoidance response correlated well with phot2's membrane association, especially with the Golgi apparatus. Taken together, our data suggest that a small part of the C-terminal domain of phototropins is necessary not only for membrane association but also for the physiological activities that elicit phototropin-specific responses.

  17. C-terminal domains of bacterial proteases: structure, function and the biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Wu, C; Liu, D; Yang, X; Wu, R; Zhang, J; Ma, C; He, H

    2017-01-01

    C-terminal domains widely exist in the C-terminal region of multidomain proteases. As a β-sandwich domain in multidomain protease, the C-terminal domain plays an important role in proteolysis including regulation of the secretory process, anchoring and swelling the substrate molecule, presenting as an inhibitor for the preprotease and adapting the protein structural flexibility and stability. In this review, the diversity, structural characteristics and biological function of C-terminal protease domains are described. Furthermore, the application prospects of C-terminal domains, including polycystic kidney disease, prepeptidase C-terminal and collagen-binding domain, in the area of medicine and biological artificial materials are also discussed.

  18. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Conceição, Fabricio R; McBride, Alan J A; Pinto, Luciano da S

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  19. Structure Predictions of Two Bauhinia variegata Lectins Reveal Patterns of C-Terminal Properties in Single Chain Legume Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Gustavo M. S. G.; Conceição, Fabricio R.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Pinto, Luciano da S.

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and –II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins. PMID:24260572

  20. Crystal Structure of Mouse Elf3 C-terminal DNA-binding Domain in Complex with Type II TGF-[beta] Receptor Promoter DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Agarkar, Vinod B.; Babayeva, Nigar D.; Wilder, Phillip J.; Rizzino, Angie; Tahirov, Tahir H.

    2010-08-18

    The Ets family of transcription factors is composed of more than 30 members. One of its members, Elf3, is expressed in virtually all epithelial cells as well as in many tumors, including breast tumors. Several studies observed that the promoter of the type II TGF-{beta} receptor gene (T{beta}R-II) is strongly stimulated by Elf3 via two adjacent Elf3 binding sites, the A-site and the B-site. Here, we report the 2.2 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a mouse Elf3 C-terminal fragment, containing the DNA-binding Ets domain, in complex with the B-site of mouse type II TGF-{beta} receptor promoter DNA (mT{beta}R-II{sub DNA}). Elf3 contacts the core GGAA motif of the B-site from a major groove similar to that of known Ets proteins. However, unlike other Ets proteins, Elf3 also contacts sequences of the A-site from the minor groove of the DNA. DNA binding experiments and cell-based transcription studies indicate that minor groove interaction by Arg349 located in the Ets domain is important for Elf3 function. Equally interesting, previous studies have shown that the C-terminal region of Elf3, which flanks the Ets domain, is required for Elf3 binding to DNA. In this study, we determined that Elf3 amino acid residues within this flanking region, including Trp361, are important for the structural integrity of the protein as well as for the Efl3 DNA binding and transactivation activity.

  1. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  2. Involvement of Conserved Amino Acids in the C-Terminal Region of LINE-1 ORF2p in Retrotransposition.

    PubMed

    Christian, Claiborne M; Sokolowski, Mark; deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J; Belancio, Victoria P

    2017-03-01

    Long interspersed element 1 (L1) is the only currently active autonomous retroelement in the human genome. Along with the parasitic SVA and short interspersed element Alu, L1 is the source of DNA damage induced by retrotransposition: a copy-and-paste process that has the potential to disrupt gene function and cause human disease. The retrotransposition process is dependent upon the ORF2 protein (ORF2p). However, it is unknown whether most of the protein is important for retrotransposition. In particular, other than the Cys motif, the C terminus of the protein has not been intensely examined in the context of retrotransposition. Using evolutionary analysis and the Alu retrotransposition assay, we sought to identify additional amino acids in the C terminus important for retrotransposition. Here, we demonstrate that Gal4-tagged and untagged C-terminally truncated ORF2p fragments possess residual potential to drive Alu retrotransposition. Using sight-directed mutagenesis we identify that while the Y1180 amino acid is important for ORF2p- and L1-driven Alu retrotransposition, a mutation at this position improves L1 retrotransposition. Even though the mechanism of the contribution of Y1180 to Alu and L1 mobilization remains unknown, experimental evidence rules out its direct involvement in the ability of the ORF2p reverse transcriptase to generate complementary DNA. Additionally, our data support that ORF2p amino acids 1180 and 1250-1262 may be involved in the reported ORF1p-mediated increase in ORF2p-driven Alu retrotransposition.

  3. C-terminal amide to alcohol conversion changes the cardiovascular effects of endomorphins in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ye; Wang, Chang-lin; Cui, Yun; Fan, Ying-zhe; Liu, Jing; Shao, Xuan; Liu, Hong-mei; Wang, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Endomorphin1-ol (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-ol, EM1-ol) and endomorphin2-ol (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-ol, EM2-ol), with C-terminal alcohol (-ol) containing, have been shown to exhibit higher affinity and lower intrinsic efficacy in vitro than endomorphins. In the present study, in order to investigate the alterations of systemic hemodynamic effects induced by C-terminal amide to alcohol conversion, responses to intravenous (i.v.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of EM1-ol, EM2-ol and their parents were compared in the system arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) of anesthetized rats. Both EM1-ol and EM2-ol induced dose-related decrease in SAP and HR when injected in doses of 3-100 nmol/kg, i.v. In terms of relative vasodepressor activity, it is interesting to note that EM2-ol was more potent than endomorphin2 [the dose of 25% decrease in SAP (DD25) = 6.01+/-3.19 and 13.99+/-1.56 nmol/kg, i.v., respectively] at a time when responses to EM1-ol were less potent than endomorphin1. Moreover, decreases in SAP in response to EM1-ol and EM2-ol were reduced by naloxone, atropine sulfate, L-NAME and bilateral vagotomy. It indicated that the vasodepressor responses were possibly mediated by a naloxone-sensitive, nitric oxide release, vagus-activated mechanism. It is noteworthy that i.c.v. injections of -ol derivatives produced dose-related decreases in SAP and HR, which were significantly less potent than endomorphins and were attenuated by naloxone and atropine sulfate. In summary, the results of the present study indicated that the C-terminal amide to alcohol conversion produced different effects on the vasodepressor activity of endomorphin1 and endomorphin2 and endowed EM2-ol distinctive hypotension characters in peripheral (i.v.) and central (i.c.v.) tissues. Moreover, these results provided indirect evidence that amidated C-terminus might play an important role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system.

  4. Catalytic activation of pre-substrates via dynamic fragment assembly on protein templates.

    PubMed

    Burda, Edyta; Rademann, Jörg

    2014-11-18

    Sensitive detection of small molecule fragments binding to defined sites of biomacromolecules is still a considerable challenge. Here we demonstrate that protein-binding fragments are able to induce enzymatic reactions on the protein surface via dynamic fragment ligation. Fragments binding to the S1 pocket of serine proteases containing a nitrogen, oxygen or sulphur nucleophile are found to activate electrophilic pre-substrates through a reversible, covalent ligation reaction. The dynamic ligation reaction positions the pre-substrate molecule at the active site of the protein thereby inducing its enzymatic cleavage. Catalytic activation of pre-substrates is confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The approach is investigated with 3 pre-substrates and 14 protein-binding fragments and the specific activation and the templating effect exerted by the enzyme is quantified for each protease-fragment-pre-substrate combination. The described approach enables the site-specific identification of protein-binding fragments, the functional characterization of enzymatic sites and the quantitative analysis of protein template-assisted ligation reactions.

  5. N-terminal and C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain of APOBEC3G inhibit hepatitis B virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yan-Chang; Tian, Yong-Jun; Ding, Hong-Hui; Wang, Bao-Ju; Yang, Yan; Hao, You-Hua; Zhao, Xi-Ping; Lu, Meng-Ji; Gong, Fei-Li; Yang, Dong-Liang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic-polypeptide 3G (APOBEC3G) and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain-mediated antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The mammalian hepatoma cells HepG2 and HuH7 were cotransfected with APOBEC3G and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain expression vector and 1.3-fold-overlength HBV DNA as well as the linear monomeric HBV of genotype B and C. For in vivo study, an HBV vector-based mouse model was used in which APOBEC3G and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain expression vectors were co-delivered with 1.3-fold-overlength HBV DNA via high-volume tail vein injection. Levels of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) in the media of the transfected cells and in the sera of mice were determined by ELISA. The expression of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) in the transfected cells was determined by Western blot analysis. Core-associated HBV DNA was examined by Southern blot analysis. Levels of HBV DNA in the sera of mice as well as HBV core-associated RNA in the liver of mice were determined by quantitative PCR and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Human APOBEC3G exerted an anti-HBV activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, and comparable suppressive effects were observed on genotype B and C as that of genotype A. Interestingly, the N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain alone could also inhibit HBV replication in HepG2 cells as well as Huh7 cells. Consistent with in vitro results, the levels of HBsAg in the sera of mice were dramatically decreased, with more than 50 times decrease in the levels of serum HBV DNA and core-associated RNA in the liver of mice treated with APOBEC3G and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain as compared to the controls. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide probably the

  6. Structure of the C-terminal domain of Tup1, a corepressor of transcription in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sprague, E R; Redd, M J; Johnson, A D; Wolberger, C

    2000-06-15

    The Tup1-Ssn6 corepressor complex regulates the expression of several sets of genes, including genes that specify mating type in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Repression of mating-type genes occurs when Tup1-Ssn6 is brought to the DNA by the Matalpha2 DNA-binding protein and assembled upstream of a- and haploid-specific genes. We have determined the 2.3 A X-ray crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of Tup1 (accesion No. 1ERJ), a 43 kDa fragment that contains seven copies of the WD40 sequence motif and binds to the Matalpha2 protein. Moreover, this portion of the protein can partially substitute for full-length Tup1 in bringing about transcriptional repression. The structure reveals a seven-bladed beta propeller with an N-terminal subdomain that is anchored to the side of the propeller and extends the beta sheet of one of the blades. Point mutations in Tup1 that specifically affect the Tup1-Matalpha2 interaction cluster on one surface of the propeller. We identified regions of Tup1 that are conserved among the fungal Tup1 homologs and may be important in protein-protein interactions with additional components of the Tup1-mediated repression pathways.

  7. AMINO ACID COMPOSITION AND C-TERMINAL RESIDUES OF ALGAL BILIPROTEINS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    R-phycoerythrin from Ceramium rubrum and C- phycocyanin from Nostoc nuscorum were obtained in purified form by fractional crystallization, followed by...as amino acids. Alanine was identified as the only C-terminal amino acid of R-phycoerythrin, each molecule of which contained about 12 terminal groups. Serine was identified as the only C-terminal group of C- phycocyanin . (Author)

  8. The C-terminal half of UvrC protein is sufficient to reconstitute (A)BC excinuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.J.; Sancar, A. )

    1991-08-01

    The UvrC protein is one of three subunits of the Escherichia coli repair enzyme (A)BC excinuclease. This subunit is thought to have at least one of the active sites for nucleophilic attack on the phosphodiester bonds of damaged DNA. To localize the active site, mutant UvrC proteins were constructed by linker-scanning and deletion mutagenesis. In vivo studies revealed that the C-terminal 314 amino acids of the 610-amino acid UvrC protein were sufficient to confer UV resistance to cells lacking the uvrC gene. The portion of the uvrC gene encoding the C-terminal half of the protein was fused to the 3{prime} end of the E. coli malE gene (which encodes maltose binding protein), and the fusion protein MBP-C314C was purified and characterized. The fusion protein, in combination with UvrA and UvrB subunits, reconstituted the excinuclease activity that incised the eighth phosphodiester bond 5{prime} and the fourth phosphodiester bond 3{prime} to a psoralen-thymine adduct. These results suggest that the C-terminal 314 amino acids of UvrC constitute a functional domain capable of interacting with the UvrB-damaged DNA complex and of inducing the two phosphodiester bond incisions characteristic of (A)BC excinuclease.

  9. Bacillus subtilis GlnR contains an autoinhibitory C-terminal domain required for the interaction with glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wray, Lewis V; Fisher, Susan H

    2008-04-01

    The Bacillus subtilis GlnR transcription factor regulates gene expression in response to changes in nitrogen availability. Glutamine synthetase transmits the nitrogen regulatory signal to GlnR. The DNA-binding activity of GlnR is activated by a transient protein-protein interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase that stabilizes GlnR-DNA complexes. This signal transduction mechanism was analysed by creating mutant GlnR proteins with partial or complete truncations of their C-terminal domains. The truncated GlnR proteins were found to constitutively repress gene expression in vivo. This constitutive repression did not require glutamine synthetase. Purified mutant GlnR proteins bound DNA in vitro more tightly than wild-type GlnR protein and this binding was not activated by feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. While full-length GlnR is monomeric, the truncated GlnR proteins contained significant levels of dimers. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of GlnR acts as an autoinhibitory domain that prevents GlnR dimerization and thus impedes DNA binding. The GlnR C-terminal domain is also required for the interaction between GlnR and feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. Compared with the full-length GlnR protein, the truncated GlnR proteins were defective in their interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase in cross-linking experiments.

  10. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 deficiency decreases bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sehwan; Kwon, Young-Bae; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Kwon, Jungkee

    2008-06-01

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 is a component of the ubiquitin proteasome system, which evidences unique biological activities. In this study, we report the pattern of UCH-L1 expression, and show that it regulates bone mineralization in osteogenesis. UCH-L1 was expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and hematopoietic precursor cells of bone marrow in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the femora. To further assess the involvement of UCH-L1 in the regulation of bone mineralization, we evaluated the bone mineral density (BMD) rate of gad mice, using the Latheta computed tomography system. Male gad mice evidenced a significantly decreased BMD rate in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the femora. These findings of decreased BMD rate in the bones of gad mice may suggest that UCH-L1 function regulates bone mineralization during osteogenesis.

  11. Iron-binding fragments from the carboxyl-terminal region of hen ovotransferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J

    1975-01-01

    1. When iron-saturated hen ovotransferrin was treated with subtilisin the N-terminal half was digested at a faster rate than the C-terminal half, allowing the latter to be isolated as a single-chain fragment of mol.wt 35000. 2. In mildly acid conditions iron-ovotransferrin loses iron preferentially from its N-terminal binding site. Trypsin digestion of the resulting monoferric ovotransferrin also gave rise to a C-terminal fragment. 3. Comparison of the N-terminal fragment with the C-terminal fragments shows differences in composition, peptide 'maps', CNBr-cleavage patterns and antigenic structures. The C-terminal fragments carry the carbohydrate group of ovotransferrin. 4. Both N-terminal and C-terminal fragments donate their bound iron to rabbit reticulocytes. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:811217

  12. The C-terminal dimerization motif of cyclase-associated protein is essential for actin monomer regulation.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Shohei; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-12-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a conserved actin-regulatory protein that functions together with actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin to enhance actin filament dynamics. CAP has multiple functional domains, and the function to regulate actin monomers is carried out by its C-terminal half containing a Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domain, a CAP and X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 2 (CARP) domain, and a dimerization motif. WH2 and CARP are implicated in binding to actin monomers and important for enhancing filament turnover. However, the role of the dimerization motif is unknown. Here, we investigated the function of the dimerization motif of CAS-2, a CAP isoform in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, in actin monomer regulation. CAS-2 promotes ATP-dependent recycling of ADF/cofilin-bound actin monomers for polymerization by enhancing exchange of actin-bound nucleotides. The C-terminal half of CAS-2 (CAS-2C) has nearly as strong activity as full-length CAS-2. Maltose-binding protein (MBP)-tagged CAS-2C is a dimer. However, MBP-CAS-2C with a truncation of either one or two C-terminal β-strands is monomeric. Truncations of the dimerization motif in MBP-CAS-2C nearly completely abolish its activity to sequester actin monomers from polymerization and enhance nucleotide exchange on actin monomers. As a result, these CAS-2C variants, also in the context of full-length CAS-2, fail to compete with ADF/cofilin to release actin monomers for polymerization. CAS-2C variants lacking the dimerization motif exhibit enhanced binding to actin filaments, which is mediated by WH2. Taken together, these results suggest that the evolutionarily conserved dimerization motif of CAP is essential for its C-terminal region to exert the actin monomer-specific regulatory function.

  13. Membrane-Active Epithelial Keratin 6A Fragments (KAMPs) Are Unique Human Antimicrobial Peptides with a Non-αβ Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Judy T. Y.; Wang, Guangshun; Tam, Yu Tong; Tam, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a pressing global health problem that threatens millions of lives each year. Natural antimicrobial peptides and their synthetic derivatives, including peptoids and peptidomimetics, are promising candidates as novel antibiotics. Recently, the C-terminal glycine-rich fragments of human epithelial keratin 6A were found to have bactericidal and cytoprotective activities. Here, we used an improved 2-dimensional NMR method coupled with a new protocol for structural refinement by low temperature simulated annealing to characterize the solution structure of these kerain-derived antimicrobial peptides (KAMPs). Two specific KAMPs in complex with membrane mimicking sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles displayed amphipathic conformations with only local bends and turns, and a central 10-residue glycine-rich hydrophobic strip that is central to bactericidal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-αβ structure for human antimicrobial peptides. Direct observation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that KAMPs deformed bacterial cell envelopes and induced pore formation. Notably, in competitive binding experiments, KAMPs demonstrated binding affinities to LPS and LTA that did not correlate with their bactericidal activities, suggesting peptide-LPS and peptide-LTA interactions are less important in their mechanisms of action. Moreover, immunoprecipitation of KAMPs-bacterial factor complexes indicated that membrane surface lipoprotein SlyB and intracellular machineries NQR sodium pump and ribosomes are potential molecular targets for the peptides. Results of this study improve our understanding of the bactericidal function of epithelial cytokeratin fragments, and highlight an unexplored class of human antimicrobial peptides, which may serve as non-αβ peptide scaffolds for the design of novel peptide-based antibiotics. PMID:27891122

  14. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. IMPORTANCE While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed

  15. Turn structures in CGRP C-terminal analogues promote stable arrangements of key residue side chains.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, K A; Schmidt, R; von Mentzer, B; Haglund, U; Roberts, E; Walpole, C

    2001-07-27

    The 37-amino acid calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent endogenous vasodilator thought to be implicated in the genesis of migraine attack. CGRP antagonists may thus have therapeutic value for the treatment of migraine. The CGRP C-terminally derived peptide [D(31),P(34),F(35)]CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) was recently identified as a high-affinity hCGRP(1) receptor selective antagonist. Reasonable CGRP(1) affinity has also been demonstrated for several related analogues, including [D(31),A(34),F(35)]CGRP(27-37)-NH(2). In the study presented here, conformational and structural features in CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) analogues that are important for hCGRP(1) receptor binding were explored. Structure-activity studies carried out on [D(31),P(34),F(35)]CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) resulted in [D(31),P(34),F(35)]CGRP(30-37)-NH(2), the shortest reported CGRP C-terminal peptide analogue exhibiting reasonable hCGRP(1) receptor affinity (K(i) = 29.6 nM). Further removal of T(30) from the peptide's N-terminus greatly reduced receptor affinity from the nanomolar to micromolar range. Additional residues deemed critical for hCGRP(1) receptor binding were identified from an alanine scan of [A(34),F(35)]CGRP(28-37)-NH(2) and included V(32) and F(37). Replacement of the C-terminal amide in this same peptide with a carboxyl, furthermore, resulted in a greater than 50-fold reduction in hCGRP(1) affinity, thus suggesting a direct role for the amide moiety in receptor binding. The conformational properties of two classes of CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) peptides, [D(31),X(34),F(35)]CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) (X is A or P), were examined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. A beta-turn centered on P(29) was a notable feature consistently observed among active peptides in both series. This turn led to exposure of the critical T(30) residue to the surrounding environment. Peptides in the A(34) series were additionally characterized by a stable C-terminal helical turn that resulted in the three important residues (T(30), V

  16. The C-terminal aqueous-exposed domain of the 45 kDa subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is a Cu(I) sponge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Steve S-F; Ji, Cheng-Zhi; Wu, Ya Ping; Lee, Tsu-Lin; Lai, Chien-Hung; Lin, Su-Ching; Yang, Zong-Lin; Wang, Vincent C-C; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Chan, Sunney I

    2007-12-04

    The crystal structure of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been reported recently [Lieberman, R. L., and Rosenzweig, A. C. (2005) Crystal structure of a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that catalyses the biological oxidation of methane, Nature 434, 177-182]. Subsequent work has shown that the preparation on which the X-ray analysis is based might be missing many of the important metal cofactors, including the putative trinuclear copper cluster at the active site as well as ca. 10 copper ions (E-clusters) that have been proposed to serve as a buffer of reducing equivalents to re-reduce the copper atoms at the active site following the catalytic chemistry [Chan, S. I., Wang, V. C.-C., Lai, J. C.-H., Yu, S. S.-F., Chen, P. P.-Y., Chen, K. H.-C., Chen, C.-L., and Chan, M. K. (2007) Redox potentiometry studies of particulate methane monooxygenase: Support for a trinuclear copper cluster active site, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 46, 1992-1994]. Since the aqueous-exposed domains of the 45 kDa subunit (PmoB) have been suggested to be the putative binding domains for the E-cluster copper ions, we have cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli the two aqueous-exposed subdomains toward the N- and C-termini of the subunit: the N-terminal subdomain (residues 54-178) and the C-terminal subdomain (residues 257-394 and 282-414). The recombinant C-terminal water-exposed subdomain is shown to behave like a Cu(I) sponge, taking up to ca. 10 Cu(I) ions cooperatively when cupric ions are added to the protein fragment in the presence of dithiothreitol or ascorbate. In addition, circular dichroism measurements reveal that the C-terminal subdomain folds into a beta-sheet structure in the presence of Cu(I). The propensity for the C-terminal subdomain to bind Cu(I) is consistent with the high redox potential(s) determined for the E-cluster copper ions in the pMMO. These properties of the E-clusters are in accordance with the function proposed

  17. C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Adachi, Noritaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Chromatin binding of XRCC4 is dependent on the presence of DNA ligase IV. •C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV alone can recruit itself and XRCC4 to chromatin. •Two BRCT domains of DNA ligase IV are essential for the chromatin binding of XRCC4. -- Abstract: DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  18. The autolytic activity of the recombinant amidase of Staphylococcus saprophyticus is inhibited by its own recombinant GW repeats.

    PubMed

    Hell, Wolfgang; Reichl, Sylvia; Anders, Agnes; Gatermann, Sören

    2003-10-10

    The Aas (autolysin/adhesin of Staphylococcus saprophyticus) is a multifunctional surface protein containing two enzymatic domains an N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine amidase, an endo-beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, and two different regions of repetitive sequences, an N-terminal and a C-terminal repetitive domain. The C-terminal repetitive domain is built up by the repeats R1, R2 and R3, which interconnect the putative active centers of the amidase and glucosaminidase. To investigate the influence of the C-terminal repeats and the N-terminal repeats on the amidase activity, the repetitive domains and fragments of them were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The influence of the different fragments on the activity of the recombinant amidase of the Aas, consisting of the active center of the enzyme and repeat R1, was investigated in a turbidimetric microassay. The different fragments derived from the C-terminal repeats inhibited the amidase activity, while the N-terminal repeats did not influence the activity of the enzyme. The inhibiting activity increased with the number of GW repeats the recombinant fragment contained. Thus we conclude, that the C-terminal GW repeats and not the N-terminal repeats are necessary for the cell wall targeting and the autolytic function of the amidase.

  19. Stepwise assembly of functional C-terminal REST/NRSF transcriptional repressor complexes as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Inui, Ken; Zhao, Zongpei; Yuan, Juan; Jayaprakash, Sakthidasan; Le, Le T M; Drakulic, Srdja; Sander, Bjoern; Golas, Monika M

    2017-02-20

    In human cells, thousands of predominantly neuronal genes are regulated by the repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF). REST/NRSF represses transcription of these genes in stem cells and non-neuronal cells by tethering corepressor complexes. Aberrant REST/NRSF expression and intracellular localization are associated with cancer and neurodegeneration in humans. To date, detailed molecular analyses of REST/NRSF and its C-terminal repressor complex have been hampered largely by the lack of sufficient amounts of purified REST/NRSF and its complexes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to express and purify human REST/NRSF and its C-terminal interactors in a baculovirus multiprotein expression system as individual proteins and coexpressed complexes. All proteins were enriched in the nucleus, and REST/NRSF was isolated as a slower migrating form, characteristic of nuclear REST/NRSF in mammalian cells. Both REST/NRSF alone and its C-terminal repressor complex were functionally active in histone deacetylation and histone demethylation and bound to RE1/neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) sites. Additionally, the mechanisms of inhibition of the small-molecule drugs 4SC-202 and SP2509 were analyzed. These drugs interfered with the viability of medulloblastoma cells, where REST/NRSF has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Thus, a resource for molecular REST/NRSF studies and drug development has been established.

  20. Structure and regulatory role of the C-terminal winged helix domain of the archaeal minichromosome maintenance complex

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Szambowska, Anna; Häfner, Sabine; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; Görlach, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) represents the replicative DNA helicase both in eukaryotes and archaea. Here, we describe the solution structure of the C-terminal domains of the archaeal MCMs of Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Those domains consist of a structurally conserved truncated winged helix (WH) domain lacking the two typical ‘wings’ of canonical WH domains. A less conserved N-terminal extension links this WH module to the MCM AAA+ domain forming the ATPase center. In the Sso MCM this linker contains a short α-helical element. Using Sso MCM mutants, including chimeric constructs containing Mth C-terminal domain elements, we show that the ATPase and helicase activity of the Sso MCM is significantly modulated by the short α-helical linker element and by N-terminal residues of the first α-helix of the truncated WH module. Finally, based on our structural and functional data, we present a docking-derived model of the Sso MCM, which implies an allosteric control of the ATPase center by the C-terminal domain. PMID:25712103

  1. Location of smooth-muscle myosin and tropomyosin binding sites in the C-terminal 288 residues of human caldesmon.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, P A; Fraser, I D; Marston, S B

    1995-01-01

    We have produced nine recombinant fragments, H1 to H9, from a human cDNA that codes for the C-terminal 288 residues of caldesmon. The fragment H1, encompassing the 288 residues, is equivalent to domains 3 and 4 of caldesmon (amino acids 506-793 in human, 476-737 in the chicken gizzard sequence). It has been shown [Huber, Redwood, Avent, Tanner and Marston (1993) J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 14, 385-391] to bind to actin, Ca(2+)-calmodulin, tropomyosin and myosin. The fragments, H2 to H9, differ in length between 60 and 176 residues and cover the whole of domains 3 and 4 with many of the fragments overlapping. We have characterized the myosin and tropomyosin binding of these fragments. The binding of both tropomyosin and myosin is highly dependent on salt concentration, indicating the ionic nature of these interactions. The location of the myosin binding is an extended region encompassing the junction of domains 3/4 and domain 4a (residues 622-714, human; 566-657, chicken gizzard). Tropomyosin binds in a smaller region within domain 4a of caldesmon (residues 663-714, human; 606-657 chicken gizzard). We confirmed predictions based on sequence similarities of a tropomyosin binding site in domain 3 of caldesmon; however, this site bound to skeletal-muscle tropomyosin and had little affinity for the smooth-muscle tropomyosin isoform. None of the protein fragments H2-H9 retained the affinity of the parent fragment H1 for either myosin or tropomyosin. This indicates the need for several interaction sites scattered over an extended region to attain higher affinity. The regions interacting with caldesmon in both tropomyosin and myosin are coiled-coil structures. This is probably the reason for their shared interaction sites on caldesmon and their similar natures of binding. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 9 PMID:8526878

  2. Crystal structure of a major fragment of the salt-tolerant glutaminase from Micrococcus luteus K-3

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimune, Kazuaki . E-mail: k.yoshimune@aist.go.jp; Shirakihara, Yasuo; Shiratori, Aya; Wakayama, Mamoru; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Moriguchi, Mitsuaki

    2006-08-11

    Glutaminase of Micrococcus luteus K-3 (intact glutaminase; 48 kDa) is digested to a C-terminally truncated fragment (glutaminase fragment; 42 kDa) that shows higher salt tolerance than that of the intact glutaminase. The crystal structure of the glutaminase fragment was determined at 2.4 A resolution using multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD). The glutaminase fragment is composed of N-terminal and C-terminal domains, and a putative catalytic serine-lysine dyad (S64 and K67) is located in a cleft of the N-terminal domain. Mutations of the S64 or K67 residues abolished the enzyme activity. The N-terminal domain has abundant glutamic acid residues on its surface, which may explain its salt-tolerant mechanism. A diffraction analysis of the intact glutaminase crystals (a twinning fraction of 0.43) located the glutaminase fragment in the unit cell but failed to turn up clear densities for the missing C-terminal portion of the molecule.

  3. C-Terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Adachi, Noritaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-20

    DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  4. Three conserved C-terminal residues of influenza fusion peptide alter its behavior at the membrane interface.

    PubMed

    Worch, Remigiusz; Krupa, Joanna; Filipek, Alicja; Szymaniec, Anna; Setny, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    The N-terminal fragment of the viral hemagglutinin HA2 subunit is termed a fusion peptide (HAfp). The 23-amino acid peptide (HAfp1-23) contains three C-terminal W21-Y22-G23 residues which are highly conserved among serotypes of influenza A and has been shown to form a tight helical hairpin very distinct from the boomerang structure of HAfp1-20. We studied the effect of peptide length on fusion properties, structural dynamics, and binding to the membrane interface. We developed a novel fusion visualization assay based on FLIM microscopy on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV). By means of molecular dynamics simulations and spectroscopic measurements, we show that the presence of the three C-terminal W21-Y22-G23 residues promotes the hairpin formation, which orients perpendicularly to the membrane plane and induces more disorder in the surrounding lipids than the less structured HAfp1-20. Moreover, we report cholesterol-enriched domain formation induced exclusively by the longer fusion peptide.

  5. Regulation of synaptic structure by ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Anna E; Djakovic, Stevan N; Salehi, Afshin; Wilson, Scott M; Masliah, Eliezer; Patrick, Gentry N

    2009-06-17

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is selectively and abundantly expressed in the brain, and its activity is required for normal synaptic function. Here, we show that UCH-L1 functions in maintaining normal synaptic structure in hippocampal neurons. We found that UCH-L1 activity is rapidly upregulated by NMDA receptor activation, which leads to an increase in the levels of free monomeric ubiquitin. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of UCH-L1 significantly reduces monomeric ubiquitin levels and causes dramatic alterations in synaptic protein distribution and spine morphology. Inhibition of UCH-L1 activity increases spine size while decreasing spine density. Furthermore, there is a concomitant increase in the size of presynaptic and postsynaptic protein clusters. Interestingly, however, ectopic expression of ubiquitin restores normal synaptic structure in UCH-L1-inhibited neurons. These findings point to a significant role of UCH-L1 in synaptic remodeling, most likely by modulating free monomeric ubiquitin levels in an activity-dependent manner.

  6. Cloning, high level expression and immunogenicity of 1163-1256 residues of C-terminal heavy chain of C. botulinum neurotoxin type E.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Abdoulreza Agheli; Mousavi, Seyed Latif; Rasooli, Iraj; Nazarian, Shahram; Amani, Jafar; Farhadi, Nima

    2010-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) inhibit neurotransmitter release from peripheral cholinergic synapses. BoNTs consist of a toxifying light chain and a heavy chain (HC) linked through a disulfide bond. In the present study we explored the immunogenicity and protective capability of the most effective part corresponding to 1163-1256 residues of botulinum type E neurotoxin HC gene. DNA encoding the 93 C-terminal amino acid of HC residues was synthesized with optimal codon usage for expression. These DNA fragments were ligated into a pLivSelect vector and subcloned into expression vector pET32a. Recombinant plasmids were then transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 DE3. The recombinant protein was purified by nickel affinity gel column chromatography. The HC1163-1256 was identified by antibodies raised against BoNT/E. HC1163-1256 was shown to bind with synaptotagmin and gangliosides, indicating that the expressed and purified HC1163-1256 protein retains a functionally active conformation. The immunization with recombinant protein induced a protection level in mice. The immunization with 2mug of the recombinant protein induced a significant protection level in mice. In conclusion, availability of the recombinant protein provides an effective system to study the biochemical and physical interactions involved during BoNT binding to nerve cells and protection against its toxicity.

  7. Synthesis of the SRM Fragmentation Activities Performed within VEGA Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarry, A.; Meyer-Lasalle, F.; Le Falc'her, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the frame of VEGA program and especially the first flight on February 13, 2013, safety was a major concern. The default of the launcher and its impact on the close range were amongst the development phase topics because of the propellant masses at stake and the surrounding inhabited environment. A task group composed of members from ESA, CNES and industrial partners involved was formed for this matter.All SRMs are equipped with destruction chains. While P80 (first stage) is functioning, the Zefiri remain unpressurized. A scenario was set stating that the activation of Zefiri cutting chord creates an ignited gap inside the propellant. This ought to propagate till the inner bore, driving the explosion of the motor.This scenario was studied through small scale tests and numerical simulation, providing confidence on the feasibility of the destruction of the SRMs as well as inputs in terms of safety delays.

  8. C-Terminal Modification of Fully Unprotected Peptide Hydrazides via in Situ Generation of Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Simon, Mark D; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2016-03-18

    A method for chemo- and regioselective conjugation of nucleophiles to fully unprotected peptides and proteins via in situ generation of C-terminal isocyanates is reported. Oxidation of C-terminal peptide hydrazides in aqueous media followed by Curtius rearrangement of acyl azides reliably generates isocyanates, which react with a variety of external nucleophiles, such as hydrazines, hydrazides, aromatic thiols, and hydroxylamines. Multiple peptides and a 53 kDa protein hydrazide were conjugated to different nucleophiles using this reaction.

  9. Solid phase synthesis of a GHRP analog containing C-terminal thioamide group.

    PubMed

    Majer, Z; Zewdu, M; Hollósi, M; Sepródi, J; Vadász, Z; Teplán, I

    1988-02-15

    [Lyst6]GHRP, the C-terminally thionated analog of the highly potent growth hormone releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 was prepared by using solid support. The success of the synthesis showed that Lawesson's reagent can be used for selective thionation of an amide group not only in solution but also on the surface of a resin. The C-terminal thioamide group proved to be stable under the conditions of the solid phase synthesis.

  10. The two C-terminal tyrosines stabilize occluded Na/K pump conformations containing Na or K ions.

    PubMed

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C

    2010-07-01

    Interactions of the three transported Na ions with the Na/K pump remain incompletely understood. Na/K pump crystal structures show that the extended C terminus of the Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) alpha subunit directly contacts transmembrane helices. Deletion of the last five residues (KETYY in almost all Na/K pumps) markedly lowered the apparent affinity for Na activation of pump phosphorylation from ATP, a reflection of cytoplasmic Na affinity for forming the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation. ATPase assays further suggested that C-terminal truncations also interfere with low affinity Na interactions, which are attributable to extracellular effects. Because extracellular Na ions traverse part of the membrane's electric field to reach their binding sites in the Na/K pump, their movements generate currents that can be monitored with high resolution. We report here electrical measurements to examine how Na/K pump interactions with extracellular Na ions are influenced by C-terminal truncations. We deleted the last two (YY) or five (KESYY) residues in Xenopus laevis alpha1 Na/K pumps made ouabain resistant by either of two kinds of point mutations and measured their currents as 10-mM ouabain-sensitive currents in Xenopus oocytes after silencing endogenous Xenopus Na/K pumps with 1 microM ouabain. We found the low affinity inhibitory influence of extracellular Na on outward Na/K pump current at negative voltages to be impaired in all of the C-terminally truncated pumps. Correspondingly, voltage jump-induced transient charge movements that reflect pump interactions with extracellular Na ions were strongly shifted to more negative potentials; this signals a several-fold reduction of the apparent affinity for extracellular Na in the truncated pumps. Parallel lowering of Na affinity on both sides of the membrane argues that the C-terminal contacts provide important stabilization of the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation, regardless of the route of Na ion entry into the

  11. The smallest active fragment of microtubule-associated protein 4 and its interaction with microtubules in phosphate buffer.

    PubMed

    Hashi, Yurika; Nagase, Lisa; Matsushima, Kazuyuki; Kotani, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the interaction between microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 4 and microtubules physicochemically, a MAP4 active site fragment was designed for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) use. The fragment was bacterially expressed and purified to homogeneity. The buffer conditions for NMR were optimized to support microtubule assembly. The fragment was found to bind to microtubules under the optimized buffer conditions.

  12. Specific sequences determine the stability and cooperativity of folding of the C-terminal half of tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Paulucci, Adriana A; Hicks, Leslie; Machado, Alessandra; Miranda, M Teresa M; Kay, Cyril M; Farah, Chuck S

    2002-10-18

    Tropomyosin is a flexible 410 A coiled-coil protein in which the relative stabilities of specific regions may be important for its proper function in the control of muscle contraction. In addition, tropomyosin can be used as a simple model of natural occurrence to understand the inter- and intramolecular interactions that govern the stability of coiled-coils. We have produced eight recombinant tropomyosin fragments (Tm(143-284(5OHW),) Tm(189-284(5OHW)), Tm(189-284), Tm(220-284(5OHW)), Tm(220-284), Tm(143-235), Tm(167-260), and Tm(143-260)) and one synthetic peptide (Ac-Tm(215-235)) to investigate the relative conformational stability of different regions derived from the C-terminal region of the protein, which is known to interact with the troponin complex. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that the fragments that include the last 24 residues of the molecule (Tm(143-284(5OHW)), Tm(189-284(5OHW)), Tm(220-284(5OHW)), Tm(220-284)) are completely dimerized at 10 microm dimer (50 mm phosphate, 100 mm NaCl, 1.0 mm dithiothreitol, and 0.5 mm EDTA, 10 degrees C), whereas fragments that lack the native C terminus (Tm(143-235),Tm(167-260), and Tm(143-260)) are in a monomer-dimer equilibrium under these conditions. The presence of trifluoroethanol resulted in a reduction in the [theta](222)/[theta](208) circular dichroism ratio in all of the fragments and induced stable trimer formation only in those containing residues 261-284. Urea denaturation monitored by circular dichroism and fluorescence revealed that residues 261-284 of tropomyosin are very important for the stability of the C-terminal half of the molecule as a whole. Furthermore, the absence of this region greatly increases the cooperativity of urea-induced unfolding. Temperature and urea denaturation experiments show that Tm(143-235) is less stable than other fragments of the same size. We have identified a number of factors that may contribute to this particular instability, including an interhelix

  13. Endomorphin-2 analogs with C-terminal esterification produce potent systemic antinociception with reduced tolerance and gastrointestinal side effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Lin; Qiu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Dai-Jun; Yuan, Bi-Yu; Han, Feng-Tong; Li, Li; Gu, Ning

    2017-04-01

    C-terminal esterification of opioid peptides may change their opioid activities due to the modified physicochemical properties. In the present study, the pharmacological activities of C-terminal esterified endomorphin-2 (EM-2) analogs 1-3 were characterized by in vitro metabolic stability and octanol/buffer distribution assays. Also, the antinociceptive profiles in the radiant heat paw withdrawal test and related side effects of these analogs were determined. Our results showed that all three analogs significantly increased the metabolic stability and lipophilicity. Moreover, analogs 1-3 displayed potent antinociceptive activities after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration. Analogs 1 and 3 exhibited about 2-fold higher antinociception than EM-2, and differential opioid mechanisms were involved. In addition, EM-2 at 50 μmol/kg failed to produce any significant antinociceptive activity after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration, whereas equimolar dose of analogs 1-3 produced significant analgesic effects. Analog 3 showed the highest antinociceptive activity after systemic administration, which was consistent with its in vitro stability and lipophilicity. We further evaluated the antinociceptive tolerance of analogs 1-3. In acute tolerance test, analogs 1-3 shifted the dose-response curves rightward by only 1.4-3.2 fold as determined by tolerance ratio, whereas EM-2 by 5.6-fold, demonstrating reduced antinociceptive tolerance. Also, analogs 1 and 2 decreased chronic antinociceptive tolerance by central and peripheral administration of drugs. In particular, analogs 3 displayed insignificant chronic antinociceptive tolerance. Furthermore, analogs 1-3 were less prone to induce gastrointestinal side effects at analgesic doses. The present investigation gave the evidence that C-terminal esterified modifications of EM-2 will facilitate the development of novel opioid analgesics with reduced side effects.

  14. Biochemical and virological analysis of the 18-residue C-terminal tail of HIV-1 integrase

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Mohd J; Monel, Blandine; Krishnan, Lavanya; Shun, Ming-Chieh; Di Nunzio, Francesca; Helland, Dag E; Engelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background The 18 residue tail abutting the SH3 fold that comprises the heart of the C-terminal domain is the only part of HIV-1 integrase yet to be visualized by structural biology. To ascertain the role of the tail region in integrase function and HIV-1 replication, a set of deletion mutants that successively lacked three amino acids was constructed and analyzed in a variety of biochemical and virus infection assays. HIV-1/2 chimers, which harbored the analogous 23-mer HIV-2 tail in place of the HIV-1 sequence, were also studied. Because integrase mutations can affect steps in the replication cycle other than integration, defective mutant viruses were tested for integrase protein content and reverse transcription in addition to integration. The F185K core domain mutation, which increases integrase protein solubility, was furthermore analyzed in a subset of mutants. Results Purified proteins were assessed for in vitro levels of 3' processing and DNA strand transfer activities whereas HIV-1 infectivity was measured using luciferase reporter viruses. Deletions lacking up to 9 amino acids (1-285, 1-282, and 1-279) displayed near wild-type activities in vitro and during infection. Further deletion yielded two viruses, HIV-11-276 and HIV-11-273, that displayed approximately two and 5-fold infectivity defects, respectively, due to reduced integrase function. Deletion mutant HIV-11-270 and the HIV-1/2 chimera were non-infectious and displayed approximately 3 to 4-fold reverse transcription in addition to severe integration defects. Removal of four additional residues, which encompassed the C-terminal β strand of the SH3 fold, further compromised integrase incorporation into virions and reverse transcription. Conclusion HIV-11-270, HIV-11-266, and the HIV-1/2 chimera were typed as class II mutant viruses due to their pleiotropic replication defects. We speculate that residues 271-273 might play a role in mediating the known integrase-reverse transcriptase interaction, as

  15. Solution structure and dynamics of C-terminal regulatory domain of Vibrio vulnificus extracellular metalloprotease

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Heeyoun; Park, Jung Eun; Lee, Jung Sup; Lee, Weontae

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have determined solution structures of vEP C-terminal regulatory domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 has a compact {beta}-barrel structure with eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution structure of vEP C-ter100 shares its molecular topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residues in the {beta}3 region of vEP C-ter100 might be important in putative ligand/receptor binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron ion. -- Abstract: An extracellular metalloprotease (vEP) secreted by Vibrio vulnificus ATCC29307 is a 45-kDa proteolytic enzyme that has prothrombin activation and fibrinolytic activities during bacterial infection. The action of vEP could result in clotting that could serve to protect the bacteria from the host defense machinery. Very recently, we showed that the C-terminal propeptide (C-ter100), which is unique to vEP, is involved in regulation of vEP activity. To understand the structural basis of this function of vEP C-ter100, we have determined the solution structure and backbone dynamics using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solution structure shows that vEP C-ter100 is composed of eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands with a unique fold that has a compact {beta}-barrel formation which stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding networks. Protein dynamics shows that the overall structure, including loops, is very rigid and stabilized. By structural database analysis, we found that vEP C-ter100 shares its topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase, despite low sequence homology between the two domains. Fluorescence assay reveals that vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron (Fe{sup 3+}). These findings suggest that vEP protease might recruit substrate molecules, such as collagen, by binding at C-ter100 and that vEP participates

  16. Biologically active protein fragments containing specific binding regions of serum albumin or related proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, biologically active protein fragments can be constructed which contain only those specific portions of the serum albumin family of proteins such as regions known as subdomains IIA and IIIA which are primarily responsible for the binding properties of the serum albumins. The artificial serums that can be prepared from these biologically active protein fragments are advantageous in that they can be produced much more easily than serums containing the whole albumin, yet still retain all or most of the original binding potential of the full albumin proteins. In addition, since the protein fragment serums of the present invention can be made from non-natural sources using conventional recombinant DNA techniques, they are far safer than serums containing natural albumin because they do not carry the potentially harmful viruses and other contaminants that will be found in the natural substances.

  17. The potential role of ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolases in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Fu, Da; Shen, Xi-Zhong

    2010-08-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), capable of removing ubiquitin (Ub) from protein substrates, are involved in numerous biological processes. The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) subfamily of DUBs consists of four members: UCH-L1, UCH-L3, UCH37 and BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1). UCH-L1 possesses deubiquitinating activity and dimerization-dependent ubiquitin ligase activity, and functions as a mono-ubiquitin stabilizer; UCH-L3 does both deubiquitinating and deneddylating activity, except dimerization or ligase activity, and unlike UCH-L1, can interact with Lys48-linked Ub dimers to protect it from degradation and in the meanwhile to inhibit its hydrolase activity; UCH37 is responsible for the deubiquitinating activity in the 19S proteasome regulatory complex, and as indicated by the recent study, UCH37 is also associated with the human Ino80 chromatin-remodeling complex (hINO80) in the nucleus and can be activated via transient association of 19S regulatory particle- or proteasome-bound hRpn13 with hINO80; BAP1, binding to the wild-type BRCA1 RING finger domain, is regarded as a tumor suppressor, but for such suppressing activity, as demonstrated otherwise, both deubiquitinating activity and nucleus localization are required. There is growing evidence that UCH enzymes and human malignancies are closely correlated. Previous studies have shown that UCH enzymes play a crucial role in some signalings and cell-cycle regulation. In this review, we provided an insight into the relation between UCH enzymes and oncogenesis.

  18. C-terminal phosphorylation regulates the kinetics of a subset of melanopsin-mediated behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Preethi; Wyrick, Glenn R; Fernandez, Diego Carlos; Ghahari, Alireza; Pinhal, Cindy M; Simmonds Richardson, Melissa; Rupp, Alan C; Cui, Lihong; Wu, Zhijian; Brown, R Lane; Badea, Tudor Constantin; Hattar, Samer; Robinson, Phyllis R

    2017-03-07

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin and mediate several non-image-forming visual functions, including circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex (PLR). ipRGCs act as autonomous photoreceptors via the intrinsic melanopsin-based phototransduction pathway and as a relay for rod/cone input via synaptically driven responses. Under low light intensities, where only synaptically driven rod/cone input activates ipRGCs, the duration of the ipRGC response will be determined by the termination kinetics of the rod/cone circuits. Little is known, however, about the termination kinetics of the intrinsic melanopsin-based phototransduction pathway and its contribution to several melanopsin-mediated behaviors. Here, we show that C-terminal phosphorylation of melanopsin determines the recovery kinetics of the intrinsic melanopsin-based photoresponse in ipRGCs, the duration of the PLR, and the speed of reentrainment. In contrast, circadian phase alignment and direct effects of light on activity (masking) are not influenced by C-terminal phosphorylation of melanopsin. Electrophysiological measurements demonstrate that expression of a virally encoded melanopsin lacking all C-terminal phosphorylation sites (C terminus phosphonull) leads to a prolonged intrinsic light response. In addition, mice expressing the C terminus phosphonull in ipRGCs reentrain faster to a delayed light/dark cycle compared with mice expressing virally encoded WT melanopsin; however, the phase angle of entrainment and masking were indistinguishable. Importantly, a sustained PLR in the phosphonull animals is only observed at brighter light intensities that activate melanopsin phototransduction, but not at dimmer light intensities that activate only the rod/cone pathway. Taken together, our results highlight how the kinetics of the melanopsin photoresponse differentially regulate distinct light-mediated behaviors.

  19. The C-terminal 42 residues of the Tula virus Gn protein regulate interferon induction.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Valery; Gorbunova, Elena E; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Pepini, Timothy; Mackow, Erich R

    2011-05-01

    Hantaviruses primarily infect the endothelial cell lining of capillaries and cause two vascular permeability-based diseases. The ability of pathogenic hantaviruses to regulate the early induction of interferon determines whether hantaviruses replicate in endothelial cells. Tula virus (TULV) and Prospect Hill virus (PHV) are hantaviruses which infect human endothelial cells but fail to cause human disease. PHV is unable to inhibit early interferon (IFN) responses and fails to replicate within human endothelial cells. However, TULV replicates successfully in human endothelial cells, suggesting that TULV is capable of regulating cellular IFN responses. We observed a >300-fold reduction in the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) MxA and ISG56 following TULV versus PHV infection of endothelial cells 1 day postinfection. Similar to results with pathogenic hantaviruses, expressing the TULV Gn protein cytoplasmic tail (Gn-T) blocked RIG-I- and TBK1-directed transcription from IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs) and IFN-β promoters (>90%) but not transcription directed by constitutively active IFN regulatory factor-3 (IRF3). In contrast, expressing the PHV Gn-T had no effect on TBK1-induced transcriptional responses. Analysis of Gn-T truncations demonstrated that the C-terminal 42 residues of the Gn-T (Gn-T-C42) from TULV, but not PHV, inhibited IFN induction >70%. These findings demonstrate that the TULV Gn-T inhibits IFN- and ISRE-directed responses upstream of IRF3 at the level of the TBK1 complex and further define a 42-residue domain of the TULV Gn-T that inhibits IFN induction. In contrast to pathogenic hantavirus Gn-Ts, the TULV Gn-T lacks a C-terminal degron domain and failed to bind tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3), a TBK1 complex component required for IRF3 activation. These findings indicate that the nonpathogenic TULV Gn-T regulates IFN induction but accomplishes this via unique interactions with cellular TBK1 complexes. These

  20. Sub1 Globally Regulates RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Phosphorylation ▿

    PubMed Central

    García, Alicia; Rosonina, Emanuel; Manley, James L.; Calvo, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator Sub1 has been implicated in several aspects of mRNA metabolism in yeast, such as activation of transcription, termination, and 3′-end formation. Here, we present evidence that Sub1 plays a significant role in controlling phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II large subunit C-terminal domain (CTD). We show that SUB1 genetically interacts with the genes encoding all four known CTD kinases, SRB10, KIN28, BUR1, and CTK1, suggesting that Sub1 acts to influence CTD phosphorylation at more than one step of the transcription cycle. To address this directly, we first used in vitro kinase assays, and we show that, on the one hand, SUB1 deletion increased CTD phosphorylation by Kin28, Bur1, and Ctk1 but, on the other, it decreased CTD phosphorylation by Srb10. Second, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that SUB1 deletion decreased Srb10 chromatin association on the inducible GAL1 gene but increased Kin28 and Ctk1 chromatin association on actively transcribed genes. Taken together, our data point to multiple roles for Sub1 in the regulation of CTD phosphorylation throughout the transcription cycle. PMID:20823273

  1. Sub1 globally regulates RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    García, Alicia; Rosonina, Emanuel; Manley, James L; Calvo, Olga

    2010-11-01

    The transcriptional coactivator Sub1 has been implicated in several aspects of mRNA metabolism in yeast, such as activation of transcription, termination, and 3'-end formation. Here, we present evidence that Sub1 plays a significant role in controlling phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II large subunit C-terminal domain (CTD). We show that SUB1 genetically interacts with the genes encoding all four known CTD kinases, SRB10, KIN28, BUR1, and CTK1, suggesting that Sub1 acts to influence CTD phosphorylation at more than one step of the transcription cycle. To address this directly, we first used in vitro kinase assays, and we show that, on the one hand, SUB1 deletion increased CTD phosphorylation by Kin28, Bur1, and Ctk1 but, on the other, it decreased CTD phosphorylation by Srb10. Second, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that SUB1 deletion decreased Srb10 chromatin association on the inducible GAL1 gene but increased Kin28 and Ctk1 chromatin association on actively transcribed genes. Taken together, our data point to multiple roles for Sub1 in the regulation of CTD phosphorylation throughout the transcription cycle.

  2. Role of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 in antipolyspermy defense of mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Susor, Andrej; Liskova, Lucie; Toralova, Tereza; Pavlok, Antonin; Pivonkova, Katerina; Karabinova, Pavla; Lopatarova, Miloslava; Sutovsky, Peter; Kubelka, Michal

    2010-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates many cellular processes through rapid proteasomal degradation of ubiquitin-tagged proteins. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) is one of the most abundant proteins in mammalian oocytes. It has weak hydrolytic activity as a monomer and acts as a ubiquitin ligase in its dimeric or oligomeric form. Recently published data show that insufficiency in UCHL1 activity coincides with polyspermic fertilization; however, the mechanism by which UCHL1 contributes to this process remains unclear. Using UCHL1-specific inhibitors, we induced a high rate of polyspermy in bovine zygotes after in vitro fertilization. We also detected decreased levels in the monomeric ubiquitin and polyubiquitin pool. The presence of UCHL1 inhibitors in maturation medium enhanced formation of presumptive UCHL1 oligomers and subsequently increased abundance of K63-linked polyubiquitin chains in oocytes. We analyzed the dynamics of cortical granules (CGs) in UCHL1-inhibited oocytes; both migration of CGs toward the cortex during oocyte maturation and fertilization-induced extrusion of CGs were impaired. These alterations in CG dynamics coincided with high polyspermy incidence in in vitro-produced UCHL1-inhibited zygotes. These data indicate that antipolyspermy defense in bovine oocytes may rely on UCHL1-controlled functioning of CGs.

  3. Crystal structure of Ralstonia eutropha polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase C-terminal domain and reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Yeo-Jin; Choi, So Young; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural polyesters synthesized by numerous microorganisms as energy and reducing power storage materials, and have attracted much attention as substitutes for petroleum-based plastics. Here, we report the first crystal structure of Ralstonia eutropha PHA synthase at 1.8 Å resolution and structure-based mechanisms for PHA polymerization. RePhaC1 contains two distinct domains, the N-terminal (RePhaC1ND ) and C-terminal domains (RePhaC1CD ), and exists as a dimer. RePhaC1CD catalyzes polymerization via non-processive ping-pong mechanism using a Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad. Molecular docking simulation of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to the active site of RePhaC1CD reveals residues involved in the formation of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA binding pocket and substrate binding tunnel. Comparative analysis with other polymerases elucidates how different classes of PHA synthases show different substrate specificities. Furthermore, we attempted structure-based protein engineering and developed a RePhaC1 mutant with enhanced PHA synthase activity.

  4. Fast Rotation and Trailing Fragments of the Active Asteroid P/2012 F5 (Gibbs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drahus, Michał; Waniak, Wacław; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2015-03-01

    While having a comet-like appearance, P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) has an orbit native to the Main Asteroid Belt, and physically is a km-sized asteroid which recently (mid 2011) experienced an impulsive mass ejection event. Here we report new observations of this object obtained with the Keck II telescope on UT 2014 August 26. The data show previously undetected 200 m scale fragments of the main nucleus, and reveal a rapid nucleus spin with a rotation period of 3.24 ± 0.01 hr. The existence of large fragments and the fast nucleus spin are both consistent with rotational instability and partial disruption of the object. To date, many fast rotators have been identified among the minor bodies, which, however, do not eject detectable fragments at the present-day epoch, and also fragmentation events have been observed, but with no rotation period measured. P/2012 F5 is unique in that for the first time we detected fragments and quantified the rotation rate of one and the same object. The rapid spin rate of P/2012 F5 is very close to the spin rates of two other active asteroids in the Main Belt, 133P/Elst-Pizarro and (62412), confirming the existence of a population of fast rotators among these objects. But while P/2012 F5 shows impulsive ejection of dust and fragments, the mass loss from 133P is prolonged and recurrent. We believe that these two types of activity observed in the rapidly rotating active asteroids have a common origin in the rotational instability of the nucleus. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  5. FAST ROTATION AND TRAILING FRAGMENTS OF THE ACTIVE ASTEROID P/2012 F5 (GIBBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Drahus, Michał; Waniak, Wacław; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2015-03-20

    While having a comet-like appearance, P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) has an orbit native to the Main Asteroid Belt, and physically is a km-sized asteroid which recently (mid 2011) experienced an impulsive mass ejection event. Here we report new observations of this object obtained with the Keck II telescope on UT 2014 August 26. The data show previously undetected 200 m scale fragments of the main nucleus, and reveal a rapid nucleus spin with a rotation period of 3.24 ± 0.01 hr. The existence of large fragments and the fast nucleus spin are both consistent with rotational instability and partial disruption of the object. To date, many fast rotators have been identified among the minor bodies, which, however, do not eject detectable fragments at the present-day epoch, and also fragmentation events have been observed, but with no rotation period measured. P/2012 F5 is unique in that for the first time we detected fragments and quantified the rotation rate of one and the same object. The rapid spin rate of P/2012 F5 is very close to the spin rates of two other active asteroids in the Main Belt, 133P/Elst-Pizarro and (62412), confirming the existence of a population of fast rotators among these objects. But while P/2012 F5 shows impulsive ejection of dust and fragments, the mass loss from 133P is prolonged and recurrent. We believe that these two types of activity observed in the rapidly rotating active asteroids have a common origin in the rotational instability of the nucleus.

  6. DYNAMICS OF LARGE FRAGMENTS IN THE TAIL OF ACTIVE ASTEROID P/2010 A2

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Weaver, Harold

    2013-05-20

    We examine the motions of large fragments at the head of the dust tail of the active asteroid P/2010 A2. In previous work, we showed that these fragments were ejected from the primary nucleus in early 2009, either following a hypervelocity impact or by rotationally induced breakup. Here, we follow their positions through a series of Hubble Space Telescope images taken during the first half of 2010. The orbital evolution of each fragment allows us to constrain its velocity relative to the main nucleus after leaving its sphere of gravitational influence. We find that the fragments constituting a prominent X-shaped tail feature were emitted in a direction opposite to the motion of the asteroid and toward the south of its orbital plane. Derived emission velocities of these primary fragments range between 0.02 and 0.3 m s{sup -1}, comparable to the {approx}0.08 m s{sup -1} gravitational escape speed from the nucleus. Their sizes are on the order of decimeters or larger. We obtain the best fits to our data with ejection velocity vectors lying in a plane that includes the nucleus. This may suggest that the cause of the disruption of P/2010 A2 is rotational breakup.

  7. The C-terminal extension of bacterial flavodoxin-reductases: involvement in the hydride transfer mechanism from the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Ana; Sánchez-Azqueta, Ana; Maya, Celia M; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Hermoso, Juan A; Medina, Milagros; Cortez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    To study the role of the mobile C-terminal extension present in bacterial class of plant type NADP(H):ferredoxin reductases during catalysis, we generated a series of mutants of the Rhodobacter capsulatus enzyme (RcFPR). Deletion of the six C-terminal amino acids beyond alanine 266 was combined with the replacement A266Y, emulating the structure present in plastidic versions of this flavoenzyme. Analysis of absorbance and fluorescence spectra suggests that deletion does not modify the general geometry of FAD itself, but increases exposure of the flavin to the solvent, prevents a productive geometry of FAD:NADP(H) complex and decreases the protein thermal stability. Although the replacement A266Y partially coats the isoalloxazine from solvent and slightly restores protein stability, this single change does not allow formation of active charge-transfer complexes commonly present in the wild-type FPR, probably due to restraints of C-terminus pliability. A proton exchange process is deduced from ITC measurements during coenzyme binding. All studied RcFPR variants display higher affinity for NADP(+) than wild-type, evidencing the contribution of the C-terminus in tempering a non-productive strong (rigid) interaction with the coenzyme. The decreased catalytic rate parameters confirm that the hydride transfer from NADPH to the flavin ring is considerably hampered in the mutants. Although the involvement of the C-terminal extension from bacterial FPRs in stabilizing overall folding and bent-FAD geometry has been stated, the most relevant contributions to catalysis are modulation of coenzyme entrance and affinity, promotion of the optimal geometry of an active complex and supply of a proton acceptor acting during coenzyme binding.

  8. Crystal Structures of the S. cerevisiae Spt6 Core and C-Terminal Tandem SH2 Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.; Robinson, H.; Johnson, S. J.; Sdano, M. A.; McDonald, S. M.; Formosa, T.; Hill, C. P.

    2011-05-13

    The conserved and essential eukaryotic protein Spt6 functions in transcription elongation, chromatin maintenance, and RNA processing. Spt6 has three characterized functions. It is a histone chaperone capable of reassembling nucleosomes, a central component of transcription elongation complexes, and is required for recruitment of RNA processing factors to elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Here, we report multiple crystal structures of the 168-kDa Spt6 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that together represent essentially all of the ordered sequence. Our two structures of the {approx} 900-residue core region reveal a series of putative nucleic acid and protein-protein interaction domains that fold into an elongated form that resembles the bacterial protein Tex. The similarity to a bacterial transcription factor suggests that the core domain performs nucleosome-independent activities, and as with Tex, we find that Spt6 binds DNA. Unlike Tex, however, the Spt6 S1 domain does not contribute to this activity. Crystal structures of the Spt6 C-terminal region reveal a tandem SH2 domain structure composed of two closely associated SH2 folds. One of these SH2 folds is cryptic, while the other shares striking structural similarity with metazoan SH2 domains and possesses structural features associated with the ability to bind phosphorylated substrates including phosphotyrosine. Binding studies with phosphopeptides that mimic the RNAPII C-terminal domain revealed affinities typical of other RNAPII C-terminal domain-binding proteins but did not indicate a specific interaction. Overall, these findings provide a structural foundation for understanding how Spt6 encodes several distinct functions within a single polypeptide chain.

  9. Crystal Structures of the S. cerevisiae Spt6 Core and C-terminal Tandem SH2 Domain

    SciTech Connect

    D Close; S Johnson; M Sdano; S McDonald; H Robinson; T Formosa; C Hill

    2011-12-31

    The conserved and essential eukaryotic protein Spt6 functions in transcription elongation, chromatin maintenance, and RNA processing. Spt6 has three characterized functions. It is a histone chaperone capable of reassembling nucleosomes, a central component of transcription elongation complexes, and is required for recruitment of RNA processing factors to elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Here, we report multiple crystal structures of the 168-kDa Spt6 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that together represent essentially all of the ordered sequence. Our two structures of the {approx} 900-residue core region reveal a series of putative nucleic acid and protein-protein interaction domains that fold into an elongated form that resembles the bacterial protein Tex. The similarity to a bacterial transcription factor suggests that the core domain performs nucleosome-independent activities, and as with Tex, we find that Spt6 binds DNA. Unlike Tex, however, the Spt6 S1 domain does not contribute to this activity. Crystal structures of the Spt6 C-terminal region reveal a tandem SH2 domain structure composed of two closely associated SH2 folds. One of these SH2 folds is cryptic, while the other shares striking structural similarity with metazoan SH2 domains and possesses structural features associated with the ability to bind phosphorylated substrates including phosphotyrosine. Binding studies with phosphopeptides that mimic the RNAPII C-terminal domain revealed affinities typical of other RNAPII C-terminal domain-binding proteins but did not indicate a specific interaction. Overall, these findings provide a structural foundation for understanding how Spt6 encodes several distinct functions within a single polypeptide chain.

  10. Stabilization of activated fragments by shell-wise construction of an embedding environment.

    PubMed

    Krausbeck, Florian; Sobez, Jan-Grimo; Reiher, Markus

    2017-02-25

    An activated fragment which is structurally unstable when considered isolated can be stabilized through binding to a suitable molecular environment; for instance, to a transition-metal fragment. The metal fragment may be designed in a shell-wise build-up of a surrounding molecular environment. However, adding more and more atoms in a consecutive fashion soon leads to a combinatorial explosion of structures, which is unfeasible to handle without automation. Here, we present a fully automated and parallelized framework that constructs such an embedding environment atom-wise. Molecular realizations of such an environment are constructed based on simple heuristic rules intended to screen a sufficiently large portion of the possible compound space and are then subsequently optimized by electronic structure methods. (Constrained-optimized) structures are then evaluated with respect to a scoring function, for which we choose here the concept of gradient-driven molecule construction. This concept searches for structure modifications that reduce the forces on all atoms. We develop and analyze our approach at the example of CO2 activation by reproducing a known compound and mapping out possible alternative structures and their effect on the stabilization of a (bent) CO2 ligand. For all generated structures, the nuclear gradient on the activated fragment and its coordination energy are evaluated to steer the design process. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hurst-Kennedy, Jennifer; Chin, Lih-Shen; Li, Lian

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, aka PGP9.5) is an abundant, neuronal deubiquitinating enzyme that has also been suggested to possess E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and/or stabilize ubiquitin monomers in vivo. Recent evidence implicates dysregulation of UCH-L1 in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancers. Although typically only expressed in neurons, high levels of UCH-L1 have been found in many nonneuronal tumors, including breast, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. UCH-L1 has also been implicated in the regulation of metastasis and cell growth during the progression of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and lymphoma. Together these studies suggest UCH-L1 has a potent oncogenic role and drives tumor development. Conversely, others have observed promoter methylation-mediated silencing of UCH-L1 in certain tumor subtypes, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role for UCH-L1. In this paper, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the involvement of UCH-L1 in tumor development and discuss the potential mechanisms of action of UCH-L1 in oncogenesis. PMID:22811913

  12. Passive and active fragment ion mass defect labeling: distinct proteomics potential of iodine-based reagents.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Bajrami, Bekim; Yao, Xudong

    2009-08-01

    The exact mass of a peptide differs characteristically from its nominal mass by a value called the mass defect. Limited by possible elemental compositions, the mass defect of peptides has a restricted range, resulting in an unoccupied mass spectral space in every mass-to-charge unit. The method of fragment ion mass defect labeling (FIMDL) places characteristic fragment ions of modified peptides as reporters into unused spectral space where no native peptide fragment ions exist. In this labeling method, peptides are chemically modified in solution and the modified peptides, upon gas-phase collision in a mass spectrometer, generate fragment ions with significantly shifted mass defects. In this work, the efficiency of iodine stable isotope-containing reagents for shifting mass defects of peptide fragment ions was systematically investigated, through derivatization of peptide N-termini with various reagents containing one or more chlorine, bromine, or iodine atoms. The observed efficiency for the iodine atom placing the labeled fragment ions into unoccupied spectral space agreed well with theoretical predictions from averagine-scaling analysis of ion masses. On the basis of the gas-phase stability of different labeling groups and their involvement in collisional dissociation of modified peptides, peptide modifications were classified into three categories: passive, type I active, and type II active. Each modification type has its unique potential in different proteome analyses. Possible proteomics applications of FIMDL are discussed and compared with proteome analyses currently being practiced in the field. Principles obtained from this survey study will provide a guideline in developing novel FIMDL reagents for advanced proteomics analysis.

  13. Structural transitions during prothrombin activation: On the importance of fragment 2

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ty E.; Huntington, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Prothrombin is activated to thrombin by the prothrombinase complex through sequential cleavage at two distinct sites. This occurs at sites of vascular injury in a highly regulated cascade of serine protease and cofactor activation, where activated platelets provide a suitable surface for protease/cofactor/substrate assembly. The precise structural and conformational changes undergone during the transition from prothrombin to thrombin have been studied for decades, and several structures of prothrombin fragments along the activation pathway have been solved. Here we present a new structure analyzed in context of other recent structures and biochemical studies. What emerges is an unexpected mechanism that involves a change in the mode of binding of the F2 domain (fragment 2) on the catalytic domain after cleavage at Arg320, and a subsequent reorientation of the linker between the F2 and catalytic domain to present the Arg271 site for cleavage. PMID:26365066

  14. Transmembrane signalling at the epidermal growth factor receptor. Positive regulation by the C-terminal phosphotyrosine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Magni, M; Pandiella, A; Helin, K; Meldolesi, J; Beguinot, L

    1991-01-01

    Mutant epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (obtained by substitution of one, two or three C-terminal autophosphorylable tyrosine residues with phenylalanine residues or by deletion of the C-terminal 19 amino acids, including the distal tyrosine) were expressed in mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblast clones at densities comparable (less than 25% difference) with those in control clones expressing the wild-type receptor. Total EGF-induced phosphorylation of the mutated receptors was not appreciably changed with respect to controls, whereas autophosphorylation at tyrosine residues was decreased, especially in the double and the triple mutants. In the latter mutant, expression of the EGF-receptor-activated lipolytic enzyme phospholipase C gamma was unchanged, whereas its tyrosine phosphorylation induced by the growth factor was lowered to approx. 25% of that in the controls. In all of the cell clones employed, the accumulation of inositol phosphates induced by treatment with fetal calf serum varied only slightly, whereas the same effect induced by EGF was consistently lowered in those lines expressing mutated receptors. This decrease was moderate for those receptors missing only the distal tyrosine (point and deletion mutants), intermediate in the dual mutants and almost complete in the triple mutants. Likewise, increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations [( Ca2+]i) induced by fibroblast growth factor were approximately the same in all of the clones, whereas those induced by EGF were decreased in the mutants, again in proportion to the loss of the phosphorylable C-terminal tyrosine residues. The same trend occurred with membrane hyperpolarization, an effect secondary to the increase in [Ca2+]i via the activation of Ca2(+)-dependent K+ channels. We conclude that C-terminal autophosphorylable tyrosine residues play a positive role in the regulation of transmembrane signalling at the EGF receptor. The stepwise decrease in signal generation observed in single, double and triple

  15. Self-assemble nanoparticles based on polypeptides containing C-terminal luminescent Pt-cysteine complex

    PubMed Central

    Vlakh, E. G.; Grachova, E. V.; Zhukovsky, D. D.; Hubina, A. V.; Mikhailova, A. S.; Shakirova, J. R.; Sharoyko, V. V.; Tunik, S. P.; Tennikova, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The growing attention to the luminescent nanocarriers is strongly stimulated by their potential application as drug delivery systems and by the necessity to monitor their distribution in cells and tissues. In this communication we report on the synthesis of amphiphilic polypeptides bearing C-terminal phosphorescent label together with preparation of nanoparticles using the polypeptides obtained. The approach suggested is based on a unique and highly technological process where the new phosphorescent Pt-cysteine complex serves as initiator of the ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides to obtain the polypeptides bearing intact the platinum chromophore covalently bound to the polymer chain. It was established that the luminescent label retains unchanged its emission characteristics not only in the polypeptides but also in more complicated nanoaggregates such as the polymer derived amphiphilic block-copolymers and self-assembled nanoparticles. The phosphorescent nanoparticles display no cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity in the tested range of concentrations and easily internalize into living cells that makes possible in vivo cell visualization, including prospective application in time resolved imaging and drug delivery monitoring. PMID:28155880

  16. The E. coli thioredoxin folding mechanism: the key role of the C-terminal helix.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Diego S; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Garrote, Ana; Sica, Mauricio P; Santos, Javier

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the unfolding mechanism of oxidized Escherichia coli thioredoxin (EcTRX) was investigated experimentally and computationally. We characterized seven point mutants distributed along the C-terminal α-helix (CTH) and the preceding loop. The mutations destabilized the protein against global unfolding while leaving the native structure unchanged. Global analysis of the unfolding kinetics of all variants revealed a linear unfolding route with a high-energy on-pathway intermediate state flanked by two transition state ensembles TSE1 and TSE2. The experiments show that CTH is mainly unfolded in TSE1 and the intermediate and becomes structured in TSE2. Structure-based molecular dynamics are in agreement with these experiments and provide protein-wide structural information on transient states. In our model, EcTRX folding starts with structure formation in the β-sheet, while the protein helices coalesce later. As a whole, our results indicate that the CTH is a critical module in the folding process, restraining a heterogeneous intermediate ensemble into a biologically active native state and providing the native protein with thermodynamic and kinetic stability.

  17. Structural characterization of a C-terminally truncated E5 oncoprotein from papillomavirus in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Dirk; Ziegler, Colin; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S

    2014-12-01

    E5 is the major transforming oncoprotein of bovine papillomavirus, which activates the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β in a highly specific manner. The short transmembrane protein E5 with only 44 residues interacts directly with the transmembrane segments of the receptor, but structural details are not available. Biophysical investigations are challenging, because the hydrophobic E5 protein tends to aggregate and get cross-linked non-specifically via two Cys residues near its C-terminus. Here, we demonstrate that a truncation by 10 amino acids creates a more manageable protein that can be conveniently used for structure analysis. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism and solid-state (15)N- and (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show that this E5 variant serves as a representative model for the wild-type protein. The helical conformation of the transmembrane segment, its orientation in the lipid bilayer, and the ability to form homodimers in the membrane are not affected by the C-terminal truncation.

  18. Physical association of GPR54 C-terminal with protein phosphatase 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barry J.; Wang Zixuan; Mobley, La'Tonya; Khosravi, Davood; Fujii, Nobutaka; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Peiper, Stephen C.

    2008-12-26

    KiSS1 was discovered as a metastasis suppressor gene and subsequently found to encode kisspeptins (KP), ligands for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR54. This ligand-receptor pair was later shown to play a critical role in the neuro-endocrine regulation of puberty. The C-terminal cytoplasmic (C-ter) domain of GPR54 contains a segment rich in proline and arginine residues that corresponds to the primary structure of four overlapping SH3 binding motifs. Yeast two hybrid experiments identified the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-C) as an interacting protein. Pull-down experiments with GST fusion proteins containing the GPR54 C-ter confirmed binding to PP2A-C in cell lysates and these complexes contained phosphatase activity. The proline arginine rich segment is necessary for these interactions. The GPR54 C-ter bound directly to purified recombinant PP2A-C, indicating the GPR54 C-ter may form complexes involving the catalytic subunit of PP2A that regulate phosphorylation of critical signaling intermediates.

  19. Piezo1 ion channel pore properties are dictated by C-terminal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coste, Bertrand; Murthy, Swetha E.; Mathur, Jayanti; Schmidt, Manuela; Mechioukhi, Yasmine; Delmas, Patrick; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-05-01

    Piezo1 and Piezo2 encode mechanically activated cation channels that function as mechanotransducers involved in vascular system development and touch sensing, respectively. Structural features of Piezos remain unknown. Mouse Piezo1 is bioinformatically predicted to have 30-40 transmembrane (TM) domains. Here, we find that nine of the putative inter-transmembrane regions are accessible from the extracellular side. We use chimeras between mPiezo1 and dPiezo to show that ion-permeation properties are conferred by C-terminal region. We further identify a glutamate residue within a conserved region adjacent to the last two putative TM domains of the protein, that when mutated, affects unitary conductance and ion selectivity, and modulates pore block. We propose that this amino acid is either in the pore or closely associates with the pore. Our results describe important structural motifs of this channel family and lay the groundwork for a mechanistic understanding of how Piezos are mechanically gated and conduct ions.

  20. Self-assemble nanoparticles based on polypeptides containing C-terminal luminescent Pt-cysteine complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlakh, E. G.; Grachova, E. V.; Zhukovsky, D. D.; Hubina, A. V.; Mikhailova, A. S.; Shakirova, J. R.; Sharoyko, V. V.; Tunik, S. P.; Tennikova, T. B.

    2017-02-01

    The growing attention to the luminescent nanocarriers is strongly stimulated by their potential application as drug delivery systems and by the necessity to monitor their distribution in cells and tissues. In this communication we report on the synthesis of amphiphilic polypeptides bearing C-terminal phosphorescent label together with preparation of nanoparticles using the polypeptides obtained. The approach suggested is based on a unique and highly technological process where the new phosphorescent Pt-cysteine complex serves as initiator of the ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides to obtain the polypeptides bearing intact the platinum chromophore covalently bound to the polymer chain. It was established that the luminescent label retains unchanged its emission characteristics not only in the polypeptides but also in more complicated nanoaggregates such as the polymer derived amphiphilic block-copolymers and self-assembled nanoparticles. The phosphorescent nanoparticles display no cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity in the tested range of concentrations and easily internalize into living cells that makes possible in vivo cell visualization, including prospective application in time resolved imaging and drug delivery monitoring.

  1. Functional Characteristics of C-terminal Lysine to Cysteine Mutant Form of CTLA-4Ig

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongi; Shin, Jun-Seop

    2013-01-01

    CTLA-4Ig is regarded as an inhibitory agent of the T cell proliferation via blocking the costimulatory signal which is essential for full T cell activation. To improve applicability, we developed the CTLA-4Ig-CTKC in which the c-terminal lysine had been replaced by cysteine through single amino acid change. The single amino acid mutation of c-terminus of CTLA-4Ig was performed by PCR and was checked by in vitro transcription and translation. DNA construct of mutant form was transfected to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by electroporation. The purified proteins were confirmed by Western blot and B7-1 binding assay for their binding ability. The suppressive capacity of CTLA-4Ig-CTKC was evaluated by the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and in the allogeneic pancreatic islet transplantation model. CTLA-4Ig-CTKC maintained binding ability to B7-1 molecule and effectively inhibits T cell proliferation in MLR. In the murine allogeneic pancreatic islet transplantation, short-term treatment of CTLA-4Ig-CTKC prolonged the graft survival over 100 days. CTLA-4Ig-CTKC effectively inhibits immune response both in MLR and in allogeneic islet transplantation model, indicating that single amino acid mutation does not affect the inhibitory function of CTLA-4Ig. CTLA-4Ig-CTKC can be used in vehicle-mediated drug delivery system such as liposome conjugation. PMID:23559896

  2. PRMT5 C-terminal Phosphorylation Modulates a 14-3-3/PDZ Interaction Switch.

    PubMed

    Espejo, Alexsandra B; Gao, Guozhen; Black, Karynne; Gayatri, Sitaram; Veland, Nicolas; Kim, Jeesun; Chen, Taiping; Sudol, Marius; Walker, Cheryl; Bedford, Mark T

    2017-02-10

    PRMT5 is the primary enzyme responsible for the deposition of the symmetric dimethylarginine in mammalian cells. In an effort to understand how PRMT5 is regulated, we identified a threonine phosphorylation site within a C-terminal tail motif, which is targeted by the Akt/serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinases. While investigating the function of this posttranslational modification, we serendipitously discovered that its free C-terminal tail binds PDZ domains (when unphosphorylated) and 14-3-3 proteins (when phosphorylated). In essence, a phosphorylation event within the last few residues of the C-terminal tail generates a posttranslational modification-dependent PDZ/14-3-3 interaction "switch." The C-terminal motif of PRMT5 is required for plasma membrane association, and loss of this switching capacity is not compatible with life. This signaling phenomenon was recently reported for the HPV E6 oncoprotein but has not yet been observed for mammalian proteins. To investigate the prevalence of PDZ/14-3-3 switching in signal transduction, we built a protein domain microarray that harbors PDZ domains and 14-3-3 proteins. We have used this microarray to interrogate the C-terminal tails of a small group of candidate proteins and identified ERBB4, PGHS2, and IRK1 (as well as E6 and PRMT5) as conforming to this signaling mode, suggesting that PDZ/14-3-3 switching may be a broad biological paradigm.

  3. The VSG C-terminal domain is inaccessible to antibodies on live trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Angela; Jones, Nicola; Engstler, Markus; Carrington, Mark

    2011-02-01

    In the mammalian host, the Trypanosoma brucei cell surface is covered with a densely packed protein coat of a single protein, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The VSG is believed to shield invariant surface proteins from host antibodies but there is limited information on how far antibodies can penetrate into the VSG monolayer. Here, the VSG surface coat was probed to determine whether it acts as a barrier to binding of antibodies to the membrane proximal VSG C-terminal domain. The binding of C-terminal domain antibodies to VSG221 or VSG118 was compared with antibodies recognising the cognate whole VSGs. The C-terminal VSG domain was inaccessible to antibodies on live cells but not on fixed cells. This provides further evidence that the VSG coat acts as a barrier and protects the cell from antibodies that would otherwise bind to some of the other externally disposed proteins.

  4. Structural Studies of Geosmin Synthase, a Bifunctional Sesquiterpene Synthase with αα Domain Architecture That Catalyzes a Unique Cyclization-Fragmentation Reaction Sequence.

    PubMed

    Harris, Golda G; Lombardi, Patrick M; Pemberton, Travis A; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Cole, Kathryn E; Köksal, Mustafa; Murphy, Frank V; Vedula, L Sangeetha; Chou, Wayne K W; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2015-12-08

    Geosmin synthase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScGS) catalyzes an unusual, metal-dependent terpenoid cyclization and fragmentation reaction sequence. Two distinct active sites are required for catalysis: the N-terminal domain catalyzes the ionization and cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to form germacradienol and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the protonation, cyclization, and fragmentation of germacradienol to form geosmin and acetone through a retro-Prins reaction. A unique αα domain architecture is predicted for ScGS based on amino acid sequence: each domain contains the metal-binding motifs typical of a class I terpenoid cyclase, and each domain requires Mg(2+) for catalysis. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the unliganded N-terminal domain of ScGS and the structure of its complex with three Mg(2+) ions and alendronate. These structures highlight conformational changes required for active site closure and catalysis. Although neither full-length ScGS nor constructs of the C-terminal domain could be crystallized, homology models of the C-terminal domain were constructed on the basis of ∼36% sequence identity with the N-terminal domain. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments yield low-resolution molecular envelopes into which the N-terminal domain crystal structure and the C-terminal domain homology model were fit, suggesting possible αα domain architectures as frameworks for bifunctional catalysis.

  5. Structural Studies of Geosmin Synthase, a Bifunctional Sesquiterpene Synthase with Alpha-Alpha Domain Architecture that Catalyzes a Unique Cyclization-Fragmentation Reaction Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Golda G.; Lombardi, Patrick M.; Pemberton, Travis A.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Cole, Kathryn E.; Köksal, Mustafa; Murphy, Frank V.; Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Chou, Wayne K.W.; Cane, David E.; Christianson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Geosmin synthase from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScGS) catalyzes an unusual, metal-dependent terpenoid cyclization and fragmentation reaction sequence. Two distinct active sites are required for catalysis: the N-terminal domain catalyzes the ionization and cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to form germacradienol and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the protonation, cyclization, and fragmentation of germacradienol to form geosmin and acetone through a retro-Prins reaction. A unique αα domain architecture is predicted for ScGS based on amino acid sequence: each domain contains the metal-binding motifs typical of a class I terpenoid cyclase, and each domain requires Mg2+ for catalysis. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the unliganded N-terminal domain of ScGS and the structure of its complex with 3 Mg2+ ions and alendronate. These structures highlight conformational changes required for active site closure and catalysis. Although neither full-length ScGS nor constructs of the C-terminal domain could be crystallized, homology models of the C-terminal domain were constructed based on ~36% sequence identity with the N-terminal domain. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments yield low resolution molecular envelopes into which the N-terminal domain crystal structure and the C-terminal domain homology model were fit, suggesting possible αα domain architectures as frameworks for bifunctional catalysis. PMID:26598179

  6. New de-ubiquitinating enzyme, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 8, in chick skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Baek, S H; Woo, S K; Lee, J I; Yoo, Y J; Cho, C M; Kang, M S; Tanaka, K; Chung, C H

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that chick muscle extracts contained at least 10 different ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs). Here we report the purification and characterization of one of the UCHs, called UCH-8, with 125I-labelled ubiquitin-alpha-NH-MHISPPEPESEEEEEHYC as a substrate. The purified UCH-8 behaved as a 240 kDa protein on a Superdex-200 column under non-denaturing conditions but as a 130 kDa polypeptide on analysis by PAGE under denaturing conditions, suggesting that the enzyme consists of two identical subunits. Thus this enzyme seems to be distinct in its dimeric nature from other purified UCHs that consist of a single polypeptide, except that UCH-6 is also a homodimer of 27 kDa subunits. UCH-8 was maximally active between pH 7.5 and 8, but showed little or no activity below pH 7 and above pH 9. Like other UCHs it was sensitive to inhibition by thiol-blocking agents such as N-ethylmaleimide, and by ubiquitin aldehyde. The purified UCH-8 hydrolysed not only ubiquitin-alpha-NH-protein extensions, including ubiquitin-alpha-NH-carboxy extension protein of 80 amino acid residues and ubiquitin-alpha-NH-dihydrofolate reductase, but also branched poly-ubiquitin that are ligated to proteins through epsilon-NH-isopeptide bonds. However, it showed little or no activity against poly-His-tagged di-ubiquitin, suggesting that UCH-8 is not involved in the generation of free ubiquitin from the linear poly-ubiquitin precursors. These results suggest that UCH-8 might have an important role in the production of free ubiquitin and ribosomal proteins from their conjugates as well as in the recycling of ubiquitin molecules after the degradation of poly-ubiquitinated protein conjugates by the 26 S proteasome. PMID:9230110

  7. A novel C-terminal truncating NR5A1 mutation in dizygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Atsushi; Zukeran, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Maki; Toguchi, Suzuka; Toubaru, Yuji; Inoue, Takanobu; Katoh-Fukui, Yuko; Fukami, Maki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 1 (NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor involved in gonadal and adrenal development. We identified a novel C-terminally truncating NR5A1 mutation, p.Leu423Trpfs*7, in dizygotic twins with 46,XY disorders of sex development. Our results highlight the functional importance of C-terminal region of NR5A1 and indicate that NR5A1 mutations can be associated with intrafamilial phenotypic variations, progressive testicular dysfunction, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and borderline adrenal dysfunction.

  8. A novel C-terminal truncating NR5A1 mutation in dizygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Atsushi; Zukeran, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Maki; Toguchi, Suzuka; Toubaru, Yuji; Inoue, Takanobu; Katoh-Fukui, Yuko; Fukami, Maki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 1 (NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor involved in gonadal and adrenal development. We identified a novel C-terminally truncating NR5A1 mutation, p.Leu423Trpfs*7, in dizygotic twins with 46,XY disorders of sex development. Our results highlight the functional importance of C-terminal region of NR5A1 and indicate that NR5A1 mutations can be associated with intrafamilial phenotypic variations, progressive testicular dysfunction, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and borderline adrenal dysfunction. PMID:28326187

  9. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P; Davies, Gideon J

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP_05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain.

  10. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the C-Terminal Domain of Mouse Peptide-N-glycanase Identify it as a Mannose-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,X.; Zhao, G.; Truglio, J.; Wang, L.; Li, G.; Lennarz, W.; Schindelin, H.

    2006-01-01

    The inability of certain N-linked glycoproteins to adopt their native conformation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to their retrotranslocation into the cytosol and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In this pathway the cytosolic peptide-N-glycanase (PNGase) cleaves the N-linked glycan chains off denatured glycoproteins. PNGase is highly conserved in eukaryotes and plays an important role in ER-associated protein degradation. In higher eukaryotes, PNGase has an N-terminal and a C-terminal extension in addition to its central catalytic domain, which is structurally and functionally related to transglutaminases. Although the N-terminal domain of PNGase is involved in protein-protein interactions, the function of the C-terminal domain has not previously been characterized. Here, we describe biophysical, biochemical, and crystallographic studies of the mouse PNGase C-terminal domain, including visualization of a complex between this domain and mannopentaose. These studies demonstrate that the C-terminal domain binds to the mannose moieties of N-linked oligosaccharide chains, and we further show that it enhances the activity of the mouse PNGase core domain, presumably by increasing the affinity of mouse PNGase for the glycan chains of misfolded glycoproteins.

  11. Functional Role of the C-Terminal Amphipathic Helix 8 of Olfactory Receptors and Other G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Takashi; Mine, Shouhei; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce various extracellular signals, such as neurotransmitters, hormones, light, and odorous chemicals, into intracellular signals via G protein activation during neurological, cardiovascular, sensory and reproductive signaling. Common and unique features of interactions between GPCRs and specific G proteins are important for structure-based design of drugs in order to treat GPCR-related diseases. Atomic resolution structures of GPCR complexes with G proteins have revealed shared and extensive interactions between the conserved DRY motif and other residues in transmembrane domains 3 (TM3), 5 and 6, and the target G protein C-terminal region. However, the initial interactions formed between GPCRs and their specific G proteins remain unclear. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the murine olfactory receptor S6 (mOR-S6) indicated that the N-terminal acidic residue of helix 8 of mOR-S6 is responsible for initial transient and specific interactions with chimeric Gα15_olf, resulting in a response that is 2.2-fold more rapid and 1.7-fold more robust than the interaction with Gα15. Our mutagenesis analysis indicates that the hydrophobic core buried between helix 8 and TM1–2 of mOR-S6 is important for the activation of both Gα15_olf and Gα15. This review focuses on the functional role of the C-terminal amphipathic helix 8 based on several recent GPCR studies. PMID:27869740

  12. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Region of Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Characterization of Salivary Agglutinin Adherence Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Crowley, Paula J.; Kelly, Charles; Mitchell, Tim J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion

    2012-05-29

    The Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein that adheres to salivary components and extracellular matrix molecules. Here we report the 2.5 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the complete C-terminal region of AgI/II. The C-terminal region is comprised of three major domains: C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. Each domain adopts a DE-variant IgG fold, with two {beta}-sheets whose A and F strands are linked through an intramolecular isopeptide bond. The adherence of the C-terminal AgI/II fragments to the putative tooth surface receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG), as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that the minimal region of binding was contained within the first and second DE-variant-IgG domains (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) of the C terminus. The minimal C-terminal region that could inhibit S. mutans adherence to SAG was also confirmed to be within the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains. Competition experiments demonstrated that the C- and N-terminal regions of AgI/II adhere to distinct sites on SAG. A cleft formed at the intersection between these C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains bound glucose molecules from the cryo-protectant solution, revealing a putative binding site for its highly glycosylated receptor SAG. Finally, electron microscopy images confirmed the elongated structure of AgI/II and enabled building a composite tertiary model that encompasses its two distinct binding regions.

  13. Crystal structure of a crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) precursor suggests structural variety in the C-terminal regions of CHH superfamily members.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Arisaka, Fumio; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is one of the major hormones in crustaceans, and peptides belonging to the CHH superfamily have been found in diverse ecdysozoans. Although the basic function of CHH is to control energy metabolism, it also plays various roles in crustacean species, such as in molting and vitellogenesis. Here, we present the crystal structure of Pej-SGP-I-Gly, a partially active precursor of CHH from the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, which has an additional Gly residue in place of the C-terminal amide group of the mature Pej-SGP-I. The 1.6-angstrom crystal structure showed not only the common CHH superfamily scaffold comprising three α-helices, three disulfide bridges, and a hydrophobic core but also revealed that the C-terminal part has a variant backbone fold that is specific to Pej-SGP-I-Gly. The α-helix 4 of Pej-SGP-I-Gly was much longer than that of molt-inhibiting hormone (Pej-MIH) from the same species, and as a result, the following C-terminal helix, corresponding to α-helix 5 in MIH, was not formed. Unlike monomeric Pej-MIH, Pej-SGP-I-Gly forms a homodimer in the crystal structure via its unique α-helix 4. The unexpected dissimilar folds between Pej-SGP-I-Gly and Pej-MIH appear to be the result of their distinct C-terminal amino acid sequences. Variations in amino acid sequences and lengths and the resulting variety of backbone folds allow the C-terminal and sterically adjoining regions to confer different hormonal activities in diverse CHH superfamily members.

  14. Antibacterial activity of lactoferrin and a pepsin-derived lactoferrin peptide fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, K; Tomita, M; Giehl, T J; Ellison, R T

    1993-01-01

    Although the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin has been well described, its mechanism of action has been poorly characterized. Recent work has indicated that in addition to binding iron, human lactoferrin damages the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we determined whether bovine lactoferrin and a pepsin-derived bovine lactoferrin peptide (lactoferricin) fragment have similar activities. We found that both 20 microM bovine lactoferrin and 20 microM lactoferricin release intrinsically labeled [3H]lipopolysaccharide ([3H]LPS) from three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli CL99 1-2, Salmonella typhimurium SL696, and Salmonella montevideo SL5222. Under most conditions, more LPS is released by the peptide fragment than by whole bovine lactoferrin. In the presence of either lactoferrin or lactoferricin there is increased killing of E. coli CL99 1-2 by lysozyme. Like human lactoferrin, bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin have the ability to bind to free intrinsically labeled [3H]LPS molecules. In addition to these effects, whereas bovine lactoferrin was at most bacteriostatic, lactoferricin demonstrated consistent bactericidal activity against gram-negative bacteria. This bactericidal effect is modulated by the cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ but is independent of the osmolarity of the medium. Transmission electron microscopy of bacterial cells exposed to lactoferricin show the immediate development of electron-dense "membrane blisters." These experiments offer evidence that bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin damage the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, the peptide fragment lactoferricin has direct bactericidal activity. As lactoferrin is exposed to proteolytic factors in vivo which could cleave the lactoferricin fragment, the effects of this peptide are of both mechanistic and physiologic relevance. Images PMID:8423097

  15. Structural domains of heparan sulphate for specific recognition of the C-terminal heparin-binding domain of human plasma fibronectin (HEPII).

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A; Gallagher, J T

    1996-01-01

    Heparan sulphate (HS) is an abundant polysaccharide component of the pericellular domain and is found in most soft tissues and all adherent cells in culture. It interacts with a wide spectrum of proteins including polypeptide growth factors and glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix. These interactions might influence fundamental cellular activities such as adhesion, growth and migration. HS might therefore represent a highly adaptive mechanism by which cells respond to their environment. The present study shows that the interaction between fibroblast HS, metabolically labelled with [3H]glucosamine, and the C-terminal heparin-binding domain of human plasma fibronectin (HEPII), is determined by distinct regions of the polysaccharide chain. By using a very sensitive affinity-chromatography method and specific polysaccharide scission it was shown that the HEPII-binding regions of HS reside within sulphated domains that are resistant to degradation by heparinase III. In addition, optimal binding was achieved with specific heparinase III-resistant fragments of 14-16 monosaccharides in length. The affinity of HS for HEPII was significantly decreased when the polysaccharide was cleaved with heparinase I. Chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate were poor competitive inhibitors of [3H]HS binding to HEPII whereas unlabelled HS and heparin gave a strong inhibitory activity, with heparin being the most potent inhibitor. These findings suggest that the interaction between HEPII and HS is specific and requires extended sequences of seven to eight N-sulphated disaccharides in which a proportion of the iduronate residues are sulphated at C-2. The results have important implications for the functions of HS in cell adhesion and migration. PMID:8760376

  16. Caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in primary hippocampal neurons following glutamate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Brecht, S; Gelderblom, M; Srinivasan, A; Mielke, K; Dityateva, G; Herdegen, T

    2001-10-19

    Excitotoxic glutamate CNS stimulation can result in neuronal cell death. Contributing mechanisms and markers of cell death are the activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. It remains to be resolved to which extent both cellular reactions overlap and/or indicate different processes of neurodegeneration. In this study, mixed neuronal cultures from newborn mice pubs (0-24 h) were stimulated with glutamate, and the co-localization of active caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation was investigated by immunocytochemistry and the TUNEL nick-end labelling. In untreated cultures, 8% scattered neurons (marked by MAP-2) displayed activated caspase-3 at different morphological stages of degeneration. TUNEL staining was detected in 5% of cell nuclei including GFAP-positive astrocytes. However, co-localization of active caspase-3 with TUNEL was less than 2%. After glutamate stimulation (125 microM), the majority of neurons was dying between 12 and 24 h. The absolute number of active caspase-3 neurons increased only moderately but in relation of surviving neurons after 24 h from 8 to 36% (125 microM), to 53% (250 microM) or to 32% (500 microM). TUNEL staining also increased after 24 h following glutamate treatment to 37% but the co-localization with active caspase-3 remained at the basal low level of 2%. In our system, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity effects the DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Co-localization of both parameters, however, is very poor. Active caspase-3 in the absence of TUNEL indicates a dynamic degenerative process, whereas TUNEL marks the end stage of severe irreversible cell damage regardless to the origin of the cell.

  17. The domain organization of streptokinase: nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and functional characterization of proteolytic fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Parrado, J.; Conejero-Lara, F.; Smith, R. A.; Marshall, J. M.; Ponting, C. P.; Dobson, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Streptococcus equisimilis streptokinase (SK) is a bacterial protein of unknown tertiary structure and domain organization that is used extensively to treat acute myocardial infarction following coronary thrombosis. Six fragments of SK were generated by limited proteolysis with chymotrypsin and purified. NMR and CD experiments have shown that the secondary and tertiary structure present in the native molecule is preserved within all fragments, except the N-terminal fragment SK7. NMR spectra demonstrate the presence in SK of three structurally autonomous domains and a less structured C-terminal "tail." Cleavage within the N-terminal domain generates an N-terminal fragment, SK7, which remains noncovalently associated with the remainder of the molecule; in isolation, SK7 adopts an unfolded conformation. The abilities of these fragments to induce active site formation within human plasminogen upon formation of their heterodimeric complex were assayed. The lowest mass SK fragment exhibiting Plg-dependent activator activity was shown to be SK27 (mass 27,000, residues 147-380), which contains both central and C-terminal domains, although this activity was reduced approximately 6,000-fold relative to that of full-length SK. The activity of a 36,000 mass fragment, SK36 (residues 64-380), which differs from SK27 in possessing a portion of the N-terminal domain, was reduced to 0.1-1.0% of that of SK. Other fragments (masses 7,000, 11,000, 16,000, 17,000, 25,000, and 26,000), representing either single domains or single domains extended by portions of other domains, were inactive. However, SK7 (residues 1-63), at a 100-fold molar excess concentration, greatly potentiated the activities of SK27 and SK36, by up to 50- and > 130-fold, respectively. These findings demonstrate that all of SK's three domains are essential for native-like SK activity. The central and C-terminal domains mediate plasminogen-binding and active site-generating functions, whereas the N-terminal domain

  18. Dual chaperone role of the C-terminal propeptide in folding and oligomerization of the pore-forming toxin aerolysin.

    PubMed

    Iacovache, Ioan; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Pernot, Lucile; Ho, Sylvia; Schiltz, Marc; Dal Peraro, Matteo; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2011-07-01

    Throughout evolution, one of the most ancient forms of aggression between cells or organisms has been the production of proteins or peptides affecting the permeability of the target cell membrane. This class of virulence factors includes the largest family of bacterial toxins, the pore-forming toxins (PFTs). PFTs are bistable structures that can exist in a soluble and a transmembrane state. It is unclear what drives biosynthetic folding towards the soluble state, a requirement that is essential to protect the PFT-producing cell. Here we have investigated the folding of aerolysin, produced by the human pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, and more specifically the role of the C-terminal propeptide (CTP). By combining the predictive power of computational techniques with experimental validation using both structural and functional approaches, we show that the CTP prevents aggregation during biosynthetic folding. We identified specific residues that mediate binding of the CTP to the toxin. We show that the CTP is crucial for the control of the aerolysin activity, since it protects individual subunits from aggregation within the bacterium and later controls assembly of the quaternary pore-forming complex at the surface of the target host cell. The CTP is the first example of a C-terminal chain-linked chaperone with dual function.

  19. VIPP1 Has a Disordered C-Terminal Tail Necessary for Protecting Photosynthetic Membranes against Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingang; Kondo, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Integrity of biomembranes is vital to living organisms. In bacteria, PspA is considered to act as repairing damaged membrane by forming large supercomplexes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Vulnerable to oxidative stress, photosynthetic organisms also contain a PspA ortholog called VIPP1, which has an additional C-terminal tail (Vc). In this study, Vc was shown to coincide with an intrinsically disordered region, and the role of VIPP1 in membrane protection against stress was investigated. We visualized VIPP1 by fusing it to GFP (VIPP1-GFP that fully complemented lethal vipp1 mutations), and investigated its behavior in vivo with live imaging. The intrinsically disordered nature of Vc enabled VIPP1 to form what appeared to be functional particles along envelopes, whereas the deletion of Vc caused excessive association of the VIPP1 particles, preventing their active movement for membrane protection. Expression of VIPP1 lacking Vc complemented vipp1 mutation, but exhibited sensitivity to heat shock stress. Conversely, transgenic plants over-expressing VIPP1 showed enhanced tolerance against heat shock, suggesting that Vc negatively regulates VIPP1 particle association and acts in maintaining membrane integrity. Our data thus indicate that VIPP1 is involved in the maintenance of photosynthetic membranes. During evolution, chloroplasts have acquired enhanced tolerance against membrane stress by incorporating a disordered C-terminal tail into VIPP1. PMID:27208228

  20. Bcl-rambo, a novel Bcl-2 homologue that induces apoptosis via its unique C-terminal extension.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, T; Holler, N; Micheau, O; Martinon, F; Tinel, A; Hofmann, K; Tschopp, J

    2001-06-01

    The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a central regulatory role in apoptosis. We have identified a novel, widely expressed Bcl-2 member which we have named Bcl-rambo. Bcl-rambo shows overall structural homology to the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members containing conserved Bcl-2 homology (BH) motifs 1, 2, 3, and 4. Unlike Bcl-2, however, the C-terminal membrane anchor region is preceded by a unique 250 amino acid insertion containing two tandem repeats. No interaction of Bcl-rambo with either anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), Bcl-w, A1, MCL-1, E1B-19K, and BHRF1) or pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bak, Bik, Bid, Bim, and Bad) members of the Bcl-2 family was observed. In mammalian cells, Bcl-rambo was localized to mitochondria, and its overexpression induces apoptosis that is specifically blocked by the caspase inhibitors, IAPs, whereas inhibitors controlling upstream events of either the 'death receptor' (FLIP, FADD-DN) or the 'mitochondrial' pro-apoptotic pathway (Bcl-x(L)) had no effect. Surprisingly, the Bcl-rambo cell death activity was induced by its membrane-anchored C-terminal domain and not by the Bcl-2 homology region. Thus, Bcl-rambo constitutes a novel type of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member that triggers cell death independently of its BH motifs.

  1. New melanocortin 1 receptor binding motif based on the C-terminal sequence of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Muceniece, Ruta; Mutule, Ilga; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2006-10-01

    The C-terminal tripeptide of the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH11-13) possesses strong antiinflammatory activity without known cellular target. In order to better understand the structural requirements for function of such motif, we designed, synthesized and tested out Trp- and Tyr-containing analogues of the alpha-MSH11-13. Seven alpha-MSH11-13 analogues were synthesized and characterized for their binding to the melanocortin receptors recombinantly expressed in insect (Sf9) cells, infected with baculovirus carrying corresponding MC receptor DNA. We also tested these analogues on B16-F1 mouse melanoma cells endogenously expressing the MC1 receptor for binding and for ability to increase cAMP levels as well as on COS-7 cells transfected with the human MC receptors. The data indicate that HS401 (Ac-Tyr-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2) and HS402 (Ac-Lys-Pro-Val-Tyr-NH2) selectively bound to the MC1 receptor and stimulated cAMP generation in a concentration dependent way while the other Tyr- and Trp-containing alpha-MSH11-13 analogues neither bound to MC receptors nor stimulated cAMP. We have thus identified new MC receptor binding motif derived from the C-terminal sequence of alpha-MSH. The tetrapeptides have novel properties as the both act via MC-ergic pathways and also carry the anti-inflammatory alpha-MSH11-13 message sequence.

  2. Evaluation of Heavy-Chain C-Terminal Deletion on Product Quality and Pharmacokinetics of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoying; Yu, Christopher; Yadav, Daniela B; Hu, Zhilan; Amurao, Annamarie; Duenas, Eileen; Wong, Marc; Iverson, Mark; Zheng, Kai; Lam, Xanthe; Chen, Jia; Vega, Roxanne; Ulufatu, Sheila; Leddy, Cecilia; Davis, Helen; Shen, Amy; Wong, Pin Y; Harris, Reed; Wang, Y John; Li, Dongwei

    2016-07-01

    Due to their potential influence on stability, pharmacokinetics, and product consistency, antibody charge variants have attracted considerable attention in the biotechnology industry. Subtle to significant differences in the level of charge variants and new charge variants under various cell culture conditions are often observed during routine manufacturing or process changes and pose a challenge when demonstrating product comparability. To explore potential solutions to control charge heterogeneity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with native, wild-type C-termini, and mutants with C-terminal deletions of either lysine or lysine and glycine were constructed, expressed, purified, and characterized in vitro and in vivo. Analytical and physiological characterization demonstrated that the mAb mutants had greatly reduced levels of basic variants without decreasing antibody biologic activity, structural stability, pharmacokinetics, or subcutaneous bioavailability in rats. This study provides a possible solution to mitigate mAb heterogeneity in C-terminal processing, improve batch-to-batch consistency, and facilitate the comparability study during process changes.

  3. Disruption of C-Terminal Cytoplasmic Domain of βPS Integrin Subunit Has Dominant Negative Properties in Developing Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jannuzi, Alison L.; Bunch, Thomas A.; Brabant, Marc C.; Miller, Steven W.; Mukai, Leona; Zavortink, Michael; Brower, Danny L.

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of new and existing strong mutations in the myospheroid gene, which encodes the βPS integrin subunit of Drosophila. In addition to missense and other null mutations, three mutants behave as antimorphic alleles, indicative of dominant negative properties. Unlike null alleles, the three antimorphic mutants are synthetically lethal in double heterozygotes with an inflated (αPS2) null allele, and they fail to complement very weak, otherwise viable alleles of myospheroid. Two of the antimorphs result from identical splice site lesions, which create a frameshift in the C-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of βPS. The third antimorphic mutation is caused by a stop codon just before the cytoplasmic splice site. These mutant βPS proteins can support cell spreading in culture, especially under conditions that appear to promote integrin activation. Analyses of developing animals indicate that the dominant negative properties are not a result of inefficient surface expression, or simple competition between functional and nonfunctional proteins. These data indicate that mutations disrupting the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of integrin β subunits can have dominant negative effects in situ, at normal levels of expression, and that this property does not necessarily depend on a specific new protein sequence or structure. The results are discussed with respect to similar vertebrate β subunit cytoplasmic mutations. PMID:11950944

  4. Alpha-A crystallin: quantitation of C-terminal modification during lens aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is susceptible to age-dependent, posttranslational modification. To quantitate the amount of modification, alpha-A crystallin was purified from total proteins of the aging bovine lens, then digested with lys-C endoproteinase. Reverse phase, high pressure liquid chromatography was used to resolve and quantitate the resulting peptides, to determine the amount of C-terminal peptide relative to peptides from other regions of the protein that have not been reported to undergo modification. The results indicate that relative to alpha-A crystallin from newborn lens, posttranslational modification has occurred in approximately 45-55% of the C-terminal region from mature lens. These results demonstrate extensive modification of the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin from the mature lens, indicating that during the aging process, posttranslational modifications in this region may make significant contributions to the aggregated state and/or molecular chaperone properties of the molecule.

  5. Structural and functional characterization of the C-terminal transmembrane region of NBCe1-A.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Quansheng; Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Pushkin, Alexander; Liu, Weixin; Chang, Connie; Kurtz, Ira

    2010-11-26

    NBCe1-A and AE1 both belong to the SLC4 HCO(3)(-) transporter family. The two transporters share 40% sequence homology in the C-terminal transmembrane region. In this study, we performed extensive substituted cysteine-scanning mutagenesis analysis of the C-terminal region of NBCe1-A covering amino acids Ala(800)-Lys(967). Location of the introduced cysteines was determined by whole cell labeling with a membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and a membrane-impermeant 2-((5(6)-tetramethylrhodamine)carboxylamino) ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-TAMRA) cysteine-reactive reagent. The results show that the extracellular surface of the NBCe1-A C-terminal transmembrane region is minimally exposed to aqueous media with Met(858) accessible to both biotin maleimide and TAMRA and Thr(926)-Ala(929) only to TAMRA labeling. The intracellular surface contains a highly exposed (Met(813)-Gly(828)) region and a cryptic (Met(887)-Arg(904)) connecting loop. The lipid/aqueous interface of the last transmembrane segment is at Asp(960). Our data clearly determined that the C terminus of NBCe1-A contains 5 transmembrane segments with greater average size compared with AE1. Functional assays revealed only two residues in the region of Pro(868)-Leu(967) (a functionally important region in AE1) that are highly sensitive to cysteine substitution. Our findings suggest that the C-terminal transmembrane region of NBCe1-A is tightly folded with unique structural and functional features that differ from AE1.

  6. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yuan; Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J.

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain.

  7. C-terminal processing of reaction center protein D1 is essential for the function and assembly of photosystem II in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yufen; Fu, Aigen; Hou, Xin; McDonald, Kent; Buchanan, Bob B.; Huang, Weidong; Luan, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein D1 is synthesized as a precursor (pD1) with a short C-terminal extension. The pD1 is processed to mature D1 by carboxyl-terminal peptidase A to remove the C-terminal extension and form active protein. Here we report functional characterization of the Arabidopsis gene encoding D1 C-terminal processing enzyme (AtCtpA) in the chloroplast thylakoid lumen. Recombinant AtCtpA converted pD1 to mature D1 and a mutant lacking AtCtpA retained all D1 in precursor form, confirming that AtCtpA is solely responsible for processing. As with cyanobacterial ctpa, a knockout Arabidopsis atctpa mutant was lethal under normal growth conditions but was viable with sucrose under low-light conditions. Viable plants, however, showed deficiencies in PSII and thylakoid stacking. Surprisingly, unlike its cyanobacterial counterpart, the Arabidopsis mutant retained both monomer and dimer forms of the PSII complexes that, although nonfunctional, contained both the core and extrinsic subunits. This mutant was also essentially devoid of PSII supercomplexes, providing an unexpected link between D1 maturation and supercomplex assembly. A knock-down mutant expressing about 2% wild-type level of AtCtpA showed normal growth under low light but was stunted and accumulated pD1 under high light, indicative of delayed C-terminal processing. Although demonstrating the functional significance of C-terminal D1 processing in PSII biogenesis, our study reveals an unsuspected link between D1 maturation and PSII supercomplex assembly in land plants, opening an avenue for exploring the mechanism for the association of light-harvesting complexes with the PSII core complexes. PMID:24043802

  8. The C-terminal domains of the GABA(b) receptor subunits mediate intracellular trafficking but are not required for receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Calver, A R; Robbins, M J; Cosio, C; Rice, S Q; Babbs, A J; Hirst, W D; Boyfield, I; Wood, M D; Russell, R B; Price, G W; Couve, A; Moss, S J; Pangalos, M N

    2001-02-15

    GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the brain and spinal cord. These receptors are heterodimers assembled from GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits, neither of which is capable of producing functional GABA(B) receptors on homomeric expression. GABA(B1,) although able to bind GABA, is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when expressed alone. In contrast, GABA(B2) is able to access the cell surface when expressed alone but does not couple efficiently to the appropriate effector systems or produce any detectable GABA-binding sites. In the present study, we have constructed chimeric and truncated GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits to explore further GABA(B) receptor signaling and assembly. Removal of the entire C-terminal intracellular domain of GABA(B1) results in plasma membrane expression without the production of a functional GABA(B) receptor. However, coexpression of this truncated GABA(B1) subunit with either GABA(B2) or a truncated GABA(B2) subunit in which the C terminal has also been removed is capable of functional signaling via G-proteins. In contrast, transferring the entire C-terminal tail of GABA(B1) to GABA(B2) leads to the ER retention of the GABA(B2) subunit when expressed alone. These results indicate that the C terminal of GABA(B1) mediates the ER retention of this protein and that neither of the C-terminal tails of GABA(B1) or GABA(B2) is an absolute requirement for functional coupling of heteromeric receptors. Furthermore although GABA(B1) is capable of producing GABA-binding sites, GABA(B2) is of central importance in the functional coupling of heteromeric GABA(B) receptors to G-proteins and the subsequent activation of effector systems.

  9. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Enz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning, and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds, and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction of mGluRs and interacting proteins may lead to impaired signal transduction and finally result in neurological disorders, e.g., night blindness, addiction, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. In contrast to solved crystal structures of extracellular N-terminal domains of some mGluR types, only a few studies analyzed the conformation of intracellular receptor domains. Intracellular C-termini of most mGluR types are subject to alternative splicing and can be further modified by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. In this way, diverse interaction sites for intracellular proteins that bind to and regulate the glutamate receptors are generated. Indeed, most of the known mGluR binding partners interact with the receptors' C-terminal domains. Within the last years, different laboratories analyzed the structure of these domains and described the geometry of the contact surface between mGluR C-termini and interacting proteins. Here, I will review recent progress in the structure characterization of mGluR C-termini and provide an up-to-date summary of the geometry of these domains in contact with binding partners.

  10. Structural characterization of two pore-forming peptides: consequences of introducing a C-terminal tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Alvaro I; Al-Rawi, Ahlam; Cook, Gabriel A; Gao, Jian; Iwamoto, Takeo; Prakash, Om; Tomich, John M; Chen, Jianhan

    2010-08-01

    Synthetic channel-forming peptides that can restore chloride conductance across epithelial membranes could provide a novel treatment of channelopathies such as cystic fibrosis. Among a series of 22-residue peptides derived from the second transmembrane segment of the glycine receptor alpha(1)-subunit (M2GlyR), p22-S22W (KKKKP ARVGL GITTV LTMTT QW) is particularly promising with robust membrane insertion and assembly. The concentration to reach one-half maximal short circuit current is reduced to 45 +/- 6 microM from that of 210 +/- 70 microM of peptide p22 (KKKKP ARVGL GITTV LTMTT QS). However, this is accompanied with nearly 50% reduction in conductance. Toward obtaining a molecular level understanding of the channel activities, we combine information from solution NMR, existing biophysical data, and molecular modeling to construct atomistic models of the putative pentameric channels of p22 and p22-S22W. Simulations in membrane bilayers demonstrate that these structural models, even though highly flexible, are stable and remain adequately open for ion conductance. The membrane-anchoring tryptophan residues not only rigidify the whole channel, suggesting increased stability, but also lead to global changes in the pore profile. Specifically, the p22-S22W pore has a smaller opening on average, consistent with lower measured conductance. Direct observation of several incidences of chloride transport suggests several qualitative features of how these channels might selectively conduct anions. The current study thus helps to rationalize the functional consequences of introducing a single C-terminal tryptophan. Availability of these structural models also paves the way for future work to rationally modify and improve M2GlyR-derived peptides toward potential peptide-based channel replacement therapy.

  11. A C-terminal di-leucine motif controls plasma membrane expression of PMCA4b.

    PubMed

    Antalffy, Géza; Pászty, Katalin; Varga, Karolina; Hegedűs, Luca; Enyedi, Agnes; Padányi, Rita

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidences show that the localization of different plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (PMCAs) is regulated in various complex, cell type-specific ways. Here we show that in low-density epithelial and endothelial cells PMCA4b localized mostly in intracellular compartments and its plasma membrane localization was enhanced upon increasing density of cells. In good correlation with the enhanced plasma membrane localization a significantly more efficient Ca(2+) clearance was observed in confluent versus non-confluent HeLa cell cultures expressing mCherry-PMCA4b. We analyzed the subcellular localization and function of various C-terminally truncated PMCA4b variants and found that a truncated mutant PMCA4b-ct24 was mostly intracellular while another mutant, PMCA4b-ct48, localized more to the plasma membrane, indicating that a protein sequence corresponding to amino acid residues 1158-1181 contained a signal responsible for the intracellular retention of PMCA4b in non-confluent cultures. Alteration of three leucines to alanines at positions 1167-1169 resulted in enhanced cell surface expression and an appropriate Ca(2+) transport activity of both wild type and truncated pumps, suggesting that the di-leucine-like motif (1167)LLL was crucial in targeting PMCA4b. Furthermore, upon loss of cell-cell contact by extracellular Ca(2+) removal, the wild-type pump was translocated to the early endosomal compartment. Targeting PMCA4b to early endosomes was diminished by the L(1167-69)A mutation, and the mutant pump accumulated in long tubular cytosolic structures. In summary, we report a di-leucine-like internalization signal at the C-tail of PMCA4b and suggest an internalization-mediated loss of function of the pump upon low degree of cell-cell contact.

  12. Interaction of CheY with the C-terminal peptide of CheZ

    SciTech Connect

    Guhaniyogi,J.; Wu, T.; Patel, S.; Stock, A.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a means for motile bacteria to sense the environment and achieve directed swimming, is controlled by flagellar rotation. The primary output of the chemotaxis machinery is the phosphorylated form of the response regulator CheY (P{approx}CheY). The steady-state level of P{approx}CheY dictates the direction of rotation of the flagellar motor. The chemotaxis signal in the form of P{approx}CheY is terminated by the phosphatase CheZ. Efficient dephosphorylation of CheY by CheZ requires two distinct protein-protein interfaces: one involving the strongly conserved C-terminal helix of CheZ (CheZC) tethering the two proteins together and the other constituting an active site for catalytic dephosphorylation. In a previous work, we presented high-resolution crystal structures of CheY in complex with the CheZC peptide that revealed alternate binding modes subject to the conformational state of CheY. In this study, we report biochemical and structural data that support the alternate-binding-mode hypothesis and identify key recognition elements in the CheY-CheZC interaction. In addition, we present kinetic studies of the CheZC-associated effect on CheY phosphorylation with its physiologically relevant phosphodonor, the histidine kinase CheA. Our results indicate mechanistic differences in phosphotransfer from the kinase CheA versus that from small-molecule phosphodonors, explaining a modest twofold increase of CheY phosphorylation with the former, observed in this study, relative to a 10-fold increase previously documented with the latter.

  13. Reduced ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-1 expression levels in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, Marta; Castaño, Esther; Dalfó, Esther; Maes, Tamara; Buesa, Carlos; Ferrer, Isidro

    2006-05-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin in protein aggregates conforming Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-1 (UCHL-1) disassembles polyubiquitin chains to increase the availability of free monomeric ubiquitin to the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) thus favoring protein degradation. Since mutations in the UCHL-1 gene, reducing UPS activity by 50%, have been reported in autosomal dominant PD, and UCHL-1 inhibition results in the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates in mesencephalic cultured neurons, the present study was initiated to test UCHL-1 mRNA and protein levels in post-mortem frontal cortex (area 8) of PD and DLB cases, compared with age-matched controls. TaqMan PCR assays, and Western blots demonstrated down-regulation of UCHL-1 mRNA and UCHL-1 protein in the cerebral cortex in DLB (either in pure forms, not associated with Alzheimer disease: AD, and in common forms, with accompanying AD changes), but not in PD, when compared with age-matched controls. Interestingly, UCHL-1 mRNA and protein expressions were reduced in the medulla oblongata in the same PD cases. Moreover, UCHL-1 protein was decreased in the substantia nigra in cases with Lewy body pathology. UCHL-1 down-regulation was not associated with reduced protein levels of several proteasomal subunits, including 20SX, 20SY, 19S and 11Salpha. Yet UCHL-3 expression was reduced in the cerebral cortex of PD and DLB patients. Together, these observations show reduced UCHL-1 expression as a contributory factor in the abnormal protein aggregation in DLB, and points UCHL-1 as a putative therapeutic target in the treatment of DLB.

  14. C-terminal domain of SMYD3 serves as a unique HSP90-regulated motif in oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Harriss, June; Das, Chhaya; Zhu, Li; Edwards, Melissa; Shaaban, Salam; Tucker, Haley

    2015-01-01

    The SMYD3 histone methyl transferase (HMTase) and the nuclear chaperone, HSP90, have been independently implicated as proto-oncogenes in several human malignancies. We show that a degenerate tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-like domain encoded in the SMYD3 C-terminal domain (CTD) mediates physical interaction with HSP90. We further demonstrate that the CTD of SMYD3 is essential for its basal HMTase activity and that the TPR-like structure is required for HSP90-enhanced enzyme activity. Loss of SMYD3-HSP90 interaction leads to SMYD3 mislocalization within the nucleus, thereby losing its chromatin association. This results in reduction of SMYD3-mediated cell proliferation and, potentially, impairment of SMYD3′s oncogenic activity. These results suggest a novel approach for blocking HSP90-driven malignancy in SMYD3-overexpressing cells with a reduced toxicity profile over current HSP90 inhibitors. PMID:25738358

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Biochemical and Functional Properties of C-Terminal Domains of Autotransporters ▿

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Elvira; Bodelón, Gustavo; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Autotransporters (ATs) are the largest group of proteins secreted by Gram-negative bacteria and include many virulence factors from human pathogens. ATs are synthesized as large precursors with a C-terminal domain that is inserted in the outer membrane (OM) and is essential for the translocation of an N-terminal passenger domain to the extracellular milieu. Several mechanisms have been proposed for AT secretion. Self-translocation models suggest transport across a hydrophilic channel formed by an internal pore of the β-barrel or by the oligomerization of C-terminal domains. Alternatively, an assisted-translocation model suggests that transport employs a conserved machinery of the bacterial OM such as the Bam complex. In this work we have investigated AT secretion by carrying out a comparative study to analyze the conserved biochemical and functional features of different C-terminal domains selected from ATs of gammaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, alphaproteobacteria, and epsilonproteobacteria. Our results indicate that C-terminal domains having an N-terminal α-helix and a β-barrel constitute functional transport units for the translocation of peptides and immunoglobulin domains with disulfide bonds. In vivo and in vitro analyses show that multimerization is not a conserved feature in AT C-terminal domains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the deletion of the conserved α-helix severely impairs β-barrel folding and OM insertion and thereby blocks passenger domain secretion. These observations suggest that the AT β-barrel without its α-helix cannot form a stable hydrophilic channel in the OM for protein translocation. The implications of our data for an understanding of AT secretion are discussed. PMID:20802036

  16. Is it necessary to actively remove stone fragments during retrograde intrarenal surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, You Jin; Bak, Dong Jae; Chung, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jun Nyung; Kim, Hyun Tae; Yoo, Eun Sang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Based on the experiences of our center, we sought to verify the necessity of actively removing stones during retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for the management of renal stones. Materials and Methods From March 2010 to March 2015, 248 patients underwent RIRS at our center. We classified these patients into 2 groups according to the performance of active stone removal; group A (n=172) included the patients whose stones were actively removed using a stone basket, and group B (n=76) included the patients whose stones were fragmented with laser lithotripsy without active removal of the fragments. We retrospectively compared the operation time, success rate, and complication rate between the 2 groups. Results There were no significant differences between groups A and B in terms of mean age (56.1 years vs. 58.6 years), male to female ratio (115:57 vs. 46:30), mean body mass index (24.5 kg/m2 vs. 25.0 kg/m2), mean preoperative size of stone (11.1 mm vs. 11.1 mm), the ratio of unilateral and bilateral stones (136:36 vs. 64:12), success rate (89.0% vs. 86.8%), operation time (82.5 minutes vs. 82.1 minutes), overall complication rate (9.9% vs. 11.8%), incidence of febrile urinary tract infection (6.4% vs. 2.6%), gross hematuria (1.7% vs. 2.6%), or postoperative de novo hydronephrosis (2.9% vs. 5.3%). Conclusions This study demonstrated that during RIRS, fragmentation only, without the active removal of stones, is a safe and effective technique in which the surgical outcomes are comparable to those of procedures involving the active removal of stones. PMID:27437537

  17. Identification of B. anthracis N(5)-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase (PurE) active site binding compounds via fragment library screening.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hao; Jones, Christopher; Zhu, Tian; Patel, Kavankumar; Wolf, Nina M; Fung, Leslie W-M; Lee, Hyun; Johnson, Michael E

    2016-02-15

    The de novo purine biosynthesis pathway is an attractive target for antibacterial drug design, and PurE from this pathway has been identified to be crucial for Bacillus anthracis survival in serum. In this study we adopted a fragment-based hit discovery approach, using three screening methods-saturation transfer difference nucleus magnetic resonance (STD-NMR), water-ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy (WaterLOGSY) NMR, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), against B. anthracis PurE (BaPurE) to identify active site binding fragments by initially testing 352 compounds in a Zenobia fragment library. Competition STD NMR with the BaPurE product effectively eliminated non-active site binding hits from the primary hits, selecting active site binders only. Binding affinities (dissociation constant, KD) of these compounds varied between 234 and 301μM. Based on test results from the Zenobia compounds, we subsequently developed and applied a streamlined fragment screening strategy to screen a much larger library consisting of 3000 computationally pre-selected fragments. Thirteen final fragment hits were confirmed to exhibit binding affinities varying from 14μM to 700μM, which were categorized into five different basic scaffolds. All thirteen fragment hits have ligand efficiencies higher than 0.30. We demonstrated that at least two fragments from two different scaffolds exhibit inhibitory activity against the BaPurE enzyme.

  18. Structure and Characterisation of a Key Epitope in the Conserved C-Terminal Domain of the Malaria Vaccine Candidate MSP2.

    PubMed

    Seow, Jeffrey; Morales, Rodrigo A V; MacRaild, Christopher A; Krishnarjuna, Bankala; McGowan, Sheena; Dingjan, Tamir; Jaipuria, Garima; Rouet, Romain; Wilde, Karyn L; Atreya, Hanudatta S; Richards, Jack S; Anders, Robin F; Christ, Daniel; Drinkwater, Nyssa; Norton, Raymond S

    2017-03-24

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is an intrinsically disordered antigen that is abundant on the surface of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The two allelic families of MSP2, 3D7 and FC27, differ in their central variable regions, which are flanked by highly conserved C-terminal and N-terminal regions. In a vaccine trial, full-length 3D7 MSP2 induced a strain-specific protective immune response despite the detectable presence of conserved region antibodies. This work focuses on the conserved C-terminal region of MSP2, which includes the only disulphide bond in the protein and encompasses key epitopes recognised by the mouse monoclonal antibodies 4D11 and 9H4. Although the 4D11 and 9H4 epitopes are overlapping, immunofluorescence assays have shown that the mouse monoclonal antibody 4D11 binds to MSP2 on the merozoite surface with a much stronger signal than 9H4. Understanding the structural basis for this antigenic difference between these antibodies will help direct the design of a broad-spectrum and MSP2-based malaria vaccine. 4D11 and 9H4 were reengineered into antibody fragments [variable region fragment (Fv) and single-chain Fv (scFv)] and were validated as suitable models for their full-sized IgG counterparts by surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. An alanine scan of the 13-residue epitope 3D7-MSP2207-222 identified the minimal binding epitope of 4D11 and the key residues involved in binding. A 2.2-Å crystal structure of 4D11 Fv bound to the eight-residue epitope NKENCGAA provided valuable insight into the possible conformation of the C-terminal region of MSP2 on the parasite. This work underpins continued efforts to optimise recombinant MSP2 constructs for evaluation as potential vaccine candidates.

  19. β-Amyloid induces nuclear protease-mediated lamin fragmentation independent of caspase activation.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Vijay Sankar; Islam, Md Imamul; Haque, Md Aminul; Shin, Song Yub; Park, Il-Seon

    2016-06-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ), a hallmark peptide of Alzheimer's disease, induces both caspase-dependent apoptosis and non-apoptotic cell death. In this study, we examined caspase-independent non-apoptotic cell death preceding caspase activation in Aβ42-treated cells. We first determined the optimal treatment conditions for inducing cell death without caspase activation and selected a double-treatment method involving the incubation of cells with Aβ42 for 4 and 6 h (4+6 h sample). We observed that levels of lamin A (LA) and lamin B (LB) were reduced in the 4+6 h samples. This reduction was decreased by treatment with suc-AAPF-CMK, an inhibitor of nuclear scaffold (NS) protease, but not by treatment with z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. In addition, suc-AAPF-CMK decreased the changes in nuclear morphology observed in cells in the 4+6 h samples, which were different from nuclear fragmentation observed in STS-treated cells. Furthermore, suc-AAPF-CMK inhibited cell death in the 4+6 h samples. LA and LB fragmentation occurred in the isolated nuclei and was also inhibited by suc-AAPF-CMK. Together, these data indicated that the fragmentation of LA and LB in the Aβ42-treated cells was induced by an NS protease, whose identity is not clearly determined yet. A correlation between Aβ42 toxicity and the lamin fragmentation by NS protease suggests that inhibition of the protease could be an effective method for controlling the pathological process of AD.

  20. Active fragments of the antihemorrhagic protein HSF from serum of habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Narumi; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2007-04-01

    Certain snakes have antihemorrhagic proteins in their sera. Habu serum factor (HSF), an antihemorrhagic protein isolated from the serum of the Japanese habu snake (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) is composed of two cystatin-like domains (D1 and D2) and a His-rich domain, and it inhibits several snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The activity of HSF can be abolished by trinitrophenylation of Lys residues with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid. Upon complex formation of HSF with SVMP, however, the loss of its inhibitory activity by the chemical modification was suppressed, and Lys(15), Lys(41), and Lys(103) residues in HSF were not trinitrophenylated. In order to identify the domain that is critical to the inhibitory activity on SVMPs, native HSF was digested with papain followed by cleavage with cyanogen bromide, yielding a low-molecular mass fragment that was composed of two peptide chains (residues 5-89 and 312-317) linked by a disulfide bond. This fragment inhibited several SVMPs and showed significant antihemorrhagic activity. This indicates that the N-terminal half of D1 is indispensable for the antihemorrhagic activity of HSF. Furthermore, a three-dimensional model of two cystatin-like domains constructed by the homology modeling has indicated that three Lys residues (15, 41, and 103) are exposed to the same surface of HSF molecule.

  1. Structural and Functional Modularity of the Orange Carotenoid Protein: Distinct Roles for the N- and C-Terminal Domains in Cyanobacterial Photoprotection[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Leverenz, Ryan L.; Jallet, Denis; Li, Ming-De; Mathies, Richard A.; Kirilovsky, Diana; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) serves as a sensor of light intensity and an effector of phycobilisome (PB)–associated photoprotection in cyanobacteria. Structurally, the OCP is composed of two distinct domains spanned by a single carotenoid chromophore. Functionally, in response to high light, the OCP converts from a dark-stable orange form, OCPO, to an active red form, OCPR. The C-terminal domain of the OCP has been implicated in the dynamic response to light intensity and plays a role in switching off the OCP’s photoprotective response through its interaction with the fluorescence recovery protein. The function of the N-terminal domain, which is uniquely found in cyanobacteria, is unclear. To investigate its function, we isolated the N-terminal domain in vitro using limited proteolysis of native OCP. The N-terminal domain retains the carotenoid chromophore; this red carotenoid protein (RCP) has constitutive PB fluorescence quenching activity comparable in magnitude to that of active, full-length OCPR. A comparison of the spectroscopic properties of the RCP with OCPR indicates that critical protein–chromophore interactions within the C-terminal domain are weakened in the OCPR form. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain dynamically regulates the photoprotective activity of an otherwise constitutively active carotenoid binding N-terminal domain. PMID:24399299

  2. Carbonic anhydrase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membrane and fragments enriched with PSI or PSII.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Lyudmila K; Rudenko, Natalia N; Mudrik, Vilen A; Fedorchuk, Tat'yana P; Ivanov, Boris N

    2011-12-01

    The procedure of isolating the thylakoids and the thylakoid membrane fragments enriched with either photosystem I or photosystem II (PSI- and PSII-membranes) from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was developed. It differed from the one used with pea and spinach in durations of detergent treatment and centrifugation, and in concentrations of detergent and Mg(2+) in the media. Both the thylakoid and the fragments preserved carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities. Using nondenaturing electrophoresis followed by detection of CA activity in the gel stained with bromo thymol blue, one low molecular mass carrier of CA activity was found in the PSI-membranes, and two carriers, a low molecular mass one and a high molecular mass one, were found in the PSII-membranes. The proteins in the PSII-membranes differed in their sensitivity to acetazolamide (AA), a specific CA inhibitor. AA at 5 × 10(-7) M inhibited the CA activity of the high molecular mass protein but stimulated the activity of the low molecular mass carrier in the PSII-membranes. At the same concentration, AA moderately inhibited, by 30%, the CA activity of PSI-membranes. CA activity of the PSII-membranes was almost completely suppressed by the lipophilic CA inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide at 10(-9) M, whereas CA activity of the PSI-membranes was inhibited by this inhibitor even at 5 × 10(-7) M just the same as for AA. The observed distribution of CA activity in the thylakoid membranes from A. thaliana was close to the one found in the membranes of pea, evidencing the general pattern of CA activity in the thylakoid membranes of C3-plants.

  3. Triptonide Effectively Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via C-terminal Transactivation Domain of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Chinison, Jessica; Aguilar, Jose S.; Avalos, Alan; Huang, Ying; Wang, Zhijun; Cameron, D. Joshua; Hao, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in many diseases including cancer. As a result, therapeutic agents that disrupt this signaling pathway have been highly sought after. Triptonide is a key bioactive small molecule identified in a traditional Chinese medicine named Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., and it has a broad spectrum of biological functions. Here we show that triptonide can effectively inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting the downstream C-terminal transcription domain of β-catenin or a nuclear component associated with β-catenin. In addition, triptonide treatment robustly rescued the zebrafish “eyeless” phenotype induced by GSK-3β antagonist 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO) for Wnt signaling activation during embryonic gastrulation. Finally, triptonide effectively induced apoptosis of Wnt-dependent cancer cells, supporting the therapeutic potential of triptonide. PMID:27596363

  4. Raman Optical Activity Spectra for Large Molecules through Molecules-in-Molecules Fragment-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Jovan Jose, K V; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2016-02-09

    We present an efficient method for the calculation of the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra for large molecules through the molecules-in-molecules (MIM) fragment-based method. The relevant higher energy derivatives from smaller fragments are used to build the property tensors of the parent molecule to enable the extension of the MIM method for evaluating ROA spectra (MIM-ROA). Two factors were found to be particularly important in yielding accurate results. First, the link-atom tensor components are projected back onto the corresponding host and supporting atoms through the Jacobian projection method, yielding a mathematically rigorous method. Second, the long-range interactions between fragments are taken into account by using a less computationally expensive lower level of theory. The performance of the MIM-ROA model is calibrated on the enantiomeric pairs of 10 carbohydrate benchmark molecules, with strong intramolecular interactions. The vibrational frequencies and ROA intensities are accurately reproduced relative to the full, unfragmented, results for these systems. In addition, the MIM-ROA method is employed to predict the ROA spectra of d-maltose, α-D-cyclodextrin, and cryptophane-A, yielding spectra in excellent agreement with experiment. The accuracy and performance of the benchmark systems validate the MIM-ROA model for exploring ROA spectra of large molecules.

  5. A novel family of ubiquitin-specific proteases in chick skeletal muscle with distinct N- and C-terminal extensions.

    PubMed Central

    Baek, S H; Park, K C; Lee, J I; Kim, K I; Yoo, Y J; Tanaka, K; Baker, R T; Chung, C H

    1998-01-01

    We have recently identified a cDNA for a ubiquitin-specific protease (UBP), UBP41, that encodes the smallest functional UBP identified to date, using an Escherichia coli-based in vivo screening method. In the present study we isolated highly related cDNAs encoding a new family of UBP enzymes, named UBP46, UBP52 and UBP66. These UBPs have virtually identical catalytic domains spanning the sequence of UBP41 between the active-site Cys and the His box (95% identity). However, they possess distinct N- and/or C-terminal extensions. Moreover, they are more closely related to each other than to any other members of the UBP family. Thus these chick UBPs must define a novel family of de-ubiquitinating enzymes and should represent the first example among the UBP family enzymes, whose multiplicity is achieved by variation in their N- and C-terminal extensions. The chick UBPs were expressed in E. coli, and purified from the cells to apparent homogeneity using 125I-labelled ubiquitin-alphaNH-MHISPPEPESEEEEEHYC as a substrate. Each of the purified UBP46, UBP52 and UBP66 enzymes behaved as proteins of similar sizes under both denaturing and non-denaturing conditions, suggesting that all of them consist of a single polypeptide chain. The UBP enzymes cleaved the C-terminus of the ubiquitin moiety in natural and engineered fusions irrespective of their sizes and thus are active against ubiquitin-beta-galactosidase as well as a ubiquitin C-terminal extension protein of 80 amino acids. All UBPs except UBP66 released free ubiquitin from poly-His-tagged di-ubiquitin. However, the isopeptidase activity for hydrolysing polyubiquitinated lysozyme conjugates was not detected from these UBPs, which makes these UBPs distinct from UBP41. These results suggest that the chick UBPs may play an important role in production of free ubiquitin from linear polyubiquitin chains and of certain ribosomal proteins from ubiquitin fusion proteins. PMID:9729477

  6. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  7. Human single-chain variable fragment antibody inhibits macrophage migration inhibitory factor tautomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Tarasuk, Mayuri; Poungpair, Ornnuthchar; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2014-03-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, secreted from a variety of immune cells, that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses. Elevation of MIF levels in plasma correlates with the severity of inflammatory diseases in humans. Inhibition of MIF or its tautomerase activity ameliorates disease severity by reducing inflammatory responses. In this study, the human single-chain variable fragment (HuScFv) antibody specific to MIF was selected from the human antibody phage display library by using purified recombinant full-length human MIF (rMIF) as the target antigen. Monoclonal HuScFv was produced from phage-transformed bacteria and tested for their binding activities to rMIF by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as to native MIF by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. The HuScFv with highest binding signal to rMIF also inhibited the tautomerase activities of both rMIF and native MIF in human monoblastic leukemia (U937) cells in a dose-dependent manner. Mimotope searching and molecular docking concordantly demonstrated that the HuScFv interacted with Lys32 and Ile64 in the MIF tautomerase active site. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on MIF-specific fully-human antibody fragment with a tautomerase-inhibitory effect that has potential to be developed as anti-inflammatory biomolecules for human use.

  8. Geographic Variability and Anti-Staphylococcal Activity of the Chrysophaentins and Their Synthetic Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Keffer, Jessica L.; Hammill, Jared T.; Lloyd, John R.; Plaza, Alberto; Wipf, Peter; Bewley, Carole A.

    2012-01-01

    Drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a continuing public health concern, both in the hospital and community settings. Antibacterial compounds that possess novel structural scaffolds and are effective against multiple S. aureus strains, including current drug-resistant ones, are needed. Previously, we have described the chrysophaentins, a family of bisdiarylbutene macrocycles from the chrysophyte alga Chrysophaeum taylori that inhibit the growth of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In this study we have analyzed the geographic variability of chrysophaentin production in C. taylori located at different sites on the island of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, and identified two new linear chrysophaentin analogs, E2 and E3. In addition, we have expanded the structure activity relationship through synthesis of fragments comprising conserved portions of the chrysophaentins, and determined the antimicrobial activity of natural chrysophaentins and their synthetic analogs against five diverse S. aureus strains. We find that the chrysophaentins show similar activity against all S. aureus strains, regardless of their drug sensitivity profiles. The synthetic chrysophaentin fragments indeed mimic the natural compounds in their spectrum of antibacterial activity, and therefore represent logical starting points for future medicinal chemistry studies of the natural products and their analogs. PMID:22822360

  9. Single-molecule imaging of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) activity by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, J.; Zhang, P.; Wang, Q.; Wu, N.; Zhang, F.; Hu, J.; Fan, C. H.; Li, B.

    2016-03-01

    We report a DNA origami-facilitated single-molecule platform that exploits atomic force microscopy to study DNA replication. We imaged several functional activities of the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I (KF) including binding, moving, and dissociation from the template DNA. Upon completion of these actions, a double-stranded DNA molecule was formed. Furthermore, the direction of KF activities was captured and then confirmed by shifting the KF binding sites on the template DNA.We report a DNA origami-facilitated single-molecule platform that exploits atomic force microscopy to study DNA replication. We imaged several functional activities of the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I (KF) including binding, moving, and dissociation from the template DNA. Upon completion of these actions, a double-stranded DNA molecule was formed. Furthermore, the direction of KF activities was captured and then confirmed by shifting the KF binding sites on the template DNA. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06544e

  10. Mutational and Functional Analysis of the C-Terminal Region of the C3H Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Superantigen

    PubMed Central

    Wrona, Thomas J.; Lozano, Mary; Binhazim, Awadh A.; Dudley, Jaquelin P.

    1998-01-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) encodes within the U3 region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) a protein known as the superantigen (Sag). Sag is needed for the efficient transmission of milk-borne virus from the gut to target tissue in the mammary gland. MMTV-infected B cells in the gut express Sag as a type II transmembrane protein that is recognized by the variable region of particular beta chains (Vβ) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of T cells. Recognition of Sag by particular TCRs results in T-cell stimulation, release of cytokines, and amplification of MMTV infection in lymphoid cells that are needed for infection of adolescent mammary tissue. Because the C-terminal 30 to 40 amino acids of Sag are variable and correlate with recognition of particular TCR Vβ chains, we prepared a series of C-terminal Sag mutations that were introduced into a cloned infectious MMTV provirus. Virus-producing XC rat cells were used for injection of susceptible BALB/c mice, and these mice were monitored for functional Sag activity by the deletion of C3H MMTV Sag-reactive (CD4+ Vβ14+) T cells. Injected mice also were analyzed for mutant infection and tumor formation in mammary glands as well as milk-borne transmission of MMTV to offspring. Most mutations abrogated Sag function, although one mutation (HPA242) that changed the negative charge of the extreme C terminus to a positive charge created a weaker Sag that slowed the kinetics of Sag-mediated T-cell deletion. Despite the lack of Sag activity, many of the sag mutant viruses were capable of sporadic infections of the mammary glands of injected mice but not of offspring mice, indicating that functional Sag increases the probability of milk-borne MMTV infection. Furthermore, although most viruses encoding nonfunctional Sags were unable to cause mammary tumors, tumors were induced by such viruses carrying mutations in a negative regulatory element that overlaps the sag gene within the LTR, suggesting that loss of

  11. Ligation activity of fragmented ribozymes in frozen solution: implications for the RNA world

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, Alexander V.; Johnston, Brian H.; Landweber, Laura F.; Kazakov, Sergei A.

    2004-01-01

    A vexing difficulty of the RNA world hypothesis is how RNA molecules of significant complexity could ever have evolved given their susceptibility to degradation. One way degradation might have been reduced is through low temperature. Here we report that truncated and fragmented derivatives of the hairpin ribozyme can catalyze ligation of a wide variety of RNA molecules to a given sequence in frozen solution despite having little or no activity under standard solution conditions. These results suggest that complex RNAs could have evolved in freezing environments on the early earth and perhaps elsewhere. PMID:15161960

  12. Biochemical characterization of Yarrowia lipolytica LIP8, a secreted lipase with a cleavable C-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Jannet; Schué, Mathieu; Messaoud, Wala; Baignol, Justine; Point, Vanessa; Mateos-Diaz, Eduardo; Mansuelle, Pascal; Gargouri, Youssef; Parsiegla, Goetz; Cavalier, Jean-François; Carrière, Frédéric; Aloulou, Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a lipolytic yeast possessing 16 paralog genes coding for lipases. Little information on these lipases has been obtained and only the major secreted lipase, namely YLLIP2, had been biochemically and structurally characterized. Another secreted lipase, YLLIP8, was isolated from Y. lipolytica culture medium and compared with the recombinant enzyme produced in Pichia pastoris. N-terminal sequencing showed that YLLIP8 is produced in its active form after the cleavage of a signal peptide. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that YLLIP8 recovered from culture medium lacks a C-terminal part of 33 amino acids which are present in the coding sequence. A 3D model of YLLIP8 built from the X-ray structure of the homologous YLLIP2 lipase shows that these truncated amino acids in YLLIP8 belong to an additional C-terminal region predicted to be mainly helical. Western blot analysis shows that YLLIP8 C-tail is rapidly cleaved upon enzyme secretion since both cell-bound and culture supernatant lipases lack this extension. Mature recombinant YLLIP8 displays a true lipase activity on short-, medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), with an optimum activity at alkaline pH on medium chain TAG. It has no apparent regioselectivity in TAG hydrolysis, thus generating glycerol and FFAs as final lipolysis products. YLLIP8 properties are distinct from those of the 1,3-regioselective YLLIP2, acting optimally at acidic pH. These lipases are tailored for complementary roles in fatty acid uptake by Y. lipolytica.

  13. Structure of the C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nup133, a component of the nuclear pore complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sampathkumar, Parthasarathy; Gheyi, Tarun; Miller, Stacy A.; Bain, Kevin T.; Dickey, Mark; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Kim, Seung Joong; Phillips, Jeremy; Pieper, Ursula; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Franke, Josef D.; Martel, Anne; Tsuruta, Hiro; Atwell, Shane; Thompson, Devon A.; Emtage, J. Spencer; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Rout, Michael P.; Sali, Andrej; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.

    2012-10-23

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), responsible for the nucleo-cytoplasmic exchange of proteins and nucleic acids, are dynamic macromolecular assemblies forming an eight-fold symmetric co-axial ring structure. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) NPCs are made up of at least 456 polypeptide chains of {approx}30 distinct sequences. Many of these components (nucleoporins, Nups) share similar structural motifs and form stable subcomplexes. We have determined a high-resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of yeast Nup133 (ScNup133), a component of the heptameric Nup84 subcomplex. Expression tests yielded ScNup133(944-1157) that produced crystals diffracting to 1.9{angstrom} resolution. ScNup133(944-1157) adopts essentially an all {alpha}-helical fold, with a short two stranded {beta}-sheet at the C-terminus. The 11 {alpha}-helices of ScNup133(944-1157) form a compact fold. In contrast, the previously determined structure of human Nup133(934-1156) bound to a fragment of human Nup107 has its constituent {alpha}-helices are arranged in two globular blocks. These differences may reflect structural divergence among homologous nucleoporins.

  14. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jake E; Slade, Eleanor; Riutta, Terhi; Taylor, Michele E

    2012-01-01

    British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  15. Fragments of pro-peptide activate mature penicillin amidase of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Kasche, Volker; Galunsky, Boris; Ignatova, Zoya

    2003-12-01

    Penicillin amidase from Alcaligenes faecalis is a recently identified N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase, which possesses the highest specificity constant (kcat/Km) for the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin compared with penicillin amidases from other sources. Similar to the Escherichia coli penicillin amidase, the A. faecalis penicillin amidase is maturated in vivo from an inactive precursor into the catalytically active enzyme, containing one tightly bound Ca2+ ion, via a complex post-translational autocatalytic processing with a multi-step excision of a small internal pro-peptide. The function of the pro-region is so far unknown. In vitro addition of chemically synthesized fragments of the pro-peptide to purified mature A. faecalis penicillin amidase increased its specific activity up to 2.3-fold. Mutations were used to block various steps in the proteolytic processing of the pro-peptide to obtain stable mutants with covalently attached fragments of the pro-region to their A-chains. These extensions of the A-chain raised the activity up to 2.3-fold and increased the specificity constants for benzylpenicillin hydrolysis mainly by an increase of the turnover number (kcat).

  16. Factors Affecting Soil Fauna Feeding Activity in a Fragmented Lowland Temperate Deciduous Woodland

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jake E.; Slade, Eleanor; Riutta, Terhi; Taylor, Michele E.

    2012-01-01

    British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change. PMID:22235311

  17. Rearrangement of the histone H2A C-terminal domain in the nucleosome

    SciTech Connect

    Usachenko, S.I.; Bavykin, S.G.; Gavin, I.M.; Bradbury, M. |

    1994-07-19

    Using zero-length covalent protein-DNA crosslinking, the authors have mapped the histone-DNA contacts in nucleosome core particles from which the C- and N-terminal domains of histone H2A were selectively trimmed by trypsin or clostripain. They found that the flexible trypsin-sensitive C-terminal domain of histone H2A contacts the dyad axis, whereas its globular domain contacts the end of DNA in the nucleosome core particle. The appearance of the histone H2A contact at the dyad axis occurs only in the absence of linker DNA and does not depend on the absence of linker histones. The results show the ability of the histone H2A C-terminal domain to rearrange. This rearrangement might play a biological role in nucleosome disassembly and reassembly and the retention of the H2A-H2B dimer (or the whole octamer) during the passing of polymerases through the nucleosome.

  18. TubZ filament assembly dynamics requires the flexible C-terminal tail

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Pérez, Maria E.; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Martín-González, Alejandro; Juan-Rodríguez, David; Llorca, Oscar; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Oliva, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    Cytomotive filaments are essential for the spatial organization in cells, showing a dynamic behavior based on nucleotide hydrolysis. TubZ is a tubulin-like protein that functions in extrachromosomal DNA movement within bacteria. TubZ filaments grow in a helical fashion following treadmilling or dynamic instability, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. We have unraveled the molecular basis for filament assembly and dynamics combining electron and atomic force microscopy and biochemical analyses. Our findings suggest that GTP caps retain the filament helical structure and hydrolysis triggers filament stiffening upon disassembly. We show that the TubZ C-terminal tail is an unstructured domain that fulfills multiple functions contributing to the filament helical arrangement, the polymer remodeling into tubulin-like rings and the full disassembly process. This C-terminal tail displays the binding site for partner proteins and we report how it modulates the interaction of the regulator protein TubY. PMID:28230082

  19. TubZ filament assembly dynamics requires the flexible C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Pérez, Maria E; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Martín-González, Alejandro; Juan-Rodríguez, David; Llorca, Oscar; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Oliva, Maria A

    2017-02-23

    Cytomotive filaments are essential for the spatial organization in cells, showing a dynamic behavior based on nucleotide hydrolysis. TubZ is a tubulin-like protein that functions in extrachromosomal DNA movement within bacteria. TubZ filaments grow in a helical fashion following treadmilling or dynamic instability, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. We have unraveled the molecular basis for filament assembly and dynamics combining electron and atomic force microscopy and biochemical analyses. Our findings suggest that GTP caps retain the filament helical structure and hydrolysis triggers filament stiffening upon disassembly. We show that the TubZ C-terminal tail is an unstructured domain that fulfills multiple functions contributing to the filament helical arrangement, the polymer remodeling into tubulin-like rings and the full disassembly process. This C-terminal tail displays the binding site for partner proteins and we report how it modulates the interaction of the regulator protein TubY.

  20. Biophysical Characterization of Essential Phosphorylation at the Flexible C-Terminal Region of C-Raf with 14-3-3ζ Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gayen, Nilanjan; Mroue, Kamal H.; Kar, Rajiv K.; Mandal, Atin K.; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation at the C-terminal flexible region of the C-Raf protein plays an important role in regulating its biological activity. Auto-phosphorylation at serine 621 (S621) in this region maintains C-Raf stability and activity. This phosphorylation mediates the interaction between C-Raf and scaffold protein 14-3-3ζ to activate the downstream MEK kinase pathway. In this study, we have defined the interaction of C-terminal peptide sequence of C-Raf with 14-3-3ζ protein and determined the possible structural adaptation of this region. Biophysical elucidation of the interaction was carried out using phosphopeptide (residue number 615–630) in the presence of 14-3-3ζ protein. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), a high binding affinity with micro-molar range was found to exist between the peptide and 14-3-3ζ protein, whereas the non-phosphorylated peptide did not show any appreciable binding affinity. Further interaction details were investigated using several biophysical techniques such as circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in addition to molecular modeling. This study provides the molecular basis for C-Raf C-terminal-derived phosphopeptide interaction with 14-3-3ζ protein as well as structural insights responsible for phosphorylated S621-mediated 14-3-3ζ binding at an atomic resolution. PMID:26295714

  1. Structural and Functional Characterization of the C-terminal Transmembrane Region of NBCe1-A*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Quansheng; Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Pushkin, Alexander; Liu, Weixin; Chang, Connie; Kurtz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    NBCe1-A and AE1 both belong to the SLC4 HCO3− transporter family. The two transporters share 40% sequence homology in the C-terminal transmembrane region. In this study, we performed extensive substituted cysteine-scanning mutagenesis analysis of the C-terminal region of NBCe1-A covering amino acids Ala800–Lys967. Location of the introduced cysteines was determined by whole cell labeling with a membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and a membrane-impermeant 2-((5(6)-tetramethylrhodamine)carboxylamino) ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-TAMRA) cysteine-reactive reagent. The results show that the extracellular surface of the NBCe1-A C-terminal transmembrane region is minimally exposed to aqueous media with Met858 accessible to both biotin maleimide and TAMRA and Thr926–Ala929 only to TAMRA labeling. The intracellular surface contains a highly exposed (Met813–Gly828) region and a cryptic (Met887–Arg904) connecting loop. The lipid/aqueous interface of the last transmembrane segment is at Asp960. Our data clearly determined that the C terminus of NBCe1-A contains 5 transmembrane segments with greater average size compared with AE1. Functional assays revealed only two residues in the region of Pro868–Leu967 (a functionally important region in AE1) that are highly sensitive to cysteine substitution. Our findings suggest that the C-terminal transmembrane region of NBCe1-A is tightly folded with unique structural and functional features that differ from AE1. PMID:20837482

  2. Dual Thermosensitive Hydrogels Assembled from the Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Dragline Silk.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Song, Wen-Wen; Xia, Xiao-Xia

    2015-11-09

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have great potentials in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Due to the advantages of precise control over molecular weight and being biodegradable, protein-based hydrogels and their applications have been extensively studied. However, protein hydrogels with dual thermosensitive properties are rarely reported. Here we present the first report of dual thermosensitive hydrogels assembled from the conserved C-terminal domain of spider dragline silk. First, we found that recombinant C-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) of the spider Nephila clavipes formed hydrogels when cooled to approximately 2 °C or heated to 65 °C. The conformational changes and self-assembly of the recombinant protein were studied to understand the mechanism of the gelation processes using multiple methods. It was proposed that the gelation in the low-temperature regime was dominated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between folded protein molecules, whereas the gelation in the high-temperature regime was due to cross-linking of the exposed hydrophobic patches resulting from partial unfolding of the protein upon heating. More interestingly, genetic fusion of the C-terminal domain to a short repetitive region of N. clavipes MaSp1 resulted in a chimeric protein that formed a hydrogel with significantly improved mechanical properties at low temperatures between 2 and 10 °C. Furthermore, the formation of similar hydrogels was observed for the recombinant C-terminal domains of dragline silk of different spider species, thus demonstrating the conserved ability to form dual thermosensitive hydrogels. These findings may be useful in the design and construction of novel protein hydrogels with tunable multiple thermosensitivity for applications in the future.

  3. Study on the C-terminal beta-hairpin of protein G in AB heteropolymer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon

    2016-08-01

    The off-lattice AB heteropolymer model, consisting of the hydrophobic (A) and hydrophilic (B) polymers, is one of popular protein models. Its energy function includes the bending energy and the van der Waals interaction energy. The properties and the energy landscape of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of protein G are studied in the off-lattice AB heteropolymer model with conformational space annealing, a powerful global optimization method.

  4. The multiple forms of bovine seminal ribonuclease: structure and stability of a C-terminal swapped dimer.

    PubMed

    Sica, Filomena; Pica, Andrea; Merlino, Antonello; Russo Krauss, Irene; Ercole, Carmine; Picone, Delia

    2013-11-29

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) acquires an interesting anti-tumor activity associated with the swapping on the N-terminal. The first direct experimental evidence on the formation of a C-terminal swapped dimer (C-dimer) obtained from the monomeric derivative of BS-RNase, although under non-native conditions, is here reported. The X-ray model of this dimer reveals a quaternary structure different from that of the C-dimer of RNase A, due to the presence of three mutations in the hinge peptide 111-116. The mutations increase the hinge peptide flexibility and decrease the stability of the C-dimer against dissociation. The biological implications of the structural data are also discussed.

  5. Fragment-based identification of determinants of conformational and spectroscopic change at the ricin active site

    SciTech Connect

    Carra,J.; McHugh, C.; Mulligan, S.; Machiesky, L.; Soares, A.; Millard, C.

    2007-01-01

    We found that amide ligands can bind weakly but specifically to the ricin active site, producing significant shifts in positions of the critical active site residues Arg180 and Tyr80. These results indicate that fragment-based drug discovery methods are capable of identifying minimal bonding determinants of active-site side-chain rearrangements and the mechanistic origins of spectroscopic shifts. Our results suggest that tryptophan fluorescence provides a sensitive probe for the geometric relationship of arginine-tryptophan pairs, which often have significant roles in protein function. Using the unusual characteristics of the RTA system, we measured the still controversial thermodynamic changes of site-specific urea binding to a protein, results that are relevant to understanding the physical mechanisms of protein denaturation.

  6. Sucrose phosphate phosphatase in the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Streptophyta) lacks an extensive C-terminal domain and differs from that of land plants.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Manabu; Uemura, Matsuo

    2012-04-01

    Previously, it was reported that like land plants, the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Streptophyta) accumulates sucrose during cold acclimation (Nagao et al. Plant Cell Environ 31:872-885, 2008), suggesting that synthesis of sucrose could enhance the freezing tolerance of this alga. Because sucrose phosphate phosphatase (SPP; EC 3.1.3.24) is a key enzyme in the sucrose synthesis pathway in plants, we analyzed the SPP gene in K. flaccidum (KfSPP, GenBank accession number AB669024) to clarify its role in sucrose accumulation. As determined from its deduced amino acid sequence, KfSPP contains the N-terminal domain that is characteristic of the L-2-haloacid-dehalogenase family of phosphatases/hydrolases (the HAD phosphatase domain). However, it lacks the extensive C-terminal domain found in SPPs of land plants. Database searches revealed that the SPPs in cyanobacteria also lack the C-terminal domain. In addition, the green alga Coccomyxa (Chlorophyta) and K. flaccidum, which are closely related to land plants, have cyanobacterial-type SPPs, while Chlorella (Chlorophyta) has a land plant-type SPP. These results demonstrate that even K. flaccidum (Streptophyta), as a recent ancestor of land plants, has the cyanobacterial-type SPP lacking the C-terminal domain. Because SPP and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyze sequential reactions in sucrose synthesis in green plant cells and the lack of the C-terminal domain in KfSPP is predicted to decrease its activity, the interaction between decreased KfSPP activity and SPS activity may alter sucrose synthesis during cold acclimation in K. flaccidum.

  7. Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Tubuliform Spidroin 1 Contributes to Extensibility in Synthetic Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Gnesa, Eric; Hsia, Yang; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Weber, Warner; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff; Tang, Simon; Agari, Kimiko; Vierra, Craig

    2012-05-24

    Spider silk is renowned for its extraordinary mechanical properties, having a balance of high tensile strength and extensibility. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the production of dragline silks from synthetic spider silk gene products. Here we report the first mechanical analysis of synthetic egg case silk fibers spun from the Latrodectus hesperus tubuliform silk proteins, TuSp1 and ECP-2. We provide evidence that recombinant ECP-2 proteins can be spun into fibers that display mechanical properties similar to other synthetic spider silks. We also demonstrate that silks spun from recombinant thioredoxin-TuSp1 fusion proteins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain exhibit increased extensibility and toughness when compared to the identical fibers spun from fusion proteins lacking the C-terminus. Mechanical analyses reveal that the properties of synthetic tubuliform silks can be modulated by altering the postspin draw ratios of the fibers. Fibers subject to increased draw ratios showed elevated tensile strength and decreased extensibility but maintained constant toughness. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction studies indicate that postdrawn fibers containing the C-terminal domain of TuSp1 have more amorphous content when compared to fibers lacking the C-terminus. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that recombinant tubuliform spidroins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain with embedded protein tags can be effectively spun into fibers, resulting in similar tensile strength but increased extensibility relative to nontagged recombinant dragline silk proteins spun from equivalently sized proteins.

  8. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  9. Erythrocytosis-associated HIF-2α Mutations Demonstrate a Critical Role for Residues C-terminal to the Hydroxylacceptor Proline*

    PubMed Central

    Furlow, Paul W.; Percy, Melanie J.; Sutherland, Scott; Bierl, Charlene; McMullin, Mary Frances; Master, Stephen R.; Lappin, Terence R. J.; Lee, Frank S.

    2009-01-01

    A classic physiologic response to hypoxia in humans is the up-regulation of the ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) gene, which is the central regulator of red blood cell mass. The EPO gene, in turn, is activated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF is a transcription factor consisting of an α subunit (HIF-α) and a β subunit (HIF-β). Under normoxic conditions, prolyl hydroxylase domain protein (PHD, also known as HIF prolyl hydroxylase and egg laying-defective nine protein) site specifically hydroxylates HIF-α in a conserved LXXLAP motif (where underlining indicates the hydroxylacceptor proline). This provides a recognition motif for the von Hippel Lindau protein, a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets hydroxylated HIF-α for degradation. Under hypoxic conditions, this inherently oxygen-dependent modification is arrested, thereby stabilizing HIF-α and allowing it to activate the EPO gene. We previously identified and characterized an erythrocytosis-associated HIF2A mutation, G537W. More recently, we reported two additional erythrocytosis-associated HIF2A mutations, G537R and M535V. Here, we describe the functional characterization of these two mutants as well as a third novel erythrocytosis-associated mutation, P534L. These mutations affect residues C-terminal to the LXXLAP motif. We find that all result in impaired degradation and thus aberrant stabilization of HIF-2α. However, each exhibits a distinct profile with respect to their effects on PHD2 binding and von Hippel Lindau interaction. These findings reinforce the importance of HIF-2α in human EPO regulation, demonstrate heterogeneity of functional defects arising from these mutations, and point to a critical role for residues C-terminal to the LXXLAP motif in HIF-α. PMID:19208626

  10. Erythrocytosis-associated HIF-2alpha mutations demonstrate a critical role for residues C-terminal to the hydroxylacceptor proline.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Paul W; Percy, Melanie J; Sutherland, Scott; Bierl, Charlene; McMullin, Mary Frances; Master, Stephen R; Lappin, Terence R J; Lee, Frank S

    2009-04-03

    A classic physiologic response to hypoxia in humans is the up-regulation of the ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) gene, which is the central regulator of red blood cell mass. The EPO gene, in turn, is activated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF is a transcription factor consisting of an alpha subunit (HIF-alpha) and a beta subunit (HIF-beta). Under normoxic conditions, prolyl hydroxylase domain protein (PHD, also known as HIF prolyl hydroxylase and egg laying-defective nine protein) site specifically hydroxylates HIF-alpha in a conserved LXXLAP motif (where underlining indicates the hydroxylacceptor proline). This provides a recognition motif for the von Hippel Lindau protein, a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets hydroxylated HIF-alpha for degradation. Under hypoxic conditions, this inherently oxygen-dependent modification is arrested, thereby stabilizing HIF-alpha and allowing it to activate the EPO gene. We previously identified and characterized an erythrocytosis-associated HIF2A mutation, G537W. More recently, we reported two additional erythrocytosis-associated HIF2A mutations, G537R and M535V. Here, we describe the functional characterization of these two mutants as well as a third novel erythrocytosis-associated mutation, P534L. These mutations affect residues C-terminal to the LXXLAP motif. We find that all result in impaired degradation and thus aberrant stabilization of HIF-2alpha. However, each exhibits a distinct profile with respect to their effects on PHD2 binding and von Hippel Lindau interaction. These findings reinforce the importance of HIF-2alpha in human EPO regulation, demonstrate heterogeneity of functional defects arising from these mutations, and point to a critical role for residues C-terminal to the LXXLAP motif in HIF-alpha.

  11. Chemokine-Like Factor 1-Derived C-Terminal Peptides Induce the Proliferation of Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yaqi; Wang, Yixuan; Li, Li; Xia, Jinyu; Peng, Shiguang; He, Yanling

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the abnormal proliferation of skin cells, including dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Recently, chemokine-like factor 1 (CKLF1) was found to participate in the local inflammation and cell proliferation. To explore its role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the expression of both CKLF1 and its receptor (CCR4) was determined in the psoriatic lesions. Also, the effect of the C-terminal peptides (C19 and C27) of CKLF1 on the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was studied in vitro. By immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, the expression of both CKLF1 and CCR4 was determined in the psoriatic lesions. The effect of C-terminal peptides on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was studied in vitro by the evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The in vivo assessment was performed accordingly through the subcutaneous injection peptides on BALB/c mice. The results showed that, by immunohistochemistry, both CKLF1 and CCR4 were increasingly expressed in psoriatic lesions as compared to normal skins. Moreover, the primary umbilical vein endothelial cells exhibited higher proliferation ratio under the C19 or C27 stimulation, which was even enhanced by the addition of psoriatic sera or TNF-α. Furthermore, the enhancement of peptide simulation was accompanied with the activation of ERK1/2-MAPKs pathway. In addition, such effect of C19 and C27 was mirrored by the hyperproliferation of cutaneous microvessels in BALB/c mice that were subcutaneously injected with the two peptides. Therefore, we concluded that CKLF1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by promoting the proliferation of microvascular endothelial cells that possibly correlates with ERK1/2-MAPKs activation. PMID:25915746

  12. Mutant ubiquitin (UBB+1) associated with neurodegenerative disorders is hydrolyzed by ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCH-L3).

    PubMed

    Dennissen, Frank J A; Kholod, Natalia; Hermes, Denise J H P; Kemmerling, Nadja; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Dantuma, Nico P; van Leeuwen, Fred W

    2011-08-19

    Mutant ubiquitin (UBB(+1)) accumulates in the hallmarks of tauopathies and polyglutamine diseases. We show that the deubiquitinating enzyme YUH1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its mouse and human ortholog UCH-L3 are able to hydrolyze the C-terminal extension of UBB(+1). This yields another dysfunctional ubiquitin molecule (UB(G76Y)) with biochemical properties similar to full length UBB(+1). UBB(+1) may be detected in post-mortem tissue due to impaired C-terminal truncation of UBB(+1). Although the level of UCH-L3 protein in several neurodegenerative diseases is unchanged, we show that in vitro oxidation of recombinant UCH-L3 impairs its deubiquitinating activity. We postulate that impaired UCH-L3 function may contribute to the accumulation of full length UBB(+1) in various pathologies.

  13. The Conserved Tetratricopeptide Repeat-Containing C-Terminal Domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FimV Is Required for Its Cyclic AMP-Dependent and -Independent Functions

    PubMed Central

    Buensuceso, Ryan N. C.; Nguyen, Ylan; Zhang, Kun; Daniel-Ivad, Martin; Sugiman-Marangos, Seiji N.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Junop, Murray S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT FimV is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa inner membrane protein that regulates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels—and thus type IV pilus (T4P)-mediated twitching motility and type II secretion (T2S)—by activating the adenylate cyclase CyaB. Its cytoplasmic domain contains three predicted tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs separated by an unstructured region: two proximal to the inner membrane and one within the “FimV C-terminal domain,” which is highly conserved across diverse homologs. Here, we present the crystal structure of the FimV C terminus, FimV861–919, containing a TPR motif decorated with solvent-exposed, charged side chains, plus a C-terminal capping helix. FimV689, a truncated form lacking this C-terminal motif, did not restore wild-type levels of twitching or surface piliation compared to the full-length protein. FimV689 failed to restore wild-type levels of the T4P motor ATPase PilU or T2S, suggesting that it was unable to activate cAMP synthesis. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis showed that TPR3 interacts directly with the CyaB activator, FimL. However, FimV689 failed to restore wild-type motility in a fimV mutant expressing a constitutively active CyaB (fimV cyaB-R456L), suggesting that the C-terminal motif is also involved in cAMP-independent functions of FimV. The data show that the highly conserved TPR-containing C-terminal domain of FimV is critical for its cAMP-dependent and -independent functions. IMPORTANCE FimV is important for twitching motility and cAMP-dependent virulence gene expression in P. aeruginosa. FimV homologs have been identified in several human pathogens, and their functions are not limited to T4P expression. The C terminus of FimV is remarkably conserved among otherwise very diverse family members, but its role is unknown. We provide here biological evidence for the importance of the C-terminal domain in both cAMP-dependent (through FimL) and -independent functions of FimV. We present X-ray crystal structures

  14. Probing the Impact of the EchinT C-Terminal Domain on Structure and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    S Bardaweel; J Pace; T Chou; V Cody; C Wagner

    2011-12-31

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein (Hint) is considered as the ancestor of the histidine triad protein superfamily and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Prokaryote genomes, including a wide array of both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, typically encode one Hint gene. The cellular function of Hint and the rationale for its evolutionary conservation in bacteria have remained a mystery. Despite its ubiquity and high sequence similarity to eukaryote Hint1 [Escherichia coli Hint (echinT) is 48% identical with human Hint1], prokaryote Hint has been reported in only a few studies. Here we report the first conformational information on the full-length N-terminal and C-terminal residues of Hint from the E. coli complex with GMP. Structural analysis of the echinT-GMP complex reveals that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with four homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of electron density for both the N-terminal residues and the C-terminal residues of the echinT-GMP complex indicates that the loops in some monomers can adopt more than one conformation. The observation of conformational flexibility in terminal loop regions could explain the presence of multiple homodimers in the asymmetric unit of this structure. To explore the impact of the echinT C-terminus on protein structure and catalysis, we conducted a series of catalytic radiolabeling and kinetic experiments on the C-terminal deletion mutants of echinT. In this study, we show that sequential deletion of the C-terminus likely has no effect on homodimerization and a modest effect on the secondary structure of echinT. However, we observed a significant impact on the folding structure, as reflected by a significant lowering of the T{sub m} value. Kinetic analysis reveals that the C-terminal deletion mutants are within an order of magnitude less efficient in catalysis compared to wild type, while the overall kinetic mechanism that proceeds through a fast step

  15. Development of the sigma-1 receptor in C-terminals of motoneurons and colocalization with the N,N'-dimethyltryptamine forming enzyme, indole-N-methyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Mavlyutov, T A; Epstein, M L; Liu, P; Verbny, Y I; Ziskind-Conhaim, L; Ruoho, A E

    2012-03-29

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS, the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and S1Rs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN.

  16. Plasma Complement Components and Activation Fragments: Associations with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Genotypes and Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Robyn; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth; Atkinson, John P.; Giclas, Patricia C.; Rosner, Bernard; Seddon, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Several genes encoding complement system components and fragments are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study was conducted to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of these markers of complement activation and regulation are also independently associated with advanced AMD and whether they are related to AMD genotypes. Methods Plasma and DNA samples were selected from individuals in our AMD registry who had progressed to or developed the advanced stages of AMD, including 58 with geographic atrophy and 62 with neovascular disease. Subjects of similar age and sex, but without AMD, and who did not progress were included as controls (n = 60). Plasma complment components (C3, CFB, CFI, CFH, and factor D) and activation fragments (Bb, C3a, C5a, iC3b, and SC5b-9) were analyzed. DNA samples were genotyped for seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in six genes previously shown to be associated with AMD: CFB, CFH, C2, C3, and CFI and the LOC387715/ARMS2 gene region. The association between AMD and each complement biomarker was assessed by using logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, and proinflammatory risk factors: smoking and body mass index (BMI). Functional genomic analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the complement markers and genotypes. Concordance, or C, statistics were calculated to assess the effect of complement components and activation fragments in an AMD gene-environment prediction model. Results The highest quartiles of Bb and C5a were significantly associated with advanced AMD, when compared with the lowest quartiles. In multivariate models without genetic variants, the odds ratio (OR) for Bb was 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-8.6), and the OR for C5a was 3.6 (95% CI = 1.2-10.3). With adjustment for genetic variants, these ORs were substantially higher. The alternative pathway regulator CFH was inversely associated with AMD in the model without genotypes (OR = 0.3; P = 0

  17. PDZ Domain Dependent Regulation of NHE3 Occurs by Both Internal Class II and C-terminal Class I PDZ Binding Motifs.

    PubMed

    Cha, Boyoung; Yang, Jianbo; Singh, Varsha; Zachos, Nicholas C; Sarker, Rafiquel I; Chen, Tian-E; Chakraborty, Molee; Tse, Chung-Ming; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-03-10

    NHE3 directly binds NHERF family scaffolding proteins that are required for many aspects of NHE3 regulation. The NHERFs bind both to an internal region (aa. 586-660) of the NHE3 C-terminus and to the NHE3 C-terminal four amino acids. The internal NHERF binding region contains both putative Class I (-592SAV-) and Class II (-595CLDM-) PDZ binding motifs (PBM). Point mutagenesis showed that only the Class II motif contributes to NHERF binding. In this study, the roles in regulation of NHE3 activity of these two PBMs were investigated, revealing: 1) Interaction between these binding sites since mutation of either removed nearly all NHERF binding. 2) Mutations in either significantly reduced basal NHE3 activity. Total and percent plasma membrane (PM) NHE3 protein expression were reduced in the C-terminal but not in the internal PBD mutation. 3) cGMP and Ca2+-mediated inhibition of NHE3 were impaired both in the internal and in the C-terminal PBM mutations. 4) A significant reduction in half-life of the PM pool of NHE3 in only the internal PBM mutation but no change in total NHE3 half-life in either. 5) Some difference in NHE3 associating proteins in the two PBM mutations. In conclusion, NHE3 binds to NHERF proteins via both an internal Class II and C-terminal Class I PBM, which interact. The former appears to determine NHE3 stability of a pool in the PM and the letter determines total expression and percent PM expression.

  18. Cryptic chemotactic activity of fibronectin for human monocytes resides in the 120-kDa fibroblastic cell-binding fragment.

    PubMed

    Clark, R A; Wikner, N E; Doherty, D E; Norris, D A

    1988-08-25

    Monocytes and lymphocytes form a second wave of infiltrating blood leukocytes in areas of tissue injury. The mechanisms for monocyte accumulation at these sites are not completely understood. Recently, however, fragments from extracellular matrix proteins including collagen, elastin, and fibronectin have been shown to induce monocyte chemotaxis. In this report we demonstrate that chemotactic activity for human monocytes is expressed when a 120-kDa fragment containing the RGDS cell-binding peptide is released from intact fibronectin or from larger fibronectin fragments. Monocytes, either from mononuclear cell Ficoll-Hypaque preparations (10-20% monocytes, 89-90% lymphocytes) or from elutriation preparations (95% monocytes, 5% lymphocytes), but not lymphocytes, migrated toward 120-kDa fragment preparations (10(-7) M) in blind-end chambers when the cells were separated from the chemoattractant by a 5-micron pore polycarbonate filter either alone or overlying a 0.45-micron pore nitrocellulose filter. Neutrophils migrated toward zymosan-activated serum but not toward 10(-5)-10(-8) M concentrations of the 120-kDa fragment. Intact fibronectin had no chemotactic activity for human monocytes. Fibronectin was isolated from citrated human plasma by sequential gelatin-Sepharose affinity and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography in the presence of buffers containing 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride to prevent fragmentation. Controlled enzymatic digestion with thermolysin cleaved fibronectin into 30 kDa fibrin, 45 kDa collagen, and 150/160-kDa cell and heparin domains. Upon prolonged digestion, purified 150/160-kDa fragments were cleaved into 120-kDa cell and 30/40-kDa heparin-binding fragments. Even though the intact fibronectin molecule, the 150/160-kDa fragments, and the 120-kDa fragment, have cell binding activity for Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts, only the 120-kDa fragment expressed chemotactic activity for human monocytes. Thus, the 120-kDa fibroblastic cell

  19. Olesoxime suppresses calpain activation and mutant huntingtin fragmentation in the BACHD rat.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Laura E; Weber, Jonasz J; Wlodkowski, Tanja T; Yu-Taeger, Libo; Michaud, Magali; Calaminus, Carsten; Eckert, Schamim H; Gaca, Janett; Weiss, Andreas; Magg, Janine C D; Jansson, Erik K H; Eckert, Gunter P; Pichler, Bernd J; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu P

    2015-12-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal human neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HTT gene, which translates into a mutant huntingtin protein. A key event in the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington's disease is the proteolytic cleavage of mutant huntingtin, leading to the accumulation of toxic protein fragments. Mutant huntingtin cleavage has been linked to the overactivation of proteases due to mitochondrial dysfunction and calcium derangements. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of olesoxime, a mitochondria-targeting, neuroprotective compound, in the BACHD rat model of Huntington's disease. BACHD rats were treated with olesoxime via the food for 12 months. In vivo analysis covered motor impairments, cognitive deficits, mood disturbances and brain atrophy. Ex vivo analyses addressed olesoxime's effect on mutant huntingtin aggregation and cleavage, as well as brain mitochondria function. Olesoxime improved cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes, and ameliorated cortical thinning in the BACHD rat. The treatment reduced cerebral mutant huntingtin aggregates and nuclear accumulation. Further analysis revealed a cortex-specific overactivation of calpain in untreated BACHD rats. Treated BACHD rats instead showed significantly reduced levels of mutant huntingtin fragments due to the suppression of calpain-mediated cleavage. In addition, olesoxime reduced the amount of mutant huntingtin fragments associated with mitochondria, restored a respiration deficit, and enhanced the expression of fusion and outer-membrane transport proteins. In conclusion, we discovered the calpain proteolytic system, a key player in Huntington's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, as a target of olesoxime. Our findings suggest that olesoxime exerts its beneficial effects by improving mitochondrial function, which results in reduced calpain activation. The observed alleviation of behavioural and neuropathological phenotypes encourages further

  20. Proteasome-mediated degradation of the C-terminus of the Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid protein precursor: effect of C-terminal truncation on production of beta-amyloid protein.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Janelle; Williamson, Nicholas A; Hill, Andrew F; Sernee, M Fleur; Masters, Colin L; Small, David H

    2003-11-01

    The beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) is derived by proteolytic processing of the amyloid protein precursor (APP). Cleavage of APP by beta-secretase generates a C-terminal fragment (APP-CTFbeta), which is subsequently cleaved by gamma-secretase to produce Abeta. Our previous studies have shown that the proteasome can cleave the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of APP. To identify proteasome cleavage sites in APP, two peptides homologous to the C-terminus of APP were incubated with recombinant 20S proteasome. Cleavage of the peptides was monitored by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Proteasome cleaved the APP C-terminal peptides at several sites, including a region around the sequence YENPTY that interacts with several APP-binding proteins. To examine the effect of this cleavage on Abeta production, APP-CTFbeta and mutant forms of APP-CTFbeta terminating on either side of the YENPTY sequence were expressed in CHO cells. Truncation of APP-CTFbeta on the N-terminal side of the YENPTY sequence at residue 677 significantly decreased the amount of Abeta produced, whereas truncation on the C-terminal side of residue 690 had little effect. The results suggest that proteasomal cleavage of the cytosolic domain of APP at the YENPTY sequence decreases gamma-secretase processing, and consequently inhibits Abeta production. Therefore, the proteasome-dependent trafficking pathway of APP may be a valid therapeutic target for altering Abeta production in the Alzheimer's disease brain.

  1. Inter-channel scaffolding of presynaptic CaV2.2 via the C terminal PDZ ligand domain.

    PubMed

    Gardezi, Sabiha R; Li, Qi; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-05-15

    Calcium entry through CaV2.2 calcium channels clustered at the active zone (AZ) of the presynaptic nerve terminal gates synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion and the discharge of neurotransmitters, but the mechanism of channel scaffolding remains poorly understood. Recent studies have implicated the binding of a PDZ ligand domain (PDZ-LD) at the tip of the channel C terminal to a partner PDZ domain on RIM1/2, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein. To explore CaV2.2 scaffolding, we created intracellular region fusion proteins and used these to test for binding by 'fishing' for native CaV2.2 channels from cell lysates. Fusion proteins mimicking the distal half of the channel C terminal (C3strep) reliably captured CaV2.2 from whole brain crude membrane or purified synaptosome membrane lysates, whereas channel I-II loop or the distal half of the II-III loop proteins were negative. This capture could be replicated in a non-synaptic environment using CaV2.2 expressed in a cell line. The distal tip PDZ-LD, DDWC-COOH, was confirmed as the critical binding site by block of pull-down with mimetic peptides. Pull-down experiments using brain crude membrane lysates confirmed that RIM1/2 can bind to the DDWC PDZ-LD. However, robust CaV2.2 capture was observed from synaptosome membrane or in the cell line expression system with little or no RIM1/2 co-capture. Thus, we conclude that CaV2.2 channels can scaffold to each other via an interaction that involves the PDZ-LD by an inter-channel linkage bridged by an unknown protein.

  2. Conformational instability of the N- and C-terminal lobes of porcine pepsin in neutral and alkaline solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, X.; Loy, J. A.; Sussman, F.; Tang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Pepsin contains, in a single chain, two conformationally homologous lobes that are thought to have been evolutionarily derived by gene duplication and fusion. We have demonstrated that the individual recombinant lobes are capable of independent folding and reconstitution into a two-chain pepsin or a two-chain pepsinogen (Lin, X., et al., 1992, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 17257-17263). Pepsin spontaneously inactivates in neutral or alkaline solutions. We have shown in this study that the enzymic activity of the alkaline-inactivated pepsin was regenerated by the addition of the recombinant N-terminal lobe but not by the C-terminal lobe. These results indicate that alkaline inactivation of pepsin is due to a selective denaturation of its N-terminal lobe. A complex between recombinant N-terminal lobe of pepsinogen and alkaline-denatured pepsin has been isolated. This complex is structurally similar to a two-chain pepsinogen, but it contains an extension of a denatured pepsin N-terminal lobe. Acidification of the complex is accompanied by a cleavage in the pro region and proteolysis of the denatured N-terminal lobe. The structural components that are responsible for the alkaline instability of the N-terminal lobe are likely to be carboxyl groups with abnormally high pKa values. The electrostatic potentials of 23 net carboxyl groups in the N-terminal domain (as compared to 19 in the C-terminal domain) of pepsin were calculated based on the energetics of interacting charges in the tertiary structure of the domain. The groups most probably causing the alkaline denaturation are Asp11, Asp159, Glu4, Glu13, and Asp118.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8401224

  3. A salt-bridge stabilized C-terminal hook is critical for the dimerization of a Bowman Birk inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Murugeson, Saravanan; Vithani, Neha; Prakash, Balaji; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2015-01-15

    Legume Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBIs) that inhibit mammalian proteases exist as dimers in solution. The structural basis governing dimerization of HGI-III (horsegram seed BBI) was investigated. An intra-monomer salt bridge (D76-K71) stabilizes an atypical hook-like conformation at the C-terminus. We postulate that this hook, positions D75 to enable an inter-monomer salt-bridge D75(a)-K24(b), which results in dimerization. We verify this by K71A and D76A mutations of HGI-III. The mutants were both monomers, likely due to destabilization of the C-terminal hook. Dimerization was sustained in a double mutant K71D/D76K that was anticipated to form a similar hook critical for dimerization. Conversely, K24(b) that interacts with D75(a) of the loop is the specificity determining residue that interacts with trypsin to inhibit its activity. The inter-monomer salt bridge D75(a)-K24(b) must be disrupted for the inhibition of trypsin, requiring HGI-III to transition into a monomer. Size exclusion studies and a model of HGI-III-trypsin complex support this notion. Interestingly, isoforms of the inhibitor present in germinated seeds (HGGIs) are monomers; and most strikingly, the C-termini of these inhibitors are truncated with the loss the C-terminal hook critical for dimerization. The tendency of HGI-III to self-associate seems to relate to its physiological function of a storage protein.

  4. Human aldolase A natural mutants: relationship between flexibility of the C-terminal region and enzyme function.

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Gabriella; Vitagliano, Luigi; Costanzo, Paola; Borrelli, Loredana; Barone, Rita; Pavone, Lorenzo; Izzo, Paola; Zagari, Adriana; Salvatore, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    We have identified a new mutation in the FBP (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate) aldolase A gene in a child with suspected haemolytic anaemia associated with myopathic symptoms at birth and with a subsequent diagnosis of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and pituitary ectopia. Sequence analysis of the whole gene, also performed on the patient's full-length cDNA, revealed only a Gly346-->Ser substitution in the heterozygous state. We expressed in a bacterial system the new aldolase A Gly346-->Ser mutant, and the Glu206-->Lys mutant identified by others, in a patient with an aldolase A deficit. Analysis of their functional profiles showed that the Gly346Ser mutant had the same Km as the wild-type enzyme, but a 4-fold lower kcat. The Glu206-->Lys mutant had a Km approx. 2-fold higher than that of both the Gly346-->Ser mutant and the wild-type enzyme, and a kcat value 40% less than the wild-type. The Gly346-->Ser and wild-type enzymes had the same Tm (melting temperature), which was approx. 6-7 degrees C higher than that of the Glu206-->Lys enzyme. An extensive molecular graphic analysis of the mutated enzymes, using human and rabbit aldolase A crystallographic structures, suggests that the Glu206-->Lys mutation destabilizes the aldolase A tetramer at the subunit interface, and highlights the fact that the glycine-to-serine substitution at position 346 limits the flexibility of the C-terminal region. These results also provide the first evidence that Gly346 is crucial for the correct conformation and function of aldolase A, because it governs the entry/release of the substrates into/from the enzyme cleft, and/or allows important C-terminal residues to approach the active site. PMID:14766013

  5. A Fmoc-compatible Method for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of Peptide C-Terminal (alpha)-Thioesters based on the Safety-Catch Hydrazine Linker

    SciTech Connect

    Camarero, J A; Hackel, B J; de Yoreo, J J; Mitchell, A R

    2003-11-22

    C-terminal peptide thioesters are key intermediates for the synthesis/semisynthesis of proteins and for the production of cyclic peptides by native chemical ligation. They can be synthetically prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) methods or biosynthetically by protein splicing techniques. Until recently, the chemical synthesis of C-terminal a-thioester peptides by SPPS was largely restricted to the Boc/Benzyl methodology because of the poor stability of the thioester bond to the basic conditions employed for the deprotection of the N{sup {alpha}}-Fmoc group. In the present work, we describe a new method for the SPPS of C-terminal thioesters by Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazide linker, which is totally stable to the Fmoc-SPPS conditions. Once the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker can be achieved by mild oxidation. This step transforms the hydrazide group into a highly reactive diazene intermediate which can react with different H-AA-SEt to yield the corresponding {alpha}-thioester peptide in good yields. This method has been successfully used for the generation of different thioester peptides, circular peptides and a fully functional SH3 protein domain.

  6. Targeting of proConA to the plant vacuole depends on its nine amino-acid C-terminal propeptide.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Claude, Saint-Jore-Dupas; Gilbert, Marie-Agnès; Marie-Agnès, Gilbert; Ramis, Catalina; Catalina, Ramis; Paris, Nadine; Nadine, Paris; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Marie-Christine, Kiefer-Meyer; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Jean-Marc, Neuhaus; Faye, Loïc; Loïc, Faye; Gomord, Véronique; Véronique, Gomord

    2005-10-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA) is a well characterized and extensively used lectin accumulated in the protein bodies of jack bean cotyledons. ConA is synthesized as an inactive precursor proConA. The maturation of inactive proConA into biologically active ConA is a complex process including the removal of an internal glycopeptide and a C-terminal propeptide (CTPP), followed by a head-to-tail ligation of the two largest polypeptides. The cDNA encoding proConA was cloned and expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells. ProConA was slowly transported to the vacuole where its maturation into ConA was similar to that in jack bean cotyledons, apart from an incomplete final ligation. To investigate the role of the nine amino acid CTPP, a truncated form lacking the propeptide (proConADelta9) was expressed in BY-2 cells. In contrast to proConA, proConADelta9 was rapidly chased out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and secreted into the culture medium. The CTPP was then fused to the C-terminal end of a secreted form of green fluorescent protein (secGFP). When expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells and leaf protoplasts, the chimaeric protein was located in the vacuole whereas secGFP was located in the culture medium and in the vacuole. Altogether, our results show we have isolated a new C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant.

  7. Carboxypeptidase D is the only enzyme responsible for antibody C-terminal lysine cleavage in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhilan; Zhang, Henry; Haley, Benjamin; Macchi, Frank; Yang, Feng; Misaghi, Shahram; Elich, Joseph; Yang, Renee; Tang, Yun; Joly, John C; Snedecor, Bradley R; Shen, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneity of C-terminal lysine levels often observed in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is believed to result from the proteolysis by endogenous carboxypeptidase(s) during cell culture production. Identifying the responsible carboxypeptidase(s) for C-terminal lysine cleavage in CHO cells would provide valuable insights for antibody production cell culture processes development and optimization. In this study, five carboxypeptidases, CpD, CpM, CpN, CpB, and CpE, were studied for message RNA (mRNA) expression by qRT-PCR analysis in two most commonly used blank hosts (DUXB-11 derived DHFR-deficient DP12 host and DHFR-positive CHOK1 host), used for therapeutic antibody production, as well an antibody-expressing cell line derived from each host. Our results showed that CpD had the highest mRNA expression. When CpD mRNA levels were reduced by RNAi (RNA interference) technology, C-terminal lysine levels increased, whereas there was no obvious change in C-terminal lysine levels when a different carboxypeptidase mRNA level was knocked down suggesting that carboxypeptidase D is the main contributor for C-terminal lysine processing. Most importantly, when CpD expression was knocked out by CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology, C-terminal lysine cleavage was completely abolished in CpD knockout cells based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that CpD is the only endogenous carboxypeptidase that cleaves antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine in CHO cells. Hence, our work showed for the first time that the cleavage of antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine is solely mediated by the carboxypeptidase D in CHO cells and our finding provides one solution to eliminating C-terminal lysine heterogeneity for therapeutic antibody production by knocking out CpD gene expression. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2100-2106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A prawn core histone 4: derivation of N- and C-terminal peptides and their antimicrobial properties, molecular characterization and mRNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, synthesis of N and C terminal peptides and their antimicrobial activity of the core histone 4 (H4) from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). A cDNA encoding MrH4 was identified from the constructed cDNA library of M. rosenbergii during screening and the sequence was obtained using internal sequencing primers. The MrH4 coding region possesses a polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 11kDa and an isoelectric point of 11.5. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrH4 polypeptide contains a H4 signature at (15)GAKRH(19). Multiple sequence alignment of MrH4 showed that the N-terminal (21-42) and C-terminal (87-101) antimicrobial peptide regions and the pentapeptide or H4 signature (15-19) are highly conserved including in humans. The phylogenetic tree formed two separate clades of vertebrate and invertebrate H4, wherein MrH4 was located within the arthropod monophyletic clade of invertebrate H4 groups. Three-dimensional model of MrH4 was established using I-TASSER program and the model was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel modeling was used to predict the helix propensity of N (21-42) and C (87-101) terminal derived Mr peptides. The highest gene expression was observed in gills and is induced by viral [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The N and C terminal peptides were synthesized and their antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were examined. Both peptides showed activity against the tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria; however, the highest activity was noticed against Gram negative bacteria. Among the two peptides used in this study, C-terminal peptide yielded better results than the N-terminal peptide. Therefore, C terminal

  9. Control of mRNA decapping by positive and negative regulatory elements in the Dcp2 C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Jacobson, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Decapping commits an mRNA to complete degradation and promotes general 5′ to 3′ decay, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), and transcript-specific degradation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single decapping enzyme composed of a regulatory subunit (Dcp1) and a catalytic subunit (Dcp2) targets thousands of distinct substrate mRNAs. However, the mechanisms controlling this enzyme's in vivo activity and substrate specificity remain elusive. Here, using a genetic approach, we show that the large C-terminal domain of Dcp2 includes a set of conserved negative and positive regulatory elements. A single negative element inhibits enzymatic activity and controls the downstream functions of several positive elements. The positive elements recruit the specific decapping activators Edc3, Pat1, and Upf1 to form distinct decapping complexes and control the enzyme's substrate specificity and final activation. Our results reveal unforeseen regulatory mechanisms that control decapping enzyme activity and function in vivo, and define roles for several decapping activators in the regulation of mRNA decapping. PMID:26184073

  10. The C-terminal region of laminin beta chains modulates the integrin binding affinities of laminins.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Ido, Hiroyuki; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2009-03-20

    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (alpha, beta, and gamma), in which three laminin globular modules in the alpha chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the gamma chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the beta chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of pairs of laminin isoforms containing the beta1 or beta2 chain toward a panel of laminin-binding integrins, and we found that beta2 chain-containing laminins (beta2-laminins) bound more avidly to alpha3beta1 and alpha7X2beta1 integrins than beta1 chain-containing laminins (beta1-laminins), whereas alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4, and alpha7X1beta1 integrins did not show any preference toward beta2-laminins. Because alpha3beta1 contains the "X2-type" variable region in the alpha3 subunit and alpha6beta1 and alpha6beta4 contain the "X1-type" region in the alpha6 subunit, we hypothesized that only integrins containing the X2-type region were capable of discriminating between beta1-laminins and beta2-laminins. In support of this possibility, a putative X2-type variant of alpha6beta1 was produced and found to bind preferentially to beta2-laminins. Production of a series of swap mutants between the beta1 and beta2 chains revealed that the C-terminal 20 amino acids in the coiled-coil domain were responsible for the enhanced integrin binding by beta2-laminins. Taken together, the results provide evidence that the C-terminal region of beta chains is involved in laminin recognition by integrins and modulates the binding affinities of laminins toward X2-type integrins.

  11. Vanillin causes the activation of Yap1 and mitochondrial fragmentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Iwaki, Aya; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Izawa, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin and furfural are derived from lignocellulosic biomass and inhibit yeast growth and fermentation as biomass conversion inhibitors. Furfural has been shown to induce oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since there has been no report on the relationship between vanillin and oxidative stress, we investigated whether vanillin caused oxidative stress in yeast cells. We showed that vanillin caused the nuclear accumulation of Yap1, an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, and subsequent transcriptional activation of Yap1-target genes. The growth of the null mutant of the YAP1 gene (yap1Δ) was delayed in the presence of vanillin, which indicated that Yap1 plays a role in the acquisition of tolerance to vanillin. We also demonstrated that vanillin facilitated the fragmentation of mitochondria. These findings suggest that the toxicity of vanillin involves damage induced by oxidative stress.

  12. C-Terminal acetylene derivatized peptides via silyl-based alkyne immobilization.

    PubMed

    Strack, Martin; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Albada, H Bauke

    2013-06-21

    A new Silyl-based Alkyne Modifying (SAM)-linker for the synthesis of C-terminal acetylene-derivatized peptides is reported. The broad scope of this SAM2-linker is illustrated by manual synthesis of peptides that are side-chain protected, fully deprotected, and disulfide-bridged. Synthesis of a 14-meric (KLAKLAK)2 derivative by microwave-assisted automated SPPS and a one-pot cleavage click procedure yielding protected 1,2,3-triazole peptide conjugates are also described.

  13. A C-terminal Aldehyde Analog of the Insect Kinins Inhibits Diuresis in the Housefly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-21

    p e p t i d e s 2 8 ( 2 0 0 7 ) 1 4 6 – 1 5 2A C-terminal aldehyde analog of the insect kinins inhibits diuresis in the housefly Ronald J. Nachman a...secretion in crickets, but shows inhibition of both in vitro and in vivo diuresis in the housefly. R-LK-CHO reduced the total amount of urine voided over 3 h...to stimulate Malpighian tubule fluid secretion [2,25]. In the housefly, muscakinin has been implicated in the control of diuresis in response to

  14. Human plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. Oxidatively fragmented phospholipids as substrates.

    PubMed

    Stremler, K E; Stafforini, D M; Prescott, S M; McIntyre, T M

    1991-06-15

    Human plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase hydrolyzes the sn-2 acetyl residue of PAF, but not phospholipids with long chain sn-2 residues. It is associated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, and is the LDL-associated phospholipase A2 activity that specifically degrades oxidatively damaged phospholipids (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., Zimmerman, G. A., and McIntyre, T. M. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 5331-5334). To identify potential substrates, we synthesized phosphatidylcholines with sn-2 residues from two to nine carbon atoms long, and found the V/k ratio decreased as the sn-2 residue was lengthened: the C5 homolog was 50%, the C6 20%, while the C9 homolog was only 2% as efficient as PAF. However, the presence of an omega-oxo function radically affected hydrolysis: the half-life of the sn-2 9-aldehydic homolog was identical to that of PAF. We oxidized [2-arachidonoyl]phosphatidylcholine and isolated a number of more polar phosphatidylcholines. We treated these with phospholipase C, derivatized the resulting diglycerides for gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analysis, and found a number of diglycerides where the m/z ratio was consistent with a series of short to medium length sn-2 residues. We treated the polar phosphatidylcholines with acetylhydrolase and derivatized the products for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The liberated residues were more polar than straight chain standards and had m/z ratios from 129 to 296, consistent with short to medium chain residues. Therefore, oxidation fragments the sn-2 residue of phospholipids, and the acetylhydrolase specifically degrades such oxidatively fragmented phospholipids.

  15. A defined fragment of bacterial protein I (OmpF) is a polyclonal B-cell activator.

    PubMed Central

    Vordermeier, M; Stäb, K; Bessler, W G

    1986-01-01

    Protein I from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is a potent mitogen and polyclonal B-lymphocyte activator. To determine the part of the polypeptide responsible for biological activity, we cleaved the molecule into defined polypeptide fragments of approximate molecular weights 24,000, 15,000, 9,000, 7,000, and 3,000 by using the cyanogen bromide method. The fragments were purified by gel permeation chromatography and by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were investigated for mitogenicity and for the induction of immunoglobulin synthesis in lymphocyte cultures from several inbred mouse strains. The fragment of molecular weight 24,000 turned out to be a potent polyclonal B-lymphocyte activator comparable to native protein I. The low-molecular-weight fragments exhibited only marginal effects. Neither purified T lymphocytes nor thymocytes were activated. Our results show that a defined fragment of protein I is responsible for its lymphocyte-stimulating activity. Images PMID:3484458

  16. Dephosphorylation of the linker regions of Smad1 and Smad2/3 by small C-terminal domain phosphatases has distinct outcomes for bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-beta pathways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Gopal; Knockaert, Marie; Alarcón, Claudio; Montalvo, Ermelinda; Brivanlou, Ali H; Massagué, Joan

    2006-12-29

    Smad proteins transduce bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signals upon phosphorylation of their C-terminal SXS motif by receptor kinases. The activity of Smad1 in the BMP pathway and Smad2/3 in the TGFbeta pathway is restricted by pathway cross-talk and feedback through protein kinases, including MAPK, CDK2/4, p38MAPK, JNK, and others. These kinases phosphorylate Smads 1-3 at the region that links the N-terminal DNA-binding domain and the C-terminal transcriptional domain. Phosphatases that dephosphorylate the linker region are therefore likely to play an integral part in the regulation of Smad activity. We reported previously that small C-terminal domain phosphatases 1, 2, and 3 (SCP1-3) dephosphorylate Smad1 C-terminal tail, thereby attenuating BMP signaling. Here we provide evidence that SCP1-3 also dephosphorylate the linker regions of Smad1 and Smad2/3 in vitro, in mammalian cells and in Xenopus embryos. Overexpression of SCP 1, 2, or 3 decreased linker phosphorylation of Smads 1, 2 and 3. Moreover, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SCP1/2 increased the BMP-dependent phosphorylation of the Smad1 linker region as well as the C terminus. In contrast, SCP1/2 knockdown increased the TGFbeta-dependent linker phosphorylation of Smad2/3 but not the C-terminal phosphorylation. Consequently, SCP1/2 knockdown inhibited TGFbeta transcriptional responses, but it enhanced BMP transcriptional responses. Thus, by dephosphorylating Smad2/3 at the linker (inhibitory) but not the C-terminal (activating) site, the SCPs enhance TGFbeta signaling, and by dephosphorylating Smad1 at both sites, the SCPs reset Smad1 to the basal unphosphorylated state.

  17. Analysis of the Role of the C-Terminal Tail in the Regulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Erika; Das, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Collier, Timothy S.; Cantor, Aaron; Huang, Yongjian; Wong, Kathryn; Mirza, Amar; Barros, Tiago; Grob, Patricia; Jura, Natalia; Bose, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The ∼230-residue C-terminal tail of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is phosphorylated upon activation. We examined whether this phosphorylation is affected by deletions within the tail and whether the two tails in the asymmetric active EGFR dimer are phosphorylated differently. We monitored autophosphorylation in cells using flow cytometry and found that the first ∼80 residues of the tail are inhibitory, as demonstrated previously. The entire ∼80-residue span is important for autoinhibition and needs to be released from both kinases that form the dimer. These results are interpreted in terms of crystal structures of the inactive kinase domain, including two new ones presented here. Deletions in the remaining portion of the tail do not affect autophosphorylation, except for a six-residue segment spanning Tyr 1086 that is critical for activation loop phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of the two tails in the dimer is asymmetric, with the activator tail being phosphorylated somewhat more strongly. Unexpectedly, we found that reconstitution of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of EGFR in vesicles leads to a peculiar phenomenon in which kinase domains appear to be trapped between stacks of lipid bilayers. This artifactual trapping of kinases between membranes enhances an intrinsic functional asymmetry in the two tails in a dimer. PMID:26124280

  18. C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase links Rho GTPase signaling to Pol II CTD phosphorylation in Arabidopsis and yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Guohua; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Yihong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Haiyang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-12-13

    Rho GTPases, including the Rho, Cdc42, Rac, and ROP subfamilies, act as pivotal signaling switches in various growth and developmental processes. Compared with the well-defined role of cytoskeletal organization in Rho signaling, much less is known regarding transcriptional regulation. In a mutant screen for phenotypic enhancers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a constitutively active form of ROP2 (designated CA1-1), we identified RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1) as a transcriptional regulator of ROP2 signaling. We show that ROP2 activation inhibits CPL1 activity by promoting its degradation, leading to an increase in CTD Ser5 and Ser2 phosphorylation. We also observed similar modulation of CTD phosphorylation by yeast Cdc42 GTPase and enhanced degradation of the yeast CTD phosphatase Fcp1 by activated ROP2 signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of the Pol II CTD code by Rho GTPase signaling represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes.

  19. C-terminal domain small phosphatase 1 and MAP kinase reciprocally control REST stability and neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Corson, Glen M.; McCleskey, Maxwell; Oyer, Jon A.; Mandel, Gail

    2014-01-01

    The repressor element 1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor (REST) in stem cells represses hundreds of genes essential to neuronal function. During neurogenesis, REST is degraded in neural progenitors to promote subsequent elaboration of a mature neuronal phenotype. Prior studies indicate that part of the degradation mechanism involves phosphorylation of two sites in the C terminus of REST that require activity of beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, βTrCP. We identify a proline-directed phosphorylation motif, at serines 861/864 upstream of these sites, which is a substrate for the peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, Pin1, as well as the ERK1/2 kinases. Mutation at S861/864 stabilizes REST, as does inhibition of Pin1 activity. Interestingly, we find that C-terminal domain small phosphatase 1 (CTDSP1), which is recruited by REST to neuronal genes, is present in REST immunocomplexes, dephosphorylates S861/864, and stabilizes REST. Expression of a REST peptide containing S861/864 in neural progenitors inhibits terminal neuronal differentiation. Together with previous work indicating that both REST and CTDSP1 are expressed to high levels in stem cells and down-regulated during neurogenesis, our results suggest that CTDSP1 activity stabilizes REST in stem cells and that ERK-dependent phosphorylation combined with Pin1 activity promotes REST degradation in neural progenitors. PMID:25197063

  20. C-terminal HIV-1 transframe p6* tetra-peptide blocks enhanced Gag cleavage incurred by leucine zipper replacement of a deleted p6* domain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Hsien; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) functions as a homodimer mediating virus maturation following virus budding. Gag-Pol dimerization is believed to trigger embedded PR activation by promoting PR dimer formation. Early PR activation can lead to markedly reduced virus yields due to premature Gag cleavage. The p6* peptide, located between Gag and PR, is believed to ensure virus production by preventing early PR maturation. Studies aimed at finding supporting evidence for this proposal are limited due to a reading frame overlap between p6* and the p6gag budding domain. To determine if p6* affects virus production via the modulation of PR activation, we engineered multiple constructs derived from Dp6*PR (an assembly- and processing-competent construct with Pol fused at the inactivated PR C-terminus). The data indicate that a p6* deletion adjacent to active PR significantly impaired virus processing. We also observed that the insertion of a leucine zipper (LZ) dimerization motif in the deleted region eliminated virus production in a PR activity-dependent manner, suggesting that the LZ insertion triggered premature PR activation by facilitating PR dimer formation. As few as four C-terminal p6* residues remaining at the p6*/PR junction were sufficient to restore virus yields, with a Gag processing profile similar to that of the wild type. Our study provides supporting evidence in a virus assembly context that the C-terminal p6* tetra-peptide plays a role in preventing premature PR maturation.IMPORTANCE Supporting evidence is lacking for the assumption that p6* retards PR maturation in the context of virus assembly. We found that replacing p6* with a leucine-zipper peptide abolished virus assembly due to the significant enhancement of Gag cleavage. However, as few as four C-terminal p6* residues remaining in the deleted region were sufficient for significant PR release, as well as for counteracting leucine zipper-incurred premature Gag cleavage. Our data provide evidence that (a) p6

  1. Structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Yong; Hakoshima, Toshio; Kitano, Ken

    2013-11-21

    Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability and cancer predisposition. The disease is caused by mutations of the Bloom syndrome protein (BLM). Here we report the crystal structure of a RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain from human BLM. The structure reveals three novel features of BLM RQC which distinguish it from the previous structures of the Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and RECQ1. First, BLM RQC lacks an aromatic residue at the tip of the β-wing, a key element of the RecQ-family helicases used for DNA-strand separation. Second, a BLM-specific insertion between the N-terminal helices exhibits a looping-out structure that extends at right angles to the β-wing. Deletion mutagenesis of this insertion interfered with binding to Holliday junction. Third, the C-terminal region of BLM RQC adopts an extended structure running along the domain surface, which may facilitate the spatial positioning of an HRDC domain in the full-length protein.

  2. C-terminal interactions of apolipoprotein E4 respond to the postprandial state.

    PubMed

    Tetali, Sarada D; Budamagunta, Madhu S; Voss, John C; Rutledge, John C

    2006-07-01

    Increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) in the postprandial state are associated with atherosclerosis. We investigated whether the postprandial state induced structural changes at the apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) C terminus, its principal lipid binding domain, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of a site-directed spin label attached to the cysteine of apoE4-W264C. Spin coupling between labels located in the C termini was followed after mixing with preprandial and postprandial human plasma samples. Our results indicate that postprandial plasma triggers a reorganization of the protein such that the dipolar broadening is diminished, indicating a reduction in C-terminal interaction. The loss of spectral broadening was directly correlated with an increase in postprandial plasma triglycerides and was reduced with delipidated plasma. The spin-labeled apoE4 displayed a lipid preference of VLDL > LDL > HDL in the preprandial and postprandial states. The apoE4 shift to VLDL during the postprandial state was accompanied by a loss in spectral broadening of the protein. These findings suggest that apoE4 associated with LDL maintains self-association via its C terminus and that this association is diminished in VLDL-associated protein. Lipolyzed TGRL reflected a depletion of the C-terminal interaction of apoE4. Addition of palmitate to VLDL gave a similar response as lipolyzed TGRL, suggesting that lipolysis products play a major role in reorganizing apoE4 during the postprandial state.

  3. Involvement of C-Terminal Histidines in Soybean PM1 Protein Oligomerization and Cu2+ Binding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guobao; Liu, Ke; Gao, Yang; Zheng, Yizhi

    2017-04-06

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are widely distributed among plant species, where they contribute to abiotic stress tolerance. LEA proteins can be classified into seven groups according to conserved sequence motifs. The PM1 protein from soybean, which belongs to the Pfam LEA_1 group, has been shown previously to be at least partially natively unfolded, to bind metal ions and potentially to stabilize proteins and membranes. Here, we investigated the role of the PM1 C-terminal domain and in particular the multiple histidine residues in this half of the protein. We constructed recombinant plasmids expressing full-length PM1 and two truncated forms, PM1-N and PM1-C, which represent the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, respectively. Immunoblotting and cross-linking experiments showed that full-length PM1 forms oligomers and high molecular weight (HMW) complexes in vitro and in vivo, while PM1-C, but not PM1-N, also formed oligomers and HMW complexes in vitro. When the histidine residues in PM1 and PM1-C were chemically modified, oligomerization was abolished, suggesting that histidines play a key role in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that high Cu2+ concentrations promote oligomerization and induce PM1 and PM1-C to form HMW complexes. Therefore, we speculate that PM1 proteins not only maintain ion homeostasis in the cytoplasm, but also potentially stabilize and protect other proteins during abiotic stress by forming a large, oligomeric molecular shield around biological targets.

  4. PrPSc-Specific Antibody Reveals C-Terminal Conformational Differences between Prion Strains

    PubMed Central

    Saijo, Eri; Hughson, Andrew G.; Raymond, Gregory J.; Suzuki, Akio; Horiuchi, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the structure of PrPSc and its strain variation has been one of the major challenges in prion disease biology. To study the strain-dependent conformations of PrPSc, we purified proteinase-resistant PrPSc (PrPRES) from mouse brains with three different murine-adapted scrapie strains (Chandler, 22L, and Me7) and systematically tested the accessibility of epitopes of a wide range of anti-PrP and anti-PrPSc specific antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that epitopes of most anti-PrP antibodies were hidden in the folded structure of PrPRES, even though these epitopes are revealed with guanidine denaturation. However, reactivities to a PrPSc-specific conformational C-terminal antibody showed significant differences among the three different prion strains. Our results provide evidence for strain-dependent conformational variation near the C termini of molecules within PrPSc multimers. IMPORTANCE It has long been apparent that prion strains can have different conformations near the N terminus of the PrPSc protease-resistant core. Here, we show that a C-terminal conformational PrPSc-specific antibody reacts differently to three murine-adapted scrapie strains. These results suggest, in turn, that conformational differences in the C terminus of PrPSc also contribute to the phenotypic distinction between prion strains. PMID:26937029

  5. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  6. Crystallization and halide phasing of the C-terminal domain of human KIN17

    SciTech Connect

    Maire, Albane le; Schiltz, Marc; Braud, Sandrine; Gondry, Muriel; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Stura, Enrico

    2006-03-01

    Expression, purification, crystallization and phasing procedure are reported for the C-terminal domain of human KIN17. Here, the crystallization and initial phasing of the C-terminal domain of human KIN17, a 45 kDa protein mainly expressed in response to ionizing radiation and overexpressed in certain tumour cell lines, are reported. Crystals diffracting to 1.4 Å resolution were obtained from 10% ethylene glycol, 27% PEG 6000, 500 mM LiCl and 100 mM sodium acetate pH 6.3 in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 45.75, b = 46.31, c = 60.80 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Since this domain has a basic pI, heavy-atom derivatives were obtained by soaking the crystals with negatively charged ions such as tungstate and iodine. The replacement of LiCl by KI in the cryosolution allowed the determination of phases from iodide ions to give an interpretable electron-density map.

  7. Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Transcription Facto IIB from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, B.; Kanneganti, N; Rieckhof, G; Das, A; Laurents, D; Palenchar, J; Bellofatto, V; Wah, D

    2009-01-01

    In trypanosomes, the production of mRNA relies on the synthesis of the spliced leader (SL) RNA. Expression of the SL RNA is initiated at the only known RNA polymerase II promoter in these parasites. In the pathogenic trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, transcription factor IIB (tTFIIB) is essential for SL RNA gene transcription and cell viability, but has a highly divergent primary sequence in comparison to TFIIB in well-studied eukaryotes. Here we describe the 2.3 A resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of tTFIIB (tTFIIBC). The tTFIIBC structure consists of 2 closely packed helical modules followed by a C-terminal extension of 32 aa. Using the structure as a guide, alanine substitutions of basic residues in regions analogous to functionally important regions of the well-studied eukaryotic TFIIB support conservation of a general mechanism of TFIIB function in eukaryotes. Strikingly, tTFIIBC contains additional loops and helices, and, in contrast to the highly basic DNA binding surface of human TFIIB, contains a neutral surface in the corresponding region. These attributes probably mediate trypanosome-specific interactions and have implications for the apparent bidirectional transcription by RNA polymerase II in protein-encoding gene expression in these organisms.

  8. The spt5 C-terminal region recruits yeast 3' RNA cleavage factor I.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andreas; Schreieck, Amelie; Lidschreiber, Michael; Leike, Kristin; Martin, Dietmar E; Cramer, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    During transcription elongation, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binds the general elongation factor Spt5. Spt5 contains a repetitive C-terminal region (CTR) that is required for cotranscriptional recruitment of the Paf1 complex (D. L. Lindstrom et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23:1368-1378, 2003; Z. Zhang, J. Fu, and D. S. Gilmour, Genes Dev. 19:1572-1580, 2005). Here we report a new role of the Spt5 CTR in the recruitment of 3' RNA-processing factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that the Spt5 CTR is required for normal recruitment of pre-mRNA cleavage factor I (CFI) to the 3' ends of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. RNA contributes to CFI recruitment, as RNase treatment prior to ChIP further decreases CFI ChIP signals. Genome-wide ChIP profiling detected occupancy peaks of CFI subunits around 100 nucleotides downstream of the polyadenylation (pA) sites of genes. CFI recruitment to this defined region may result from simultaneous binding to the Spt5 CTR, to nascent RNA containing the pA sequence, and to the elongating Pol II isoform that is phosphorylated at serine 2 (S2) residues in its C-terminal domain (CTD). Consistent with this model, the CTR interacts with CFI in vitro but is not required for pA site recognition and transcription termination in vivo.

  9. Molecular architecture of the nucleoprotein C-terminal domain from the Ebola and Marburg viruses.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura E; Ellena, Jeffrey F; Handing, Katarzyna B; Derewenda, Urszula; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Engel, Daniel A; Derewenda, Zygmunt S

    2016-01-01

    The Filoviridae family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses is comprised of two species of Marburgvirus (MARV and RAVV) and five species of Ebolavirus, i.e. Zaire (EBOV), Reston (RESTV), Sudan (SUDV), Taï Forest (TAFV) and Bundibugyo (BDBV). In each of these viruses the ssRNA encodes seven distinct proteins. One of them, the nucleoprotein (NP), is the most abundant viral protein in the infected cell and within the viral nucleocapsid. It is tightly associated with the viral RNA in the nucleocapsid, and during the lifecycle of the virus is essential for transcription, RNA replication, genome packaging and nucleocapsid assembly prior to membrane encapsulation. The structure of the unique C-terminal globular domain of the NP from EBOV has recently been determined and shown to be structurally unrelated to any other known protein [Dziubańska et al. (2014), Acta Cryst. D70, 2420-2429]. In this paper, a study of the C-terminal domains from the NP from the remaining four species of Ebolavirus, as well as from the MARV strain of Marburgvirus, is reported. As expected, the crystal structures of the BDBV and TAFV proteins show high structural similarity to that from EBOV, while the MARV protein behaves like a molten globule with a core residual structure that is significantly different from that of the EBOV protein.

  10. Sequence conservation in the C-terminal region of spider silk proteins (Spidroin) from Nephila clavipes (Tetragnathidae) and Araneus bicentenarius (Araneidae).

    PubMed

    Beckwitt, R; Arcidiacono, S

    1994-03-04

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to amplify the portion of the Spidroin 1 gene that codes for the C-terminal part of the silk protein of the spider Nephila clavipes. Along with some substitution mutations of minor consequence, the PCR-derived sequence reveals an additional base missing from the previously published Nephila Spidroin 1 sequence. Comparison of the PCR-derived sequence with the equivalent region of Spidroin 2 indicates that the insertion of this single base results in greatly increased similarity in the resulting amino acid sequences of Spidroin 1 and Spidroin 2 (75% over 97 amino acids). The same PCR primers also amplified a fragment of the same length from Araneus bicentenarius. This sequence is also very similar to Spidroin 1 of Nephila (71% over 238 bases excluding the PCR primers, which translates into 76% over 79 amino acids).

  11. The C-Terminal Zwitterionic Sequence of CotB1 Is Essential for Biosilicification of the Bacillus cereus Spore Coat

    PubMed Central

    Motomura, Kei; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Abdelhamid, Mohamed A. A.; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ishida, Takenori; Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Silica is deposited in and around the spore coat layer of Bacillus cereus, and enhances the spore's acid resistance. Several peptides and proteins, including diatom silaffin and silacidin peptides, are involved in eukaryotic silica biomineralization (biosilicification). Homologous sequence search revealed a silacidin-like sequence in the C-terminal region of CotB1, a spore coat protein of B. cereus. The negatively charged silacidin-like sequence is followed by a positively charged arginine-rich sequence of 14 amino acids, which is remarkably similar to the silaffins. These sequences impart a zwitterionic character to the C terminus of CotB1. Interestingly, the cotB1 gene appears to form a bicistronic operon with its paralog, cotB2, the product of which, however, lacks the C-terminal zwitterionic sequence. A ΔcotB1B2 mutant strain grew as fast and formed spores at the same rate as wild-type bacteria but did not show biosilicification. Complementation analysis showed that CotB1, but neither CotB2 nor C-terminally truncated mutants of CotB1, could restore the biosilicification activity in the ΔcotB1B2 mutant, suggesting that the C-terminal zwitterionic sequence of CotB1 is essential for the process. We found that the kinetics of CotB1 expression, as well as its localization, correlated well with the time course of biosilicification and the location of the deposited silica. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a protein directly involved in prokaryotic biosilicification. IMPORTANCE Biosilicification is the process by which organisms incorporate soluble silicate in the form of insoluble silica. Although the mechanisms underlying eukaryotic biosilicification have been intensively investigated, prokaryotic biosilicification was not studied until recently. We previously demonstrated that biosilicification occurs in Bacillus cereus and its close relatives, and that silica is deposited in and around a spore coat layer as a protective coating against acid

  12. Unblocking the sink: improved CID-based analysis of phosphorylated peptides by enzymatic removal of the basic C-terminal residue.

    PubMed

    Lanucara, Francesco; Lee, Dave Chi Hoo; Eyers, Claire E

    2014-02-01

    A one-step enzymatic reaction for improving the collision-induced dissociation (CID)-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of phosphorylated peptides in an ion trap is presented. Carboxypeptidase-B (CBP-B) was used to selectively remove C-terminal arginine or lysine residues from phosphorylated tryptic/Lys-C peptides prior to their MS/MS analysis by CID with a Paul-type ion trap. Removal of this basic C-terminal residue served to limit the extent of gas-phase neutral loss of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), favoring the formation of diagnostic b and y ions as determined by an increase in both the number and relative intensities of the sequence-specific product ions. Such differential fragmentation is particularly valuable when the H3PO4 elimination is so predominant that localizing the phosphorylation site on the peptide sequence is hindered. Improvement in the quality of tandem mass spectral data generated by CID upon CBP-B treatment resulted in greater confidence both in assignment of the phosphopeptide primary sequence and for pinpointing the site of phosphorylation. Higher Mascot ion scores were also generated, combined with lower expectation values and higher delta scores for improved confidence in site assignment; Ascore values also improved. These results are rationalized in accordance with the accepted mechanisms for the elimination of H3PO4 upon low energy CID and insights into the factors dictating the observed dissociation pathways are presented. We anticipate this approach will be of utility in the MS analysis of phosphorylated peptides, especially when alternative electron-driven fragmentation techniques are not available.

  13. The C-Terminal Portion of the Hrs Protein Interacts with Tsg101 and Interferes with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gag Particle Production▿

    PubMed Central

    Bouamr, Fadila; Houck-Loomis, Brian R.; De Los Santos, Martha; Casaday, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Marc C.; Goff, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein recruits Tsg101 to facilitate HIV-1 particle budding and release. In uninfected cells, the Hrs protein recruits the ESCRT-I complex to the endosome, also through an interaction with Tsg101, to promote the sorting of host proteins into endosomal vesicles and multivesicular bodies. Here, we show that the overexpression of the C-terminal fragment of Hrs (residues 391 to 777) or Hrs mutants lacking either the N-terminal FYVE domain (mutant dFYVE) or the PSAP (residues 348 to 351) motif (mutant ASAA) all efficiently inhibit HIV-1 Gag particle production. Expression of the dFYVE or ASAA mutants of Hrs had no effect on the release of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the expression of Hrs mutant dFYVE or ASAA significantly reduced or abolished the HIV-1 Gag-Tsg101 interaction. Yeast-two hybrid assays were used to identify two new and independent Tsg101 binding sites, one in the Hrs coiled-coil domain and one in the proline/glutamic acid-rich domain. Scanning electron microscopy of HeLa cells expressing HIV-1 Gag and the Hrs ASAA mutant showed viral particles arrested in “lump-like” structures that remained attached to the cell surface. Together, these data indicate that fragments of Hrs containing the C-terminal portion of the protein can potently inhibit HIV-1 particle release by efficiently sequestering Tsg101 away from the Gag polyprotein. PMID:17182674

  14. Recombinant expression, purification and preliminary biophysical and structural studies of C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain from human galectin-4.

    PubMed

    Rustiguel, Joane K; Kumagai, Patricia S; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Nonato, Maria Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Galectin-4 (Gal4), a tandem-repeat type galectin, is expressed in healthy epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. Altered levels of Gal4 expression are associated with different types of cancer, suggesting its usage as a diagnostic marker as well as target for drug development. The functional data available for this class of proteins suggest that the wide spectrum of cellular activities reported for Gal4 relies on distinct glycan specificity and structural characteristics of its two carbohydrate recognition domains. In the present work, two independent constructs for recombinant expression of the C-terminal domain of human galectin-4 (hGal4-CRD2) were developed. His6-tagged and untagged recombinant proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by affinity chromatography followed by gel filtration. Correct folding and activity of hGal4-CRD2 were assessed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies, respectively. Diffraction quality crystals were obtained by vapor-diffusion sitting drop setup and the crystal structure of CRD2 was solved by molecular replacement techniques at 1.78 Å resolution. Our work describes the development of important experimental tools that will allow further studies in order to correlate structure and binding properties of hGal4-CRD2 and human galectin-4 functional activities.

  15. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    PubMed

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  16. Cooperative and acute inhibition by multiple C-terminal motifs of L-type Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Yang, Yaxiong; Ge, Lin; Liu, Min; Colecraft, Henry M; Liu, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Inhibitions and antagonists of L-type Ca2+ channels are important to both research and therapeutics. Here, we report C-terminus mediated inhibition (CMI) for CaV1.3 that multiple motifs coordinate to tune down Ca2+ current and Ca2+ influx toward the lower limits determined by end-stage CDI (Ca2+-dependent inactivation). Among IQV (preIQ3-IQ domain), PCRD and DCRD (proximal or distal C-terminal regulatory domain), spatial closeness of any two modules, e.g., by constitutive fusion, facilitates the trio to form the complex, compete against calmodulin, and alter the gating. Acute CMI by rapamycin-inducible heterodimerization helps reconcile the concurrent activation/inactivation attenuations to ensure Ca2+ influx is reduced, in that Ca2+ current activated by depolarization is potently (~65%) inhibited at the peak (full activation), but not later on (end-stage inactivation, ~300 ms). Meanwhile, CMI provides a new paradigm to develop CaV1 inhibitors, the therapeutic potential of which is implied by computational modeling of CaV1.3 dysregulations related to Parkinson’s disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21989.001 PMID:28059704

  17. Recombinant Clostridium difficile toxin fragments as carrier protein for PSII surface polysaccharide preserve their neutralizing activity.

    PubMed

    Romano, Maria R; Leuzzi, Rosanna; Cappelletti, Emilia; Tontini, Marta; Nilo, Alberto; Proietti, Daniela; Berti, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo; Adamo, Roberto; Scarselli, Maria

    2014-04-22

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive bacterium and is the most commonly diagnosed cause of hospital-associated and antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Despite the emergence of epidemic C. difficile strains having led to an increase in the incidence of the disease, a vaccine against this pathogen is not currently available. C. difficile strains produce two main toxins (TcdA and TcdB) and express three highly complex cell-surface polysaccharides (PSI, PSII and PSIII). PSII is the more abundantly expressed by most C. difficile ribotypes offering the opportunity of the development of a carbohydrate-based vaccine. In this paper, we evaluate the efficacy, in naive mice model, of PSII glycoconjugates where recombinant toxins A and B fragments (TcdA_B2 and TcdB_GT respectively) have been used as carriers. Both glycoconjugates elicited IgG titers anti-PSII although only the TcdB_GT conjugate induced a response comparable to that obtained with CRM197. Moreover, TcdA_B2 and TcdB_GT conjugated to PSII retained the ability to elicit IgG with neutralizing activity against the respective toxins. These results are a crucial proof of concept for the development of glycoconjugate vaccines against C. difficile infection (CDI) that combine different C. difficile antigens to potentially prevent bacterial colonization of the gut and neutralize toxin activity.

  18. Identification of allosteric PIF-pocket ligands for PDK1 using NMR-based fragment screening and 1H-15N TROSY experiments.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Brian J; Kothe, Michael; Kohls, Darcy; Weibley, Laura; Connolly, Brendan J; Sheils, Alissa L; Cao, Qing; Cheng, Alan C; Yang, Lily; Kamath, Ajith V; Ding, Yuan-Hua; Charlton, Maura E

    2009-02-01

    Aberrant activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway because of genetic mutations of essential signalling proteins has been associated with human diseases including cancer and diabetes. The pivotal role of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 in the PI3K signalling cascade has made it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. The N-terminal lobe of the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 catalytic domain contains a docking site which recognizes the non-catalytic C-terminal hydrophobic motifs of certain substrate kinases. The binding of substrate in this so-called PDK1 Interacting Fragment pocket allows interaction with 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 and enhanced phosphorylation of downstream kinases. NMR spectroscopy was used to a screen 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 domain construct against a library of chemically diverse fragments in order to identify small, ligand-efficient fragments that might interact at either the ATP site or the allosteric PDK1 Interacting Fragment pocket. While majority of the fragment hits were determined to be ATP-site binders, several fragments appeared to interact with the PDK1 Interacting Fragment pocket. Ligand-induced changes in 1H-15N TROSY spectra acquired using uniformly 15N-enriched PDK1 provided evidence to distinguish ATP-site from PDK1 Interacting Fragment-site binding. Caliper assay data and 19F NMR assay data on the PDK1 Interacting Fragment pocket fragments and structurally related compounds identified them as potential allosteric activators of PDK1 function.

  19. Repositioning the substrate activity screening (SAS) approach as a fragment-based method for identification of weak binders.

    PubMed

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Cleenewerck, Matthias; Joossens, Jurgen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2014-10-13

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has evolved into an established approach for "hit" identification. Typically, most applications of FBDD depend on specialised cost- and time-intensive biophysical techniques. The substrate activity screening (SAS) approach has been proposed as a relatively cheap and straightforward alternative for identification of fragments for enzyme inhibitors. We have investigated SAS for the discovery of inhibitors of oncology target urokinase (uPA). Although our results support the key hypotheses of SAS, we also encountered a number of unreported limitations. In response, we propose an efficient modified methodology: "MSAS" (modified substrate activity screening). MSAS circumvents the limitations of SAS and broadens its scope by providing additional fragments and more coherent SAR data. As well as presenting and validating MSAS, this study expands existing SAR knowledge for the S1 pocket of uPA and reports new reversible and irreversible uPA inhibitor scaffolds.

  20. A Cleavage-potentiated Fragment of Tear Lacritin Is Bactericidal*

    PubMed Central

    McKown, Robert L.; Coleman Frazier, Erin V.; Zadrozny, Kaneil K.; Deleault, Andrea M.; Raab, Ronald W.; Ryan, Denise S.; Sia, Rose K.; Lee, Jae K.; Laurie, Gordon W.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important as the first line of innate defense, through their tendency to disrupt bacterial membranes or intracellular pathways and potentially as the next generation of antibiotics. How they protect wet epithelia is not entirely clear, with most individually inactive under physiological conditions and many preferentially targeting Gram-positive bacteria. Tears covering the surface of the eye are bactericidal for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Here we narrow much of the bactericidal activity to a latent C-terminal fragment in the prosecretory mitogen lacritin and report that the mechanism combines membrane permeabilization with rapid metabolic changes, including reduced levels of dephosphocoenzyme A, spermidine, putrescine, and phosphatidylethanolamines and elevated alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, proline, glycine, lysine, serine, glutamate, cadaverine, and pyrophosphate. Thus, death by metabolic stress parallels cellular attempts to survive. Cleavage-dependent appearance of the C-terminal cationic amphipathic α-helix is inducible within hours by Staphylococcus epidermidis and slowly by another mechanism, in a chymotrypsin- or leupeptin protease-inhibitable manner. Although bactericidal at low micromolar levels, within a biphasic 1–10 nm dose optimum, the same domain is mitogenic and cytoprotective for epithelia via a syndecan-1 targeting mechanism dependent on heparanase. Thus, the C terminus of lacritin is multifunctional by dose and proteolytic processing and appears to play a key role in the innate protection of the eye, with wider potential benefit elsewhere as lacritin flows from exocrine secretory cells. PMID:24942736

  1. Diverse C-terminal sequences involved in Flavobacterium johnsoniae protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Surashree S; Zhu, Yongtao; Brendel, Colton J; McBride, Mark J

    2017-04-10

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae and many related bacteria secrete proteins across the outer membrane using the type IX secretion system (T9SS). Proteins secreted by T9SSs have amino-terminal signal peptides for export across the cytoplasmic membrane by the Sec system and carboxy-terminal domains (CTDs) targeting them for secretion across the outer membrane by the T9SS. Most but not all T9SS CTDs belong to family TIGR04183 (type-A CTDs). We functionally characterized diverse CTDs for secretion by the F. johnsoniae T9SS. Attachment of the CTDs from F. johnsoniae RemA, AmyB, and ChiA to the foreign protein sfGFP that had a signal peptide at the amino terminus resulted in secretion across the outer membrane. In each case approximately 80 to 100 amino acids from the extreme carboxy-termini was needed for efficient secretion. Several type-A CTDs from distantly related members of the phylum Bacteroidetes functioned in F. johnsoniae, supporting secretion of sfGFP by the F. johnsoniae T9SS. F. johnsoniae SprB requires the T9SS for secretion but lacks a type-A CTD. It has a conserved C-terminal domain belonging to family TIGR04131, which we refer to as a type-B CTD. The CTD of SprB was required for its secretion, but attachment of C-terminal regions of SprB of up to 1182 amino acids to sfGFP failed to result in secretion. Additional features outside of the C-terminal region of SprB may be required for its secretion.Importance Type IX protein secretion systems (T9SSs) are common in but limited to members of the phylum Bacteroidetes Most proteins that are secreted by T9SSs have conserved carboxy-terminal domains that belong to either protein domain family TIGR04183 (type-A CTDs) or TIGR04131 (type-B CTDs). Here we identify features of T9SS CTDs of F. johnsoniae that are required for protein secretion and demonstrate that type-A CTDs from distantly related members of the phylum function with the F. johnsoniae T9SS to secrete the foreign protein sfGFP. In contrast, type-B CTDs failed

  2. The impact of the C-terminal domain on the gating properties of MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Becker, Michael; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Konishi, Tomoyuki; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Krämer, Reinhard; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The mechanosensitive (MS) channel MscCG from the soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum functions as a major glutamate exporter. MscCG belongs to a subfamily of the bacterial MscS-like channels, which play an important role in osmoregulation. To understand the structural and functional features of MscCG, we investigated the role of the carboxyl-terminal domain, whose relevance for the channel gating has been unknown. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG), which is a fusion protein between the carboxyl terminal domain of MscCG and the MscS channel, was examined by the patch clamp technique. We found that the chimeric channel exhibited MS channel activity in Escherichia coli spheroplasts characterized by a lower activation threshold and slow closing compared to MscS. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG) was successfully reconstituted into azolectin liposomes and exhibited gating hysteresis in a voltage-dependent manner, especially at high pipette voltages. Moreover, the channel remained open after releasing pipette pressure at membrane potentials physiologically relevant for C. glutamicum. This contribution to the gating hysteresis of the C-terminal domain of MscCG confers to the channel gating properties highly suitable for release of intracellular solutes.

  3. Haemophilus influenzae protein E recognizes the C-terminal domain of vitronectin and modulates the membrane attack complex.

    PubMed

    Singh, Birendra; Jalalvand, Farshid; Mörgelin, Matthias; Zipfel, Peter; Blom, Anna M; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2011-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae protein E (PE) is a 16 kDa adhesin that induces a pro-inflammatory immune response in lung epithelial cells. The active epithelial binding region comprising amino acids PE 84-108 also interferes with complement-mediated bacterial killing by capturing vitronectin (Vn) that prevents complement deposition and formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Here, the interaction between PE and Vn was characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Protein E variants were produced both in soluble forms and in surface-expressed molecules on Escherichia coli. Mutations within PE(84-108) in the full-length molecule revealed that K85 and R86 residues were important for the Vn binding. Bactericidal activity against H. influenzae was higher in human serum pre-treated with full-length PE as compared with serum incubated with PE(K85E, R86D) , suggesting that PE quenched Vn. A series of truncated Vn molecules revealed that the C-terminal domain comprising Vn(353-363) harboured the major binding region for PE. Interestingly, MAC deposition was significantly higher on mutants devoid of PE due to a decreased Vn-binding capacity when compared with wild-type H. influenzae. Our results define a fine-tuned interaction between H. influenzae and the innate immune system, and identify the mode of control of the MAC that is important for pathogen complement evasion.

  4. The Stability Enhancement of Nitrile Hydratase from Bordetella petrii by Swapping the C-terminal Domain of β subunit.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weifeng; Zhu, Longbao; Chen, Xianggui; Wu, Lunjie; Zhou, Zhemin; Liu, Yi

    2016-04-01

    The thermal stability of most nitrile hydratases (NHase) is poor, which has been enhanced to some extent by molecular modifications in several specific regions of the C-terminal domain (C-domain) of β subunit of NHase. Since the C-domain could be present as a naturally separate domain in a few NHases, the whole C-domain is proposed to be related to the NHase stability. The chimeric NHase (SBpNHase) from the thermal-sensitive BpNHase (NHase from Bordetella petrii) and the relatively thermal-stable PtNHase (NHase from Pseudonocardia thermophila) was constructed by swapping the corresponding C-domains. After 30 min incubation at 50 °C, the original BpNHase nearly lost its activity, while the SBpNHase retained 50 % residual activity, compared with the melting temperature (Tm) (50 °C) of the original BpNHase, that of the SBpNHase was 55 °C. The SBpNHase with higher thermal stability would be useful for the thermal stability enhancement of NHase and for the understanding of the relationship between the stability of NHase and its structure.

  5. Substitutions of Conserved Residues in the C-terminal Region of DnaC Cause Thermolability in Helicase Loading*

    PubMed Central

    Felczak, Magdalena M.; Sage, Jay M.; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Aykul, Senem; Kaguni, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    The DnaB-DnaC complex binds to the unwound DNA within the Escherichia coli replication origin in the helicase loading process, but the biochemical events that lead to its stable binding are uncertain. This study characterizes the function of specific C-terminal residues of DnaC. Genetic and biochemical characterization of proteins bearing F231S and W233L substitutions of DnaC reveals that their activity is thermolabile. Because the mutants remain able to form a complex with DnaB at 30 and 37 °C, their thermolability is not explained by an impaired interaction with DnaB. Photo-cross-linking experiments and biosensor analysis show an altered affinity of these mutants compared with wild type DnaC for single-stranded DNA, suggesting that the substitutions affect DNA binding. Despite this difference, their activity in DNA binding is not thermolabile. The substitutions also drastically reduce the affinity of DnaC for ATP as measured by the binding of a fluorescent ATP analogue (MANT-ATP) and by UV cross-linking of radiolabeled ATP. Experiments show that an elevated temperature substantially inhibits both mutants in their ability to load the DnaB-DnaC complex at a DnaA box. Because a decreased ATP concentration exacerbates their thermolabile behavior, we suggest that the F231S and W233L substitutions are thermolabile in ATP binding, which correlates with defective helicase loading at an elevated temperature. PMID:26728455

  6. Small C-terminal domain phosphatases dephosphorylate the regulatory linker regions of Smad2 and Smad3 to enhance transforming growth factor-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Wrighton, Katharine H; Willis, Danielle; Long, Jianyin; Liu, Fang; Lin, Xia; Feng, Xin-Hua

    2006-12-15

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) controls a diverse set of cellular processes, and its canonical signaling is mediated via TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of receptor-activated Smads (2 and 3) at the C-terminal SXS motif. We recently discovered that PPM1A can dephosphorylate Smad2/3 at the C-terminal SXS motif, implicating a critical role for phosphatases in regulating TGF-beta signaling. Smad2/3 activity is also regulated by phosphorylation in the linker region (and N terminus) by a variety of intracellular kinases, making it a critical platform for cross-talk between TGF-beta and other signaling pathways. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified the small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (SCP1) as a specific phosphatase for Smad2/3 dephosphorylation in the linker and N terminus. A catalytically inactive SCP1 mutant (dnSCP1) had no effect on Smad2/3 phosphorylation in vitro or in vivo. Of the other FCP/SCP family members SCP2 and SCP3, but not FCP1, could also dephosphorylate Smad2/3 in the linker/N terminus. Depletion of SCP1/2/3 enhanced Smad2/3 linker phosphorylation. SCP1 increased TGF-beta-induced transcriptional activity in agreement with the idea that phosphorylation in the Smad2/3 linker must be removed for a full transcriptional response. SCP1 overexpression also counteracts the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor on TGF-beta-induced p15 expression. Taken together, this work identifies the first example of a Smad2/3 linker phosphatase(s) and reveals an important new substrate for SCPs.

  7. Integral role of the I'-helix in the function of the "inactive" C-terminal domain of catalase-peroxidase (KatG).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Goodwin, Douglas C

    2013-01-01

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) have two peroxidase-like domains. The N-terminal domain contains the heme-dependent, bifunctional active site. Though the C-terminal domain lacks the ability to bind heme or directly catalyze any reaction, it has been proposed to serve as a platform to direct the folding of the N-terminal domain. Toward such a purpose, its I'-helix is highly conserved and appears at the interface between the two domains. Single and multiple substitution variants targeting highly conserved residues of the I'-helix were generated for intact KatG as well as the stand-alone C-terminal domain (KatG(C)). Single variants of intact KatG produced only subtle variations in spectroscopic and catalytic properties of the enzyme. However, the double and quadruple variants showed substantial increases in hexa-coordinate low-spin heme and diminished enzyme activity, similar to that observed for the N-terminal domain on its own (KatG(N)). The analogous variants of KatG(C) showed a much more profound loss of function as evaluated by their ability to return KatG(N) to its active conformation. All of the single variants showed a substantial decrease in the rate and extent of KatG(N) reactivation, but with two substitutions, KatG(C) completely lost its capacity for the reactivation of KatG(N). These results suggest that the I'-helix is central to direct structural adjustments in the adjacent N-terminal domain and supports the hypothesis that the C-terminal domain serves as a platform to direct N-terminal domain conformation and bifunctionality.

  8. Decreased glucocorticoid receptor activity following glucocorticoid receptor antisense RNA gene fragment transfection.

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, M C; Barden, N

    1991-01-01

    Depression is often characterized by increased cortisol secretion caused by hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and by nonsuppression of cortisol secretion following dexamethasone administration. This hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis could result from a reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity in neurons involved in its control. To investigate the effect of reduced neuronal GR levels, we have blocked cellular GR mRNA processing and/or translation by introduction of a complementary GR antisense RNA strand. Two cell lines were transfected with a reporter plasmid carrying the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter). This gene construction permitted assay of the sensitivity of the cells to glucocorticoid hormones. Cells were also cotransfected with a plasmid containing 1,815 bp of GR cDNA inserted in the reverse orientation downstream from either a neurofilament gene promoter element or the Rous sarcoma virus promoter element. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrated formation of GR antisense RNA strands. Measurement of the sensitivity of CAT activity to exogeneous dexamethasone showed that although dexamethasone increased CAT activity by as much as 13-fold in control incubations, expression of GR antisense RNA caused a 2- to 4-fold decrease in the CAT response to dexamethasone. Stable transfectants bearing the GR antisense gene fragment construction demonstrated a 50 to 70% decrease of functional GR levels compared with normal cells, as evidenced by a ligand-binding assay with the type II glucocorticoid receptor-specific ligand [3H]RU 28362. These results validate the use of antisense RNA to GR to decrease cellular response to glucocorticoids. Images PMID:1996114

  9. Folding of the C-terminal bacterial binding domain in statherin upon adsorption onto hydroxyapatite crystals

    PubMed Central

    Goobes, Gil; Goobes, Rivka; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Baker, David; Stayton, Patrick S.; Drobny, Gary P.

    2006-01-01

    Statherin is an enamel pellicle protein that inhibits hydroxyapatite (HAP) nucleation and growth, lubricates the enamel surface, and is recognized by oral bacteria in periodontal diseases. We report here from solid-state NMR measurements that the protein's C-terminal region folds into an α-helix upon adsorption to HAP crystals. This region contains the binding sites for bacterial fimbriae that mediate bacterial cell adhesion to the surface of the tooth. The helical segment is shown through long-range distance measurements to fold back onto the intermediate region (residues Y16–P28) defining the global fold of the protein. Statherin, previously shown to be unstructured in solution, undergoes conformation selection on its substrate mineral surface. This surface-induced folding of statherin can be related to its functionality in inhibiting HAP crystal growth and can explain how oral pathogens selectively recognize HAP-bound statherin. PMID:17060618

  10. The C-terminal region of E1A: a molecular tool for cellular cartography.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Ahmed F; Fonseca, Gregory J; Cohen, Michael J; Mymryk, Joe S

    2012-04-01

    The adenovirus E1A proteins function via protein-protein interactions. By making many connections with the cellular protein network, individual modules of this virally encoded hub reprogram numerous aspects of cell function and behavior. Although many of these interactions have been thoroughly studied, those mediated by the C-terminal region of E1A are less well understood. This review focuses on how this region of E1A affects cell cycle progression, apoptosis, senescence, transformation, and conversion of cells to an epithelial state through interactions with CTBP1/2, DYRK1A/B, FOXK1/2, and importin-α. Furthermore, novel potential pathways that the C-terminus of E1A influences through these connections with the cellular interaction network are discussed.

  11. Crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of mouse TLR9

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Bernard; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important pattern recognition receptors that function in innate immunity. Elucidating the structure and signaling mechanisms of TLR9, a sensor of foreign and endogenous DNA, is essential for understanding its critical roles in immunity and autoimmunity. Abundant evidence suggests that the TLR9-CTD (C-terminal domain) by itself is capable of DNA-binding and signaling. We present the crystal structure of unliganded mouse TLR9-CTD. TLR9-CTD exhibits one unique feature, a cluster of stacked aromatic and arginine side chains on its concave face. Overall, its structure is most related to the TLR8-CTD, suggesting a similar mode of ligand binding and signaling. PMID:24888966

  12. Affinity labelling of proteinases with tryptic specificity by peptides with C-terminal lysine chloromethyl ketone

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, John R.; Kray, William; Shaw, Elliott

    1974-01-01

    Methods are described for the synthesis of peptides terminating in Lys-CH2Cl. The products were examined as affinity labels for several enzymes of trypsin-like specificity which are resistant to Tos-Lys-CH2Cl. In part, the inertness of the latter may be due to the sulphonamide group, since Z-Lys-CH2Cl was more effective. However, a number of tripeptides with C-terminal Lys-CH2Cl were superior in their ability to inactivate subtilisin, thrombin and plasma kallikrein. The possibility of developing enzyme-specific reagents selective for members within the trypsin-like group is demonstrated by Ala-Phe-Lys-CH2Cl, which readily inactivates plasma kallikrein but not thrombin. PMID:4422496

  13. Control of cytoplasmic dynein force production and processivity by its C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Höök, Peter; Brenner, Sibylle; Wynne, Caitlin L.; Vallee, Richard B.; Gennerich, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule motor involved in cargo transport, nuclear migration and cell division. Despite structural conservation of the dynein motor domain from yeast to higher eukaryotes, the extensively studied S. cerevisiae dynein behaves distinctly from mammalian dyneins, which produce far less force and travel over shorter distances. However, isolated reports of yeast-like force production by mammalian dynein have called interspecies differences into question. We report that functional differences between yeast and mammalian dynein are real and attributable to a C-terminal motor element absent in yeast, which resembles a ‘cap’ over the central pore of the mammalian dynein motor domain. Removal of this cap increases the force generation of rat dynein from 1 pN to a yeast-like 6 pN and greatly increases its travel distance. Our findings identify the CT-cap as a novel regulator of dynein function. PMID:25670086

  14. Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus Phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Nicolas; Ribeiro, Euripedes A.; Leyrat, Cédric; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Ruigrok, Rob W. H.

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) is a prototype of the plant-adapted cytorhabdoviruses. Through a meta-prediction of disorder, we localized a folded C-terminal domain in the amino acid sequence of its phosphoprotein. This domain consists of an autonomous folding unit that is monomeric in solution. Its structure, solved by X-ray crystallography, reveals a lollipop-shaped structure comprising five helices. The structure is different from that of the corresponding domains of other Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae, and Paramyxovirinae; only the overall topology of the polypeptide chain seems to be conserved, suggesting that this domain evolved under weak selective pressure and varied in size by the acquisition or loss of functional modules. PMID:23785215

  15. Control of cytoplasmic dynein force production and processivity by its C-terminal domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Höök, Peter; Brenner, Sibylle; Wynne, Caitlin L.; Vallee, Richard B.; Gennerich, Arne

    2015-02-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule motor involved in cargo transport, nuclear migration and cell division. Despite structural conservation of the dynein motor domain from yeast to higher eukaryotes, the extensively studied S. cerevisiae dynein behaves distinctly from mammalian dyneins, which produce far less force and travel over shorter distances. However, isolated reports of yeast-like force production by mammalian dynein have called interspecies differences into question. We report that functional differences between yeast and mammalian dynein are real and attributable to a C-terminal motor element absent in yeast, which resembles a ‘cap’ over the central pore of the mammalian dynein motor domain. Removal of this cap increases the force generation of rat dynein from 1 pN to a yeast-like 6 pN and greatly increases its travel distance. Our findings identify the CT-cap as a novel regulator of dynein function.

  16. The optical polarization signatures of fragmented equatorial dusty structures in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, F.; Stalevski, M.

    2015-12-01

    If the existence of an obscuring circumnuclear region around the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) has been observationally proven, its geometry remains highly uncertain. The morphology usually adopted for this region is a toroidal structure, but other alternatives, such as flared disks, can be a good representative of equatorial outflows. Those two geometries usually provide very similar spectroscopic signatures, even when they are modeled under the assumption of fragmentation. In this lecture note, we show that the resulting polarization signatures of the two models, either a torus or a flared disk, are quite different from each other. We use a radiative transfer code that computes the 2000 -- 8000 Å polarization of the two morphologies in a clumpy environment, and show that varying the sizes of a toroidal region has deep impacts onto the resulting polarization, while the polarization of flared disks is independent of the outer radius. Clumpy flared disks also produce higher polarization degrees (˜ 10 % at best) together with highly variable polarization position angles.

  17. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  18. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I' region.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-05

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I' band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D₂O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  19. Insulin resistance uncoupled from dyslipidemia due to C-terminal PIK3R1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Tomlinson, Patsy; Payne, Felicity; Gast, Alexandra; Sleigh, Alison; Bottomley, William; Harris, Julie; Daly, Allan; Rocha, Nuno; Rudge, Simon; Clark, Jonathan; Kwok, Albert; Romeo, Stefano; McCann, Emma; Müksch, Barbara; Dattani, Mehul; Zucchini, Stefano; Wakelam, Michael; Foukas, Lazaros C.; Savage, David B.; Murphy, Rinki; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Semple, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis. In 3 of these 4, plasma adiponectin was preserved, as in insulin receptor dysfunction. The fourth patient and her healthy mother had low plasma adiponectin associated with a potentially novel mutation, p.Asp231Ala, in adiponectin itself. Cells studied from one patient with the p.Tyr657X PIK3R1 mutation expressed abundant truncated PIK3R1 products and showed severely reduced insulin-stimulated association of mutant but not WT p85α with IRS1, but normal downstream signaling. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, mutant p85α overexpression attenuated insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and adipocyte differentiation. Thus, PIK3R1 C-terminal mutations impair insulin signaling only in some cellular contexts and produce a subphenotype of insulin resistance resembling INSR dysfunction but unlike AKT2 dysfunction, implicating PI3K in the pathogenesis of key components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27766312

  20. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I‧ region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin A.; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I‧ band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D2O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  1. The 60-kilodalton protein encoded by orf2 in the cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan functions like a C-terminal crystallization domain.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A

    2012-03-01

    The cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encodes two proteins, mosquitocidal Cry19A (ORF1; 75 kDa) and an ORF2 (60 kDa) of unknown function. Expression of the cry19A operon in an acrystalliferous strain of B. thuringiensis (4Q7) yielded one small crystal per cell, whereas no crystals were produced when cry19A or orf2 was expressed alone. To determine the function of the ORF2 protein, different combinations of Cry19A, ORF2, and the N- or C-terminal half of Cry1C were synthesized in strain 4Q7. Stable crystalline inclusions of these fusion proteins similar in shape to those in the strain harboring the wild-type operon were observed in sporulating cells. Comparative analysis showed that ORF2 shares considerable amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal region of large Cry proteins. Together, these results suggest that ORF2 assists in synthesis and crystallization of Cry19A by functioning like the C-terminal domain characteristic of Cry protein in the 130-kDa mass range. In addition, to determine whether overexpression of the cry19A operon stabilized its shape and increased Cry19A yield, it was expressed under the control of the strong chimeric cyt1A-p/STAB-SD promoter. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression seen with the native promoter, overexpression of the operon yielded uniform bipyramidal crystals that were 4-fold larger on average than the wild-type crystal. In bioassays using the 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the strain producing the larger Cry19A crystal showed moderate larvicidal activity that was 4-fold (95% lethal concentration [LC(95)] = 1.9 μg/ml) more toxic than the activity produced in the strain harboring the wild-type operon (LC(95) = 8.2 μg/ml).

  2. Enhanced responses in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of peptides derivatized with arginine via a C-terminal oxazolone.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Minoru; Nishida, Kimiko; Kuyama, Hiroki; Obama, Takashi; Ando, Eiji; Okamura, Taka-Aki; Ueyama, Norikazu; Tanaka, Koichi; Norioka, Shigemi

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for enhancing the response of a peptide in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) by activating the C-terminal carboxyl group through an oxazolone with which is coupled an amine containing a functional group to help ionize the peptide. The reactions consist of dehydration with acetic anhydride to give an oxazolone, followed by aminolysis with an appropriate amino acid derivative such as arginine methyl ester. The MALDI signal of Ac-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Arg-OMe, thus converted from leucine-enkephalin, was detected while completely excluding the responses of arginine-deficient peptides coexisting in the reaction mixture. Some less intense peaks corresponding to a few sequential degradation products, also terminated with the arginine derivative, were also observed. The side-chain groups potentially that are reactive were conveniently protected by acetylation simultaneous with the C-terminal activation, and those that remained unprotected were reduced to virtually negligible proportions when the reaction was conducted in a peptide solution of concentration less than 1 mM. The greatly increased responses of such arginine-terminated peptides could possibly be exploited to discern the C-terminal tryptic peptide of a protein that is otherwise almost insensitive to MALDI-MS in general. The simplicity of the post-source decay spectrum of enkephalin derivatized by arginine methyl ester characteristically accentuated z- and b-type ions, and this should facilitate sequencing of such derivatized peptides. Remaining problems with practical applications of this approach are discussed.

  3. The Crystal Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of the Salmonella enterica PduO Protein: An Old Fold with a New Heme-Binding Mode

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Hickey, Neal; Hensel, Michael; Klare, Johann P.; Geremia, Silvano; Tiufiakova, Tatiana; Torda, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    The two-domain protein PduO, involved in 1,2-propanediol utilization in the pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica is an ATP:Cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase, but this is a function of the N-terminal domain alone. The role of its C-terminal domain (PduOC) is, however, unknown. In this study, comparative growth assays with a set of Salmonella mutant strains showed that this domain is necessary for effective in vivo catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. It was also shown that isolated, recombinantly-expressed PduOC binds heme in vivo. The structure of PduOC co-crystallized with heme was solved (1.9 Å resolution) showing an octameric assembly with four heme moieities. The four heme groups are highly solvent-exposed and the heme iron is hexa-coordinated with bis-His ligation by histidines from different monomers. Static light scattering confirmed the octameric assembly in solution, but a mutation of the heme-coordinating histidine caused dissociation into dimers. Isothermal titration calorimetry using the PduOC apoprotein showed strong heme binding (Kd = 1.6 × 10−7 M). Biochemical experiments showed that the absence of the C-terminal domain in PduO did not affect adenosyltransferase activity in vitro. The evidence suggests that PduOC:heme plays an important role in the set of cobalamin transformations required for effective catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. Salmonella PduO is one of the rare proteins which binds the redox-active metabolites heme and cobalamin, and the heme-binding mode of the C-terminal domain differs from that in other members of this protein family. PMID:27446048

  4. A functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site in MAVS participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response.

    PubMed

    Paz, Suzanne; Vilasco, Myriam; Werden, Steven J; Arguello, Meztli; Joseph-Pillai, Deshanthe; Zhao, Tiejun; Nguyen, Thi Lien-Anh; Sun, Qiang; Meurs, Eliane F; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John

    2011-06-01

    Recognition of viral RNA structures by the cytosolic sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) results in the activation of signaling cascades that culminate with the generation of the type I interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Onset of antiviral and inflammatory responses to viral pathogens necessitates the regulated spatiotemporal recruitment of signaling adapters, kinases and transcriptional proteins to the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). We previously demonstrated that the serine/threonine kinase IKKε is recruited to the C-terminal region of MAVS following Sendai or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, mediated by Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS at Lys500, resulting in inhibition of downstream IFN signaling (Paz et al, Mol Cell Biol, 2009). In this study, we demonstrate that C-terminus of MAVS harbors a novel TRAF3-binding site in the aa450-468 region of MAVS. A consensus TRAF-interacting motif (TIM), 455-PEENEY-460, within this site is required for TRAF3 binding and activation of IFN antiviral response genes, whereas mutation of the TIM eliminates TRAF3 binding and the downstream IFN response. Reconstitution of MAVS(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts with a construct expressing a TIM-mutated version of MAVS failed to restore the antiviral response or block VSV replication, whereas wild-type MAVS reconstituted antiviral inhibition of VSV replication. Furthermore, recruitment of IKKε to an adjacent C-terminal site (aa 468-540) in MAVS via Lys500 ubiquitination decreased TRAF3 binding and protein stability, thus contributing to IKKε-mediated shutdown of the IFN response. This study demonstrates that MAVS harbors a functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site that participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response.

  5. The 60-Kilodalton Protein Encoded by orf2 in the cry19A Operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan Functions Like a C-Terminal Crystallization Domain

    PubMed Central

    Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    The cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encodes two proteins, mosquitocidal Cry19A (ORF1; 75 kDa) and an ORF2 (60 kDa) of unknown function. Expression of the cry19A operon in an acrystalliferous strain of B. thuringiensis (4Q7) yielded one small crystal per cell, whereas no crystals were produced when cry19A or orf2 was expressed alone. To determine the function of the ORF2 protein, different combinations of Cry19A, ORF2, and the N- or C-terminal half of Cry1C were synthesized in strain 4Q7. Stable crystalline inclusions of these fusion proteins similar in shape to those in the strain harboring the wild-type operon were observed in sporulating cells. Comparative analysis showed that ORF2 shares considerable amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal region of large Cry proteins. Together, these results suggest that ORF2 assists in synthesis and crystallization of Cry19A by functioning like the C-terminal domain characteristic of Cry protein in the 130-kDa mass range. In addition, to determine whether overexpression of the cry19A operon stabilized its shape and increased Cry19A yield, it was expressed under the control of the strong chimeric cyt1A-p/STAB-SD promoter. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression seen with the native promoter, overexpression of the operon yielded uniform bipyramidal crystals that were 4-fold larger on average than the wild-type crystal. In bioassays using the 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the strain producing the larger Cry19A crystal showed moderate larvicidal activity that was 4-fold (95% lethal concentration [LC95] = 1.9 μg/ml) more toxic than the activity produced in the strain harboring the wild-type operon (LC95 = 8.2 μg/ml). PMID:22247140

  6. Intracellular localization of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor through clathrin-dependent constitutive internalization is mediated by a C-terminal tryptophan-based motif.

    PubMed

    Uwada, Junsuke; Yoshiki, Hatsumi; Masuoka, Takayoshi; Nishio, Matomo; Muramatsu, Ikunobu

    2014-07-15

    The M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1-mAChR, encoded by CHRM1) is a G-protein-coupled membrane receptor that is activated by extracellular cholinergic stimuli. Recent investigations have revealed the intracellular localization of M1-mAChR. In this study, we observed constitutive internalization of M1-mAChR in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells without agonist stimulation. Constitutive internalization depended on dynamin, clathrin and the adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) complex. A WxxI motif in the M1-mAChR C-terminus is essential for its constitutive internalization, given that replacement of W(442) or I(445) with alanine residues abolished constitutive internalization. This WxxI motif resembles YxxΦ, which is the canonical binding motif for the μ2 subunit of the AP-2 complex. The M1-mAChR C-terminal WxxI motif interacted with AP-2 μ2. W442A and I445A mutants of the M1-mAChR C-terminal sequence lost AP-2-μ2-binding activity, whereas the W442Y mutant bound more effectively than wild type. Consistent with these results, W442A and I445A M1-mAChR mutants selectively localized to the cell surface. By contrast, the W442Y receptor mutant was found only at intracellular sites. Our data indicate that the cellular distribution of M1-mAChR is governed by the C-terminal tryptophan-based motif, which mediates constitutive internalization.

  7. Direct influence of C-terminally substituted amino acids in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore on delta-opioid receptor selectivity and antagonism.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2004-07-29

    A series of 17 analogues were developed on the basis of the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R' (denotes chirality; R = charged, neutral, or aromatic functional group; R' = -OH or -NH(2)). These compounds were designed to test the following hypothesis: the physicochemical properties of third-residue substitutions C-terminal to Tic in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore modify delta-opioid receptor selectivity and delta-opioid receptor antagonism through enhanced interactions with the mu-opioid receptor. The data substantiate the following conclusions: (i) all compounds had high receptor affinity [K(i)(delta) = 0.034-1.1 nM], while that for the mu-opioid receptor fluctuated by orders of magnitude [K(i)(mu) = 15.1-3966 nM]; (ii) delta-opioid receptor selectivity [K(i)(mu)/K(i)(delta)] declined 1000-fold from 22,600 to 21; (iii) a C-terminal carboxyl group enhanced selectivity but only as a consequence of the specific residue; (iv) amidated, positive charged residues [Lys-NH(2) (6), Arg-NH(2) (7)], and a negatively charged aromatic residue [Trp-OH (11)] enhance